WorldWideScience

Sample records for atropine methyl bromide

  1. 49 CFR 173.193 - Bromoacetone, methyl bromide, chloropicrin and methyl bromide or methyl chloride mixtures, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bromoacetone, methyl bromide, chloropicrin and methyl bromide or methyl chloride mixtures, etc. 173.193 Section 173.193 Transportation Other Regulations... bromide, chloropicrin and methyl bromide or methyl chloride mixtures, etc. (a) Bromoacetone must...

  2. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C activity in unroasted [14C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH3Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH3Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH3Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  3. [Research advances in methyl bromide in the ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-na; Xie, Wen-xia; Cui, Yu-qian; Chen, Jian-lei; Ye, Si-yuan

    2014-12-01

    Methyl bromide is an important atmospheric trace gas, which plays significant roles in the global warming and atmospheric chemistry. The ocean plays important and complex roles in the global biogeochemical cycles of methyl bromide, not only the source of atmospheric methyl bromide, but also the sink. Therefore, developing the chemical research of the soluble methyl bromide in the ocean, will not only have a certain guiding significance to the atmospheric ozone layer protection, but also provide a theoretical basis for estimating methyl bromide's contribution to the global environmental change on global scale. This paper reviewed the research advances on methyl bromide in the ocean, from the aspects of the biogeochemical cycle of methyl bromide in the ocean, the analysis and determination method, the concentration distribution, the sea-to-air flux and its sources and sinks in the atmosphere. Some deficiencies in the current studies were put forward, and the directions of the future studies were prospected. PMID:25876424

  4. Methyl Bromide: Effective Pest Management Tool and Environmental Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, W. B.

    1996-01-01

    Methyl bromide is used extensively on a global basis as a pesticide against nematodes, weeds, insects, fungi, bacteria, and rodents. As a soil fumigant, it is used in significant quantities in the production of strawberry and tomato, as well as other agriculture commodities. Grain, fresh fruit, forestry products, and other materials are fumigated with methyl bromide to control pest infestations during transport and storage. Structures also are treated with this chemical to control wood-destro...

  5. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans with particular reference to inorganic bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic bromide residues and 14C-labelled methylated products (expressed as CH3Br equivalent) in cocoa beans fumigated with [14C]-methyl bromide have been determined by radiometric and chemical methods. Determination of 14C by direct combustion in an oxygen chamber followed by liquid scintillation counting confirmed previous findings with respect to the magnitude, distribution and chemical nature of the residues. Although recovery of added bromide was good, the values of total bromide obtained by the chemical method were only half of those estimated from the total residual 14C-activity. This is attributed to loss of organic (presumably, protein-bound) bromide. In agreement with the total 14C-labelled residue contents, total bromide in shells was 20 times greater than that in nibs. The low levels of residues in the nib (12ppm as CH3Br equivalent, 10ppm Br) and the further reduction of organic residues by roasting suggest that no toxicological and nutritional hazards may be expected from fumigation of cocoa beans with methyl bromide. (author)

  6. Residues resulting from fumigation of food commodities with methyl bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was undertaken to determine the nature and significance of residues remaining in methyl bromide-fumigated commodities using radiotracer techniques (14C-methyl bromide). Experiments with corn showed that the germ part of the kernel contained nearly half of the total 14C-residue remaining in the seed. Also preliminary tests with granny smith apples revealed that considerable residue may remain in seeds of treated apples with less in skin and the least in the fleshy pulp. In fumigated corn, fractionation revealed that radioactive residues were distributed throughout albumins, globulins, Zein 1, Zein 2 and glutelin with a large part in the aqueous extract (amino acids). Further investigation emphasized the characterization of volatile substances resulting from alkali treatment. It was found that methyl bromide readily methylated methionine and this constitutes a major site of methylation. A component of the volatile fraction was dimethyl sulfoxide, probably a product of oxidation of dimethyl sulphide. Work is in progress to determine whether methyl bromide will methylate purine and pyrimidine components. (author)

  7. Depleting methyl bromide residues in soil by reaction with bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite generally being considered the most effective soil fumigant, methyl bromide (MeBr) use is being phased out because its emissions from soil can lead to stratospheric ozone depletion. However, a large amount is still currently used due to Critical Use Exemptions. As strategies for reducing the...

  8. Reactive films for mitigating methyl bromide emissions from fumigated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of methyl bromide (MeBr) from agricultural fumigation can lead to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, and so its use is being phased out. However, as MeBr is still widely used under Critical Use Exemptions, strategies are still required to control such emissions. In this work, nove...

  9. Methyl bromide phase out could affect future reforestation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl bromide has long been an integral component in producing healthy tree seedlings in forest nurseries of California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. The fumigant was supposed to be completely phased out of use in the United States of America by 2005, but many forest nurseries continue to...

  10. Evaluation of N-ethyl-N-methyl-morpholinium bromide and N-ethyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide as bromine complexing agents in vanadium bromide redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolution of bromine gas in the positive half cell of the Generation 2 (G2) vanadium bromide (V/Br) battery during charging is a concern which can be resolved by the use of bromine complexing agents. In this paper, for the first time, we report the effect of the addition of two quaternary ammonium bromides; N-ethyl-N-methyl-morpholinium bromide (MEM) and N-ethyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide (MEP) to the positive and negative half cell electrolytes of the V/Br. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies showed that the addition of MEM–MEP effectively reduce Br2 vapours. Although the presence of MEM and MEP did not affect the mechanism of the electrode reactions, performance tests conducted in lab scale V/Br cells employing the VF11 cation exchange membrane resulted in lower average cell efficiencies possibly due to the increase in membrane resistance caused by membrane fouling

  11. Enzyme activities in agricultural soils fumigated with methyl bromide alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Klose, Susanne; Ajwa, H A

    2004-01-01

    Pre-plant fumigation of agricultural soils with a combination of methyl bromide (MeBr) and chloropicrin (CP) to control nematodes, soil-borne pathogens and weeds has been a common practice in strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duchesne) production since the 1960s. MeBr will be phased out by 2005, but little is known about the impacts of alternative fumigants on soil microbial processes. We investigated the response of microbial biomass and enzyme activities in soils fumigated over two years with...

  12. Bacterial Oxidation of Methyl Bromide in Fumigated Agricultural Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, L. G.; Connell, T. L.; Guidetti, J. R.; Oremland, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of [(sup14)C]methyl bromide ([(sup14)C]MeBr) to (sup14)CO(inf2) was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCl(inf3)NO(inf2)). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-kille...

  13. Methyl bromide: Ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Anbar; Yung, Y. L.; Chavez, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH_3Br), the major carrier of O_3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH_3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH_3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmo...

  14. Methylation of DNA of maize and wheat grains during fumigation with methyl bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that methylation of DNA occurs during fumigation of foodstuffs with methyl bromide was investigated in two grains, maize and wheat, using 14C-labeled fumigant. 7-Methylguanine and 1-methyladenine were identified as major products along with lesser amounts of 3-methylcytosine and 3-methyladenine. 3-Methylguanine was probably also formed in minor amounts. Although less than 1% of the bound radioactivity was associated with the DNA isolated, the results indicated that 0.5-1% of the guanine residues in the DNA of these grains was methylated during treatment with 48 mg/L methylbromide for 72 h

  15. Acrolein as Potential Alternative to Methyl Bromide in California-Grown Calla Lilies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cut flower and ornamental bulb industries rely heavily on a methyl bromide/chloropicrin (MB/Pic) mixture as a key pest management tool. The loss of methyl bromide (MB) will seriously affect the cut flower and bulb industry, and in the future, will require growers to use alternative fumigants. Theref...

  16. Irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide: the Australian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International agreement to phase out the fumigant Methyl bromide (MeBr) will have serious implications for pest and disease control in Australia, particularly grain pest control, quarantine usage on fresh horticultural produce and control of soil pathogens or nematodes. Irradiation is a practical alternative but is not currently approved for use in Australia. Other options are available but none of the viable methods except irradiation have the short application time needed for treatment of grams found to be infested during loading at export. This usage is vital, as Australian grain is exported at very high standards of freedom from insects, assured by Government regulatory requirements. Irradiation is contrasted against other alternatives including heat and cold, especially for fresh horticultural produce. (author)

  17. Methyl bromide cycling in a warm-core eddy of the North Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Yvon-Lewis, SA; Butler, JH; Saltzman, Es; Matrai, PA; King, DB; R. Tokarczyk; Moore, RM; Zhang, JZ

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a detailed investigation of the evolution of methyl bromide concentrations, degradation rates, and ventilation rates for 26 days in a naturally contained, warm-core eddy of the North Atlantic Ocean. This is the first study of the oceanic cycling of methyl bromide in a natural, contained system with a complete suite of supporting measurements of physical and chemical variables. Methyl bromide concentrations in the mixed layer ranged from 2.3 to 4.2 nmol m−3, degradation rates rang...

  18. Carbon isotope fractionation of methyl bromide during agricultural soil fumigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, M.; Miller, L.G.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2002-01-01

    The isotopic composition of methyl bromide (CH3Br) has been suggested to be a potentially useful tracer for constraining the global CH3Br budget. In order to determine the carbon isotopic composition of CH3Br emitted from the most significant anthropogenic application (pre-plant fumigation) we directly measured the ??13C of CH3Br released during commercial fumigation. We also measured the isotopic fractionation associated with degradation in agricultural soil under typical field fumigation conditions. The isotopic composition of CH3Br collected in soil several hours after injection of the fumigant was -44.5??? and this value increased to -20.7??? over the following three days. The mean kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with degradation of CH3Br in agricultural soil (12???) was smaller than the reported value for methylotrophic bacterial strain IMB-1, isolated from previously fumigated agricultural soil, but was similar to methylotrophic bacterial strain CC495, isolated from a pristine forest litter zone. Using this fractionation associated with the degradation of CH3Br in agricultural soil and the mean ??13C of the industrially manufactured CH3Br (-54.4???), we calculate that the agricultural soil fumigation source has a carbon isotope signature that ranges from -52.8??? to -42.0???. Roughly 65% of industrially manufactured CH3Br is used for field fumigations. The remaining 35% is used for structural and post-harvest fumigations with a minor amount used during industrial chemical manufacturing. Assuming that the structural and post-harvest fumigation sources of CH3Br are emitted without substantial fractionation, we calculate that the ??13C of anthropogenically emitted CH3Br ranges from -53.2??? to -47.5???.

  19. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide emissions from baking: an unrecognized anthropogenic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brett F; Horst, Axel; Carrizo, Daniel; Holmstrand, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Methyl chloride and methyl bromide (CH3Cl and CH3Br) are the largest natural sources of chlorine and bromine, respectively, to the stratosphere, where they contribute to ozone depletion. We report the anthropogenic production of CH3Cl and CH3Br during breadbaking, and suggest this production is an abiotic process involving the methyl ester functional groups in pectin and lignin structural polymers of plant cells. Wide variations in baking styles allow only rough estimates of this flux of methyl halides on a global basis. A simple model suggests that CH3Br emissions from breadbaking likely peaked circa 1990 at approximately 200tonnes per year (about 0.3% of industrial production), prior to restrictions on the dough conditioner potassium bromate. In contrast, CH3Cl emissions from breadbaking may be of similar magnitude as acknowledged present-day CH3Cl industrial emissions. Because the mechanisms involve functional groups and compounds widely found in plant materials, this type of methyl halide production may occur in other cooking techniques as well. PMID:26878644

  20. Improved light olefin yield from methyl bromide coupling over modified SAPO-34 molecular sieves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Shouli; Komon, Zachary J A; Osterwalder, Neil; Gadewar, Sagar; Stoimenov, Peter; Auerbach, Daniel J; Stucky, Galen D; McFarland, Eric W

    2011-02-21

    As an alternative to the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas followed by methanol synthesis and the subsequent generation of olefins, we have studied the production of light olefins (ethylene and propylene) from the reaction of methyl bromide over various modified microporous silico-aluminophosphate molecular-sieve catalysts with an emphasis on SAPO-34. Some comparisons of methyl halides and methanol as reaction intermediates in their conversion to olefins are presented. Increasing the ratio of Si/Al and incorporation of Co into the catalyst framework improved the methyl bromide yield of light olefins over that obtained using standard SAPO-34. PMID:21203621

  1. Irradiation as a disinfestation method - update on methyl bromide phase out, regulatory action and emerging opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl bromide (MeBr), is the most widely used agricultural fumigant in the world for the control of pests and plant diseases. It is used to control pests and diseases in food, agricultural and forestry commodities after harvest, before or during storage or transportation and/or at time of import to control quarantine or storage pests. Knowing MeBr will be phased out has spurred a search for alternative treatments and products, and has placed pressure on regulatory authorities to approve alternatives. Some of methyl bromide use could be replaced with irradiation. Methyl bromide is also used for soil and structural fumigation, and although there is some use of irradiation for packaged soil or greenhouse products, in general, these uses can not be replaced by irradiation. Some radiation processing facilities have either seen increased business to disinfest commodities, or have experienced more inquiries for service. There are many other processes and products competing for this market and irradiation will not win its share of the business without an improved regulatory picture, improved marketing to methyl bromide users and improved information to answer questions from commodity sectors. The United Nations Environment Program - Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee (MBTOC) provides a venue for the publication or information about the use and availability of irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide. It provides the technical base to the Montreal Protocol contributing to the setting of phase out dates; this committee is actively researching and assessing all alternatives and needs information about irradiation. The author is a member of the MBTOC committee

  2. Reduced rates and alternatives to methyl bromide for snapdragon production in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate soil solarization, Midas™ (iodomethane:chloropicrin 50:50, Arysta LifeScience Corp., Cary, NC) and different rates and formulations of methyl bromide under standard and metalized films for the production of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) in Martin County, Flor...

