Sample records for atropine methyl bromide

  1. 77 FR 20752 - Methyl Bromide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance (United States)


    ... necessary to prevent the introduction of a plant pest into the United States or the dissemination of a plant... partition into organic vs. aqueous environments, and is therefore commonly used to predict the likelihood...). See the February 22, 2002, Residue Chemistry Chapter for the methyl bromide RED available in...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of neostigmine, 40 mug kg-1, and methyl-atropine, 7 mug kg-1, administered at different degrees of rocuronium-induced (600 mug kg-1) neuromuscular block were evaluated. In one group of patients spontaneous recovery was awaited (Group A; n = 20). Neostigmi

  3. Oral teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide in rats and rabbits. (United States)

    Kaneda, M; Hojo, H; Teramoto, S; Maita, K


    Teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, were conducted in rats and rabbits. Methyl bromide was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally to groups of 24 copulated female Crj:CD (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (corn oil), 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day on days 6-15 of gestation and to groups of 18 artificially inseminated female Kbl:JW rabbits at 0, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day on days 6-18 of gestation. Maternal rats and rabbits were euthanized on respective days 20 and 27 of gestation. Foetuses were examined for survival, growth and teratological alterations. Maternal toxicity was evident in the high-dose groups for both species. In these groups, maternal body weight gains and food consumption were significantly decreased during the dosing and post-dosing periods. Necropsy of maternal rats also revealed erosive lesions in the stomach and the surrounding organs. However, no treatment-related adverse effects were found in foetuses of the treated groups for both rat and rabbit studies. These results led to the conclusion that methyl bromide was not foetotoxic or teratogenic to rat and rabbit foetuses up to dose levels of 30 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, at which maternal toxicity was evident for both species.

  4. Destruction of methyl bromide sorbed to activated carbon by thiosulfate and electrolysis (United States)

    Methyl bromide is widely used as a fumigant for post-harvest and quarantine uses at port facilities due to the low treatment times required, but it is vented to the atmosphere after its use. Due to the potential contributions of methyl bromide to stratospheric ozone depletion, technologies for the c...

  5. Acrolein as Potential Alternative to Methyl Bromide in California-Grown Calla Lilies (United States)

    Cut flower and ornamental bulb industries rely heavily on a methyl bromide/chloropicrin (MB/Pic) mixture as a key pest management tool. The loss of methyl bromide (MB) will seriously affect the cut flower and bulb industry, and in the future, will require growers to use alternative fumigants. Theref...

  6. Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.


    Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

  7. Control of insects with fumigants at low temperatures: toxicity of mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile to three species of insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E.J.; Buckland, C.T.


    Acrylonitrile can be mixed with methyl bromide to increase toxicity so that the quantity of methyl bromide required for control of Sitophilus granarius (L.), Tenebrio molitor L., and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duval is reduced by one half. Mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile are considerably more effective at low temperatures than methyl bromide alone.

  8. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Connell, T.L.; Guidetti, J.R.; Oremland, R.S.


    The oxidation of [14C]methyl bromide ([14C]MeBr) to 14CO2 was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCI3NO2). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-killed soils, indicating that microbes were the causative agents of the oxidation. Degradation of MeBr by chemical and/or biological processes accounted for 20 to 50% of the loss of MeBr during fumigation, with evasion to the atmosphere inferred to comprise the remainder. In laboratory incubations, complete removal of [14C]MeBr occurred within a few days, with 47 to 67% of the added MeBr oxidized to 14CO2 and the remainder of counts associated with the solid phase. Chloropicrin inhibited the oxidation of MeBr, implying that use of this substance constrains the extent of microbial degradation of MeBr during fumigation. Oxidation was by direct bacterial attack of MeBr and not of methanol, a product of the chemical hydrolysis of MeBr. Neither nitrifying nor methane-oxidizing bacteria were sufficiently active in these soils to account for the observed oxidation of MeBr, nor could the microbial degradation of MeBr be linked to cooxidation with exogenously supplied electron donors. However, repeated addition of MeBr to live soils resulted in higher rates of its removal, suggesting that soil bacteria used MeBr as an electron donor for growth. To support this interpretation, we isolated a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium from these soils which grew with MeBr as a sole source of carbon and energy.

  9. Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored-product and quarantine insects. (United States)

    Fields, Paul G; White, Noel D G


    Methyl bromide is used to control insects as a space fumigant in flour and feed mills and ship holds, as a product fumigant for some fruit and cereals, and for general quarantine purposes. Methyl bromide acts rapidly, controlling insects in less than 48 h in space fumigations, and it has a wide spectrum of activity, controlling not only insects but also nematodes and plant-pathogenic microbes. This chemical will be banned in 2005 in developed countries, except for exceptional quarantine purposes, because it depletes ozone in the atmosphere. Many alternatives have been tested as replacements for methyl bromide, from physical control methods such as heat, cold, and sanitation to fumigant replacements such as phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride, and carbonyl sulfide, among others. Individual situations will require their own type of pest control techniques, but the most promising include integrated pest management tactics and combinations of treatments such as phosphine, carbon dioxide, and heat.

  10. Ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm in the presence of methyl bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper the mechanism and kinetic of ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm UV-light were studied.The quantum yield of the ozone depletion in the presence of methyl bromide is further determined and a reaction model is provided to explain the experimental fact.

  11. Methyl bromide release from activated carbon and the soil/water/carbon interface (United States)

    Methyl Bromide (MB) is a major source of stratospheric bromine radical, a known depletor of ozone. The use of ozone-depleting chemicals, including MB, is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. Critical uses of MB are permitted, such as when postharvest fumigation is mandated by an importing country. Fo...

  12. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Area-Wide Pest Management Project - South Atlantic Progress Report (United States)

    Protocols and Standard Operational Procedures (SOPs) were developed for collecting environmental and soil edaphic information during and after application of methyl bromide alternatives. Parameters measured included soil moisture, soil bulk density, percent moisture at field capacity (-0.3 bars wat...

  13. 76 FR 29238 - Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses (United States)


    ... AGENCY Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses... for the amendments to terminate soil uses, voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted by... Corporation. 5785-48 Terr-O-Gas 50 Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. 8536-05 Pic-Brom 33 Soil...

  14. 77 FR 29341 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications... (United States)


    .... Alternatives for which such information is needed include: Sulfuryl fluoride, propylene oxide (PPO), phosphine... costs to retrofit equipment or design and construct new fumigation chambers for these alternatives. For...) that are not needed when methyl bromide is used for fumigation. Include information on the size...

  15. Strain IMB-1, a novel bacterium for the removal of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils (United States)

    Connell, Hancock T.L.; Costello, A.M.; Lidstrom, M.E.; Oremland, R.S.


    A facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, strain IMB-1, that has been isolated from agricultural soil grows on methyl bromide (MeBr), methyl iodide, methyl chloride, and methylated amines, as well as on glucose, pyruvate, or acetate. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicates that strain IMB-1 classes in the alpha subgroup of the class Proteobacteria and is closely related to members of the genus Rhizobium. The ability of strain IMB-1 to oxidize MeBr to CO2 is constitutive in cells regardless of the growth substrate. Addition of cell suspensions of strain IMB-1 to soils greatly accelerates the oxidation of MeBr, as does pretreatment of soils with low concentrations of methyl iodide. These results suggest that soil treatment strategies can be devised whereby bacteria can effectively consume MeBr during field fumigations, which would diminish or eliminate the outward flux of MeBr to the atmosphere.

  16. A bio-product as alternative to methyl bromide for replant disease control on strawberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHANG; Tongle HU; Lijing JI; Keqiang CAO


    Pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) is a standard practice for controlling soil-borne diseases especially for strawberry diseases. However, the application of MB will be forbidden in China in the year 2015. For this reason, a bio-product named Kangdi 3 was tested as an alternative to MB in strawberry greenhouses in Mancheng (Hebei Province) and Donggang (Liaoning province), China in 2005 and 2006. Methyl bromide at a normal dosage of 500 kg/hm2 and Kangdi 3 at three dosages of 750, 1500 and 2250 kg/hm2 were tested. Plots without any treatment were used as the control. During the growing stage, assessments were made on fungal communities in rhizosphere, growth status of strawberry, the disease levels on roots as well as the yields. Results showed that Kangdi 3 significantly reduced the quantity of fungi and the disease index, while enhancing strawberry growth and the yields compared with the untreated control. Therefore, Kangdi 3 is a great potential substitute for methyl bromide to control replant diseases in strawberry.

  17. Replacing methyl bromide in annual strawberry production with glucosinolate-containing green manure crops. (United States)

    Lazzeri, Luca; Baruzzi, Gianluca; Malaguti, Lorena; Antoniacci, Loredana


    The use of biocidal green manure crops is an agronomic technique for amending soil with fresh organic matter containing volatile compounds active in controlling some soil-borne pests and diseases. Two new selections of the Brassicaceae family were cultivated, incorporated before planting strawberries and tested as an alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. Two biocidal green manure crops (Brassica juncea L sel ISCI20, Eruca sativa Mill cv Nemat) containing glucosinolate-myrosinase systems, a conventional green manure (barley), untreated soil and a fumigated control were evaluated during two seasons. The effect of these soil management systems on subsequent strawberry performance was evaluated by monitoring yield and plant growth parameters. In both years, biocidal plant green manure treatments led to a fruit yield lower than with methyl bromide, but higher than with conventional green manure or untreated soil. These results confirm the good prospects for biocidal green manures, not only as an environmentally friendly alternative to methyl bromide in conventional agriculture, but also in organic agriculture as an alternative to conventional green manure crops.

  18. Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yvon-Lewis


    Full Text Available The atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br burden has declined in recent years, in response to the phaseout of agricultural and structural fumigation consumption under the amendments to the Montreal Protocol. The timing and magnitude of this decrease represents an opportunity to examine our current understanding of the CH3Br budget, the phaseout schedule, and recent estimates of interannual variability in biomass burning and global OH. In this study, simulations obtained from a time-dependent global model of atmospheric CH3Br emissions and uptake are compared to observations from the NOAA flask network. The model includes an updated global methyl bromide source inventory that includes biofuel combustion emissions estimated at 6.1±3 Gg yr−1 globally. The phaseout of CH3Br production for agricultural uses began in 1998, concurrent with the pulse in biomass burning associated with the 1998 El Niño. The combined effects of three factors (biomass burning, global OH, and anthropogenic phaseout appear to explain most of the observed atmospheric methyl bromide trend over the 1997–2005 period. The global budget remains imbalanced, with a large missing source. These results suggest that more than 80% of the missing source does not exhibit significant interannual variability during the phaseout period and, therefore, does not result from underestimating agricultural CH3Br emissions.

  19. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Lygia T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ozone-depleting methyl bromide was destined for phase-out by 2005, it is still widely applied as a consequence of various critical-use-exemptions and mandatory international regulations aiming to restrict the spread of pests and alien species (e.g. in globalized transport and storage. The withdrawal of methyl bromide because of its environmental risk could fortuitously help in the containment of its human toxicity. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature, including in vitro toxicological and epidemiological studies of occupational and community exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon pesticide methyl bromide. We focused on toxic (especially chronic or carcinogenic effects from the use of methyl bromide, on biomonitoring data and reference values. Eligible epidemiological studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results Out of the 542 peer reviewed publications between 1990-2011, we found only 91 referring to toxicity of methyl bromide and 29 using the term "carcinogenic", "neoplastic" or "mutagenic". Several studies provide new additional data pertaining to the mechanistic aspects of methyl bromide toxicity. Few studies have performed a detailed exposure assessment including biomonitoring. Three evaluated epidemiological studies assessed a possible association between cancer and methyl bromide. Overall, exposure to methyl bromide is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer OR, 1.21; 95% CI (0,98-1.49, P = 0.076. Two epidemiological studies have analyzed environmental, non-occupational exposure to methyl bromide providing evidence for its health risk to the general public. None of the epidemiological studies addressed its use as a fumigant in freight containers, although recent field and case reports do refer to its toxic effects associated with its use in shipping and storage. Conclusions Both the epidemiological evidence and toxicological data suggest a possible link between methyl

  20. 40 CFR 180.123 - Inorganic bromide residues resulting from fumigation with methyl bromide; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... herb, processed and spice. (B) 325 parts per million in or on cheese, parmesan and cheese, roquefort... bromide may be present as a residue in certain processed food in accordance with the following conditions: (i) When inorganic bromide residues are present as a result of fumigation of the processed food...

  1. Enhanced degradation of the volatile fumigant-nematicides 1,3-d and methyl bromide in soil. (United States)

    Ou, L T


    The use of the gaseous funaigant-nematicide methyl bromide in agriculture is scheduled to be phased out in the year 2001.1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) in combination with chloropicrin and an herbicide is considered to be a viable alternative to methyl bromide for some crops. 1,3-Dichloropropene consists of two isomers, cis- and trans-l,3-D. A number of soil bacteria have been shown to initially degrade 1,3-D or one of its isomers, cis-l,3-D, via hydrolysis. Until recently, the degradation of cis- and trans-l,3-D in soils was considered to exhibit similar kinetics, witla their degradation rates increasing with increases in soil temperature. Enhanced degradation of 1,3-D in soil from a site in Florida with a history of repeated annual applications of 1,3-D was observed in 1994. Biological hydrolysis was involved in the initial degradation of cis- and trans-l,3-D. The two isomers were degraded at different rates, with the trans isomer being degraded more rapidly than the cis isomer. Cis- and trans-l,3-D in soil from the control site were degraded at a similar rate but more slowly than in the enhanced soil. Methyl bromide in soils can be degraded through chemical hydrolysis and methylation to soil organic matter. Some methanotrophic bacteria and ammonia-oxidation bacteria during the oxidation of their primary substrates (methane and ammonia) also have the capacity to cooxidize methyl bromide to formaldehyde and bromide ion. It was recently observed that degradation of methyl bromide was stimulated in methanotrophic soils and in soils treated with ammonium sulfate. Soil methanotrophic bacteria and soil nitrifiers are apparently responsible for cooxidation of methyl bromide in methanotrophic and ammonia treated soils, respectively.

  2. Thermal and optical studies of some di-methyl-di-alkyl ammonium bromides (United States)

    Witko, Waclaw; Godlewska, Malgorzata; Dynarowicz, Patrycja


    Phase situation of homologous series of di-alkyl-di-methyl ammonium bromides represented by the general formula: 2CnN+2C1Br-, with n equals 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy methods in the temperature range 20-180 degrees C. A more complex polymorphism as already reported was detected. All the compounds studied show at least tow anomalies on the DSC curves. The high-temperature phase which appears below the isotropic phase has lancet-like dendritic texture which can be attributed to SmB phase. The enthalpy changes at the transitions were calculated.

  3. Methyl bromide causes DNA methylation in rats and mice but fails to induce somatic mutations in λlacZ transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pletsa, V.; Steenwinkel, M.-J.S.T.; Delft, J.H.M. van; Baan, R.A.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.


    Following single or multiple oral treatments of rats or λlacZ transgenic mice with methyl bromide, methylated DNA adducts (N7- and/or O6-methylguanine) were found at comparable levels in various tissues, including among others the glandular stomach, the forestomach and the liver. Multiple rat treatm

  4. Moving away from methyl bromide: political economy of pesticide transition for California strawberries since 2004. (United States)

    Mayfield, Erin N; Norman, Catherine Shelley


    We examine the progress of the phaseout of the use of the pesticide methyl bromide in the production of California field strawberries. This phaseout is required under the Montreal Protocol and has been contentious in this sector, which receives exemptions from the schedule initially agreed under the treaty, and in international negotiations over the future of the Protocol. We examine the various ex-ante predictions of the impacts on growers, consumers and trade patterns in light of several years of declining allocations under the Critical Use provisions of the Protocol and the 2010 approval of iodomethane for use in California and subsequent 2012 withdrawal of this alternative from the US market. We find that, contrary to ex-ante industry claims, the years of declining methyl bromide use have been years of rising yields, acreage, exports, revenues and market share for California growers, even when faced with a global recession and increased imports from Mexican growers who retain the right to use the chemical under the Protocol. This has implications for the Protocol as a whole and for the remainder of the US phaseout of this chemical in particular.

  5. Chemical alternatives to methyl bromide for the control of root-knot nematodes in greenhouses. (United States)

    Giannakou, Ioannis O; Sidiropoulos, Artemios; Prophetou-Athanasiadou, Demetra


    The complete phase-out of methyl bromide from use in developed countries by 1 January 2005 will cause many problems in agricultural industries that are now heavily reliant on its use. Three field experiments were established to compare management tactics on tomato and cucumber in commercial greenhouses naturally infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp). Reduction of nematode juveniles in soil and roots to nil detection levels was observed in all plots following soil fumigation with methyl bromide. A significant reduction of nematode juveniles and root-galling index was observed in plots treated with metham-sodium, dazomet and 1,3-dichloropropene compared with the control and plots treated with non-fumigant nematicides. Reduction of the nematode population led to an increase in fruit yield. However, data collected from the second cultivation season indicated that single control methods such as fumigant or contact nematicides alone cannot drastically decrease initial nematode population and those nematodes which escape control lead to population increase by the end of the cropping season.

  6. Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yvon-Lewis


    Full Text Available The atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br burden has declined in recent years, in response to the phaseout of agricultural and structural fumigation consumption under the amendments to the Montreal Protocol. The timing and magnitude of this decrease represents an opportunity to examine our current understanding of atmospheric CH3Br and its budget, response to the phaseout, and response to interannual variability in biomass burning and global OH. In this study, simulations obtained from a time-dependent global model of atmospheric CH3Br emissions and uptake are compared to observations from the NOAA flask network. The model includes a detailed gridded ocean model coupled to a time-dependant atmospheric 2-box model. The phaseout of CH3Br production for agricultural uses began in 1998, concurrent with the pulse in biomass burning associated with the 1998 El Niño. The combined effects of three factors (biomass burning, global OH, and anthropogenic phaseout appear to explain most of the observed atmospheric methyl bromide variability over the 1997–2008 period. The global budget remains imbalanced, with a large missing source indicated. The missing source does not exhibit a systematic decline during the phaseout period, and therefore, is not the result of significantly underestimating non-QPS agricultural CH3Br emissions. The model results suggest that the oceans should be less undersaturated than before the phaseout began.

  7. Off-site air monitoring following methyl bromide chamber and building fumigations and evaluation of the ISCST air dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, T.; Swgawa, R.; Wofford, P. [Cal EPA, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [and others


    The Department of Pesticide Regulation`s preliminary risk characterization of methyl bromide indicated an inadequate margin of safety for several exposure scenarios. Characterization of the air concentrations associated with common methyl bromide use patterns was necessary to determine specific scenarios that result in an unacceptable margin of safety. Field monitoring data were used in conjunction with the Industrial Source Complex, Short Tenn (ISCST) air dispersion model to characterize air concentrations associated with various types of methyl bromide applications. Chamber and building fumigations were monitored and modelled. For each fumigation the emission rates, chamber or building specifications and on-site meteorological data were input into the ISCST model. The model predicted concentrations were compared to measured air concentrations. The concentrations predicted by the ISCST model reflect both the pattern and magnitude of the measured concentrations. Required buffer zones were calculated using the ISCST output.

  8. Charging of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Colloids in Cyclohexyl Bromide : Locking, Size Dependence, and Particle Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Marjolein N.; Stiefelhagen, Johan C. P.; Heessels-Gurboga, Gulsen; der Hoeven, Jessi E. S. van; Elbers, Nina A.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Blaaderen, Alfons


    We studied suspensions of sterically stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles in the solvent cyclohexyl bromide (CHB; epsilon(r) = 7.92). We performed microelectrophoresis measurements on suspensions containing a single particle species and on binary mixtures, using confocal microscopy

  9. Alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for killing pupae and preventing emergence of apple maggot fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) (United States)

    Effects of methyl bromide, ECO2FUME (phosphine gas + CO2), Vapam (sodium methyldithiocarbamate), chloropicrin, Telone II (1, 3 dichloropropene), and chloropicrin + Telone II on killing the pupae and preventing adult emergence of apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) was determined. In an e...

  10. Grafting, metham sodium, soil solarization and virtually impermeable films as alternative technologies to methyl bromide for Chinese protected tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Xuemei; Cao Zhiping; Chen Yunfeng; Chen Guokang; Andrea Camponogara; Yang Hang; Maria Lodovica Gullino


    In the frame of the Sino-ltalian Cooperation Program for Environmental Protection,jointly launched in the year 2000 by the Italian Ministry for Environment and Territory and Sea (IMETS) and the China State Environ nental Protection Administration (SEPA),experimental trials were carried out in Qingzhou city (Shandong Prov ince,China) during 2001-2003 to test several methyl bromide alternative methods to control soilborne diseases in greenhouse tomatoes.Grafting tomatoes on resistant rootstock (Lycopersicon lycopersicum×L.hirsutum),metham sodium applied under traditional polyethylene ptastic films,metham sodium applied at low rate under virtually im permeable films and soil solarization combined with biocontrol agents were the alternatives tested and compared to methyl bromide applied under virtually impermeable plastic films too.Collected data show that resistant rootstock (Lycopersicon lycopersicum × L.hirsutum) introduced from Italy is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for to cal tomato cultivars.Metham sodium applied under traditional polyethylene plastic films is an effective alternative Moreover,virtually impermeable.films demonstrate the help to reduce methyl bromide and metham sodium rates.Finally,soil solarization combined with biocontrol agents does not provide satisfactory resuhs in terms of disease control.

  11. The regeneration of P2 olfactory sensory neurons is selectively impaired following methyl bromide lesion. (United States)

    Holbrook, Eric H; Iwema, Carrie L; Peluso, Carolyn E; Schwob, James E


    The capacity of the peripheral olfactory system to recover after injury has not been thoroughly explored. P2-IRES-tauLacZ mice were exposed to methyl bromide, which causes epithelial damage and kills 90% of the P2 neurons. With subsequent neuronal regeneration, P2 neurons recover within their usual territory to equal control numbers by 1 month but then decline sharply to roughly 40% of control by 3 months. At this time, the P2 projection onto the olfactory bulb is erroneous in several respects. Instead of converging onto 1 or 2 glomeruli per surface, small collections of P2 axons innervate multiple glomeruli at roughly the same position in the bulb as in controls. Within these glomeruli, the P2 axons are aggregated near the edge, whereas the remainder of the glomerulus contains olfactory marker protein (+), non-P2 axons, violating the one receptor-one glomerulus rule normally observed. The aggregates are denser than found in control P2-innervated glomeruli, suggesting that the P2 axons may not be synaptically connected. Based on published literature and other data, we hypothesize that P2 neurons lose out in an activity-based competition for synaptic territory within the glomeruli and are not maintained at control numbers due to a lack of trophic support from the bulb.

  12. A Comprehensive Theoretical Investigation of the Molecular Properties of Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) (United States)

    Yu, Ang-Yang; Efil, Kürşat; Yang, Rui; Hu, Qing-Miao


    The properties of the ground and the lowest excited state of methyl bromide (CH3Br) have been studied with and without inclusion of the solvent effects in this work. The geometric parameters, energies, and frequencies of the ground state and the triplet state are calculated by using the MP2(full)/6-311++G** level of theory. The vertical excitation for the singlet state is also investigated. It is found that the theoretical results performed by the TDDFT/B3P86/6-311++G** method are in the best agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the dissociation energy of CH3Br molecule is computed at MP2(full)/6-311++G** level of theory for the gas phase and in water. The ionisation potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), electronegativity (χ), electrophilicity index (ω), hardness (η), softness (S), and chemical potential (μ) values are calculated from HOMO-LUMO energies both in the gas phase and in solvent (water). These theoretical results could serve as a guide for future experimental investigations.

  13. Cardiovascular and antihypertensive actions of 1-methyl-3-keto-4-phenylquinuclidinium bromide. (United States)

    Vidrio, H; Hong, E


    The sympatholytic and norepinephrine depleting drug 1-methyl-3-keto-4-phenylquinuclidinium bromide (MA540) possessed significant chronic antihypertensive activity in mecamylamine- and renal-hypertensive dogs. The compound was approximately four times more potent than guanethidine in the former model and three times as potent in the latter. MA540 reduced orthostatic blood pressure responses in unanesthetized rabbits, but was approximately ten times less potent than guanethidine. The quinuclidine derivative did not affect cardiac output, heart rate or stroke volume in anesthetized open chest dogs and moderately increased mean blood pressure and total peripheral resistance. It produced diuresis and saluresis in anesthetized dogs, but did not influence water or electrolyte urinary excretion in conscious rats. In the latter test, guanethidine produced antidiuresis and antisaluresis. It was concluded that MA540 is a potent, orally effective antihypertensive agent acting through adrenergic neuron blockade, that it lacks undesirable effects on cardiac and renal functions, and that compared with guanethidine, it is more potent in lowering blood pressure but less so in interfering with orthostatic cardiovascular reflexes.

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit. (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B


    Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21-29.4 degrees C for 2 h. Tolerance ofA. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.) is third instar > second instar > first instar > egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23 +/- 0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 degrees C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2-3 h before fumigation did not significantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures >26.7 degrees C is not found to be inefficacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving >24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate.

  15. Physicochemistry of hexadecylammonium bromide and its methyl and ethanolic head group analogues in buffered aqueous and gelatin solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debolina Mitra; Satya P Moul


    In this work, the interfacial and bulk behaviour of the amphiphiles hexadecylammonium bromide and its methyl and ethanolic head group analogues in buffered aqueous and gelatin solution has been examined. The analogues are of two categories: the methyl and the combined methyl and ethanolic head group representatives are considered as Group A compounds, and all non-methyl but ethanolic head group species are taken as Group B compounds. Different physical techniques have been employed to ascertain the amphiphilic behaviour in solution. The self-aggregation of these surfactants at different pH has been studied along with pH dependent interfacial activity of gelatin. The interaction of the two categories of the surfactants with gelatin at different pH has been investigated. A scheme for this interaction at various stages of the process has been proposed. The influence of the surfactant head groups on the interaction process has been assessed.

  16. Life without methyl bromide: the Italian experience in replacing the fumigant. (United States)

    Gullino, M L; Clini, C; Garibaldi, A


    Methyl bromide (MB) has been the most widely used chemical for the fumigation of soil, commodities, buildings and furniture for over seventy years. Since January 1st 2005, it has been phased-out in industrialized countries, where only critical uses are allowed, because of international regulatory measures designed to reduce substances that potentially deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Italy ranked second in the world, after USA, in MB consumption, due to the importance of horticultural crop production. In order to replace the use of MB, research in Italy was aimed at: a) reducing the use of MB and its emission (short-term goal); b) developing alternative pest control methods, based on available technologies (mid-term goal); c) developing new MB alternatives (mid- and long-term goal). Italian growers switched to other fumigants, applied at reduced dosages, lowering their environmental impact and risk of worker exposure. Moreover, the adoption of non-chemical alternatives slowly but steadily increased as a result of the many activities (demonstration trials, seminars, etc.) carried out in the country. The gradual shift to MB alternatives over a 10 year period, as well as the use of half rates of MB under virtually impermeable plastic films (VIFs), has generally prevented the feared loss of competitiveness of Italian horticulture. Extension in cooperation with the fumigation companies was able to provide growers with a range of methods for soil disinfestation. The experience gained in Italy and how it can help developing countries to define strategies and training programmes needed to comply with the Montreal Protocol is discussed.

  17. Low-temperature methyl bromide fumigation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs. (United States)

    Barak, Alan V; Elder, Peggy; Fraser, Ivich


    Ash (Fraxinus spp.) logs, infested with fully developed, cold-acclimated larval and prepupal emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C for 24 h. Concentrations X time dosages of MeBr obtained were 1579 and 1273 g-h/m3 (24-h exposure) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C after applied doses of 112 and 96 g/m3, respectively. MeBr concentrations were simultaneously measured with a ContainIR infrared monitor and Fumiscope thermal conductivity meter calibrated for MeBr to measure the effect of CO2 on Fumiscope concentration readings compared with the infrared (IR) instrument. The presence of CO2 caused false high MeBr readings. With the thermal conductivity meter, CO2 measured 11.36 g/m3 MeBr per 1% CO2 in clean air, whereas the gas-specific infrared ContainIR instrument measured 9.55% CO2 as 4.2 g/m3 MeBr (0.44 g/m3 per 1% CO2). The IR instrument was 0.4% as sensitive to CO2 as the thermal conductivity meter. After aeration, fumigated and control logs were held for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No A. planipennis adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 262 emerged from control logs (139 and 123/m2 at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C, respectively). An effective fumigation dose and minimum periodic MeBr concentrations are proposed. The use of a CO2 scrubber in conjunction with nonspecific thermal conductivity instruments is necessary to more accurately measure MeBr concentrations.

  18. The developmental toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide on Daphnia magna. (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Rui; Li, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Bang-Jun; Sun, Zhen-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ji


    The developmental toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C(8)mim]Br) on Daphnia magna was investigated. The 24 and 48 h LC(50) values for [C(8)mim]Br in D. magna were 1.99 and 0.95 mg/L, respectively. A series of multigenerational toxicity tests were then used to explore [C(8)mim]Br effects in D. magna. [C(8)mim]Br significantly inhibited the body lengths of the F0 and F1 1st generations. After 21 days of exposure, [C(8)mim]Br lowered the reproductive ability of the F0 and F1 1st generations. In F1 3rd generation, 21 days of [C(8)mim]Br exposure prolonged the time to bear the first egg and the time to the first brood compared with the control, but the number of first-brood offspring and the number of broods produced by these animals were reduced. After the recovery period all the reproductive parameters returned to normal in F1 1st generation except for the number of broods. The dead neonates increased with prolonged exposure and increasing concentrations, and the dead neonates of the F1 3rd generation went far beyond that of the F1 1st and F0 generations. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) values of the three D. magna generations significantly decreased after exposure to higher concentrations of [C(8)mim]Br compared with control groups. Collectively, these results suggest that [C(8)mim]Br exerts a toxic effect on the development of D. magna. This study also highlights the importance of systematically evaluating the potential effects of aquatic ecosystems of ionic liquids that may be released into bodies of water.

  19. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for methyl bromide according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority


    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance methyl bromide. Although this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, guideline levels for methyl bromide (at point of retail sale or when offered for consumption and MRLs for bromide ion, which is a relevant metabolite of methyl bromide, were established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CXLs. Regarding methyl bromide, the default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg as defined by Regulation (EC No 396/2005 is compliant with the Codex guideline levels and provides a satisfactory level of protection for the European consumer but it could not be demonstrated that the default MRL can be achieved in routine enforcement. Moreover, based on the assessment of the available data, some CXLs were found not to be adequately supported by data and the consumer risk assessment could not be finalised, as the toxicological reference values of bromide ion need to be revised and only few information on the natural occurrence of bromide ion in food was available to EFSA. Hence, further consideration by risk managers is needed.

  20. Titrimetric, spectrophotometric and kinetic methods for the assay of atenolol using bromate–bromide and methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Three new methods have been developed for the determination of atenolol in bulk drug and in tablet formulation. The methods are based on the oxidation–bromination reaction of the drug by bromine, generated in situ by the action of acid on a bromate–bromide mixture. In the titrimetric method, the drug is treated with a known excess of bromate–bromide mixture in hydrochloric acid medium, followed by the determination of the unreacted bromine iodometrically. The spectrophotometric method involves the addition of a measured excess of bromate–bromide reagent in hydrochloric acid medium to atenolol, and after ensuring the reaction had gone to completion, the unreacted bromine is treated with a fixed amount of methyl orange, and absorbance measured at 520 nm. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of atenolol. The kinetic method depends on the existence of a linear relationship between the concentration of the drug and the time of the oxidation–bromination reaction, as indicated by the bleaching of methyl orange acid colour. The working conditions were optimized. The titrimetric method is based on a 1:1 reaction stoichiometry (atenolol:bromate and is applicable over the 3–20 mg range. The spectrophotometric method permits micro determination of the drug (0.5–4.0 mg ml-1with an apparentmolar absorptivity of 4.13x104 lmol-1 cm-1 and detection limit of 0.07 mg ml-1. The kinetic method is applicable in the concentration range 5–25 mg ml-1 with a detection limit of 3.72 mg ml-1. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of atenolol in tablet preparations with mean recoveries of 97.63 to 101.78 %. The reliability of the assay was established by parallel determination by the reference method and by recovery studies using the standard addition technique.

  1. Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Tamsulosin Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form Using Bromate-Bromide and Methyl Orange Reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharatkumar Ganeshbhai Chaudhari


    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, accurate and precise assay procedure based on Spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of Tamsulosin hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical formulation. The method was based on the bromination of Tamsulosin hydrochloride with a known excess amount of Bromate-bromide mixture in acidic medium followed by the determination of surplus bromine by reacting with dye methyl orange and measuring the absorbance at 513 nm. Validation was carried out in compliance with International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Linear regression analysis of method showed good linearity with the correlation co-efficient (r of 0.9978 with respect to absorbance in the concentration range of 2-12 μg/mL and the mean recovery for Tamsulosin hydrochloride was 99.65% ± 0.47 . The proposed method can be successfully applied for the analysis of tablet formulations.

  2. Evaluation of sorbent materials for the sampling and analysis of phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide in air. (United States)

    Magnusson, R; Rittfeldt, L; Åstot, C


    Phosphine (PH3), sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) and methyl bromide (CH3Br) are highly toxic chemical substances commonly used for fumigation, i.e., pest control with gaseous pesticides. Residues of fumigation agents constitute a health risk for workers affected, and therefore accurate methods for air sampling and analysis are needed. In this study, three commercial adsorbent tubes; Carbosieve SIII™, Air Toxics™ and Tenax TA™, were evaluated for sampling these highly volatile chemicals in air and their subsequent analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The breakthrough volume (BTV) of each fumigant was experimentally determined on the different adsorbents at concentrations at or above their permissible exposure limits, using a method based on frontal chromatography of generated fumigant atmospheres. Carbosieve SIII™, a molecular sieve possessing a very high specific area, proved to be a better adsorbent than both Air Toxics™ and Tenax TA™, resulting in at least a 4-fold increase of the BTV50%. BTV50% for Carbosieve SIII™ at 20°C was measured as 4.7L/g, 5.5L/g and 126L/g for phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide, respectively, implying safe sampling volumes of 1.9L, 2.2L and 50L, respectively, for a commercial tube packed with 800mg Carbosieve SIII™. The temperature dependence of BTV was strong for Carbosieve SIII™, showing a reduction of 3-5%/°C in breakthrough volume within the range -20 to 40°C. Furthermore, although Carbosieve SIII™ reportedly has a higher affinity for water than most other adsorbents, relative humidity had only a moderate influence on the retention capacity of phosphine. Overall, the applicability of Carbosieve SIII™ adsorbent sampling in combination with TD-GC-MS analysis was demonstrated for highly volatile fumigants.

  3. Activated carbons from end-products of tree nut and tree fruit production as sorbents for removing methyl bromide in ventilation effluent from postharvest chamber fumigation (United States)

    End-products of tree nuts and tree fruits grown in California, USA were evaluated for the ability to remove methyl bromide from the ventilation effluent of postharvest chamber fumigations. Activated carbon sorbents from walnut and almond shells as well as peach and prune pits were prepared using dif...

  4. Development of an activated carbon-based electrode for the capture and rapid electrolytic reductive debromination of methyl bromide from post-harvest fumigations (United States)

    Due to concerns surrounding its ozone depletion potential, there is a need for technologies to capture and destroy methyl bromide (CH3Br) emissions from post-harvest fumigations applied to control agricultural pests. Previously we described a system in which CH3Br fumes vented from fumigation chambe...


    Weed control provided by alternative fumigants to methyl bromide (MeBr) needs to be tested in perennial crop nurseries in California because MeBr is being phased out in accordance with the Montreal Protocol, few herbicides are registered for perennial nursery use, and costs of other control measures...

  6. Bromidotetra-kis-(1H-2-ethyl-5-methyl-imidazole-κN)copper(II) bromide. (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Socha, Joanna; Dołęga, Anna


    The Cu(II) ion in the title compound, [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)]Br, is coordinated in a square-based-pyramidal geometry by the N atoms of four imidazole ligands and a bromide anion in the apical site. Both the Cu(II) and Br(-) atoms lie on a crystallographic fourfold axis. In the crystal, the [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)](+) complex cations are linked to the uncoordinated Br(-) anions (site symmetry [Formula: see text]) by N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. The ethyl group of the imidazole ligand was modelled as disordered over two orientations with occupancies of 0.620 (8) and 0.380 (8).

  7. Charging of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) colloids in cyclohexyl bromide: locking, size dependence, and particle mixtures. (United States)

    van der Linden, Marjolein N; Stiefelhagen, Johan C P; Heessels-Gürboğa, Gülşen; van der Hoeven, Jessi E S; Elbers, Nina A; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Blaaderen, Alfons


    We studied suspensions of sterically stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles in the solvent cyclohexyl bromide (CHB; εr = 7.92). We performed microelectrophoresis measurements on suspensions containing a single particle species and on binary mixtures, using confocal microscopy to measure the velocity profiles of the particles. We measured the charge of so-called locked PMMA particles, for which the steric stabilizer, a comb-graft stabilizer of poly(12-hydroxystearic acid) (PHSA) grafted on a backbone of PMMA, was covalently bonded to the particle, and for unlocked particles, for which the stabilizer was adsorbed to the surface of the particle. We observed that locked particles had a significantly higher charge than unlocked particles. We found that the charge increase upon locking was due to chemical coupling of 2-(dimethylamino)ethanol to the PMMA particles, which was used as a catalyst for the locking reaction. For particles of different size we obtained the surface potential and charge from the electrophoretic mobility of the particles. For locked particles we found that the relatively high surface potential (∼ +5.1 kBT/e or +130 mV) was roughly constant for all particle diameters we investigated (1.2 μm particle charge was proportional to the square of the diameter.

  8. Antibacterial Activity and Bonding Ability of an Orthodontic Adhesive Containing the Antibacterial Monomer 2-Methacryloxylethyl Hexadecyl Methyl Ammonium Bromide (United States)

    Yu, Fan; Dong, Yan; Yu, Hao-han; Lin, Ping-ting; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Xiang; Liu, Yan; Xia, Yu-ning; Huang, Li; Chen, Ji-hua


    Irreversible white spot lesion (WSL) occurs in up to 50% of patients during orthodontic treatment. Therefore, orthodontic adhesives need to be able to inhibit or reduce bacterial growth in order to prevent or minimize WSL. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect and shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin-based orthodontic adhesive containing the antibacterial monomer 2-methacryloxylethyl hexadecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-HB). MAE-HB was added at three concentrations (1, 3, and 5 wt%) to a commercial orthodontic adhesive Transbond XT, while the blank control comprised unmodified Transbond XT. Their antibacterial effects on Streptococcus mutans were investigated after 0 and 180 days of aging. The SBS of metal brackets bonded to the buccal enamel surface of human premolars was assessed. Compared with the blank control, the MAE-HB-incorporated adhesive exhibited a significant contact inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans (P < 0.05), even after 180 days of aging. SBS and adhesive remnant index values revealed that the bonding ability of the experimental adhesive was not significantly adversely affected by the incorporation of MAE-HB at any of the three concentrations. Therefore, orthodontic adhesives with strong and long-lasting bacteriostatic properties can be created through the incorporation of MAE-HB without negatively influencing bonding ability. PMID:28169312

  9. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve


    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control.

  10. Toxic effects of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide on the early embryonic development of the frog Rana nigromaculata. (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Jing; Yu, Miao; Wang, Jian-Ji; Pei, Yuan Chao


    Toxic effects of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) on the early embryonic development of the frog Rana nigromaculata were evaluated. Frog embryos in different developmental stages (early cleavage, early gastrula, or neural plate) were exposed to 0, 45, 63, or 88.2 mg/L of the ionic liquid [C8mim]Br for 96 h. The 96-h median lethal concentration values at the early cleavage, early gastrula, and neural plate stages of development were 85.1, 43.4, and 42.4 mg/L, respectively. In embryos exposed to [C8mim]Br, the duration of embryo dechorionation was prolonged in the early cleavage and neural plate, but not the early gastrula, stages of development compared with control embryos. Embryos in the neural plate developmental stage were found to have the highest mortality rate following [C8mim]Br exposure. These results suggest that [C8mim]Br has toxic effects on the early embryonic development of the frog.

  11. Effects of phosphine and methyl bromide fumigation on the volatile flavor profile and sensory quality of dry cured ham. (United States)

    Sekhon, R K; Schilling, M W; Phillips, T W; Aikins, M J; Hasan, M M; Corzo, A; Mikel, W B


    In separate experiments, randomized complete block designs with three replications were utilized to evaluate the effects of phosphine (PH(3)) (0, 200 and 1000ppm for 48h) and methyl bromide (MB) (0, 4, 8, 16, and 32mg/L for 48h) fumigation concentration on the volatile flavor compound concentrations in dry cured ham. Minimal differences existed (P>0.05) in the presence and concentration of aroma active compounds in both PH(3) and MB fumigated hams but sulfur and oxidation compounds were more prevalent (Pfumigated treatments when compared to the control. As phosphine fumigation concentration increased, the residual concentration of phosphine also increased in the hams (Pphosphine allowed in stored food products (0.01ppm) in the United States. A triangle test (n=56) indicated that consumers could not discriminate (P>0.75) between the control hams and those that were fumigated with PH(3). Minimal aroma/flavor differences existed among MB, PH3 and control hams, and dry cured ham that was fumigated with PH(3) was safe for consumption based on residual phosphine concentrations in the meat tissue.

  12. Identification of Methyl Halide-Utilizing Genes in the Methyl Bromide-Utilizing Bacterial Strain IMB-1 Suggests a High Degree of Conservation of Methyl Halide-Specific Genes in Gram-Negative Bacteria


    Woodall, Claire A.; Warner, Karen L.; Oremland, Ronald S.; Murrell, J. Colin; McDonald, Ian R.


    Strain IMB-1, an aerobic methylotrophic member of the alpha subgroup of the Proteobacteria, can grow with methyl bromide as a sole carbon and energy source. A single cmu gene cluster was identified in IMB-1 that contained six open reading frames: cmuC, cmuA, orf146, paaE, hutI, and partial metF. CmuA from IMB-1 has high sequence homology to the methyltransferase CmuA from Methylobacterium chloromethanicum and Hyphomicrobium chloromethanicum and contains a C-terminal corrinoid-binding motif an...

  13. Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Trace Terbium(III) Using 2,6-Bis-(1'-phenyl-3'-methyl-5'-oxopyrazole-4') Pyridinediacyl and N-Cetylpyridium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new spectrofluorimetric method for determination of trace terbium based on its reaction with 2,6-bis-(1'-phenyl-3'-methyl-5'-oxopyrazole-4') pyridinediacyl (H2PMBPP) and N-cetylpyridium bromide (CPB), at an apparent pH=5.0 provided by a hexamethylenetetramine (5% w/w)-hydrochloric acid buffer, is proposed. The calibration graph is linear in the range from 1.43′ 10-5 to 0.1589 m g/ml.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HABER, S.B.


    This report provides a detailed account of a two year chronic inhalation study of methyl bromide toxicity in B6C3Fl mice conducted for the National Toxicology Program. Mice were randomized into three dose groups (10, 33 and 100 ppm methyl bromide) and one control group (0 ppm) per sex and exposed 5 days/week, 6 hours/day, for a total of 103 weeks. Endpoints included body weight; clinical signs and mortality, and at 6, 15 and 24 months of exposure, animals were sacrificed for organ weights, hematology and histopathology. In addition, a subgroup of animals in each dosage group was monitored for neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes. After only 20 weeks of exposure, 48% of the males and 12% of the females in the 100 ppm group had died. Exposures were terminated in that group and the surviving mice were observed for the duration of the study. Exposure of B6C3Fl mice to methyl bromide, even for only 20 weeks, produced significant changes in growth rate, mortality, organ weights and neurobehavioral functioning. These changes occurred in both males and females, but were more pronounced in males.

  15. Manganese uptake and distribution in the brain after methyl bromide-induced lesions in the olfactory epithelia. (United States)

    Thompson, Khristy J; Molina, Ramon M; Donaghey, Thomas; Savaliya, Sandeep; Schwob, James E; Brain, Joseph D


    Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient with potential neurotoxic effects. Mn deposited in the nose is apparently transported to the brain through anterograde axonal transport, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. However, the role of the olfactory epithelial cells in Mn transport from the nasal cavity to the blood and brain is not well understood. We utilized the methyl bromide (MeBr) lesion model wherein the olfactory epithelium fully regenerates in a time-dependent and cell type-specific manner over the course of 6-8 weeks postinjury. We instilled (54)MnCl(2) intranasally at different recovery periods to study the role of specific olfactory epithelial cell types in Mn transport. (54)MnCl(2) was instilled at 2, 4, 7, 21, and 56 days post-MeBr treatment. (54)Mn concentrations in the blood were measured over the first 4-h period and in the brain and other tissues at 7 days postinstillation. Age-matched control rats were similarly studied at 2 and 56 days. Blood and tissue (54)Mn levels were reduced initially but returned to control values by day 7 post-MeBr exposure, coinciding with the reestablishment of sustentacular cells. Brain (54)Mn levels also decreased but returned to control levels only by 21 days, the period near the completion of neuronal regeneration/bulbar reinnervation. Our data show that Mn transport to the blood and brain temporally correlated with olfactory epithelial regeneration post-MeBr injury. We conclude that (1) sustentacular cells are necessary for Mn transport to the blood and (2) intact axonal projections are required for Mn transport from the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulb and brain.

  16. Consumption of Tropospheric Levels of Methyl Bromide by C1 Compound-Utilizing Bacteria and Comparison to Saturation Kinetics (United States)

    Goodwin, K.D.; Varner, R.K.; Crill, P.M.; Oremland, R.S.


    Pure cultures of methylotrophs and methanotrophs are known to oxidize methyl bromide (MeBr); however, their ability to oxidize tropospheric concentrations (parts per trillion by volume [pptv]) has not been tested. Methylotrophs and methanotrophs were able to consume MeBr provided at levels that mimicked the tropospheric mixing ratio of MeBr (12 pptv) at equilibrium with surface waters (???2 pM). Kinetic investigations using picomolar concentrations of MeBr in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were performed using strain IMB-1 and Leisingeria methylohalidivorans strain MB2T - terrestrial and marine methylotrophs capable of halorespiration. First-order uptake of MeBr with no indication of threshold was observed for both strains. Strain MB2T displayed saturation kinetics in batch experiments using micromolar MeBr concentrations, with an apparent Ks of 2.4 ??M MeBr and a Vmax of 1.6 nmol h-1 (106 cells)-1. Apparent first-order degradation rate constants measured with the CSTR were consistent with kinetic parameters determined in batch experiments, which used 35- to 1 ?? 107-fold-higher MeBr concentrations. Ruegeria algicola (a phylogenetic relative of strain MB2T), the common heterotrophs Escherichia coli and Bacillus pumilus, and a toluene oxidizer, Pseudomonas mendocina KR1, were also tested. These bacteria showed no significant consumption of 12 pptv MeBr; thus, the ability to consume ambient mixing ratios of MeBr was limited to C1 compound-oxidizing bacteria in this study. Aerobic C1 bacteria may provide model organisms for the biological oxidation of tropospheric MeBr in soils and waters.

  17. 78 FR 68021 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of... (United States)


    ... species, Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) and Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly... bromide treatment schedule to mitigate risk from C. capitata and A. fraterculus, as described in the...

  18. [Pharmacology of the bronchospasmolytic oxitropium bromide]. (United States)

    Bauer, V R


    The anticholinergic substance (8r)-6 beta, 7 beta-epoxy-8-ethyl-3 alpha-[(-)-tropoyloxyl]-1 alpha H, 5 alpha H-tropanium bromide (oxitropium bromide, Ba 253 BR, Ventilat) is a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. In vitro, it is many times as effective as atropine. In vivo, oxitropium bromide, following i.v. administration, is also more effective than atropine. Due to its quaternary structure, a central anticholinergic effect cannot be demonstrated. Furthermore, poor enteral resorption is to be expected. Locally administered, as an aqueous aerosol, the effect of the substance is distinctly greater than that of atropine, both in potency and duration of action. This is also true when administered by metered-dose inhaler compared with ipratropium bromide. As, following aerosol administration, the margin between major effect and the most sensitive side-effect is in the ratio 1 : 100, side-effects are unlikely even with marked inhalational overdosage. Oxitropium bromide can be described, therefore, as a preparation free of side-effects which represents in prophylactic use in many cases of obstructive airway disease, an alternative to beta-mimetics and xanthine derivatives.

  19. New Sensitive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Raloxifene Hydrochloride in Pharmaceuticals Using Bromate-Bromide,Methyl Orange and Indigo Carmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Basavaiah


    Full Text Available Two new sensitive spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX using bromate-bromide mixture and two dyes, methyl orange and indigocarmine, as reagents. The methods entail the addition of a known excess of bromate-bromide mixture to RLX in hydrochloric acid medium followed by determination of residual bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of either methyl orange and measuring the absorbance at 520 nm (Method A or indigo carmine and measuring the absorbance at 610 nm (Method B. In both methods, the amount of bromine reacted corresponds to the amount of RLX. The absorbance is found to increase linearly with concentration of RLX. Under the optimum conditions, RLX could be assayed in the concentration range 0.1-2.0 and 0.5-6.0 μg mL-1 by method A and method B, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivities are calculated to be 1.9×105 and 4.5×104 L mol-1cm-1 for method A and method B, respectively, and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values are 0.003 and 0.011 μg cm-2. The limits of detection and quantification are also reported for both methods. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the developed methods were evaluated as per the current ICH guidelines. The methods were successfully applied to the assay of RLX in its tablet formulation and the results were compared with those of a reference method by calculating the Student’s t-value and F-value. No interference was observed from common tablet adjuvants. The accuracy and reliability of the methods were further ascertained by recovery experiments via standard-addition procedure.

  20. Pharmacology of the anticholinergic bronchospasmolytic agent flutropium bromide. (United States)

    Bauer, R; Fügner, A


    The anticholinergic agent (8r)-8-(2-fluoroethyl)-3 alpha-hydroxy-1 alpha H,tropanium bromide benzilic acid ester (flutropium bromide, Ba 598 BR) is a classic competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. In in vitro experiments it is more effective than atropine. In addition there are indications, that flutropium bromide may interfere with the anaphylactic reaction in a certain dose range in vitro. In in vivo experiments for the characterization of the anticholinergic properties flutropium bromide is also somewhat more effective than atropine after parenteral administration. Because of its quaternary structure no central anticholinergic effect is detectable. Furthermore, a poor enteral absorption is to be expected; this can be concluded from the low relative effectiveness after oral administration. After systemic administration, flutropium bromide is only slightly more effective than atropine. The duration of action is longer. After local administration as an aerosol it is superior to atropine with regard to both effectiveness and duration of action. Since in aerosol administration the ratio of the main effect to the most sensitive side effects, inhibition of salivary secretion, is 1:100, no side effects are to be expected even after high inhalational overdoses. Flutropium bromide can therefore be described as a preparation which is free of side effects. When used prophylactically it represents a therapeutic alternative to beta-mimetics and xanthine derivatives for most cases of obstructive airway diseases.

  1. Atropine and Other Anticholinergic Drugs (United States)


    compromise near- who first analyzed the pharmacology and toxicol- vision in the case of accidental use. Military re- ogy of tabun obtained from captured...Lipp JA and Dola TJ (1978). Effect of atropine upon 290-293. the cerebrovascular system during soman-induced NakajimaT.Ohta S. Morita H etal. (1997...sarin: Clinical manifes- Wills JH (1963). Pharmacological antagonists of the tations and treatment of accidental poisoning by anticholinesterase agents

  2. Alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for the control of pest infestation in grain and dry food products


    Shaaya, E.; Kostyukovsky, M.


    The primary aim of the current study is to evaluate the potential use of the known isothyiocyanates (ITC) as compared to a new ITC isolated from Eruca sativa (salad rocket) as fumigants for the control of stored products insects. The biological activity of methyl iodide (CH₃I), carbon disulphide (CS₂), benzaldehyde (C₇H₆0) and essential oils were also evaluated. The toxicity of the various fumigants was assessed against adults and larvae of a number of major stored-product insects. ITCs are p...

  3. Evaluation of microwave irradiation for analysis of carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, cyanogen, ethyl formate, methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride, propylene oxide, and phosphine in hay. (United States)

    Ren, Yonglin; Mahon, Daphne


    Fumigant residues in hay were "extracted" by microwave irradiation. Hay, in gastight glass flasks, was placed in a domestic microwave oven, and fumigants were released into the headspace by microwave irradiation. Power settings for maximum release of fumigants were determined for carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS(2)), cyanogen (C(2)N(2)), ethyl formate (EF), methyl bromide (CH(3)Br), sulfuryl fluoride (SF), propylene oxide (PPO), and phosphine (PH(3)). Recoveries of fortified samples were >91% for COS, CS(2), CH(3)Br, SF, PPO, and PH(3) and >76% for C(2)N(2) and EF. Completeness of extraction was assessed from the amount of fumigant retained by the microwaved hay. This amount was determined from further microwave irradiation and was always small (<5% of the amount obtained from the initial procedure). Limits of quantification were <0.1 mg/kg for COS, CS(2), C(2)N(2), EF, and PH(3) and <0.5 mg/kg for CH(3)Br, SF, and PPO. These low limits were essentially due to the absence of interference from solvents and no necessity to inject large-volume gas samples. The microwave method is rapid and solvent-free. However, care is required in selecting the appropriate power setting. The safety implications of heating sealed flasks in microwave ovens should be noted.