  3. 76 FR 29238 - Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... provided, EPA received no comments in response to the February 9, 2011, Federal Register notice (76 FR 7200... AGENCY Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses... for the amendments to terminate soil uses, voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted...

  4. Ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm in the presence of methyl bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the mechanism and kinetic of ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm UV-light were studied.The quantum yield of the ozone depletion in the presence of methyl bromide is further determined and a reaction model is provided to explain the experimental fact.

  5. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Area-Wide Pest Management Project - South Atlantic Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols and Standard Operational Procedures (SOPs) were developed for collecting environmental and soil edaphic information during and after application of methyl bromide alternatives. Parameters measured included soil moisture, soil bulk density, percent moisture at field capacity (-0.3 bars wat...

  6. Determination of bromine contents in blood and hair of workers exposed to methyl by radioactivation analysis method bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bromine contained in blood and hair samples obtained from workers exposed to methyl bromide was analyzed by nondestructive activation analysis. The samples were irradiated for 1 min in pneumatic irradiation facility of Kyoto University research reactor with an estimated thermal neutron flux density at 2 x 1013 n.cm-2.sec-1. The irradiation was counted with Ge(Li) detector. The duration of measurement of radionuclide bromine in blood and hair was 200 sec within 2 - 10 min after irradiation. The bromine content of serum sample obtained from a worker suspected of methyl bromide poisoning was found to be 412 μg/g on 13 days apart from exposure to methyl bromide. The biological half-life of bromine in this case was found to be about 16 days. Then bromine contents in serum and hair samples obtained from workers exposed to methyl bromide were found to be 1.7 and 2.6 times higher respectively than those of nonexposed workers. Any correlations of bromine contents were not observed between serum and hair samples obtained from workers exposed to methyl bromide, nor between bromine amount in the serum of workers exposed to methyl bromide and the terms exposed to it, but statistically significant positive correlation was observed between bromine amount in the hair of workers exposed to methyl bromide and the terms exposed to it. (author)

  7. Synthesis of Dimethyl Aryl Acylsulfonium Bromides from Aryl Methyl Ketones in a DMSO-HBr System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiling Cao; Dahua Shi; Yingying Qu; Chuanzhou Tao; Weiwei Liu; Guowei Yao

    2013-01-01

    A new, simplified method for the synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium salts has been developed. A series of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides were prepared by the reaction of aryl methyl ketones with hydrobromic acid and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). This sulfonium salt confirms that bromine production and the bromination reaction take place in the DMSO-HBr oxidation system. What’s more, it is also a key intermediate for the synthesis of arylglyoxals.

  8. The Challenge of Research and Extension to Define and Implement Alternatives to Methyl Bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Noling, J. W.; Becker, J. O.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, methyl bromide (MBr), a broad spectrum fumigant, has been used extensively for soilborne disease and pest control in the production of many fruit, vegetable, turf, and nursery crops. Recently, agricultural emissions of MBr were implicated as a potentially significant contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. As a precautionary measure for global ozone protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has enforced federal legislation which mandates a complete pha...

  9. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and -2 Expression in the Olfactory Bulb Following Methyl Bromide Gas Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Bakos, Stephen R.; Schwob, James E.; Costanzo, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2 are important for recovery following direct traumatic injury within the central nervous system (CNS). However, most CNS injury models include both direct trauma and neuronal deafferentation. This limits the ability to determine if these MMPs are important to one or both components of injury. To establish if MMPs play a role in the deafferentation processes, we investigated MMP-9 and MMP-2 in the olfactory bulb following methyl bromide gas exposure....

  10. Synthesis of Dimethyl Aryl Acylsulfonium Bromides from Aryl Methyl Ketones in a DMSO-HBr System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Cao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new, simplified method for the synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium salts has been developed. A series of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides were prepared by the reaction of aryl methyl ketones with hydrobromic acid and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. This sulfonium salt confirms that bromine production and the bromination reaction take place in the DMSO-HBr oxidation system. What’s more, it is also a key intermediate for the synthesis of arylglyoxals.

  11. A bio-product as alternative to methyl bromide for replant disease control on strawberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHANG; Tongle HU; Lijing JI; Keqiang CAO

    2008-01-01

    Pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) is a standard practice for controlling soil-borne diseases especially for strawberry diseases. However, the application of MB will be forbidden in China in the year 2015. For this reason, a bio-product named Kangdi 3 was tested as an alternative to MB in strawberry greenhouses in Mancheng (Hebei Province) and Donggang (Liaoning province), China in 2005 and 2006. Methyl bromide at a normal dosage of 500 kg/hm2 and Kangdi 3 at three dosages of 750, 1500 and 2250 kg/hm2 were tested. Plots without any treatment were used as the control. During the growing stage, assessments were made on fungal communities in rhizosphere, growth status of strawberry, the disease levels on roots as well as the yields. Results showed that Kangdi 3 significantly reduced the quantity of fungi and the disease index, while enhancing strawberry growth and the yields compared with the untreated control. Therefore, Kangdi 3 is a great potential substitute for methyl bromide to control replant diseases in strawberry.

  12. Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yvon-Lewis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br burden has declined in recent years, in response to the phaseout of agricultural and structural fumigation consumption under the amendments to the Montreal Protocol. The timing and magnitude of this decrease represents an opportunity to examine our current understanding of the CH3Br budget, the phaseout schedule, and recent estimates of interannual variability in biomass burning and global OH. In this study, simulations obtained from a time-dependent global model of atmospheric CH3Br emissions and uptake are compared to observations from the NOAA flask network. The model includes an updated global methyl bromide source inventory that includes biofuel combustion emissions estimated at 6.1±3 Gg yr−1 globally. The phaseout of CH3Br production for agricultural uses began in 1998, concurrent with the pulse in biomass burning associated with the 1998 El Niño. The combined effects of three factors (biomass burning, global OH, and anthropogenic phaseout appear to explain most of the observed atmospheric methyl bromide trend over the 1997–2005 period. The global budget remains imbalanced, with a large missing source. These results suggest that more than 80% of the missing source does not exhibit significant interannual variability during the phaseout period and, therefore, does not result from underestimating agricultural CH3Br emissions.

  13. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Lygia T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ozone-depleting methyl bromide was destined for phase-out by 2005, it is still widely applied as a consequence of various critical-use-exemptions and mandatory international regulations aiming to restrict the spread of pests and alien species (e.g. in globalized transport and storage. The withdrawal of methyl bromide because of its environmental risk could fortuitously help in the containment of its human toxicity. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature, including in vitro toxicological and epidemiological studies of occupational and community exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon pesticide methyl bromide. We focused on toxic (especially chronic or carcinogenic effects from the use of methyl bromide, on biomonitoring data and reference values. Eligible epidemiological studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results Out of the 542 peer reviewed publications between 1990-2011, we found only 91 referring to toxicity of methyl bromide and 29 using the term "carcinogenic", "neoplastic" or "mutagenic". Several studies provide new additional data pertaining to the mechanistic aspects of methyl bromide toxicity. Few studies have performed a detailed exposure assessment including biomonitoring. Three evaluated epidemiological studies assessed a possible association between cancer and methyl bromide. Overall, exposure to methyl bromide is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer OR, 1.21; 95% CI (0,98-1.49, P = 0.076. Two epidemiological studies have analyzed environmental, non-occupational exposure to methyl bromide providing evidence for its health risk to the general public. None of the epidemiological studies addressed its use as a fumigant in freight containers, although recent field and case reports do refer to its toxic effects associated with its use in shipping and storage. Conclusions Both the epidemiological evidence and toxicological data suggest a possible link between methyl

  14. Aerodynamic measurements of methyl bromide volatilization from tarped and nontarped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) is used extensively in agriculture as a soil fumigant and there is growing concern over the role it may play in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Methyl bromide is applied using various techniques and very little is known about how much of the applied fumigant volatilizes into the atmosphere after the application. The field study was designed to estimate the post-application methyl bromide volatilization loss rates from two different application practices. The fields were approximately 6 km apart in Monterey County, California, and were treated in conformity with local practices as of 1992. The MeBr was injected at a depth of 25 to 30 cm. One field was covered simultaneously with a high-barrier plastic film tarp during the application, and the other was left uncovered, but the furrows made by the injection shanks were bedded over. Volatilization fluxes were estimated using an aerodynamic-gradient technique immediately following the completion of the application process and continued for 9 d for the tarped field and 6 d for the nontarped field. The cumulative volatilization losses from the tarped field were 22% of the nominal application within the first 5 d of the experiment and about 32% of the nominal application within 9 d including the one day after the tarp was removed on Day 8 after application. In contrast, the nontarped field lost 89% of the nominal application by volatilization in 5 d. The volatilization rate from the tarped field was shown to be significantly lower than the nontarped field at a 95% confidence level

  15. Temporal and spatial variation in methyl bromide emissions from a salt marsh

    OpenAIRE

    Drewer, Julia; Heal, Mathew R; Heal, Kate V; Smith, Keith A

    2006-01-01

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is a trace gas involved in stratospheric ozone depletion with both anthropogenic and natural sources. Estimates of natural source strengths are highly uncertain. In this study, >320 highly temporally and spatially resolved measurements of CH3Br emissions from a salt marsh in Scotland (56°00′N, 2°35′W) were made during one year using eight static enclosures. Net emissions showed both strong seasonal and diurnal cycles. Day-to-day maxima in emissions were associated with ...

  16. Rapid Consumption of Low Concentrations of Methyl Bromide by Soil Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, Mark E.; Crill, Patrick M; Varner, Ruth K.; Talbot, Robert W; Shorter, Joanne H.; Kolb, Charles E.; Harriss, Robert C.

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic dilution system for producing low mixing ratios of methyl bromide (MeBr) and a sensitive analytical technique were used to study the uptake of MeBr by various soils. MeBr was removed within minutes from vials incubated with soils and ∼10 parts per billion by volume of MeBr. Killed controls did not consume MeBr, and a mixture of the broad-spectrum antibiotics chloramphenicol and tetracycline inhibited MeBr uptake by 98%, indicating that all of the uptake of MeBr was biological and by...

  17. Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yvon-Lewis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br burden has declined in recent years, in response to the phaseout of agricultural and structural fumigation consumption under the amendments to the Montreal Protocol. The timing and magnitude of this decrease represents an opportunity to examine our current understanding of atmospheric CH3Br and its budget, response to the phaseout, and response to interannual variability in biomass burning and global OH. In this study, simulations obtained from a time-dependent global model of atmospheric CH3Br emissions and uptake are compared to observations from the NOAA flask network. The model includes a detailed gridded ocean model coupled to a time-dependant atmospheric 2-box model. The phaseout of CH3Br production for agricultural uses began in 1998, concurrent with the pulse in biomass burning associated with the 1998 El Niño. The combined effects of three factors (biomass burning, global OH, and anthropogenic phaseout appear to explain most of the observed atmospheric methyl bromide variability over the 1997–2008 period. The global budget remains imbalanced, with a large missing source indicated. The missing source does not exhibit a systematic decline during the phaseout period, and therefore, is not the result of significantly underestimating non-QPS agricultural CH3Br emissions. The model results suggest that the oceans should be less undersaturated than before the phaseout began.

  18. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric determination of doxycycline hyclate using bromate-bromide, methyl orange and indigo carmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavagada Jagannathamurthy Ramesh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available One titrimetric and two indirect spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of doxycycline hyclate (DCH in bulk drug and in its formulations. The methods use bromate-bromide, methyl orange and indigo carmine as reagents. In titrimetry (method A, DCH is treated with a known excess of bromate- -bromide mixture in acid medium and the residual bromine is back titrated iodometrically after the reaction between DCH and in situ bromine is ensured to be complete. In spectrophotometric methods, the excess of bromine is estimated by treating with a fixed amount of either methyl orange (method B or indigo carmine (method C and measuring the change in absorbance either at 520 or 610 nm. Titrimetric method is applicable over 1-8 mg range and the calculations are based on a 1:2 (DCH:bromate stoichiometric ratio. In spectrophotometry, the calibration graphs were found to be linear over 0.25-1.25 and 1.0-5.0 μg mL-1 for method B and C, respectively, with corresponding molar absorptivity values of 2.62×105 and 6.97×104 L mol-1 cm-1. The accuracy and precision of the assays were determined by computing the intra-day and inter-day variations at three different levels of DCH.

  19. Enhanced Degradation of the Volatile Fumigant-Nematicides 1,3-D and Methyl Bromide in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, L.-T.