  4. Emissions and distribution of methyl bromide in field beds applied at two rates and covered with two types of plastic mulches. (United States)

    Ou, Li-Tse; Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W


    A field experiment was conducted to compare two plastic mulches and two application rates on surface emissions and subsurface distribution of methyl bromide (MBr) in field beds in Florida. Within 30 minutes after injection of MBr to 30 cm depth, MBr had diffused upward to soil surface in all beds covered with polyethylene film (PE) or virtually impermeable film (VIF) and applied at a high rate (392 kg/ha) and a low rate (196 kg/ha). Due to the highly permeable nature of PE, within 30 minutes after injection, MBr volatilized from the bed surfaces of the two PE-covered beds into the atmosphere. The amount of volatilization was greater for the high rate-treatment bed. On the other hand, volatilization of MBr from the bed surfaces of the two VIF-covered beds were negligible. Volatilization losses occurred from the edges of all the beds covered with PE or VIF and were greater from the high rate-treatment beds. Initial vertical diffusion of MBr in the subsurface of the beds covered with PE or VIF was mainly upward, as large concentrations of MBr were detected from near bed surfaces to 20 cm depth in these beds 30 minutes after injection and little or no MBr was found at 40 cm depth. The two VIF-covered beds exhibited greater MBr concentrations and longer resident times in the root zone (0.5-40 cm depth) than corresponding PE-covered beds. Concentrations of MBr in the root zone of the high rate-treatment beds were 3.6-6.1 times larger than the low rate-treatment beds during the first days after application. In conclusion, VIF promoted retention of MBr in the root zone and, if volatilization loss from bed edges can be blocked, volatilization loss from VIF-covered beds should be negligible.

  5. Conversion of Alcohols to Bromides by Trimethylsilane and lithium Bromide in Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Feng; Zhang Xiao-xia; Zhang Qing; Wang Ji-yu; Chen Dai-mo


    Conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides is one of the most frequently used functional group transformation reactions. Phosphorus tribromide is one of the most popular classical reagents.Triphenylphosphine has been used in combination with bromine,carbon tetrabromide,N-halo imides and other bromide compounds as a mild reagents for the preparation of alkyl bromides.More reacently, halotrimethylsilanes were found to be useful for halogenation of alcohols. George A.Olah successfully converted alcohols to bromides with chlorotrimethylsilane/lithium bromide in acetonitrile. But in our research, we found that we got no bromides but methylation products when we planed to convered our substances to bromides according to Gerge's method. We did some experiments, and we found that when the substituent group in the 2-N was donor group,we got the methylation products,but when it was acceptor group,the bromide could be got.(Scheme 1).Then we did some experiments with several other solvents, we found excitedly that when the solvent was acetone ,the bromides could be got even the substituent group was donor.(Scheme 2).When we changed the substances to normal alcohols ,such as ethyl alcohol,benzyl alcohol,isopropyl alcohol and 3,4-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol,we also got the bromides.In conclusion, we found a simple method to convert alcohols to bromides with trimethylsilane/li thium bromide in acetone,which was better than Geroge's method.

  6. A comparison of the effects of atropine on real-feeding and sham-feeding of sucrose in rats. (United States)

    Nissenbaum, J W; Sclafani, A


    In Experiment 1 the influence of atropine methyl nitrate on the sham-feeding response of adult female rats to a sucrose solution was determined. Atropine (1 or 5 mg/kg) reliably suppressed the sham-intake of sucrose when the drug was administered 30 or 0 min prior to, or 17 min after the start of the feeding session. The suppressive effect was less, however, when the drug was administered 30 min before testing compared to the other two injection-test conditions. In Experiment 2 atropine failed to reliably decrease the real-feeding of a sucrose solution whether it was injected 30, 15, or 0 min prior to testing. These results were replicated in Experiment 3; atropine (0 min injection-test interval) reduced the sham-intake but not the real-intake of a sucrose solution. However, atropine decreased the rate of feeding under both real- and sham-feeding conditions. The fact that atropine reduced feeding rate but not meal size in the real-feeding condition was attributed to the drug's lack of effect on postingestive satiety. The present findings along with other recent results indicate that (1) the injection-test interval is a potentially important variable in studies involving atropine; (2) results obtained with sham-feeding animals do not always generalize to real-feeding animals; and (3) cholinergically-mediated cephalic responses are of questionable importance in the control of meal size.

  7. Efeito da solarização e do brometo de metila sobre a comunidade de fungos do solo Effect of soil solarization and methyl bromide on the soil fungi community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Story Venâncio


    Full Text Available A microbiota do solo é de grande importância no desenvolvimento de culturas. Os métodos de controle, químico (brometo de metila e físico (solarização, alteram essa microbiota. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar o comportamento da comunidade de fungos em solo solarizado e fumigado (brometo de metila. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos (solarização, brometo de metila e testemunha e sete repetições. A comunidade de fungos do solo foi avaliada de forma quantitativa e qualitativa, em três momentos (antes, durante e após a solarização com amostras coletadas de três profundidades (0-5; 10-15 e 20-25 cm. Durante a solarização ocorreu uma redução na comunidade de fungos do solo, em termos quantitativos, em todas as camadas amostradas. No entanto, essa diminuição foi mais significativa na camada superficial (0-5cm. Em termos qualitativos, a solarização reduziu também o número de diferentes espécies de fungos do solo, mas na camada de 20-25 cm, essa diminuição foi a zero aos 56 dias de avaliação. A recolonização da microbiota do solo, em termos quantitativos, foi maior no tratamento com brometo de metila do que nos demais. Entretanto, esse aumento não foi o mesmo em termos qualitativos. Nos tratamentos solarizado e testemunha, o aumento na comunidade de fungos do solo foi acompanhado pela diversificação de espécies fúngicas.Soil microbial community is of great importance for the crop development. However, the methods of control, chemical (methyl bromide and physical (soil solarization, change such community. The present work aimed to study the behaviour of the community of fungi in solarized and fumigated (methyl bromide soils. The experimental design was randomized in complete blocks, with 3 treatments (soil solarization, methyl bromide, and control and 7 replications. The soil fungi community was evaluated in both, a quantitative and qualitative way during 3 periods (before

  8. Bromidotetra­kis­(1H-2-ethyl-5-methyl­imidazole-κN 3)copper(II) bromide (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Socha, Joanna; Dołęga, Anna


    The CuII ion in the title compound, [CuBr(C6H10N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-based-pyramidal geometry by the N atoms of four imidazole ligands and a bromide anion in the apical site. Both the CuII and Br− atoms lie on a crystallographic fourfold axis. In the crystal, the [CuBr(C6H10N2)4]+ complex cations are linked to the uncoordinated Br− anions (site symmetry ) by N—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. The ethyl group of the imidazole ligand was modelled as disordered over two orientations with occupancies of 0.620 (8) and 0.380 (8). PMID:22199662

  9. Synthesis and characterization of N- butyl- N- methyl morpholine bromide as intermediate of ionic liquid%离子液体中间体溴化N-丁基-N-甲基吗啉的合成及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕尊; 王吉林; 封瑞江


    N - butyl - N - methyl morpholine bromide ( [Nbmm] Br) as intermediate of ionic liquid was synthesized using N - methyl morpholine and 1 - bromobutane as raw materials without solvent. The effects of reaction conditions, such as reaction time, reaction temperature and mole ratio of N - methyl morpholine to 1 - bromobutane on the product yield were investigated. The product was characterized by FT - IR, and the water absorbability, solubility and thermal stability were also tested. The re-sults showed that under the condition of reaction temperature 108℃,reaction time 5 h, mole ratio of N - methyl morpholine to 1 - bromobutane 1 : 1 yield of [Nbmm] Br was 75.8%. The product had identical structure with purpose product and exhibited higher water absorbability. It was easy to dissolve in polar solvent and decomposed at about 240℃.%在无溶剂的条件下,以N-甲基吗啉和溴代正丁烷为原料合成出溴化N-丁基-N-甲基吗啉([ Nbmm]Br),研究了主要工艺条件对[Nbmm] Br产率的影响,用傅立叶变换红外光谱(FT - IR)表征了产物的结构,测定了合成产物的吸水性、溶解性和热稳定性.结果表明,反应产物的结构与目标产物相符;在反应温度为108℃,反应时间为5h,n(N -甲基吗啉)/n(溴代正丁烷)为1的最佳工艺条件下,[Nbmm]Br产率为75.8%;反应产物的吸水性较强,易溶于极性较强的溶剂,热分解温度约为240℃.

  10. Effectiveness study of atropine for progressive myopia in Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polling, J.R.; Kok, R.G.; Tideman, J.W.; Meskat, B.; Klaver, C.C.W.


    PurposeRandomized controlled trials have shown the efficacy of atropine for progressive myopia, and this treatment has become the preferred pattern for this condition in Taiwan. This study explores the effectiveness of atropine 0.5% treatment for progressive high myopia and adherence to therapy in a

  11. Research on the toxicity of methyl bromide against hawthorn spider mite and peach fruit moth%溴甲烷熏蒸对山楂叶螨和桃蛀果蛾的毒力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 刘涛; 张凡华; 李天秀; 汪丽军; 王跃进


    Apples are one of the most important fruits for export in China.Hawthorn spider mite(Tetranychus viennensis Zacher) and peach fruit moth(Carposina sasakii Matsumura) that occur widely in China seriously threatens the export of apples.In order to determinate the eliminated doses of methyl bromide against these pests for quarantine purpose,we investigated the toxicity of methyl bromide at different temperatures.The CT values of fumigation on hawthorn spider mite to achieve probit 9 mortality were 126.66,84.35,59.15,45.23 and 40.33 mg·h/L at 5℃,10℃,15℃,20℃ and 25℃,respectively.And the CT values of fumigation on peach fruit moth to achieve probit 9 mortality were 128.05,81.80,52.91,41.56 and 36.43 mg·h/L at 5℃,10℃,15℃,20℃ and 25℃,respectively.Based on these results we suggest that 10.0~14.9℃ 40g/m3 2h,15.0~19.9℃ 32g/m3 2h,20.0~24.9℃ 24g/m3 2h,25.0℃ 20g/m3 2h could be used for quarantine fumigation of apples.%苹果是我国的重要出口水果,山楂叶螨(Tetranychus viennensis Zacher)和桃蛀果蛾(Carposinasasakii Matsumura)在苹果主产区广泛分布,严重威胁我国苹果出口。为确定溴甲烷检疫处理山楂叶螨和桃蛀果蛾的技术指标,本文系统测定了一系列温度条件下溴甲烷对山楂叶螨成螨和富士苹果中桃蛀果蛾老熟幼虫的毒力,确定在5℃、10℃、15℃、20℃和25℃下,溴甲烷熏蒸山楂叶螨死亡率达到机率值9所需浓度时间乘积(CT值)分别为126.66、84.35、59.15、45.23和40.33mg.h/L,溴甲烷熏蒸桃蛀果蛾死亡率达到机率值9所需CT值分别为128.05、81.80、52.91、41.56和36.43mg.h/L。根据上述结果,建议采用10.0~14.9℃40g/m3 2h、15.0~19.9℃32g/m3 2h、20.0~24.9℃24g/m3 2h和大于25.0℃20g/m3 2h作为出口苹果的溴甲烷熏蒸处理技术指标。

  12. Suppression of torsades de pointes by atropine. (United States)

    Tan, H L; Wilde, A A; Peters, R J


    A 67 year old woman with a history of chronic atrial fibrillation presented with asthma cardiale. She took no medication and there was no family history of long QT syndrome. She was treated with furosemide, nitroprusside, acenocoumarol, and digoxin. Two days later excessively prolonged RR intervals, which were terminated by escape beats with a right bundle branch block morphology, suggested impending total AV block. There was also severe QT (0.48 s) and QTc (0.56) interval prolongation with bizarre inverted TU waves and multifocal premature ventricular complexes within the U waves. The patient experienced angina pectoris followed by episodes of torsades de pointes, which were interpreted as the result of bradycardia, and the bradycardia as the result of high grade AV block induced by increased vagal tone caused by ischaemia in the presence of digoxin intoxication (serum digoxin was 2.5 micrograms/l). Subsequent atropine infusion sped up the ventricular rate and shortened the QT (0.39) and QTc (0.51) intervals. Digoxin was replaced by metoprolol to control ventricular rate and angina pectoris. Within days, QT and QTc intervals became normal and the U waves disappeared. Neither torsades de pointes nor angina pectoris recurred. Based on a review of the literature, it is suggested that the electrophysiological mechanism of this effect is not only an increase of the heart rate, but also a direct action of muscarinic receptor antagonism on Purkinje cells and ventricular refractoriness.

  13. 77 FR 35295 - Methyl Bromide; Pesticide Tolerances (United States)


    ... entities likely to be affected by this action. Other types of entities not listed in this unit could also..., including a fermentation chamber. Therefore, given the complexity of the ruminant digestive system, there...

  14. 甲基溴在我国农业生产中的作用及应用承诺策略研究%Function of Methyl Bromide in China’s Agricultural Production and Strategy Study on International Commitment of Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫琰; 薛宇亮; 王秀东


    甲基溴是重要的土壤熏蒸剂,在我国农业生产中发挥着重要作用,但甲基溴对大气臭氧层有破坏作用,我国对甲基溴的使用有国际承诺。本文在分析了甲基溴的作用﹑国内外应用控制和研发新的替代产品的基础上,提出了我国在执行议定书过程中可借鉴的国外经验及应采取的策略。%Methyl bromide as an important soil fumigant plays an essential role in agricultural production in China.But it has damage to ozonosphere , so China made the international commitment to use it restrained-ly .Through the analysis on function of methyl bromide , application control at home and abroad and developing new substitute product , the overseas referential experiences during executing Copenhagen protocol , and the countermeasures we should take .

  15. Rapacuronium bromide (Organon Teknika). (United States)

    Plowman, A N


    Organon Teknika's rapacuronium bromide (Org-9487), the 16-N-allyl, 17-beta-propionate analog of vecuronium bromide, is in phase III clinical trials in the US and Europe for potential use as an anesthetic. It is a steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug characterized by low potency, rapid rate of block development and short time course of neuromuscular blocking action as compared with other non-depolarizing compounds [170210,221422]. A multicenter, randomized, assessor-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study in patients undergoing tracheal intubation showed that the drug produced a dose dependent neuromuscular block. Doses of 1.5 to 2 mg/kg allowed rapid intubation and short duration of action [273336]. Another study showed that the drug does not cause cardiovascular side-effects [273336]. A meeting was held in Europe on 8 February 1999 to brief company employees on the registration and release of rapacuronium [319211] for which the company anticipates a launch in late 1999 [320706]. Organon estimates that the market value of Org-9487 is between dollar 100 m and dollar 250 m a year, each for Europe and the US [221422].

  16. Can anisodamine be a potential substitute for high-dose atropine in cases of organophosphate poisoning? (United States)

    Wang, W; Chen, Q-F; Ruan, H-L; Chen, K; Chen, B; Wen, J-M


    A case of organophosphate (OP) poisoning was admitted to the emergency room. The patient accepted treatment with pralidoxime (PAM), atropine, and supporting therapy. It was observed that even after 22 h after treatment, 960 mg of atropine was not enough for the patient to be atropinized. However, a 160-mg follow-up treatment of anisodamine was quite enough for atropinization after 4 h. As a case report, more studies are required before any definite conclusion can be reached regarding the use of anisodamine as a potential substitute for high-dose atropine in cases of OP poisoning.

  17. (3R,4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-Cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-dihydroxy-3-methyl-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfeng Chen


    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H26NO4+·Br−, also known as R-methylnaltrexone (MNTX bromide, is a selective peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist with a oroxymorphone skeleton, synthesized by hydroxyl protection, N-methylation, deprotection and anion exchange of naltrexone. It comprises a five-ring system A/B/C/D/E. Rings C and E adopt distorted chair conformations, whereas ring D is in half-chair conformation. The C/E ring junctions are trans fused. The dihedral angle between rings D and E is 82.3 (1°, while the dihedral angles between the planes of rings C and A, and rings D and E are respectively 81.7 (1, 75.9 (1 and 12.2 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

  18. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou


    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  19. Iron bromide vapor laser (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.


    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  20. Comparison of exercise, dobutamine-atropine and dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography in detecting coronary artery disease (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Ivana; Ostojic, Miodrag; Beleslin, Branko; Djordjevic-Dikic, Ana; Stepanovic, Jelena; Nedeljkovic, Milan; Stojkovic, Sinisa; Stankovic, Goran; Saponjski, Jovica; Petrasinovic, Zorica; Giga, Vojislav; Mitrovic, Predrag


    Background Dipyridamole and dobutamine stress echocardiography testing are most widely utilized, but their sensitivity remained suboptimal in comparison to routine exercise stress echocardiography. The aim of our study is to compare, head-to-head, exercise, dobutamine and dipyridamole stress echocardiography tests, performed with state-of-the-art protocols in a large scale prospective group of patients. Methods Dipyridamole-atropine (Dipatro: 0.84 mg/kg over 10 min i.v. dipyridamole with addition of up to 1 mg of atropine), dobutamine-atropine (Dobatro: up to 40 mcg/kg/min i.v. dobutamine with addition of up to 1 mg of atropine) and exercise (Ex, Bruce) were performed in 166 pts. Of them, 117 pts without resting wall motion abnormalities were enrolled in study (91 male; mean age 54 ± 10 years; previous non-transmural myocardial infarction in 32 pts, angina pectoris in 69 pts and atypical chest pain in 16 pts). Tests were performed in random sequence, in 3 different days, within 5 day period under identical therapy. All patients underwent coronary angiography. Results Significant coronary artery disease (CAD; ≥50% diameter stenosis) was present in 69 pts (57 pts 1-vessel CAD, 12 multivessel CAD) and absent in 48 pts. Sensitivity (Sn) was 96%, 93% and 90%, whereas specificity (Sp) was 92%, 92% and 87% for Dobatro, Dipatro and Ex, respectively (p = ns). Concomitant beta blocker therapy did not influence peak rate-pressure product and Sn of Dobatro and Dipatro (p = ns). Conclusion When state-of-the-art protocols are used, dipyridamole and dobutamine stress echocardiography have comparable and high diagnostic accuracy, similar to maximal post-exercise treadmill stress echocardiography. PMID:16672046

  1. Comparison of exercise, dobutamine-atropine and dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography in detecting coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrasinovic Zorica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dipyridamole and dobutamine stress echocardiography testing are most widely utilized, but their sensitivity remained suboptimal in comparison to routine exercise stress echocardiography. The aim of our study is to compare, head-to-head, exercise, dobutamine and dipyridamole stress echocardiography tests, performed with state-of-the-art protocols in a large scale prospective group of patients. Methods Dipyridamole-atropine (Dipatro: 0.84 mg/kg over 10 min i.v. dipyridamole with addition of up to 1 mg of atropine, dobutamine-atropine (Dobatro: up to 40 mcg/kg/min i.v. dobutamine with addition of up to 1 mg of atropine and exercise (Ex, Bruce were performed in 166 pts. Of them, 117 pts without resting wall motion abnormalities were enrolled in study (91 male; mean age 54 ± 10 years; previous non-transmural myocardial infarction in 32 pts, angina pectoris in 69 pts and atypical chest pain in 16 pts. Tests were performed in random sequence, in 3 different days, within 5 day period under identical therapy. All patients underwent coronary angiography. Results Significant coronary artery disease (CAD; ≥50% diameter stenosis was present in 69 pts (57 pts 1-vessel CAD, 12 multivessel CAD and absent in 48 pts. Sensitivity (Sn was 96%, 93% and 90%, whereas specificity (Sp was 92%, 92% and 87% for Dobatro, Dipatro and Ex, respectively (p = ns. Concomitant beta blocker therapy did not influence peak rate-pressure product and Sn of Dobatro and Dipatro (p = ns. Conclusion When state-of-the-art protocols are used, dipyridamole and dobutamine stress echocardiography have comparable and high diagnostic accuracy, similar to maximal post-exercise treadmill stress echocardiography.

  2. Viscosity and density of some lower alkyl chlorides and bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, W.M.


    A high-pressure capillary viscometer, used previously to measure the viscosity of methyl chloride was rebuilt to eliminate the first-order dependence of the measured viscosity on the value assumed for the density of the fluid being investigated. At the same time, the system was arranged so that part of the apparatus could be used to measure density by a volumetric displacement technique. Viscosity and density were measured for ethyl chloride, 1-chloropropane, 1-chlorobutane, methyl bromide, ethyl bromide, and 1-bromopropane. The temperature and pressure ranges of the experiments were 20-150 /sup 0/C and 0.27-6.99 MPa, respectively. The accuracy of the viscosity measurements was estimated to be +-1% and of the density measurements, +-0.2%.

  3. Acute methaemoglobinaemia initially treated as organophosphate poisoning leading to atropine toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kakhandki


    Full Text Available A case of unknown compound poisoning is presented. It was initially treated as organophosphate poisoning with lack of response. A timely diagnosis of acute methaemoglobinaemia and iatrogenic atropine toxicity was made based on clinical evaluation. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia using oral methylene blue and of atropine toxicity with supportive measures could save the patient.

  4. 等温滴定量热法研究牛血清白蛋白与十二烷基二羟乙基甲基溴化铵的相互作用%Isothermal titration calorimetric study on interactions between bovine serum albumin and N-dodecyl-di(2-hydroxyehtyl)-methyl ammonium bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓环; 童威; 邵爽; 雷群芳; 方文军


    用等温滴定热量计测定了牛血清白蛋白(BSA)与十二烷基二羟乙基甲基溴化铵(DDHAB)的相互作用焓,探讨了表面活性剂浓度、温度和盐浓度等对相互作用焓的影响.BSA与表面活性剂相互作用焓是静电作用、去水化作用、疏水作用和表面活性剂胶束化等协同作用的结果,在其他条件保持不变时,相互作用焓随表面活性剂浓度改变,在临界胶束浓度(CMC)前后区域分别出现吸热峰.加入NaCl可引起相互作用焓峰值及其位置的变化.%Interaction enthalpies between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and N-dodecyl-di(2-hydroxyehtyl)-methyl ammonium bromide (DDHAB) have been determined in an isothermal titration calorimeter. The influences of temperature, concentrations of surfactant and the added salt in the solutions on the interaction enthalpy have been discussed. The interaction enthalpies between BSA and a surfactant are resulted from the cooperative effects of electrostatic interaction, dehydration, hydrophobic interaction and surfactant micellization. The interaction enthalpy changes against the surfactant concentration with two endothermic peaks observed in the regions before and after the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The addition of NaCl in the surfactant solution can lead to the value change of the interaction enthalpy and the position change of the endothermic peaks.

  5. Split-dose atropine versus glycopyrrolate with neostigmine for reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, J; Jarnvig, I; Jørgensen, L N


    The effects of a split-dose of atropine sulphate versus a single dose of glycopyrrolate given with neostigmine for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade were studied in 55 patients undergoing gynaecological surgery. The patients were randomized to receive either a single dose...... of glycopyrrolate (7 or two doses of atropine (8 each), given with an interval of 1 min. There were no differences between the two methods with respect to percentage heart rate changes, salivation or arousal time. Four patients demonstrated cardiac arhythmias in the atropine group......, whereas none occurred in the glycopyrrolate group (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that a split-dose of atropine has similar chronotropic effects to a single dose of glycopyrrolate for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade. However, the finding of a higher incidence of cardiac...

  6. Anticonvulsants for Nerve Agent-Induced Seizures: The Influence of the Therapeutic Dose of Atropine (United States)


    Organophosphorous nerve agents-induced cological Basis of Therapeutics, 10th ed. (Hardman JG, Limbird LE, and ( Gilman seizures and efficacy of Taylor P (2001) Anticholinesterase agents, in Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharrna-

  7. Acute atropine intoxication with psychiatric symptoms by herbal infusion of Pulmonaria officinalis (Lungwort

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    Enrique Baca-García


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications after drinking an infusion prepared with Pulmonaria officinalis. Conclusions: Despite the lack of scientific evidence for its clinical use, medicinal plants continue being widely used. In spite of severe adverse effects reported, the general thought is that herbal remedies are harmless. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. We suspect that the lungwort infusion may have been contaminated with some other substance with atropinic properties.

  8. Neonatal mydriasis due to effects of atropine used for maternal Tik-20 poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah A


    Full Text Available A neonate was born to a mother who had consumed an organophosphorus(OPC compound with suicidal intent. The mother was administered atropine and this caused mydriasis in the neonate without any other pharmacological effects. There was no evidence of placental dysfunction. There are no case reports of OPC consumed in pregnancy and its effect on neonates or of effects of massive doses of atropine in the mother and its effects on the fetus or the newborn.

  9. Central blockade of (methyl-)atropine on carbachol drinking: A dose-response study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, G.K.; Slangen, J.L.


    Administration of carbachol in the tractus diagonalis in rats elicited drinking and no eating. Norepinephrine administered in the same place did not induce drinking or eating. The specific drinking response induced by stimulation with 7.2 nmol (= 1.3 μg) of carbachol was gradually inhibited by prece

  10. Preparation and Evaluation of Veterinary 0.1% Injectable Solution of Atropine Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F K Mohammad


    Full Text Available This study introduces the know-how of preparing a multiple injection form atropine sulphate solution. An injectable aqueous solution of atropine sulphate at a concentration of 0.1%. was prepared under aseptic conditions in dark glass bottles each containing 50 ml. The preparation was intended for animal use only. It contained 1g atropine sulphate, 9 g sodium chloride as a normal saline, benzyl alcohol 15 ml as a preservative and water for injection up to 1000 ml. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 4.2 (range 3.0-6.5. The preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution was clear colorless solution free from undesired particles. It complied with the requirements for injectable solutions. Further, the preparation was safe when used under laboratory conditions in chicks, rats and donkeys. It was also effective in preventing dichlorvos (an organophosphate insecticide-induced poisoning in chicks in a manner comparable to a commercial preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate. In conclusion, the know-how of a preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution is presented for veterinary use. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 145-149

  11. Zinc Mediated Tandem Fragmentation-Allylation of Methyl 5-Iodopentofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Madsen, Robert


    In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols....

  12. Stability study of a new antidote drug combination (Atropine-HI-6-Prodiazepam) for treatment of organophosphate poisoning. (United States)

    Clair, P; Wiberg, K; Granelli, I; Carlsson Bratt, I; Blanchet, G


    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical stability of a new antidote combination for the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. The antidote combination was packed (enclosed) in two plastic compartments separated by a barrier film. One of them contained a powder oxime cholinesterase reactivator (HI-6-monohydrate 1-[[[4-(aminocarbonyl)pyridinio]methoxy]methyl]-2-[(hydro xyimino)meth yl]-pyridinium dichloride). The other contained an anticholinergic (Atropine) and an anticonvulsant (Prodiazepam or Avizafone (L-lysyl-N-(2-benzoyl-4-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-glycinamide dihydrochloride) drug in a liquid mixture. The plastic compartments were mounted in an autoinjector device to study the dissolution of HI-6 by ejection of the solution. Drug analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results obtained after 6 months show that this new antidote combination is stable. The amount of each antidote is unchanged during the study. Some known degradation products can be detected in small amounts. The autoinjector mechanism used, gives a complete dissolution of HI-6 powder in the liquid mixture throughout the study.

  13. Stress echocardiography in warmblood horses: comparison of dobutamine/atropine with treadmill exercise as cardiac stressors. (United States)

    Gehlen, Heidrun; Marnette, Silke; Rohn, Karl; Stadler, Peter


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of dobutamine and atropine causes cardiac stress equivalent to treadmill exercise. Therefore, electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed on 10 warmblood horses before, during, and after different cardiac stress tests. Stressors consisted of a standardized treadmill exercise and combined administration of dobutamine (7.5 microg/kg/min) and atropine (5 microg/kg). Maxima heart rates were achieved during the treadmill exercise (175 +/- 10 bpm). After exercise, a rapid decrease in heart rate was observed. Subsequently, a stress echocardiography for which a heart rate >100 bpm was required could only be performed within 1 minute after exercise. The mean heart rate during echocardiography was 136 +/- 8 bpm after exercise. The combination of dobutamine and atropine also resulted in a significant increase in heart rate, up to 141 +/- 20 bpm. Maxima heart rate was significantly higher during the treadmill exercise, but the decrease in heart rate was significantly slower after dobutamine and atropine administration. Over a period of 7.9 minutes, the mean heart rate was 123 +/- 8 bpm during dobutamine and atropine administration. Consequently, the combination of both drugs offered sufficient time for detailed examinations. Overall, echocardiographic examination identified a decrease in left ventricular (LV) dimensions, an increase in LV wall thickness, and a decrease in stroke volume after the treadmill exercise and during pharmacologic stress testing compared with baseline. Changes in echocardiographic variables generally were more pronounced during dobutamine and atropine administration. Similar to stress echocardiography in humans, in horses the combination of dobutamine and atropine is useful to produce an increase in heart rate comparable with what is achieved with exercise but without the need of increasing dobutamine dosage.

  14. 5-Carbamoyl-2-methyl-1-(2-methylbenzylpyridinium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Beom Kim


    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C15H17N2O+·Br−, the benzene and pyridinium rings form a dihedral angle of 83.0 (1°. In the crystal, N—H...Br and N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into chains along [010]. These chains are linked by weak C—H...O and C—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  15. La biofumigación y el metam sodio como alternativas al uso de bromuro de metilo: Efecto sobre el control de malezas y las características químicas del suelo Biofumigation and methan Na as alternatives to methyl bromide use: Effect on the weed control and the chemical characteristics of the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Pereyra


    Full Text Available El bromuro de metilo (BM como desinfectante de suelo está ampliamente generalizado; sin embargo, el planteo de alternativas que lo reemplacen es de vital importancia, dada las restricciones que pesan sobre este producto. Se evaluó el efecto del metam sodio (0,125 L/m² y la biofumigación (guano de pollo, 8 kg/m²; salvado de trigo 1,5 kg/m² y acícula de pino 30 dm³/m², como alternativas al tratamiento con bromuro de metilo (80 g/m², sobre el tipo y número de malezas y las características químicas del suelo en un cultivo de clavel. El tipo y número de malezas presentes y las características químicas del suelo, se evaluaron antes de los tratamientos y a los 30 días después de implantado el cultivo. Los resultados mostraron que todos los tratamientos fueron eficientes para controlar las malezas, en número y especies. Las biofumigaciones con guano de pollo y con salvado de trigo modificaron el contenido de materia orgánica y la conductividad eléctrica del suelo. El guano de pollo adicionalmente aumentó la capacidad de retención de agua y el contenido de nutrientes del suelo.The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of the methan sodium (0,125 l/m² and biofumigation (chicken manure, 8 kg/m²; wheat bran 1,5 kg/m² and pine needle 30 dm³/m² as alternative methods for methyl bromide on weed control and chemical characteristics of the soil in carnation crops. The type and number of the weeds and chemical soil characteristics were evaluated before the treatment and 30 days after the carnation crop was implanted. The results show that all the treatments were efficient for the control of weeds in number and species. Only biofumigation with chicken manure and wheat bran were effective to induce changes on the organic matter content and the electric conductivity of the soil. In addition, chicken manure improved the water retention capacity and the nutrients of the soil.

  16. The Effect of Atropine on Post-ECT Bradycardia in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

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    Hassan Farashbandi


    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is utilized for treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD. One of the major complications in using ECT is cardiovascular problems i.e., bradycardia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of atropine on the pulse rate (PR of the patients under treatment with ECT. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with diagnosis of MDD who received atropine before ECT treatment (control group were compared with 30 patients with the same diagnosis without receiving atropine (experimental group under ECT treatment. Both groups received ECT under the same term and condition. The PR of the patients were recorded 7 times (twice before anesthesia and ECT and 5 fixed one min intervals immediately after receiving ECT; for 10 sessions of treatment with ECT (3 times a week. The results were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. The PR under 50 was the cut off point for differentiating the patients suffering from bradycardia and those without it. Results: Slight increment in PRs for experimental group (patient who did not receive atropine in contrast to control group were observed, but it did not reach a statistically significant level. The gender (male/female did not have different PR. The age of the patients and initial PR (regarded as co-variances did not show significant effect on PR for total sample. Conclusion: There seems to be not necessary to use atropine treatment for depressed patients receiving ECT.

  17. Construction and analytical application of ion-selective piezoelectric sensor for atropine sulfate. (United States)

    Long, Y; Lei, L; Li, W; He, D; Nie, L; Yao, S


    The method describes the use of a piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) as a substitute for ion-selective electrodes. The approach is feasible when the membrane materials are electrically non-conductive and membrane potential measurements are consequently not possible. An ion-selective piezoelectric sensor sensitive to atropine sulfate was constructed by coating a PVC membrane containing activant on one the side of a PQC. On the basis of selective adsorption of atropine ions across the modified film and the sensitive mass response of PQC, the method exhibits a sensitive, rapid response and is easy to operate without pretreatment of the sample. The logarithm of the frequency shift gave a linear relationship with the logarithm of atropine sulfate concentration in the 1.0 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-3) M range with a detection limit of 5.0 x 10(-9) M at pH 7.0. Recoveries were from 98.7-102.2%. Two activants, atropine tetraphenylborate and atropine dipicrylaminate, were synthesized and investigated. Influencing factors were also examined and optimized. The results for real samples obtained by the proposed method agreed with those obtained by conventional methods.

  18. Dan Nang Xue blockade with Innovar and Atropine to prevent internal organpull response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chuan Liu; Qi Sheng Liang; Yun Chun Zhang; Xue Wu Ling


    AIM To observe the effects of Innovar and Atropine on Visceral pull response.METHODS Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was treated by DanNang Xue blockade with Innovar 4 mL and Atropine 0.5 mg (n = 40) and the control group was treated byabdominal vagus blockade with 10 mL of 10 g/L Lidocaine (n = 40). Dan Nang Xue was chosen for insertionof No 5 needle (5 cm in length) after local sterilization. The acupoint of Dan Nang Xue is located at theoutside of knee-jont and it is one-finger wider below Yanglingquan can be found. A sensitive point. Theneedle was inserted between tibia and fibulae, lifted, thrusted and twirled until the patient felt ache. Innovarand Atropine were injected on Dan Nang Xue and the acupoint was gently messaged.RESULTS Patients in the experimental group remained quiet during operation. Neither nausea or vomitingnor uncomfortable reaction was complained, 85% of the patients belonged to grade m. Acupunctureenhanced the peristalsis of gallbladder and biliary secretions. Atropine relieved muscular spasm andprevented vomiting. A low heart rate was noted in the control during abdominal survey and gallbladder pull(P<0.05).CONCLUSION Dan Nang Xue blockade with innovar and atropine can prevent visceral pull response.

  19. Atropine-sensitive, tetrodotoxin-resistant contraction induced by noradrenaline in isolated cat rectum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Effects of noradrenaline (NA on the isolated rectal circular muscle of the cats were studied in comparison with the effects on the internal anal sphincter (IAS. NA (10(-8-10(-7 g/ml caused tonic contraction in four of 15 strips of the rectum taken from 15 animals, and in all 15 strips of the IAS. Phenylephrine also induced rectal and IAS contraction. Rectal contraction induced by NA was resistant to phentolamine, yohimbine, propranolol, hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin, but blocked by atropine. IAS contraction induced by NA was resistant to propranolol, atropine, hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin, but blocked by phentolamine and yohimbine. It is suggested that an atropine-sensitive excitatory adrenergic mechanism other than the excitatory alpha-adrenergic mechanism exists in the rectal circular muscle.

  20. Comparative study of oral and intramuscular atropine sulphate as a premedicant in paediatric age group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari L


    Full Text Available The use of atropine sulphate in the paediatric age group as a premedicant orally in a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg body weight 70 minutes prior to surgery was found to be as effective as atropine sulphate given intramuscularly 35 minutes prior to surgery in a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. This avoids the unpleasant memory of needle prick; The duration of effect as studied in the normal healthy children not subjected to surgery was found to be 2 1/2-3 hours.

  1. Determination of atropine using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as novel luminescent sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, Seyed Naser [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chaichi, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakeri, Parmis [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that ZnS quantum dots acted as enhancers of the weak CL emission produced upon oxidation of sulfite by Ce(IV) in acidic medium. Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots yielding a significant chemiluminescence enhancement of the Ce(IV)–SO{sub 3}{sup 2−}–ZnS QD system. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of atropine. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of atropine in the range of 1×10{sup −9}–1×10{sup −6} M of atropine with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of 0.9992. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 2.54×10{sup −10} M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. -- Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite system. • ZnS quantum dots were used as the nanocatalyst. • Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots. • This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of atropine commercial drugs. • Detection limit of atropine was obtained 2.54×10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1}.

  2. Efficacy of atropine combined with paroxetine in vagus nerve excitatory panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du N


    Full Text Available Na Du, Xue-Li Sun Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Panic disorder is often associated with the autonomic nervous system pattern – sympathetic activation and parasympathetic (vagal withdrawal. However, we present one special case here to show a totally reversed pathogenesis – vagal activation occupying the leading role, which requires atropine to cure the patient’s symptoms. Through this report, it is reasonably proven that panic disorder may be a heterogeneous condition, whose mechanism might be the imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. Keywords: panic disorder, vagal activation, bradycardia, atropine

  3. [Comparative effects of terbutaline sulphate and ipratropium bromide on the respiratory system (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Villate Navarro, J I; Sobradillo Peña, V; Atxotequi Iaraoligoitia, V; Salaverri Nalda, A; Orive Martínez, C


    Bronchodilator action of two pharmacologically different drugs have been compared. Ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) is a synthetic atropine derivative and terbutaline sulphate is a beta-stimulating agent. Twelve asthmatic patients and eight patients with chronic bronquitis received terbutaline 0.50 mg. and ipratropium 0.04 mg by aerosol inhalation. Both drugs were given at random on a consecutive-day schedule. All patients were clinically stable before treatment (basal FEV/VC less than 60 percent). Total lung capacity (TLC) forced expiratory volume (FEV), SRaw, and V'/V curves before and at 15, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the produce administration were registered. Presence of side-effects was also checked. An intensive bronchodilator action was observed either after inhalation of ipratropium bromide or terbutaline, but statistical studies showed no significant differences between both drugs in relation to intensity and duration of their actions. Sch 1000 caused similar bronchodilator effects in all cases; a more intense effect in patients with chronic bronchitis could not be noticed. Evaluation of V'/V curve, and especially its relation to a same pulmonary volume, pointed out that both drugs act upon small respiratory airways. Advance side-effects were not present.

  4. Isotachophoretic separation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Praus, Petr


    Capillary isotachophoresis (ITP), equipped with the conductivity detection, was tested for the separation of cetyltrimethylamonium (CTMA) bromide. To prevent adsorption of CTMA to the capillary walls, several neutral polymers and ethanol were added into the leading electrolytes. Unlike polymer additives, the CTMA free monomers and micelles, created as a result of the isotachophoretic concentration effect, were recognised in the presence of ethanol from 10 to 25% (v/v). At 30% of ethanol, only a single zone of CTMA monomer was registered because the micellization process did not take place under this condition. Employing an ITP apparatus in the column-coupling configuration, the operational system with 30% of ethanol was tested for the determination of CTMA in hair conditioners. The achieved detection limits were about 0.02mM. Both model solutions and real samples of hair conditioners were analysed with the precision about R.S.D. = 3%. One analysis in the column-coupled system takes circa 15min.

  5. A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function (United States)

    Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.


    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…

  6. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate]. (United States)

    Xu, Jiang-tao


    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.

  7. Prophylactic administration of atropine attenuates the negative haemodynamic effects of propofol/remifentanil induction of anaesthesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poterman, Marieke; Scheeren, Thomas; van der Velde, M.I.; Struys, Michel; Kalmar, A.F.


    Background and Goal of Study:   Induction of anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil often induces unwanted bradycardia and hypotension. This raises the concern for preserving haemodynamic stability and adequate tissue oxygenation. We previously demonstrated that atropine significantly improves h

  8. Atropine increases the positive adrenergic effects of norepinephrine : A pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, A.F.; Weening, Mariska; Struys, Michel; Scheeren, Thomas


    Background and Goal of Study: Atropine is a competitive antagonist of cholinergic receptors and is widely used to blunt the increased vagal tone that is often caused by surgical manipulations. It increases heart rate(HR) with minimal effects on mean arterial pressure(MAP) and cardiac output(CO). Nor

  9. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.L.; Redburn, D.A.; Harwerth, R.S.; Maguire, G.W.


    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using /sup 3/H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine.

  10. Growth and characterization of lead bromide crystals (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Gottlieb, M.; Henningsen, T.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mazelsky, R.; Glicksman, M. E.; Coriell, S. R.; Santoro, G. J.; Duval, W. M. B.


    Lead(II) bromide was purified by a combination of directional freezing and zone-refining methods. Differential thermal analysis of the lead bromide showed that a destructive phase transformation occurs below the melting temperature. This transformation causes extensive cracking, making it very difficult to grow a large single crystal. Energy of phase transformation for pure lead bromide was determined to be 24.67 cal/g. To circumvent this limitation, crystals were doped by silver bromide which decreased the energy of phase transformation. The addition of silver helped in achieving the size, but enhanced the inhomogeneity in the crystal. The acoustic attenuation constant was almost identical for the pure and doped (below 3000 ppm) crystals.

  11. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplovitz, I.; Menton, R.; Matthews, C.; Shutz, M.; Nalls, C.


    H1-6 (1-2-hydrnxyiminomethyl-1 pyridino-3-(4-carbameyl- 1--pyddino)-2- oxaprnpane dichioride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI-6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman.

  12. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Lianxiang [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Lin Xiangtao, E-mail: [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Cao Jinfeng [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wang Xueyu [Division of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Wu Lebin [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China)


    Purpose: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Methods: Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5 mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24 h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. Results: These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. Conclusion: In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.

  13. Mechanism of Cooperativity and Nonlinear Release Kinetics in Multivalent Dendrimer-Atropine Complexes. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Jhindan; Wong, Pamela T; Tang, Shengzhuang; Gam, Kristina; Coulter, Alexa; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki


    Despite extensive studies on drug delivery using multivalent complexation systems, the biophysical basis for release kinetics remains poorly defined. The present study addresses this aspect involved in the complexation of a fifth generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer with atropine, an essential antidote used for treating organophosphate poisoning. First, we designed (1)H NMR titration studies for determining the molecular basis of the drug complexation with a glutarate-modified anionic dendrimer. These provide evidence pointing to a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as the driving forces for dendrimer complexation with the alkaloid drug molecule. Second, using LC-MS/MS spectrometry, we determined the dissociation constants (KD) at steady state and also measured the drug release kinetics of atropine complexes with four negatively charged dendrimer types. Each of these dendrimers has a high payload capacity for up to ∼ 100 atropine molecules. However, the affinity of the atropine to the carrier was highly dependent on the drug to dendrimer ratio. Thus, a complex made at a lower loading ratio (≤ 0.1) displayed greater atropine affinity (KD ≈ μM) than other complexes prepared at higher ratios (>10), which showed only mM affinity. This negative cooperative variation in affinity is tightly associated with the nonlinear release kinetics observed for each complex in which drug release occurs more slowly at the later time phase at a lower loading ratio. In summary, the present study provides novel insights on the cooperativity as the mechanistic basis for nonlinear release kinetics observed in multivalent carrier systems.

  14. Rapid Synthesis of Glycosyl Bromides by Ultrasound Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jin-zhong; ZHANG Xue-qin; WU Xin; XING Ze-bing; YUE Ai-qin; SHAO Hua-wu


    A convenient and environmentally friendly reactor for the synthesis of glycosyl bromides via ultrasound irradiation was designed.Peracetylated glycosyl bromides were synthesized from free saccharides by means of a one-pot method.Benzoylated and 6-subsituted glycosyl bromides were prepared from protected saccharides.The glycosyl bromides were obtained in isolated yields of 83% to 96%.

  15. Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Bromide Ionic Liquid (Preprint) (United States)


    calculated values for the SN2 reactions . Comparisons of product photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves with literature data are in good agreement...methyl and ethyl bromides were evaluated experimentally, and found to be in agreement with calculated values for the SN2 reactions . Comparisons of...contrary to what is observed experimentally. However, for the SN2 reactions , the transition state barriers and reaction enthalpies are in good

  16. The effects of beta-blockers on dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography: early protocol versus standard protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitzel Luis H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the effects of Beta-blockers during Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography (DSE comparing the hemodynamic benefits of an early administration of atropine in patients taking or not Beta-blockers. Methods One hundred and twenty-one patients were submitted to dobutamine stress echocardiography for the investigation of myocardial ischemia. The administration of atropine was randomized into two groups: A or B (early protocol when atropine was administered at 10 and 20 mcg/kg/min of dobutamine, respectively and C (standard protocol with atropine at 40 mcg/kg/min of dobutamine. Analysis of the effects of Beta-blockers was done regarding the behavior pattern of heart rate and blood pressure, test time, number of conclusive and inconclusive (negative sub-maximum test results, total doses of atropine and dobutamine, and general complications. Results Beta-blocked patients who received early atropine (Group A&B had a significantly lower double product (p = 0.008, a higher mean test time (p = 0.010 and required a higher dose of atropine (p = 0.0005 when compared to the patients in this group who were not Beta-blocked. The same findings occurred in the standard protocol (Group C, however the early administration of atropine reduced test time both in the presence and absence of this therapy (p = 0.0001. The patients with Beta-blockers in Group A&B had a lower rate of inconclusive tests (26% compared to those in Group C (40%. Complications were similar in both groups. Conclusion The chronotropic response during dobutamine stress echocardiography was significantly reduced with the use of Beta-blockers. The early administration of atropine optimized the hemodynamic response, reduced test time in patients with or without Beta-blockers and reduced the number of inconclusive tests in the early protocol.

  17. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs. (United States)

    Koplovitz, I; Menton, R; Matthews, C; Shutz, M; Nalls, C; Kelly, S


    HI-6 (1-2-hydroxyiminomethyl-1-pyridino-3-(4-carbamoyl-1-pyridino -2- oxapropane dichloride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman. It is concluded that 1) ATR has a large effect on the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 2) the dose of ATR must be carefully selected in studies investigating the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 3) the effective dose of ATR in the guinea pig is approximately 16 mg/kg, and 4) diazepam is a useful

  18. Effect of atropine-dobutamine stress test on left ventricular echocardiographic parameters in untrained warmblood horses. (United States)

    Sandersen, Charlotte F; Detilleux, Johanne; de Moffarts, Brieuc; Van Loon, Gunther; Amory, Hélène


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combined atropine low-dose dobutamine stress test on left ventricular parameters in adult warmblood horses, to establish a potential protocol for pharmacological stress echocardiography. Seven healthy untrained warmblood horses aged 9 to 22 years were used. Heart rate (HR) and left ventricular B- and M-mode dimensions were recorded at baseline and during stress testing with 35 microg/kg atropine IV followed by incremental dobutamine infusion of 2 to 6 microg/kg/min. HR increased significantly (P stress test induced significant changes in left ventricular echocardiographic parameters in adult warmblood horses. Additional research should evaluate the value of this stress test in horses suffering from cardiac disease.

  19. Evaluation of Atropine-Xylazine as a Sedative in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh


    Full Text Available Twelve experimental trials were undertaken on clinically healthy male buffalo calves. Atropine was administered @ 0.04 mg/kg, IM and xylazine was administered @ 0.04 mg/kg, IM. Following atropine-xylazine administration, a decrease in spontaneous activity was seen in all the animals. Lowering of head was observed in three animals. Haemoglobin reduced significantly at 15 minute after xylazine administration. A significant reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP was also seen at 30 and 45 minute after xylazine administration. The pulse pressure increased significantly after 5 minute of xylazine administration. The central venous pressure (CVP increased significantly at 30 minute and 45 minute of xylazine administration.

  20. Investigation of Vision and Performance After Administration of Cholinergic Blocking Agents. III. Atropine. (United States)


    P., Kemp, K. & Wetherell, A. Some effects of 2mg i.m. atropine and 5mg i.m. diazepam , separately and combined, on human performance. Proc. Brit...Impaired coordination 0 1 2 3 4 Tense 0 1 2 3 4 Restless 0 1 2 3 4 Depressed 0 1 2 3 4 Anxious 0 1 2 3 4 Fatigued 0 1 2 3 4 Unable to concentrate 0 1 2 3 4

  1. Intravenously administered oxotremorine and atropine, in doses known to affect pain threshold, affect the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban


    muscarinic agonists and antagonists modify nociceptive threshold by affecting intraspinal release of acetylcholine (ACh). Catheters were inserted into the femoral vein in rats maintained on isoflurane anaesthesia for administration of oxotremorine (10-300 microg/kg) and atropine (0.1, 10, 5000 microg....../kg). Spinal microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally at approximately the C2-C5 spinal level for sampling of acetylcholine and dialysis delivery of atropine (0.1, 1, 10 nM). Additionally, the tail-flick behaviour was tested on conscious rats injected intraperitoneally with saline, atropine (10, 100....... Intravenously administered atropine, in a dose that produced hyperalgesia (5000 microg/kg) in the tail-flick test, significantly decreased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. Our results suggest an association between pain threshold and acetylcholine release in spinal cord. It is also suggested...

  2. Interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on the binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yun, E-mail: [Pharmaceutical College, Hebei Medical University, 361 Zhongshan East Road, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province 050017 (China); Cui Lijian [Traditional Chinese Medical College, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050091 (China); Wang Jianming; Huo Kun; Chen Chen; Zhan Wenhong; Wang Yongli [Pharmaceutical College, Hebei Medical University, 361 Zhongshan East Road, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province 050017 (China)


    The interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on binding constant, binding sites, and conformation were studied in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 7.40) by ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study results show that aconitine quenched the endogenous fluorescence of BSA via a dynamic quenching procedure. Predominant intermolecular forces between aconitine and BSA were hydrophobic interactions, which stabilized the complex of aconitine-BSA. The distance between the donor and acceptor was 2.62 nm. The conformation of BSA was investigated by synchronous fluorescence techniques, indicating that the microenvironment around tryptophan (Trp) residues was changed. Furthermore, with the addition of atropine sulphate or glycyrrhizic acid, binding constant and the number of binding sites of aconitine to BSA were decreased, and the conformation had no change, which provide an important theoretical support for aconitine detoxification by atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of atropine or glycyrrhizic acid on aconitine-BSA binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aconitine quenched BSA fluorescence via dynamic quenching with r=2.62 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid decreased K{sub A} and n of aconitine-BSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Support for aconitine detoxification by atropine and glycyrrhizic acid.

  3. A comparative study of clonidine versus a combination of diazepam and atropine for premedication in orthopaedic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia S


    Full Text Available Sixty patients in the age group of 18-60 years of A.S.A. Grade I/II risk, scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied for pre-medication with either oral clonidine or with combination of effects of diazepam & atropine. Patients in Group A (clonidine group received tablet clonidine 100 mcg (1 tablet if less than 50 kg in weight and 200 mcg if weighing more than 50 kg two hours before surgery. Patients in Group B (Diazepam-atropine group received one tablet of Diazepam (10 mg orally two hours before surgery and injection atropine-sulphate 0.01 mg/kg half an hour preoperatively by intramuscular route. In our study, the sedative and anti-sialogogue effects of clonidine were comparable to those of diazepam-atropine combination, which are commonly used premedicants. The anti-anxiety effect of clonidine was found to be better than that of diazepam-atropine combination. Clonidine also proved to be a better agent for the attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Thus, oral clonidine is a better premedicant compared to atropine-diazepam combination. Also, it is a more acceptable agent because of its oral route of administration.

  4. The use of carbamates, atropine, and 2-pyridine aldoxime methoiodide in the protection of Artemia salina against poisoning by carbophenothion. (United States)

    Sánchez-Fortún, S; Barahona, V


    The acute toxicity of carbophenothion to three age classes of Artemia salina was evaluated. An increase in toxicity of carbophenothion was found following longer development of A. salina. The effect of pretreatment with the nonselective muscarinic antagonist atropine, the two reversible acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors physostigmine and pyridostigmine, and the cholinesterase-reactivating oxime 2-pyridine aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) on carbophenothion-induced lethality in 24-h-old A. salina was also investigated. The lethal action of carbophenothion was completely prevented by pretreatment of A. salina with 2-PAM. Atropine and pyridostigmine afforded a maximal protection of approximately 87% and 72%, respectively, compared to control values. In contrast, physostigmine was ineffective. The inhibitory effects of combinations of 10(-5) M atropine with physostigmine, pyridostigmine, or 2-PAM were greater than those elicited by either drug alone, with the maximum protection afforded being 92.58%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. In the presence of 10(-7) M atropine, neither pyridostigmine nor 2-PAM provided additional inhibition of the lethality compared to that with either drug alone, whereas the protection afforded by 10(-7) M atropine plus physostigmine increased as the concentration of carbamate increased (up to 10(-3) M). Pretreatment with pyridostigmine or physostigmine plus 2-PAM (10(-6) M) slightly enhanced the maximal inhibition of carbophenothion lethality compared to that with either drug alone. It is suggested that the most active combined pretreatment studied here was physostigmine plus atropine.

  5. The carbonylation of phenyl bromide and its derivatives under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Hui Zhong; Ying Na Cui; Shen Min Li; Ying Ping Jia; Jing Mei Yin


    The carbonylation of phenyl bromide catalyzed by Co(OAc)2 has been investigated with PhCOPh as a sensitizer under visible light in the presence of basic additive.With strong base CH3ONa,PhCOOCH3 is produced in 70% yield with 100% selectivity,the similar results are also obtained with a stronger base (CH3)3CONa.However,with another strong base NaOH,the yield of the ester is only 40%.On the other hand,with weak base NaOAc or (n-C4Hg)3N,phenyl bromide cannot be carbonylated.The results of carbonylation of the six substituted phenyl bromides suggest that the activities of o,m,p-BrC6H4CH3 are similar to phenyl bromide,while the activities of o,m,p-BrC6H4Cl are higher with the high yields (≥93%) of the corresponding chloro-esters.In addition,the relative position of bromine and chlorine or methyl on phenyl ring has little effect on the activity of the carbonylation.