    1998-01-01

    The use of the gaseous funaigant-nematicide methyl bromide in agriculture is scheduled to be phased out in the year 2001.1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) in combination with chloropicrin and an herbicide is considered to be a viable alternative to methyl bromide for some crops. 1,3-Dichloropropene consists of two isomers, cis- and trans-l,3-D. A number of soil bacteria have been shown to initially degrade 1,3-D or one of its isomers, cis-l,3-D, via hydrolysis. Until recently, the degradation of ci...

  20. Solubilization Using Some Novel N-Methyl Diethanolammonium Bromide Cationic Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel series of N-methyl diethanolammonium bromide cationic surfactants was used as solubilizing agent for nonpolar substrate (paraffin oil) at 25 degree C. The results of solubilization measurements showed good ability for the used surfactants towards solubilizing paraffin oil in aqueous medium. The results showed also, that the chemical structure of the soluble plays an important rule in its solubilization. Several factors were found to influence the extent of solubilization, which are: number of alkyl chains within surfactant molecule, symmetry of molecules and chain length of hydrophobic parts. The results were rationalized by the Kraft point and HLB values of the used surfactants. Furthermore, solubilization curves showed the steady state solubilization of each surfactant used

  1. Effect of potential methyl bromide alternatives on plant parasitic nematodes and grape yield under vineyard replant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and citrus (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) nematodes are often present in vineyards affected by “replant problems” of grapes in California. Methyl bromide (MB) has been used to control these nematodes and other soil borne pathogens prior to replanting new vineyards, but, exc...

  2. Grafting, metham sodium, soil solarization and virtually impermeable films as alternative technologies to methyl bromide for Chinese protected tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Xuemei; Cao Zhiping; Chen Yunfeng; Chen Guokang; Andrea Camponogara; Yang Hang; Maria Lodovica Gullino

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of the Sino-ltalian Cooperation Program for Environmental Protection,jointly launched in the year 2000 by the Italian Ministry for Environment and Territory and Sea (IMETS) and the China State Environ nental Protection Administration (SEPA),experimental trials were carried out in Qingzhou city (Shandong Prov ince,China) during 2001-2003 to test several methyl bromide alternative methods to control soilborne diseases in greenhouse tomatoes.Grafting tomatoes on resistant rootstock (Lycopersicon lycopersicum×L.hirsutum),metham sodium applied under traditional polyethylene ptastic films,metham sodium applied at low rate under virtually im permeable films and soil solarization combined with biocontrol agents were the alternatives tested and compared to methyl bromide applied under virtually impermeable plastic films too.Collected data show that resistant rootstock (Lycopersicon lycopersicum × L.hirsutum) introduced from Italy is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for to cal tomato cultivars.Metham sodium applied under traditional polyethylene plastic films is an effective alternative Moreover,virtually impermeable.films demonstrate the help to reduce methyl bromide and metham sodium rates.Finally,soil solarization combined with biocontrol agents does not provide satisfactory resuhs in terms of disease control.

  3. Evaluation of methyl bromide alternatives efficacy against soil-borne pathogens, nematodes and soil microbial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Xie

    Full Text Available Methyl bromide (MB and other alternatives were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. and their influence on soil microbial communities. Both Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. were significantly reduced by the MB (30.74 mg kg-1, methyl iodide (MI: 45.58 mg kg-1, metham sodium (MS: 53.92 mg kg-1 treatments. MS exhibited comparable effectiveness to MB in controlling Meloidogyne spp. and total nematodes, followed by MI at the tested rate. By contrast, sulfuryl fluoride (SF: 33.04 mg kg-1 and chloroform (CF: 23.68 mg kg-1 showed low efficacy in controlling Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. MB, MI and MS significantly lowered the abundance of different microbial populations and microbial biomass in soil, whereas SF and CF had limited influence on them compared with the control. Diversity indices in Biolog studies decreased in response to fumigation, but no significant difference was found among treatments in PLFA studies. Principal component and cluster analyses of Biolog and PLFA data sets revealed that MB and MI treatments greatly influenced the soil microbial community functional and structural diversity compared with SF treatment. These results suggest that fumigants with high effectiveness in suppressing soil-borne disease could significantly influence soil microbial community.

  4. Degradation of methyl bromide by methanotrophic bacteria in cell suspensions and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Culbertson, C.W.; Connell, T.L.; Jahnke, L.

    1994-01-01

    Cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus mineralized methyl bromide (MeBr), as evidenced by its removal from the gas phase, the quantitative recovery of Br- in the spent medium, and the production of 14CO2 from [14C]MeBr. Methyl fluoride (MeF) inhibited oxidation of methane as well as that of [14C]MeBr. The rate of MeBr consumption by cells varied inversely with the supply of methane, which suggested a competitive relationship between these two substrates. However, MeBr did not support growth of the methanotroph. In soils exposed to high levels (10,000 ppm) of MeBr, methane oxidation was completely inhibited. At this concentration, MeBr removal rates were equivalent in killed and live controls, which indicated a chemical rather than biological removal reaction. At lower concentrations (1,000 ppm) of MeBr, methanotrophs were active and MeBr consumption rates were 10-fold higher in live controls than in killed controls. Soils exposed to trace levels (10 ppm) of MeBr demonstrated complete consumption within 5 h of incubation, while controls inhibited with MeF or incubated without O2 had 50% lower removal rates. Aerobic soils oxidized [14C]MeBr to 14CO2, and MeF inhibited oxidation by 72%. Field experiments demonstrated slightly lower MeBr removal rates in chambers containing MeF than in chambers lacking MeF. Collectively, these results show that soil methanotrophic bacteria, as well as other microbes, can degrade MeBr present in the environment.

  5. Irradiation as an alternative treatment to methyl bromide for insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl Bromide (MB) is widely used as a fumigant for the control of pests of stored grain, legumes, oil seeds, dry fruits and nuts, pest of timber, soil insects, soil nematodes, soil pathogens of plants, and as a quarantine treatment against pest of fresh horticultural products, and pests and diseases in propagation material. The global phase-out of MBB in advanced countries by 2005 and in developing countries by 2015 under the Montreal Protocol, because of its ozone depleting property, has prompted increasing interest in the use of irradiation as an alternative to MB for insect control in food and agricultural commodities in recent years. Irradiation at fairly low doses, of the order of 1 kGy or less is an effective alternative to chemical treatment of foods. The advantages of radiation processing include short treatment time in comparison to several days of exposure required in chemical fumigation, no undesirable chemical residues in the food, no resistance developed by the insects and no significant changes in the organoleptic, physicochemical and functional properties or the nutritive value of the treated products. Turkey is the leading country in the world, in production and exports of dried fig, apricot,raisin and hazelnut. One of the main problem in the export trade is infestation by stored product insects. In Turkey, the new legal regulations on food irradiation were published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. (3 tables and 10 refs. included)

  6. Stable bromine isotopic composition of methyl bromide released from plant matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Axel; Holmstrand, Henry; Andersson, Per; Thornton, Brett F.; Wishkerman, Asher; Keppler, Frank; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2014-01-01

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) emitted from plants constitutes a natural source of bromine to the atmosphere, and is a component in the currently unbalanced global CH3Br budget. In the stratosphere, CH3Br contributes to ozone loss processes. Studies of stable isotope composition may reduce uncertainties in the atmospheric CH3Br budget, but require well-constrained isotope fingerprints of the source end members. Here we report the first measurements of stable bromine isotopes (δ81Br) in CH3Br from abiotic plant emissions. Incubations of both KBr-fortified pectin, a ubiquitous cell-stabilizing macromolecule, and of a natural halophyte (Salicornia fruticosa), yielded an enrichment factor (ε) of -2.00 ± 0.23‰ (1σ, n = 8) for pectin and -1.82 ± 0.02‰ (1σ, n = 4) for Salicornia (the relative amount of the heavier 81Br was decreased in CH3Br compared to the substrate salt). For short incubations, and up to 10% consumption of the salt substrate, this isotope effect was similar for temperatures from 30 up to 300 °C. For longer incubations of up to 90 h at 180 °C the δ81Br values increased from -2‰ to 0‰ for pectin and to -1‰ for Salicornia. These δ81Br source signatures of CH3Br formation from plant matter combine with similar data for carbon isotopes to facilitate multidimensional isotope diagnostics of the CH3Br budget.

  7. Effects of Soil and Water Content on Methyl Bromide Oxidation by the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea†

    OpenAIRE

    Duddleston, Khrystyne N.; Bottomley, Peter J; Porter, Angela; Arp, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Little information exists on the potential of NH3-oxidizing bacteria to cooxidize halogenated hydrocarbons in soil. A study was conducted to examine the cooxidation of methyl bromide (MeBr) by an NH3-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, under soil conditions. Soil and its water content modified the availability of NH4+ and MeBr and influenced the relative rates of substrate (NH3) and cosubstrate (MeBr) oxidations. These observations highlight the complexity associated with characterizi...

  8. Physicochemistry of hexadecylammonium bromide and its methyl and ethanolic head group analogues in buffered aqueous and gelatin solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debolina Mitra; Satya P Moul

    2010-05-01

    In this work, the interfacial and bulk behaviour of the amphiphiles hexadecylammonium bromide and its methyl and ethanolic head group analogues in buffered aqueous and gelatin solution has been examined. The analogues are of two categories: the methyl and the combined methyl and ethanolic head group representatives are considered as Group A compounds, and all non-methyl but ethanolic head group species are taken as Group B compounds. Different physical techniques have been employed to ascertain the amphiphilic behaviour in solution. The self-aggregation of these surfactants at different pH has been studied along with pH dependent interfacial activity of gelatin. The interaction of the two categories of the surfactants with gelatin at different pH has been investigated. A scheme for this interaction at various stages of the process has been proposed. The influence of the surfactant head groups on the interaction process has been assessed.

  9. The developmental toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Rui; Li, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Bang-Jun; Sun, Zhen-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ji

    2008-12-01

    The developmental toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C(8)mim]Br) on Daphnia magna was investigated. The 24 and 48 h LC(50) values for [C(8)mim]Br in D. magna were 1.99 and 0.95 mg/L, respectively. A series of multigenerational toxicity tests were then used to explore [C(8)mim]Br effects in D. magna. [C(8)mim]Br significantly inhibited the body lengths of the F0 and F1 1st generations. After 21 days of exposure, [C(8)mim]Br lowered the reproductive ability of the F0 and F1 1st generations. In F1 3rd generation, 21 days of [C(8)mim]Br exposure prolonged the time to bear the first egg and the time to the first brood compared with the control, but the number of first-brood offspring and the number of broods produced by these animals were reduced. After the recovery period all the reproductive parameters returned to normal in F1 1st generation except for the number of broods. The dead neonates increased with prolonged exposure and increasing concentrations, and the dead neonates of the F1 3rd generation went far beyond that of the F1 1st and F0 generations. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) values of the three D. magna generations significantly decreased after exposure to higher concentrations of [C(8)mim]Br compared with control groups. Collectively, these results suggest that [C(8)mim]Br exerts a toxic effect on the development of D. magna. This study also highlights the importance of systematically evaluating the potential effects of aquatic ecosystems of ionic liquids that may be released into bodies of water. PMID:18442076

  10. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for methyl bromide according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance methyl bromide. Although this active substance is no longer authorised within the European Union, guideline levels for methyl bromide (at point of retail sale or when offered for consumption and MRLs for bromide ion, which is a relevant metabolite of methyl bromide, were established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CXLs. Regarding methyl bromide, the default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg as defined by Regulation (EC No 396/2005 is compliant with the Codex guideline levels and provides a satisfactory level of protection for the European consumer but it could not be demonstrated that the default MRL can be achieved in routine enforcement. Moreover, based on the assessment of the available data, some CXLs were found not to be adequately supported by data and the consumer risk assessment could not be finalised, as the toxicological reference values of bromide ion need to be revised and only few information on the natural occurrence of bromide ion in food was available to EFSA. Hence, further consideration by risk managers is needed.