  6. Comparison of two commonly practiced atropinization regimens in acute organophosphorus and carbamate poisoning, doubling doses vs. ad hoc: a prospective observational study. (United States)

    Perera, P M S; Shahmy, S; Gawarammana, I; Dawson, A H


    There is a wide variation and lack of evidence in current recommendations for atropine dosing schedules leading to subsequent variation in clinical practice. Therefore, we sought to examine the safety and effectiveness of a titrated vs. ad hoc atropine treatment regimen in a cohort of patients with acute cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide poisoning. A prospective cohort study was conducted in three district secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka using a structured data collection form that collected details of clinical symptoms and outcomes of cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide poisoning, atropine doses, and signs of atropinization. We compared two hospitals that used a titrated dosing protocol based on a structured monitoring sheet for atropine infusion with another hospital using an ad hoc regime. During the study, 272 symptomatic patients with anticholinesterase poisoning requiring atropine were admitted to the three hospitals. Outcomes of death and ventilation were analyzed for all patients, 226 patients were prospectively assessed for atropine toxicity. At baseline, patients in the titrated dose cohort had clinical signs consistent with greater toxicity. This in part may be due to ingestion of more toxic organophosphates. They received less pralidoxime and atropine, and were less likely to develop features of atropine toxicity, such as delirium (1% vs. 17%), hallucinations (1% vs. 35%), or either (1% vs. 35%) and need for patient restraint (3% vs. 48%) compared with the ad hoc dose regime. After adjusting for the pesticides ingested, there was no difference in mortality and ventilatory rates between protocols. Ad hoc high dose atropine regimens are associated with more frequent atropine toxicity without any obvious improvement in patient outcome compared with doses titrated to clinical effect. Atropine doses should be titrated against response and toxicity. Further education and the use of a structured monitoring sheet may assist in more appropriate

  7. Electrical polarization of lead bromide crystals. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, A.; Macke, A.J.H.


    An attempt was made to measure electronic conductivity in lead bromide in equilibrium with lead, since experimental data on the cell −Pb/PbBr2/C+ in the literature are not consistent with existing theories. Combination of our results with published data for bromine-induced hole conduction in lead br

  8. Scavenging of photogenerated oxidative species by antimuscarinic drugs: atropine and derivatives. (United States)

    Criado, Susana; Guardianelli, Carina; Tuninetti, Jimena; Molina, Patricia; García, Norman A


    The quenching ability of photogenerated oxidative species by some antimuscarinic drugs generically named atropines (e.g. atropine [I] eucatropine [II], homatropine [III] and scopolamine [IV]) have been investigated employing stationary photolysis, polarographic detection of dissolved oxygen, stationary and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser flash photolysis. Using Rose Bengal as a dye sensitiser for singlet molecular oxygen, O(2)((1)Delta(g)), generation, compounds I-IV behave as moderate chemical plus physical quenchers of the oxidative species. Correlation between kinetic and electrochemical data indicates that the process is possibly driven by a charge-transfer interaction. The situation is somewhat more complicated employing the natural pigment riboflavin (Rf) as a sensitiser. Compounds I and II complex Rf ground state, diminishing the quenching ability towards singlet and triplet excited state of the pigment. On the other hand, compounds III and IV effectively quench Rf excited states, protecting the pigment against photodegradation. Under anaerobic conditions, semireduced Rf (Rf(.-)) is formed through quenching of excited triplet Rf. Nevertheless, although Rf(.-) is a well-known generator of the reactive species superoxide radical anion by reductive quenching in the presence of oxygen, the process of O(2)((1)Delta(g)) production prevails over superoxide radical generation, due to the relatively low rate constants for the quenching of triplet Rf by the atropines (in the order of 10(7) M(-1)s(-1) for compounds III and IV) in comparison to the rate constant for the quenching by ground state oxygen, approximately two orders of magnitude higher, yielding O(2)((1)Delta(g)). Compound I is the most promising O(2)((1)Delta(g)) physical scavenger, provided that it exhibits the higher value for the overall quenching rate constant and only 11% of the quenching process leads to its own chemical damage.

  9. Atropine and ODQ antagonize tetanic fade induced by L-arginine in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Cruciol-Souza


    Full Text Available Although it has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO released from sodium nitrite induces tetanic fade in the cat neuromuscular preparations, the effect of L-arginine on tetanic fade and its origin induced by NO have not been studied in these preparations. Furthermore, atropine reduces tetanic fade induced by several cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs in these preparations, whose mechanism is suggested to be mediated by the interaction of acetylcholine with inhibitory presynaptic muscarinic receptors. The present study was conducted in cats to determine the effects of L-arginine alone or after pretreatment with atropine or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ on neuromuscular preparations indirectly stimulated at high frequency. Drugs were injected into the middle genicular artery. L-arginine (2 mg/kg and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 16 µg/kg induced tetanic fade. The Nw-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 2 mg/kg alone did not produce any effect, but reduced the tetanic fade induced by L-arginine. D-arginine (2 mg/kg did not induce changes in tetanic fade. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine or SNAP was reduced by previous injection of atropine (1.0 µg/kg or ODQ (15 µg/kg. ODQ alone did not change tetanic fade. The data suggest that the NO-synthase-GC pathway participates in the L-arginine-induced tetanic fade in cat neuromuscular preparations. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine probably depends on the action of NO at the presynaptic level. NO may stimulate guanylate cyclase increasing acetylcholine release and thereby stimulating presynaptic muscarinic receptors.

  10. Oxime and atropine failure to prevent intermediate syndrome development in acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica


    Full Text Available Introduction. Intermediate syndrome (IMS was described a few decades ago, however, there is still a controversy regarding its exact etiology, risk factors, diagnostic parameters and required therapy. Considering that acute poisonings are treated in different types of medical institutions this serious complication of organophosphate insecticide (OPI poisoning is frequently overlooked. The aim of this paper was to present a case of IMS in organophosphate poisoning, which, we believe, provides additional data on the use of oxime or atropine. Case report. After a well-resolved cholinergic crisis, the patient developed clinical presentation of IMS within the first 72 h from deliberate malathion ingestion. The signs of IMS were weakness of proximal limb muscles and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves, followed by the weakness of respiratory muscles and serious respiratory insufficiency. Malathion and its active metabolite were confirmed by analytical procedure (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pralidoxime methylsulphate, adiministered as a continuous infusion until day 8 (total dose 38.4 g, and atropine until the day 10 (total dose 922 mg did not prevent the development of IMS, hence the mechanical ventilation that was stopped after 27 h had to be continued until the day 10. Conclusion. Continuous pralidoxime methylsulphate infusion with atropine did not prevent the development of IMS, most likely due to the delayed treatment and insufficient oxime dose but also because of chemical structure and lipophilicity of ingested OPI. A prolonged intensive care monitoring and respiratory care are the key management for the intermediate syndrome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 176018, No. 46009

  11. Atropine Ophthalmic (United States)

    ... eye examinations to dilate (open) the pupil, the black part of the eye through which you see. ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ...

  12. Atropine-induced non-sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Aydın


    Full Text Available A 40 years old male with history of unexplained recurrent presyncope and palpitation episodes referred to cardiology department. Patient had no past medical history. Subsequently, electrophysiology study was performed to detect any underlying atrioventricular nodal disease or inducible tachyarrhythmias. During this period, 1.0 mg of atropine was injected intravenously to performed stimulation and patient suddenly developed polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that could not be terminated with overdrive pacing. Ventricular tachycardia was terminated spontaneously, two minutes later. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 449-451

  13. Atropine’s Effects upon the Heart and Its Systemic Output, (United States)


    efficiency in terms of oxygen utilization diminished from about 28% to 21%. At the same time as Gorlin and associates initially described the excess...studies of Gorlin and Scott’s groups represent the only attempts, to date, to define the metabolic cost to the heart due to atropine. Unfortunately, neither...toxicity and effectiveness in anticholines- terase therapy. J.A.M.A. 159:1181-1184, 1959. 121. GORLIN , R., M.H. SMITH, and H.P. FLETCHER. Studies on the

  14. Protective effect induced by atropine, carbamates, and 2-pyridine aldoxime methoiodide Artemia salina larvae exposed to fonofos and phosphamidon. (United States)

    Victoria Barahona, M; Sánchez-Fortún, Sebastián


    The acute toxicity of fonofos and phosphamidon on three age classes of Artemia salina was evaluated. An increase in toxicity of these organophosphorous (OP) insecticides was found following longer development of A. salina. The effects of pretreatment with the nonselective muscarinic antagonist atropine, the two reversible acetylcholinesterease inhibitors physostigmine and pyridostigmine, and the cholinesterase-reactivating oxime 2-pyridine aldoxime methoiodide (2-PAM), as individual and combined pretreatments, on OP-induced lethality in 24 h Artemia were also investigated. The lethal action of both OP insecticides was prevented by pretreatment of 24 h Artemia with atropine and 2-PAM, while physostigmine proved ineffective against intoxication with both OP insecticides and pyridostigmine exhibited a low synergic effect. In both cases, the inhibitory effects of combinations of atropine (10(-5)M) plus 2-PAM were greater than those elicited by either drug alone, with the maximum protection afforded being 100%. Combined pretreatment of atropine (10(-5)M) plus physostigmine practically abolished the lethal effects induced by both insecticides. Pretreatment with 2-PAM (10(-6)M) plus physostigmine afforded maximal protection of 100% and 76% on the lethality induced by fonofos and phosphamidon, respectively. The data obtained suggest that the combination of atropine plus 2-PAM or physostigmine and the combined pretreatment of 2-PAM plus physostigmine are effective in the prevention of the lethal effects induced by fonofos and phosphamidon in A. salina larvae.

  15. 78 FR 43797 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: The 2013 Critical Use Exemption From the Phaseout of Methyl... (United States)


    ... when a buyer provides short (two working days or fewer) notification for a purchase or there is a short... for critical uses with the intention of completely phasing out methyl bromide as soon as...

  16. Involvement of GABA transporters in atropine-treated myopic retina as revealed by iTRAQ quantitative proteomics. (United States)

    Barathi, Veluchamy A; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Poidinger, Michael; Koh, Siew Kwan; Tian, Dechao; Ho, Candice; Iuvone, P Michael; Beuerman, Roger W; Zhou, Lei


    Atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, is known to inhibit myopia progression in several animal models and humans. However, the mode of action is not established yet. In this study, we compared quantitative iTRAQ proteomic analysis in the retinas collected from control and lens-induced myopic (LIM) mouse eyes treated with atropine. The myopic group received a (-15D) spectacle lens over the right eye on postnatal day 10 with or without atropine eye drops starting on postnatal day 24. Axial length was measured by optical low coherence interferometry (OLCI), AC-Master, and refraction was measured by automated infrared photorefractor at postnatal 24, 38, and 52 days. Retinal tissue samples were pooled from six eyes for each group. The experiments were repeated twice, and technical replicates were also performed for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. MetaCore was used to perform protein profiling for pathway analysis. We identified a total of 3882 unique proteins with retina proteome reported to date. Thirty proteins were found to be up-regulated (ratio for myopia/control > global mean ratio + 1 standard deviation), and 28 proteins were down-regulated (ratio for myopia/control retinas. Pathway analysis using MetaCore revealed regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the myopic eyes. Detailed analysis of the quantitative proteomics data showed that the levels of GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) were elevated in myopic retina and significantly reduced after atropine treatment. These results were further validated with immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis of atropine-treated mouse retina and suggests the involvement of GABAergic signaling in the antimyopic effects of atropine in mouse eyes. The GABAergic transmission in the neural retina plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of axial eye growth in mammals.

  17. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine. (United States)

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan


    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures.

  18. Leaching of zinc compound from rubber stoppers into the contents of automatic atropine injectors. (United States)

    Ellin, R I; Kaminskis, A; Zvirblis, P; Sultan, W E; Shutz, M B; Matthews, R


    This report describes how a material within the cartridge of an automatic injector contaminated its contents. On prolonged storage, a formulation that contained atropine produced lethality in mice. The toxic material originated from zinc compounds that were present in the rubber stopper and plunger of the container and that subsequently leached into the formulation. The contents of cartridges that contained greater than or equal to 0.75 mg/mL of solubilized zinc were lethal to at least 20% of the mice tested; those that contained 0.42 mg/mL showed no lethality. The problem resulted from the physicochemical properties of the rubber, not the concentration of zinc used in the vulcanization process.

  19. Quantitative coronary angiography in the estimation of the functional significance of coronary stenosis: correlations with dobutamine-atropine stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.P. Baptista da Silva (José); M. Arnese (Mariarosaria); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); D.T.J. Keane (David); J. Escaned (Javier); C. di Mario (Carlo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. Boersma (Eric)


    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of quantitative coronary angiography in the assessment of the functional significance of coronary stenosis as judged from the development of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities during dobutamine-atropine s

  20. Model prediction uncertainty of bromide and pesticides transport in laboratory column (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Dohnal, Michal; Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Ray, Chittaranjan; Vogel, Tomas


    Knowledge of transport parameters of reactive solutes such as pesticides is a prerequisite for reliable predictions of their fate and transport in soil porous systems. Water flow and transport of bromide tracer and five pesticides (atrazine, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl, S-metolachlor, and imidacloprid) through an undisturbed soil column of tropical Oxisol were analyzed using a one-dimensional numerical model. Laboratory column leaching experiment with three flow interruptions was conducted. The applied numerical model is based on Richards' equation for solving water flow and the advection-dispersion equation for solving solute transport. A global optimization method was used to evaluate the model's sensitivity to transport parameters and the uncertainty of model predictions. Within the Monte Carlo modeling framework, multiple forward simulations searching through the parametric space, were executed to describe the observed breakthrough curves. All pesticides were found to be relatively mobile. Experimental data indicated significant non-conservative behavior of bromide tracer. All pesticides, with the exception of imidacloprid, were found less persistent. Three of the five pesticides (atrazine, sulfometuron methyl, and S-metolachlor) were better described by the linear kinetic sorption model, while the breakthrough curves of imazaquin and imidacloprid were more appropriately approximated using nonlinear instantaneous sorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the model is most sensitive to sorption distribution coefficient. The prediction limits contained most of the measured points of the experimental breakthrough curves, indicating adequate model concept and model structure for the description of transport processes in the soil column under study.

  1. Femtosecond time-resolved photodissociation dynamics of methyl halide molecules on ultrathin gold films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai E. Vaida


    Full Text Available The photodissociation of small organic molecules, namely methyl iodide, methyl bromide, and methyl chloride, adsorbed on a metal surface was investigated in real time by means of femtosecond-laser pump–probe mass spectrometry. A weakly interacting gold surface was employed as substrate because the intact adsorption of the methyl halide molecules was desired prior to photoexcitation. The gold surface was prepared as an ultrathin film on Mo(100. The molecular adsorption behavior was characterized by coverage dependent temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy. Submonolayer preparations were irradiated with UV light of 266 nm wavelength and the subsequently emerging methyl fragments were probed by photoionization and mass spectrometric detection. A strong dependence of the excitation mechanism and the light-induced dynamics on the type of molecule was observed. Possible photoexcitation mechanisms included direct photoexcitation to the dissociative A-band of the methyl halide molecules as well as the attachment of surface-emitted electrons with transient negative ion formation and subsequent molecular fragmentation. Both reaction pathways were energetically possible in the case of methyl iodide, yet, no methyl fragments were observed. As a likely explanation, the rapid quenching of the excited states prior to fragmentation is proposed. This quenching mechanism could be prevented by modification of the gold surface through pre-adsorption of iodine atoms. In contrast, the A-band of methyl bromide was not energetically directly accessible through 266 nm excitation. Nevertheless, the one-photon-induced dissociation was observed in the case of methyl bromide. This was interpreted as being due to a considerable energetic down-shift of the electronic A-band states of methyl bromide by about 1.5 eV through interaction with the gold substrate. Finally, for methyl chloride no photofragmentation could be detected at all.

  2. Clinical analysis of acute organophosphate poisoning using atropine and penehyclidine hydrochloride atropine about 80 cases%急性有机磷中毒使用长托宁和阿托品临床80例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 王正康; 牟丽琴


    目的 探讨在急性有机磷中毒时使用长托宁(盐酸戊乙奎醚)对阿托品剂量、时间使用的影响.方法 将我院自2003~2009年共收治80例急性有机磷中毒患者分为对照组和治疗组.治疗组为阿托品、碘解磷定加长托宁,对照组为常规使用使用阿托品、碘解磷定组,分析两组患者阿托品用量、维持时间及病死率.结果 长托宁可以使轻、中、重急性有机磷中毒患者减少阿托品用药总量,治疗组分别为15、76、101mg,对照组分别为43、83、840mg减少阿托品用药次数,治疗组分别为:15、23、30次,对照组分别为:20、35、94次,缩短阿托品化时间,治疗组分别为:1.5、3、5h,对照组分别为:3、5、8h,缩短治愈时间:治疗组分别为:3、4、5d,对照组分别为:4、5、6d,两组比较差异有统计学意义.结论 急性有机磷中毒配合使用长托宁,减少阿托品使用总量及维持时间,并且不易发生反跳,病死率降低,长托宁是一种比阿托品效果好、不良反应少的新型抗胆碱能药.%To explore in acute organophosphate poisoning "to use long temple, use of atropine doses. Methods From 2003 -2009 1995,23 cases of acute organophosphate poisoning 80 cases of patients in the control group and divided into treatment group, the treatment group for atropine and recent iodine, torre for extended for routine use of atropine in recent, iodine, analyzes two groups for group patients maintain time and atropine, mortality. Results Torre would make long mild, moderate, and severe acute organophosphale poisoning patients reduce total drug treatment group and atropine 15mg respectively, 76mg, l0lmg, respectively, in 43mg83mg, 840mg reduce atropine, drug treatment group is respectively: 15 times, 23 times, 30 times, respectively is; 20 times, 35, 94, shorten the time of atropine, the treatment group is respectively: 1.5h 5h and control, 3h, respectively, the 5h and 8h: 3h, shorten the time: treatment group cure

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome: focus on otilonium bromide. (United States)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy; Clavé, Pere; Corazziari, Enrico S; Tack, Jan


    Irritable bowel syndrome is a prevalent and chronic disorder, characterized by recurrent abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating and altered bowel habits. This condition affects an estimated 10-15% of the population worldwide and impacts heavily on a patient's daily life and ability to work, as well as healthcare resource utilization. Drug therapy aimed at correcting the primary symptoms of diarrhea/constipation/bloating may have little effect on abdominal pain, which results from visceral hypersensitivity. Smooth muscle relaxants or antispasmodics decrease the tone and contractility of intestinal smooth muscle, effectively managing abdominal pain. Otilonium bromide has been widely used worldwide and has been found to be safe and well tolerated, and superior to placebo for the reduction of symptoms and the prevention of symptom relapse in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  4. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Heart Surgery, Avellino (Italy); Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Avellino (Italy); Daniele, Stefania [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, Alberto [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)


    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR ({>=}85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  5. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of bromide in clidinium-c drug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Sheibani; M. Reza Shishehbore; Zahra Tavakolian Ardakani


    A simple, rapid and sensitive method has been described for the determination of the trace amounts of bromide. The method is based on the catalytic effect of bromide ion on the oxidation of methylene blue by bromate in sulfuric acid media. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of methylene blue at 665 nm. Bromide was determined in the range of 0.05-1.90 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.03 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations of five replicate determinations of 0.20 and 10.0 μg/mL of bromide were 2.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering ions and substances was studied. The method is applied to the analysis of bromide in clidinium-c tablet as a real sample.

  6. DNA Methylation


    Alokail, Majed S.; Alenad, Amal M.


    The DNA of E. coli contains 19,120 6-methyladenines and 12,045 5-methylcytosines in addition to the four regular bases and these are formed by the postreplicative action of three DNA methyltransferases. The majority of the methylated bases are formed by the Dam and Dcm methyltransferases encoded by the dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) and dcm (DNA cytosine methyltransferase) genes. Although not essential, Dam methylation is important for strand discrimination during repair of replication e...

  7. Selective oxidation of bromide in wastewater brines from hydraulic fracturing. (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B


    Brines generated from oil and natural gas production, including flowback water and produced water from hydraulic fracturing of shale gas, may contain elevated concentrations of bromide (~1 g/L). Bromide is a broad concern due to the potential for forming brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Conventional treatment processes for bromide removal is costly and not specific. Selective bromide removal is technically challenging due to the presence of other ions in the brine, especially chloride as high as 30-200 g/L. This study evaluates the ability of solid graphite electrodes to selectively oxidize bromide to bromine in flowback water and produced water from a shale gas operation in Southwestern PA. The bromine can then be outgassed from the solution and recovered, as a process well understood in the bromine industry. This study revealed that bromide may be selectively and rapidly removed from oil and gas brines (~10 h(-1) m(-2) for produced water and ~60 h(-1) m(-2) for flowback water). The electrolysis occurs with a current efficiency between 60 and 90%, and the estimated energy cost is ~6 kJ/g Br. These data are similar to those for the chlor-alkali process that is commonly used for chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide production. The results demonstrate that bromide may be selectively removed from oil and gas brines to create an opportunity for environmental protection and resource recovery.

  8. Use of atropine to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari


    Full Text Available This cohort study included children with esotropia and hypermetropia of ≥ +2.0 diopters (D. The deviation was measured at presentation, under atropine cycloplegia and 3 months after full refractive correction. Of 44 children with a mean age of 5.2 ± 2.4 years, 25 were males. Eighteen (41% had fully refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE, 10 (23% had partial accommodative esotropia (PAE, and 5 (11% had nonaccommodative esotropia (NAE. Eleven (25% had convergence excess (CE. Under cycloplegia, all with RAE and RAE with CE had orthotropia. There was no significant change in the deviation in the patients with NAE. The deviation under cycloplegia and that with full refractive correction in PAE and PAE with CE (with +3.0 D addition were not different. The intraclass correlation coefficient for deviation under cycloplegia and after full refractive correction (+3.0 D addition for CE was 0.89. It was concluded that ocular deviation under cycloplegia can help to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia.

  9. Sedation of children for auditory brainstem response using ketamine-midazolam-atropine combination - a retrospective analysis. (United States)

    Bocskai, Tímea; Németh, Adrienne; Bogár, Lajos; Pytel, József


    Authors investigated sedation quality in children for auditory brainstem response testing. Two-hundred and seventy-six sedation procedures were retrospectively analyzed using recorded data focusing on efficacy of sedation and complications. Intramuscular ketamine-midazolam-atropine combination was administered on sedation preceded by narcotic suppository as pre-medication. On using the combination vital parameters remained within normal range, the complication rate was minimal. Pulse rate, arterial blood pressure and pulse oxymetry readings were stable, hypoventilation developed in 4, apnoea in none of the cases, post-sedation agitation occurred in 3 and nausea and/or vomiting in 2 cases. Repeated administration of narcotic agent was necessary in a single case only. Our practice is suitable for the sedation assisting hearing examinations in children. It has no influence on the auditory brainstem testing, the conditions necessary for the test can be met entirely with minimal side-effects. Our practice provides a more lasting sedation time in children during the examination hence there is no need for the repetition of the narcotics.

  10. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay. (United States)

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M


    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation.

  11. Percutaneous exposure to the nerve agent VX: Efficacy of combined atropine, obidoxime and diazepam treatment. (United States)

    Joosen, Marloes J A; van der Schans, Marcel J; van Helden, Herman P M


    The nerve agent VX is most likely to enter the body via liquid contamination of the skin. After percutaneous exposure, the slow uptake into the blood, and its slow elimination result in toxic levels in plasma for a period of several hours. Consequently, this has implications for the development of toxic signs and for treatment onset. In the present study, clinical signs, toxicokinetics and effects on respiration, electroencephalogram and heart rate were investigated in hairless guinea pigs after percutaneous exposure to 500 microg/kg VX. We found that full inhibition of AChE and partial inhibition of BuChE in blood were accompanied by the onset of clinical signs, reflected by a decline in respiratory minute volume, bronchoconstriction and a decrease in heart rate. Furthermore, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a single dose of atropine, obidoxime and diazepam, administered at appearance of first clinical signs, versus that of repetitive dosing of these drugs on the reappearance of signs. A single shot treatment extended the period to detrimental physiological decline and death for several hours, whereas repetitive administration remained effective as long as treatment was continued. In conclusion, percutaneous VX poisoning showed to be effectively treatable when diagnosed on time and when continued over the entire period of time during which VX, in case of ineffective decontamination, penetrates the skin.

  12. Isolation of atropine and scopolamine from plant material using liquid-liquid extraction and EXtrelut(®) columns. (United States)

    Śramska, Paula; Maciejka, Artur; Topolewska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr; Haliński, Łukasz P


    Tropane alkaloids are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Solanaceae plants. Among them, plants from Datura genus produce significant amounts of scopolamine and hyoscyamine; the latter undergoes racemization to atropine during isolation. Because of their biological importance, toxic properties and commonly reported food and animal feed contamination by different Datura sp. organs, there is a constant need for reliable methods for the analysis of tropane alkaloids in many matrices. In the current study, three extraction and sample-clean up procedures for the determination of scopolamine and atropine in plant material were compared in terms of their effectiveness and repeatability. Standard liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and EXtrelut(®) NT 3 columns were used for the sample clean-up. Combined ultrasound-assisted extraction and 24h static extraction using ethyl acetate, followed by multiple LLE steps was found the most effective separation method among tested. However, absolute extraction recovery was relatively low and reached 45-67% for atropine and 52-73% for scopolamine, depending on the compound concentration. The same method was also the most effective one for the isolation of target compounds from Datura stramonium leaves. EXtrelut(®) columns, on the other hand, displayed relatively low effectiveness in isolating atropine and scopolamine from such a complex matrix and hence could not be recommended. The most effective method was also applied to the extraction of alkaloids from roots and stems of D. stramonium. Quantitative analyses were performed using validated method based on gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Based on the results, the importance of the proper selection of internal standards in the analysis of tropane alkaloids was stressed out.

  13. Analysis of Atropine test in 97 cases%阿托品试验97例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽红; 曲鹏


    [ Objective ] To discuss the clinical value of atropine test on the suspected sick sinus syndrome (SSS) cases.[ Method] Atropine test was performed in 97 patients with suspected SSS who had sinus bradycardia. Transesophageal atrial pacing (TAP) in the positive ones was used to confirm the diagnosis of SSS. [ Results] Among the 97 cases,there were 78whose fastest heart rates were less than 90 beats per minute. Positive rate was 80.4%. And according to the TAP, it was indicated that there were totally 70 SSS sufferers in those 78 cases. The percentage of conformity was 89.7%. [ Conclusion]Atropine test is a simple method and it is better to choose the suspected SSS sufferers that have sinus bradycardia for atropine test so that to raise the percentage of diagnosis.%[目的]探讨对疑有病态窦房结综合征(sick sinus syndrome,SSS)患者行阿托品试验的临床价值.[方法]对97例疑有SSS的窦性心动过缓患者做阿托品试验,其中阳性者行食管心房调搏检查以进一步明确SSS之诊断.[结果]97例中78例最快心率<90次/min,阳性率80.4%;78例行食管心房调搏提示SSS 70例,符合率89.7%.[结论]阿托品试验方法简便,应用于疑有SSS的窦性心动过缓患者可提高对SSS的检出率.

  14. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan


    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  15. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian


    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  16. Comparative efficacy of diazepam and avizafone against sarin-induced neuropathology and respiratory failure in guinea pigs: influence of atropine dose. (United States)

    Taysse, L; Calvet, J-H; Buée, J; Christin, D; Delamanche, S; Breton, P


    This investigation compared the efficacy of diazepam and the water-soluble prodiazepam-avizafone-in sarin poisoning therapy. Guinea pigs, pretreated with pyridostigmine 0.1 mg/kg, were intoxicated with 4LD(50) of sarin (s.c. route) and 1 min after intoxication treated by intramuscular injection of atropine (3 or 33.8 mg/kg), pralidoxime (32 mg/kg) and either diazepam (2 mg/kg) or avizafone (3.5 mg/kg). EEG and pneumo-physiological parameters were simultaneously recorded. When atropine was administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg, seizures were observed in 87.5% of the cases; if an anticonvulsant was added (diazepam (2 mg/kg) or avizafone (3.5 mg/kg)), seizure was prevented but respiratory disorders were observed. At 33.8 mg/kg, atropine markedly increased the seizure threshold and prevented early respiratory distress induced by sarin. When diazepam was administered together with atropine, seizures were not observed but 62.5% of the animals displayed respiratory difficulties. These symptoms were not observed when using avizafone. The pharmacokinetic data showed marked variation of the plasma levels of atropine and diazepam in different antidote combination groups, where groups receiving diazepam exhibited the lowest concentration of atropine in plasma. Taken together, the results indicate that avizafone is suitable in therapy against sarin when an anticonvulsant is judged necessary.

  17. Homocoupling of Aryl Bromides Catalyzed by Nickel Chloride in Pyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO, Xiao-Chun; ZHOU, Wei; ZHANG, Yue-Ping; DAI, Chun-ya; SHEN, Dong; HUANG, Mei


    Pyridine was used as a solvent for homocoupling of aryl bromides catalyzed by nickel chloride/triarylphosphine in the presence of zinc and recycled easily. Triphenylphosphine was the best ligand for nickel in this coupling reaction.

  18. A new convenient access to highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yubo Jiang; Chunxiang Kuang


    Highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides were prepared in high yields through a new convenient access by acylation of ()-4-(2-bromovinyl)phenol with fatty and aromatic acids at room temperature using dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC) and dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP).

  19. Atropine-resistant depolarization in the guinea-pig small intestine. (United States)

    Bywater, R A; Holman, M E; Taylor, G S


    1. Junction potentials were recorded from the circular muscle cells of the guinea-pig ileum following transmural stimulation in the presence of atropine at 30 degrees C.2. Single stimuli produced a transient hyperpolarization, the inhibitory junction potential (i.j.p.). At high stimulus strengths the i.j.p. was followed by a post-stimulus depolarization (PSD).3. During repetitive stimulation the magnitude of the hyperpolarization decreased; however, at the end of the stimulus period the PSD was enhanced and often reached threshold for the generation of action potentials. Thus, the size of the PSD was not directly related to the degree of the preceding hyperpolarization.4. Hyperpolarization of the circular muscle cells was produced by the application of anodal current using large external electrodes. Rapid cessation of the applied current produced a transient after-depolarization which was shorter in time course than the PSD following the i.j.p. If the applied anodal current was reduced slowly (at a rate which mimicked the decrease in the hyperpolarization during repetitive nerve stimulation) no after-depolarization was observed.5. Conditioning hyperpolarization of the circular muscle cells reduced the amplitude of the i.j.p. The i.j.p. was reversed at membrane potentials greater than approximately -90 mV.6. The PSD did not appear to be due to the extracellular accumulation of potassium ions following the i.j.p. since the PSD persisted even when the i.j.p. was reversed.7. The neurotoxin apamin reversibly abolished the i.j.p. and unmasked a transient excitatory junction potential (e.j.p.) with a variable latency (350-900 ms).

  20. Structure, function and carcinogenicity of metabolites of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a comprehensive review. (United States)

    Flesher, James W; Lehner, Andreas F


    The Unified Theory of PAH Carcinogenicity accommodates the activities of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and states that substitution of methyl groups on meso-methyl substituted PAHs with hydroxy, acetoxy, chloride, bromide or sulfuric acid ester groups imparts potent cancer producing properties. It incorporates specific predictions from past researchers on the mechanism of carcinogenesis by methyl-substituted hydrocarbons, including (1) requirement for metabolism to an ArCH2X type structure where X is a good leaving group and (2) biological substitution of a meso-methyl group at the most reactive center in non-methylated hydrocarbons. The Theory incorporates strong inferences of Fieser: (1) The mechanism of carcinogenesis involves a specific metabolic substitution of a hydrocarbon at its most reactive center and (2) Metabolic elimination of a carcinogen is a detoxifying process competitive with that of carcinogenesis and occurring by a different mechanism. According to this outlook, chemical or biochemical substitution of a methyl group at the reactive meso-position of non-methylated hydrocarbons is the first step in the mechanism of carcinogenesis for most, if not all, PAHs and the most potent metabolites of PAHs are to be found among the meso methyl-substituted hydrocarbons. Some PAHs and their known or potential metabolites and closely related compounds have been tested in rats for production of sarcomas at the site of subcutaneous injection and the results strongly support the specific predictions of the Unified Theory.

  1. Assessment of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide removal from aqueous matrices by adsorption on cupric oxide nanoparticles. (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali


    The present study was undertaken to develop an effective adsorbent and to study the adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide from aqueous solution using the CuO nanoparticles. The characteristics of CuO nanoparticles were determined and found to have a surface area 89.59m(2)/g. Operational parameters such as pH, contact time and adsorbent concentration, initial concentration and temperature were also studied. The amount of removal increases with the increase in pH from one to seven and reaches the maximum when the pH is nine. Adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Florry-Huggins models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum adsorption capacities of 0.868 and 0.662mg/g for Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide, respectively. The adsorption process was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, namely ΔG, ΔH and ΔS showed that adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide was spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions.

  2. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores. (United States)

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R


    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  3. Determination of Atropine Sulfate in Human Urines by Capillary Electrophoresis Using Chemical Modified Electrode as Electrochemiluminescence Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou


    Full Text Available A Ru(bpy3 2+-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL detection coupled with capillary electrophoresis (CE was developed for the determination of atropine sulfate on the basis of an Eu-PB modified platinum electrode as the working electrode. The analyte was injected to separation capillary of 50 cm length (25 μm i.d., 360 μm o.d. by electrokinetic injection for 10 s at 10 kV. Parameters related to the separation and detection were discussed and optimized. It was proved that 10 mM phosphate buffer at pH 8.0 could achieve the most favorable resolution, and the high sensitivity of detection was obtained by using the detection potential at 1.15 V and 5 mM Ru(bpy3 2+ in 80 mM phosphate buffer at pH 8.0 in the detection reservoir. Under the optimized conditions, the ECL peak area was in proportion to atropine sulfate concentration in the range from 0.08 to 20 μg⋅mL−1 with a detection limit of 50 ng⋅mL−1 (3σ. The relative standard derivations of migration time and peak area were 0.81 and 3.19%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of atropine sulfate in urine samples of patients with recoveries between 90.9 and 98.6%.

  4. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh Ahmed


    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  5. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations. (United States)

    Fisher, C M


    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium.

  6. Water- Lithium Bromide-γ- Butyrolactone Absorption Refrigerating Machine (United States)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Uemura, Tadashi

    This investigation was carried out in order to find corrosion inhibitors which would be effective in controlling the corrosion for the water-lithium bromide-γ-butyrolactone (20 moles water/1 mole γ-butyrolactone) absorption refrigerating machine. The experiments were carried out on continuous boiling test, intermittent boiling test and galvanic corrosion test with the use of organic inhibitors and inorganic inhibitors in γ-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide. The metals used in these corrosion tests were mainly SS 41 and copper. From these experimental results, the most suitable corrosion inhibitors for SS 41 and copper in γ-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide Were recognized to be benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and lithium molybdate.

  7. Methyl gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Pagola


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound (systematic name: methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate, C8H8O5, is composed of essentially planar molecules [maximum departures from the mean carbon and oxygen skeleton plane of 0.0348 (10 Å]. The H atoms of the three hydroxyl groups, which function as hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors simultaneously, are oriented in the same direction around the aromatic ring. In addition to two intramolecular hydrogen bonds, each molecule is hydrogen bonded to six others, creating a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network.

  8. Influence of Soil fumigation by Methyl Bromide and Methyl Iodide on Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere Microbial Community Structure (United States)

    Rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities were evaluated on roots and leaves of growth chamber-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa (L.) cv. Green Forest) plants by culture-dependent and -independent methods after soil fumigation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with 16S rRNA primer...

  9. Glycosylation with Disarmed Glycosyl Bromides Promoted by Iodonium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanz, Gyrithe; Madsen, Robert


    Iodonium ions have been developed for activating glycosyl bromides in the coupling to glycosyl acceptors. The iodonium ions are generated from N-iodosuccinimide and a protic acid such as camphorsulfonic acid or triflic acid, where the latter gives the most reactive promoter system. The couplings...... occur with the release of iodine monobromide, and the best results are obtained with benzoylated glycosyl donors and acceptors. In this way, disarmed glycosyl bromides can serve as glycosyl donors without the use of heavy-metal salts....

  10. Preparation and characterization of rosin glycerin ester and its bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Caili; Zhang Faai


    Rosin glycerin ester and its bromide were prepared from natural renewable rosin,glycerin and liquid bromine which were first subjected to an esterification reaction,followed by an addition reaction.Their structures were characterized by an infrared(IR)spectrum and their thermal resistance was conducted with thermal gravity(TG)and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC).It showed that the bromide in the rosin glycerin ester decomposed faster than the ester;hence it may be used as fire-resistant material.

  11. Atropine sulfate for treatment of bradycardia in a patient with morbid obesity: what may happen when you least expect it. (United States)

    Carron, Michele; Veronese, Stefano


    A 74-year-old morbidly obese man was scheduled for surgical repair of an incisional ventral hernia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl, and maintained with desflurane. A second dose of fentanyl 0.2 mg, given before starting surgery, resulted in sinus bradycardia and mild decrease of arterial blood pressure. Atropine sulfate 0.5 mg was administered. One minute later, the ECG rhythm on the monitor changed to third degree atrioventricular block with a ventricular response rate of 40 beats/min associated with marked hypotension. Isoproterenol 0.02 mg reverted the atrioventricular block to sinus rhythm. Cardiac enzymes and ECG ruled out acute myocardial ischaemia. The surgical procedure and the recovery from anaesthesia were uneventful. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the fifth postoperative day. For the treatment of bradycardia atropine sulfate should be adjusted at least to lean body weight in order to avoid paradoxical heart rate response in patients with obesity.

  12. Sodium cromoglycate and atropine block the fall in FEV1 but not the cough induced by hypotonic mist. (United States)

    Fuller, R W; Collier, J G


    In a group of patients with mild asthma the inhalation of mist derived from ultrasonically nebulised distilled water caused an increase in cough and a fall in FEV1. Double blind administration for five minutes of sodium cromoglycate (from an original solution containing 30 mg/ml) or atropine (2 mg/ml) by inhalation from a Minineb nebuliser, 30 minutes before the mist challenge, caused a significant reduction in the fall in FEV1 (p less than 0.05), but not in cough, by comparison with the protection afforded by placebo (saline). In a second study the fall in FEV1 caused by the inhalation of distilled water was not significantly different from that seen in response to hypotonic sodium chloride (1.7 g/l, 58 mmol/l), but both produced a significantly greater fall than did a similar mist containing sodium cromoglycate at an original concentration of 10 mg/ml (58 mmol/l). The results show that both atropine and sodium cromoglycate can block the fall in FEV1 due to mist and that protection by sodium cromoglycate is immediate. These results suggest that sodium cromoglycate blocks the nervous reflexes concerned in the response to mist, probably in the afferent limb of the reflex. PMID:6437001

  13. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K


    -plate, and the formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect...... in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests, respectively. The effects of oxotremorine and epibatidine were blocked by atropine and mecamylamine, respectively. In all three nociceptive tests, naloxone in combination with oxotremorine or epibatidine enhanced the antinociceptive effects of the drugs....... The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects...

  14. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: Small-plot trials (United States)

    In Georgia, the loss of MeBr directly impacts the production and profitability of several fruiting vegetables [specifically, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), eggplant (Solanum melogena L.), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)) and cucurbits (specifically, squash [yellow (Cucurbita pepo L.)], melon...

  15. 78 FR 32646 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications... (United States)


    ... fluoride and no market disruption has occurred. For this sector, rapid fumigation is not a critical condition. Therefore, products can be treated with sulfuryl fluoride or phosphine and be held for relatively... information is needed are: Sulfuryl fluoride, propylene oxide (PPO), phosphine, and controlled...

  16. 76 FR 34700 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications... (United States)


    ... converting to alternatives such as: sulfuryl fluoride and phosphine. If relevant, the applicant should also include the costs to retrofit equipment or design and construct new fumigation chambers for these uses... the amounts of commodity treated with each fumigant. Include information on the size of...

  17. Re-manufacture of cobalt-manganese-bromide as a liquid catalyst from spent catalyst containing cobalt generated from petrochemical processes via hydrometallurgy. (United States)

    Joo, Sung-Ho; Shin, Dong Ju; Oh, Chang Hyun; Wang, Jei-Pil; Shin, Shun Myung


    Cobalt and manganese have been the subject of individual separation studies because their fields of application are different. However, this study shows that high-value products can be manufactured in the form of a cobalt-manganese-bromide (CMB) liquid catalyst by simultaneously recovering cobalt and manganese. Na-bis-(2,4,4-tri-methyl-pentyl)phosphinic acid was employed in order to manufacture the CMB liquid catalyst from the spent catalyst generated from petroleum chemistry processes. The pH-isotherm, degree of saponification of solvent and separation factor values were investigated. ΔpH50 and separation factor values show that Co and Mn can be separated from impurities such as Mg and Ca. Further, the extraction stages and organic/aqueous ratio isotherms were investigated using counter-current simulation extraction batch tests. To prepare CMB from a loaded organic phase obtained in a stripping study using hydrogen bromide, the Co and Mn were completely stripped and concentrated by a factor of 6 using a 2M hydrogen bromide solution. When compared with manufactured and commercial CMB, the CMB liquid catalyst could be produced by supplying a shortage of Mn in the form of manganese bromide. Finally, the method of manufacture of CMB was subjected to a real pilot plant test.

  18. Effect of a mixture of pyridostigmine and atropine on forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and serum cholinesterase activity in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B F; Gefke, Kaj; Mosbech, H


    Pyridostigmine 0.143 mg kg-1 (maximum 10 mg) and atropine 0.0143 mg kg-1 (maximum 1 mg) were administered i.v. to six healthy male volunteers. Peripheral venous blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum cholinesterase activity. Maximum inhibition of the enzyme was found 5 min after...... injection with a decrease to 27 +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM) of the original activity. Forced expiratory volume in the first 1s (FEV1) was measured at fixed time intervals for 90 min. No decrease in FEV1 was observed; on the contrary, there was a small increase. We conclude that atropine effectively antagonizes...

  19. Preclinical study comparing the antidotal effect of clonidine with atropine for the treatment of acute malathion poisoning in the albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresha K. R.


    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries 2–3 million people are acutely poisoned by organophosphorus (OP pesticides every year. There is a pressing need for new affordable antidotes and in this context clonidine which has central effect (α2 agonist has been evaluated in the albino rats presenting with signs or symptoms of acute malathion poisoning. And compared with atropine for the acte malathion poisoning in albino rats. Methods: This was a preclinical study conducted on albino rats of either sex weighing 100-150 grams were randomly divided into 4 groups (6/group. Malathion was given at the lethal dose of 54 mg/kg body weight (BW by gavage to each group. Group 1: normal saline intraperioneal (i.p. Group 2: Post treated with atropine 1.5 mg/kg BW (i.p. Group 3: Pre treated with clonidine 1mg/ kg BW (i.p, 10 minutes priore malathion. Group 4: Pre treated with clonidine and post treated with atropine. The above groups were observed for straub tail, muscle fasciculation, piloerection, lacrimation, defecation/ urination; salivation, tremors, gasping and convulsion and were recorded at time 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after poisoning. The latency of onset of tremors, loss of righting reflex and tremors were recorded. Results were presented as percentage occurrence and Mean ± SEM. Repeated measure one way ANOVA and Fisher’s Least Significant Difference post hoc test for comparison between groups. P-value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. Results: The central effects namely straubs tail and whole body tremors are significantly improved compared to control and atropine with clonidine group (p<0.05. However convulsion shows improve in atropine alone and atropine with clonidine groups. The overall survival time has significantly increased compared to control and atropine and atropine with clonidine (P<0.05.Clonidine has not shown any effect on survival time. Conclusions: Clonidine has some central protective effect in

  20. Preozonation of bromide-bearing source water in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effectiveness of preozonation was evaluated on treating a bromide-bearing dam source water in south China through batch-scale experiments. Preozonation at ozone doses of 0.5-1.0 mg/L (at ozone consumption base) enhanced total organic carbon(TOC) removal through coagulation, and resulted in an almost linear reduction of ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The removals of TOC (after coagulation) and UV254 at the ozone dose of 1.0 mg/L were 36% and 70%, respectively. Preozonation at an ozone dose between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L resulted in the removal of disinfection byproducts formation potential (DBFP) including trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) for about 50%. The removals of THMFP and HAAFP decreased with the further increase of ozone dose. Ozonation of bromide-bearing water (bromide concentration,34 μg/L) produced a bromate concentration under the detection limit(2 μg/L) at ozone doses < 1.5 mg/L. However, bromate >10 μg/L could be produced when the bromide concentration was increased to 96 μg/L.

  1. On the existence of ‘L-alanine cadmium bromide' (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.


    It is argued that the recently reported nonlinear optical crystal L-alanine cadmium bromide, grown by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature [P. Ilayabarathi, J. Chandrasekaran, Spectrochim. Acta 96A (2012) 684-689] is the well-known L-alanine crystal. The isolation of L-alanine crystal is explained due to fractional crystallization.

  2. On the existence of 'L-alanine cadmium bromide'. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R


    It is argued that the recently reported nonlinear optical crystal L-alanine cadmium bromide, grown by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature [P. Ilayabarathi, J. Chandrasekaran, Spectrochim. Acta 96A (2012) 684-689] is the well-known L-alanine crystal. The isolation of L-alanine crystal is explained due to fractional crystallization.

  3. Een ionchromatografische methode voor de simultane bepaling van nitriet, bromide en sulfiet in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld WA van den; Cleven RFMJ; LAC


    Betreft resultaten van een onderzoek naar het ontwikkelen van een geautomatiseerde ionchromatografische methode voor de bepaling van nitriet, bromide en sulfiet. Het onderzoek heeft geresulteerd in een betrouwbare, selectieve en gevoelige methode voor de simultane bepaling van nitriet, bromide e

  4. Physicochemical and thermodynamic characterization of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromides and its aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawadzki, Maciej, E-mail:; Królikowska, Marta; Lipiński, Paweł


    Highlights: • The aqueous solutions of bromide-based ionic liquids have been studied. • The synthesis and basic thermal characterization of pure IL have been done. • The density, dynamic viscosity, SLE and VLE have been determined. • The experimental data have been correlated using appropriate equations. - Abstract: This work is a continuation of our research of ionic liquids to investigate the physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of (ionic liquid + water) binary mixtures as a novel alternative working pair for the absorption heat pump cycle. In this work, a series of organic salts: N-propyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide, [C{sub 1}C{sub 3}PYR]Br; N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium, [C{sub 1}C{sub 4}PYR]Br and N-pentyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide, [C{sub 1}C{sub 5}PYR]Br have been synthesized. The structures of new compounds have been confirmed using NMR spectra and elementary analysis. The basic thermal characterization of pure ILs, including temperature and enthalpy of phase transition (T{sub tr}, Δ{sub tr}H), temperature and enthalpy of melting (T{sub m,} Δ{sub m}H) have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition temperature of the tested ILs were detected by the simultaneous TG/DTA experiments. The effect of temperature on the density (ρ) and dynamic viscosity (η) is reported over a wide temperature range from 298.15 to 343.15 K at ambient pressure. From experimental density data, the excess molar volumes (V{sup E}) were calculated and correlated using Redlich–Kister equation. The isothermal vapour–liquid phase equilibria (VLE) have been measured by an ebulliometric method at wide temperature range from 328.15 to 368.15 K and pressure up to 85 kPa. Experimental data have been correlated by means of NRTL equation. The solid–liquid phase equilibria (SLE) for the tested binary mixtures have been determined over whole composition range using dynamic method. The NRTL equation using parameters

  5. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  6. Association of defects in lead chloride and lead bromide: Ionic conductivity and dielectric loss measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Schoonman, J.; Wit, J.H.W. de


    The ionic conductivity data of pure and doped lead bromide without associated defects are used in order to explain the anomalous conductivity behaviour of copper (I) bromide and lead oxide-doped lead-bromide crystals. In these crystals precipitated dopant and associated defects are present. The asso

  7. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus


    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  8. Low level nose-only exposure to the nerve agent soman: Toxicokinetics of soman stereoisomers and cholinesterase inhibition in atropinized guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, H.P.; Trap, H.C.; Spruit, H.E.T.; Wiel, H.J. van der; Langenberg, J.P.; Jong, L.P.A. de


    In order to initiate a quantitative basis for the toxicology of low level exposure to nerve agents, the toxicokinetics of soman stereoisomers during nose-only exposure for 5 h to 20 ppb (160 μg/m3) of C(±)P(±)- soman in air were studied in restrained, anesthetized, and atropinized guinea pigs. The c

  9. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhote, Franck, E-mail: [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, André [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); and others


    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  10. Methyl halide emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Atlas, E.; Harris, G. W.; Helas, G.; de Kock, A.; Koppmann, R.; Maenhaut, W.; Manø, S.; Pollock, W. H.; Rudolph, J.; Scharffe, D.; Schebeske, G.; Welling, M.


    The methyl halides, methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br), and methyl iodide (CH3I), were measured in regional air samples and smoke from savanna fires in southern Africa during the Southern Africa Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative-92 (SAFARI-92) experiment (August-October 1992). All three species were significantly enhanced in the smoke plumes relative to the regional background. Good correlations were found between the methyl halides and carbon monoxide, suggesting that emission was predominantly associated with the smoldering phase of the fires. About 90% of the halogen content of the fuel burned was released to the atmosphere, mostly as halide species, but a significant fraction (3-38%) was emitted in methylated form. On the basis of comparison with the composition of the regional background atmosphere, emission ratios to carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide were determined for the methyl halide species. The emission ratios decreased in the sequence CH3Cl > CH3Br > CH3I. Extrapolation of these results in combination with data from other types of biomass burning, e.g. forest fires, suggests that vegetation fires make a significant contribution to the atmospheric budget of CH3Cl and CH3Br. For tropospheric CH3I, on the other hand, fires appear to be a minor source. Our results suggest that pyrogenic emissions of CH3Cl and CH3Br need to be considered as significant contributors to stratospheric ozone destruction.

  11. A convenient method to generate methylated and un-methylated control DNA in methylation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Manoochehri


    Full Text Available Methylated and un-methylated control DNA is an important part of DNA methylation studies. Although human and mouse DNA methylation control sets are commercially available, in case of methylation studies on other species such as animals, plants, and bacteria, control sets need to be prepared. In this paper a simple method of generating methylated and un-methylated control DNA is described. Whole genome amplification and enzymatic methylation were performed to generate un-methylated and methylated DNA. The generated DNA were confirmed using methylation sensitive/dependant enzymes, and methylation specific PCR. Control reaction assays confirmed the generated methylated and un-methylated DNA.

  12. A novel and robust conditioning lesion induced by ethidium bromide. (United States)

    Hollis, Edmund R; Ishiko, Nao; Tolentino, Kristine; Doherty, Ernest; Rodriguez, Maria J; Calcutt, Nigel A; Zou, Yimin


    Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the peripheral conditioning lesion remain unsolved. We show here that injection of a chemical demyelinating agent, ethidium bromide, into the sciatic nerve induces a similar set of regeneration-associated genes and promotes a 2.7-fold greater extent of sensory axon regeneration in the spinal cord than sciatic nerve crush. We found that more severe peripheral demyelination correlates with more severe functional and electrophysiological deficits, but more robust central regeneration. Ethidium bromide injection does not activate macrophages at the demyelinated sciatic nerve site, as observed after nerve crush, but briefly activates macrophages in the dorsal root ganglion. This study provides a new method for investigating the underlying mechanisms of the conditioning response and suggests that loss of the peripheral myelin may be a major signal to change the intrinsic growth state of adult sensory neurons and promote regeneration.

  13. Study of ferroelectric characteristics of diisopropylammonium bromide films (United States)

    Thirmal, C.; Biswas, P. P.; Shin, Y. J.; Noh, T. W.; Giridharan, N. V.; Venimadhav, A.; Murugavel, P.


    Organic molecular ferroelectrics are highly desirable due to their numerous advantages. In the present work, a thick film of diisopropylammonium bromide organic molecular ferroelectric is fabricated on the ITO/glass substrate. The grown film shows preferential orientation along the c-axis with a ferroelectric transition at 419 K. The piezoresponse force microscopic measurements are done in a dual ac resonance tracking mode for its switching characteristics. The amplitude and phase images of the oppositely written domain patterns exhibit a clear contrast with 180° phase difference. The dynamical spectroscopic studies reveal a butterfly loop in amplitude and hysteretic character of the phase which are the expected characteristics features of ferroelectrics. In addition, the macroscopic polarization versus electric field hysteresis gives an additional proof for ferroelectric character of the film with the maximum polarization of 3.5 μC/cm2. Overall, we have successfully fabricated diisopropylammonium bromide organic films and demonstrated its room temperature ferroelectric characteristics.

  14. Preparation of ethyl magnesium bromide for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols. (United States)

    Ando, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Yuki; Haba, Yusuke


    This paper presents a procedure for preparation of a Grignard reagent, ethyl magnesium bromide, used for partial deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAG) in their regiospecific analysis. Magnesium turnings were reacted with ethereal solution of bromoethane in a screw-capped test tube to synthesize 2 mL of 1 M ethyl magnesium bromide. Continuously stirred with a vortex mixer, the reaction smoothly proceeded at room temperature. Regiospecific analysis of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol using this product showed that fatty acid compositions of the sn-1(3) and sn-2 positions were contaminated by less than 2 mol% of fatty acids migrated from isomeric positions. The analyses of lard and cod liver/mackerel oil TAG showed typical distribution patterns of 16:0, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in pig and fish depot TAG. These results confirmed the view that the freshly prepared reagent is usable for regiospecific analysis of TAG.



    Mallika Selvaraj; Sumathi


    AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003), rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001) with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUS...