  11. Recent actions taken on methyl bromide under the Montreal Protocol: Their potential economic implications on international trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl bromide (MB) produced and used by man is a versatile, highly effective, fastacting fumigant employed in a number of important ways to kill organisms destructive to plants. A wide spectrum of commodities is treated with MB. The compound is unique in that it provides a wide range of pest control, may be applied to a broad spectrum of both food and non-food commodities, can be used for fumigation of large and small quantities of materials, and, when applied properly, leaves no residues of toxicological significance. Recently, this compound has come under scientific scrutiny and has been identified as a potentially potent ozone depleting chemical. As a result, countries operating under the Montreal Protocol will be restricting its use, and, in some cases, eliminating its use altogether. To date there are no alternative chemical fumigants to replace methyl bromide. Non-chemical treatments such as irradiation, hot and cold treatments, modified atmosphere, etc., are the most promising. The paper focuses on the magnitude of the economic consequences on international trade and the necessity to have available alternative treatments that are highly effective, fast-acting, and practical. 8 refs, 12 tabs

  12. Combined effect of gamma radiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the confused flour beetle, tribolium confusum, DUV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory study was carried out in egypt to determine the effect of combining treatments of gamma radiation and methyl bromide fumigation applied to to adults of tribolium confusum (D uv.) An interaction between radiation and insecticidal treatment was obvious, with additive effects noted at most combination treatments. When radiation treatments were applied first and followed by fumigation within 24 hr, very low dosages of radiation (2-6 krad) decreased the susceptibility of the insects to marginally effective dosages of methyl bromide after 14 days. Irradiation pretreatment followed by fumigation after 21 days enhanced the fumigant effectiveness. Irradiation treatments using dosages from 5-50 krad followed by fumigant treatments after 7 days killed more insects than did either treatment applied alone. When sublethal dosages of fumigation preceded irradiation, the insects became more radio-sensitive. In general, the effects of irradiation and fumigation combinations were higher than the effects of either treatment given singly, irrespective which treatment was given first. 3 tab

  13. Viscometric studies of interactions between ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide and polyvinyl pyrrolidone in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Viscosities of PVP in aqueous solution of IL are measured. • The flow activation energies are calculated. • The flow activation energies are correlated in terms of polymer concentration. • Intrinsic viscosity of PVP is decreased by increasing temperature. - Abstract: Ionic liquids are investigated as solvents for polymerization processes, as plasticizers of various kinds of polymers and as components of the polymeric matrixes. In this research, viscosity of polyvinyl pyrrolidone in aqueous solution of ionic liquid, 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide are measured at various temperatures. The flow activation energies are calculated and correlated in terms of polymer concentration. From sign of the initial slope of the activation energy versus polymer concentration at zero concentration, it is concluded that thermodynamic quality of ionic liquid aqueous solutions are reduced by increasing temperature. The value of the intrinsic viscosity of polyvinyl pyrrolidone was determined using Huggins equation and thermodynamic parameters of this polymer were calculated on the basis of intrinsic viscosity. Also the effect of ionic liquid, 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide on the thermodynamic parameters of dilute aqueous polyvinyl pyrrolidone solutions, such as (polymer + solvent) interaction parameter, theta temperature, the heat of dilution parameter and the entropy of dilution parameter was investigated. Results suggest that the thermodynamic quality of water was increased slightly by the addition of ionic liquid in aqueous solution of polyvinyl pyrrolidone

  14. Titrimetric, spectrophotometric and kinetic methods for the assay of atenolol using bromate–bromide and methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANAKAPURA BASAVAIAH

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new methods have been developed for the determination of atenolol in bulk drug and in tablet formulation. The methods are based on the oxidation–bromination reaction of the drug by bromine, generated in situ by the action of acid on a bromate–bromide mixture. In the titrimetric method, the drug is treated with a known excess of bromate–bromide mixture in hydrochloric acid medium, followed by the determination of the unreacted bromine iodometrically. The spectrophotometric method involves the addition of a measured excess of bromate–bromide reagent in hydrochloric acid medium to atenolol, and after ensuring the reaction had gone to completion, the unreacted bromine is treated with a fixed amount of methyl orange, and absorbance measured at 520 nm. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of atenolol. The kinetic method depends on the existence of a linear relationship between the concentration of the drug and the time of the oxidation–bromination reaction, as indicated by the bleaching of methyl orange acid colour. The working conditions were optimized. The titrimetric method is based on a 1:1 reaction stoichiometry (atenolol:bromate and is applicable over the 3–20 mg range. The spectrophotometric method permits micro determination of the drug (0.5–4.0 mg ml-1with an apparentmolar absorptivity of 4.13x104 lmol-1 cm-1 and detection limit of 0.07 mg ml-1. The kinetic method is applicable in the concentration range 5–25 mg ml-1 with a detection limit of 3.72 mg ml-1. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of atenolol in tablet preparations with mean recoveries of 97.63 to 101.78 %. The reliability of the assay was established by parallel determination by the reference method and by recovery studies using the standard addition technique.

  15. Evaluation of the combination of dimethyl disulfide and dazomet as an efficient methyl bromide alternative for cucumber production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liangang; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Liu, Pengfei; Shen, Jin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2014-05-28

    The combination of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dazomet (DZ) is a potential alternative to methyl bromide (MB) for soil disinfestation. The efficacy of DMDS plus DZ in controlling key soilborne pests was evaluated in a laboratory study and in two commercial cucumber greenhouses. Laboratory studies found that all of the combinations had positive synergistic effects on root-knot nematodes, two key soilborne fungi, and two major weed seeds. Greenhouse trials revealed that the combination of DMDS and DZ (30 + 25 g m(-2)) successfully suppressed Meloidogyne spp. root galling, sharply reduced the colony-forming units of Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. on media, maintained high cucumber yields, and was not significantly different from MB or DMDS alone, but better than DZ alone. All of the chemical treatments provided significantly better results than the nontreated control. The results indicate that the combination of DMDS and DZ is an efficient MB alternative for cucumber production. PMID:24820184

  16. Effects of reduced rates of Telone C35 and methyl bromide in conjunction with virtually impermeable film on weeds and root-knot nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two field trials were conducted in Florida in 2004 to test the efficacy of reduced rates of the fumigants methyl bromide and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) plus chloropicrin in combination with virtually impermeable film (VIF) and standard low density polyethylene (LDPE) film. In spring grown tomato, ...

  17. Activated carbons from end-products of tree nut and tree fruit production as sorbents for removing methyl bromide in ventilation effluent from postharvest chamber fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    End-products of tree nuts and tree fruits grown in California, USA were evaluated for the ability to remove methyl bromide from the ventilation effluent of postharvest chamber fumigations. Activated carbon sorbents from walnut and almond shells as well as peach and prune pits were prepared using dif...

  18. Practical synthesis of aryl-2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ols from aryl bromides via conventional and decarboxylative copper-free Sonogashira coupling reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caporale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two efficient protocols for the palladium-catalyzed synthesis of aryl-2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ols from aryl bromides in the absence of copper were developed. A simple catalytic system consisting of Pd(OAc2 and P(p-tol3 using DBU as the base and THF as the solvent was found to be highly effective for the coupling reaction of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (4 with a wide range of aryl bromides in good to excellent yields. Analogously, the synthesis of aryl-2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ols was performed also through the decarboxylative coupling reaction of 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentynoic acid with aryl bromides, using a catalyst containing Pd(OAc2 in combination with SPhos or XPhos in the presence of tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF as the base and THF as the solvent. Therefore, new efficient approaches to the synthesis of terminal acetylenes from widely available aryl bromides rather than expensive iodides and using 4 or propiolic acid rather than TMS-acetylene as inexpensive alkyne sources are described.

  19. Comparison of the effects of atropine and glycopyrrolate on various end-organs1

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakhur, R. K.; Dundee, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Atropine and glycopyrrolate (glycopyrronium bromide), a quaternary ammonium drug, were evaluated in volunteers following intramuscular administration with respect to effects on various end-organs with cholinergic innervation. Glycopyrrolate appears to be five to six times more potent than atropine in its antisialogogue effect and also exhibits a selective, though prolonged, effect on salivary secretion and sweat gland activity. It has minimal cardiovascular, ocular and central nervous system ...

  20. Atropinic (Anticholinergic) Burden in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Germay, Sibylle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Rousseau, Vanessa; Chebane, Leila; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Moulis, Florence; Durrieu, Genevieve; Bagheri, Haleh; Rascol, Olivier; Pariente, Antoine; Bégaud, Bernard; Montastruc, François

    2016-05-01

    Use of atropinic drugs remains controversial in Parkinson's disease (PD) because there is insufficient evidence about their efficacy and they can induce serious adverse drug reactions. Atropinic risk scales were developed to help to identify atropinic drugs in prescription forms and to evaluate their burden in clinical practice. In the present review, we discuss the few studies investigating atropinic burden in PD and present the results of our study indicating that atropinic drugs are still widely prescribed in PD (almost 3 of 5 prescriptions) with a clinically significant atropinic burden in around 1 of 6 PD patients. Drugs mainly responsible for high values of atropinic burden were those used for nonmotor symptoms. Clinically significant atropinic burdens were mainly induced by associations of several "low-risk" drugs. Physicians must be aware that in addition to classical atropinic antiparkinsonian drugs, many others (psychotropics) can contribute to increased atropinic burden in PD patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27028036

  1. Degradation of methyl bromide and methyl chloride in soil microcosms: Use of stable C isotope fractionation and stable isotope probing to identify reactions and the responsible microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Warner, K.L.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.; McDonald, I.R.; Radajewski, S.; Murrell, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria in soil microcosm experiments oxidized elevated levels of methyl chloride (MeCl) and methyl bromide (MeBr), the former compound more rapidly than the latter. MeBr was also removed by chemical reactions while MeCl was not. Chemical degradation dominated the early removal of MeBr and accounted for more than half of its total loss. Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes during chemical degradation of MeBr resulted in a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 59 ?? 7???. Soil bacterial oxidation dominated the later removal of MeBr and MeCl and was characterized by different KIEs for each compound. The KIE for MeBr oxidation was 69 ?? 9??? and the KIE for MeCl oxidation was 49 ?? 3???. Stable isotope probing revealed that different populations of soil bacteria assimilated added 13C-labeled MeBr and MeCl. The identity of the active MeBr and MeCl degrading bacteria in soil was determined by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from 13C-DNA fractions, which identified a number of sequences from organisms not previously thought to be involved in methyl halide degradation. These included Burkholderia , the major clone type in the 13C-MeBr fraction, and Rhodobacter, Lysobacter and Nocardioides the major clone types in the 13C-MeCl fraction. None of the 16S rRNA gene sequences for methyl halide oxidizing bacteria currently in culture (including Aminobacter strain IMB-1 isolated from fumigated soil) were identified. Functional gene clone types closely related to Aminobacter spp. were identified in libraries containing the sequences for the cmuA gene, which codes for the enzyme known to catalyze the initial step in the oxidation of MeBr and MeCl. The cmuA gene was limited to members of the alpha-Proteobacteria whereas the greater diversity demonstrated by the 16S rRNA gene may indicate that other enzymes catalyze methyl halide oxidation in different groups of bacteria. Copyright ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. A CHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF METHYL BROMIDE TOXICITY IN B6C3F1 MICE. (FINAL REPORT TO THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HABER, S.B.

    1987-06-26

    This report provides a detailed account of a two year chronic inhalation study of methyl bromide toxicity in B6C3Fl mice conducted for the National Toxicology Program. Mice were randomized into three dose groups (10, 33 and 100 ppm methyl bromide) and one control group (0 ppm) per sex and exposed 5 days/week, 6 hours/day, for a total of 103 weeks. Endpoints included body weight; clinical signs and mortality, and at 6, 15 and 24 months of exposure, animals were sacrificed for organ weights, hematology and histopathology. In addition, a subgroup of animals in each dosage group was monitored for neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes. After only 20 weeks of exposure, 48% of the males and 12% of the females in the 100 ppm group had died. Exposures were terminated in that group and the surviving mice were observed for the duration of the study. Exposure of B6C3Fl mice to methyl bromide, even for only 20 weeks, produced significant changes in growth rate, mortality, organ weights and neurobehavioral functioning. These changes occurred in both males and females, but were more pronounced in males.

  3. Dissociation of internal energy-selected methyl bromide ion revealed from threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence velocity imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissociative photoionization of methyl bromide (CH3Br) in an excitation energy range of 10.45–16.90 eV has been investigated by using threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) velocity imaging. The coincident time-of-flight mass spectra indicate that the ground state X2E of CH3Br+ is stable, and both A2A1 and B2E ionic excited states are fully dissociative to produce the unique fragment ion of CH3+. From TPEPICO 3D time-sliced velocity images of CH3+ dissociated from specific state-selected CH3Br+ ion, kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) and angular distribution of CH3+ fragment ion are directly obtained. Both spin-orbit states of Br(2P) atom can be clearly observed in fast dissociation of CH3Br+(A2A1) ion along C–Br rupture, while a KERD of Maxwell-Boltzmann profile is obtained in dissociation of CH3Br+(B2E) ion. With the aid of the re-calculated potential energy curves of CH3Br+ including spin-orbit coupling, dissociation mechanisms of CH3Br+ ion in A2A1 and B2E states along C–Br rupture are revealed. For CH3Br+(A2A1) ion, the CH3+ + Br(2P1/2) channel is occurred via an adiabatic dissociation by vibration, while the Br(2P3/2) formation is through vibronic coupling to the high vibrational level of X2E state followed by rapid dissociation. C–Br bond breaking of CH3Br+(B2E) ion can occur via slow internal conversion to the excited vibrational level of the lower electronic states and then dissociation

  4. Optimization of perfusion studies using Atropine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of myocardial perfusion require an adequate stress; exercise or pharmacological. Every day, more pharmacological studies are performed, specially in some group of patients (women, AMI, etc). There some drugs that are used for this purpose, as adenosine and dobutamine. However, their cost and the lack of availability and infrastructure in our country do not allow there routinely use. We performed dipyridamol as a pharmacological stress, however in some patients there is a doubt regarding if the pharmacological effect was adequate. Atropine is a drug that is frequently used for different purpose and it is well know its tachycardic response. We present and alternative technique, using dipyridamol-atropine as a protocol of stress perfusion study. Our goal was to correlate the standard dipyridamol -thallium perfusion study and the dipyridamol -atropine-perfusion in patients with chronic coronary disease. We evaluated 6 patients (5 males) with stable angina and chronic coronary disease. A standard dipyridamol-thallium study was performed in all of them. Dipyridamole was administered intravenously at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min over 6 min for a total of 0.84 mg/kg body weight. Blood pressure, heart rate, EKG and symptoms were monitored before, during and after the pharmacological infusion. Two minutes after the infusion was completed, the radiotracer was injected intravenously. In the next 6 months, without any modification of the clinical situation (symptoms and therapy) a new dipyridamol study was performed, using 1 mg of atropine after the administration of dipyridamol. There were no differences in the collateral effects and we observed and average increase of 30% in the heart rate in relation with the study using dipyridamol alone. The addition of atropine to the standard dipyridamol perfusion study is safe, cheaper and improved the detection of perfusion defects in patients with coronary artery disease

  5. Evaluation of the metam sodium in joint action with the clomazone and sulfentrazone like alternative to the use of methyl bromide in the melon cultivation of cantaloupe kind, in Carrillo, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research realized a study in the melon cultivation of cantaloupe kind with the objective to evaluate the utilization of metam sodium joint with the clomazone and sulfentrazone weed-killers like substitutes of methyl bromide in the experimental station of Melons de Costa Rica located in Carrillo, Guanacaste, during the season of 1998-1999. The treatments were: metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + sulfentrazone (60 g.i.a./ha), metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + sulfentrazone (100 g.i.a./ha), metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + clomazone (240 g.i.a./ha), metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + clomazone (480 g.i.a./ha), sulfentrazone (60 g.i.a.), sulfentrazone (100 g.i.a.), clomazone (240 g.i.a./ha), clomazone (480 g.i.a./ha), metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha), methyl bromide (250 kg./ha) and an absolute control. The experimental design was unconditional at random with eleven treatments and three repetitions by treatments with four beds of 35m x 0.8m by repetition. The results showed that the best treatments were: metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + clomazone (480 g.i.a./ha), with a 13.3% less of weeds control than the methyl bromide (250 kg/ha) and the treatment with metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) with a 19.2% less of weeds control than the methyl bromide (250 Kg/ha). The 5,9% of difference among them is by the clomazone's action (480 g.i.a./ha). The treatment with methyl bromide (250 Kg./ha) was the highest in output, 2286 total boxes by hectare, followed by the treatments with metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + sulfentrazone (100 g.i.a./ha) with 1906 and metam sodium (148 g.i.a./ha) + clomazone (480 g.i.a./ha) that produced 1912.33 boxes of melon by hectare. (Author)

  6. Activated carbons from end-products of tree nut and tree fruit production as sorbents for removing methyl bromide in ventilation effluent following postharvest chamber fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wiley A; Bellamy, David E; Walse, Spencer S

    2015-04-01

    End-products of tree nuts and tree fruits grown in California, USA were evaluated for the ability to remove methyl bromide (MB) from ventilation effluent following postharvest chamber fumigation. Activated carbon sorbents from walnut and almond shells as well as peach and prune pits were prepared using different methods of pyrolysis, activation, and quenching. Each source and preparation was evaluated for yield from starting material (%, m/m) and performance on tests where MB-containing airstreams were directed through a columnar bed of the activated carbon in an experimental apparatus, termed a parallel adsorbent column tester, which was constructed as a scaled-down model of a chamber ventilation system. We report the number of doses needed to first observe the breakthrough of MB downstream of the bed and the capacity of the activated carbon for MB (%, m/m) based on a fractional percentage of MB mass sorbed at breakthrough relative to mass of the bed prior to testing. Results were based on a novel application of solid-phase microextraction with time-weighted averaging sampling of MB concentration in airstreams, which was quantitative across the range of fumigation-relevant conditions and statistically unaffected by relative humidity. Activated carbons from prune pits, prepared either by steam activation or carbon dioxide activation coupled to water quenching, received the greatest number of doses prior to breakthrough and had the highest capacity, approximately 12-14%, outperforming a commercially marketed activated carbon derived from coconut shells. Experimental evidence is presented that links discrepancy in performance to the relative potential for activated carbons to preferentially sorb water vapor relative to MB. PMID:25758836

  7. Conversion of Alcohols to Bromides by Trimethylsilane and lithium Bromide in Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Feng; Zhang Xiao-xia; Zhang Qing; Wang Ji-yu; Chen Dai-mo

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides is one of the most frequently used functional group transformation reactions. Phosphorus tribromide is one of the most popular classical reagents.Triphenylphosphine has been used in combination with bromine,carbon tetrabromide,N-halo imides and other bromide compounds as a mild reagents for the preparation of alkyl bromides.More reacently, halotrimethylsilanes were found to be useful for halogenation of alcohols. George A.Olah successfully converted alcohols to bromides with chlorotrimethylsilane/lithium bromide in acetonitrile. But in our research, we found that we got no bromides but methylation products when we planed to convered our substances to bromides according to Gerge's method. We did some experiments, and we found that when the substituent group in the 2-N was donor group,we got the methylation products,but when it was acceptor group,the bromide could be got.(Scheme 1).Then we did some experiments with several other solvents, we found excitedly that when the solvent was acetone ,the bromides could be got even the substituent group was donor.(Scheme 2).When we changed the substances to normal alcohols ,such as ethyl alcohol,benzyl alcohol,isopropyl alcohol and 3,4-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol,we also got the bromides.In conclusion, we found a simple method to convert alcohols to bromides with trimethylsilane/li thium bromide in acetone,which was better than Geroge's method.

  8. Comparison of efficacy of atropine versus atropine with pralidoxime in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Raja

    2013-12-01

    Results: Total hospital stay was not significantly different between the treatment groups (95% CI of difference: -4.227, 0.784. Length of stay was also not significantly different between patients who received atropine plus PAM within 6 hours of consumption of poison and those who received 6 hours later (95% CI of difference: -4.154, 0.954; p value: 0.2. Conclusion: Our data supports the use of only atropine over atropine plus PAM in patients with OP poisoning on account of no significant difference /reduction of hospital/ICU stay and mortality in the latter group. However, a study with a larger sample needs to be conducted, to be able to draw a definitive conclusion. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 810-813

  9. Methyl Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane, CH3I) was reported as a potential alternative to the stratospheric ozone-depleting fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr) in the mid-1990s (Sims et al., 1995; Ohr et al., 1996). It has since received significant research attention to determine its environmental fate and tran...

  10. Efeito da solarização e do brometo de metila sobre a comunidade de fungos do solo Effect of soil solarization and methyl bromide on the soil fungi community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Story Venâncio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A microbiota do solo é de grande importância no desenvolvimento de culturas. Os métodos de controle, químico (brometo de metila e físico (solarização, alteram essa microbiota. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar o comportamento da comunidade de fungos em solo solarizado e fumigado (brometo de metila. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos (solarização, brometo de metila e testemunha e sete repetições. A comunidade de fungos do solo foi avaliada de forma quantitativa e qualitativa, em três momentos (antes, durante e após a solarização com amostras coletadas de três profundidades (0-5; 10-15 e 20-25 cm. Durante a solarização ocorreu uma redução na comunidade de fungos do solo, em termos quantitativos, em todas as camadas amostradas. No entanto, essa diminuição foi mais significativa na camada superficial (0-5cm. Em termos qualitativos, a solarização reduziu também o número de diferentes espécies de fungos do solo, mas na camada de 20-25 cm, essa diminuição foi a zero aos 56 dias de avaliação. A recolonização da microbiota do solo, em termos quantitativos, foi maior no tratamento com brometo de metila do que nos demais. Entretanto, esse aumento não foi o mesmo em termos qualitativos. Nos tratamentos solarizado e testemunha, o aumento na comunidade de fungos do solo foi acompanhado pela diversificação de espécies fúngicas.Soil microbial community is of great importance for the crop development. However, the methods of control, chemical (methyl bromide and physical (soil solarization, change such community. The present work aimed to study the behaviour of the community of fungi in solarized and fumigated (methyl bromide soils. The experimental design was randomized in complete blocks, with 3 treatments (soil solarization, methyl bromide, and control and 7 replications. The soil fungi community was evaluated in both, a quantitative and qualitative way during 3 periods (before

  11. Investigation of photo-dissociation mechanism of methyl bromide with ultra short laser pulses%超短脉冲激光对溴甲烷的光解机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾; 马建国

    2012-01-01

    Experimental investigation was carried out on the photo-ionization and photo-dissociation channels of methyl bromide by using resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer arid mass-selected excitation spectra. Then the mass signals were assigned to H+ , CHLm+ (m=0~3), iBr+ (i= 79, 81) and CHm'Br+0n=2; t=79, 81). Two resonant features of CH3+ were also determined. Finally, in the ultraviolet range of 279-287 nm, the dissociation channels of methyl bromide molecule, mainly showing as those of parent molecule, were given and analyzed%文章通过共振增强多光子电离飞行时间质谱和质量选择光电离激发谱,对溴甲烷分子的光电离和光解离通道进行了研究,并对部分碎片离子H+、CHm+(m=0~3)、(')Br+ (i=79,81)和CHm(2)Br+(m=2;i=79,81)的分质量激发谱进行了归属和标识;对CH3+的共振峰进行了确认;最后分析并给出了在279~287 nm紫外光波段内,溴甲烷分子以母体分子的解离通道为主的解离通道.

  12. Radiolytic reduction reaction of colloidal silver bromide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction reaction of colloidal silver bromide (AgBr3)2- in nitrous oxide gas saturated solution of some alcohols: methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol by γ-irradiation was studied spectrophotometrically in order to elucidate the mechanism of the formation of colloidal silver bromide (AgBr3)3- at ambient temperature. The amount of colloidal silver bromide formed increases in the order: i-PrOH, EtOH, MeOH. In t-BuOH, colloidal silver bromide did not form. The relative reactivities of alcohols for colloidal silver bromide was also studied kinetically. (author)

  13. Retarding Progression of Myopia with Seasonal Modification of Topical Atropine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul CS Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate whether seasonal modification in the concentration of atropine drops is effective in retarding the progression of myopia. Methods: Two hundred and forty eyes of 120 healthy preschool- and school-age children in Chiayi region, Taiwan were recruited. The treatment group consisted of 126 eyes of 63 children who received atropine eye drops daily for one year and the control group included 114 eyes of 57 children who received nothing. The concentration of atropine eye drops was modified by seasonal variation as follows: 0.1% for summer, 0.25% for spring and fall, and 0.5% for winter. Refractive error, visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP, and axial length were evaluated before and after intervention. Results: Mean age was 9.1±2.8 years in the atropine group versus 9.3±2.8 years in controls (P=0.88. Mean spherical equivalent, refractive error and astigmatism were -1.90±1.66 diopters (D and -0.50±0.59 D in the atropine group; corresponding values in the control group were -2.09±1.67 D (P=0.97 and -0.55±0.60 D (P=0.85, respectively. After one year, mean progression of myopia was 0.28±0.75 D in the atropine group vs 1.23±0.44 D in controls (P<0.001. Myopic progression was significantly correlated with an increase in axial length in both atropine (r=0.297, P=0.001 and control (r=0.348, P<0.001 groups. No correlation was observed between myopic progression and IOP in either study group. Conclusion: Modifying the concentration of atropine drops based on seasonal variation, seems to be effective and tolerable for retarding myopic progression in preschool- to school-age children.

  14. Secondary structural changes in guanidinium hydrochloride denatured mammalian serum albumins and protective effect of small amounts of cationic gemini surfactant pentanediyl-α,ω-bis(cetyldimethylammonium bromide) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin: A spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Nuzhat; Khan, Javed Masood; Ishtikhar, Mohd; Qadeer, Atiyatul; Khan, Rehan Ajmal; Gul, Mudasir; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-02-01

    In the present study the cationic gemini surfactant assisted refolding of guanidinium hydrochloride (GdCl) denatured mammalian serum albumins viz. sheep serum albumin (SSA), rat serum albumin (RSA) and porcine serum albumin (PSA) using a combination of cationic gemini surfactants, pentanediyl-α,ω-bis(cetyldimethylammonium bromide) (C16H33(CH3)2N(+)-(CH2)5-N(+)(CH3)2C16H33)⋅2Br(-) designated as G5 and methyl-β-cyclodextrin in the artificial chaperone assisted two step method, is attempted. The studies were carried out in an aqueous medium (pH 7.4) using dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence spectroscopy. A perusal of DLS data indicates that against the native hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of 4.3nm in SSA, 3.9nm in PSA and 3.5nm in RSA, the Rh of the said proteins, when refolding is attempted by simple dilution, increases to 21.7nm, 36.6nm and 37.2nm, respectively. Hydrodynamic radii very near to the native protein, i.e., 4.0nm, 4.1nm and 4.4nm for RSA, PSA and SSA respectively, is obtained on the sequential addition of G5 and methyl-β-cyclodextrin to the denatured protein. Circular dichroism studies corroborate with the DLS data. The results obtained from the multi-technique approach are ascribed to the presence of two charged head-groups and two hydrocarbon tails in the gemini surfactants resulting in a very strong electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Based on the present study it is suggested that the gemini surfactants may be utilized in the protein refolding studies and thus may address one of the most pressing demand of biotechnology industry for the development of efficient and inexpensive folding aides. PMID:25463190

  15. Data for methyl bromide decon testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spreadsheets containing data for recovery of spores from different materials. Data on the fumigation parameters are also included. This dataset is associated with...