  16. Transformation of bromide in thermo activated persulfate oxidation processes. (United States)

    Lu, Junhe; Wu, Jinwei; Ji, Yuefei; Kong, Deyang


    Sulfate radicals ( [Formula: see text] ) are applied to degrade various organic pollutants. Due to its high oxidative potential, [Formula: see text] is presumed to be able to transform bromide to reactive bromine species that can react with natural organic matter subsequently to form brominated products including brominated disinfection by-products (Br-DBPs). This research was designed to investigate the transformation of bromide in thermo activated persulfate oxidation process in the presence of humic acid (HA). Significant formation of bromoform and bromoacetic acids was verified. Their formation was attributed to the reactions of HA and reactive bromine species including Br·, [Formula: see text] HOBr(-), and free bromine resulted from the oxidation of bromide by [Formula: see text] . Yields of Br-DBPs increased monotonically at persulfate concentration of 1.0 mM and working temperature of 70 °C. However, the time-depended formation exhibited an increasing and the decreasing profile when persulfate was 5.0 mM, suggesting further degradation of organic bromine. HPLC/ICP-MS analysis demonstrated that the organic bromine was eventually transformed to bromate at this condition. Thus, a transformation scheme was proposed in which the bromine could be recycled multiple times between inorganic bromide and organic bromine before being finally transformed to bromate. This is the first study that reveals the comprehensive transformation map of bromine in [Formula: see text] based reaction systems, which should be taken into consideration when such technologies are used to eliminate contamination in real practice.

  17. A Lithium Bromide Absorption Chiller with Cold Storage (United States)


    TO R A G E A LITHIUM BROMIDE ABSORPTION CHILLER WITH COLD STORAGE William Gerstler, et al, General Electric Global Research UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED...Research ABSTRACT A LiBr-based absorption chiller can use waste heat or solar energy to produce useful space cooling for small buildings...However, operating this absorption chiller at high ambient tem- peratures may result in performance degradation, crystallization in the absorber, and

  18. Comparison of Heat and Bromide as Ground Water Tracers Near Streams (United States)

    Constantz, J.; Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.


    Heat and bromide were compared as tracers for examining stream/ground water exchanges along the middle reaches of the Santa Clara River, California, during a 10-hour surface water sodium bromide injection test. Three cross sections that comprise six shallow (sodium bromide injection test. Vertical, one-dimensional simulations of bromide concentrations in the sediments yielded a good match to the observed bromide concentrations, without adjustment of any model parameters except solute dispersivities. This indicates that, for the spatial and temporal scales examined on the Santa Clara River, the use of heat and bromide as tracers provide comparable information with respect to apparent hydraulic conductivities and fluxes for sediments near streams. In other settings, caution should be used due to differences in the nature of conservative (bromide) versus nonconservative (heat) tracers, particularly when preferential flowpaths are present.

  19. Conservative tracer bromide inhibits pesticide mineralisation in soil. (United States)

    Bech, Tina B; Rosenbom, Annette E; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Jacobsen, Carsten S


    Bromide is a conservative tracer that is often applied with non-conservative solutes such as pesticides to estimate their retardation in the soil. It has been applied in concentrations of up to 250 g Br L(-1), levels at which the growth of single-celled organisms can be inhibited. Bromide applications may therefore affect the biodegradation of non-conservative solutes in soil. The present study investigated the effect of potassium bromide (KBr) on the mineralisation of three pesticides - glyphosate, MCPA and metribuzin - in four agricultural A-horizon soils. KBr was added to soil microcosms at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.5 and 5 g Br(-) L(-1) in the soil solution. The study concluded that KBr had a negative effect on pesticide mineralisation. The inhibitory effect varied depending on the KBr concentration, the type of pesticide and the type of soil. Furthermore, 16 S amplicon sequencing revealed that the KBr treatment generally reduced the abundance of bacteroidetes and proteobacteria on both an RNA and DNA level. Therefore, in order to reduce the effect of KBr on the soil bacterial community and consequently also on xenobiotic degradation, it is recommended that KBr be applied in a concentration that does not exceed 0.5 g Br(-) L(-1) in the soil water.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of new aromatic quaternary ammonium bromides: precursors for ionic liquids and complexation studies (United States)

    Busi, Sara; Lahtinen, Manu; Ropponen, Jarmo; Valkonen, Jussi; Rissanen, Kari


    Series of new aromatic R2R‧2N+Br- (R=benzyl, 4-methylbenzyl, 2-phenylethyl, 3-phenylpropyl; R‧=ethyl, methyl, isopropyl) or RR‧2NH+Br--type (R=benzyl, R‧=isopropyl) quaternary ammonium bromides were prepared by using novel synthetic route in which a formamide (N,N-diethylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-diisopropylformamide) is treated with aralkyl halide in presence of a weak base. The compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Structures of the crystalline compounds were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction, and in addition the powder diffraction method was used to study the structural similarities between the single crystal and microcrystalline bulk material. Three of the compounds crystallized in monoclinic, two in orthorhombic and one in triclinic crystal system, showing ion pairs, which are interconnected by weak hydrogen bonds and weak π - π interactions between the phenyl rings. Three of the compounds appeared as viscous oil or waxes. Finally, TG/DTA and DSC methods were used to analyze thermal properties of the prepared compounds. The lowest melting points were obtained for diethyldi-(2-phenylethyl)ammonium bromide (122.2 °C) and for diethyldi-(3-phenylpropyl)-ammonium bromide (109.1 °C). In general, decomposition of the compounds started at 170-190 °C without identifiable cleavages, thus liquid ranges of 30-70 °C were observed for some of the compounds.

  1. 76 FR 65139 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: The 2012 Critical Use Exemption From the Phaseout of Methyl... (United States)


    ... Decision XXII/6 for the United States: Commodities. National Pest Management Association food processing... Supply Chain Factor (SCF). The SCF is EPA's technical estimate of the amount of methyl bromide inventory... calendar year 2011; and SCF 2012 is the supply chain factor for 2012. Using this formula, EPA...

  2. 76 FR 23769 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: The 2011 Critical Use Exemption From the Phaseout of Methyl... (United States)


    ... Strawberry runners Tomatoes--field Sweet potato slips The Decision XXI/11 critical use levels for 2011 total... ornamental growers (specifically, herbaceous perennial growers), Michigan tomato growers, Michigan pepper... feasible. Through the recent Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for methyl bromide, the...

  3. An Efficacy and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Dose of Diazepam That Will Reduce the Incidence of Convulsions in Indian Rhesus Monkeys Pretreated with Pyridostigmine Bromide, Challenged with Soman, and Treated with Atropine and Pralidoxime Chloride with the Diazepam (United States)


    0...’Ii I I I I I I I In conducting the research described in this report, the investigator(s) adhered to the *Guide for the Care and Use of...Laboratory Animals," prepared by the Comittre on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research...differentials of loaded and spent syringes. (C)Animal died at 18 hr. (M)Animal died at 74 hr.. W’Animal died at 22 hr. I MAnimal died at 52 min. W(OAnimal

  4. Photoinduced Dissociation Of N-alkyl Bromides On Gallium Arsenide(110) And Gallium Arsenide(100) Electron And Fragment Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, K A


    In this study we investigate the UV-initiated electron transfer and dissociation fragment dynamics of selected n-alkyl bromides physisorbed on single crystals of GaAs. By systematically varying different chemical and structural parameters of the adsorbate/substrate system we explore a number of fundamental questions regarding the basic physics and chemistry of photochemical processes on surfaces. Monolayers of methyl, ethyl and propyl bromide were deposited on the (110), Ga-terminated (100) and As- terminated (100) surfaces of GaAs without thermal decomposition at 80 K. Substrate-mediated electron transfer to the molecule, induced by exposure to UV light at 193, 248 and 351 nm, causes C-Br bond cleavage. The electron transfer dynamics of this mechanism are examined as a function of wavelength and molecular complexity of the adsorbate to better understand the flow of energy and charge across the adsorbate/substrate interface. The photodynamics of the alkyl fragments are studied using mass-, energy- and angle-r...

  5. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D.


    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride + sodi

  6. Synthesis of methyl halides from biomass using engineered microbes. (United States)

    Bayer, Travis S; Widmaier, Daniel M; Temme, Karsten; Mirsky, Ethan A; Santi, Daniel V; Voigt, Christopher A


    Methyl halides are used as agricultural fumigants and are precursor molecules that can be catalytically converted to chemicals and fuels. Plants and microorganisms naturally produce methyl halides, but these organisms produce very low yields or are not amenable to industrial production. A single methyl halide transferase (MHT) enzyme transfers the methyl group from the ubiquitous metabolite S-adenoyl methionine (SAM) to a halide ion. Using a synthetic metagenomic approach, we chemically synthesized all 89 putative MHT genes from plants, fungi, bacteria, and unidentified organisms present in the NCBI sequence database. The set was screened in Escherichia coli to identify the rates of CH(3)Cl, CH(3)Br, and CH(3)I production, with 56% of the library active on chloride, 85% on bromide, and 69% on iodide. Expression of the highest activity MHT and subsequent engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in productivity of 190 mg/L-h from glucose and sucrose. Using a symbiotic co-culture of the engineered yeast and the cellulolytic bacterium Actinotalea fermentans, we are able to achieve methyl halide production from unprocessed switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), corn stover, sugar cane bagasse, and poplar (Populus sp.). These results demonstrate the potential of producing methyl halides from non-food agricultural resources.

  7. Identification of atropine- and P2X1 receptor antagonist-resistant, neurogenic contractions of the urinary bladder. (United States)

    Kennedy, Charles; Tasker, Paul N; Gallacher, Gemma; Westfall, Timothy D


    Acetylcholine and ATP are excitatory cotransmitters in parasympathetic nerves. We used P2X1 receptor antagonists to further characterize the purinergic component of neurotransmission in isolated detrusor muscle of guinea pig urinary bladder. In the presence of atropine (1 microM) and prazosin (100 nM), pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS) (0.1-100 microM) and suramin (1-300 microM) inhibited contractions evoked by 4 Hz nerve stimulation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 6.9 and 13.4 microM, respectively). Maximum inhibition was 50-60%, which was unaffected by coadministration of the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL67156 (6-N,N-diethyl-D-beta,gamma-dibromomethyleneATP) (100 microM). The remaining responses were abolished by tetrodotoxin (1 microM). PPADS and suramin also reduced contractions to exogenous ATP (300 microM) by 40-50%, but abolished those to the P2X1 agonist alpha,beta-methyleneATP (alpha,beta-meATP) (1 microM). The P2X1 antagonists reactive blue 2, NF279 (8,8'-[carbonylbis(imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)] bis-1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid), MRS2159 (pyridoxal-alpha5-phosphate-6-phenylazo-4'-carboxylic acid) (100 microM), and NF449 [4,4',4,4-(carbonylbis(imino-5,1,3-benzenetriylbis(carbonylimino)))tetrakis-benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid] (3 microM) abolished contractions to alpha,beta-meATP (1 microM; n = 4-5), but only reduced contractions evoked by 4 Hz nerve stimulation by approximately 40-60% (n = 4-6) and ATP by 30-60% (n = 4-7). However, prolonged exposure to alpha,beta-meATP (50 microM) abolished contractions evoked by all three stimuli (n = 5-12). PPADS (100 microM) and suramin (300 microM) reduced the peak neurogenic contraction of the mouse urinary bladder to 30-40% of control. At the same concentrations, the P2X1 antagonists abolished the nonadrenergic, purinergic component of neurogenic contractions in the guinea pig vas deferens (n = 4-5). Thus, P2X1 receptor antagonists inhibit

  8. Vasoespasmo coronariano induzido pela ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina Coronary spasm induced by dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Bogaz


    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de mulher de 45 anos de idade, com antecedentes de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e tabagismo, submetida a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina para investigação de doença arterial coronariana. No pico do estresse, a paciente apresentou dor precordial súbita e de forte intensidade. O eletrocardiograma de doze derivações revelou elevação do segmento ST nas derivações DII, DIII, aVF, V5 e V6 e depressão do segmento ST nas derivações DI, aVL, V2 e V3. Pela monitoração das imagens ecocardiográficas foi observado aparecimento de discinesia do septo inferior e acinesia da parede inferior do ventrículo esquerdo. O exame foi interrompido imediatamente, a paciente foi medicada e evoluiu com melhora da dor precordial e das alterações de motilidade segmentar. A angiografia coronariana revelou lesões coronarianas irregulares com menos de 50% de obstrução do diâmetro luminal. Trata-se de um caso de vasoespasmo coronariano induzido por estimulação alfa-adrenérgica durante a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina.This is the report on a 45-year-old female, with a history of systemic arterial hypertension and cigarette smoking, submitted to dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography for the investigation of coronary artery disease. At stress peak, the patient reported sudden, highly intense precordial pain. The 12-lead electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in DII, DIII, aVF, V5 and V6, and depression in DI, aVL, V2 and V3. Echocardiographic imaging monitoring showed dyskinesia of inferior septum and akinesia of inferior wall. The test was interrupted immediately. The patient was medicated and improved her precordial pain condition as well as wall motion abnormalities. Coronary angiography showed irregular coronary lesions with <50% luminal diameter obstruction. It is a case of coronary spasm induced by alpha-adrenergic stimulation during dobutamine-atropine stress

  9. Cholinergic modulation of non-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid glutamatergic transmission in the chick ventral lateral geniculate nucleus. (United States)

    Guo, J-Z; Sorenson, E M; Chiappinelli, V A


    Neurotransmission between glutamatergic terminals of retinal ganglion cells and principal neurons of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNv) was examined with patch clamp recordings in chick brain slices during electrical stimulation of the optic tract. Since muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are present in high densities in LGNv, the present study examined possible roles of both receptors in modulating retinogeniculate transmission. During whole-cell recordings from LGNv neurons, acetylcholine (ACh, 100 microM) caused an initial increase in amplitudes of optic tract-evoked non-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamatergic postsynaptic currents (PSCs). This increase was unchanged when 1 microM atropine was present, indicating that this initial enhancement of PSCs was due entirely to activation of nicotinic receptors. However, during washout of ACh the amplitudes of evoked PSCs became significantly decreased by 40.4+/-5.0% for several minutes before recovering to their original amplitudes, an effect blocked by 1 microM atropine. Exogenously applied muscarine (10 microM) markedly depressed optic tract-evoked PSCs, and this decrease in amplitude was blocked by atropine. In a second set of experiments, we examined effects of releasing endogenous ACh prior to optic tract stimulation. This was accomplished by stimulation of the lateral portion of LGNv via a separate conditioning electrode. Following a brief train of low intensity conditioning stimuli, non-NMDA glutamatergic PSCs evoked by optic tract stimulation were potentiated. However, at higher conditioning stimulus intensities the PSCs were markedly decreased compared with control, and this decrease was partially blocked by atropine (1 microM). Neither ACh nor muscarine altered amplitudes of PSCs elicited by exogenously applied glutamate. Muscarine significantly reduced the frequency but not the amplitudes of miniature PSCs, consistent with a presynaptic location for muscarinic receptors mediating these

  10. Transport of bromide and pesticides through an undisturbed soil column: A modeling study with global optimization analysis (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Dohnal, Michal; Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Ray, Chittaranjan; Vogel, Tomas


    The fate of pesticides in tropical soils is still not understood as well as it is for soils in temperate regions. In this study, water flow and transport of bromide tracer and five pesticides (atrazine, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl, S-metolachlor, and imidacloprid) through an undisturbed soil column of tropical Oxisol were analyzed using a one-dimensional numerical model. The numerical model is based on Richards' equation for solving water flow, and the advection-dispersion equation for solving solute transport. Data from a laboratory column leaching experiment were used in the uncertainty analysis using a global optimization methodology to evaluate the model's sensitivity to transport parameters. All pesticides were found to be relatively mobile (sorption distribution coefficients lower than 2 cm3 g- 1). Experimental data indicated significant non-conservative behavior of bromide tracer. All pesticides, with the exception of imidacloprid, were found less persistent (degradation half-lives smaller than 45 days). Three of the five pesticides (atrazine, sulfometuron methyl, and S-metolachlor) were better described by the linear kinetic sorption model, while the breakthrough curves of imazaquin and imidacloprid were more appropriately approximated using nonlinear instantaneous sorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the model is most sensitive to sorption distribution coefficient. The prediction limits contained most of the measured points of the experimental breakthrough curves, indicating adequate model concept and model structure for the description of transport processes in the soil column under study. Uncertainty analysis using a physically-based Monte Carlo modeling of pesticide fate and transport provides useful information for the evaluation of chemical leaching in Hawaii soils.

  11. Dissociation dynamics of methylal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaud, P.; Frey, H.-M.; Gerber, T.; Mischler, B.; Radi, P.P.; Tzannis, A.-P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The dissociation of methylal is investigated using mass spectrometry, combined with a pyrolytic radical source and femtosecond pump probe experiments. Based on preliminary results two reaction paths of methylal dissociation are proposed and discussed. (author) 4 fig., 3 refs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Selvaraj


    Full Text Available AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003, rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001 with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUSION Drotaverine hydrochloride is a safe, potent and effective drug to be used in the active phase of labour.

  13. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan


    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.

  14. DBU-Promoted Trifluoromethylation of Aryl Iodides with Difluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Wei; Liuying Yu; Jinhong Lin; Xing Zheng; Jichang Xiao


    DBU-promoted trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides with difluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (DFPB) in the presence of copper source is described.In this transformation,DBU not only acts as base to deprotonate the difluoromethyl group in DFPB to generate difluoromethylene phosphonium ylide Ph3P+CF2,but also converts the difluorocarbene generated from ylide Ph3P+CF2 into trifluoromethyl anion,finally resulting in the trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides.The reactions proceeded smoothly to afford expected products in moderate to good yields.

  15. Interaction between gaseous ozone and crystalline potassium bromide (United States)

    Levanov, A. V.; Maksimov, I. B.; Isaikina, O. Ya.; Antipenko, E. E.; Lunin, V. V.


    The formation of nonvolatile products of the oxidation of a bromide ion during the interaction between gaseous ozone and powdered crystalline KBr is studied. It is found that potassium bromate KBrO3 is the main product of the reaction. The influence of major experimental factors (the duration of ozonation, the concentration of ozone, the humidity of the initial gas, and the temperature) on the rate of formation of bromate is studied. The effective constants of the formation of bromate during the interaction between O3 and Br- in a heterogeneous gas-solid body system and in a homogeneous aqueous solution are compared.

  16. Automated determination of bromide in waters by ion chromatography with an amperometric detector (United States)

    Pyen, G.S.; Erdmann, D.E.


    An automated ion chromatograph, including a program controller, an automatic sampler, an integrator, and an amperometric detector, was used to develop a procedure for the determination of bromide in rain water and many ground waters. Approximately 10 min is required to obtain a chromatogram. The detection limit for bromide is 0.01 mg l-1 and the relative standard deivation is <5% for bromide concentrations between 0.05 and 0.5 mg l-1. Chloride interferes if the chloride-to-bromide ratio is greater than 1 000:1 for a range of 0.01-0.1 mg l-1 bromide; similarly, chloride interferes in the 0.1-1.0 mg l-1 range if the ratio is greater than 5 000:1. In the latter case, a maximum of 2 000 mg l-1 of chloride can be tolerated. Recoveries of known concentrations of bromide added to several samples, ranged from 97 to 110%. ?? 1983.

  17. Double-blind comparison of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate with oral meperidine, diazepam, and atropine as preanesthetic medication in children with congenital heart disease. (United States)

    Goldstein-Dresner, M C; Davis, P J; Kretchman, E; Siewers, R D; Certo, N; Cook, D R


    The effectiveness of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) as preanesthetic medication was compared with oral meperidine, diazepam, and atropine (MDA) in 40 pediatric patients scheduled to undergo repair of congenital heart defects. In a double-blinded manner, patients received a fentanyl lollipop (20-25 micrograms/kg) and a placebo oral solution (0.4 ml/kg) (n = 20) or a placebo lollipop and an oral solution (0.4 ml/kg) of meperidine (1.5 mg/kg), diazepam (0.2 mg/kg), and atropine (0.02 mg/kg) (n = 20). The patient's vital signs, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), as well as activity and apprehension scores were evaluated and recorded at baseline and at 10-min intervals. The patient's emotional status at the time of parental separation and at induction of anesthesia were also assessed. Side effects and onset of action were observed. After OTFC, onset of sedation was significantly faster than with the oral solution of meperidine, diazepam, and atropine. In both groups there was no significant change in heart rate. Although systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate showed statistically significant decreases, these changes were not clinically significant. The child's emotional status at the time of separation from the parents and during induction was similar in both groups. Side effects with OTFC were more frequent: nose itching occurred in 65%, body itching in 10%, and vomiting in 30%. Two patients (10%) in the OTFC-treated group became hypoxemic (SpO2 less than 90) and required supplemental oxygen. In the group receiving oral meperidine, diazepam, and atropine, 10% had mild facial pruritus and 5% complained of a dry mouth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Effect of fatty acid methyl esters from plastrum testudinis on proliferation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuehua ZHANG; Heping ZENG; Dongfeng CHEN


    The ointment of plastrum testudinis was extracted using petroleum ether,ether and dichloromethane sequentially and the extracts were methyl,esteri,fled. The effects on the proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bMMSCs) were examined by MTT[3,(4,5,dimethylthiazol,2,yl),2,5,diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay and flow cytometry analysis. The volatile components of the samples were studied by gas chromatography,mass spectrometry (GC,MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that the methyl,esterified parts can promote the proliferation of stem cells and they all contain palmitic acid methyl ester. Palmitic acid methyl ester can promote proliferation when the concentration was 0.15 μg/μL. It may be concluded that the palmitic acid methyl ester is important for the methyl,esterified parts that have effects on proliferation.

  19. Tetradentate N2O2 Chelated Palladium(II Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity towards Mizoroki-Heck Reaction of Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Kamilah Che Soh


    Full Text Available Four air and moisture-stable palladium(II-Schiff base complexes, N,N′-bis(α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2a, N,N′-bis(4-methyl-α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2b, N,N′-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2c, and N,N′-bis(4-methoxy-salicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2d, have been successfully synthesised and characterised by CHN elemental analyses and conventional spectroscopic methods. These complexes were investigated as catalysts in the phosphine-free Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reactions of aryl bromides with methyl acrylate.

  20. Transient neuromyopathy after bromide intoxication in a dog with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Sonja


    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-year old Australian Shepherd, suffering from idiopathic epilepsy under treatment with phenobarbitone and potassium bromide, was presented with generalised lower motor neuron signs. Electrophysiology and muscle-nerve biopsies revealed a neuromyopathy. The serum bromide concentration was increased more than two-fold above the upper reference value. Clinical signs disappeared after applying diuretics and reducing the potassium bromide dose rate. This is the first case report describing electrophysiological and histopathological findings associated with bromide induced lower motor neuron dysfunction in a dog.

  1. A practical comparison of Copper Bromide Laser for the treatment of vascular lesions. (United States)

    Lee, SunWoo; Lee, TaeBum; Kim, HoYoun; Kim, JungSoo; Eun, HyeJun; Kim, RyunKyung


    The recent rapid growth in demand for aesthetic non-invasive laser treatments such as unwanted skin rejuvenation, removal of age-related vascular blemishes has led to a boom in the medical devices to treat these conditions. Among diverse laser for skin treatment, copper bromide laser is a very effective, safe, and well tolerated treatment for facial telangiectasia at various energy levels and the most important thing of the copper bromide laser device is that the stability of the energy. However there is no evidence about effective copper bromide laser's energy level for the treatment of vascular lesions. We compared energy stability and treatment performance between two energy levels in 2 W and 8 W which commonly use in laser treatment for the vascular lesions. 8 W copper bromide laser was more stable compared than 2 W copper bromide laser. Also, 8 W copper bromide laser was effectively superior to 2 W copper bromide laser in treatment of vascular legion. Consequently, 8 W copper bromide laser treatment for vascular lesion might be more suitable than 2 W copper bromide laser.

  2. The in vitro and in vivo profile of aclidinium bromide in comparison with glycopyrronium bromide. (United States)

    Gavaldà, Amadeu; Ramos, Israel; Carcasona, Carla; Calama, Elena; Otal, Raquel; Montero, José Luis; Sentellas, Sonia; Aparici, Monica; Vilella, Dolors; Alberti, Joan; Beleta, Jorge; Miralpeix, Montserrat


    This study characterised the in vitro and in vivo profiles of two novel long-acting muscarinic antagonists, aclidinium bromide and glycopyrronium bromide, using tiotropium bromide and ipratropium bromide as comparators. All four antagonists had high affinity for the five muscarinic receptor sub-types (M1-M5); aclidinium had comparable affinity to tiotropium but higher affinity than glycopyrronium and ipratropium for all receptors. Glycopyrronium dissociated faster from recombinant M3 receptors than aclidinium and tiotropium but more slowly than ipratropium; all four compounds dissociated more rapidly from M2 receptors than from M3 receptors. In vitro, aclidinium, glycopyrronium and tiotropium had a long duration of action at native M3 receptors (>8 h versus 42 min for ipratropium). In vivo, all compounds were equi-potent at reversing acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Aclidinium, glycopyrronium and ipratropium had a faster onset of bronchodilator action than tiotropium. Aclidinium had a longer duration of action than glycopyronnium (time to 50% recovery of effect [t½ offset] = 29 h and 13 h, respectively); these compare with a t½ offset of 64 h and 8 h for tiotropium and ipratropium, respectively. Aclidinium was less potent than glycopyrronium and tiotropium at inhibiting salivation in conscious rats (dose required to produce half-maximal effect [ED50] = 38, 0.74 and 0.88 μg/kg, respectively) and was more rapidly hydrolysed in rat, guinea pig and human plasma compared with glycopyrronium or tiotropium. These results indicate that while aclidinium and glycopyrronium are both potent antagonists at muscarinic receptors with similar kinetic selectivity for M3 receptors versus M2, aclidinium has a longer dissociation half-life at M3 receptors and a longer duration of bronchodilator action in vivo than glycopyrronium. The rapid plasma hydrolysis of aclidinium, coupled to its kinetic selectivity, may confer a reduced propensity for systemic

  3. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power amplifier system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G N Tiwari; R K Mishra; R Khare; S V Nakhe


    Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of operating parameters. The electrical input power was varied from 2.6 to 4.3 kW, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was changed from 16 to 19 kHz, and the pressure of the buffer gas (neon) was kept fixed at 20 mbar. When the electrical input power was increased to 4.3 kW from 2.6 kW, the tube-wall temperature also increased to 488°C from 426°C but the ratio of the green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 3.73. The ratio of green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 1.63 when the PRF of the laser was increased to 19 kHz from 16 kHz. These observations are explained in terms of electron temperature, energy levels of transitions, and voltage and current waveforms across the laser head.

  4. Cases of organophosphate poisoning treated with high-dose of atropine in an intensive care unit and the novel treatment approaches. (United States)

    Karakus, Ali; Celik, Muhammet Murat; Karcioglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasim; Erden, Ersin Sukru; Zeren, Cem


    Organophosphate poisoning is a life-threatening condition, which is being responsible for the symptoms due to cholinergic effects. Clinical status and blood levels of cholinesterase are used its diagnosis. While atropine and pralidoxime (PAM) appear as essential medications, hemofiltration treatments and lipid solutions have been widely studied in recent years. In this study, the importance of high-dose atropine therapy and early intervention and novel treatment approaches are discussed. Records of a total of 25 patients treated for organophosphate poisoning in the intensive care unit (ICU) between April 2007 and December 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Of the 25 patients, 14 (56%) were male and 11 (44%) were female with a mean age of 34.8 ± 17.66 years (range: 14-77 years). The patients were most frequently admitted in June (n = 4) and July (n = 4) (16%). Of the 25 patients, 22 patients (88%) were poisoned by oral intake, two (8%) by inhalation, and one (4%) by dermal route. Of them, 20 patients (80%) took organophosphates intentionally for suicidal purposes, while five (20%) cases poisoned due to accidental exposure. The scores of Glasgow Coma Scale of nine patients (36%) were below 8 point upon admission to hospital. The highest dose of atropine given was 100 mg intravenously on admission and 100 mg/h/day during follow-up. The total dose given was 11.6 g/12 days. A total of 11 patients (44%) were on mechanical ventilation for a mean duration of 5.73 ± 4.83 days. The mean duration of ICU stay was 6.52 ± 4.80 days. Of all, 23 patients (92%) were discharged in good clinical condition and one patient (4%) was referred to another hospital. This study suggests that atropine can be administered until secretions disappear and intensive care should be exerted in follow-up of these patients. In addition, in case of necessity for high doses, sufficient amounts of atropine and PAM should be available in hospitals.

  5. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Antonio de [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Donate, Marina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail:


    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH{sub 3}COOK) or (LiBr + CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H{sub 2}O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion.

  6. LC-ESI MS/MS quantification of atropine and six other antimuscarinic tropane alkaloids in plasma. (United States)

    John, Harald; Binder, Tobias; Höchstetter, Hans; Thiermann, Horst


    We have developed and validated a quantitative liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) procedure for the simultaneous determination of seven natural and semisynthetic tropane alkaloids in plasma: atropine (d-hyoscyamine/l-hyoscyamine), cocaine, homatropine, ipratropium, littorine, N-butylscopolamine, and scopolamine. Plasma and serum samples were precipitated for deproteinization (recovery 88-94%), followed by reversed-phase-based liquid chromatography prior to positive electrospray ionization for detection by multiple reaction monitoring using a linear ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer. All analytes were quantified using cocaine-d3 as an internal standard suitable and reliable for robust, precise (coefficient of variation 2-13%), and accurate (87-122%) measurement within a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude (0.05-50 ng/ml plasma). The method was exemplarily applied to stability studies in phosphate-buffered saline, human serum, and rabbit serum. Each alkaloid was incubated separately and samples were taken at distinct incubation time points. Supernatants of diverse alkaloids at corresponding time points were pooled and subjected to simultaneous LC-ESI MS/MS quantification. This combinatorial analysis design allowed us to analyze the stability of samples with a drastically reduced number of chromatographic runs. In the presence of rabbit serum, all tropane alkaloids tested were degraded significantly within minutes to hours, with the exception of the stable semisynthetic compounds ipratropium and N-butylscopolamine. In contrast, in the presence of equal concentrations of human serum, no degradation was observed for any of the compounds, with the exception of cocaine. Relevant enzymes involved in enzymatic degradation are discussed.

  7. The first barium tin(II) bromide fluoride (United States)

    Dénès, Georges; Merazig, Hocine; Muntasar, Abdualhafeed; Porterfield, Robyn


    In an effort to prepare barium tin(II) bromide fluorides for the first time, possibly similar to the chloride fluorides obtained earlier in our laboratory, precipitation reactions were carried out by mixing aqueous solutions of SnF2 and of BaBr2.2H2O. In contrast with the chloride fluoride system, a single powdered phase was obtained throughout the SnF2 - BaBr2 system, with the yield being maximum at X ≈ 0.25, where X is the molar fraction of barium bromide in the reaction mixture. Phase identification with the JCPDS database failed to produce a match, confirming that a new phase had been produced. The exact chemical composition of the new compound has not been obtained yet. Based on the X value for the maximum yield, the Sn/Ba ratio is likely to be 3/1 or 2/1. The Mössbauer spectrum at ambient conditions shows that bonding to tin(II) is covalent, therefore with the tin lone pair being stereoactive. The Mössbauer parameters ( δ = 3.68 mm/s, Δ = 0.99 mm/s) are similar to those of SnBrF and of Sn2BrF5, thereby showing that tin is bonded to both fluorine and bromine. The larger isomer shift and lower quadrupole splitting than in tin(II) fluorides show that the stereoactivity of the tin lone pair is lower than in the fluorides. The Mössbauer parameters fit well the linear correlation of the quadrupole splitting versus the isomer shift" that has been shown to be present in other series of tin(II) compounds. The linear decrease on this correlation shows that the contribution of non-spherical orbitals ( p and d) to the lone pair is a much larger contributor to the quadrupole splitting than lattice distortions. The structure is likely made of Ba2+ cations and tin(II) fluoride bromide polyatomic anions, with covalent bonding withinthe anions.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A series of hydrophobically modified homo- and copolymers of the poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide) type has been prepared by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers in aqueous solution. Depending on the length of the alkyl side chain (varied between

  9. Ammonium Chloride Promoted Palladium-Catalyzed Ullmann Coupling of Aryl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金恒; 梁云; 刘文杰; 唐石; 谢叶香


    In water, ammonium chloride was found to promote palladium-catalyzed Ullmann coupling reactions of aryl bromides. In the presence of Pd/C, zinc, NH4Cl, and water, coupling of various aryl bromides was carried out smoothly to afford the corresponding homocoupling products in moderate yields.

  10. Effects of Inhalation or Incubation of Oxitropium Bromide on Diaphragm Muscle Contractility in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyohiko Shindoh


    Conclusions: We speculate that the increment of muscle contractility with the inhalation of oxitropium bromide was induced by the antagonization of musucarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR. In addition, the changes of fatigue resistance provoked by oxitropium bromide, which also is speculated to antagonize mAChR, may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with COPD.

  11. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ) Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun(马礼敦); CHENG,Guang-Hui(程广辉); WU,Hong-Xiang(吴宏翔); LIN,Han-Yi(林涵毅); SHEN,Xiao-Liang(沈孝良); SHI,Guo-Shun(施国顺)


    There are two theories, SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide (AAC-B).Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at different reaction time. In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were de-termined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)and the reaction process wes studied by the combination of Xray powder diffraction and EXAFS. It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  12. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ)Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun; CHENG,Guang-Hui; 等


    There are two theories,SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide(AAC-B). Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at dififferent reaction time.In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and the reaction process was studied by the combination of X-ray powder diffraction and EXAFS.It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  13. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba


    The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (), hydrogen bond donor ability () and dipolarity/polarizability (*) of the solvent. The LSER derived from the statistical analysis indicates that the transition state is more solvated than the reactants due to hydrogen bond donation and polarizability of the solvent while the reactant is more solvated than the transition state due to electrophilicity of the solvent. Study of the reaction in methanol, dimethyl formamide mixtures suggests that the rate is maximum when dipolar interactions between the two solvents are maximum.

  14. Design and Fabrication of Externally heated Copper Bromide Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja


    Full Text Available An externally-heated, longitudinally-discharged, low-repetition-rate copper bromide laser, was designed and fabricated. The green-coloured wavelength at 5106 A from this laser can be used for underwater ranging and detection of submerged objects. Several new changes in the design of discharge tube, heating technique, buffer-gas-flow sub-system and electrical circuit have been conceived and incorporated advantageously in our system. Various parameters, for example, the type of buffer gas and its flow rate, mixture of gases, temperature of the discharge tube, delay between dissociation and excitation pulses, dissociation and excitation energies, and various resonator configurations are being optimised to get the maximum output power/energy from the laser system.

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Modified Silver-Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Malek Nik Ahmad Nizam


    Full Text Available Organo-Ag-bentonite was prepared by the attachment of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on silver(Ag-exchanged bentonite. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis and antibacterial assay was performed against Escherichia coli in different percentage of saline solutions through minimum inhibition concentration (MIC method. Organo-Ag-bentonite showed higher antibacterial activity than organo-bentonite and Ag-bentonite especially in saline solution suggesting that the precipitation of AgCl in the presence of Ag-bentonite in saline solution could be avoided by the attachment of cationic surfactant on Ag-bentonite surfaces, hence increased their antibacterial activity.

  16. Xanthine Biosensor Based on Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Modified Pyrolytic Graphite Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG,Ji-Lin(唐纪琳); HAN,Xiao-Jun(韩晓军); HUANG,Wei-Min(黄卫民); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)


    The vesicle of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)which contained tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was mixed with xanthine oxidase, and the mixture was cast on the pyrolytic graphite electrode. The lipid films were used to supply a biological environment resembling biomembrane on the surface of the electrode. TTF was used as a mediator because of its high electron-transfer efficiency. A novel xanthine biosensor based on cast DDAB film was developed. The effects of pH and operating potential were explored for optimum analytical performance by using the amperometric method. The response time of the biosensor was less than 10 s. The detection limit of the biosensor was 3.2 × 10-7 mol/L and the liner range was from 4 × 10-7 mol/L to 2.4 × 10-6 mol/L.

  17. Classifying the Basic Parameters of Ultraviolet Copper Bromide Laser (United States)

    Gocheva-Ilieva, S. G.; Iliev, I. P.; Temelkov, K. A.; Vuchkov, N. K.; Sabotinov, N. V.


    The performance of deep ultraviolet copper bromide lasers is of great importance because of their applications in medicine, microbiology, high-precision processing of new materials, high-resolution laser lithography in microelectronics, high-density optical recording of information, laser-induced fluorescence in plasma and wide-gap semiconductors and more. In this paper we present a statistical study on the classification of 12 basic lasing parameters, by using different agglomerative methods of cluster analysis. The results are based on a big amount of experimental data for UV Cu+ Ne-CuBr laser with wavelengths 248.6 nm, 252.9 nm, 260.0 nm and 270.3 nm, obtained in Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The relevant influence of parameters on laser generation is also evaluated. The results are applicable in computer modeling and planning the experiments and further laser development with improved output characteristics.

  18. Comparative mobility of sulfonamides and bromide tracer in three soils (United States)

    Kurwadkar, S.T.; Adams, C.D.; Meyer, M.T.; Kolpin, D.W.


    In animal agriculture, sulfonamides are one of the routinely used groups of antimicrobials for therapeutic and sub-therapeutic purposes. It is observed that, the animals when administered the antimicrobials, often do not completely metabolize them; and excrete the partially metabolized forms into the environment. Due to the continued use of antimicrobials and disposal of untreated waste, widespread occurrence of partially metabolized antimicrobials in aquatic and terrestrial environments has been reported in various scientific journals. In this research, the mobility of two sulfonamides - sulfamethazine (SMN), sulfathiazole (STZ) and a conservative bromide tracer was investigated in three soils collected from regions in the United States with large number of concentrated animal-feed operations. Results of a series of column studies indicate that the mobility of these two sulfonamides was dependent on pH, soil charge density, and contact time. At low pH and high charge density, substantial retention of sulfonamides was observed in all three soils investigated, due to the increased fraction of cationic and neutral forms of the sulfonamides. Conversely, enhanced mobility was observed at high pH, where the sulfonamides are predominantly in the anionic form. The results indicate that when both SMN and STZ are predominantly in anionic forms, their mobility approximates the mobility of a conservative bromide tracer. This observation is consistent for the mobility of both SMN and STZ individually, and also in the presence of several other antimicrobials in all three soils investigated. Higher contact time indicates lower mobility due to increased interaction with soil material. ?? 2011.

  19. [DNA methylation and epigenetics]. (United States)

    Vaniushin, B F


    In eukaryotic cells, nuclear DNA is subject to enzymatic methylation with the formation of 5-methylcytosine residues, mostly within the CG and CNG sequences. In plants and animals this DNA methylation is species-, tissue-, and organelle-specific. It changes (decreases) with age and is regulated by hormones. On the other hand, genome methylation can control hormonal signal. Replicative and post-replicative DNA methylation types are distinguished. They are mediated by multiple DNA methyltransferases with different site-specificity. Replication is accompanied by the appearance of hemimethylated DNA sites. Pronounced asymmetry of the DNA strand methylation disappears to the end of the cell cycle. A model of methylation-regulated DNA replication is proposed. DNA methylation controls all genetic processes in the cell (replication, transcription, DNA repair, recombination, and gene transposition). It is the mechanism of cell differentiation, gene discrimination and silencing. In animals, suppression of DNA methylation stops development (embryogenesis), switches on apoptosis, and is usually lethal. Disruption of DNA methylation pattern results in the malignant cell transformation and serves as one of the early diagnostic features of carcinogenesis. In malignant cell the pattern of DNA methylation, as well as the set of DNA methyltransferase activities, differs from that in normal cell. In plants inhibition of DNA methylation is accompanied by the induction of seed storage and florescence genes. In eukaryotes one and the same gene can be simultaneously methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues. It can be thus suggested, that the plant cell contains at least two different, and probably, interdependent systems of DNA methylation. The first eukaryotic adenine DNA methyltransferase was isolated from plants. This enzyme methylates DNA with the formation of N6-methyladenine residues in the sequence TGATCA (TGATCA-->TGm6ATCA). Plants possess AdoMet-dependent endonucleases

  20. Comparing the preventive effect of 2 percent Topical Lidocaine and Intravenous Atropine on oculocardiac reflex in Ophthalmological Surgeries under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sajedi


    Full Text Available Background: The current study aimed to determine preventive effect of 2 percent topical xylocaine on oculocardiac reflex in ophthalmological surgeries except strabismus, including retinal detachment and vitrectomy with scleral buckling under general anesthesia. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 150 patients aged 18-90 years undergoing ophthalmological surgeries under general anesthesia. Samples randomly divided into the experimental group (received four drops of 2 percent topical xylocaine instilled in desired eye and control group (received 0.5 mg atropine sulfate injection. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure of patients and baseline heart rate were recorded. They were compared regarding the incidence of bradycardia, heart rate less than 60 beats/minute, hypotension and blood pressure less than 90 mm/Hg. Data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20 using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results: The difference between two groups was not statistically significant regarding demographic and basic variables. The incidence of bradycardia in both groups was respectively (90.7 percent vs. 17.3 percent, heart rate less than 60 beats/minute (40 percent vs. 13.3 percent, hypotension (76 percent vs. 32 percent and blood pressure less than 90 mmHg was (28 percent vs. 8 percent. Accordingly, the differences between both groups were statistically significant (P > 0.001. Conclusions: The preventive impact of topical xylocaine upon oculocardiac reflex in ophthalmological surgeries such as retinal detachment and vitrectomy with scleral buckling under general anesthesia was less effective than that of atropine injection. Therefore, to avoid this reflex in high-risk patients, injecting atropine would be safer.

  1. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)


    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  2. Highly stereoselective synthesis of functionalized 1,3-dienes from a new allyl bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Fray


    Full Text Available New and highly functionalized 1,3-dienes 3 and 4 have been synthesized via two different pathways starting from allyl bromide 1. Firstly, the reaction of allyl bromide 1 with triethylphosphite leads to an allylphosphonate 2, which undergoes the Wittig-Horner reaction with a range of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes gives rise to the corresponding 1,3-dienes 3. Secondly, a highly stereoselective reaction between allyl bromide 1 and nitroalkane salts, offers the possibility to obtaining functionalized (E-1,3-dienes 4.

  3. Structural and electronic properties of Diisopropylammonium bromide molecular ferroelectric crystal (United States)

    Alsaad, A.; Qattan, I. A.; Ahmad, A. A.; Al-Aqtash, N.; Sabirianov, R. F.


    We report the results of ab-initio calculations based on Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) and hybrid functional (HSE06) of electronic band structure, density of states and partial density of states to get a deep insight into structural and electronic properties of P21 ferroelectric phase of Diisopropylammonium Bromide molecular crystal (DIPAB). We found that the optical band gap of the polar phase of DIPAB is ∼ 5 eV confirming it as a good dielectric. Examination of the density of states and partial density of states reveal that the valence band maximum is mainly composed of bromine 4p orbitals and the conduction band minimum is dominated by carbon 2p, carbon 2s, and nitrogen 2s orbitals. A unique aspect of P21 ferroelectric phase is the permanent dipole within the material. We found that P21 DIPAB has a spontaneous polarization of 22.64 consistent with recent findings which make it good candidate for the creation of ferroelectric tunneling junctions (FTJs) which have the potential to be used as memory devices.

  4. Organomontmorillonites Modified with 2-Methacryloyloxy Ethyl Alkyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-quan; WU Wen-hui


    Organomontmorillonites (organo-MMT) were synthesized by means of montmorillonites (MMT) modified with a series of 2-methacryloyloxy ethyl alkyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (MAAB) having different alkyl chain lengths as cationic surfactants through a cationic exchanging reaction, and were characterized by FTIR, TG, elemental analysis, and XRD. The microenvironment of the organic interlayer such as the orientation and arrangement of the alkyl chains of MAAB, as well as the properties of nanocomposite hydrogels, were also investigated. The amount of organic components absorbed on interlayer and the basal spacing of organo-MMT both increase with the increasing of alkyl length of MAAB. When carbon number of alkyl chain is in the region of 8 to 14, the alkyl chains between layers would adopt a disordered gauche conformation; while the carbon number is 16, an ordered all-trans conformation with a vertical orientation would be found together with the disordered gauche conformation according to the results of XRD and FTIR. Due to the difference of microenvironment of organic interlayer, the Young's moduli of the nanocomposite hydrogels increased as the alkyl chains of MAAB became longer.

  5. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan


    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  6. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth


    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  7. Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht


    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

  8. Adsorption of anionic polyelectrolytes to dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide monolayers (United States)

    Engelking, J.; Menzel, H.

    Monolayers of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODA) at the air/water interface were used as model for charged surfaces to study the adsorption of anionic polyelectrolytes. After spreading on a pure water surface the monolayers were compressed and subsequently transferred onto a polyelectrolyte solution employing the Fromherz technique. The polyelectrolyte adsorption was monitored by recording the changes in surface pressure at constant area. For poly(styrene sulfonate) and carboxymethylcellulose the plot of the surface pressure as function of time gave curves which indicate a direct correlation between the adsorbed amount and surface pressure as well as a solely diffusion controlled process. In the case of rigid rod-like poly(p-phenylene sulfonate)s the situation is more complicated. Plotting the surface pressure as function of time results in a curve with sigmoidal shape, characterized by an induction period. The induction period can be explained by a domain formation, which can be treated like a crystallization process. Employing the Avrami expression developed for polymer crystallization, the change in the surface pressure upon adsorption of rigid rod-like poly(p-phenylene sulfonate)s can be described.

  9. Delayed remyelination in rat spinal cord following ethidium bromide injection. (United States)

    Graça, D L; Blakemore, W F


    Areas of demyelination were produced by injecting ethidium bromide into the white matter of the lumbar spinal cord of rats. There was variation in the nature of the process of demyelination and a difference in the speed with which Schwann cells remyelinated the demyelinated axons. In some lesions, or areas within lesions, myelin debris was rapidly processed by macrophages and axons were rapidly remyelinated by Schwann cells, while in other lesions of similar duration, or in areas within the same lesion, the myelin was transformed into lattices of membranous profiles which persisted around axons for long periods of time. In the lesions containing such myelin derived membranes, there were few macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was delayed compared to that seen in the more rapidly resolving lesions. It was concluded that the slow resolution of some lesions resulted from the delay between intoxication and cell disintegration (7-10 days) which meant that the cell responses to demyelination took place in a glial free area which could not support cell movement needed for removal of myelin debris and remyelination. This study indicates that the tempo and results of demyelination can be altered by the cellular events which accompany degeneration of oligodendrocytes.

  10. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine. (United States)

    Poletto, Rosangela; Janczak, Andrew M; Marchant-Forde, Ruth M; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N; Matthews, Donald L; Dowell, Carol A; Hogan, Daniel F; Freeman, Lynetta J; Lay, Donald C


    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for assessing farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency domain analyses may provide a sensitive and reliable measure of affective states and stress-mediated changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic tones. The aim of this research was to define low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power spectral ranges using pharmacological autonomic blockade, and to examine HRV and BPV parameter changes in response to atropine and propranolol in swine. Ten, 13-week old, barrows (n=6) and gilts (n=4) underwent surgery to place an intra-cardiac electrode and a blood pressure catheter attached to a biotelemetric transmitter; pigs had a 3-week recovery period prior to data collection. Each pig was subjected to administration of 4 intravenous (i.v.) drug treatments: a control treatment, 3 mL of saline, and 3 blockade treatments; 0.1 mg/kg of atropine, 1.0 mg/kg of propranolol, and .1 mg/kg of atropine together with 1.0 mg/kg of propranolol. All treatments were delivered by injection in the jugular vein with a minimum of 48 h between individual treatments. Behavior, ECG and blood pressure data were recorded continuously for a total of 1h, from 30 min pre-injection to 30 min post-injection. For data analyses, two 512-beat intervals were selected for each treatment while the pig was lying and inactive. The first interval was selected from the pre-injection period (baseline), and the second was selected between 10 and 30 min post-injection. Time and frequency domain (power spectral density) analyses were performed on each data interval. Subsequent, LF and HF bands from the power spectral densities were defined based on general linear and regression analyses. The HRV and BPV were computed with a covariate (baseline) factorial analysis of treatment by sex

  11. 阿托品化定量管理在有机磷中毒患者护理中的应用%Application of the Quantitative Management of Atropine in the Nursing Care for Organophosphate Poison-ing Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立; 赵芳芳; 郑佳佳; 胡敏; 张玲


    目的:探讨阿托品量化的优质管理,降低有机磷中毒患者出现阿托品中毒现象的概率。方法通过对阿托品化量表的使用,比较量表使用前后对照组和实验组出现的阿托品中毒现象及有机磷中毒反跳的发生率。结果阿托品化量表使用管理后,救治过程中阿托品中毒现象及有机磷中毒反跳现象的发生率,与量表使用管理前比较差异显著( P<0.05)。结论量表的使用管理不仅增强护理人员对患者用药观察的准确度,更减少患者阿托品中毒及有机磷中毒反跳的现象发生。%Objective To explore high -quality quantitative management of atropine and to reduce the risk of atropine poisoning in organophosphate poisoning patients .Methods To compare the incidences of the atro-pine poisoning and the bounce organophosphorus poisoning between the experimental group and the control group before and after using the atropine scale .Results There is significant difference in the incidences of atropine poi-soning and bounce organophosphorus poisoning before and after the use of the scale (P<0.05).Conclusion The use of the scale can not only increase the accuracy of medication observation , but also reduce the adverse reaction of atropine poisoning and bounce organophosphorus poisoning .


    Enzymology of Arsenic MethylationDavid J. Thomas, Pharmacokinetics Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park...

  13. Lysine methylation: beyond histones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Zhang; Hong Wen; Xiaobing Shi


    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins,such as acetylation,methylation,phosphorylation,and ubiquitylation,play essential roles in regulating chromatin dynamics.Combinations of different modifications on the histone proteins,termed 'histone code' in many cases,extend the information potential of the genetic code by regulating DNA at the epigenetic level.Many PTMs occur on non-histone proteins as well as histones,regulating protein-protein interactions,stability,localization,and/or enzymatic activities of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes.Although protein phosphorylation,ubiquitylation,and acetylation have been extensively studied,only a few proteins other than histones have been reported that can be modified by lysine methylation.This review summarizes the current progress on lysine methylation of nonhistone proteins,and we propose that lysine methylation,like phosphorylation and acetylation,is a common PTM that regulates proteins in diverse cellular processes.

  14. 阿托品不同给药方式治疗有机磷中毒的疗效分析%Comparison of Different Methods of Administering Atropine in the Treatment of Organophosphate Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志; 何伟峰; 邹海军


    目的:探讨临床救治有机磷中毒的患者使用阿托品时采用不同给药方式的疗效差异.方法:将我院在2007年6月~2010年10月收治的101例急性有机磷中毒的患者随机分为三组,I组患者给予阿托品人工静脉推注;II组患者先给予阿托品人工静脉推注,患者达到阿托品化后采用微量泵给药;III组患者直接使用用微量泵给药,比较三组患者的疗效和并发症.结果:II组患者和III组患者的疗效优于I组患者,并发症低于I组患者,p<0.05;III组患者阿托品化时间最长,与I组和II组比较,p<0.05.结论:采用阿托品人工静脉推注,待患者阿托品化再给予微量泵给药,其疗效较好,不良反应少,患者阿托品化更稳定,值得在临床推广使用.%Objective:Clinical treatment of patients with organophosphate poisoning atropine administered in different ways when the difference in efficacy.Methods:In our hospital in June 2007~October 2010 treated 101 cases of acute organophosphate poisoning were randomly divided into three groups, I group were treated with intravenous injection of atropine and artificial; Ⅱ patients are atropine artificial intravenous injection, the patient achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration; Ⅲ patients directly with micro-pump delivery, three groups of patients compared the efficacy and complications.Results:Group Ⅱ and Ⅲ patients were more effective than group I patients, complications than group I patients, p <0.05; Ⅲ longest of atropine in patients with Group Ⅰ and Ⅱ group, p <0.05. Conclusion:The use of artificial intravenous injection of atropine, atropine and then be given to patients with micro-pump delivery, the better effect, adverse reactions, patients with atropine is more stable, it is in clinical use.

  15. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold


    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...... of a sensitive alcohol containing an activated aziridine functionality, the use of the trityl bromide linker proved superior to a recently described silver triflate-assisted trityl chloride resin-based procedure....

  16. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.


    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response ofH. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L.

  17. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica


    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  18. Interaction of removal Ethidium Bromide with Carbon Nanotube: Equilibrium and Isotherm studies


    Moradi, Omid; Norouzi, Mehdi; Fakhri, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem


    Drinking water resources may be contaminated with Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) which is commonly used in molecular biology laboratories for DNA identification in electrophoresis. Carbon nanotubes are expected to play an important role in sensing, pollution treatment and separation techniques. In this study adsorption of Ethidium Bromide on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and carboxylate group functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-COOH) surfaces have been investigated by UV–vi...

  19. Electrochemical Recognition of Metalloproteins by Bromide-modified Silver Electrode - A New Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rostami


    Full Text Available A bromide–modified silver electrode is reported, in the present study, to catalyzethe redox reactions of metalloproteins. This study describes that the bromide ions showvery good redox behavior with silver electrode. The cathodic and anodic peak potentialswere related to the concentration of bromide ions involved in making bromide-modifiedsilver electrode. The electrode reaction in the bromine solution was a diffusion-controlledprocess. Positive potential shift of the bromide ions was seen when different proteins wereadded to the solution using a silver electrode. New cathodic and anodic peaks wereobserved at different potential ranges for myoglobin, cytochrome c and catalase. A linearlyincreasing cathodic peak current of bromide ions was seen when the concentration ofsuperoxide dismutase was increased in the test solution. However, no change for albuminwas observed when its concentration was increased in the test solution. Present data provesour methodology as an easy-to-use analysis for comparing the redox potentials of differentmetalloproteins and differentiating the metallo- from non-metalloproteins. In this study, weintroduced an interesting method for bio-electrochemical analyses.