  16. 77 FR 35295 - Methyl Bromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    .... Background In the Federal Register of April 6, 2012 (77 FR 20752) (FRL-9345- 1), EPA issued a proposed rule... be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to..., including a fermentation chamber. Therefore, given the complexity of the ruminant digestive system, there...

  17. Synthesis and Application of N-Methyl-N-Ethy-N,N-Bis (2-Stearoyloxy) Ethyl Bromide%N-甲基-N-乙基-N,N-二(2-硬脂酰氧)乙基溴化铵的合成及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小桥; 倪邦庆; 范明明

    2012-01-01

    The N-methyl-N-ethy-N,N-bis(2-stearoyloxy)ethyl bromide was successfully synthesized by a novel route, which could be described as quaternization first, and then sterification. The effects of material molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time on the intermediate product N-methyl-N-ethyl-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromide were examined. The final product N-methyl-N-ethy-N,N-bis(2-stearoyloxy)ethyl bromide was successfully synthesized with high yield (The active substance content of product was more than 98%) by reacting with stearyl chloride. The structure of the quaternary products was characterized using IR, MS and l H NMR. The study on softening showed that the performance of prepared esterqueats is better than that of the D1821 former is as better as the latter.%采用先季铵化再酯化的合成路线,合成了酯基季铵盐N-甲基-N-乙基-N,N-二(2-硬脂酰氧)乙基溴化铵.考察了物料摩尔比、反应温度和反应时间对中间体N-甲基-N-乙基-N,N-二羟乙基溴化铵的影响,所得中间体与硬脂酰氯酯化得到酯基季铵盐产品,产物活性物质含量质量分数达98%以上,采用IR、MS和1H-NMR对合成酯基季铵盐进行了结构表征.对合成的酯基季铵盐的柔软性能进行研究,结果表明与双十八烷基二甲基氯化铵( D1821)相近.

  18. 甲基溴在我国农业生产中的作用及应用承诺策略研究%Function of Methyl Bromide in China’s Agricultural Production and Strategy Study on International Commitment of Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫琰; 薛宇亮; 王秀东

    2014-01-01

    甲基溴是重要的土壤熏蒸剂,在我国农业生产中发挥着重要作用,但甲基溴对大气臭氧层有破坏作用,我国对甲基溴的使用有国际承诺。本文在分析了甲基溴的作用﹑国内外应用控制和研发新的替代产品的基础上,提出了我国在执行议定书过程中可借鉴的国外经验及应采取的策略。%Methyl bromide as an important soil fumigant plays an essential role in agricultural production in China.But it has damage to ozonosphere , so China made the international commitment to use it restrained-ly .Through the analysis on function of methyl bromide , application control at home and abroad and developing new substitute product , the overseas referential experiences during executing Copenhagen protocol , and the countermeasures we should take .

  19. Central anticholinergic syndrome vs. idiosyncratic reaction triggered by a small IV dose of atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X; Cui, Y; White, P F; Tang, J; Ma, H

    2016-02-01

    A 58-year-old male was scheduled to undergo radical gastrectomy for cancer under general anesthesia. The patient developed agitation and irregular breathing after receiving a single dose of atropine (0.5 mg) to treat bradycardia immediately prior to induction of anesthesia. Within 5 min after the atropine injection, the patient became unresponsive with facial flushing and diaphoresis. When a drop in oxygen saturation was observed, a laryngeal mask airway was inserted after administering a small bolus dose of propofol (80 mg) and the patient was ventilated with 100% oxygen. Physostigmine was not administered because of the relatively low dose of atropine and the fact that his symptoms were not totally consistent with central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS). The differential diagnosis at the time also included an acute cardiovascular event and an idiosyncratic reaction to atropine. The patient fully recovered within 80 min from this highly unusual reaction to a single 0.5 mg IV dose of atropine. PMID:26471203

  20. (3R,4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-Cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-dihydroxy-3-methyl-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfeng Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H26NO4+·Br−, also known as R-methylnaltrexone (MNTX bromide, is a selective peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist with a oroxymorphone skeleton, synthesized by hydroxyl protection, N-methylation, deprotection and anion exchange of naltrexone. It comprises a five-ring system A/B/C/D/E. Rings C and E adopt distorted chair conformations, whereas ring D is in half-chair conformation. The C/E ring junctions are trans fused. The dihedral angle between rings D and E is 82.3 (1°, while the dihedral angles between the planes of rings C and A, and rings D and E are respectively 81.7 (1, 75.9 (1 and 12.2 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

  1. Acute atropine intoxication with psychiatric symptoms by herbal infusion of Pulmonaria officinalis (Lungwort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Baca-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications after drinking an infusion prepared with Pulmonaria officinalis. Conclusions: Despite the lack of scientific evidence for its clinical use, medicinal plants continue being widely used. In spite of severe adverse effects reported, the general thought is that herbal remedies are harmless. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. We suspect that the lungwort infusion may have been contaminated with some other substance with atropinic properties.

  2. Abnormal gait sequence in locomotion after atropine treatment of catecholamine-deficient akinetic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Pellis, S M; Pellis, V C; Chesire, R M; Rowland, N; Teitelbaum, P

    1987-01-01

    Excessive, abnormal locomotion occurs after a high dose (25-50 mg/kg) of atropine sulfate to rats already akinetic due to catecholamine deficiency from intraventricular administration of 6-hydroxydopamine. This abnormal locomotion involves an abnormal gait sequence [right (R) hindleg (H), left (L) foreleg (F), LH, RF] instead of the normal gait sequence (RH, RF, LH, LF). In such animals atropine progressively (i) decreases hindleg step size, (ii) decreases arching of the trunk, and (iii) incr...

  3. Determination of atropine using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as novel luminescent sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that ZnS quantum dots acted as enhancers of the weak CL emission produced upon oxidation of sulfite by Ce(IV) in acidic medium. Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots yielding a significant chemiluminescence enhancement of the Ce(IV)–SO32−–ZnS QD system. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of atropine. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of atropine in the range of 1×10−9–1×10−6 M of atropine with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9992. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 2.54×10−10 M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. -- Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite system. • ZnS quantum dots were used as the nanocatalyst. • Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots. • This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of atropine commercial drugs. • Detection limit of atropine was obtained 2.54×10−10 mol L−1

  4. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  5. The Effect of Atropine on Post-ECT Bradycardia in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Farashbandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is utilized for treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD. One of the major complications in using ECT is cardiovascular problems i.e., bradycardia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of atropine on the pulse rate (PR of the patients under treatment with ECT. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with diagnosis of MDD who received atropine before ECT treatment (control group were compared with 30 patients with the same diagnosis without receiving atropine (experimental group under ECT treatment. Both groups received ECT under the same term and condition. The PR of the patients were recorded 7 times (twice before anesthesia and ECT and 5 fixed one min intervals immediately after receiving ECT; for 10 sessions of treatment with ECT (3 times a week. The results were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. The PR under 50 was the cut off point for differentiating the patients suffering from bradycardia and those without it. Results: Slight increment in PRs for experimental group (patient who did not receive atropine in contrast to control group were observed, but it did not reach a statistically significant level. The gender (male/female did not have different PR. The age of the patients and initial PR (regarded as co-variances did not show significant effect on PR for total sample. Conclusion: There seems to be not necessary to use atropine treatment for depressed patients receiving ECT.

  6. Split-dose atropine versus glycopyrrolate with neostigmine for reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, J; Jarnvig, I; Jørgensen, L N;

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a split-dose of atropine sulphate versus a single dose of glycopyrrolate given with neostigmine for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade were studied in 55 patients undergoing gynaecological surgery. The patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of......, whereas none occurred in the glycopyrrolate group (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that a split-dose of atropine has similar chronotropic effects to a single dose of glycopyrrolate for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade. However, the finding of a higher incidence of cardiac...... arrhythmias in the atropine group suggests that this reversal regime should be reserved for patients without cardiac disease....

  7. The molal volumes of atropine and hyoscine in relation to their respective potencies.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S.; Haberman, F.

    1984-01-01

    The partial molal volumes, V2, at infinite dilution of atropine and hyoscine were determined in each of eight different solvents having cohesive energy densities in the range 64 to 144 cal cm-3. V2 for hyoscine in a given solvent was invariably and significantly smaller than that of atropine in the same solvent. The difference being 1.58 cm3 mol-1 in the least polar solvent (n-propylbenzene) and 4.29 cm3 mol-1 in the most polar one (acetonitrile) in the series studied. It is proposed that the...

  8. Comparative study of oral and intramuscular atropine sulphate as a premedicant in paediatric age group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari L

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of atropine sulphate in the paediatric age group as a premedicant orally in a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg body weight 70 minutes prior to surgery was found to be as effective as atropine sulphate given intramuscularly 35 minutes prior to surgery in a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. This avoids the unpleasant memory of needle prick; The duration of effect as studied in the normal healthy children not subjected to surgery was found to be 2 1/2-3 hours.

  9. Determination of atropine using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as novel luminescent sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, Seyed Naser [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chaichi, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: jchaichi@yahoo.com [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakeri, Parmis [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that ZnS quantum dots acted as enhancers of the weak CL emission produced upon oxidation of sulfite by Ce(IV) in acidic medium. Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots yielding a significant chemiluminescence enhancement of the Ce(IV)–SO{sub 3}{sup 2−}–ZnS QD system. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of atropine. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of atropine in the range of 1×10{sup −9}–1×10{sup −6} M of atropine with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of 0.9992. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 2.54×10{sup −10} M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. -- Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite system. • ZnS quantum dots were used as the nanocatalyst. • Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots. • This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of atropine commercial drugs. • Detection limit of atropine was obtained 2.54×10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1}.

  10. Efficacy of atropine combined with paroxetine in vagus nerve excitatory panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Du, Xue-Li Sun Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Panic disorder is often associated with the autonomic nervous system pattern – sympathetic activation and parasympathetic (vagal withdrawal. However, we present one special case here to show a totally reversed pathogenesis – vagal activation occupying the leading role, which requires atropine to cure the patient’s symptoms. Through this report, it is reasonably proven that panic disorder may be a heterogeneous condition, whose mechanism might be the imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. Keywords: panic disorder, vagal activation, bradycardia, atropine

  11. A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…

  12. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using 3H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine

  13. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time. PMID:23141569

  14. Utility of atropine in patients under beta-blocker effect during exercise stress echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to assess the usefulness of adding atropine 0.5 to 1.0 mg by intravenous injection during peak exercise in patients under beta-blocker effect that are subjected to exercise stress echocardiography. Population: exercise stress echocardiography was performed in 73 patients receiving beta-blocking agents with basal heart rate below 60 beats per minute (BPM). Two groups were established at random: group I (18 patients that did not receive atropine during maximal exercise) and group II (50 patients from whom 28 received 0.5 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before concluding the exercise and 22 patients who received 1.0 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before its conclusion). From a demographic point of view, there were no differences between the two groups. Mean age was 59 ± 10.8 years (57% male). Most of the patients received metoprolol (87%) and no significant statistical differences in relation with the doses were found in these two groups. At the end of the exercise, the patients had a mean heart rate of 84% from their maximal heart rate (MHR). The values post-exercise were 76% at 30 seconds, 68% at 60 sec., 62% at 90 sec., and 59% of the maximal heart rate at 120 sec. When comparing the percentage of the maximal heart rate achieved in maximal exercise and the one observed during the first 120 sec. after exercise, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: during the performance of stress exercise echocardiography, the administration of intravenous atropine was of no use for incrementing the peak heart rate post-exercise in patients with significant beta-blocker effect (basal heart rate < 60 BPM)

  15. EFFECTS OF ATROPINE ON ANTIGEN-INDUCED BRONCHOSPASM IN THE HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Mirbahar, R.B. Mirbahar, Nasreen Akhter, W.N. McDonell1 and P. Eyre2,

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of atropine to attenuate Ascaris suum induced bronchospasm was studied in 6 conscious standing horses. Animals were challenged with saline and a 10-2 dilution of A. suum aerosolized for 3 minutes. Pulmonary function tests (PFT were performed at 15, 30 and 60 minutes after antigen challenge. Pulmonary mechanics and ventilation values were measured using a differential pressure transducer and a Fleisch Pnemotachograph. One week later, animals were treated with atropine sulfate (6.0 mg administered IM and rechallenged with saline followed by same dose of A. suum. Clinical signs noted after the inhalation of A. suum alone included hyperpnea, dyspnea, sweating and salivation. The effect of antigen was rapid in onset starting during the inhalation and lasting for over 60 minutes. The PFT revealed significant (P<0.05 increases in Wb, max.  Ppl RL, V1, f, and VT whereas the Cdyn decreased (P<0.05. The changes were more severe in lower airways. Atropine abolished the clinical signs. Comparison of post atropine saline and A. suum challenge values revealed significant increase in Wb, max.  Ppl at 15 minutes post antigen challenge. Changes in RL, f and Cdyn were abolished. Comparison of responses to A. suum in the presence and absence of atropine revealed a significant (P<0.05 inhibition of changes in max. Ppl, Wb, inspiratory and expiratory RL, VI, f and flow. The study suggested that the A. suum induced bronchospasm in the horses is mediated, at least in part by vagal reflexes.