  20. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaogang Liu; Zhiliang Zhu; Yanling Qiu; Jianfu Zhao


    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions,four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species,which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  1. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination. (United States)

    Liu, Shaogang; Zhu, Zhiliang; Qiu, Yanling; Zhao, Jianfu


    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions, four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species, which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  2. Predicting bromide incorporation in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, Abu Jafar; Husain, Tahir


    The water in and air above swimming pools often contain high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) due to chemical reactions between chlorine- or bromine-based disinfectants and organic/inorganic matter in the source water and released from swimmers. Exposure to these DBPs, though inevitable, can pose health threats to humans. In this study, DBPs in tap water (S1), and water from a chlorinated indoor swimming pool before (S2) and after swimming (S3) were measured. The brominated species constituted the majority of DBPs formed in S1, S2, and S3. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in S3 was 6.9 (range 2.9-11.1) and 1.4 (range 0.52-2.9) times those in S1 and S2, respectively; and the haloacetic acids (HAAs) in S3 was 4.2 (range 2.5-7.5) and 1.2 (range 0.6-2.6) times those in S1 and S2, respectively. The mean THMs in air above the swimming pool before (S2-A) and after swimming (S3-A) were 72.2 and 93.0 μg/m(3), respectively, and their ranges were 36.3-105.8 and 44.1-133.6 μg/m(3), respectively. The average percentages of bromide incorporation (BI) into THMs in S1, S2, and S3 were 3.0, 9.3, and 10.6 %, respectively; and the BI into HAAs in S1, S2, and S3 were 6.6, 12.0, and 12.2 %, respectively. Several models were trained for predicting the BI into THMs and HAAs. The results indicate that additional information is required to develop predictive models for BI in swimming pools.

  3. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoobakht, Fatemeh; Ganji, Fariba, E-mail:; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim [Tarbiat Modares University, Biomedical Engineering Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad [Tarbiat Modares University, Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 Degree-Sign C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1-4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h.

  4. Silica nanoparticles separation from water: aggregation by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tourbin, M; Lachaize, S; Guiraud, P


    Nanoparticles will inevitably be found in industrial and domestic wastes in the near future and as a consequence soon in water resources. Due to their ultra-small size, nanoparticles may not only have new hazards for environment and human health, but also cause low separation efficiency by classical water treatments processes. Thus, it would be an important challenge to develop a specific treatment with suitable additives for recovery of nanoparticles from waters. For this propose, this paper presents aggregation of silica nanoparticles (Klebosol 30R50 (75nm) and 30R25 (30nm)) by cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Different mechanisms such as charge neutralization, "depletion flocculation" or "volume-restriction", and "hydrophobic effect" between hydrocarbon tails of CTAB have been proposed to explicate aggregation results. One important finding is that for different volume concentrations between 0.05% and 0.51% of 30R50 suspensions, the same critical coagulation concentration was observed at CTAB=0.1mM, suggesting the optimized quantity of CTAB during the separation process for nanoparticles of about 75nm. Furthermore, very small quantities of CTAB (0.01mM) can make 30R25 nanosilica aggregated due to the "hydrophobic effect". It is then possible to minimize the sludge and allow the separation process as "greener" as possible by studying this case. It has also shown that aggregation mechanisms can be different for very small particles so that a special attention has to be paid to the treatment of nanoparticles contained in water and wastewaters.

  5. 老年麻醉使用罗库溴铵后肌松时效延长的拮抗处理%Antagonism management of prolonged muscle relaxant time after rocuronium bromide in senile anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周江生; 曾莉芷


    目的:观察使用罗库溴铵对老年麻醉肌松时效延长而采取拮抗处理的效果。方法120例使用罗库溴铵实施肌松后出现时效延长的老年麻醉患者,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组60例。两组均采用气管插管全身麻醉,使用罗库溴铵实施肌松,手术完毕对因肌松时效延长患者,观察组使用甲硫酸新斯的明联合盐酸阿托品进行拮抗,常规监护和4个成串刺激(TOF)监测TOF从0~75%,从0~90%,从0至肌松恢复拔管即刻,从拔管即刻至残余肌松完全恢复。对照组使用生理盐水2 ml,常规监护和TOF监测TOF从0~75%,从0~90%,从0至肌松恢复拔管即刻,从拔管即刻至残余肌松完全恢复。两组患者均做好积极处理并发症准备。结果观察组能够快速拮抗肌松缩短时效,对照组肌松时效延长恢复缓慢,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论及时合理使用甲硫酸新斯的明联合盐酸阿托品进行拮抗,可明显缩短老年麻醉肌松时效延长的恢复时间,减少术后并发症。%ObjectiveTo observe antagonism management effect of prolonged muscle relaxant time after rocuronium bromide in senile anesthesia.MethodsA total of 120 senile anesthesia patients with prolonged muscle relaxant time after rocuronium bromide were randomly divided into observation group and control group, with 60 cases in each group. Both groups received tracheal intubation general anesthesia, and rocuronium bromide for muscle relaxant. The observation group received neostigmine methylsulfate combined with atropine hydrochloride for antagonism due to prolonged muscle relaxant time after surgery. Conventional nursing and train-of-four stimulation (TOF) monitoring were taken in 0~75%, 0~90%, from 0 to extubation at recovery of muscle relaxant, and from extubation at recovery of muscle relaxant to complete recovery. The control group received 2 ml of normal saline. Conventional nursing and TOF monitoring were taken in 0


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-min Gong; Qun-sheng Li; Yan Shi; Zhi-feng Fu; Shu-ke Jiao; Wan-tai Yang


    The radical copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate was carried out via atom complex. This polymerization proceeds in a living fashion with controlled molecular weight and low polydispersity. The obtained copolymer was esterified with 2-bromoisobutylryl bromide yielding a macroinitiator, poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)ethyl methacrylate), and its structure was characterized by 1HNMR. This macroinitiator was used for ATRP of styrene to synthesize poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafi-polystyrene. The molecular weight of graft copolymer increased with the monomer conversion, and the polydispersity remained relatively low.The individual grafted polystyrene chains were cleaved from the macroinitiator backbone by hydrolysis and the hydrolyzed product was characterized by 1H-NMR and GPC.

  7. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Methyl Bromide in the Decontamination of Building and Interior Materials Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spreadsheets containing data for recovery of spores from different materials. Data on the fumigation parameters are also included. This dataset is associated with...

  8. Treatment of California stone fruit with methyl bromide or phosphine to eliminate peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella (United States)

    The goal of this project is to develop postharvest chamber fumigations that ensure complete mortality of peach twig borer (PTB) in California stone fruit exports; results from preliminary toxicological and phytotoxicological research are presented. Fumigations with 1500 ppm phosphine over a 24 h ex...

  9. Interaction between cationic surfactant of 1-methyl-3-tetradecylimidazolium bromide and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, VIC 252059 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Engineering Research Center for Fine Chemicals of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Shanxi Province, VIC 030006 (China); Kang, Wenpei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Shandong Province, VIC 250100 (China); Sun, Dezhi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, VIC 252059 (China); Liu, Jie, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, VIC 252059 (China); Wei, Xilian, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, VIC 252059 (China)


    The interaction between long-chain imidazolium ionic liquid (C{sub 14}mimBr) and anionic polyelectrolyte of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) has been studied using surface tension, isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scatting (DLS) and conductance methods. The result shows that the surface tension plots have a pronounced hump in the surface tension at surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the surfactant. The cooperative adsorption of surfactant and polymer on the surface (PS{sub S}) and the formation of polymer/surfactant aggregate in bulk solution (PS{sub M}) provide a rational explanation about it. The formation of surfactant/polymer complexes is affected by the concentration of the surfactant or NaPSS, which is also ascertained by ITC and DLS measurements. Further, the thermodynamic parameters are derived from calorimetric titration and conductance curves, and the effects of polymer concentration and temperature on the parameters are evaluated in detail.

  10. 1-{[Dimethyl(phenylsilyl]methyl}-3-(2-phenylethyl-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akkurt


    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H27N2Si+·Br−·H2O, was synthesized from 1-(dimethylphenylsilylmethyl-1H-benzimidazole and (2-bromoethylbenzene in dimethylformamide. The benzimidazole ring system is nearly planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.015 (5 Å, and forms dihedral angles of 73.0 (3 and 39.6 (2°, with the phenyl rings. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...Br, C—H...Br and C—H...O hydrogen bonds. In addition, the structure features π–π stacking interactions, with a face-to-face separation of 3.644 (3 Å between parallel benzimidazole ring systems.

  11. A perfectly aligned 63 helical tubular cuprous bromide single crystal for selective photo-catalysis, luminescence and sensing of nitro-explosives. (United States)

    Yao, Ru-Xin; Hailili, Reshalaiti; Cui, Xin; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xian-Ming


    A perfectly aligned 63 helical tubular cuprous bromide single crystal has been synthesized and characterized, which can selectively decompose negatively charged dyes of Methyl Orange (MO) and Kermes Red (KR), and the photocatalytic efficiency is higher than that of nanosized (∼25 nm) TiO2 and ZnO. The direction and magnitude of the dipole moments as well as the band structure were calculated to reveal high photocatalytic efficiency. Moreover, luminescence studies indicate that the CuBr tube materials show very strong yellowish green emissions in the solid state and emulsion even at room temperature, and exhibit extremely high detection sensitivity towards nitro-explosives via fluorescence quenching. Detectable luminescence responses were observed at a very low concentration of 20 ppm with a high quenching efficiency of 94.90%. The results suggest that they may be promising multifunctional materials for photo-catalysis, luminescence and sensing of nitro-explosives.

  12. Effects of Liposomes Charge on Extending Sciatic Nerve Blockade of N-ethyl Bromide of Lidocaine in Rats (United States)

    Yin, Qinqin; Ke, Bowen; Chen, Xiaobing; Guan, Yikai; Feng, Ping; Chen, Guo; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Wensheng; Nie, Yu


    N-methyl bromide of lidocaine (QX-314) is a potential local anaesthetic with compromised penetration through cell membranes due to its obligated positive charge. Liposomes have been widely used for drug delivery with promising efficacy and safety. Therefore we investigated the local anaesthetic effects and tissue reactions of QX-314 in combination with anionic, cationic or neutral liposomes in rat sciatic nerve block model, and explored the effects of these liposomes on cellular entry of QX-314 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The results demonstrated that anionic liposomes substantially prolonged the duration of sensory (25.7 ± 8.3 h) and motor (41.4 ± 6.1 h) blocks of QX-314, while cationic and neutral ones had little effects. Tissue reactions from QX-314 with anionic liposomes were similar to those with commonly used local anaesthetic bupivacaine. Consistent with in vivo results, the anionic liposomes produced the greatest promotion of cellular entry of QX-314 in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, ultra-long lasting nerve blocks were achieved by a mixture of QX-314 and anionic liposomes with a satisfactory safety profile, indicating a potential approach to improve postoperative pain management. The liposome-induced enhancement in cellular uptake of QX-314 may underlie the in vivo effects.

  13. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Steven L., E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Figueiredo, Taiza H., E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Prager, Eric M., E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Almeida-Suhett, Camila P., E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Apland, James P., E-mail: [Neurotoxicology Branch, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); and others


    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD{sub 50} of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD{sub 50}), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD{sub 50} soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after

  14. Cysteamine-colon and cysteamine-duodenum lesions in rats. Attenuation by gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole, sulphasalazine and methylprednisolone. (United States)

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Balen, I; Aralica, G; Gjurasin, M; Komericki, L; Perovic, D; Ziger, T; Anic, T; Prkacin, I; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Lovric-Bencic, M; Mikus, D; Staresinic, M; Aralica, J; DiBiaggio, N; Simec, Z; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Sebecic, B; Ivasovic, Z; Boban-Blagaic, A; Sjekavica, I


    Recently, we showed cysteamine-duodenal lesions without gastric acid, since they were induced also in gastrectomized rats, as in naive rats, and they were inhibited by the novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as well as standard antiulcer drugs (i.e. cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole, bromocriptine, atropine). Therefore, as an advantage of considering cysteamine as a directly acting cytotoxic agent and mentioned agents as direct cytoprotective agents, the present focus was on the ulcerogenic effect of cysteamine and protective effect of gastroduodenal antiulcer agents outside upper gastrointestinal tract (i.e. in colon). Intrarectal administration of the cysteamine (200 or 400 mg/kg b.w) produced severe colon lesions (i.e. transmural inflammation with serosal involvement) in rats (30 min-72 h-experimental period), apparently distinctive from smaller lesions after non-specific irritant enema [diluted HCl solution, pH 3.8 (adjusted to pH of cysteamine solution (pH 3.8)]. All of the tested antiulcer agents were applied simultaneously with cysteamine enema (8 cm from the anus, in a volume of the 1.0 ml/rat) intraperitoneally (i.p.), intragastrically (i.g.) or intrarectally (i.r.). Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w.), given in either regimen, previously shown to have, besides others, a particular beneficial activity just in the intestinal mucosa, inhibited these cysteamine colon lesions (assessed after 30 min, 60 min, 180 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h following cysteamine in a dose of either 200 or 400 mg/kg i.r.). Cysteamine-colon lesions were also attenuated by standard antiulcer agents (mg/kg b.w.), given i.p., i.g., or i.r., such as ranitidine (10), cimetidine (50), omeprazole (10), atropine (10), together with methylprednisolone (1), and sulphasalazine (50, i.r.), assessed 30 min following application of 200 mg of cysteamine. Finally, standard cysteamine duodenal lesions (assessed 24 h after a subcutaneous application of 400 mg/kg of cysteamine) were

  15. A combined solid-state NMR and X-ray crystallography study of the bromide ion environments in triphenylphosphonium bromides. (United States)

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Korobkov, Ilia; Bryce, David L


    Multinuclear ((31)P and (79/81)Br), multifield (9.4, 11.75, and 21.1 T) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments are performed for seven phosphonium bromides bearing the triphenylphosphonium cation, a molecular scaffold found in many applications in chemistry. This is undertaken to fully characterise their bromine electric field gradient (EFG) tensors, as well as the chemical shift (CS) tensors of both the halogen and the phosphorus nuclei, providing a rare and novel insight into the local electronic environments surrounding them. New crystal structures, obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction, are reported for six compounds to aid in the interpretation of the NMR data. Among them is a new structure of BrPPh(4), because the previously reported one was inconsistent with our magnetic resonance data, thereby demonstrating how NMR data of non-standard nuclei can correct or improve X-ray diffraction data. Our results indicate that, despite sizable quadrupolar interactions, (79/81)Br magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful characterisation tool that allows for the differentiation between chemically similar bromine sites, as shown through the range in the characteristic NMR parameters. (35/37)Cl solid-state NMR data, obtained for an analogous phosphonium chloride sample, provide insight into the relationship between unit cell volume, nuclear quadrupolar coupling constants, and Sternheimer antishielding factors. The experimental findings are complemented by gauge-including projector-augmented wave (GIPAW) DFT calculations, which substantiate our experimentally determined strong dependence of the largest component of the bromine CS tensor, δ(11), on the shortest Br-P distance in the crystal structure, a finding that has possible application in the field of NMR crystallography. This trend is explained in terms of Ramsey's theory on paramagnetic shielding. Overall, this work demonstrates how careful NMR studies of underexploited exotic nuclides, such

  16. Headgroup effects on the Krafft temperatures and self-assembly of ω-hydroxy and ω-carboxy hexadecyl quaternary ammonium bromide bolaform amphiphiles: micelles versus molecular clusters? (United States)

    Holder, Simon J; Sriskantha, Bruntha C; Bagshaw, Stephen A; Bruce, Ian J


    Eight bolaform amphiphiles were synthesised and characterised; 4 α,ω-hydroxy-alkane trialkyl (and pyridyl) ammonium bromides and 4 α,ω-carboxy-alkane trialkyl (and pyridyl) ammonium bromides where the alkyl groups were methyl, ethyl and propyl. Four of these represented new compounds. Overall the Krafft temperatures (T(K)) of the eight amphiphiles were high, with 6 of the eight possessing T(K)s greater than 45 °C. Thus most of the amphiphiles could only expect to find applications at raised temperatures limiting their potential utility. However in addition to the previously reported α,ω-hydroxy-hexadecyl triethylammonium bromide (2b) with a T(K) of 19.1 °C, another amphiphile, α,ω-carboxy-hexadecyl tripropylammonium bromide (2c) has been identified with a T(K) near ambient temperatures (T(K) of 22.1 °C). This provides an acid functional ammonium bolaform amphiphile that micellises at ambient temperatures to complement the hydroxyl derivative. A correlation between T(K) and the product of the enthalpies and T(m)s of the compounds was observed for 7 of the eight compounds. No correlation between the amphiphile critical micelle concentrations (cmc) and T(K)s was observed confirming previous reports that T(K) values are predominantly determined by crystalline stability rather than solubility. Considerable differences were observed between the various amphiphile T(K)s at different pHs but no clear trend was apparent for the various compounds (despite the degree to which the compounds' carboxylic acid and hydroxyl functionalities were likely to be ionised). The cmcs for the amphiphiles were an order of magnitude larger than those for analogous mono-ammonium amphiphiles with little difference in between the hydroxyl- and carboxy-functionalised compounds. The aggregation numbers (N(agg)) obtained for all compounds were very low (N(agg)bolaforms were in the range 1.0-1.4 nm whereas those for the carboxy-compounds were in the range 2.1-2.4 nm. These results

  17. 浅析抢救有机磷中毒次生阿托品过量%Analysis of secondary consequences of atropine overdose in the rescue of organophosphate poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:为了更好地避免有机磷中毒抢救中因应用阿托品过量产生的次生后果.方法:筛查出236例有机磷中毒患者中,因抢救有机磷中毒使用阿托品过量(中毒)的 32 例临床资料.结果:30 例病人经调整阿托品用量及积极综合对症治疗后最终痊愈出院,两例既往有糖尿病的患者因合并肺部感染死于呼吸衰竭.结论:正确地应用阿托品是抢救成功的关键.%Objective: To avoid the secondary consequences of atropine overdose in the rescue of organophosphate poisoning. Methods: The clinical data of 32 case treated with atropine overdose was selected among 236 cases of organophosphate poisoning. Results: 30 cases of patients after adjusting the dosage of atropine and active comprehensive symptomatic treatment eventually recovered and discharged, while 2 cases with diabetes combined with pulmonary infection died of respiratory failure. Conclusion: The correct application of atropine is a key to the success of the rescue.

  18. Apoptosis and DNA Methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Huan X.; Hackett, James A. [MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Nestor, Colm [MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Breakthrough Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Dunican, Donncha S.; Madej, Monika; Reddington, James P. [MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Pennings, Sari [Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); Harrison, David J. [Breakthrough Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Meehan, Richard R., E-mail: [MRC Human Genetics Unit, IGMM, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom); Breakthrough Research Unit, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom)


    Epigenetic mechanisms assist in maintaining gene expression patterns and cellular properties in developing and adult tissues. The molecular pathology of disease states frequently includes perturbation of DNA and histone methylation patterns, which can activate apoptotic pathways associated with maintenance of genome integrity. This perspective focuses on the pathways linking DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG binding proteins to apoptosis, and includes new bioinformatic analyses to characterize the evolutionary origin of two G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylases, MBD4 and TDG.

  19. Apoptosis and DNA Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Meehan


    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms assist in maintaining gene expression patterns and cellular properties in developing and adult tissues. The molecular pathology of disease states frequently includes perturbation of DNA and histone methylation patterns, which can activate apoptotic pathways associated with maintenance of genome integrity. This perspective focuses on the pathways linking DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG binding proteins to apoptosis, and includes new bioinformatic analyses to characterize the evolutionary origin of two G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylases, MBD4 and TDG.

  20. Comparison of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide versus salbutamol alone in the treatment of acute severe asthma. (United States)

    Hossain, A S; Barua, U K; Roy, G C; Sutradhar, S R; Rahman, I; Rahman, G


    The use of nebulized Ipratropium bromide, quaternary anticholinergic bronchodilators in combination with beta-agonist for the treatment of acute asthma in adults is controversial. In a view of different recommendation the present study is undertaken in Bangladeshi patients. Combination of inhaled Ipratropium bromide and Salbutamol provides greater bronchodilatation than mono therapy with Salbutamol alone in acute severe asthma. Patients of severe asthma (PEFR Salbutamol only) and case (Salbutamol + Ipratropium bromide) group. After measurement of peak expiratory flow, patient received 3 doses of 2.5 mg Salbutamol (n=40) only or 3 doses of both 2.5mg Salbutamol and 500mcg Ipratropium bromide at an interval of 20 minutes (n=40) through a jet nebulizer. Peak flow was reassessed 30 & 60 minutes after treatment. Peak flow at baseline was similar in two groups. Then at 30 minutes after nebulization, the mean±SD percentage increase in peak flow was greater in combination group (60.01±35.01%) than Salbutamol group (44.47±25.03%) with difference of 16% (p=0.025). At 60 minutes the percentage increase in peak flow was about 32% greater in combination group than Salbutamol group (94.44±33.70% vs. 62.57±29.26%, p=0.000) and combination group reached percentage predicted peak flow more than 60% while Sabutamol group did not. Ipratropium Bromide and Salbutamol nebulized combinedly have better bronchodilating effect than Salbultamol alone in acute severe asthma.

  1. Mepenzolate bromide promotes diabetic wound healing by modulating inflammation and oxidative stress. (United States)

    Zheng, Yongjun; Wang, Xingtong; Ji, Shizhao; Tian, Song; Wu, Haibin; Luo, Pengfei; Fang, He; Wang, Li; Wu, Guosheng; Xiao, Shichu; Xia, Zhaofan


    Diabetic wounds are characterized by persistent inflammation and the excessive production of reactive oxygen species, thus resulting in impaired wound healing. Mepenzolate bromide, which was originally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in clinical settings, has recently been shown to display beneficial effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis of a mouse model by inhibiting inflammatory responses and reducing oxidative stress. However,the role of mepenzolate bromide in diabetic wound healing is still unclear. In this study, full-thickness excisional skin wounds were created on the backs of db/db mice, and mepenzolate bromide was topically applied to the wound bed. We found that mepenzolate bromide significantly promoted diabetic wound healing by measuring wound closure rate and histomorphometric analyses. Further studies showed that inflammation was inhibited by assessing the number of macrophages and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-healing cytokines in the wounds. Furthermore, oxidative stress was reduced by monitoring the levels of MDA and H2O2 and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in the wounds. These results demonstrated the potential application of mepenzolate bromide for treating diabetic ulcers and other chronic wounds in clinics.

  2. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to 1-bromopropane by means of urinalysis for 1-bromopropane and bromide ion. (United States)

    Kawai, T; Takeuchi, A; Miyama, Y; Sakamto, K; Zhang, Z W; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M


    The purposes of the present study are (1) to develop a sensitive analytical method to measure 1-bromopropane (1-BP) in urine, (2) to examine if 1-BP or bromide ion (Br) in urine is a useful biomarker of exposure to 1-BP, and (3) to identify the lowest 1-BP exposure concentration the method thus established can biomonitor. A factory survey was carried out on Friday, and 33 workers (all men) in cleaning and painting workshops participated; each worker was equipped with a diffusive sampler (carbon cloth KF-1500 as an adsorbent) to monitor 1-BP vapour for an 8-h shift, and offered a urine sample at the end of the shift for measurement of 1-BP and Br in urine. In addition, 10 non-exposed men offered urine samples as controls. The performance of the carbon cloth diffusive sampler was examined to confirm that the sampler is suitable for monitoring time-weighted average 1-BP vapour exposure. A head-space GC technique was employed for analysis of 1-BP in urine, whereas Br in urine was analysed by ECD-GC after derivatization to methyl bromide. The workers were exposed to vapours of seven other solvents (i.e. toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, acetone, etc.) in addition to 1-BP vapour; the 1-BP vapour concentration was 1.4 ppm as GM and 28 ppm as the maximum. Multiple regression analysis however showed that 1-BP was the only variable that influenced urinary 1-BP significantly. There was a close correlation between 1-BP in urine and 1-BP in air; the correlation coefficient (r) was >0.9 with a narrow variation range, and the regression line passed very close to the origin so that 2 ppm 1-BP exposure can be readily biomonitored. The correlation of Br in urine with 1-BP in air was also significant, but the r (about 0.7) was smaller than that for 1-BP, and the background Br level was also substantial (about 8 mg l(-1)). Thus, it was concluded that 1-BP in end-of-shift urine is a reliable biomarker of occupational exposure to 1-BP vapour, and that Br in urine is less reliable.

  3. Methylated β-Cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Westh, Peter; Madsen, Jens Christian


    groups at O2 promote complexation by extending the hydrophobic cavity. Like in the case of 2-hydroxypropylated cyclodextrins, the methyl substituents cause an increased release of ordered water from the hydration shell of the bile salts, resulting in a strong increase in both the enthalpy and the entropy...

  4. Salty glycerol versus salty water surface organization: bromide and iodide surface propensities. (United States)

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C


    Salty NaBr and NaI glycerol solution interfaces are examined in the OH stretching region using broadband vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are used to further understand the VSFG spectroscopic signature. The VSFG spectra of salty glycerol solutions reveal that bromide and iodide anions perturb the interfacial glycerol organization in a manner similar as that found in aqueous halide salt solutions, thus confirming the presence of bromide and iodide anions at the glycerol surface. Surface tension measurements are consistent with the surface propensity suggested by the VSFG data and also show that the surface excess increases with increasing salt concentration, similar to that of water. In addition, iodide is shown to have more surface prevalence than bromide, as has also been determined from aqueous solutions. These results suggest that glycerol behaves similarly to water with respect to surface activity and solvation of halide anions at its air/liquid interface.

  5. A study of the interaction between ethidium bromide and rye chromatin: comparison with calf thymus chromatin. (United States)

    LaRue, H; Pallotta, D


    We studied the interaction of ethidium bromide with rye and calf thymus chromatin. Both types of chromatin have the same dye accessibility, which is about 50% of that of DNA. From this result we conclude that the molecular structure of these two chromatins is similar. For rye, the extraction of H1 produces no change in the binding of ethidium bromide. The subsequent extraction of H2A and H2B produces a 14% increase in the binding, and the removal of H3 and H4, another 54% increase. At this stage, the number of binding sites is still less than that of DNA. This is presumably due to the presence of some tightly bound non-histones. Thus, the arginine-rich histones and the tightly bound non-histones are most responsible for limiting the binding of ethidium bromide to rye chromatin.

  6. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena


    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoion......The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate...

  7. Comparison of injection drotaverine and injection valethamate bromide on duration and course of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya Rajendra Changede


    Results: The mean duration of active phase of first stage of labor was significantly shorter in the drotaverine and valethamate bromide groups as compared to control group in both primigravida and multigravida patients. Conclusions: The rate of cervical dilatation under the influence of valethamate bromide and drotaverine is significantly higher as compared to control group. In each group dilatation was faster in multigravida patients as compared to primigravida and it was fastest in the drotaverine group. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1836-1842

  8. Bromidotetrakis(2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN3copper(II bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Godlewska


    Full Text Available The CuII ion in the title molecular salt, [CuBr(C5H8N24]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four N atoms of imidazole ligands and one bromide anion in the apical position. In the crystal, the ions are linked by N—H...Br hydrogen bonds involving both the coordinating and the free bromide species as acceptors. A C—H...Br interaction is also observed. Overall, a three-dimensional network results.

  9. Bromidotetra-kis-(2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN (3))copper(II) bromide. (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Kelm, Harald; Krüger, Hans-Jörg; Dołęga, Anna


    The Cu(II) ion in the title mol-ecular salt, [CuBr(C5H8N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four N atoms of imidazole ligands and one bromide anion in the apical position. In the crystal, the ions are linked by N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds involving both the coordinating and the free bromide species as acceptors. A C-H⋯Br inter-action is also observed. Overall, a three-dimensional network results.

  10. Thermodynamic evaluation of new absorbent mixtures of lithium bromide and organic salts for absorption refrigeration machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donate, Marina; Rodriguez, Luis; Lucas, Antonio De; Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)


    Mixtures of lithium bromide and organic salts of sodium and potassium (formate, acetate and lactate) have been evaluated as alternative absorbents for absorption refrigeration machines. The main objective is to overpass the limitations of lithium bromide and improve the characteristics and the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. In order to select the mixture that presents better properties for its employment in absorption refrigeration cycles, a thermodynamic analysis have been done. Density, viscosity, enthalpies of dilution, solubility and vapour pressure data of the proposed mixtures have been measured. A simulation program has been developed to evaluate temperatures, heats exchanged in the different sections and the efficiency of the cycle. (author)

  11. Well-Defined Copper(I) Fluoroalkoxide Complexes for Trifluoroethoxylation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ronglu


    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing dinitrogen ligands were synthesized and the structure and reactivity of the complexes toward trifluoroethoxylation, pentafluoropropoxylation, and tetrafluoropropoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides were investigated. Efficiency drive: A series of copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing N,N ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized. These well-defined complexes serve as efficient reagents for the fluoroalkoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides to produce a wide range of trifluoroethyl, pentafluoropropyl, and tetrafluoropropyl (hetero)aryl ethers in good to excellent yields.

  12. Uroporphyria development in cultured chick embryo fibroblasts long-term treated with chloramphenicol and ethidium bromide. (United States)

    de Muys, J M; Morais, R


    Long-term chloramphenicol- and ethidium bromide-treated chick embryo fibroblasts synthesize large amounts of porphyrins from exogenously added delta-aminolevulinic acid. The porphyrins consist mainly of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrins and are retained within cells. Uroporphyria development is a time-dependent process which accompanies a step-wise decrease in the capacity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Upon removal of chloramphenicol from the medium, the pattern of porphyrin production readily returns to normal (mainly proto- and coproporphyrins found in the medium) while ethidium bromide-treated cells remain uroporphyric. The results suggest that impairment of mitochondrial functions in chicken by xenobiotics leads to uroporphyria development.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Tao; Hai-yang Yang; Xiang Hao; Yong-jun Xie; Hua-yu Li


    The sol-gel transition of methylcellulose (MC) solutions in the presence of ortho-methoxycinnamic acid (OMCA) or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and in the coexistence of OMCA and CTAB was determined by the rheological measurement.It has been found that the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solutions increases linearly with the concentration of either OMCA or CTAB in solution,respectively.However,in the coexistence of OMCA and CTAB,the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solutions remains invariable,independent of the concentration of CTAB in solution.The experimental results show that OMCA has priority to adsorb on the methyl group of MC chains to form polymer-bound aggregates.In particular,these aggregates inhibit the hydrophobic interaction between CTAB and the methyl group of MC chains completely.Taking into account the fact that OMCA is almost insoluble in MC-free solutions but dissolves very well in aqueous MC solutions,we propose the formation of the core-shell architecture prompted by OMCA and the methyl group of MC chains,with the methyl group of MC chains serving as the core and the self-assembly of OMCA molecules serving as the shell.Obviously,the formation of the core-shell structure increases the solubility of OMCA,improves the stability of methyl groups of MC chains at high temperatures and inhibits the hydrophobic interaction between CTAB and the methyl group of MC chains in solution.The abnormal behavior relating to the sol-gel transition of MC solutions in the presence of OMCA or in the coexistence of OMCA and CTAB is therefore explained.Upon UV irradiation,the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solutions in the presence of OMCA,or in the coexistence of OMCA and CTAB,decreases notably.However,the dependence of the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solutions as a function of OMCA concentration,or CTAB concentration in the presence of OMCA,does not change after UV irradiation.

  14. O-Methyl cyclolaudenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Hussain


    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 3-methoxy-24-methyl-9,19-cyclolanost-25-ene, C32H54O, is a triterpenoid which has been isolated from Skimmia laureola. The three six-membered rings adopt chair, slightly distorted half-chair and distorted boat conformations, and the five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation. All the rings are trans fused.

  15. A New Route to Z-5-Fluoro-2-methyl-1-(p-methylsulfinylbenzylidene)-3-indenylacetic Acid and Its X-ray Diffraction Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhuo; CHEN Chao-Sen; JIN Gui-Fang; ZHAO Jing-Wei; ZHU Shi-Zheng


    The title compound (Sulindac) was prepared from the corresponding sulfinyl compound p-methylsulfinylbenzyl bromide by four-step reaction. The sole product (Z)-5-fuoror-2-methyl-1-(p-methylsulfinylbenzylidene)-3-indenyl acetic acid (Sulindac) was obtained and the E isomer of it was not found. X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis showed that the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding and weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding coexisted in Sulindac.

  16. Study of the n-methyl-d-aspartate antagonistic properties of anticholinergic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough, J.H.; Shih, T.M.


    A study of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonistic properties of anticholinergic drugs. PHARMACOL BIOCHEM BEHAV. 51(2/3) 249-253, 1995. Drugs that act at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex have the ability to terminate nerve agent-induced seizures and modulate the neuropathologic consequences of agent exposure. Drugs with mixed anticholinergic and anti-NMDA properties potentially provide an ideal class of compounds for development as anticonvulsant treatments for nerve agent casualties. The present experiment evaluated the potential NMDA antagonist activity of 11 anticholinergic drugs by determining whether pretreatment with the compound was capable of protecting mice from the lethal effects of NMDA. The following anticholinergic drugs antagonized NMDA lethality and are ranked according to their potency: mecamylamine > procyclidine = benactyzine > biperiden > tribexyphenidyl. The anticholinergics atropine, aprophen, azaprophen, benztropine, 3-quinudidinyl benzilate (QNB), and scopolamine failed to show NMDA antagonist properties. In addition, and unexpectedly, diazepam, ethanol, and pentobarbital were also shown to be capable of antagonizing NMDA lethality over a certain range of doses. The advantages and limitations of using antagonism of NMDA lethality in mice as a bioassay for determining the NMDA antagonist properties of drugs are also discussed.

  17. SYBR safe(TM) efficiently replaces ethidium bromide in Aspergillus fumigatus gene disruption. (United States)

    Canela, H M S; Takami, L A; Ferreira, M E S


    Invasive aspergillosis is a disease responsible for high mortality rates, caused mainly by Aspergillus fumigatus. The available drugs are limited and this disease continues to occur at an unacceptable frequency. Gene disruption is essential in the search for new drug targets. An efficient protocol for A. fumigatus gene disruption was described but it requires ethidium bromide, a genotoxic agent, for DNA staining. Therefore, the present study tested SYBR safe(TM), a non-genotoxic DNA stain, in A. fumigatus gene disruption protocol. The chosen gene was cipC, which has already been disrupted successfully in our laboratory. A deletion cassette was constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used in A. fumigatus transformation. There was no statistical difference between the tested DNA stains. The success rate of S. cerevisiae transformation was 63.3% for ethidium bromide and 70% for SYBR safe(TM). For A. fumigatus gene disruption, the success rate for ethidium bromide was 100 and 97% for SYBR safe(TM). In conclusion, SYBR safe(TM) efficiently replaced ethidium bromide, making this dye a safe and efficient alternative for DNA staining in A. fumigatus gene disruption.

  18. Measurement and Computation of Movement of Bromide Ions and Carbofuran in Ridged HUmic-Sandy Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.


    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. R


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Shepel


    Full Text Available This communication is devoted to the elaboration of a new optimal technique of infrared spectra registration of activated carbons in potassium bromide pellets. Authors investigated the dependence of the intensity of the least overlapping infrared bands of activated carbons on the conditions of preparation, recording of the spectrum, and the degree of homogenization with KBr.

  20. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of bromide by periodate in aqueous acidic solution. (United States)

    Szél, Viktor; Csekő, György; Horváth, Attila K


    The periodate–bromide reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically mainly in excess of bromide ion, monitoring the formation of the total amount of bromine at 450 nm at acidic buffered conditions and at a constant ionic strength in the presence of a phosphoric acid/dihydrogen phosphate buffer. The stoichiometry of the reaction was established to be strictly IO4(–) + 2Br(–) + 2H(+) → Br2 + IO3(–) + H2O. The formal kinetic order of the reactants was found to be perfectly one and two in the cases of periodate and bromide, respectively, but that of the hydrogen ion lies between one and two. We have also provided experimental evidence that dihydrogen phosphate accelerates the formation of bromine, suggesting the appearance of strong buffer assistance. On the basis of the experiments, a simple two-step kinetic model is proposed involving BrIO3 as a key intermediate that perfectly explains all of the experimental findings. Furthermore, we have also shown that in huge excess of bromide, the apparent rate coefficient obtained from the individual curve fitting method of the absorbance–time series is necessarily independent of the initial periodate concentration that may falsely be interpreted as the rate of bromine formation is also independent of the concentration of periodate.

  1. Palladium Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-coupling Reaction in Molten Tetra-n-butylammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU, Yue(邹岳); WANG, Quan-Rui(王全瑞); TAO, Feng-Gang(陶凤岗); DING, Zong-Biao(丁宗彪)


    A practical procedure for palladium catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of arylboronic acids with aryl halides, including aryl chlorides in molten tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) was developed. The reaction exhibits high efficiency and functional group tolerance. The recovery of the catalyst and molten n-Bu4NBr was also investigated.

  2. Experimental study of negative temperatures in lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating machines (United States)

    Stepanov, K. I.; Mukhin, D. G.; Alekseenko, S. V.; Volkova, O. V.


    The authors have developed a method and presented experimental data for obtaining negative temperatures of evaporation in lithium-bromide absorption chillers driven by heat recovery. It has been found that the attainable temperature of the refrigerated medium is the value of -5 °C.

  3. Strontium and bromide as tracers in X-ray microanalysis of biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wroblewski, J.; Sagstroem, S.M.; Mulders, H.; Roomans, G.M. (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))


    Since energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis cannot distinguish between isotopes of the same element, alternative methods have to be used to get information similar to that obtained in experiments with radioactive tracers. In the present study, strontium was used as a tracer for calcium, and bromide as a tracer for chloride. Rats were injected with strontium chloride in vivo, and the uptake of strontium in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland was studied. Eventually a Sr/Ca ratio of 0.3 was reached. In some animals, secretion of mucus had been elicited by stimulation with isoproterenol 4 h prior to injection of strontium chloride. Exchange of calcium for strontium was enhanced by prior injection with isoproterenol. In a second experiment, rats were injected with sodium bromide, and the uptake of bromide by the submandibular acinar cells was followed in time, both in pilocarpine-stimulated and unstimulated glands. Under the experimental conditions, bromide was rapidly taken up by the cells, and the cellular Br/Cl ratio was close to that found in serum. Submandibular glands take up Br somewhat faster than other tissues (liver, heart muscle, skeletal muscle). The uptake of Br in pancreatic acinar cells was studied in vitro. These experiments showed a 1:1 ratio (molar) exchange of Cl for Br.

  4. Study of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of synthetic benzyl bromides, ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives (United States)

    Shakhatreh, Muhamad Ali K; Al-Smadi, Mousa L; Khabour, Omar F; Shuaibu, Fatima A; Hussein, Emad I; Alzoubi, Karem H


    Several applications of chalcones and their derivatives encouraged researchers to increase their synthesis as an alternative for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial and fungal infections. In the present study, chalcone derivatives were synthesized through cross aldol condensation reaction between 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzaldehyde and multiarm aromatic ketones. The multiarm aromatic ketones were synthesized through nucleophilic substitution reaction between 4-hydroxy acetophenone and benzyl bromides. The benzyl bromides, multiarm aromatic ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives were evaluated for their activities against eleven clinical pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and three pathogenic fungi by the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microbroth dilution technique. The results of the present study demonstrated that benzyl bromide derivatives have strong antibacterial and antifungal properties as compared to synthetic chalcone derivatives and ketones. Benzyl bromides (1a and 1c) showed high ester activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi but moderate activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, these compounds may be considered as good antibacterial and antifungal drug discovery. However, substituted ketones (2a–b) as well as chalcone derivatives (3a–c) showed no activity against all the tested strains except for ketone (2c), which showed moderate activity against Candida albicans. PMID:27877017

  5. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water. (United States)

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary


    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Cross-linked, hydrophobically associating homo- and copolymers were synthesized by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers with a small amount of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The cross-linked h

  7. Mild Pd-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of (hetero)aryl bromides with a palladacycle precatalyst. (United States)

    Friis, Stig D; Skrydstrup, Troels; Buchwald, Stephen L


    A palladacyclic precatalyst is employed to cleanly generate a highly active XantPhos-ligated Pd-catalyst. Its use in low temperature aminocarbonylations of (hetero)aryl bromides provides access to a range of challenging products in good to excellent yields with low catalyst loading and only a slight excess of CO. Some products are unattainable by traditional carbonylative coupling.

  8. Sn-free Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of glycosyl bromides with activated alkenes. (United States)

    Gong, Hegui; Andrews, R Stephen; Zuccarello, Joseph L; Lee, Stephen J; Gagné, Michel R


    A mild, stereoselective method for the Ni-catalyzed synthesis of alpha-C-alkylglycosides is reported. This approach entails the reductive coupling of glycosyl bromides with activated alkenes at room temperature, with low alkene loading as an important feature. Diastereoselective coupling with 2-substituted acrylate derivatives was made possible through the use of 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol as a proton source.


    Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we investigated the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from high bromide waters (2 mg/L) treated with chlorine or chlorine dioxide used in combination with chlorine and chloramines. This study represents the first comp...

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Aryl Bromides with N-Substituted Cyanamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lian, Zhong; Friis, Stig D.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;


    The palladium(0)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction of aryl bromides, carbon monoxide, and N-alkyl cyan­amides has been developed employing a two-chamber system with ex situ generation of carbon monoxide from a silacarboxylic acid. The reactions proceeded well and were complete with a re...

  11. Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Xie, Fang-Yan; Zhao, Ni; Wong, Ching-Ping


    Mixed iodide-bromide (I-Br) organolead perovskites are of great interest for both single junction and tandem solar cells since the optical bandgap of the materials can be tuned by varying the bromine to iodine ratio. Yet, it remains unclear how bromine incorporation modifies the properties of the pe

  12. Dielectric relaxation losses in lead chloride and lead bromide: Localized dipoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Volger, J.


    A further analysis of previous reported measurements of dielectric relaxation losses in lead chloride and lead bromide crystals shows that the dipoles may occupy several energetically different positions, giving rise to localization of the dipoles and anomalous behaviour of the susceptibility. This

  13. Methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella


    Full Text Available

    The development of HCC is a complex, multistep, multistage process. The molecular pathogenesis of HCC appears to involve multiple genetic aberrations in the molecular control of hepatocyte proliferation, differentiation and death and the maintenance of genomic integrity. This process is influenced by the cumulative activation and inactivation of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other genes. p53, a tumor suppressor gene, is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. There is also a striking sequence specific binding and induction of mutations by AFB1 at codon 249 of p53 in HCC.

    Epigenetic alterations are also involved in cancer development and progression. Methylation of promoter CpG islands is associated with inhibition of transcriptional initiation and permanent silencing of downstream genes.

    It is now known that most important tumor suppressor genes are inactivated, not only by mutations and deletions but also by promoter methylation. Several studies indicated that p16, p15, RASSF1A, MGMT, and GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation are prevalent in HCC. In addition, geographic variation in the methylation status of tumor DNA indicates that environmental factors may influence the frequent and concordant degree of hypermethylation in multiple genes in HCC and that epigeneticenvironmental interactions may be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. We have found significant relationships between promoter methylation and AFB1-DNA adducts confirming the impact of environmental exposures on gene methylation.

    DNA isolated from serum or plasma of cancer patients frequently contains the same genetic and

  14. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao


    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  15. Methylation profiling using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and tiling array hybridization. (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi-Hung; Lee, Tin-Lap; Rennert, Owen M; Chan, Wai-Yee


    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates development and plays a role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. It is dynamically changed during germline development. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) is an efficient, cost-effective method for locus-specific and genome-wide analysis. Methylated DNA fragments are enriched by a 5-methylcytidine-recognizing antibody, therefore allowing the analysis of both CpG and non-CpG methylation. The enriched DNA fragments can be amplified and hybridized to tiling arrays covering CpG islands, promoters, or the entire genome. Comparison of different methylomes permits the discovery of differentially methylated regions that might be important in disease- or tissue-specific expression. Here, we describe an established MeDIP protocol and tiling array hybridization method for profiling methylation of testicular germ cells.

  16. Event extraction for DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohta Tomoko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts including a representative sample of all PubMed citations relevant to DNA methylation, and introduce manual annotation for this corpus marking nearly 3000 gene/protein mentions and 1500 DNA methylation and demethylation events. We retrain a state-of-the-art event extraction system on the corpus and find that automatic extraction of DNA methylation events, the methylated genes, and their methylation sites can be performed at 78% precision and 76% recall. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that reliable extraction methods for DNA methylation events can be created through corpus annotation and straightforward retraining of a general event extraction system. The introduced resources are freely available for use in research from the GENIA project homepage

  17. Kinetics of Chlorination of Benzophenone-3 in the Presence of Bromide and Ammonia. (United States)

    Abdallah, Pamela; Deborde, Marie; Dossier Berne, Florence; Karpel Vel Leitner, Nathalie


    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chlorination on the degradation of one of the most commonly used UV filters (benzophenone-3 (BP-3)) and the effects of bromide and ammonia on the kinetics of BP-3 elimination. Bromide and ammonia are rapidly converted to bromine and chloramines during chlorination. At first, the rate constants of chlorine, bromine and monochloramine with BP-3 were determined at various pH levels. BP-3 was found to react rapidly with chlorine and bromine, with values of apparent second order rate constants equal to 1.25(±0.14) × 10(3) M(-1)·s(-1) and 4.04(±0.54) × 10(6) M(-1)·s(-1) at pH 8.5 for kChlorine/BP-3 and kBromine/BP-3, respectively, whereas low monochloramine reactivity was observed (kNH2Cl/BP-3 = 0.112 M(-1)·s(-1)). To assess the impact of the inorganic content of water on BP-3 degradation, chlorination experiments with different added concentrations of bromide and/or ammonia were conducted. Under these conditions, BP-3 degradation was found to be enhanced in the presence of bromide due to the formation of bromine, whereas it was inhibited in the presence of ammonia. However, the results obtained were pH dependent. Finally, a kinetic model considering 18 reactions was developed using Copasi to estimate BP-3 degradation during chlorination in the presence of bromide and ammonia.

  18. Phase Transfer Catalysis:Oxidation of 2-Methyl-1-butanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Sankarshana; E.Yadagiri; J.S.N.Murthy


    abstract In liquid-liquid systems, the substrates in the liquids are inaccessible to each other for the reaction. By adding a smal quantity of phase transfer catalyst, the reaction can be made accessible and accelerated. The present study involves the phase transfer catalyzed oxidation of 2-methyl-1-butanol by quaternary ammonium permanganate (tricaprylyl methyl ammonium permanganate). The attempt was to compare the kinetics under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor to determine the kinetics under homogeneous conditions. A baffled borosilicate agitated reactor was used to find the enhancement factor and the kinetics under heterogeneous conditions. The rate constants determined under both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions agreed very well. The oxidation was found to be first order with respect to each of the reactants, quaternary ammonium permanganate and the alcohol, resulting in an overal second order rate expression. Aliquat336 (tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride) was found to be the best compared with the other catalysts tested (triethylbenzylammonium chloride, tetrabutylammonium bromide, tetrabutylammonium iodide and tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate) and it gave an enhancement factor of 9.8.

  19. Comparative microvascular exchange kinetics of [{sup 77}Br]bromide and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Claire [Department of Clinical Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Skehan, Stephen J.; Rolph, Susan M.; Flaxman, Mary E.; Ballinger, James R.; Bird, Nicholas J.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The plasma clearance curves of small hydrophilic solutes comprise three exponentials, consistent with a three-compartmental distribution model. A previous comparison between inulin and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that these three compartments are in series, the first being plasma and the second and third representing compartments within the extravascular space. Moreover, whilst the total distribution volumes of these two indicators were similar, the volume of the second compartment was higher for DTPA. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a solute smaller than DTPA, namely bromide, fits the hypothesis that the second space volume is an inverse function of the size of the solute. Two groups of subjects were studied: group A comprised eight patients undergoing routine diagnostic arteriography and group B, eight patients referred for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate plus two normal volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and sodium [{sup 77}Br]bromide were intravenously administered simultaneously. In group A, frequent arterial samples were obtained up to 40 min after injection, and antecubital venous samples 30 s after each arterial sample. In group B, frequent venous samples were obtained up to 280 min after injection. Volume measurements based on bromide were corrected for erythrocyte bromide accumulation. In both subject groups, the normalised venous concentration ratio of bromide to DTPA, corrected for red cell bromide uptake, was significantly less than unity in the earliest blood samples, being 0.56 (SD 0.08) at 1 min, consistent with faster diffusion of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid. Furthermore, the extraction fraction of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid in the forearm was about 0.6, higher than that of DTPA (about 0.5) in spite of red cell bromide accumulation which equilibrated with plasma bromide within 20 s and resulted in a red cell to plasma concentration ratio of 0.51 (0



    Firdaus, Maulidan; Jumina, Jumina; Anwar, Chairil


    A simple, energy-efficient, and relatively quick synthetic procedure for the synthesis of (1)-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide, based on green chemistry principles has been carried out. The synthesis was started by solvent-free reduction of p-anisaldehyde with NaBH4 to give 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in 98% yield to be followed by solvent-free treatment of the resulted alcohol with PBr3 to yield 4-methoxybenzyl bromide (86%). Furthermore, the obtained bromide was reacted with 1,1...

  1. Synthesis of polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles through a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/cyclization/reduction. (United States)

    Malik, Michał; Jarosz, Sławomir


    The synthesis of polyhydroxylated 2-allylpyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/reduction with Zn(BH4)2 is described. The stereochemical course of the reduction step is rationalized. Two of the obtained compounds are transformed into stereoisomers of naturally-occurring iminosugar (+)-lentiginosine. In an alternative approach, 2,2-diallylpyrrolidines are obtained from bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/addition of another equivalent of allylmagnesium bromide.

  2. Unexpected regiospecific formation and DNA binding of new 3-(acridin-9-yl)methyl-2-iminothiazolidin-4-ones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ján Imrich; Danica Sabolová; Mária Vilková; Júlia Kudláčová


    New 3-(acridin-9-yl)methyl-2-substituted imino-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were regiospecifically synthesized from unstable (acridin-9-yl)methyl thioureas and methyl bromoacetate (MBA) or bromoacetyl bromide (BAB). Unexpected formation of only one thiazolidinone regioisomer with both the reagents was due to a new mechanism involving a transient spiro 9,10-dihydroacridine intermediate. These results are in contrast with the reactions of acridin-9-yl thioureas with MBA/BAB that afforded two different thiazolidinone regioisomers with these reagents. UV-vis titrations, CD spectra, and fluorescence quenching have shown that new products intercalated into calf thymus (CT) DNA, and displaced ethidium bromide (EB) from a CT DNA–EB complex. Intrinsic binding constants, , and Stern-Volmer constants, , were found in the range 0.79✕105 – 2.85✕105 M−1 and 17950 – 3360M−1, respectively. The strongest binding affinity was found for an electrondonated 2-(4-methoxyphenylimino) thiazolidinone. Additional evidence for DNA intercalation was obtained from thermal denaturation studies. Gel electrophoresis has proven that thiazolidinone products nicked the supercoiled plasmid DNA in 5.0 M concentration.

  3. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters. (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D; Ingersoll, Chris G


    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response of H. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2425-2429. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  4. Facile Synthesis of Heterocycles via 2-Picolinium Bromide and Antimicrobial Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish


    Full Text Available The 2-picolinium N-ylide 4, generated in situ from the N-acylmethyl-2-picolinium bromide 3, underwent cycloaddition to N-phenylmaleimide or carbon disulfideto give the corresponding cycloadducts 6 and 8, respectively similar reactions ofcompound 3 with some electron-deficient alkenes in the presence of MnO2 yielded theproducts 11 and 12. In addition, reaction of 4 with arylidene cyanothioacetamide andmalononitrile derivatives afforded the thiophene and aniline derivatives 15 and 17,respectively. Heating of picolinium bromide 3 with triethylamine in benzene furnished 2-(2-thienylindolizine (18. The structures of the isolated products were confirmed byelemental analysis as well as by 1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and MS data. Both thestereochemistry and the regioselectivity of the studied reactions are discussed. Thebiological activity of the newly synthesized compounds was examined and showedpromising results.

  5. Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen + Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semi-Clathrate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hashimoto


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic stability and hydrogen occupancy on the hydrogen + tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrate were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopic and phase equilibrium measurements under the three-phase equilibrium condition. The structure of mixed gas hydrates changes from tetragonal to another structure around 95 MPa and 292 K depending on surrounding hydrogen fugacity. The occupied amount of hydrogen in the semi-clathrate hydrate increases significantly associated with the structural transition. Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrates can absorb hydrogen molecules by a pressure-swing without destroying the hydrogen bonds of hydrate cages at 15 MPa or over.

  6. Formation pathways of brominated products from benzophenone-4 chlorination in the presence of bromide ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Xiao; Dongbin Wei; Liping Li; Qi Liu; Huimin Zhao; Yuguo Du


    The brominated products,formed in chlorination treatment of benzophenone-4 in the presence of bromide ions,were identified,and the formation pathways were proposed.Under disinfection conditions,benzophenone-4 would undertake electrophilic substitution generating mono-or di-halogenated products,which would be oxidized to esters and further hydrolyzed to phenol derivatives.The generated catechol intermediate would be transformed into furan-like heterocyclic product.The product species were pH-dependent,while benzophenone-4 ehmination was chlorine dose-dependent.When the chlorination treatment was performed on ambient water spiked with benzophenone-4 and bromide ions,most of brominated byproducts could be detected,and the acute toxicity significantly increased as well.

  7. DNA methylation in metabolic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Zierath, Juleen R


    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity are associated with profound alterations in gene expression that are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recent reports...... have provided evidence that environmental factors at all ages could modify DNA methylation in somatic tissues, which suggests that DNA methylation is a more dynamic process than previously appreciated. Because of the importance of lifestyle factors in metabolic disorders, DNA methylation provides...... a mechanism by which environmental factors, including diet and exercise, can modify genetic predisposition to disease. This article considers the current evidence that defines a role for DNA methylation in metabolic disorders....