  16. Bilateral vagotomy or atropine pre-treatment reduces experimental diesel-soot induced lung inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the role of the vagus nerve in acute inflammatory and cardiorespiratory responses to diesel particulate (DP) in the rat airway, we measured changes in respiration, blood pressure and neutrophils in lungs of urethane anesthetized Wistar rats 6-h post-instillation of DP (500 μg) and studied the effect of mid-cervical vagotomy or atropine (1 mg kg-1) pre-treatment. In conscious rats, we investigated DP, with and without atropine pre-treatment. DP increased neutrophil level in BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) fluid from intact anesthetized rats to 2.5 ± 0.7 x 106 cells (n = 8), compared with saline instillation (0.3 ± 0.1 x 106, n = 7; P 6 cells (n = 8; P 6 (n = 4; P 6, n = 4, was reduced by pre-treatment with atropine to 2.2 ± 1.2 x 106 cells, n = 3. Hyperventilation occurred 6 h after DP in anesthetized rats with intact vagi, but not in bilaterally vagotomized or atropine pre-treated animals and was abolished by vagotomy (P < 0.05, paired test). There were no significant differences in the other variables (mean blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability) measured before and 360 min after DP. In conclusion, DP activates a pro-inflammatory vago-vagal reflex which is reduced by atropine. Muscarinic ACh receptors in the rat lung are involved in DP-induced neutrophilia, and hence muscarinic antagonists may reduce airway and/or cardiovascular inflammation evoked by inhaled atmospheric DP in susceptible individuals

  17. Opposing effects of atropine and timolol on the color and luminance emmetropization mechanisms in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Laura A; Rucker, Frances J

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the luminance and color emmetropization response in chicks treated with the nonselective parasympathetic antagonist atropine and the sympathetic β-receptor blocker timolol. Chicks were binocularly exposed (8h/day) for 4days to one of three illumination conditions: 2Hz sinusoidal luminance flicker, 2Hz sinusoidal blue/yellow color flicker, or steady light (mean 680lux). Atropine experiments involved monocular daily injections of either 20μl of atropine (18nmol) or 20μl of phosphate-buffered saline. Timolol experiments involved monocular daily applications of 2 drops of 0.5% timolol or 2 drops of distilled H2O. Changes in the experimental eye were compared with those in the fellow eye after correction for the effects of saline/water treatments. Atropine caused a reduction in axial length with both luminance flicker (-0.078±0.021mm) and color flicker (-0.054±0.017mm), and a reduction in vitreous chamber depth with luminance flicker (-0.095±0.023mm), evoking a hyperopic shift in refraction (3.40±1.77D). Timolol produced an increase in axial length with luminance flicker (0.045±0.030mm) and a myopic shift in refraction (-4.07±0.92D), while color flicker caused a significant decrease in axial length (-0.046±0.017mm) that was associated with choroidal thinning (-0.046±0.015mm). The opposing effects on growth and refraction seen with atropine and timolol suggest a balancing mechanism between the parasympathetic and β-receptor mediated sympathetic system through stimulation of the retina with luminance and color contrast. PMID:26971621

  18. Molecular mechanisms of muscarinic receptors in mouse scleral fibroblasts: Prior to and after induction of experimental myopia with atropine treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Barathi, V. A.; Roger W. Beuerman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of atropine on the development of spectacle lens induced myopia in the mouse and to determine if the level of mRNAs for the muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1 - M5 ) is affected by atropine treatment. Methods Experimental myopia was developed in Balb/CJ (BJ) mice by placing −10 diopter spectacle lens on post-natal day 10 over the right eyes of 150 mice (n=10 in each group, 5 repetitions) for six weeks. After 2 weeks of lens wearing, the atropine group received ...

  19. Intramuscular atropine in elderly people: Pharmacokinetic studies using the radioreceptor assay and some pharmacodynamic responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmacokinetics (radioreceptor assay, RRA) and som clinical effects of atropine were studied in 7 elderly gynaecological surgery patients. The RRA measures only the pharmacologically active isomer of atropine, 1-hyoscyamine. Following a single 0.01 mg/kg intramuscular (M. deltoideus) injection, a very fast rate of absorption was found with mean peak serum concentration occurring after only 13 min. The reason for this could be either a preferential tissue uptake of the 1-form or the injection site or both. The elimination half-life was 2.27 hr. Only 23.1% of the given drug was excreted in urine in 24 hr as a pharmacologically active form. The clinical effects (heart rate rise, subjective sedation and antisialogogue effect) were seen after only 30 min. This somewhat faster appearance of clinical effects than in previous studies can be due to the injection site. The sedative effect of the drug is clear and long lasting in elderly people. (author)

  20. Zinc Mediated Tandem Fragmentation-Allylation of Methyl 5-Iodopentofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols.......In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols....

  1. Interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on the binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on binding constant, binding sites, and conformation were studied in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 7.40) by ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study results show that aconitine quenched the endogenous fluorescence of BSA via a dynamic quenching procedure. Predominant intermolecular forces between aconitine and BSA were hydrophobic interactions, which stabilized the complex of aconitine–BSA. The distance between the donor and acceptor was 2.62 nm. The conformation of BSA was investigated by synchronous fluorescence techniques, indicating that the microenvironment around tryptophan (Trp) residues was changed. Furthermore, with the addition of atropine sulphate or glycyrrhizic acid, binding constant and the number of binding sites of aconitine to BSA were decreased, and the conformation had no change, which provide an important theoretical support for aconitine detoxification by atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid. - Highlights: ► Effect of atropine or glycyrrhizic acid on aconitine–BSA binding. ► UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques used. ► Aconitine quenched BSA fluorescence via dynamic quenching with r=2.62 nm. ► Atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid decreased KA and n of aconitine–BSA. ► Support for aconitine detoxification by atropine and glycyrrhizic acid.

  2. A comparative study of clonidine versus a combination of diazepam and atropine for premedication in orthopaedic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia S

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty patients in the age group of 18-60 years of A.S.A. Grade I/II risk, scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied for pre-medication with either oral clonidine or with combination of effects of diazepam & atropine. Patients in Group A (clonidine group received tablet clonidine 100 mcg (1 tablet if less than 50 kg in weight and 200 mcg if weighing more than 50 kg two hours before surgery. Patients in Group B (Diazepam-atropine group received one tablet of Diazepam (10 mg orally two hours before surgery and injection atropine-sulphate 0.01 mg/kg half an hour preoperatively by intramuscular route. In our study, the sedative and anti-sialogogue effects of clonidine were comparable to those of diazepam-atropine combination, which are commonly used premedicants. The anti-anxiety effect of clonidine was found to be better than that of diazepam-atropine combination. Clonidine also proved to be a better agent for the attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Thus, oral clonidine is a better premedicant compared to atropine-diazepam combination. Also, it is a more acceptable agent because of its oral route of administration.

  3. 77 FR 20752 - Methyl Bromide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0123. B. International Residue Limits In making its tolerance decisions, EPA seeks to... of the dairy cattle diet and the 2011 U.S. cotton crop was significantly below average due to severe... dairy cattle in the United States. Cottonseed is a critical part of the dairy cattle diet because it...

  4. 1-Methyl-3-n-tetradecylimidazolium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title ionic liquid salt hydrate, C18H35N2+·Br−·H2O, the side chain in the cation has an extended conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized primarily by O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. C—H...O and C—H...Br interactions are also present.

  5. New methods alternative to methyl bromide in stored product protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several tools are available for managing insect pests associated with stored products and processed foods. A effective use of pesticides and alternatives requires a thorough understanding of pest ecology, the application of pesticides only when pest populations exceed acceptable levels and an evaluation of risks, costs and benefits. At this regard, the Integrated Pest Management concept emphasizes the integration of disciplines and control measures including biological enemies, cultural management, sanitation, modified atmospheres, heat and cold, irradiation and pesticides into a total management system

  6. Bromine and bromide content in soils: Analytical approach from total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Helena; Queralt, Ignasi; Tapias, Josefina; Candela, Lucila; Margui, Eva

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring total bromine and bromide concentrations in soils is significant in many environmental studies. Thus fast analytical methodologies that entail simple sample preparation and low-cost analyses are desired. In the present work, the possibilities and drawbacks of low-power total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) for the determination of total bromine and bromide contents in soils were evaluated. The direct analysis of a solid suspension using 20 mg of fine ground soil (water soil extracts. In this case, the TXRF analysis can be directly performed by depositing 10 μL of the internal standardized soil extract sample on a quartz glass reflector in a measuring time of 1500 s. The bromide limit of detection by this approach was 10 μg L(-1). Good agreement was obtained between the TXRF results for the total bromine and bromide determinations in soils and those obtained by other popular analytical techniques, e.g. energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (total bromine) and ionic chromatography (bromide). As a study case, the TXRF method was applied to study bromine accumulation in two agricultural soils fumigated with a methyl bromide pesticide and irrigated with regenerated waste water. PMID:27179429

  7. Atropine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: fever irritability fast pulse irregular heartbeat mental confusion difficulty urinating If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  8. Cesium Enhances Long-Term Stability of Lead Bromide Perovskite-Based Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kulbak, Michael; Gupta, Satyajit; Kedem, Nir; Levine, Igal; Bendikov, Tatyana; Hodes, Gary; Cahen, David

    2015-01-01

    Direct comparison between perovskite-structured hybrid organic-inorganic - methyl ammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) and all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3), allows identifying possible fundamental differences in their structural, thermal and electronic characteristics. Both materials possess a similar direct optical band-gap, but CsPbBr3 demonstrates a higher thermal stability than MAPbBr3. In order to compare device properties we fabricated solar cells, with similarly synthesized MAPbB...

  9. [Comparative effects of terbutaline sulphate and ipratropium bromide on the respiratory system (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villate Navarro, J I; Sobradillo Peña, V; Atxotequi Iaraoligoitia, V; Salaverri Nalda, A; Orive Martínez, C

    1980-04-10

    Bronchodilator action of two pharmacologically different drugs have been compared. Ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) is a synthetic atropine derivative and terbutaline sulphate is a beta-stimulating agent. Twelve asthmatic patients and eight patients with chronic bronquitis received terbutaline 0.50 mg. and ipratropium 0.04 mg by aerosol inhalation. Both drugs were given at random on a consecutive-day schedule. All patients were clinically stable before treatment (basal FEV/VC less than 60 percent). Total lung capacity (TLC) forced expiratory volume (FEV), SRaw, and V'/V curves before and at 15, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the produce administration were registered. Presence of side-effects was also checked. An intensive bronchodilator action was observed either after inhalation of ipratropium bromide or terbutaline, but statistical studies showed no significant differences between both drugs in relation to intensity and duration of their actions. Sch 1000 caused similar bronchodilator effects in all cases; a more intense effect in patients with chronic bronchitis could not be noticed. Evaluation of V'/V curve, and especially its relation to a same pulmonary volume, pointed out that both drugs act upon small respiratory airways. Advance side-effects were not present. PMID:6446008

  10. The QT interval and cycle length: the influence of atropine, hyoscine and exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Staniforth, D H

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-seven healthy male subjects of mean age 24.3 +/- 4.0 years and mean weight 74.9 +/- 9.1 kg took part in an investigation to assess the most suitable correction for the QT interval as a function of cardiac cycle length. 547 sets of data points were generated. Atropine 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mg, and hyoscine 0.4 and 0.8 mg, and exercise on a bicycle ergometer at power levels of 50-250 watts together with post-exercise values were employed to obtain a range of heart rates. Simultaneous measurem...

  11. Degradation of Methyl Iodide in Soil: Effects of Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is a promising alternative to the phased-out fumigant methyl bromide, and its environmental fate following soil fumigation is of great concern. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various environmental factors on the degradation rate of MeI in soil. The chem...

  12. Strawberry growers wavered over methyl iodide, feared public backlash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Guthman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Methyl iodide, once promoted as a suitable alternative to methyl bromide for soil fumigation in strawberry systems, was withdrawn from the market in 2012 after a contentious regulatory battle that revolved around its high toxicity. At the time of its withdrawal, Arysta LifeScience, the maker of the chemical, claimed that it was no longer economically viable. In this study, I investigated what made the chemical nonviable, with a specific focus on growers' nonadoption of it. Interviews with strawberry growers in the four top California strawberry-growing counties revealed that growers' decisions not to use it were primarily related to public disapproval, although the continued availability of methyl bromide and other fumigants played a contributing role by making adoption less urgent. The study results suggest that policies in place during the methyl bromide phaseout did not strongly encourage the development and extension of less toxic alternatives, which undermined the strawberry industry's position.