  8. DNA methylation and carcinogenesis. (United States)

    Lichtenstein, A V; Kisseljova, N P


    In the world of easy things truth is opposed to lie; in the world of complicated things one profound truth is opposed to another not less profound than the first. Neils Bohr The hypothesis of the exclusively genetic origin of cancer ("cancer is a disease of genes, a tumor without any damage to the genome does not exist") dominated in the oncology until recently. A considerable amount of data confirming this hypothesis was accumulated during the last quarter of the last century. It was demonstrated that the accumulation of damage of specific genes lies at the origin of a tumor and its following progression. The damage gives rise to structural changes in the respective proteins and, consequently, to inappropriate mitogenic stimulation of cells (activation of oncogenes) or to the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes that inhibit cell division, or to the combination of both (in most cases). According to an alternative (epigenetic) hypothesis that was extremely unpopular until recently, a tumor is caused not by a gene damage, but by an inappropriate function of genes ("cancer is a disease of gene regulation and differentiation"). However, recent studies led to the convergence of these hypotheses that initially seemed to be contradictory. It was established that both factors--genetic and epigenetic--lie at the origin of carcinogenesis. The relative contribution of each varies significantly in different human tumors. Suppressor genes and genes of repair are inactivated in tumors due to their damage or methylation of their promoters (in the latter case an "epimutation", an epigenetic equivalent of a mutation, occurs, producing the same functional consequences). It is becoming evident that not only the mutagens, but various factors influencing cell metabolism, notably methylation, should be considered as carcinogens.

  9. Comparison of injection drotaverine and injection valethamate bromide on duration and course of labor


    Pradnya Rajendra Changede


    Background: Numerous drugs have been used to shorten the active phase of labor. How rationale is it to use these drugs to shorten the active phase of labor? Do they really shorten the duration of labor? What adverse effects do they have on the baby and the mother? These questions were the basis to perform the present study of comparing two of such drugs, injection drotaverine and injection Valethamate bromide with control subjects. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in a terti...

  10. Eco-friendly synthesis of 2-substituted benzothiazoles catalyzed by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in water


    Yang, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Chun-Mei; Lin,Shao-Miao; Chen,Jiu-Xi; Ding,Jin-Chang; Wu,Hua-Yue; Su,Wei-Ke


    A series of 2-substituted benzothiazoles have been synthesized by the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol with aldehydes (RCHO: R = Alkyl, Aryl, Heteroaryl, 2-Arylformyl) in the presence of a catalytic amount of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) "on water" by a one-pot procedure without additional organic solvents and oxidants. Thereinto, 2-alkylbenzothiazoles were synthesized in high yields and 2-arylformylbenzothiazoles were obtained from the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol with arylfo...

  11. Effect of lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide in exercise-induced asthma (United States)

    Tullett, WM; Patel, KR; Berkin, KE; Kerr, JW


    Eight patients with exercise-induced asthma participated in a single-blind trial comparing the protective effects of inhaled lignocaine (estimated dose 48 mg), sodium cromoglycate (estimated dose 12 mg), and ipratropium bromide (estimated dose 120 μg). Saline was used as control. Effects were assessed from the mean maximal percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and maximal mid-expiratory flow rates (MMFR) after they had run on a treadmill for eight minutes. There was no significant change in baseline FEV1 or MMFR before each agent was given. Saline, lignocaine, and sodium cromoglycate did not alter the mean baseline FEV1 or MMFR significantly. Ipratropium caused bronchodilatation with an increase of 16·3% in the mean FEV1 (p<0·001) and of 43·4% in the mean MMFR (p<0·05). After exercise the maximal percentage falls in FEV1 (means and SEM) after saline, lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide were 38·1% (5·0), 34·5% (6·1), 11·3% (3·7), and 19·3% (7·4) respectively. Similarly, the mean maximal falls in MMFR after saline, lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide were 54·4% (5·2), 52·9% (7·7), 23·6% (6·6), and 32·1% (10·5) respectively. The inhibitory effects of sodium cromoglycate and ipratropium bromide were significant whereas lignocaine failed to produce an effect. These results suggest that mediator release is an important factor in exercise-induced asthma and that in some patients the effects of the mediators may be on the postsynaptic muscarinic receptors. Local anaesthesia of sensory vagal receptors, on the other hand, does not prevent exercise asthma and these receptors do not appear to have any important role in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. PMID:6218645

  12. Bromidotetra-kis-(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-κN)copper(II) bromide. (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Socha, Joanna; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Dołęga, Anna


    The Cu(II) atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001) through N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds.

  13. Bromidotetrakis(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-κN3copper(II bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dołęga


    Full Text Available The CuII atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C6H10N24]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001 through N—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

  14. Linear free energy relationship in reactions between diphenyl amine and benzyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba


    Rate of reaction between benzyl bromide and diphenyl amine is retarded by electron-donating groups and enhanced by electron-withdrawing groups present on the benzene ring of the substrate. Hammett's reaction constant of the reaction decreases with increase in temperature according to the equation, \\rho = -11.92 + 3.54/ T. Minimal structural effects observed are attributed to the fact that the isokinetic temperature of the reaction is close to the reaction temperature.

  15. Nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling of 2-chloropyridines with alkyl bromides. (United States)

    Everson, Daniel A; Buonomo, Joseph A; Weix, Daniel J


    The synthesis of 2-alkylated pyridines by the nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of two different electrophiles, 2-chloropyridines with alkyl bromides, is described. Compared to our previously published conditions for aryl halides, this method uses the different, more rigid bathophenanthroline ligand and is conducted at high concentration in DMF solvent. The method displays promising functional group compatibility and the conditions are orthogonal to the Stille coupling.

  16. Influence of the Amino Substituents in the Interaction of Ethidium Bromide with DNA


    Garbett, Nichola C.; Hammond, Nicholas B.; Graves, David E.


    A key step in the rational design of new DNA binding agents is to obtain a complete thermodynamic characterization of small molecule-DNA interactions. Ethidium bromide has served as a classic DNA intercalator for more than four decades. This work focuses on delineating the influence(s) of the 3- and 8-amino substituents of ethidium on the energetic contributions and concomitant fluorescent properties upon DNA complex formation. Binding affinities decrease by an order of magnitude upon the rem...

  17. The influence of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on benzalkonium chloride-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. (United States)

    Miszkiel, K A; Beasley, R; Holgate, S T


    1. Benzalkonium chloride, an antibacterial preservative that is added to nebuliser solutions, has been shown to cause bronchoconstriction when inhaled by asthmatic subjects. 2. To investigate the potential role of reflex and mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of bronchoconstriction produced by benzalkonium chloride we examined the effects of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on this response in both concentration-response and time-course studies in nine asthmatic subjects. 3. Pretreatment with inhaled ipratropium bromide (1 mg) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg) displaced the benzalkonium chloride concentration-response curves to the right by a mean 2.2 fold and 3.1 fold respectively. 4. Ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate markedly attenuated the airway response to benzalkonium chloride throughout the 45 min time course period, inhibiting the overall response by 56% and 78% respectively. 5. We conclude that benzalkonium chloride provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects through a combination of mast cell activation and stimulation of peripheral and central neural pathways. PMID:2972308

  18. Interaction of ozone and carbon dioxide with polycrystalline potassium bromide and its atmospheric implication (United States)

    Levanov, Alexander V.; Isaikina, Oksana Ya.; Maksimov, Ivan B.; Lunin, Valerii V.


    It has been discovered for the first time that gaseous ozone in the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor interacts with crystalline potassium bromide giving gaseous Br2 and solid salts KHCO3 and KBrO3. Molecular bromine and hydrocarbonate ion are the products of one and the same reaction described by the stoichiometric equation 2KBr(cr.) + O3(gas) + 2CO2(gas) + H2O(gas) → 2KHCO3(cr.) + Br2(gas) + O2(gas). The dependencies of Br2, KHCO3 and KBrO3 formation rates on the concentrations of O3 and CO2, humidity of initial gas mixture, and temperature have been investigated. A kinetic scheme has been proposed that explains the experimental regularities found in this work on the quantitative level. According to the scheme, the formation of molecular bromine and hydrocarbonate is due to the reaction between hypobromite BrO-, the primary product of bromide oxidation by ozone, with carbon dioxide and water; bromate results from consecutive oxidation of bromide ion by ozone Br- → +O3 , -O2 BrO- → +O3 , -O2 BrO2- → +O3, -O2 BrO3- .

  19. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer to Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution (United States)

    Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaji, Masuo; Suyama, Takayuki; Sekoguchi, Kotohiko

    An experimental study on enhancement of nucleate pool boiling heat tranfer by placing a sponge metal close to a plain heated surface was conducted in order to improve the heat transfer performance of the high temperature generator of absorption chiller/heater. The sponge metal has three dimensional porous mesh framework like sponge. Boiling curves of water under the atmospheric pressure were compared with those of lithium bromide aqueous solution of mass concentration 55 to 58%. Heat transfer characteristics were improved by 2 to3 times both for water and lithium bromide aqueous solution when the sponge metal was placed on the heated surface with and without cleareance. Three kinds of sponge metals were used for lithium bromide aqueous solution under the reduced pressure (24 kPa). At lower heat fluxes,#6 sponge metal which has the finest mesh and the lowest porosity shows excellent results. At high heat fluxes, however,it causes deterioration of heat transfer. Over the wide range of heat fluxes,# 4 sponge metal was found to be most suitable and the optimal clearence was determined as 0.5 mm. The sponge metal is of good practical use as a device to enhance the boiling, since no special manufacturing is required for placing it on the heated surface.

  20. Transport of bromide measured by soil coring, suction plates, and lysimeters under transient flow conditions. (United States)

    Kasteel, R.; Pütz, Th.; Vereecken, H.


    Lysimeter studies are one step within the registration procedure of pesticides. Flow and transport in these free-draining lysimeters do not reflect the field situation mainly because of the occurence of a zone of local saturation at the lower boundary (seepage face). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of flow and transport behaviour of bromide detected with different measuring devices (lysimeters, suction plates, and soil coring) by comparing experimental results with numerical simulations in heterogeneous flow domains. We applied bromide as a small pulse to the bare soil surface (Orthic Luvisol) of the three devices and the displacement of bromide was regurlarly sampled for three years under natural wheather conditions. Based on the mean breakthrough curves we observe experimentally that lysimeters have a lower effective pore-water velocity and exhibit more solute spreading resulting in a larger dispersivity than the suction plates. This can be ascribed to the artefact of the lower boundary. We performed numerical transport simulations in 2-D heterogeneous flow fields (scaling approach) choosing appropriate boundary conditions for the various devices. The simulations allow to follow the temporal evolution of flow and transport processes in the various devices and to gain additional process understanding. We conclude that the model is essentially capable to reproduce the main experimental findings only if we account for the spatial correlation structure of the hydraulic properties, i.e. soil heterogeneity.

  1. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines. (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J


    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  2. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila


    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of 2-hydroxy-N-methyl-N-phenyl-acetamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠诚; 舒万艮


    2-hydroxy-N-methyl-N-phenyl-acetamide was synthesized by using N-methylaniline, chloracetyl chloride, anhydrous sodium acetate and methanol through the acetylation, esterfication and ester interchange steps. The acetylation of N-methylaniline with chloracetyl chloride, catalyzed by triethylamide with mole ratio n(C6H5NHCH3)∶n(ClCH2C(O)Cl)∶n(N(C2H5)3)=1∶1.05∶1, the yield of 2-chloro-N-methyl-N-phenyl- acetamide(Ⅰ) was 93.8%; Then the esterification of Ⅰ with anhydrous sodium acetate in the presence of phase transfer catalyst tetrabutyl ammonia bromide gave 97.3% yield of 2-acetoxyl-N-methyl-N-phenyl-acetamide (Ⅱ); The ester interchange of with methanol catalyzed by potassium hydroxide gave 2-hydroxy-N-methyl-N-phenyl-acetamide (Ⅲ) in 96.4% yield. And the total yield was 88.0%. IR and MS spectroscopy of products were analyzed and their characteristic peaks were assigned. Combining the results of elemental analysis, the molecular structure of Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ was identified.

  4. Efficient ring-closing metathesis of alkenyl bromides: the importance of protecting the catalyst during the olefin approach. (United States)

    Gatti, Michele; Drinkel, Emma; Wu, Linglin; Pusterla, Ivano; Gaggia, Fiona; Dorta, Reto


    We present the first productive ring-closing metathesis reaction that leads to the construction of cyclic alkenyl bromides. Efficient catalysis employing commercially available Grubbs II catalyst is possible through appropriate modification of the starting bromoalkene moiety.

  5. Synthesis of 3-Allyl-4-phosphachromones by Cyclized Coupling of Ethyl o-Hydroxyphenyl(ethynyl)phosphinate with Allyl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    3-Allyl-4-phosphachromones as the phosphorus analogues of chromone were firstly prepared in good yields and high regioselectivity by the palladium(Ⅱ)-catalyzed cyclized coupling reaction of ethyl o-hydroxyphenyl(ethynyl)-phosphinate with allyl bromide.

  6. Methylation-Specific PCR Unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks


    Full Text Available Methylation‐specific PCR (MSP is a simple, quick and cost‐effective method to analyze the DNA methylation status of virtually any group of CpG sites within a CpG island. The technique comprises two parts: (1 sodium bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosine's to uracil under conditions whereby methylated cytosines remains unchanged and (2 detection of the bisulfite induced sequence differences by PCR using specific primer sets for both unmethylated and methylated DNA. This review discusses the critical parameters of MSP and presents an overview of the available MSP variants and the (clinical applications.

  7. Different emissive states in the bulk and at the surface of methylammonium lead bromide perovskite revealed by two-photon micro-spectroscopy and lifetime measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadga Jung Karki


    Full Text Available Two photon photoluminescence (2PPL from single crystals of methyl ammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3, MAPbBr3 is studied. We observe two components in the 2PPL spectra, which we assign to the photoluminescence (PL from the carrier recombination at the band edge and the recombination due to self-trapping of excitons. The PL Stokes shift of self-trapped excitons is about 100 meV from the band-gap energy. Our measurements show that about 15% of the total PL from regions about 40 μm deep inside the crystal is due to the emission from self-trapped exciton. This contribution increases to about 20% in the PL from the regions close to the surface. Time resolved measurements of 2PPL show that the PL due to band-edge recombination has a life time of about 8 ns while the PL lifetime of self-trapped excitons is in the order of 100 ns. Quantification of self-trapped excitons in the materials used in photovoltaics is important as such excitons hinder charge separation. As our results also show that an appreciable fraction of photo-generated carriers get trapped, the results are important in rational design of photovoltaics. On the other hand, our results also show that the self-trapped excitons broaden the emission spectrum, which may be useful in designing broadband light emitting devices.

  8. 血液灌流对硫线磷和硫酸阿托品的吸附作用%Adsorption effect of Cadusafos and Atropine sulfate by hemoperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雁君; 金永久; 武文华; 张建萍; 张雪梅; 闫慧芳


    Objective To study on adsorption effect of cadusafos and atropine sulfate by hemoperfusion.Method Hemoperfusions were performed for sheep blood samples with cadusafos and atropineby through imitated extracorporeal closed circulating perfusion apparatus.Residual cadusafos was determined by gas chromatography and residual atropine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography.Result Dose of adsorption agent was 0.5,1.0 and 1.5 g,respectively.Two hours after hemoperfusion with membrane coated activated charcoal,clearance rate of cadusafos in 3 groups all exceeded 90%.and clearance rate of atropine sulfate was 61.9%,84.9%,88.9%,respectively.One and a half hours after hemoperfusion with HA230 absorption resin,clearance rate of eadusafos in 3 groups all exceeded 90%,and clearance rate of atropine sulfate was 88.0%,97.2%,98.4%,respectively.Three hours after hemoperfusion with membrane coated activated charcoal,The concentration ratio of cadusafos and atropine sulfate in blood promoted to 10.1 times,and the ratio was 6.7 times after hemoperfusion with HA230 absorption resin.Conclusion It suggested that cadusafos were mostly removed from blood after 1.5~2.0hours hemoperfusion with membrane activated charcoal or HA230 absorption resin.The concentration ratio of cadusafos and atropine sulfate in blood will increased after hemoperfusion.%目的 定量研究血液灌流对有机磷农药硫线磷和其解毒药阿托品的吸附作用.方法 模拟临床血液灌流装置,对含硫线磷和硫酸阿托品的血样进行灌流吸附,分别用毛细管气相色谱法和高效液相色谱法测定硫线磷和硫酸阿托品的残留量.结果 吸附剂用量为0.5、1.0和1.5 g,包膜活性炭在灌流2.0 h后硫线磷的清除率均能达到90%以上,硫酸阿托品的清除率依次为61.9%、84.9%和88.9%;HA230树脂在灌流1.5 h后硫线磷清除率都达到90%以上,硫酸阿托品的清除率也依次高达88.0%、97.2%和98.4%;包膜活性炭灌流3.0h后,硫

  9. 阿托品联合奥美拉唑在急性胃炎治疗中的应用效果观察%Observation on the Results of Atropine Plus Omeprazole in the Treatment of Acute Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the effect of the application of atropine combined with omeprazole in treating acute gastritis.Methods72 cases of acute gastritis were divided into two groups,the treatment group used atropine therapy plus omeprazole,control group used omeprazole alone,compared efficacy and drug safety.Results Treatment group’total effective rate was 94.4%,significantly higher than 77.8% in control group(P<0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions in the treatment group and the control group were statistically significant. Conclusion Omeprazole and atropine in the treatment of acute gastritis have significant,and can reduce adverse reactions in patients after treatment.%目的:探讨阿托品联合奥美拉唑在急性胃炎治疗中的应用效果。方法将72例急性胃炎患者分为两组,治疗组应用阿托品联合奥美拉唑治疗,对照组单纯应用奥美拉唑治疗,对比2组疗效以及用药安全性。结果治疗组治疗总有效率是94.4%,高于对照组的77.8%(P<0.05);治疗组、对照组的不良反应发生率组间对比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论阿托品联合奥美拉唑在急性胃炎治疗中的应用效果满意,且可减少患者用药后不良反应。

  10. Atropine, Stress and Human Performance (United States)


    substance use and abuse and for fitness (exercise stress test) exactly as in the first-year studies. b.2 Research design The research design was A1...Physiological Correlates. New York: Plenum Press, 705-718. 20. Callaway, E. (1984). Human information-processing: Some effects of methylphenidate , age and

  11. Metal Complexation Studies of 1-(4-Carboxy-3-hydroxy-N-methyl phenyl- amino methyl 2-methyl perimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang N. Patel


    Full Text Available Aminomethylation of 2-methyl perimidine was carried out by treating 2-methyl perimidine with formaldehyde and 4-aminosalicylic acid. The resultant compound was designed as 1-(4-caroxy-3-hydroxy-N-methyl phenylamino methyl2-methyl perimidine. The transition metal complexes of Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral studies, magnetic moment determination, molar conductivity measurement and antimicrobial activity.

  12. 磷化铝中毒抑制大鼠胆碱酯酶及阿托品和氯解磷啶的作用%Cholinesterase inhibition by aluminium phosphide poisoning in rats and effects of atropine and pralidoxime chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivani MHrRA; Sharda Shah PESHIN; Shyam Bala LALL


    AIM: To investigate the cholinesterase inhibition and effect of atropine and pralidoxime (PAM) treatment on the survival time in the rat model of aluminium phosphide (ALP) poisoning. METHODS: The rats were treated with AlP (10 mg/kg; 5.55×LD50; ig) and the survival time was noted. The effect of atropine (1 mg/kg, ip) and PAM (5 mg/kg, ip) was noted on the above. Atropine and PAM were administered 5 min after AlP. Plasma cholinesterase levels were measured spectrophotometrically in the control and AlP treated rats 30 min after administration. RESULTS: Treaanent with atropine and PAM increased the survival time by 2.5 fold (1.4 h ±0.3 h vs 3.4 h±2.5 h, P<0.01) in9 out of 15 animals and resulted in total survival of the 6 remaining animals. Plasma cholinesterase levels were inhibited by 47%, (438±74) U/L in AlP treated rats as compared tocontrol (840±90) U/L (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: This preliminary study concludes that AlP poisoning causes cholinesterase inhibition and responds to treatment with atropine and PAM.

  13. Construction of Differential-Methylation Subtractive Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu


    Full Text Available Stress-induced ROS changes DNA methylation patterns. A protocol combining methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease (MS-RE digestion with suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to construct the differential-methylation subtractive library was developed for finding genes regulated by methylation mechanism under cold stress. The total efficiency of target fragment detection was 74.64%. DNA methylation analysis demonstrated the methylation status of target fragments changed after low temperature or DNA methyltransferase inhibitor treatment. Transcription level analysis indicated that demethylation of DNA promotes gene expression level. The results proved that our protocol was reliable and efficient to obtain gene fragments in differential-methylation status.

  14. Measurement and computation of movement of bromide ions and carbofuran in ridged humic-sandy soil. (United States)

    Leistra, Minze; Boesten, Jos J T I


    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. Rainfall was supplemented by sprinkler irrigation. The distribution of the substances in the soil profile of the ridges and furrows was measured on three dates in the potato growing season. Separate ridge and furrow systems were simulated by using the pesticide emission assessment at regional and local scales (PEARL) model for pesticide behavior in soil-plant systems. The substances travelled deeper in the furrow soil than in the ridge soil, because of runoff from the ridges to the furrows. At 19 days after application, the peak of the bromide distribution was measured to be in the 0.1-0.2 m layer of the ridges, while it was in the 0.3-0.5 m layer of the furrows. After 65 days, the peak of the carbofuran distribution in the ridge soil was still in the 0.1 m top layer, while the pesticide was rather evenly distributed in the top 0.6 m of the furrow soil. The wide ranges in concentration measured with depth showed that preferential water flow and substance transport occurred in the sandy soil. Part of the bromide ion distribution was measured to move faster in soil than the computed wave. The runoff of water and pesticide from the ridges to the furrows, and the thinner root zone in the furrows, are expected to increase the risk of leaching to groundwater in ridged fields, in comparison with more level fields.


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    Full Text Available AIM To evaluate the quality of intubating conditions with Suxamethonium chloride and Rocuronium bromide for rapid sequence induction intubation and to observe the correlation between the intubating conditions and the response to single twitch stimulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study, entitled “Comparison of Rocuronium bromide and Suxamethonium chloride for use during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia was done in 50 adult patients divided into two groups and were randomly allocated Group-I: IV Rocuronium 0.9mg/kg and Group-II: IV Suxamethonium 1mg/kg. Laryngoscopy was attempted at 60 sec. and assessment of quality of intubating conditions was performed by using a Viby Mogensen Scale. Neuromuscular monitor was used to observe the correlation between the intubating conditions and the adductor pollicis response to single twitch ulnar nerve stimulation. RESULTS Intubating conditions were excellent (Score 15 in 88% of cases in Group-I whereas vocal cord position was intermediate (10- 14 in 12% of cases, in Group-II all cases could be intubated at 60 sec. (Score 15 in 100% cases. The onset of maximal blockade at adductor pollicis was found to correlate well with satisfactory intubating conditions in Group-II (Sch whereas in 20% of patients in Group-I had single twitch response (though diminished at the time of intubation. CONCLUSION Rocuronium bromide in dose of 0.9mg/kg provided neuromuscular blockade with a fast onset time and good to excellent intubating conditions at 60 sec. resembling those of Suxamethonium.

  16. Inhibition of methoxamine-induced bronchoconstriction by ipratropium bromide and disodium cromoglycate in asthmatic subjects. (United States)

    Black, J; Vincenc, K; Salome, C


    We compared the effects of pretreatment with saline, ipratropium bromide, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on bronchoconstriction induced by methoxamine--an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in asthmatic subjects. All 12 patients bronchoconstricted in response to methoxamine after saline. The PD20 (the dose of methoxamine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) ranged from 0.3-18 mumol. Ipratropium bromide (200 micrograms administered by aerosol) significantly inhibited (P less than 0.05) the response to methoxamine in all patients without producing significant changes in the mean baseline lung function. The mean PD20 for methoxamine after saline was 6.8 mumol and 95% confidence limits (CL) were 3.6, 12.7 mumol. The mean PD20 for methoxamine after ipratropium bromide was 35.4 (95% CL 28.8, 43.6) mumol. DSCG also produced significant (P less than 0.05) shifts to the right in the methoxamine dose response curves, but did not affect resting airway calibre as measured by the FEV1. The mean PD20 for methoxamine increased from 3.3 mumol (95% CL 1.1, 10.0 mumol) after saline to 25.1 mumol (95% CL 14.1, 44.6) after DSCG pretreatment. These findings suggest that alpha-adrenoceptors in the airways of asthmatic subjects may be located at sites other than smooth muscle--possibly on mast cells but more likely on nerve endings and/or parasympathetic ganglia. PMID:2992563

  17. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riet-Correa G.


    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Dev


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with burn injury drug pharmacology will be altered and this poses special anaesthetic challenge when an subcutaneous injection of a non- depolarizing muscle relaxant occurs in such a patient. Small studies remain an important source of knowledge and hence this study aims to provide information on the anaesthetic management in a case of accidental subcutaneous injection of vecuronium bromide in a burns patient. PRESENTATION, DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT: A 22 year young male with 4 days old hot water induced grade 1 burns involving 45% of body surface area was posted for burns dressing. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and vecuronium bromide through an external jugular vein to aid tracheal intubation. As the patient was not anaesthetized even after 10 minutes routine check lead to the discovery of fullness at the tip of the intravenous catheter indicating an extravasation of the drugs. Hence the other external jugular vein was cannulated and the patient induced and intubated using propofol, sevoflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. The action of vecuronium outlasted the duration of surgery. So the patient continued to receive support of mechanical ventilation with nitrous oxide and oxygen. It took 130 minutes for the clinical signs of recovery from the muscle relaxant to manifest. He was then reversed & extubated with subsequent good recovery. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous injection of these drugs poses problems of delayed onset of action and prolonged duration of action. In an inadvertent accidental subcutaneous 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium bromide injection in a patient with 4 day old 45% burns showed delayed onset action and prolonged neuromuscular blockade due to subcutaneous deposition of the drug which was managed with mechanical ventilation .The reported resistance to the action of NDMR drugs in patient with burns was not noticed here probably because of the age of the thermal injury.

  19. Structures, electronic properties and stability phase diagrams for copper(I/II) bromide surfaces. (United States)

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Marashdeh, Ali; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z


    This study presents a comprehensive periodic slab DFT investigation into structures, electronic properties and thermodynamic stability of all plausible terminations of CuBr and CuBr2 surfaces. We first estimate lattice constants, formation and cohesive energies for the two bulk copper bromides before proceeding to analyse geometrical and electronic features of CuBr and CuBr2 configurations. Surface geometries exhibit, to a large extent, corresponding bulk structures. Nevertheless, certain CuBr2 surfaces experience a downward displacement of the topmost Cu-containing layers. We plot total and projected density of states for bulk and surface geometries of these two copper bromides and calculate their associated Bader's electronic charges. Electronic structure analysis for the bulk and surfaces of these two copper bromides show that CuBr bulk and its most stable surface (CuBr(001)_Br) do not exhibit any metallic character, whereas CuBr2 bulk and its most stable surface (CuBr2(001)_Br) both exhibit metallic characters. The formalism of the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics affords the construction of energy phase diagrams. We predict that the CuBr(001) surface, truncated with Br atoms, is the most stable structure among the considered CuBr slabs at all physically meaningful ranges of the chemical potential of bromine. This surface resembles a c(2 × 2)-bromine sheet that was characterised experimentally from initial interaction of Br2 with a Cu(100) surface. We find that surfaces terminated with the electronegative bromine atoms, if accompanied by significant relaxation, tend to be more stable. Calculated surface energies predict the shapes of CuBr and CuBr2 nanoparticles as the chemical potential of bromine changes.

  20. N,N'-(Hexane-1,6-diylbis(4-methyl-N-(oxiran-2-ylmethylbenzenesulfonamide: Synthesis via cyclodextrin mediated N-alkylation in aqueous solution and further Prilezhaev epoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Fischer


    Full Text Available N-alkylation of N,N'-(hexane-1,6-diylbis(4-methylbenzenesulfonamide with allyl bromide and subsequent Prilezhaev reaction with m-chloroperbenzoic acid to give N,N'-(hexane-1,6-diylbis(4-methyl-N-(oxiran-2-ylmethylbenzenesulfonamide is described. This twofold alkylation was performed in aqueous solution, whereby α-, and randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin were used as adequate phase transfer catalysts and the cyclodextrin–guest complexes were characterized by 1H NMR and 2D NMR ROESY spectroscopy. Finally, the curing properties of the diepoxide with lysine-based α-amino-ε-caprolactam were analyzed by rheological measurements.

  1. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Clinacanthus nutans through dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays


    Vajrabhaya, La-ongthong; Korsuwannawong, Suwanna


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the results of dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays of Clinacanthus nutans cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Mouse fibroblast (L929) cells were exposed to 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% (W/V) C. nutans in a 96-cluster-well-culture plate for 24 h. The cell viability after exposure to C. nutans was determined by MTT and NRU assays in separate tissue culture plates. The two assays were compared thr...

  2. Nitrate ion photolysis in thin water films in the presence of bromide ions. (United States)

    Richards, Nicole K; Wingen, Lisa M; Callahan, Karen M; Nishino, Noriko; Kleinman, Michael T; Tobias, Douglas J; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J


    Nitrate ions commonly coexist with halide ions in aged sea salt particles, as well as in the Arctic snowpack, where NO(3)(-) photochemistry is believed to be an important source of NO(y) (NO + NO(2) + HONO + ...). The effects of bromide ions on nitrate ion photochemistry were investigated at 298 ± 2 K in air using 311 nm photolysis lamps. Reactions were carried out using NaBr/NaNO(3) and KBr/KNO(3) deposited on the walls of a Teflon chamber. Gas phase halogen products and NO(2) were measured as a function of photolysis time using long path FTIR, NO(y) chemiluminescence and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (API-MS). Irradiated NaBr/NaNO(3) mixtures show an enhancement in the rates of production of NO(2) and Br(2) as the bromide mole fraction (χ(NaBr)) increased. However, this was not the case for KBr/KNO(3) mixtures where the rates of production of NO(2) and Br(2) remained constant over all values of χ(KBr). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the presence of bromide in the NaBr solutions pulls sodium toward the solution surface, which in turn attracts nitrate to the interfacial region, allowing for more efficient escape of NO(2) than in the absence of halides. However, in the case of KBr/KNO(3), bromide ions do not appreciably affect the distribution of nitrate ions at the interface. Clustering of Br(-) with NO(3)(-) and H(2)O predicted by MD simulations for sodium salts may facilitate a direct intermolecular reaction, which could also contribute to higher rates of NO(2) production. Enhanced photochemistry in the presence of halide ions may be important for oxides of nitrogen production in field studies such as in polar snowpacks where the use of quantum yields from laboratory studies in the absence of halide ions would lead to a significant underestimate of the photolysis rates of nitrate ions.

  3. Comparative characteristics of copper, copper chloride, and copper bromide vapor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, M.A.; Petrash, G.G.; Trofimov, A.N.


    The paper reports the results of a comparative study of copper and copper halide vapor lasers emitting in a repetitively-pulsed regime. Copper chloride and copper bromide vapor lasers are found to have identical lasing characteristics under any excitation conditions. These characteristics are different from those of a copper vapor laser. An average lasing power of 13 W has been obtained for all lasers studied for an efficiency of 1%. It is shown that the choice of a laser will largely depend on the laser design suitability for a specific application.

  4. Improved detection of rhamnolipid production using agar plates containing methylene blue and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Pinzon, Neissa M; Ju, Lu-Kwang


    Rhamnolipids, produced predominantly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are biosurfactants with important applications. For efficient culture screening according to rhamnolipid productivity, the method using agar plates containing methylene blue (MB) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was re-examined. An alternative set-up using a fixed underneath light source and image analysis software improved the detection of the circles formed due to complexation between anionic rhamnolipids and cationic MB/CTAB. The roles and effects of MB and CTAB concentrations and pH on the complexation phenomena are reported.

  5. Vapour pressure and enthalpy of aqueous lithium bromide solutions. [Used in absorption heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Patwardhan, V.S. (National Chemical Lab., Poona (India))


    In this paper we present new equations for accurate calculations of the vapour pressure and enthalpy of aqueous lithium bromide solutions which are commonly used in absorption heat pumps and absorption heat transformers. The number of empirical parameters involved in these equations is much smaller than those in earlier equations. Moreover, the present equations for both vapour pressure and enthalpy involve the same constants as both these equations are derived from a single free energy equation using standard thermodynamic concepts. The present methodology can be used with any other electrolyte for which enthalpy-concentration diagrams may not be readily available. (Author).

  6. Cooperative dynamics of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide / water / n-dodecane microemulsions: a dielectric relaxation study


    Wachter, Wolfgang


    A systematic study of the dielectric relaxation spectra of W/O (water-in-oil) microemulsions composed of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), water (W) and n-dodecane (D) has been made over the whole stability region in the phase diagram and over a wide range of frequencies (0.005 < nu/GHz < 89) at 25 °C. The spectra were best described by a superposition of six or five Debye processes, respectively, depending on the position of the sample in the phase diagram. Process 1 at 40 ns can be ...

  7. Copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubarev, F A; Fedorov, K V; Evtushenko, G S [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fedorov, V F; Shiyanov, D V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    We report the development of a copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns. To lengthen the pulse, the discharge current was limited using a compound switch comprising a pulsed hydrogen thyratron and a tacitron. This technique permits limiting the excitation of the working levels at the initial stage of the discharge development to lengthen the inversion lifetime. The longest duration of a laser pulse was reached in tubes 25 and 50 mm in diameter for a pulse repetition rate of 2 – 4 kHz. (lasers and laser beams)

  8. Generation, spectroscopy, and structure of cyanoformyl chloride and cyanoformyl bromide, XC(O)CN. (United States)

    Pasinszki, Tibor; Vass, Gábor; Klapstein, Dieter; Westwood, Nicholas P C


    Cyanoformyl chloride and cyanoformyl bromide, XC(O)CN (X = Cl and Br), have been investigated in the gas phase by UV photoelectron and mid-infrared spectroscopies. The ground-state geometries of the neutral molecules have been obtained from quantum-chemical calculations at the B3LYP and CCSD(T) levels using the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. The individual spectroscopies provide a detailed investigation into the vibrational and electronic character of the molecules and are supported by quantum-chemical calculations. The results are compared to data for structurally and chemically related molecules.

  9. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-Mg/Al hydrotalcite for removal phenol in water (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Wiyantoko, Bayu; Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Muzdalifah


    Hydrotalcite materials was synthesized by using Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) and Mg/Al layered double hydroxide with ratio molar 3:1. Synthesis of CTAB-Mg/Al hydrotalcite was carried out using ex situ co-precipitation method at pH 10±0.5. Removal of phenol was optimum at medium pH 6 and it had optimum contact time in 300 min. It followed pseudo second order with adsorption rate constant was 1.15.10-4 mM-1.min-1. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained from the Langmuir model was 35.71 mg.g-1 at room temperature.

  10. Efficient SN2 fluorination of primary and secondary alkyl bromides by copper(I) fluoride complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yanpin


    Copper(I) fluoride complexes ligated by phenanthroline derivatives have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes adopt as either ionic or neutral forms in the solid state, depending on the steric bulkiness of the substituent groups on the phenanthroline ligands. These complexes react with primary and secondary alkyl bromides to produce the corresponding alkyl fluorides in modest to good yields. This new method is compatible with a variety of important functional groups such as ether, thioether, amide, nitrile, methoxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, ester, and heterocycle moieties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Mixed micelles of benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride with tetradecyltrimethylammonium and tetradecyltriphenylphosphonium bromides: a head group contribution. (United States)

    Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Kaur, Ishpinder; Sood, Rohit; Singh, Jasmeet; Singh, Kulbir; Sachar, Shweta; Singh, Kanwar Jit; Kaur, Gurinder


    Mixed micelle formation by tetradecyltrimethylammonium (TTAB) and tetradecyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (TTPB) with benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BTDACl) was studied with the help of conductivity and Kraft point measurements. The BTDACl + TTAB mixtures showed synergistic interactions whereas those of BTDACl + TTPB indicated weak antagonistic behavior. From Kraft temperature measurements, the enthalpy of fusion (H(1)(0)) from solid hydrated BTDACl to the liquid state in the presence of TTAB or TTPB was computed. It was found that DeltaH(1)(0) was much more positive for BTDACl + TTPB than for BTDACl + TTAB mixtures.

  12. Promotion of hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide to the damage of Alexandrium sp. LC3 by cupric glutamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hao; MIAO Jin-lai; CUI Feng-xia; LI Guang-you


    The effect of hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide (HDTMAB) on the removal of A lexandrium sp. LC3 under cupric glutamate stress was investigated. Toxic effect of cupric glutamate on A lexandrium sp. LC3 was significantly promoted in the presence of HDTMAB, especially at 3.0 cmc of HDTMAB. It was found that the sulfhydryl group content of the cell decreased, while the malonaldehyde content and membrane permeability increased when Alexandrium sp. LC3 was treated with HDTMAB and cupric glutamate complex, compared with cupric glutamate alone. The data suggest that HDTMAB might stimulate the damage of A lexandrium sp. LC3 by enhancing the membrane permeability.

  13. Whole genome methylation profiling by immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA. (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew J


    I provide a protocol for DNA methylation profiling based on immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA using commercially available monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize 5-methylcytosine. Quantification of the level of enrichment of the resulting DNA enables DNA methylation to be assayed for any genomic locus, including entire chromosomes or genomes if appropriate microarray or high-throughput sequencing platforms are used. In previous studies (1, 2), I have used hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays from Roche Nimblegen Inc, which allow any genomic region of interest to be interrogated, dependent on the array design. For example, using modern tiling arrays comprising millions of oligonucleotide probes, several complete human chromosomes can be assayed at densities of one probe per 100 bp or greater, sufficient to yield high-quality data. However, other methods such as quantitative real-time PCR or high-throughput sequencing can be used, giving either measurement of methylation at a single locus or across the entire genome, respectively. While the data produced by single locus assays is relatively simple to analyze and interpret, global assays such as microarrays or high-throughput sequencing require more complex statistical approaches in order to effectively identify regions of differential methylation, and a brief outline of some approaches is given.

  14. p-Bromophenacyl bromide prevents cumene hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial permeability transition by inhibiting pyridine nucleotide oxidation. (United States)

    Zhukova, A; Gogvadze, G; Gogvadze, V


    Mitochondrial permeability transition is commonly characterized as a Ca2+ -dependent non-specific increase in inner membrane permeability that results in swelling of mitochondria and their de-energization. In the present study, the effect of different inhibitors of phospholipase A2--p-bromophenacyl bromide, dibucaine, and aristolochic acid--on hydroperoxide-induced permeability transitions in rat liver mitochondria was tested. p-Bromophenacyl bromide completely prevented the hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial permeability transition while the effects of dibucaine or aristolochic acid were negligible. Organic hydroperoxides added to mitochondria undergo reduction to corresponding alcohols by mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase. This reduction occurs at the expense of GSH which, in turn, can be reduced by glutathione reductase via oxidation of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. The latter is considered a prerequisite step for mitochondrial permeability transition. Among all the inhibitors tested, only p-bromophenacyl bromide completely prevented hydroperoxide-induced oxidation of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. Interestingly, p-bromophenacyl bromide had no affect on mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase, but reacted with mitochondrial glutathione that prevented pyridine nucleotides from being oxidized. Our data suggest that p-bromophenacyl bromide prevents hydroperoxide-induced deterioration of mitochondria via interaction with glutathione rather than through inhibition of phospholipase A2.

  15. Effects of atropine and penehyclidine with different opportunity combination on severe acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning%阿托品与长托宁不同时机联合对重度急性有机磷农药中毒疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To observe the influence of atropine,penehyclidine with different opportunity combination on severe acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning (AOPP).Methods Eighty-nine cases of severe AOPP patients were divided into two groups randomly:began joint group (43 cases) and atropinization combination group (46 cases).The began joint group immediately treated with atropine,penehyclidine at hospital admission.The atropinization combination group combined atropine with penehyclidine to maintain atropinization state after reaching atropinization with atropine.Dynamically observe the changes of CHE activity,recorded the number of poisoning rebound,atropine poisoning,intermediate syndrome,death and atropinization time,length of stay,the clinical efficacy of two groups were analyzed.Results Compared with the begain joint group,in the atropinization combination group the time of atropinization,CHE activity resumed to 50% and hospitalization was obviously shortened [atropinization time:(54.6-± 18.3) min to (65.3 ± 23.1) min (P < 0.01),CHE activity resumed 50% time (4.2 ±1.9)d to (5.3 ±2.6)d (P<0.05),hospital stays:(15.1 ±5.6)d to (18.2 ±6.8) d (P<0.05),poisoning rebound,atropine poisoning incidence was lower poisoning rebound:2.1% to 13.9%,atropine poisoning:4.3% to 18.6% (P < 0.05).IMS incidence,mortality have no significant difference average,(P > 0.05).Conclusions After quickly reached atropinization with atropine,small doses of penehyclidine and the joint use of atropine maintain atropinization state treatment of severe AOPP can reduce the incidence of complications,patients smoothly through dangerous period,reduce hospital stays and cut down medical costs.%目的 观察阿托品、长托宁在不同治疗时机联合对重度急性有机磷农药中毒(AOPP)疗效的影响.方法 将89例重度AOPP患者,随机分为开始联合组(43例)及阿托品化联合组(46例),开始联合组在入院后即行阿托品、长托宁联合治疗,

  16. 苯扎溴铵酊处方改进及苯扎溴铵的含量测定%Improvement of prescription on Benzalkonium Bromide Tincture and de-termination of benzalkonium bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海伟; 王晓青; 刘皈阳; 马建丽


    Objective To improve prescription of Benzalkonium Bromide Tincture and establish a titration method in determination for content of benzalkonium bromide in Benzalkonium Bromide Alcoholic Solution (eosin was removed from Benzalkonium Bromide Tincture). Methods The content of benzalkonium bromide was detected by setting up capacity analysis method, and found eosin can affect the result of content determination at different degree, therefore eosin com-position was removed from the prescription. The content of benzalkonium bromide in Benzalkonium Bromide Alcoholic Solution was detected by titration method with tetraphenylboron sodium volumetric solution (0.02 mol/L). Results Ben-zalkonium Bromide Tincture changed to Benzalkonium Bromide Alcohol Solution, in content determination, the change of titration end point was obvious and easy to judge. Within the range from 0.4 mg/mL to 1.4 mg/mL, benzalkonium bromide presented a good linear relationship with the consumption volume of tetraphenylboron sodium volumetric solu-tion (r=0.9995), and the equation of linear regression was V=18.3C-0.32. The average recovery of benzalkonium bro-mide in low, middle and high dose was 99.12%, and RSD was 0.84%. Conclusion The method is simple, fast and ac-curate, it can be used for the quality control of Benzalkonium Bromide Alcoholic Solution.%目的:改进苯扎溴铵酊处方,并建立容量分析法测定苯扎溴铵醇溶液(苯扎溴铵酊去除曙红成分)中苯扎溴铵的含量。方法在建立容量分析法测定苯扎溴铵的含量时,发现曙红在不同程度上均能影响含量测定结果,故将曙红成分从处方中删去。采用四苯硼钠(0.02 mol/L)为滴定液,滴定苯扎溴铵醇溶液中苯扎溴铵的含量。结果苯扎溴铵酊制剂更改为苯扎溴铵醇溶液,在含量测定中,滴定终点变化明显,易于判断。苯扎溴铵在浓度0.4~1.4 mg/mL的范围内与消耗四苯硼钠滴定液体积呈良好线性关系,r=0

  17. Chemical vapor transport and solid-state exchange synthesis of new copper selenite bromides (United States)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Kayukov, Roman A.; Zagidullin, Karim A.; Siidra, Oleg I.


    A new dimorphic copper selenite bromide, Cu5(SeO3)4Br2 was obtained via chemical transport reactions. α-Cu5(SeO3)4Br2, monoclinic (1m) and β-Cu5(SeO3)4Br2, triclinic (1a) polymorphs were produced simultaneously upon reaction of amorphous, partially dehydrated copper selenite and copper bromide. 1m is similar to Cu5(SeO3)4Cl2, whereas 1a is distantly related to Ni5(SeO3)4Br2 and Co5(SeO3)4Br2. Attempts to reproduce synthesis of 1a via exchange reaction between Na2SeO3 and CuBr2 resulted in a new Na2[Cu7O2](SeO3)4Br4 (2). Current study demonstrates for the first time, that both chemical vapor and exchange reactions can be employed in preparation of new selenite halides.

  18. Thermodynamics of micellization of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in propylene glycol-water mixture: A conductivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janošević-Ležaić Aleksandra M.


    Full Text Available Micellization of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (syn. cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB in propylene glycol-water (30% v/v binary mixture, as well as the thermodynamic properties of the resulting micelles, were investigated by electrical conductivity measurements. The conductivity data were used to determine both the critical micellar concentration (CMC and the micellar ionization degree (α of CTin the temperature range 298.2-310.2 K. The equilibrium model of micelle formation was applied in order to obtain the thermodynamic parameters (the standard molar Gibbs free energy, ΔGm0, enthalpy, ΔHm0 and entropy, ΔSm0 of the micellization process. The values of DGm0 and DHm0 were found to be negative at all investigated temperatures, while the values of ΔSm0 were positive and became more positive as temperature increased. A linear dependence between ΔSm0 and ΔHm0, i.e. an enthalpy-entropy compensation effect, was observed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172015

  19. Surface Electronic Structure of Hybrid Organo Lead Bromide Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Komesu, Takashi


    The electronic structure and band dispersion of methylammonium lead bromide, CH3NH3PbBr3, has been investigated through a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES), as well as theoretical modeling based on density functional theory. The experimental band structures are consistent with the density functional calculations. The results demonstrate the presence of a dispersive valence band in MAPbBr3 that peaks at the M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The results also indicate that the surface termination of the CH3NH3PbBr3 is the methylammonium bromide (CH3NH3Br) layer. We find our results support models that predict a heavier hole effective mass in the region of -0.23 to -0.26 me, along the Γ (surface Brillouin center) to M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The surface appears to be n-type as a result of an excess of lead in the surface region. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  20. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines (United States)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar


    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pHDead Sea brine that drain into the sinkholes. The low pH and the reddish to brownish hue of these brines were an enigma until recently. Despite the rather high total alkalinity (TA) of the Dead Sea (3.826 mmol/kg) the pH of the Dead Sea brine is known to be slightly acidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  1. Pressure-Induced Structural and Optical Properties of Organometal Halide Perovskite-Based Formamidinium Lead Bromide. (United States)

    Wang, Lingrui; Wang, Kai; Zou, Bo


    Organometal halide perovskites (OMHPs) are attracting an ever-growing scientific interest as photovoltaic materials with moderate cost and compelling properties. In this Letter, pressure-induced optical and structural changes of OMHP-based formamidinium lead bromide (FAPbBr3) were systematically investigated. We studied the pressure dependence of optical absorption and photoluminescence, both of which showed piezochromism. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction indicated that FAPbBr3 underwent two phase transitions and subsequent amorphization, leading directly to the bandgap evolution with redshift followed by blueshift during compression. Raman experiments illustrated the high pressure behavior of organic cation and the surrounding inorganic octahedra. Additionally, the effect of cation size and the different intermolecular interactions between organic cation and inorganic octahedra result in the fact that FAPbBr3 is less compressible than the reported methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3). High pressure studies of the structural evolution and optical properties of OMHPs provide important clues in optimizing photovoltaic performance and help to design novel OMHPs with higher stimuli-resistant ability.

  2. Interaction of removal Ethidium Bromide with Carbon Nanotube: Equilibrium and Isotherm studies. (United States)

    Moradi, Omid; Norouzi, Mehdi; Fakhri, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem


    Drinking water resources may be contaminated with Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) which is commonly used in molecular biology laboratories for DNA identification in electrophoresis. Carbon nanotubes are expected to play an important role in sensing, pollution treatment and separation techniques. In this study adsorption of Ethidium Bromide on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and carboxylate group functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-COOH) surfaces have been investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The effect of contact time, initial concentration and temperature were investigated. The adsorbents exhibits high efficiency for EtBr adsorption and equilibrium can be achieved in 6 and 3 min for SWCNTs and SWCNT-COOH, respectively. The effect of temperature on adsorption of EtBr by toward adsorbents shows the process in this research has been endothermic. The results showed that the equilibrium data were well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.770 and 0.830 mg/g for SWCNTs and SWCNT-COOH, respectively. The adsorption of EtBr on SWCNT-COOH is more than SWCNTs surfaces. A comparison of kinetic models was evaluated for the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order models. Pseudo second-order was found to agree well with the experimental data.

  3. Isotherm, thermodynamic, kinetics and adsorption mechanism studies of methyl orange by surfactant modified silkworm exuviae. (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhao, Jie; Wu, Junyong; Dai, Guoliang


    This paper reports on the development of organo-modified silkworm exuviae (MSE) adsorbent prepared by using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB) for removing methyl orange (MO), a model anionic dye, from aqueous solution. The natural and modified samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to remove MO from its aqueous solutions using SE and MSE. It was observed that the adsorption capacity of MSE is 5-6 times of SE. The different parameters effecting on the adsorption capacity such as pH of the solution, initial dye concentration, temperature and contact time have been investigated. Analysis of adsorption results obtained at different temperatures showed that the adsorption pattern on the MSE can be described perfectly with Langmuir isotherm model compared with Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models, and the characteristic parameters for each adsorption isotherm were also determined. The adsorption process has been found exothermic in nature and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. The adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The results of FT-IR, EDS and desorption studies all suggest that methyl orange adsorption onto the MSE should be mainly controlled by the hydrophobic interaction mechanism, along with a considerable contribution of the anionic exchange mechanism. The results indicate that HDTMAB-modified silkworm exuviae could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of methyl orange anionic dye from wastewater.

  4. Isotherm, thermodynamic, kinetics and adsorption mechanism studies of methyl orange by surfactant modified silkworm exuviae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hao, E-mail: [School of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Dongfang Road No. 605, Linhai 317000, Zhejiang (China); Zhao Jie; Wu Junyong; Dai Guoliang [School of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Dongfang Road No. 605, Linhai 317000, Zhejiang (China)


    This paper reports on the development of organo-modified silkworm exuviae (MSE) adsorbent prepared by using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB) for removing methyl orange (MO), a model anionic dye, from aqueous solution. The natural and modified samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to remove MO from its aqueous solutions using SE and MSE. It was observed that the adsorption capacity of MSE is 5-6 times of SE. The different parameters effecting on the adsorption capacity such as pH of the solution, initial dye concentration, temperature and contact time have been investigated. Analysis of adsorption results obtained at different temperatures showed that the adsorption pattern on the MSE can be described perfectly with Langmuir isotherm model compared with Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models, and the characteristic parameters for each adsorption isotherm were also determined. The adsorption process has been found exothermic in nature and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. The adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The results of FT-IR, EDS and desorption studies all suggest that methyl orange adsorption onto the MSE should be mainly controlled by the hydrophobic interaction mechanism, along with a considerable contribution of the anionic exchange mechanism. The results indicate that HDTMAB-modified silkworm exuviae could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of methyl orange anionic dye from wastewater.

  5. New Synthesis and Antiparasitic Activity of Model 5-Aryl-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M. El-Abadelah


    Full Text Available A number of 5-aryl-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazoles 5a-f have been synthesized in good yields by the Suzuki coupling reaction between 5-chloro-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazole (3 and arylboronic acids 4a-f, aided by dichlorobis-(triphenylphosphinepalladium(II, K2CO3, and tetrabutylammonium bromide in water at 70-80 °C. Compounds 5a-f were characterized by elemental analysis, NMR and MS spectral data. On the basis of in vitro screening data, 5-(3-chlorophenyl-1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazole (5fexhibited potent lethal activity against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis with IC50 = 1.47 µM/mL, a value lower by a factor of two than that of the standard drug, metronidazole. The boosted activity of 5f was not accompanied by any increased cytotoxicity.The rest of the series also exhibited potent antiparasitic activity with IC50 valuesin the 1.72-4.43 µM/mL range. The cytotoxicity of the derivatives 5c and 5e was increased compared to the precursor compound, metronidazole, although they remain non-cytotoxic at concentrations much higher than the antiparasitic concentration of the two derivatives.

  6. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung


    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  7. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan


    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  8. Combination of ozonation and photocatalysis for purification of aqueous effluents containing formic acid as probe pollutant and bromide ion. (United States)

    Parrino, F; Camera-Roda, G; Loddo, V; Palmisano, G; Augugliaro, V


    The treatment by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) of waters contaminated by organic pollutants and containing also innocuous bromide ions may generate bromate ions as a co-product. In the present work heterogeneous photocatalysis and ozonation have individually been applied and in combination (integrated process) to degrade the organic compounds in water containing also bromide anions. The results show that: i) the sole photocatalysis does not produce bromate ions and in the case of its presence, it is able to reduce bromate to innocuous bromide ions; ii) the integration of photocatalysis and ozonation synergistically enhances the oxidation capabilities; and iii) in the integrated process bromate ions are not produced as long as some oxidizable organics are present.

  9. Investigation of thermodynamic parameters of cetyl pyridinium bromide sorption onto ZSM-5 and natural clinoptilolite[Thermodynamic properties; Sorption; Cetyl pyridinium bromide; ZSM-5 and natural clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiaci, M. E-mail:; Kia, R.; Kalbasi, R.J


    A study was undertaken to determine the influence of temperature and surfactant concentration on the adsorption of cetyl pyridinium bromide on two ZSM-5 zeolites, and on natural clinoptilolite. The effect of temperature on adsorption and thermodynamic properties was investigated by making measurements at (297, 303, 307, 313) K. The results show that the calculated curves from the general isotherm equation can represent the experimental data very well up to T=313 K. Based on the calculation of the thermodynamics of adsorption, it is evident that the principle contribution to the {delta}G{sup compfn}{sub hm} of negative value is the large positive value of {delta}S{sup compfn}{sub hm} (36 to 52 J {center_dot} mol{sup -1}), whereas {delta}H{sup compfn}{sub hm} is positive and in the range of 1 to 7 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. Therefore, similar to the micellisation in bulk solution, the second step of surfactant adsorption is an entropy-driven process.

  10. [Effects of bromide and ferric ions on formation of tri-halomethanes during disinfection of drinking water by chlorine]. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Wang, Jing; Ge, Yuan-Xin; Ma, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Jian-Fu


    Effects of bromide and ferric ions on the formation and distribution of tri-halomethanes (THMs) have been investigated. As disinfection by-product (DBP) model precursors of natural water, humic acid solutions were used and a series of experiments were conducted. The results showed that bromide in this reaction system not only contributed to the increase of brominated species, but also the total tri-halomethanes. When the concentration of Br(-) was 1.0 mg/L, the total amount of produced THMs reached to 270% of that without bromide ions. In the presence of bromide, ferric ions decreased the production of THMs at pH 6, but increased the production of THMs at pH 8, especially for the amount of tri-bromomethanes. When the concentration of Fe3+ was 5 mg/L, the amount of produced tri-bromomethanes had an increment of 54% (from 51.7 microg/L to 79.4 microg/L), and the total amount of THMs increased from 113.49 microg/L to 162.09 microg/L. Bromide ions had a significant effect on carcinogenicity risk in disinfection of drinking water by chlorine, and the co-existence of ferric ion and bromide in alkalescent environment can result in the biggest challenge on carcinogenicity risk. Under the condition of 0.2 mg/L Br(-), 5 mg/L Fe3+ and pH 6, the carcinogenicity risk increased 2.5 times than that without Br(-) and Fe3+, and much higher increment of 5.1 times appeared when pH was 8.

  11. Histone Methylation by Temozolomide; A Classic DNA Methylating Anticancer Drug (United States)

    Pickard, Amanda J.; Diaz, Anthony Joseph; Mura, Hugo; Nyuwen, Lila; Coello, Daniel; Sheva, Saif; Maria, Nava; Gallo, James M.; Wang, Tieli


    Background/Aim The alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), is considered the standard-of-care for high-grade astrocytomas –known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)– an aggressive type of tumor with poor prognosis. The therapeutic benefit of TMZ is attributed to formation of DNA adducts involving the methylation of purine bases in DNA. We investigated the effects of TMZ on arginine and lysine amino acids, histone H3 peptides and histone H3 proteins. Materials and Methods Chemical modification of amino acids, histone H3 peptide and protein by TMZ was performed in phosphate buffer at physiological pH. The reaction products were examined by mass spectrometry and western blot analysis. Results Our results showed that TMZ following conversion to a methylating cation, can methylate histone H3 peptide and histone H3 protein, suggesting that TMZ exerts its anticancer activity not only through its interaction with DNA, but also through alterations of protein post-translational modifications. Conclusion The possibility that TMZ can methylate histones involved with epigenetic regulation of protein indicates a potentially unique mechanism of action. The study will contribute to the understanding the anticancer activity of TMZ in order to develop novel targeted molecular strategies to advance the cancer treatment. PMID:27354585

  12. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N., E-mail:; Likhanova, N. V. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Olivares-Xometl, O. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica (Mexico); Flores, E. A. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Lijanova, I. V. [CIITEC, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)


    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  13. Bromidotetra­kis­(2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN 3)copper(II) bromide (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Kelm, Harald; Krüger, Hans-Jörg; Dołęga, Anna


    The CuII ion in the title mol­ecular salt, [CuBr(C5H8N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four N atoms of imidazole ligands and one bromide anion in the apical position. In the crystal, the ions are linked by N—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds involving both the coordinating and the free bromide species as acceptors. A C—H⋯Br inter­action is also observed. Overall, a three-dimensional network results. PMID:23468738

  14. Protective effect of testosterone on cognitive deficits induced by ethidium bromide in experimental model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallahadin Feizollah


    Full Text Available Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS. The hippocampus is a vital center for learning and memory; it is extremely vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases. The male hormones could be neuroprotective for the CNS. The current study is an attempt to investigate the effect of testosterone on learning and spatial memory following the demyelination of CA1 area by the injection of ethidium bromide in the rats' hippocampus. Methods: This experimental study has been conducted on healthy rats in the faculty of science of the Urmia University from September 2013 to February 2015. For demyelination in all previously gonadectomized healthy rats, 3µl ethidium bromide was injected into the CA1 area of rats by stereotaxic surgery. In addition, the treatment groups received 1µl testosterone (6µg/µl during a 20-day timeframe on a daily basis after demyelination by the ethidium bromide. The control groups had no drug injection. The process of the learning and spatial memory of the rats were closely monitored by the radial Maze. The demyelination and remyelination in the hippocampus were checked by the myelin-specific coloring (Luxol fast blue and Cresyl violet. Results: The histological results suggest that the testosterone is capable of minimizing the destructive impacts of ethidium bromide in the treatment group as well as enhancing the remyelination process. In the group treated by testosterone, the percentage of the pyknotic cells 20 days after demyelination induction, represented a significant reduction compared to that of ethidium bromide group (P=0.008. The behavioral studies analyses show that the amount of the food finding time in those groups received ethidium bromide was significantly longer than those of the control groups (P=0.001. Furthermore, the application of the testosterone in the treatment groups reduced the extent of demyelination while the memory impairment induced by the

  15. Copper/N,N-Dimethylglycine Catalyzed Goldberg Reactions Between Aryl Bromides and Amides, Aryl Iodides and Secondary Acyclic Amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Jiang


    Full Text Available An efficient and general copper-catalyzed Goldberg reaction at 90–110 °C between aryl bromides and amides providing the desired products in good to excellent yields has been developed using N,N-dimethylglycine as the ligand. The reaction is tolerant toward a wide range of amides and a variety of functional group substituted aryl bromides. In addition, hindered, unreactive aromatic and aliphatic secondary acyclic amides, known to be poor nucleophiles, are efficiently coupled with aryl iodides through this simple and cheap copper/N,N-dimethylglycine catalytic system.

  16. Effect of ethidium bromide on transmission of mitochondrial genomes and DNA synthesis in the petite negative yeast Schizosaccharomyces pomhe. (United States)

    Wolf, K; Del Giudice, L


    Treatment of haploid strains of the petite negative yeast Schizosaccharomyces pomhe with ethidium bromide prior to mating with untreated cells reduces transmission of mitochondrial markers from the treated strains. This effect is fully reversible after 20 generations of growth in drug free medium before mating. In contrast to the petite positive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where nuclear DNA synthesis is not affected but mitochondrial DNA is degraded in the presence of 20 μg/ml ethidium bromide, the same concentration decreases both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA synthesis in Schizosaccharomyces pomhe. After removal of the drug, nuclear DNA synthesis increases faster than its mitochondrial counterpart in Schizosaccharomyces pomhe.

  17. COPD patient satisfaction with ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat: a randomized, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson GT


    Full Text Available Gary T Ferguson,1 Mo Ghafouri,2 Luyan Dai,2 Leonard J Dunn31Pulmonary Research Institute of Southeast Michigan, Livonia, MI, USA; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Ridgefield, CT, USA; 3Clinical Research of West Florida, Inc, Clearwater, FL, USABackground: Ipratropium bromide/albuterol Respimat inhaler (CVT-R was developed as an environmentally friendly alternative to ipratropium bromide/albuterol metered-dose inhaler (CVT-MDI, which uses a chlorofluorocarbon propellant.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction, device usage, and long-term safety of CVT-R compared to CVT-MDI, and to the simultaneous administration of ipratropium bromide hydrofluoroalkane (HFA; I and albuterol HFA (A metered-dose inhalers as dual monotherapies (I + A.Design: This is a 48-week, open-label, randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group study (n = 470 comparing CVT-R to CVT-MDI and to I + A.Participants: Patients were at least 40 years of age, diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and current or exsmokers.Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive: (1 CVT-R, one inhalation four times daily (QID; or (2 CVT-MDI, two inhalations QID; or (3 I + A two inhalations of each inhaler QID.Main measures: Patient Satisfaction and Preference Questionnaire (PASAPQ performance score (primary endpoint and adverse events.Key results: PASAPQ performance score was significantly higher (CVT-R versus CVT-MDI, 9.6; and CVT-R versus I + A, 6.2; both P < 0.001 when using CVT-R compared to CVT-MDI or I + A at all visits starting from week 3, while CVT-MDI and I + A treatment groups were similar. Time to first COPD exacerbation was slightly longer in the CVT-R group compared to the other treatment groups, although it did not reach statistical significance (CVT-R versus CVT-MDI, P = 0.57; CVT-R versus I + A, P = 0.22. Rates of withdrawal and patient refusal to continue treatment were lower in CVT-R compared with CVT

  18. An innovative experimental design reveals the spatial correlation between landuse, irrigation properties, and bromide leaching (United States)

    Schwen, A.; Yang, Y.; Walton, J.; Wendroth, O.


    Understanding the relationship between leaching of pesticides and soil hydraulic properties under different land use conditions is critical to our understanding of the flow of water and solutes in soils and efforts to model these flow characteristics. One problem inherent in the measurement of solute leaching in field experiments is the considerable high natural spatial variability of flow-controlling soil properties. Thus, analyzing treatment effects based on the mean and the variance of observations can become obsolete if there is a huge inherent variance in the set of measurements. Moreover, no spatial range of influence can be derived from the observations. To overcome this limitation, the spatial covariance and cross-variance between measurements was used as decision and quality criteria in the present study. This study aims to demonstrate that focussing on the spatial covariance of observations and considering their spatial process can provide a measure of spatial representativity or scale-specific variance. We introduce a novel experimental scheme, where the treatments are arranged in a scale-dependent manner. In a field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, bromide leaching under two contrasting land use systems (no-till agricultural crops vs. pasture) was compared. After surface application of tracer solution (KBr), the experimental field was irrigated using different time-delays (1, 4 and 24 hours) as well as two different irrigation amounts and two different intensities. At the end, the KBr-concentration in the soil profile was determined using auger samplings. The data was correlated with the applied boundary conditions by spatial statistical methods such as semivariograms, cross-semivariograms and spectral analysis. Our results show distinct differences in the leaching behaviour between the two analyzed land uses with an deeper infiltration in the no-till agricultural field. This can be partly related to a higher initial soil water content in this treatment

  19. Nanosized sustained-release pyridostigmine bromide microcapsules: process optimization and evaluation of characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Q


    Full Text Available Qunyou Tan,1,* Rong Jiang,3,* Meiling Xu,2,4,* Guodong Liu,5,* Songlin Li,1 Jingqing Zhang21Department of Thoracic Surgery, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, 2Medicine Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, 3Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering Research, Chongqing Medical University, 4Department of Pharmacy, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, 5Eighth Department, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Pyridostigmine bromide (3-[[(dimethylamino-carbonyl]oxy]-1-methylpyridinium bromide, a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase, is given orally in tablet form, and a treatment schedule of multiple daily doses is recommended for adult patients. Nanotechnology was used in this study to develop an alternative sustained-release delivery system for pyridostigmine, a synthetic drug with high solubility and poor oral bioavailability, hence a Class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Novel nanosized pyridostigmine-poly(lactic acid microcapsules (PPNMCs were expected to have a longer duration of action than free pyridostigmine and previously reported sustained-release formulations of pyridostigmine.Methods: The PPNMCs were prepared using a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method to achieve sustained-release characteristics for pyridostigmine. The preparation process for the PPNMCs was optimized by single-factor experiments. The size distribution, zeta potential, and sustained-release behavior were evaluated in different types of release medium.Results: The optimal volume ratio of inner phase to external phase, poly(lactic acid concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration, and amount of pyridostigmine were 1:10, 6%, 3% and 40 mg, respectively. The negatively charged PPNMCs had an average particle size of 937.9 nm

  20. 小茴香提取物对胃肠动力障碍小鼠胃肠运动的影响%Efects of fennel extracts on gastrointestinal movement of atropine-induced gastrointestinal motility disorder in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕光寿; 秦明; 毛峰峰; 张琰; 刘兴友; 贺建荣; 杨鹏; 刘曼玲


    目的 观察小茴香精油及水提物(去油)对阿托品致胃肠动力障碍小鼠胃肠运动的影响.方法 选择昆明种小鼠随机分为空白对照组、阿托品模型组、小茴香水提物组、小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组.空白对照组、阿托品模型组均给予0.2 ml/10 g生理盐水灌胃;小茴香水提物组给予去油小茴香水提物(含小茴香75 mg/ml)0.2 ml/10 g灌胃;小茴香精油组以300 mg/kg精油灌胃,莫沙必利组给莫沙必利混悬液(含莫沙必利15 mg/ml)灌胃.连续3 d,禁食18 h后,于第4天空白对照组腹腔注射生理盐水,其他组腹腔注射硫酸阿托品注射液,以葡聚糖蓝(BD)2000为标记物,观察胃排空率和肠推进率.结果 小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组、小茴香水提物组处理后小鼠的胃排空率分别为(91.97±4.42)%、(90.26±5.81)%、(80.01±6.27)%、(72.88±9.13)%;肠推进率分别为(53.32±7.49)%、(53.02±9.13)%、(44.16±7.68)%、(37.52±6.19)%.小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组、小茴香水提物组对阿托品所致胃肠动力障碍小鼠的胃排空(P值分别为0.004、0.001、0.004)和肠推进(P值分别0.003、0.025、0.015)均有拮抗作用;小茴香精油组促进胃排空作用(P值分别为0.000、0.002)、肠推进作用优于小茴香水提物组(P值分别为0.001、0.001).结论 小茴香提取物可拮抗小鼠的胃肠动力障碍,小茴香精油是主要活性成分.%Objective To observe the effects of fennel essential oil and water extracts (distilled oil is not included) on gastrointestinal motility disorder caused by atropine in mice.Methods Kunming mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model group atropine, water extracts group, fennel essential oil group, mosapride group. Blank control group and model group atropine were orally administered with normal saline of 0.2 ml/10 g. Water extracts group was orally administered with Water extracts (75 mg/ml) of 0.2 ml/10 g. Fennel essential oil group was orally

  1. Methyl 3-(4-methylbenzylidenecarbazate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Li


    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H12N2O2, was prepared by the reaction of methyl carbazate and 4-methylbenzaldehyde. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the carbazate fragment is 20.86 (10°. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  2. Bacterial production of methyl ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Harry R.; Goh, Ee-Been


    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for increasing production of methyl ketones in a genetically modified host cell that overproduces .beta.-ketoacyl-CoAs through a re-engineered .beta.-oxidation pathway and overexpresses FadM.

  3. Water Column Methylation in Estuaries (United States)

    Schartup, A. T.; Calder, R.; Soerensen, A. L.; Mason, R. P.; Balcom, P. H.; Sunderland, E. M.


    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs and affects humans and wildlife through fish consumption. Many studies have measured active methylation/demethylation in ocean margin sediments but few have reported similar rates for the marine water column. This presentation will review available evidence for water column methylation in estuaries, including new experimental measurements of methylation/demethylation rates from a deep subarctic fjord in Labrador Canada collected in Spring and Fall of 2012-2013. We used these and other data to construct a mass budget for MeHg in the estuary and show that water column methylation (with rates ranging from 1.5 to 2.8 % day-1), is the largest contributor, followed by inputs from rivers (4.9 mol year-1), to the in situ pool of MeHg available for uptake by biota. By contrast, the sediment in this system is a net sink for MeHg (-1.5 mol year-1). We discuss the relationship between observed MeHg and other ancillary environmental factors (organic carbon, sulfur and nutrients) as well as implications for the response time of fish to future changes in mercury inputs.

  4. Copper-catalysed N-arylation of arylsulfonamides with aryl bromides and aryl iodides using KF/Al2O3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahman Hosseinzadeh; Mahmood Tajbakhsh; Maryam Mohadjerani; Mohammad Alikarami


    An efficient synthesis of -arylsulfonamides with a variety of aryl bromides, aryl iodides and heteroaryl bromides using KF/Al2O3 as a suitable base, CuI as an inexpensive catalyst and ,'-dimethylethylenediamine (,'-DMEDA) as an effective ligand is described.

  5. 利多卡因联合阿托品治疗分娩时宫颈水肿102例研究%Lidocaine and Atropine in the Treatment of 102 Cases of Delivery of Cervical Edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何健华; 李玉香


    目的:探讨利多卡因联合阿托品治疗分娩时宫颈水肿的效果。方法将2010年5月至2013年4月在我院进行阴道试产时发生宫颈水肿的初产妇102例纳入实验组,采用利多卡因联合阿托品宫颈多点注射。以同期采用传统静脉注射地西泮治疗者100例作为对照组。对比两组在宫口全开时间、转剖宫产率、新生儿Apgar评分等方面的差异性。结果与对照组对比,我们发现实验组宫口全开时间较短,转剖宫产率较低,组间差异经统计学分析后认为有意义(P<0.05)。对比两组新生儿Apgar评分发现,组间差异统计学分析后认为无意义(P>0.05)。结论采用利多卡因联合阿托品治疗分娩时宫颈水肿具有满意的疗效,有助于缩短产程时间,增加阴道试产成功率,今后可将其作为阴道试产时宫颈水肿治疗的有效方案进行推广应用。%Objective Investigate lidocaine and atropine in the treatment of intrapartum cervix edema effect. Methods Choose 102 cases as experimental group, using lidocaine and atropine cervical multi point injection. Choose 100 cases as control group, injection of diazepam. Compared two groups in the palace mouth open time, turn the cesarean section rate, neonatal Apgar score etc. Results Compared with control group, experimental group palace mouth open for a short time, turn the cesarean section rate is low, differences had significant(P0.05). Conclusion Lidocaine and atropine in the treatment of intrapartum cervix edema has satisfactory curative effect, help to shorten labor time, increase the success rate of vaginal delivery, can be applied effectively for treatment of vaginal cervical edema in the future.

  6. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L., E-mail:; Albuquerque, E. L. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Freire, V. N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Caetano, E. W. S. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió-AL (Brazil)


    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  7. Interaction between dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide-modified PLGA microspheres and hyaluronic acid (United States)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Devi, Krisanti, Elsa


    In application of intravitreal injection, an extended drug delivery system is desired so that the frequency of injection to treat diabetic retinopathy may be reduced. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer (PLGA) was used to encapsulate a model drug in the form of microspheres. The zeta potential of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB)-modified PLGA microspheres in water was proportional to the DDAB concentration used in the preparation step, up to +57.8 mV. The scanning electron microscope pictures and the zeta potential data (SEM) confirmed that the surface of the PLGA has been modified by the cationic surfactant and that electrostatic interaction between the positively charged microspheres and the negatively charged vitreous were present.

  8. Behavior of aqueous Tetrabutylammonium bromide - a combined approach of microscopic simulation and neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Debsindhu


    Aqueous solution of tetrabutylammonium bromide is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, to give information on the dynamic modes involving the ions present. Using a careful combination of two techniques, time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron spin echo (NSE), we de- couple the dynamic information in both the coherently and incoherently scattered signal from this system. We take advantage of the different intensity ratio of the two signals, as detected by each of the techniques, to achieve this decoupling. By using heavy water as the sol- vent, the tetrabutylammonium cation is the only hydrogen-containing species in the system and gives rise to a significant incoherent scattered intensity. The dynamic analysis of the incoherent signal (measured by TOF) leads to a translational diffusion coefficient of the cation as that is in good agreement with previous NMR, neutron scattering and tracer diffusion measurements. The dynamic analysis of the coherent signal observed at wave-vectors < 0.6 angstrom^(-1) (measu...

  9. Suzuki Reaction of Aryl Bromides Using a Phosphine-Free Magnetic Nanoparticle-Supported Palladium Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nghia T. BUI; Trung B. DANG; Ha V. LE; Nam T. S. PHAN


    A palladium catalyst immobilized on superparaganetic nanoparticles was prepared with a palladium loading of 0.30 mmol/g.The catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy,vibrating sample magnetometry,thermogravimetric analysis,Fourier transform infrared,atomic absorption spectrophotometry,and nitrogen adsorption.The immobilized palladium catalyst was an efficient catalyst without added phosphine ligands for the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of several aryl bromides with phenylboronic acid.The recovery of catalyst was simply by magnetic decantation in the presence of a magnet.The immobilized palladium catalyst can be reused many times without significant degradation in catalytic activity.No leaching of active palladium species into the reaction solution was detected.

  10. Tetrabutylammonium Bromide (TBABr-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs and Their Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizana Yusof


    Full Text Available Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscosity of the studied DESs decreased with an increase in temperature, while ionic conductivity increases with temperature. In general, DESs made of TBABr and glycerol showed the highest density and viscosity and the lowest ionic conductivity when compared to other DESs. The presence of an extra hydroxyl group on glycerol in a DES affected the properties of the DES.

  11. The matlockite-type praseodymium(III oxide bromide PrOBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Talmon-Gros


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the praseodymium(III oxide bromide, PrOBr, can be best described with layers of agglomerated square antiprisms [PrO4Br4]9−. These slabs are stacked along the c axis and linked via two different secondary contacts between Pr3+ and Br−. The Pr3+ cations occupy the Wyckoff site 2c with 4mm symmetry and carry four O2− anions as well as four primary Br− anions, yielding a coordination number of 8. While the Br− anions exhibit the same site symmetry as the Pr3+ cations, the oxide anions are located at the Wyckoff position 2a with site symmetry overline{4}m2 and have four Pr3+ cations as neighbours, defining a tetrahedron.

  12. Pitting corrosion transformation of SUS304 stainless steel in lithium bromide solution at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.X.; Ma, X.H.; Chen, J.B.; Bo, S.S. [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)


    The foundational data and rules of SUS304 corrosion in aqueous lithium bromide solution at 150-200 C have been investigated by means of weight loss in this paper. The Taguchi method was chosen to investigate the effects of variables on corrosion at higher temperature. Concentration of dissolved oxygen was controlled by keeping the vessel pressure at 1.3 kPa (absolute) before the experiment. The results showed that there was a transformation tendency from pitting corrosion to general corrosion and transition concentration of pitting and film corrosion decreased with increase in solution temperature. The adsorption, activity, and diffusivity of bromine ion led to different corrosion modalities. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Improved hydrogen evolution on glassy carbon electrode modified with novel Pt/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide nanoscale aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jahan-Bakhsh Raoof; Sayed Reza Hosseini; Seyedeh Zeinab Mousavi-Sani


    A novel, cost‐effective, and simple electrocatalyst based on a Pt‐modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant, is reported. Am‐phiphilic CTAB molecules were adsorbed on GCE by immersion in a CTAB solution. The positively charged hydrophilic layer, which consisted of small aggregates of average size less than 100 nm, was used for accumulation and complexation of [PtCl6]2− anions by immersing the electrode in K2PtCl6 solution. The modified electrode was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. The electrocatalytic activity of the Pt particles in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was investigat‐ed. The results show that the CTAB surfactant enhances the electrocatalytic activity of the Pt parti‐cles in the HER in acidic solution.

  14. Spectroscopic probe of the competitive binding of ethidium bromide and neomycin to DNA (United States)

    Pal, Medini Kanta; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti


    The three spectroscopic changes of ethidium bromide (EB) on its binding to DNA, namely red-shift of the νmax, enhancement of fluorescence and induced dichroism are utilized to study the competitive binding of neomycin (NMC) and EB to DNA. Reversion of νmax, decrease in fluorescence and reduction of dichroism of DNA-EB on addition of NMC shows that the binding of NMC and EB to DNA is competitive in nature, over a limited concentration of the polymer. The binding constant of EB-DNA falls from 4.00 × 10 6 to 2.27 × 10 4 1 mol -1 in the presence of added NMC.

  15. Lithium bromide absorption machines: Pressure drop and mass transfer in solutions conical sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, E. [Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica Industrial, U.P.M., Ronda de Valencia 3, Madrid 28012 (Spain); Izquierdo, M. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja. C.S.I.C., Serrano Galvache 4, Madrid 28033 (Spain); Lizarte, R. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, Madrid 28911 (Spain); Marcos, J.D. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, U.N.E.D., Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)


    Adiabatic vapour absorption in conical liquid sheets is studied with a view to use in air conditioning. The sheets consist in a lithium bromide aqueous solution sprayed at mass flow rates ranging from 0.0078 to 0.0116 kg/s (28-42 kg/h). The experimental results show that the deformation rate associated with conical sheet development has a significant effect on absorption, with 60% of the total reached by the time the liquid sheet disintegrates, 4 ms after injection. In the conical sheet configuration, about 150 g of vapour are absorbed per kJ of solution flow work. The vapour absorption rate per chamber absorption volume, in turn, is found to be over 1 g/s l in absorption chambers 75 mm long or less. (author)

  16. Exchange equilibria between bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride and bromide on dowex 1 x 8. (United States)

    Lundström, U; Olin, A


    The exchange reaction 2R(+)HCO(3)(2-) + CO(3)(2-) right harpoon over left harpoon R(2)(+) CO(3)(2-) + 2HCO(3)(2-) has been studied on Dowex 1 x 8 in the presence of bicarbonate solution in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide (open system). The experiments showed, as theory predicts, that the composition of the resin phase is independent of the concentration of the bicarbonate solution. The mole fraction of carbonate at equilibrium is about 0.4 and the equilibrium constant is 0.15M at 20 degrees . With this value of the constant, the composition of the ion-exchanger for various bicarbonate concentrations has been calculated for a closed system. At [HCO(3)(-)] Chromatographie enrichment of bromide from fresh water.

  17. Characterization of potassium bromide crystals grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid (United States)

    Maheswari, J. Uma; Krishnan, C.; Kalyanaraman, S.; Selvarajan, P.


    Potassium bromide crystals were grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis ensures that the grown sample is in Fm3m space group and FCC structure. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) reveals the presence of elements in the title compound. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the grown sample is a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. FTIR analysis confirms the functional groups present in the sample. The thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTA) analyses ensure that the sample material is thermally stable up to 160 °C. The second harmonic efficiency of the sample is 1.3 times greater than that of standard KDP. The mechanical strength of the grown sample is estimated by Vickers microhardness tester. The electrical properties were investigated by impedance analysis and the results of various studies of the grown crystals are discussed.

  18. Copper bromide vapor brightness amplifiers with 100 kHz pulse repetition frequency (United States)

    Trigub, M. V.; Evtushenko, G. S.; Torgaev, S. N.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Evtushenko, T. G.


    The paper presents a laser monitor with 10 μs time-resolution based on a high-frequency copper bromide vapor brightness amplifier. A sync circuit has been designed for single-pulse imaging. The analysis of amplifying characteristics of the active elements and active optical system (laser monitor) parameters allowed to determine the optimal concentration of HBr at which the images can be obtained with minimum distortions. For the active element operating at high frequencies (more than 50 kHz) as a brightness amplifier, the concentration of HBr must be lower than that needed for obtaining the maximum output power. The limiting brightness temperature of the background radiation which does not affect the image quality is determined. The potential feasibility of using a proposed brightness amplifier for visualizing processes blocked from viewing by the background radiation with the brightness temperature up to 8000 K is demonstrated.

  19. Crystal structure of {2-[({2-[(2-aminoethylamino]ethyl}iminomethyl]phenolato}aquacopper(II bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya I. Plyuta


    Full Text Available In the mononuclear copper(II title complex, [Cu(C11H16N3O(H2O]Br, the CuII atom is coordinated by one O and three N atoms of the Schiff base ligand that forms together with one water molecule a slightly distorted [CuN3O2] square-pyramidal polyhedron. The deviation of the CuII atom from the mean equatorial plane is 0.182 (2 Å. The equatorial plane is nearly coplanar to the aromatic ring of the ligand [angle between planes = 10.4 (1°], and the water molecule is situated in the apical site. All coordinating atoms (except the imine nitrogen and the bromide ion contribute to the formation of the N—H...Br, O—H...Br and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which link molecules into chains along [01-1].

  20. Flotation de-silicating from diasporic-bauxite with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓华; 胡岳华; 刘晓文


    Using cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as collector, the flotation de-silicating from diasporicbauxite was investigated. And the Zeta potentials and contact-angles of silicate minerals and diaspore were also stuite and illite become more positive, and the contact angles of these three silicates also increase evidently in the pH range of 2-8, but the Zeta potentials and contact angles of diaspore change little. So, the floatability of the four minerals is in the following order: pyrophyllite>kaolinite≈illite>diaspore. The open-circuit flotation results also show that a bauxite concentrate with m(Al2 O3 )/m(SiO2 ) over 9.3 and Al2 O3 recovery over 76% can be obtained from diasporic-bauxite ore. The result of XRD of the bauxite concentrate shows that pyrophyllite is easier to be removed from diasporic-bauxite than illite and kaolinite due to its better floatability.

  1. Bromidotetrakis(1H-2-ethyl-5-methylimidazole-κN3copper(II bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Godlewska


    Full Text Available The CuII ion in the title compound, [CuBr(C6H10N24]Br, is coordinated in a square-based-pyramidal geometry by the N atoms of four imidazole ligands and a bromide anion in the apical site. Both the CuII and Br− atoms lie on a crystallographic fourfold axis. In the crystal, the [CuBr(C6H10N24]+ complex cations are linked to the uncoordinated Br− anions (site symmetry overline{4} by N—H...Br hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. The ethyl group of the imidazole ligand was modelled as disordered over two orientations with occupancies of 0.620 (8 and 0.380 (8.

  2. Growth, photoluminescence, thermal and mechanical behaviour of Ethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide dihydrate crystal (United States)

    Parthasarathy, M.; Gopalakrishnan, R.


    Single crystal of Ethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide dihydrate (ETPB) was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystal was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The functional groups and vibrational frequencies were identified using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral analyses. Optical properties were studied by UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectroscopic techniques to explore its efficacy towards device fabrication. Thermal characteristics of ETPB were studied using the TGA/DTA and DSC response curves. The mechanical behaviour of the grown crystal was studied using Vicker's microhardness tester and the work hardening coefficient was evaluated. The second harmonic generation of the title compound was tested by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

  3. Growth and characterization of Cadmium Thiosemicarbazide Bromide crystals for antibacterial and nonlinear optical applications (United States)

    Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.; Martin Sam Gnanaraj, J.


    Semiorganic nonlinear optical crystals of Cadmium Thiosemicarbazide Bromide was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The unit cell parameters were estimated by subjecting the crystals to single crystal X-ray diffraction. The grown crystals were subjected to Powder X-ray diffraction for analyzing the crystalline nature of the sample. FTIR studies reveal the functional groups and the optical characters were analyzed by UV-Vis spectral studies. Mechanical stability of the sample was assessed by Vicker's micro hardness test. The presence of surface dislocations was identified by chemical etching technique. Antibacterial study was carried out against ACDP declared harmful pathogens. SHG efficiency of CTSB crystal was tested using Nd: YAG laser and it was found to be ∼1.8 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate.

  4. Determination of critical micelle concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: Different procedures for analysis of experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goronja Jelena M.


    Full Text Available Conductivity of two micellar systems was measured in order to determine critical micelle concentration (CMC of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. Those systems were: CTin water and CTin binary mixture acetonitrile (ACN-water. Conductivity (κ-concentration (c data were treated by four different methods: conventional method, differential methods (first and second derivative and method of integration (methods A-D, respectively. As CTin water micellar system shows a sharp transition between premicellar and postmicellar part of the κ/c curve, any of the applied methods gives reliable CMC values and there is no statistically significant difference between them. However, for CTin ACN-water mixture micellar system the integration method for CMC determination is recommended due to a weak curvature of κ/c plot.

  5. [Investigation of the oxidation reaction of O3 with bromide ion in aqueous solution]. (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Jia-Hui; Pan, Xun-Xi; Zhang, Ren-Xi; Hou, Hui-Qi


    The reaction mechanism of O3 with bromide ion in aqueous solution was studied by ion chromatography and UV-Vis spectrometry instruments. Ion chromatography analysis showed that only 10% of Br- which was oxidized by ozone was formed into bromate ion. The results demonstrated that the final products of the oxidation reaction were identified as Br2 and Br3- except for BrO3-. The formation of Br3- which was yielded from the reaction of Br2 with Br- was the major process in the reaction of Br attacked by O3. The characteristic absorption spectrum of Br3- with an absorption peak at 260 nm was also investigated. The results may provide helpful information about the mechanism of the oxidation reaction of Br- with O3 and fate of Br- or its derivatives in the environment by the oxidation processes.

  6. Fluorescence studies on the interaction of ethidium bromide with duplex, triplex and quadruplex DNA structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪光; 曹恩华; 何裕建; 秦静芬


    Under different conditions, oligonucleotides can form several alternative DNA structures such as duplex, triplex and quadruplex. All these structures can interact with ethidium bromide (EB) and make its fluorescence intensity change. The fluorescence spectra and other related parameters provided by static fluorescence techniques showed that the interaction mechanisms between EB and these structures were not always the same. Among them, B type duplex and triplex DNA adopt an intercalative mode when binding to the EB, which has a relatively high efficiency of energy transfer and the fluorescence of EB cannot be quenched easily. While for the parallel duplex DNA, the interaction mode is an outside binding in which energy transfer can hardly happen and its fluorescence intensity as well as Stern-Volmer constant is almost the same to the free EB. For the quadruplex, the binding mechanism to EB is more complex. Results from the energy transfer and quenching studies indicate that the two interaction modes note


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-hua Lu; Chuan-qiou Luo; Wei-xiao Cao


    The interaction of poly(sodium sulfodecyl methacrylate) (PSSM) with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)was studied. It was found that the precipitate formed from PSSM and CTAB will be dissolved by excessive CTAB, resultingin the appearance of two maxima of the solution viscosity at the molar ratio (CTAB/-SO3-) of ≈ 0.68 and ≈ 1.30,respectively. The first one is related closely to the aggregation of polymer chains via CTAB molecules and the second oneshould be ascribed to the formation of the mixed micelles comprising surfactant and the polymer's hydrophobic chains. Theeffect of NaCl on the viscosity, the transmittance of the aqueous solution and the solubility of oil-soluble dye (dimethylyellow) in the mixed system were also investigated.

  8. Successful treatment of migrating partial seizures in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome with bromide. (United States)

    Itakura, Ayako; Saito, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Yoko; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Ohno, Koyo; Sejima, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro


    A girl with mild psychomotor developmental delay developed right or left hemiclonic convulsion at 10months of age. One month later, clusters of hemiclonic or bilateral tonic seizures with eyelid twitching emerged, resulting in status epilepticus. Treatment with phenobarbital and potassium bromide completely terminated the seizures within 10days. Ictal electroencephalography revealed a migrating focus of rhythmic 3-4Hz waves from the right temporal to right frontal regions and then to the left frontal regions. Genetic analysis was conducted based on the characteristic facial appearance of the patient, which identified a 2.1-Mb terminal deletion on chromosome 4p. This is the first case of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome complicated by epilepsy with migrating partial seizures.

  9. Rapid isolation of plasmid DNA by LiCl-ethidium bromide treatment and gel filtration. (United States)

    Kondo, T; Mukai, M; Kondo, Y


    We established a simple and rapid plasmid DNA purification method. Crude plasmid DNA preparations are treated with 4 M LiCl in the presence of 0.6 mg/ml ethidium bromide to precipitate RNA and proteins contained in the DNA preparations. After removal of RNA and protein precipitates, the supernatant is filtered through a Sepharose CL6B column to remove low-molecular-weight contaminants. This procedure takes only 30 min and provides pure plasmid DNA preparations that consist mainly of covalently closed circular plasmid DNA but have no detectable RNA and protein. The purified DNA preparations are susceptible to various six- and four-base-recognition restriction endonucleases, T4 DNA ligase, the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, and T7 and Taq DNA polymerase. Since no special equipment is needed for this purification method, 20 or more samples of microgram to milligram levels can be treated in parallel.

  10. Multimetallic catalysed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with aryl triflates (United States)

    Ackerman, Laura K. G.; Lovell, Matthew M.; Weix, Daniel J.


    The advent of transition-metal catalysed strategies for forming new carbon-carbon bonds has revolutionized the field of organic chemistry, enabling the efficient synthesis of ligands, materials, and biologically active molecules. In cases where a single metal fails to promote a selective or efficient transformation, the synergistic cooperation of two distinct catalysts--multimetallic catalysis--can be used instead. Many important reactions rely on multimetallic catalysis, such as the Wacker oxidation of olefins and the Sonogashira coupling of alkynes with aryl halides, but this approach has largely been limited to the use of metals with distinct reactivities, with only one metal catalyst undergoing oxidative addition. Here, we demonstrate that cooperativity between two group 10 metal catalysts--(bipyridine)nickel and (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium--enables a general cross-Ullmann reaction (the cross-coupling of two different aryl electrophiles). Our method couples aryl bromides with aryl triflates directly, eliminating the use of arylmetal reagents and avoiding the challenge of differentiating between multiple carbon-hydrogen bonds that is required for direct arylation methods. Selectivity can be achieved without an excess of either substrate and originates from the orthogonal reactivity of the two catalysts and the relative stability of the two arylmetal intermediates. While (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium reacts preferentially with aryl triflates to afford a persistent intermediate, (bipyridine)nickel reacts preferentially with aryl bromides to form a transient, reactive intermediate. Although each catalyst forms less than 5 per cent cross-coupled product in isolation, together they are able to achieve a yield of up to 94 per cent. Our results reveal a new method for the synthesis of biaryls, heteroaryls, and dienes, as well as a general mechanism for the selective transfer of ligands between two metal catalysts. We anticipate that this

  11. Role of once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237 in the management of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Urzo A


    Full Text Available Anthony D'UrzoDepartment of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Progressive airflow limitation is a hallmark feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD that ultimately leads to breathlessness, impaired quality of life, and reduced exercise capacity. Pharmacotherapy is used in patients with COPD to prevent and control symptoms, reduce both the frequency and severity of exacerbations, improve health status, and increase exercise tolerance. These strategies are intended to address management issues which promote both current disease control and a reduction in the risk of disease deterioration in the future. At the present time, long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs are available for maintenance therapy in patients with persistent symptoms. Tiotropium was the first LAMA to be approved for management of COPD, and many studies have described its beneficial effects on multiple clinically relevant outcomes. Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237, a new LAMA, has been developed and received regulatory approval for management of COPD in a number of countries around the world. Results from pivotal Phase III trials suggest that NVA237 is safe and well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe COPD, and provides rapid and sustained improvements in lung function. Further, these changes are associated with statistically and clinically meaningful improvements in dyspnea, health-related quality of life, and exercise tolerance. Treatment with NVA237 also results in a significant reduction in risk of exacerbations and the need for rescue medication, and has been comparable with tiotropium with respect to safety and efficacy outcomes. Finally, emerging data indicate that NVA237 is efficacious both as monotherapy and in combination with indacaterol.Keywords: glycopyrronium bromide, NVA237, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inhaled long-acting bronchodilators

  12. The aqueous catanionic system sodium perfluorooctanoate-dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide at low concentration. (United States)

    López-Fontán, José Luis; Blanco, Elena; Ruso, Juan M; Prieto, Gerardo; Schulz, Pablo C; Sarmiento, Félix


    The interaction between sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPFO) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) was studied by several methods and it was found strongly synergistic. Above a mole fraction of SPFO in the surfactant mixture (alpha(SPFO))=0.38, the interaction is repulsive and increases with the content of SPFO in both, the overall mixture and micelles, whereas the interaction is attractive if DTAB is in excess. At alpha(SPFO)=0.38 the low miscibility between hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon is counterbalanced by the electrostatic attraction between the opposite charged head groups, and the micelle composition is ideal (i.e., the mole fraction of SPFO in micelles X(SPFO)=alpha(SPFO)=0.38). The solubility of fluorocarbon in hydrocarbon is lower than that of hydrocarbon in fluorocarbon. Micelles of DTAB act as a solvent for SPFO without important structural changes, whilst micelles of SPFO undergo important changes when dissolve DTAB. This asymmetry may be interpreted as caused by the difference in chain length that favors the inclusion of the shorter chain in micelles of the longer surfactant, but disfavors the opposite process. Above X(SPFO)=0.5 there is an excess adsorption of bromide ions on the mixed micelles surface, giving rise to a high zeta potential. Micelles of pure SPFO or pure DTAB show an important energy barrier which prevents micelle flocculation. The inclusion of SPFO in DTAB micelles produces a reduction of the energy barrier, which disappeared when alpha(SPFO)=0.5. This produces the flocculation of micelles giving rise to the formation of a non-birefringent coacervate, which is probably formed by unordered isometric clusters of micelles.

  13. Role of combined indacaterol and glycopyrronium bromide (QVA149 for the treatment of COPD in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horita N


    Full Text Available Nobuyuki Horita, Takeshi Kaneko Department of Pulmonology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan Abstract: Once-daily dual-bronchodilator therapy with combined indacaterol and glycopyrronium bromide in one device (Ultibro, Breezhaler, often called QVA149, was first approved in 2013 in Japan and Europe. As of November 2014, more than 40 countries had approved this medication except for the USA. This is the first dual bronchodilator in one device. Now, the Breezhaler is the only device that can provide long-acting muscarinic antagonist (glycopyrronium bromide, long-acting beta agonist (indacaterol, and a combination of the two medications (QVA149. The choice among the three medications allows a patient to use the same inhalation device even when the regimen is changed from single-bronchodilator therapy to dual-bronchodilator therapy. In addition, the quick bronchodilation effect and once-daily administration can improve patient adherence to medical treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. To our knowledge, as of November 2014, the safety and the efficacy of QVA149 have been evaluated in 14 randomized controlled trials. The 14 trials generally showed good safety profiles, and there were better or not-inferior bronchodilator effects of QVA149 when compared with placebo, or other inhaled medication. According to the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines, QVA149 is a combination of the two first-line bronchodilators. Our meta-analysis indicated that QVA149 is superior to the salmeterol–fluticasone combination to treat COPD in respect of the frequency of adverse effects, exacerbation, pneumonia, and improvement of trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1. Thus, we believe that QVA149 can be a key medication for COPD treatments. Keywords: bronchodilator agents, dry powder inhalers, delivery of health care, guideline, meta-analysis, muscarinic antagonists 

  14. The role of methylation in urological tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.G. van der


    Alterations in DNA methylation have been described in human cancer for more than thirty years now. Since the last decade DNA methylation gets more and more important in cancer research. In this review the different alterations of DNA methylation are discussed in testicular germ cell tumours, Wilms't

  15. Quantitative DNA Methylation Profiling in Cancer. (United States)

    Ammerpohl, Ole; Haake, Andrea; Kolarova, Julia; Siebert, Reiner


    Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are fundamental for the regulation of gene expression. Epigenetic alterations can lead to the development and the evolution of malignant tumors as well as the emergence of phenotypically different cancer cells or metastasis from one single tumor cell. Here we describe bisulfite pyrosequencing, a technology to perform quantitative DNA methylation analyses, to detect aberrant DNA methylation in malignant tumors.

  16. Iodide Impurities in Hexadecyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) Products: Lot−Lot Variations and Influence on Gold Nanorod Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rayavarapu, Raja Gopal; Ungureanu, Constantin; Krystec, Petra; Leeuwen, van Ton G.; Manohar, Srirang


    Recent reports [Smith and Korgel Langmuir 2008, 24, 644−649 and Smith et al.Langmuir 2009, 25, 9518−9524] have implicated certain hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) products with iodide impurities, in the failure of a seed-mediated, silver and surfactant-assisted growth protocol, to produce g

  17. High-Speed Analyzing PCR Products of M. tuberculosis Genome Stained by Ethidium Bromide on Microchip Gel Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN,Qing-Hui(金庆辉); CHEN,Ji-Feng(陈继锋); JING,Feng-Xiang(景奉香); ZHAO,Jian-Long(赵建龙); XU,Yuan-Sen(徐元森)


    The technique of microchip gel electrophoresis (MCGE) was used to analyze the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of M. tuberculosis Genome stained by ethidium bromide. The electrophoretic process was completed within 3-4 min and the results show that the technique of microchip electrophoresis is a high-speed and high-sensitivity analyzing method.

  18. High—Speed Analyzing PCR Products of M.tuberculosis Genome Stained by Ethidium Bromide on Microchip Gel Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金庆辉; 陈继锋; 等


    The technique of microchip gel electrophoresis(MCGE) was used to analyze the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of M.tuberculosis Genome stained by ethidium bromide,The electrophoretic Process was completed within 3-4 min and the results show that the technique of microchip electrophoresis is a high-speed and high-sensitivity analyzing method.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Injection of small aliquots of dipicolinate anions (sodium salt) into an aqueous solution containing dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DOAB) vesicles is endothermic at 50-degrees-C, becoming first more and then less endothermic. The injection process is effectively athermal for solutions containi

  20. Regioselective Propargylation of Aldehydes with Propargyl Bromide Mediated by Sn-In in Aqueous Media under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhi GU; Qian Rong LI; Hao YIN


    Tin-indium were employed in the propargylations of various aldehydes with propargyl bromide in the presence of SnCl2 and C6 H5(CH3)3NBr under microwave irradiation to afford the corresponding homopropargyl alcohols exclusively in high yields. All the reactions were completed smoothly in predominantly aqueous media in 200 seconds only.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The conformational state of poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromides) was studied in aqueous solutions using pyrene as a fluorescence probe. The results are indicative for the formation of hydrophobic microdomains in the case of several copolymers which possess sufficiently hydrophobic alkyl side ch

  2. Formation of halogenated organic byproducts during medium-pressure UV and chlorine coexposure of model compounds, NOM and bromide. (United States)

    Zhao, Quan; Shang, Chii; Zhang, Xiangru; Ding, Guoyu; Yang, Xin


    When chlorine is applied before or during UV disinfection of bromide-containing water, interactions between chlorine, bromide and UV light are inevitable. Formation of halogenated organic byproducts was studied during medium-pressure UV (MPUV) and chlorine coexposure of phenol, nitrobenzene and benzoic acid and maleic acid, chosen to represent electron-donating aromatics, electron-withdrawing aromatics, and aliphatic structures in natural organic matter (NOM), respectively. All were evaluated in the presence and absence of bromide. MPUV and chlorine coexposure of phenol produced less total organic halogen (TOX, a collective parameter for halogenated organic byproducts) than chlorination in the dark, and more haloacetic acids instead of halophenols. Increases in TOX were found in the coexposure of nitrobenzene and benzoic acid, but maleic acid was rather inert during coexposure. The presence of bromide increased the formation of brominated TOX but did not significantly affect total TOX formation, in spite of the fact that it reduced hydroxyl radical levels. MPUV and chlorine coexposure of NOM gave a higher differential UV absorbance of NOM and a larger shift to lower molecular weight compounds than chlorination in the dark. However, TOX formation with NOM remained similar to that observed from dark chlorination.

  3. A convenient method for the synthesis of (prop-2-ynyloxybenzene derivatives via reaction with propargyl bromide, their optimization, scope and biological evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannaza Batool

    Full Text Available A highly convenient method has been developed for the synthesis of (prop-2-ynyloxy benzene and its derivatives. Differently substituted phenol and aniline derivatives were allowed to react with propargyl bromide in the presence of K2CO3 base and acetone as solvent. The compounds were synthesized in good yields (53-85%. Low cost, high yields and easy availability of compounds helped in the synthesis. Electron withdrawing groups favor the formation of stable phenoxide ion thus in turn favors the formation of product while electron donating groups do not favor the reaction. Phenol derivatives gave good yields as compared to that of aniline. As aprotic polar solvents favor SN2 type reactions so acetone provided best solvation for the reactions. K2CO3 was proved to be good for the synthesis. Antibacterial, Antiurease and NO scavenging activity of synthesized compounds were also examined. 4-bromo-2-chloro-1-(prop-2-ynyloxybenzene 2a was found most active compound against urease enzyme with a percentage inhibition of 82.00±0.09 at 100 µg/mL with IC50 value of 60.2. 2-bromo-4-methyl-1-(prop-2-ynyloxybenzene 2d was found potent antibacterial against Bacillus subtillus showing excellent inhibitory action with percentage inhibition of 55.67±0.26 at 100 µg/ml wih IC50 value of 79.9. Based on results, it can be concluded that some of the synthesized compounds may have potential antiurease and antibacterial effects against several harmful substances.

  4. A convenient method for the synthesis of (prop-2-ynyloxy)benzene derivatives via reaction with propargyl bromide, their optimization, scope and biological evaluation. (United States)

    Batool, Tannaza; Rasool, Nasir; Gull, Yasmeen; Noreen, Mnaza; Nasim, Faiz-ul-Hassan; Yaqoob, Asma; Zubair, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Zia-Ul-Haq, M; Jaafar, Hawa Z E


    A highly convenient method has been developed for the synthesis of (prop-2-ynyloxy) benzene and its derivatives. Differently substituted phenol and aniline derivatives were allowed to react with propargyl bromide in the presence of K2CO3 base and acetone as solvent. The compounds were synthesized in good yields (53-85%). Low cost, high yields and easy availability of compounds helped in the synthesis. Electron withdrawing groups favor the formation of stable phenoxide ion thus in turn favors the formation of product while electron donating groups do not favor the reaction. Phenol derivatives gave good yields as compared to that of aniline. As aprotic polar solvents favor SN2 type reactions so acetone provided best solvation for the reactions. K2CO3 was proved to be good for the synthesis. Antibacterial, Antiurease and NO scavenging activity of synthesized compounds were also examined. 4-bromo-2-chloro-1-(prop-2-ynyloxy)benzene 2a was found most active compound against urease enzyme with a percentage inhibition of 82.00±0.09 at 100 µg/mL with IC50 value of 60.2. 2-bromo-4-methyl-1-(prop-2-ynyloxy)benzene 2d was found potent antibacterial against Bacillus subtillus showing excellent inhibitory action with percentage inhibition of 55.67±0.26 at 100 µg/ml wih IC50 value of 79.9. Based on results, it can be concluded that some of the synthesized compounds may have potential antiurease and antibacterial effects against several harmful substances.

  5. Electrochemical behavior of biocatalytical composite based on heme-proteins, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide and room-temperature ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yanxia, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Bioengineering Institute, Wuhan 430415 (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Hu Chengguo [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Hu Shengshui, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)


    A novel biocompatible composite film based on a water-insoluble surfactant, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), and a hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate (HIMIMPF{sub 6}), for the immobilization of biocatalytical proteins was reported. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that the DDAB-HIMIMPF{sub 6} composite film has higher thermal stability than the DDAB film alone. SEM images indicated that different microstructures existed between the DDAB film and the composite film, indicating the interaction between DDAB and RTILs. This composite can be used as the immobilization matrix of proteins and other biomacromolecules. Heme-proteins, including hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin (Mb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), were used as model proteins for studying the electrochemical behaviors of the resulting biocatalytical composite films. In the case of Hb, a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks was obtained when the composite film containing Hb was modified on a glassy carbon electrode. The formal potential (E{sup o}'), the surface coverage ({Gamma}{sup *}) and the electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) were calculated as -0.308 V, 1.32 x 10{sup -11} mol cm{sup -2} and 11.642 s{sup -1}, respectively. While, these parameters for Hb on DDAB films alone were -0.309 V, 7.20 x 10{sup -12} mol cm{sup -2} and 2.748 s{sup -1}, respectively. Therefore, the composite are more suitable for the direct electron transfer between Hb than DDAB alone. The native conformation and bioactivity of Hb adsorbed on the composite film was proved to be maintained, reflected by the unchanged ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) as well as the catalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and nitric oxide (NO) compared with the free Hb molecules. Furthermore, Hb on the composite film are more sensitive for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and nitric oxide (NO) than that on

  6. 强效睫状肌麻痹剂环戊通能否替代阿托品%Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    For a long time,atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China,while internationally,cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic.In recent years,1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country.This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedoophthalmiaters.According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs,the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children.However,the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So,for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old,all esotropia children,Am children,and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry.In this article,we also discuss the medication dosage,medication method,possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.%阿托品眼膏长期以来都是中国儿童验光主流使用的睫状肌麻痹剂,而国际上则普遍使用环戊通滴眼液作为一线的睫状肌麻痹药物.近年来,国内引了进1%盐酸环戊通眼液,这种快速强效的睫状肌麻痹剂已被国内小儿眼科医师所关注.一系列国内外自身对照药物疗效研究证实,环戊通的睫状肌麻痹效果接近于阿托品,能广泛应用于中国儿童验光前的睫状肌麻痹.尽管如此,其药物疗效仍略逊于阿托品,故对于7岁以内的远视儿童、所有内斜视儿童、混合性散光儿童及短期内视力下降需要排除调节性近视的儿童,验光前仍应常规使用阿托品眼膏行睫状肌麻痹.本文同时对环戊通眼液的用药剂量、用药方法、可

  7. Impact of bromide on halogen incorporation into organic moieties in chlorinated drinking water treatment and distribution systems. (United States)

    Tan, J; Allard, S; Gruchlik, Y; McDonald, S; Joll, C A; Heitz, A


    The impact of elevated bromide concentrations (399 to 750 μg/L) on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), namely trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), in two drinking water systems was investigated. Bromine was the main halogen incorporated into all of the DBP classes and into organic carbon, even though chlorine was present in large excess to maintain a disinfectant residual. Due to the higher reactivity of bromine compared to chlorine, brominated DBPs were rapidly formed, followed by a slower increase in chlorinated DBPs. Higher bromine substitution and incorporation factors for individual DBP classes were observed for the chlorinated water from the groundwater source (lower concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), which contained a higher concentration of bromide, than for the surface water source (higher DOC). The molar distribution of adsorbable organic bromine to chlorine (AOBr/AOCl) for AOX in the groundwater distribution system was 1.5:1 and almost 1:1 for the surface water system. The measured (regulated) DBPs only accounted for 16 to 33% of the total organic halogen, demonstrating that AOX measurements are essential to provide a full understanding of the formation of halogenated DBPs in drinking waters. In addition, the study demonstrated that a significant proportion (up to 94%) of the bromide in source waters can be converted AOBr. An evaluation of AOBr and AOCl through a second groundwater treatment plant that uses conventional treatment processes for DOC removal produced 70% of AOX as AOBr, with 69% of the initial source water bromide converted to AOBr. Exposure to organobromine compounds is suspected to result in greater adverse health consequences than their chlorinated analogues. Therefore, this study highlights the need for improved methods to selectively reduce the bromide content in source waters.

  8. 弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效%Efficacy of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘真; 陈玮; 刘玉岭; 赵梅


    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia. Methods One hundred and twenty children (240 eyes with ametropic amblyopia) were grouped randomly, and the improvement of visual acuity and visual function between the two methods were compared. Results The differences in binocularvision improvement and stereopsis visual acuity of the two methods were significant(t=2.24,P<0.05).Conclusions Low level laser combined with atropine therapy seems to be superio to traditional treatment in binocularvision improvement and recovery.%目的 观察弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效.方法 120例(240只弱视眼)患儿随机分为治疗组(弱激光联合阿托品疗法)和对照组(传统治疗),比较两种方法对视力的提升效果及双眼视功能的改善情况.结果 弱激光联合阿托品疗法使弱视眼视力进步有效率及立体视锐度与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.24,P<0.05).结论 弱激光联合阿托品疗法更有利于患儿视力提升、双眼视力恢复.

  9. Efficacy and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study of 1,1'-methylenebis{4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl] pyridinium} dimethanesulfonate in guinea pigs and rhesus macaques exposed to cyclosarin. (United States)

    Harvilchuck, Jill A; Hong, S Peter; Richey, Jamie S; Osheroff, Merrill R; Johnson, Jerry D


    Male Hartley guinea pigs and male rhesus macaques were used to determine an efficacious dose of 1,1'-methylenebis{4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl] pyridinium} dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) that would result in 80% survival, 24 hours following a single exposure to cyclosarin (GF). The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship between acetylcholinesterase activity and MMB4 plasma concentrations relative to survival was evaluated. Guinea pigs and non-human primates (NHPs) were concurrently administered MMB4 DMS (guinea pigs: 0, 10, 30, or 40 mg/kg, intramuscular [IM] and NHPs: 0.1, 1, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg, IM), atropine, and diazepam following a 3 × median lethal dose (LD50) GF challenge. Clinical observations were evaluated using a quality-of-life (QOL) scoring system. All GF-exposed animals exhibited typical signs of nerve agent poisoning immediately following challenge. In guinea pigs, 24-hour survival was 0%, 50%, 90%, and 90% for 0, 10, 30, and 40 mg/kg MMB4 DMS groups, respectively. In addition, nearly all animals surviving to 24 hours were clinically normal, with many in the 30 and 40 mg/kg MMB4 DMS dose group observed as normal by 4 hours post-challenge. In NHPs, survival was 100% for all treatment groups, with all animals noted as clinically normal by 48 hours. Following treatment with atropine/MMB4 DMS/diazepam, NHPs exhibited dose- and temporal-related decreases in incidence and duration of the clinical signs of toxicity. The QOL scores improved with increasing MMB4 DMS dose in both species. The estimated ED80s were 25.5 mg/kg MMB4 DMS (human equivalent dose [HED] of 5.5 mg/kg) and ≤ 0.1 mg/kg (HED of 0.03 mg/kg) in guinea pigs and NHPs, respectively.

  10. Virtually impermeable films applied for reducing methyl bromide emission%应用不渗漏膜减少溴甲烷的渗漏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹坳程; 朱留财; 郭美霞; 张向才; 吕平香; 田宇; 褚世海


    2002~2003年在河北省满城县的温室中进行了低量溴甲烷覆盖不渗漏膜(VIF膜)土壤消毒试验.在田间相同条件下,用溴甲烷对常年种植草莓的土壤进行消毒处理,分别覆盖不渗透膜(VIF膜)和常规聚乙烯膜(PE膜).试验结果表明,溴甲烷低量处理41 g/m2,覆盖VIF膜与常规用量55 g/m2,覆盖PE膜比较,在杀灭病原菌效果、杂草控制以及草莓产量上均无显著差异,但使用VIF膜可显著减少溴甲烷渗漏,减少用量25%以上,从而减少对臭氧层的破坏.

  11. Biotechnology application of organic mulch as an alternative to the plastic mulch-methyl bromide system for suppressing purple and yellow nutsedges in tomato production (United States)

    Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus (purple and yellow nutsedges, respectively) are among the most serious weed problems in many cropping systems in Florida and other parts of the world. They have been reported to cause yield losses of 20-89% in various horticultural crops. Production systems based o...

  12. Methods in DNA methylation profiling. (United States)

    Zuo, Tao; Tycko, Benjamin; Liu, Ta-Ming; Lin, Juey-Jen L; Huang, Tim H-M


    Metastable and somatically heritable patterns of DNA methylation provide an important level of genomic regulation. In this article, we review methods for analyzing these genome-wide epigenetic patterns and offer a perspective on the ever-expanding literature, which we hope will be useful for investigators who are new to this area. The historical aspects that we cover will be helpful in interpreting this literature and we hope that our discussion of the newest analytical methods will stimulate future progress. We emphasize that no single approach can provide a complete view of the overall methylome, and that combinations of several modalities applied to the same sample set will give the clearest picture. Given the unexpected epigenomic patterns and new biological principles, as well as new disease markers, that have been uncovered in recent studies, it is likely that important discoveries will continue to be made using genome-wide DNA methylation profiling.

  13. DNA methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iris Tischoff; Andrea Tannapfel


    As for many other tumors, development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) must be understood as a multistep process with accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in regulatory genes, leading to activation of oncogenes and inactivation or loss of tumor suppressor genes (TSG). In the last decades, in addition to genetic alterations, epigenetic inactivation of (tumor suppressor) genes by promoter hypermethylation has been recognized as an important and alternative mechanism in tumorigenesis. In HCC, aberrant methylation of promoter sequences occurs not only in advanced tumors, it has been also observed in premalignant conditions just as chronic viral hepatitis B or C and cirrhotic liver. This review discusses the epigenetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma focusing DNA methylation.

  14. miRNAting control of DNA methylation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashwani Jha; Ravi Shankar


    DNA methylation is a type of epigenetic modification where a methyl group is added to the cytosine or adenine residue of a given DNA sequence. It has been observed that DNA methylation is achieved by some collaborative agglomeration of certain proteins and non-coding RNAs. The assembly of IDN2 and its homologous proteins with siRNAs recruits the enzyme DRM2, which adds a methyl group at certain cytosine residues within the DNA sequence. In this study, it was found that de novo DNA methylation might be regulated by miRNAs through systematic targeting of the genes involved in DNA methylation. A comprehensive genome-wide and system-level study of miRNA targeting, transcription factors, DNA-methylation-causing genes and their target genes has provided a clear picture of an interconnected relationship of all these factors which regulate DNA methylation in Arabidopsis. The study has identified a DNA methylation system that is controlled by four different genes: IDN2, IDNl1, IDNl2 and DRM2. These four genes along with various critical transcription factors appear to be controlled by five different miRNAs. Altogether, DNA methylation appears to be a finely tuned process of opposite control systems of DNA-methylation-causing genes and certain miRNAs pitted against each other.

  15. Methylated genes as new cancer biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J


    Aberrant hypermethylation of promoter regions in specific genes is a key event in the formation and progression of cancer. In at least some situations, these aberrant alterations occur early in the formation of malignancy and appear to be tumour specific. Multiple reports have suggested that measurement of the methylation status of the promoter regions of specific genes can aid early detection of cancer, determine prognosis and predict therapy responses. Promising DNA methylation biomarkers include the use of methylated GSTP1 for aiding the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, methylated PITX2 for predicting outcome in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients and methylated MGMT in predicting benefit from alkylating agents in patients with glioblastomas. However, prior to clinical utilisation, these findings require validation in prospective clinical studies. Furthermore, assays for measuring gene methylation need to be standardised, simplified and evaluated in external quality assurance programmes. It is concluded that methylated genes have the potential to provide a new generation of cancer biomarkers.

  16. DNA methylation profiling of hematopoietic stem cells. (United States)

    Begtrup, Amber Hogart


    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark that is essential for properly functioning hematopoietic stem cells. Determining where functionally relevant DNA methylation marks exist in the genome is crucial to understanding the role that methylation plays in hematopoiesis. This chapter describes a method to profile DNA methylation by selectively enriching methylated DNA sequences that are bound in vitro by methyl-binding domain (MBD) proteins. The MBD-pulldown approach selects for DNA sequences that have the potential to be "read" by the endogenous machinery involved in epigenetic regulation. Furthermore, this approach is feasible with very small quantities of DNA, and is compatible with the use of any downstream high-throughput sequencing approach. This technique offers a reliable, simple, and powerful tool for exploration of the role of DNA methylation in hematopoietic stem cells.

  17. Conventional and nanotechniques for DNA methylation profiling. (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, Rajasree; Basheer, Nazeema B; Amirthalingam, Laxmi; Muthukumar, Harshiny; Kaliaperumal, Rajendran; Shanmugam, Kumaran


    DNA methylation is critical for gene silencing and is associated with the incidence of many diseases, including cancer. Underlying molecular mechanisms of human diseases and tissue-specific gene expression have been elucidated based on DNA methylation studies. This review highlights the advantages and drawbacks of various methylation screening techniques: blotting, genomic sequencing, bisulfite sequencing, methylation-specific PCR, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation, microarray analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, nanowire transistor detection procedure, quantum dot-based nanoassay, single-molecule real-time detection, fluorimetric assay, electrochemical detection, and atomic force spectroscopy. The review provides insight for selecting a method or a combination of methods for DNA methylation analysis. Convergence of conventional and contemporary nanotechniques to enumerate methylation at specific CpG sites of oncogene would fill the gap in diagnosis of cancer.

  18. Putting muscle in DNA methylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James P Reddington; Richard R Meehan


    Over 25 years ago seminal experiments from the labs of Peter Jones and Harold Weintraub demonstrated that alteration in the DNA modification state underlie the myogenic conversion of fibroblast cell lines [1,2].This paved the way for the identification of myogenic helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins in muscle differentiation,but the mechanism by which DNA methylation regulates muscle differentiation has remained elusive [3].

  19. Zinc mediated domino elimination-alkylation of methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Poulsen, Carina Storm; Madsen, Robert


    5-Iodopentofuranosides are converted with zinc and allyl/propargyl bromide into dienes/enynes which are further used in carbohydrate annulation reactions.......5-Iodopentofuranosides are converted with zinc and allyl/propargyl bromide into dienes/enynes which are further used in carbohydrate annulation reactions....

  20. First evidence of DNA methylation in insect Tribolium castaneum: environmental regulation of DNA methylation within heterochromatin. (United States)

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Parazajder, Josip; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Durđica


    DNA methylation has been studied in many eukaryotic organisms, in particular vertebrates, and was implicated in developmental and phenotypic variations. Little is known about the role of DNA methylation in invertebrates, although insects are considered as excellent models for studying the evolution of DNA methylation. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera), no evidence of DNA methylation has been found till now. In this paper, a cytosine methylation in Tribolium castaneum embryos was detected by methylation sensitive restriction endonucleases and immuno-dot blot assay. DNA methylation in embryos is followed by a global demethylation in larvae, pupae and adults. DNA demethylation seems to proceed actively through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, most probably by the action of TET enzyme. Bisulfite sequencing of a highly abundant satellite DNA located in pericentromeric heterochromatin revealed similar profile of cytosine methylation in adults and embryos. Cytosine methylation was not only restricted to CpG sites but was found at CpA, CpT and CpC sites. In addition, complete cytosine demethylation of heterochromatic satellite DNA was induced by heat stress. The results reveal existence of DNA methylation cycling in T. castaneum ranging from strong overall cytosine methylation in embryos to a weak DNA methylation in other developmental stages. Nevertheless, DNA methylation is preserved within heterochromatin during development, indicating its role in heterochromatin formation and maintenance. It is, however, strongly affected by heat stress, suggesting a role for DNA methylation in heterochromatin structure modulation during heat stress response.

  1. Transport of Alachlor, Atrazine, Dicamba, and Bromide through Silt and Loam Soils (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.


    The herbicides alachlor, atrazine, and dicamba, as well as bromide were applied to soils overlying the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska, to both macropore and non-macropore sites. Three of 6 study areas (exhibiting a high percentage of macropores) were used for analysis of chemical transport. Twelve intact soil cores (30 cm diameter; 40 cm height), were excavated (two each from 0-40 cm and 40-80 cm depths). The first three study areas and soil cores were used to study preferential flow characteristics using dye staining and to determine hydraulic properties; the remaining cores were treated the same as field macropore sites. Two undisturbed experimental field plots, each with a 1 m2 surface area, were established in each of the three macropore study areas. Each preferential plot was instrumented with suction lysimeters, tensiometers, and neutron access tubes - 10 cm increments to 80 cm - and planted in corn. Three study areas that did not exhibit macropores had alachlor, atrazine, and dicamba and bromide disked into the top 15 cm of soil; concentrations were tracked for 120 days - samples were collected on a grid, distributed within 3 plots measuring 50 m x 50 m each. Core samples were collected prior to and immediately after application, and then at 30, 60, and 120 days after application. Each lab core sample was in 15-cm lengths from 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 45-60 cm, and 75-90 cm. For areas exhibiting macropores, herbicides had begun to move between 10-15 days after application with concentrations peaking at various depths after heavy rainfall events. Field lysimeter samples showed increases in concentrations of herbicides at depths where laboratory data indicated greater percentages of preferential flowpaths. Concentrations of atrazine, alachlor and dicamba exceeding 0.30, 0.30, and 0.05 μg m1-1 respectively were observed with depth (10-30 cm and 50-70 cm) after two months following heavy rainfall events indicating that preferential flowpaths were a significant

  2. Pd-catalyzed carbonylative α-arylation of aryl bromides: scope and mechanistic studies. (United States)

    Nielsen, Dennis U; Lescot, Camille; Gøgsig, Thomas M; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels


    Reaction conditions for the three-component synthesis of aryl 1,3-diketones are reported applying the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative α-arylation of ketones with aryl bromides. The optimal conditions were found by using a catalytic system derived from [Pd(dba)2] (dba=dibenzylideneacetone) as the palladium source and 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (DPPP) as the bidentate ligand. These transformations were run in the two-chamber reactor, COware, applying only 1.5 equivalents of carbon monoxide generated from the CO-releasing compound, 9-methylfluorene-9-carbonyl chloride (COgen). The methodology proved adaptable to a wide variety of aryl and heteroaryl bromides leading to a diverse range of aryl 1,3-diketones. A mechanistic investigation of this transformation relying on 31P and 13C NMR spectroscopy was undertaken to determine the possible catalytic pathway. Our results revealed that the combination of [Pd(dba)2] and DPPP was only reactive towards 4-bromoanisole in the presence of the sodium enolate of propiophenone suggesting that a [Pd(dppp)(enolate)] anion was initially generated before the oxidative-addition step. Subsequent CO insertion into an [Pd(Ar)(dppp)(enolate)] species provided the 1,3-diketone. These results indicate that a catalytic cycle, different from the classical carbonylation mechanism proposed by Heck, is operating. To investigate the effect of the dba ligand, the Pd0 precursor, [Pd(η3-1-PhC3H4)(η5-C5H5)], was examined. In the presence of DPPP, and in contrast to [Pd(dba)2], its oxidative addition with 4-bromoanisole occurred smoothly providing the [PdBr(Ar)(dppp)] complex. After treatment with CO, the acyl complex [Pd(CO)Br(Ar)(dppp)] was generated, however, its treatment with the sodium enolate led exclusively to the acylated enol in high yield. Nevertheless, the carbonylative α-arylation of 4-bromoanisole with either catalytic or stoichiometric [Pd(η3-1-PhC3H4)(η5-C5H5)] over a short reaction time, led to the 1,3-diketone product


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Pepsi


    Full Text Available AIM: This study was conducted to compare the rate of cervical dilatation with hyoscine butyl bromide and drotaverine hydrochloride in active stage of labour. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: This prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Inclusion Criteria: 1. All women with initial cervical dilatation of 3 cms. 2. When there is a slow rate of cervical dilatation of less than 1.5 cms per hour or decent of less than 1 cm per hour for nulliparous and if dilatation was less than 2cms per hour for a multigravida. 3. And all singleton and cephalic pregnancies were included in this study. Exclusion Criteria included complications like Antepartum haemorrhage, Breech, C.P.D. In this study 400 women were allocated into two groups to receive either Hyoscine butyl bromide or Drotaverine hydrochloride. Two hours after admission in the active stage of labour, progress of labour was reassessed. If the progress of labour was satisfactory, then the wait and watch policy was adopted. If there was no progress they were administered one of the two drugs. 200 patients were administered 10mg of hyoscine butyl bromide suppositories rectally, (GROUP-1 AND THE OTHER 200 WITH 40mg of drotaverine hydrochloride intravenously (GROUP-2. The progress of labour was monitored by the partogram. Not more than 3 doses of hyoscine butyl bromide were administered. RESULTS: The rate of cervical dilatation was 2 cms per hour in group 1 (Hyoscine butyl bromide as compared to 1cm per hour in group 2 (Drotaverine hydrochloride. The difference in rate of cervical dilatation in both the groups was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: There was significant improvement in the rate of cervical dilatation with Hyoscine butyl bromide group of patients. There was a significant reduction in the duration of active stage of labour, and there was no significant second and third stage complication when these drugs were used. No untoward side effects were noted when

  4. Corrosion Inhibition Of Mild Steel In 0.5 M H2so4 By 1-(2- Methyl-4-(2-Methylphenyldiazenyl Phenyl Azonapthalen-2-Ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effect of addition of1-(2-methyl-4-(2-methylphenyldiazenyl phenyl azonapthalen-2-ol on the corrosion of steel in 0.5M H2SO4 acid has been studied by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with inhibitors content to attain 61.00% and 79.66% 1-(2-methyl-4-(2-methylphenyldiazenyl phenyl azonapthalen-2-ol and 25ppm(Tetra butyl ammonium bromideTBAB respectively. Data obtained from EIS studies were analyzed to determinate the model inhibition process through appropriate equivalent circuit models. Inhibition efficiency E (% obtained from the various methods is in good agreement.

  5. Removal of methyl orange on modified ostrich bone waste--a novel organic-inorganic biocomposite. (United States)

    Arshadi, M; Faraji, A R; Amiri, M J; Mehravar, M; Gil, A


    The synthesis and growth behavior of the chemically modified ostrich bone wastes as bioadsorbents for the removal of methyl orange from aqueous solutions have been investigated. The ostrich bone wastes were treated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS). The synthesized biomaterials were characterized by several physicochemical techniques. The modified ostrich bone with CTABr was found to be effective as adsorbent for the removal of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions. The effect of the experimental conditions on the adsorption behavior was studied by varying the contact time, initial MO concentration, temperature, initial pH, chemical modification process, and amount of adsorbent. The contact time to attain equilibrium for maximum adsorption (90%) was found to be 50 min. The adsorption kinetics of MO has been studied in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models have also been applied to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature and followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  6. Estudo da adsorção de brometo de etídeo em resina XAD-7 Study of ethidium bromide adsorption on XAD-7 resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Winkler de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The adsorption of ethidium bromide on XAD-7 resin was studied. The Freundlich model was the most representative isotherm model to describe the sorption behavior. A solid-liquid equilibrium model was proposed to explain the resin mass influence on the sorption. The equilibrium constant value estimated was 2.31. The results showed an ethidium bromide ion-pair physical adsorption, with adsorption enthalpy equals to -19.33 kJ/mol. A pK2 value equals to 4.69 ± 0.01 was estimated by two distinct methods. The results will be applied to the ethidium bromide preconcentration aiming its decomposition.

  7. Binding of dyes to hydroxyapatite treated with cetylpyridinium chloride or cetrimonium bromide. (United States)

    Jensen, J E


    The effect of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) on the adsorption of some acidic food dyes to hydroxyapatite was studied. The dyes investigated were brilliant blue (FD&C Blue No. 1), tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 5), sunset yellow (FD&C Yellow No. 6) and amaranth (FD&C Red No. 2). The apatite had adsorbed 9.2 mumol CPC per g dry weight. The adsorbed CPC was in equilibrium with a free concentration of 20 microgram/ml (58 micrometer). The adsorption of CPC and CTAB to the apatite was followed by an increased ability of the crystals to bind the dyes. The dyes were very firmly adsorbed and were not released during a series of washings. Untreated apatite showed only a minor affinity for the dyes. The adsorbed dyes were easily washed out. CPC and CTAB showed the smae specific ability to increase the binding capacity of the apatite. The results are discussed and related to the formation of stains on the teeth in persons using quaternary ammonium compounds for mouthrinsing. A mechanism explaining the production of stains is proposed.

  8. Effects of Cholinergic Stimulation with Pyridostigmine Bromide on Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Beatriz de Cuba


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of an anticholinesterase agent, pyridostigmine bromide (Pyrido, on experimental chronic Chagas heart disease in mice. To this end, male C57BL/6J mice noninfected (control:Con or chronically infected (5 months with Trypanosoma cruzi (chagasic:Chg were treated or not (NT with Pyrido for one month. At the end of this period, electrocardiogram (ECG; cardiac autonomic function; heart histopathology; serum cytokines; and the presence of blood and tissue parasites by means of immunohistochemistry and PCR were assessed. In NT-Chg mice, significant changes in the electrocardiographic, autonomic, and cardiac histopathological profiles were observed confirming a chronic inflammatory response. Treatment with Pyrido in Chagasic mice caused a significant reduction of myocardial inflammatory infiltration, fibrosis, and hypertrophy, which was accompanied by a decrease in serum levels of IFNγ with no change in IL-10 levels, suggesting a shift of immune response toward an anti-inflammatory profile. Lower nondifferent numbers of parasite DNA copies were observed in both treated and nontreated chagasic mice. In conclusion, our findings confirm the marked neuroimmunomodulatory role played by the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system in the evolution of the inflammatory-immune response to T. cruzi during experimental chronic Chagas heart disease in mice.

  9. Synthesis of zeolitic materials from volcanic ash in presence and absence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanhueza N, V. M.; Bennun T, L. D., E-mail: [Universidad de Concepcion, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Edmundo Larenas 129, Region del Biobio (Chile)


    Zeolitic materials as Na-phillipsite, Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolites and the mixtures of zeolites (phillipsite+analcime and phillipsite+chabazite+analcime) were synthesized from volcanic ash, either in presence and absence of cetiltrimetilamonium bromide (CTAB). The ash sample used in the laboratory experiments contains 75.36% SiO{sub 2} and 14.11% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, abundances. The reaction time as well as the influence of CTAB were studied in the zeolitic materials crystallization. The experiments were carried out under hydrothermal conditions, autogenic pressure and temperature of 150 grades C, as well as reaction time from 8 to 116 h. Products from this hydrothermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (Sem-EDS). Of the zeolitic materials obtained the Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolite was found to be the most effective for the retention of cations Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+}. (Author)

  10. Aggregation behavior modulation of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide by organic solvents in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Lamei; Wang, Huiyong; Wu, Changzeng


    Material preparation in ionic liquids and environmental pollution control by ionic liquids are often closely dependent on the aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in solution. In the present work, conductivity, fluorescence probe, and dynamic light scattering techniques have been used to study the effect of organic solvents on the aggregation behavior of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in water. It was shown that the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), the ionization degree of the aggregates (α), and the standard Gibbs energy of aggregation (ΔG(m)°) of the ionic liquid increase, while its aggregation number (N(agg)) and aggregates' size decrease with increasing concentration of organic additives in water. These results have been discussed from the favorable interactions of alkyl chain of the ionic liquid with the mixed solvents. It is suggested that the solvophobic parameter, characterized quantitatively by Gibbs energy of transfer of hydrocarbon from gas into a given solvent, can be used to account for the effect of organic additives on the formation and growth of the ionic liquid aggregates in water. Aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in aqueous organic solutions can be modulated simply by the solvophobic parameters of hydrocarbon in the mixed solvents.

  11. Bromide-Assisted Anisotropic Growth of Gold Nanoparticles as Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Kerr


    Full Text Available We report herein a one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs of various shapes such as triangles, hexagons, and semispheres, using 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA as the reducing agent in the presence of potassium bromide (KBr. Anisotropic Au NPs have received ever-increasing attention in various areas of research due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Numerous synthetic methods involving either top-down or bottom-up approaches have been developed to synthesize Au NPs with deliberately varied shapes, sizes, and configurations; however, the production of templateless, seedless, and surfactant-free singular-shaped anisotropic Au NPs remains a significant challenge. The concentrations of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4, 5-HIAA, and KBr, as well as the reaction temperature, were found to influence the resulting product morphology. A detailed characterization of the resulting Au NPs was performed using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The as-prepared Au NPs exhibited excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS properties, which make them very attractive for the development of SERS-based chemical and biological sensors.

  12. Spectroscopic study of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide Pt-C14TAB nanoparticles: Structure and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodko, Y.; Jones, L.; Frei, H.; Somorjai, G.


    The vibrational spectra of platinum nanoparticles (12 nm) capped with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, C{sub 14}TAB, were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We have shown that the thermal decay of Pt-C{sub 14}TAB nanoparticles in N{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} atmospheres leads to the release of hydrocarbon chain of surfactant and the formation of strongly bonded layer of ammonium cations on the platinum surface. The platinum atoms accessible to CO chemisorptions were not reducible by hydrogen in the temperature ranging from 30 C to 200 C. A FTIR spectrum of C{sub 14}TAB adsorbed on Pt nanoparticles dramatically perturbed as compared with pure C{sub 14}TAB. New intense and broad bands centered at 1450 cm{sup -1} and 760 cm{sup -1} are making their appearance in Pt-C{sub 14}TAB. It may be speculated, that new bands are result of coupling between conducting electrons of Pt and molecular vibrations of adsorbed C{sub 14}TAB and as a consequence specific vibrational modes of ammonium cation transformed into electron-vibrational modes.

  13. Phosphorescent quantum dots/ethidium bromide nanohybrids based on photoinduced electron transfer for DNA detection (United States)

    Bi, Lin; Yu, Yuan-Hua


    Mercaptopropionic acid-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots/ethidium bromide (EB) nanohybrids were constructed for photoinduced electron transfer (PIET) and then used as a room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) probe for DNA detection. EB could quench the RTP of Mn-doped ZnS QDs by PIET, thereby forming Mn-doped ZnS QDs/EB nanohybrids and storing RTP. Meanwhile, EB could be inserted into DNA and EB could be competitively desorbed from the surface of Mn-doped ZnS QDs by DNA, thereby releasing the RTP of Mn-doped ZnS QDs. Based on this mechanism, a RTP sensor for DNA detection was developed. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit for DNA was 0.045 mg L-1, the relative standard deviation was 1.7%, and the method linear ranged from 0.2 to 20 mg L-1. The proposed method was applied to biological fluids, in which satisfactory results were obtained.

  14. Efficient bacteria capture and inactivation by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide modified magnetic nanoparticles. (United States)

    Jin, Yinjia; Deng, Jun; Liang, Jialiang; Shan, Chao; Tong, Meiping


    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles have shown great application potentials in water treatment processes especially for bacterial removal. Antibacterial agent, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was employed to modify Fe3O4 nanoparticles to fabricate bactericidal paramagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@CTAB). The as-prepared Fe3O4@CTAB could effectively capture both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis from water. For both cell types, more than 99% of bacteria with initial concentration of 1.5 × 10(7)CFU/mL could be inactivated by Fe3O4@CTAB (0.5 g/L) within 60 min. Fe3O4@CTAB could remove more than 99% of cells over a wide pH (from 3 to 10) and solution ionic strength range (from 0 to 1000 mM). The copresence of sulfate and nitrate did not affect the bacterial capture efficiencies, whereas, phosphate and silicate slightly decreased the bacterial removal rates. However, more than 91% and 81% of cells could be captured at 10mM of phosphate and silicate, respectively. Over 80% of cells could be removed even in the presence of 10mg/L of humic acid. Moreover, Fe3O4@CTAB exhibited good reusability, and greater than 83% of cells could be captured even in the fifth regeneration cycle. Fe3O4@CTAB prepared in this study have great application potentials for water disinfection.

  15. Optimization of energy plants including water/lithium bromide absorption chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, J.C.; Castells, F. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Dept. d' Enginyeria Quimica, Tarragona (Spain); Miquel, J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dept. de Mecanica de Fluids, Barcelona (Spain)


    In this paper a methodology for the optimal integration of water/lithium bromide absorption chillers in combined heat and power plants is proposed. This method is based on the economic optimisation of an energy plant that interacts with a refrigeration cycle, by using a successive linear programming technique (SLP). The aim of this paper is to study the viability of the integration of already technologically available absorption chillers in CHP plants. The results of this alternative are compared with the results obtained using the conventional way of producing chilled water, that is, using mechanical vapour compression chillers in order to select the best refrigeration cycle alternative for a given refrigeration demand. This approach is implemented in the computer program XV, and tested using the data obtained in the water/LiBr absorption chiller of Bayer in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). The results clearly show that absorption chillers are not only a good option when low-cost process heat is available, but also when a cogeneration system is presented. In this latter case, the absorption chiller acts as a bottoming cycle by using steam generated in the heat recovery boiler. In this way, the cogeneration size can be increased producing higher benefits than those obtained with the use of compression chillers. (Author)

  16. Mathematical simulation of lithium bromide solution laminar falling film evaporation in vertical tube (United States)

    Shi, Chengming; Wang, Yang; Hu, Huili; Yang, Ying


    For utilization of the residual heat of flue gas to drive the absorption chillers, a lithium-bromide falling film in vertical tube type generator is presented. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the heat and mass coupled problem of laminar falling film evaporation in vertical tube. In the model, the factor of mass transfer was taken into account in heat transfer performance calculation. The temperature and concentration fields were calculated. Some tests were conducted for the factors such as Re number, heating flux, the inlet concentration and operating pressure which can affect the heat and mass transfer performance in laminar falling film evaporation. The heat transfer performance is enhanced with the increasing of heat flux. An increasing inlet concentration can weaken the heat transfer performance. The operating pressure hardly affects on heat and mass transfer. The bigger inlet Re number means weaker heat transfer effects and stronger mass transfer. The mass transfer obviously restrains the heat transfer in the falling film solution. The relation between dimensionless heat transfer coefficient and the inlet Re number is obtained.

  17. N-phenacylthiazolium bromide reduces bone fragility induced by nonenzymatic glycation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Bradke

    Full Text Available Nonenzymatic glycation (NEG describes a series of post-translational modifications in the collagenous matrices of human tissues. These modifications, known as advanced glycation end-products (AGEs, result in an altered collagen crosslink profile which impacts the mechanical behavior of their constituent tissues. Bone, which has an organic phase consisting primarily of type I collagen, is significantly affected by NEG. Through constant remodeling by chemical resorption, deposition and mineralization, healthy bone naturally eliminates these impurities. Because bone remodeling slows with age, AGEs accumulate at a greater rate. An inverse correlation between AGE content and material-level properties, particularly in the post-yield region of deformation, has been observed and verified. Interested in reversing the negative effects of NEG, here we evaluate the ability of n-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB to cleave AGE crosslinks in human cancellous bone. Cancellous bone cylinders were obtained from nine male donors, ages nineteen to eighty, and subjected to one of six PTB treatments. Following treatment, each specimen was mechanically tested under physiological conditions to failure and AGEs were quantified by fluorescence. Treatment with PTB showed a significant decrease in AGE content versus control NEG groups as well as a significant rebound in the post-yield material level properties (p<0.05. The data suggest that treatment with PTB could be an effective means to reduce AGE content and decrease bone fragility caused by NEG in human bone.

  18. Growth and characterization of L-alanine cadmium bromide a semiorganic nonlinear optical crystals (United States)

    Ilayabarathi, P.; Chandrasekaran, J.


    A new semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal, L-alanine cadmium bromide (LACB) was grown from aqueous solution by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. As grown crystals were characterized for its spectral, thermal, linear and second order nonlinear optical properties. LACB crystallizes in orthorhombic system and unit cell parameters a = 5.771(2) Å, b = 6.014(4) Å, c = 12.298(2) Å, α = β = γ = 90° and volume = 426.8(3) Å3. The mode of vibrations of different molecular groups present in the crystal was identified by FTIR study. The grown crystals were found to be transparent in the entire visible region. The thermal strength and the decomposition of the grown crystals were studied using TG/DTA and DSC analysis. Dielectric measurement revealed that the crystals had very low dielectric constant at higher frequency in room temperature. The mechanical behavior was studied by Vicker's microhardness tester. The grown crystal has negative photoconductivity nature. The fluorescence spectrum of the crystal was recorded and its optical band gap is about 3.356 eV. The NLO property of crystal using modified Kurtz-Perry powder technique with Nd:YAG laser light of wavelength 1064 nm indicated that their second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was half that of pure KDP.

  19. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.


    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  20. Room temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors using thallium bromide crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hitomi, K; Shoji, T; Suehiro, T; Hiratate, Y


    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a compound semiconductor with wide band gap (2.68 eV) and high X- and gamma-ray stopping power. The TlBr crystals were grown by the horizontal travelling molten zone (TMZ) method using purified material. Two types of room temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors were fabricated from the TlBr crystals: TlBr detectors with high detection efficiency for positron annihilation gamma-ray (511 keV) detection and TlBr detectors with high-energy resolution for low-energy X-ray detection. The detector of the former type demonstrated energy resolution of 56 keV FWHM (11%) for 511 keV gamma-rays. Energy resolution of 1.81 keV FWHM for 5.9 keV was obtained from the detector of the latter type. In order to analyze noise characteristics of the detector-preamplifier assembly, the equivalent noise charge (ENC) was measured as a function of the amplifier shaping time for the high-resolution detector. This analysis shows that parallel white noise and 1/f noise were dominant noise sources in the detector...

  1. Adsorption of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides at water/alkane interfaces: competitive adsorption of alkanes and surfactants. (United States)

    Fainerman, V B; Mucic, N; Pradines, V; Aksenenko, E V; Miller, R


    The adsorption of members of the homologous series of alkyl trimethylammonium bromides (C(n)TAB) is studied at water/alkane interfaces by drop profile analysis tensiometry. The results are discussed in terms of a competitive adsorption process of alkane and surfactant molecules. A thermodynamic model, derived originally for the adsorption of surfactant mixtures, is adapted such that it describes a competitive adsorption of the surfactant molecules from the aqueous phase and alkane molecules from the oil phase. This new model involves the interspecies attraction coefficient, which mutually increases the adsorption activities of the alkane and C(n)TAB. The effects of the alkyl chain length n of C(n)TABs and the influence of the number of C atoms in the alkane chain are discussed, and the physical quantities are compared to those determined at the aqueous solution/air interface. The new theoretical model for aqueous solution/oil interfaces is also compared to a theory that does not consider the adsorption of alkane. The proposed new model demonstrates good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Bromophenacyl bromide, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor attenuates chemically induced gastroduodenal ulcers in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Tariq; Ibrahim Elfaki; Haseeb Ahmad Khan; Mohammad Arshaduddin; Samia Sobki; Meshal Al Moutaery


    AIM: To study the effect of bromophenacyl bromide (BPB), a phospholipase A2 inhibitor on gastric secretion and to protect chemically induced gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats.METHODS: Acid secretion studies were undertaken in pylorus-ligated rats with BPB treatment (0, 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg). Gastric and duodenal lesions in the rats were induced by ethanol and cysteamine respectively. The levels of gastric wall mucus, nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also measured in the glandular stomach of rats following ethanol induced gastric lesions.RESULTS: BPB produced a dose-dependent inhibition of gastric acid secretion and acidity in rats. Pretreatment with BPB significantly attenuated the formation of ethanol induced gastric lesion. BPB also protected intestinal mucosa against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers.The antiulcer activity of BPB was associated with significant inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of gastric wall mucus, NP-SH and MPO. These findings pointed towards the mediation of sulfhydryls in BPB induced gastrointestinal cytoprotection.CONCLUSION: BPB possesses significant antiulcer and cytoprotective activity against experimentally induced gastroduodenal lesions.

  3. Removal of nitrate from aqueous solution using cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) modified zeolite as adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan Yanhui [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Lin Jianwei, E-mail: [College of Marine Science, Shanghai Ocean University, No. 999 Hucheng Huan Road, Pudong District, Shanghai 201306 (China); Zhu Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    Surfactant modified zeolites (SMZ) with different coverage types were prepared by loading the cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) onto the surface of the natural zeolites. The adsorption behavior of nitrate on SMZ was investigated. Natural zeolite and SMZ with monolayer CPB coverage were inefficient for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solution. However, SMZ with patchy bilayer or bilayer CPB coverage was efficient in nitrate removal, and the nitrate adsorption capacity of SMZ increased with its CPB loading. For typical SMZ with bilayer CPB coverage, the nitrate adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the experimental isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The presence of competing anions such as chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate ions slightly reduced the nitrate adsorption efficiency. Anionic exchange and electrostatic interaction were proven to be the main mechanisms that govern the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ.

  4. Advances in crystal growth, device fabrication and characterization of thallium bromide detectors for room temperature applications (United States)

    Datta, Amlan; Moed, Demi; Becla, Piotr; Overholt, Matthew; Motakef, Shariar


    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. However, several critical issues need to be addressed before deployment of this material for long-term field applications can be realized. In this paper, progress made towards solving some of these challenges is discussed. The most significant factors for achieving long-term performance stability for TlBr devices include residual stress as generated during crystal growth and fabrication processes, surface conditions, and the choice of contact metal. Modifications to the commonly used traveling molten zone growth technique for TlBr crystals can significantly minimize the stresses generated by large temperature gradients near the melt-solid interface of the growing crystal. Plasma processing techniques were introduced for the first time to modify the Br-etched TlBr surfaces, which resulted in improvements to the surface conditions, and consequently the spectroscopic response of the detectors. Palladium electrodes resulted a 20-fold improvement in the room-temperature device lifetime when compared to its Br-etched Pt counterpart.

  5. The effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant on alumina modified zinc oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gac, Wojciech, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 3 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Zawadzki, Witold; Słowik, Grzegorz; Pawlonka, Justyna; Machocki, Andrzej [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 3 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Lipke, Agnieszka; Majdan, Marek [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 2 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland)


    Highlights: • Synthesis of novel ZnO−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides in the presence of CTAB surfactant. • Determination of the structural, surface and optical properties. • Nanocrystalline, high-surface area ZnO−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides. • ZnO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials of different gap energy. - Abstract: Novel alumina modified zinc oxide materials were prepared by co-precipitation method in the presence of different amounts of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. X-ray diffraction, {sup 27}Al magic-angle spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy studies evidenced formation of 10–15 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles in the presence of the small amounts of surfactant. Amorphous alumina and zinc aluminate phases of different coordination environment of Al sites were identified. An increase of surfactant concentration led to the elongation of nanoparticles and changes of the nature of hydroxyl groups. Precipitation in the high CTAB concentration conditions facilitated formation of mesoporous materials of high specific surface area. The materials were composed of very small (2–3 nm) zinc aluminate spinel nanoparticles. High concentration of CTAB induced widening of band gap energy.

  6. Application of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide bentonite-titanium dioxide photocatalysis technology for pretreatment of aging leachate. (United States)

    Cai, Fei-Fei; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Wang, Li-Ke; Yang, Jian


    Organobentonite-photocatalysis technology was applied to pretreat aging leachate containing refractory pollutants. The organobentonite was synthesized by organic modifier cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) and natural bentonite. In characterization experiments, we could confirm that organic functional groups of cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA(+)) cations were successfully loaded on the surface of bentonite. The combination of CTMAB2.5 adsorption and TiO2 photocatalysis was superior to either running separately. Furthermore, removal efficiency of simultaneously utilizing CTMAB2.5 and TiO2 was better than them in succession. The combination technology was feasible and was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) with COD and NH3-N removal rate as the target responses. The optimal operation conditions calculated from the regression equations were CTMAB2.5 dosage of 7.5 g/L, pH at 3.5, TiO2 dosage of 1.63 g/L, and reaction time for 60.02 min, which maintained the removal of COD and NH3-N at 82% and 37%, respectively.

  7. Interferences in automated phenol red method for determination of bromide in water (United States)

    Basel, C.L.; Defreese, J.D.; Whittemore, D.O.


    The phenol red method for the determination of bromide in water has been automated by segmented flow analysis. Samples can be analyzed at a rate of 20 samples/h with a method detection limit, defined, as the concentration giving a signal about three times the standard deviation of replicate anaiyte determinations in reagent water, of 10 ??g/L. Samples studied include oil-field brines, halite solution brines, ground-waters contaminated with these brines, and fresh groundwaters. Chloride and bicarbonate cause significant positive interferences at levels as low as 100 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Ammonia gives a negative interference that is important at levels as low as 0.05 mg/L. An ionic strength buffer is used to suppress a positive ionic strength interference, correction curves are used to compensate for the chloride interference, the bicarbonate interference is minimized by acidification, and the ammonia interference is eliminated by its removal by ion exchange. Reaction product studies are used to suggest a plausible mode of chloride interference. ?? 1982 American Chemical Society.

  8. Removal of nitrate from aqueous solution using cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) modified zeolite as adsorbent. (United States)

    Zhan, Yanhui; Lin, Jianwei; Zhu, Zhiliang


    Surfactant modified zeolites (SMZ) with different coverage types were prepared by loading the cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) onto the surface of the natural zeolites. The adsorption behavior of nitrate on SMZ was investigated. Natural zeolite and SMZ with monolayer CPB coverage were inefficient for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solution. However, SMZ with patchy bilayer or bilayer CPB coverage was efficient in nitrate removal, and the nitrate adsorption capacity of SMZ increased with its CPB loading. For typical SMZ with bilayer CPB coverage, the nitrate adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the experimental isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The presence of competing anions such as chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate ions slightly reduced the nitrate adsorption efficiency. Anionic exchange and electrostatic interaction were proven to be the main mechanisms that govern the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ.

  9. Survey on fluoride, bromide and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily (Italy). (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi


    Six hundred and sixty-seven water samples were collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily and analysed for electric conductivity and for their Cl(-), Br(-) and F(-) contents. The samples were, as far as possible, collected evenly over the entire territory with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. The contents of Cl(-) and Br(-), ranging between 5.53 and 1,302 mg/l and between <0.025 and 4.76 mg/l respectively, correlated well with the electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values were found both along the NW and SE coasts, which we attributed to seawater contamination, and in the central part of Sicily, which we attributed to evaporitic rock dissolution. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.023 to 3.28 mg/l, while the highest values (only three exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 1.5 mg/l) generally correlated either with the presence in the area of crystalline (volcanic or metamorphic) or evaporitic rocks or with contamination from hydrothermal activity. Apart from these limited cases of exceeding F(-) levels, the waters of public drinking water supplies in Sicily can be considered safe for human consumption for the analysed parameters. Some limited concern could arise from the intake of bromide-rich waters (about 3% exceeding 1 mg/l) because of the potential formation of dangerous disinfection by-products.

  10. Mathematical Model of a Lithium-Bromide/Water Absorption Refrigeration System Equipped with an Adiabatic Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem M. Osta-Omar


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system equipped with an adiabatic absorber using a lithium-bromide/water (LiBr/water pair as the working fluid. The working temperature of the generator, adiabatic absorber, condenser, evaporator, the cooling capacity of the system, and the ratio of the solution mass flow rate at the circulation pump to that at the solution pump are used as input data. The model evaluates the thermodynamic properties of all state points, the heat transfer in each component, the various mass flow rates, and the coefficient of performance (COP of the cycle. The results are used to investigate the effect of key parameters on the overall performance of the system. For instance, increasing the generator temperatures and decreasing the adiabatic absorber temperatures can increase the COP of the cycle. The results of this mathematical model can be used for designing and sizing new LiBr/water absorption refrigeration systems equipped with an adiabatic absorber or for optimizing existing aforementioned systems.

  11. Removal of hexavalent chromium by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Ding, Ying; Li, Lingling; Chang, Zhixian; Rao, Zhengyong; Lu, Ling


    The removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The optimum operation parameters, such as CTAB concentration, pH values, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were investigated. The best concentration of CTAB for modifying red mud was found to be 0.50% (mCTAB/VHCl,0.6 mol/L). The lower pH (Red mud activated with CTAB can greatly improve the removal ratio of Cr(VI) as high as four times than that of original red mud. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg L(-1). The isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated red mud fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 22.20 mg g(-1) (Cr/red mud). The adsorption process could be well described using the pseudo-second-order model. The result shows that activated red mud is a promising agent for low-cost water treatment.

  12. Photocontrol of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Activity by Azobenzene Trimethylammonium Bromide in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyda R Frolova

    Full Text Available The ability of azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB to sensitize cardiac tissue excitability to light was recently reported. The dark, thermally relaxed trans- isomer of azoTAB suppressed spontaneous activity and excitation propagation speed, whereas the cis- isomer had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocyte monolayers. As the membrane potential of cardiac cells is mainly controlled by activity of voltage-gated ion channels, this study examined whether the sensitization effect of azoTAB was exerted primarily via the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel activity. The effects of trans- and cis- isomers of azoTAB on voltage-dependent sodium (INav, calcium (ICav, and potassium (IKv currents in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The experiments showed that azoTAB modulated ion currents, causing suppression of sodium (Na+ and calcium (Ca2+ currents and potentiation of net potassium (K+ currents. This finding confirms that azoTAB-effect on cardiac tissue excitability do indeed result from modulation of voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential.

  13. Ultrafast charge generation and relaxation dynamics in methylammonium lead bromide perovskites (United States)

    Deng, Xiaofan; Wen, Xiaoming; Sheng, Rui; Huang, Shujuan; Harada, Takaaki; Kee, Tak W.; Green, Martin A.; Ho-Baillie, Anita


    Methylammonium Lead Bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3) is a promising material for tandem solar cell due to its high band gap. Ultrafast optical techniques on a time scale of femto- and picosecond are used to investigate the carrier dynamics in CH3NH3PbBr3. An ultrafast cooling of hot carriers occurs in sub-picoseconds in CH3NH3PbBr3 by phonon scattering. Two ultrafast relaxation processes are attributed to optical phonon scattering and acoustic phonon scattering. The relaxation processes are evidently slower when CH3NH3PbBr3 is in contact with compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) layer, suggesting better quality CH3NH3PbBr3. when deposited on c-TiO2. The nanosecond decay in CH3NH3PbBr3 film is ascribed to electron-hole recombination. With the presence of c-TiO2 layer, this process is accelerated due to electron transport across the CH3NH3PbBr3/ c-TiO2 interface.

  14. Bromate ion formation in dark chlorination and ultraviolet/chlorination processes for bromide-containing water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Bormate (BrO3-) is a carcinogenic chemical produced in ozonation or chlorination of bromide-containing water. Although its formation in seawater with or without sunlight has been previously investigated, the formation of bromate in dilute solutions,particularly raw water for water treatment plant, is unknown. In this article, the results of bench scale tests to measure the formation rates of bromate formation in dilute solutions, including de-ionized water and raw water from Yangtze River, were presented in dark chlorination and ultraviolet (UV)/chlorination processes. And the effects of initial pH, initial concentration of NaOCl, and UV light intensity on bromate formation in UV/chlorination of the diluted solutions were investigated. Detectable bromate was formed in dark chlorination of the two water samples with a relatively slow production rate. Under routine disinfecting conditions, the amount of formed bromate is not likely to exceed the national standards (10 μg/L). UV irradiation enhanced the decay of free chlorine, and,simultaneously, 6.6%-32% of Br- was oxidized to BrO3-. And the formation of bromate exhibited three stages: rapid stage, slow stage and plateau. Under the experimental conditions (pH = 4.41-11.07, CCl2= 1.23-4.50 mg/L), low pH and high chlorine concentration favored the generation of bromate. High light intensity promoted the production rate of bromate, but decreased its total generation amount due to acceleration of chlorine decomposition.

  15. Examination of surface adsorption of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate. (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Moroi, Yoshikiyo


    Several pieces of experimental evidence of condensation of soluble surfactant molecules, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), into the air/water surface region from the bulk solution are presented at different added salt concentrations in order to substantiate that the concentrated molecules do not locate just at the air/solution interface. The insoluble monolayer just at the air/subphase interface for the two surfactants could be studied by surface pressure (π) versus molecular surface area (A), surface potential (ΔV) versus the area (A), infrared absorption of the surface region, and BAM (Brewster angle microscope) image. From surface tension versus concentration curves for the two surfactant solutions, the apparent molecular surface area and the cmc values were determined at different added salt concentrations, and the degree of counterion binding to micelle was found to be 0.70 and 0.73 for CTAB and SDS, respectively. Further examination was made on infrared absorption from the surface region of the surfactant solutions and on BAM images of the surface planes in order to examine the difference between the insoluble monolayer and the condensation in the surface region. Finally, the new concept of bilayer or bilamellar aggregate for soluble surfactant solutions is presented together with the former experimental evidence, which is consistent with several interfacial phenomena of the surfactant solutions.

  16. Sedimentation stability and aging of aqueous dispersions of Laponite in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (United States)

    Savenko, V.; Bulavin, L.; Rawiso, M.; Loginov, M.; Vorobiev, E.; Lebovka, N. I.


    This work discusses the sedimentation stability and aging of aqueous suspensions of Laponite in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The concentration of Laponite was fixed at a constant level Cl=2 %wt, which corresponds to the threshold between equilibrium gel IG1 and glass IG2 states. The concentration of CTAB Cs was within 0-0.3 %wt. In the presence of CTAB, the Laponite aqueous suspensions were unstable against sedimentation and separated into the upper and bottom layers (U and B layers, respectively). The dynamic light-scattering technique has revealed that addition of CTAB even at a rather small concentration, Cs=0.0164 %wt (0.03 cation exchange capacity), induced noticeable changes in the aging dynamics of the U layer. It was explained by equilibration of CTAB molecules that were initially nonuniformly distributed between different Laponite particles. Accelerated stability analysis by means of analytical centrifugation with rotor speed ω=500-4000 rpm revealed three sedimentation regimes: continuous (I, Cs0.2 %wt). It was demonstrated that the B layer was “soft” in the zonelike regime. The increase of ω resulted in its supplementary compressing and collapse of “soft” sediment above certain critical centrifugal acceleration. The physical nature of the observed behavior, accounting for enhancement of hydrophobic interactions between Laponite particles, is discussed.

  17. Revealing the potential of Didodecyldimethylammonium bromide as efficient scaffold for fabrication of nano liquid crystalline structures. (United States)

    Kanwar, Rohini; Kaur, Gurpreet; Mehta, S K


    To exploit the potential of Didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (D12DAB) as a core lipidic constituent, an attempt was made to fabricate and optimize cationic nanostructured lipid carriers (cNLCs) using a cost-effective microemulsification methodology. Designed composition was optimized by studying the effect of different microemulsion components on D12DAB cNLCs characteristics. ​Spherical shaped D12DAB cNLCs were obtained with an average size of ∼160 nm and zeta potential of +30.2 mV. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) depicted the presence of thermotropic character, whereas polarized optical microscopy confirmed the mesophase like behavior of D12DAB based cNLCs. In addition, hemolysis analysis revealed that the toxicity was concentration dependent as LC50 was reached at a concentration of 50 μg/mL of cNLCs. This class of cNLCs is expected to become a potent candidate for a broad spectrum of medicaments as carriers, targeting for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes, due to the combination of a hard lipid with a soft lipid, where the liquid crystalline structure of the lipid co-exists.

  18. Influence of Low Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Concentration on the Interactions and Properties of Hemoglobin with Acyclovir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-Qing; GUO Rong


    The effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the properties of hemoglobin (Hb) at low CTAB concentration were studied in Hb/acyclovir/CTAB system by the methods of UV-Vis spectrum, fluorescence, zeta potential, conductivity and negative-staining transmission electron microscope (TEM). With the increase of CTAB concentration, the UV peak intensity at 276 nm, the intrinsic fluorescence, the zeta potential of Hb and the system conductivity were all enhanced. Hb was easily oxidized to oxyHb and hemichrome. In Hb/acyclovir/CTAB system,CTAB made the UV-Vis spectrum, fluorescence, conductivity and conformation of Hb tend to be returned to those of the original Hb but the zeta potential not to do so. The UV absorption peak of Hb-acyclovir complex disappeared,and the tight structure of Hb aroused by acyclovir was refolded. When CTAB concentration was higher than 5 ×10-5 mol/L, the two absorption peaks at 536 and 576 nm appeared again, and the Hb structure became looser again.

  19. Carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate/poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide blends as antimicrobial coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Blachechen


    Full Text Available Blends of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB, a cellulose derivative, and poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide (QPVP-C5, an antimicrobial polymer, were prepared by casting method and characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and contact angle measurements. Miscibility between CMCAB and QPVP-C5 was evidenced by DSC measurements of blends, which showed a single thermal event of Tg, and SEM images, which revealed homogenous morphology, regardless the blend composition. Moreover, thermal stability of QPVP-C5 was substantially enhanced, when it was mixed with CMCAB. Upon increasing the QPVP-C5 content in the blend the wettability and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus increased, indicating the surface enrichment by pyridinium groups. In fact, blends with 70 wt% QPVP-C5 reduced 5 log and 4 log the colony-forming units of Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli, respectively.

  20. Self-assembly Of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide in ethanol-water mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Zhang Ming; Zhang Jinli; Han Yongcai


    The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in both water and ethanol-water-mixed solvent was determined using steady- state fluorescence techniques in order to investigate the effect of the self-assembling properties of the surfactant on the template synthesis of porous inorganic materials.Results indicated that the CMC increased with the increase of ethanol concentration in the mixed solvent.The CMC of CTAB is 0.0009 mol/L in water,while it is 0.24 mol/L in ethanol.Furthermore,the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) was adopted to simulate the aggregation of CTAB in water and ethanol/water mixtures,and the energy difference was calculated for the surfactant tail groups after mixing with the solvent.The simulation results reflected a regularity similar to the experimental data,i.e.,tail groups of CTAB interacted more strongly with ethanol than with water,which elucidates the reason that the micelle is difficult to form in ethanol.