  13. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures. PMID:26453200

  14. The metabolism of valethamate bromide, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valethamate bromide is widely used as a potent antispasmodic and antiulcerative agent. Studies were carried out to investigate the absorption, excretion and distribution of valethamate bromide in rats and men. When rats were given valethamate bromide-14C by subcutaneous injection, maximum blood concentration was reached at 1 to 2 hr after injection. The radioactivity was relatively highly distributed in kidney, liver, intestine and stomach. After subcutaneous injection, 57% of the administered dose was excreted in urine and 30% in feces within 48 hr. In the peroral administration, the transition of blood concentration levels did not present its peak clearly. Relatively high levels of radioactivity were present in stomach, intestine, kidney and liver. In the studies of biliary excretion used with unlabeled valethamate bromide, only when rats were administered by subcutaneous injection, 0.1 to 0.4% of the injected dose was recovered from the basic fraction of bile in 6 hr after injection. Our study revealed that there was difference between the urinary excretion rate of labeled and unlabeled valethamate bromide. And it was found that the transition of distributed amount into the tissues, which were abundant with lipid (as brain, fat and genitalia) and had the inclination to be distributed much in the second stage than in the first stage after administration, was not in proportion as blood concentrations. Consequently, it seems that valethamate bromide is partly metabolized to lipid-soluble compounds in body. When volunteers were administered Resitan by mouth, 2.7 to 5.5% of the dose was excreted in urine within 48 hrs. However, 42.5 to 47.5% of the administered dose was excreted in urine within 24 hr after intramuscular administration. Valethamate bromide was rapidly and virtually completely absorbed in both rats (s.c.) and men (i.m.), whereas 4 to 5% and 2.7 to 5.5% of the administered dose was excreted in rats and men after peroral administration. (author)

  15. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR (≥85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  16. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Heart Surgery, Avellino (Italy); Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Avellino (Italy); Daniele, Stefania [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, Alberto [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR ({>=}85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  17. DNA Methylation

    OpenAIRE

    İzmirli, Müzeyyen; Tufan, Turan; Alptekin, Davut

    2012-01-01

    Methylation is a chemical reaction in biological systems for normal genome regulation and development. It is a well known type of epigenetic mechanism. Methylation which regulates gene expression via epigenetic events like gene activation, repression, and chromatin remodelling, consists of two methylation systems. One of these systems is DNA methylation whereas the other is protein (histone) methylation. These systems are associated with some fundamental abnormalities and diseases. This revi...

  18. DNA Methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Muzeyyen Izmirli; Turan Tufan; Davut Alptekin

    2012-01-01

    Methylation is a chemical reaction in biological systems for normal genome regulation and development. It is a well known type of epigenetic mechanism. Methylation which regulates gene expression via epigenetic events like gene activation, repression, and chromatin remodelling, consists of two methylation systems. One of these systems is DNA methylation whereas the other is protein (histone) methylation. These systems are associated with some fundamental abnormalities and diseases. This revie...

  19. Modeling and analysis of calcium bromide hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottes, Steven A.; Lyczkowski, Robert W.; Panchal, Chandrakant B.; Doctor, Richard D. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The main focus of this paper is the modeling, simulation, and analysis of the calcium bromide hydrolysis reactor stage in the calcium-bromine thermochemical water-splitting cycle for nuclear hydrogen production. One reactor concept is to use a spray of calcium bromide into steam, in which the heat of fusion supplies the heat of reaction. Droplet models were built up in a series of steps incorporating various physical phenomena, including droplet flow, heat transfer, phase change, and reaction, separately. Given the large heat reservoir contained in a pool of molten calcium bromide that allows bubbles to rise easily, using a bubble column reactor for the hydrolysis appears to be a feasible and promising alternative to the spray reactor concept. The two limiting cases of bubble geometry, spherical and spherical-cap, are considered in the modeling. Results for both droplet and bubble modeling with COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS trademark are presented, with recommendations for the path forward. (author)

  20. Use of atropine to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cohort study included children with esotropia and hypermetropia of ≥ +2.0 diopters (D. The deviation was measured at presentation, under atropine cycloplegia and 3 months after full refractive correction. Of 44 children with a mean age of 5.2 ± 2.4 years, 25 were males. Eighteen (41% had fully refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE, 10 (23% had partial accommodative esotropia (PAE, and 5 (11% had nonaccommodative esotropia (NAE. Eleven (25% had convergence excess (CE. Under cycloplegia, all with RAE and RAE with CE had orthotropia. There was no significant change in the deviation in the patients with NAE. The deviation under cycloplegia and that with full refractive correction in PAE and PAE with CE (with +3.0 D addition were not different. The intraclass correlation coefficient for deviation under cycloplegia and after full refractive correction (+3.0 D addition for CE was 0.89. It was concluded that ocular deviation under cycloplegia can help to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia.

  1. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M

    2009-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation. PMID:18696181

  2. Development of a combined solution formulation of atropine sulfate and obidoxime chloride for autoinjector and evaluation of its stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettehadi, Hossein Ali; Ghalandari, Rouhollah; Shafaati, Alireza; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Atropine (AT) and oximes, alone or in combination, have been proven greatly valuable therapeutics in the treatment of organophosphates intoxications. An injectable mixture of AT and obidoxime (OB) was formulated for the administration by automatic self-injector. The aqueous single dose solution contained 275 mg obidoxime chloride and 2.5 mg atropine sulfate per 1 mL (220 mg and 2 mg per 0.8 effective dose, respectively). The final solution was sterilized by filtration through a 0.22 μm pore size filter. This more concentrated solution allowed to use a smaller size and lighter weight cartridge. Quality control tests, including assay of the two major compounds were performed separately, using reversed-phase HPLC methods. Besides, the stability test was carried out according to ICH guideline for the accelerated test. The obtained results showed that the proposed formulation is stable over a period of 2 years after preparation. PMID:24250669

  3. Assessment of atropine-sufentanil-atracurium anaesthesia for endotracheal intubation: an observational study in very premature infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Durrmeyer, Xavier; Dahan, Sonia; Delorme, Pierre; Blary, Sabine; Dassieu, Gilles; Caeymaex, Laurence; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premedication before neonatal intubation is heterogeneous and contentious. The combination of a short acting, rapid onset opioid with a muscle relaxant is considered suitable by many experts. The purpose of this study was to describe the tolerance and conditions of intubation following anaesthesia with atropine, sufentanil and atracurium in very premature infants. METHODS: Monocentric, prospective observational study in premature infants born before 32 weeks of gestational age, ho...

  4. Uptake of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and their translocation to shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrić, Zora; Rathor, Mohammad N; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Mayr, Leopold; Resch, Christian; Bado, Souleymane; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Plant uptake of toxins and their translocation to edible plant parts are important processes in the transfer of contaminants into the food chain. Atropine, a highly toxic muscarine receptor antagonist produced by Solanacea species, is found in all plant tissues and can enter the soil and hence be available for uptake by crops. The absorption of atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and its distribution to shoots was investigated by growing wheat in soil spiked with unlabeled or (14)C-labeled atropine. Radioactivity attributable to (14)C-atropine and its transformation products was measurable in plants sampled at 15 d after sowing (DAS) and thereafter until the end of experiment. The highest accumulation of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products by plants was detected in leaves (between 73 and 90% of the total accumulated) with lower amounts in stems, roots, and seeds (approximately 14%, 9%, and 3%, respectively). (14)C-Atropine and/or its transformation products were detected in soil leachate at 30, 60, and 90 DAS and were strongly adsorbed to soil, with 60% of the applied dose adsorbed at 30 DAS, plateauing at 70% from 60 DAS. Unlabeled atropine was detected in shoots 30 DAS at a concentration of 3.9 ± 0.1 μg kg(-1) (mean ± SD). The observed bioconcentration factor was 2.3 ± 0.04. The results suggest a potential risk of atropine toxicity to consumers. PMID:24007480

  5. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects. PMID:27108935

  6. Removal of bromide and natural organic matter by anion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Susan; Singer, Philip C

    2010-04-01

    Bromide removal by anion exchange was explored for various water qualities, process configurations, and resin characteristics. Simulated natural waters containing different amounts of natural organic matter (NOM), bicarbonate, chloride, and bromide were treated with a polyacrylate-based magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) resin on a batch basis to evaluate the effectiveness of the resin for removal of bromide. While bromide removal was achieved to some degree, alkalinity (bicarbonate), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and chloride were shown to inhibit bromide removal in waters with bromide concentrations of 100 and 300 microg/L. Water was also treated using a two-stage batch MIEX process. Two-stage treatment resulted in only a slight improvement in bromide removal compared to single-stage treatment, presumably due to competition with the high concentration of chloride which is present along with bromide in natural waters. In view of the relatively poor bromide removal results for the MIEX resin, a limited set of experiments was performed using polystyrene resins. DOC and bromide removal were compared by treating model waters with MIEX and two polystyrene resins, Ionac A-641 and Amberlite IRA910. The two polystyrene resins were seen to be more effective for bromide removal, while the MIEX resin was more effective at removing DOC. PMID:20045170

  7. Nitroethylation of vinyl triflates and bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Salinas, Rosaura; Walvoord, Ryan R; Tcyrulnikov, Sergei; Kozlowski, Marisa C

    2013-08-01

    A two-carbon homologation of vinyl triflates and bromides for the synthesis of homoallylic nitro products is described. This palladium-catalyzed double coupling of nitromethane exploits the anion stabilizing and leaving group properties of nitromethane, generating the homo allyl nitro products via a tandem cross-coupling/π-allylation sequence. The resultant process provides a mild and convenient entry to nitroethylated products, which are versatile precursors to β,γ-unsaturated carbonyls, homoallylic amines, and nitrile oxides. PMID:23885976

  8. Mitigating 1,3-dichloropropene, chloropicrin, and methyl iodide emissions from fumigated soil with reactive film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implicated as a stratospheric ozone-depleting compound, methyl bromide (MeBr) is being phased out despite being considered to be the most effective soil fumigant. Its alternatives, i.e., 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D, which includes cis- and trans- isomers), chloropicrin (CP) and methyl iodide (MeI), h...

  9. Bromate oxidized from bromide during sonolytic ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Wu, Xue-Fei; Zhou, Ji-Zhi; Huang, Xin; Ding, Guo-Ji

    2015-01-01

    Sonolytic ozonation (US/O3) is an effective way to degrade many pollutants in drinking water as the elevated mass transfer rate of ozone gas and the enhanced forming of hydroxyl radicals (OH). This work investigated the formation of bromate (BrO3(-)) from bromide (Br(-)) in sonolytic ozonation. At neutral pH, the bromate conversion rate ([BrO3(-)]/[Br(-)]0) was increased to 60% by ultrasound at continuous ozone flow (0-0.2Lmin(-1)), much higher than that without ultrasound or without bubbling. This indicates that the promoting effect of sonolysis on BrO3(-) formation is mainly due to the sonolytic decomposition of ozone and the enhancement of gas-liquid transfer. The [BrO3(-)]/[Br(-)]0 was increased with increasing pH. In addition, the reduction of HOBr/OBr(-) with ultrasound demonstrates that bromate may be inhibited as the bromide was formed with the H2O2 generation under ultrasound. This suggests the competition between bromate and bromide during the US/O3 led to the inhibition of bromate formation at high ozone flow. Therefore, our result reveals that the bromate formation under ultrasound is improved remarkably in US/O3 in quick treatment with proper ozone flow (<0.2Lmin(-1)). PMID:24931426

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium(VI) with chrome azurol S and benzyldimethyllaurylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace quantities of uranium are often determined by spectrophotometric methods based on the reaction of uranyl ions with triphenylmethane dyes, e.g. with chrome azurol S, eriochrome cyanine R, aluminone, or methyl blue. Sensitivity of the methods in which chrome azurol S was used appeared to be 3x104 l.mol-1.cm-1. We have observed that benzyldimethyllaurylammonium bromide (Sterinol ST) is a good reagent, improving the sensitivity in the U(VI) determination by means of chrome azurol S. Previously we had successfully used this reagent for the determination of trace amounts of Be, Al, In and V(IV). (orig./EF)

  11. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C M

    1991-02-01

    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium. PMID:2036612

  12. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  13. 40 CFR 180.123 - Inorganic bromide residues resulting from fumigation with methyl bromide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... residues are present in malt beverage, fermented in accordance with 21 CFR 172.730(a)(2), the amount shall....0 Coconut, copra, postharvest 100.0 Coffee, bean, green, postharvest 75.0 Corn, field,...

  14. [4-(Methoxycarbonylbenzyl]triphenylphosphonium bromide hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Hameed

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C27H24O2P+·Br−·0.5H2O, there are intermolecular O—H...Br hydrogen bonds between the H atoms of the water of crystallization and the bromide anions. The three phenyl rings of the triphenylphosphonium moiety are at angles of 59.73 (15, 79.15 (14 and 82.81 (17° with the C/P/C planes.

  15. Femtosecond time-resolved photodissociation dynamics of methyl halide molecules on ultrathin gold films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai E. Vaida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The photodissociation of small organic molecules, namely methyl iodide, methyl bromide, and methyl chloride, adsorbed on a metal surface was investigated in real time by means of femtosecond-laser pump–probe mass spectrometry. A weakly interacting gold surface was employed as substrate because the intact adsorption of the methyl halide molecules was desired prior to photoexcitation. The gold surface was prepared as an ultrathin film on Mo(100. The molecular adsorption behavior was characterized by coverage dependent temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy. Submonolayer preparations were irradiated with UV light of 266 nm wavelength and the subsequently emerging methyl fragments were probed by photoionization and mass spectrometric detection. A strong dependence of the excitation mechanism and the light-induced dynamics on the type of molecule was observed. Possible photoexcitation mechanisms included direct photoexcitation to the dissociative A-band of the methyl halide molecules as well as the attachment of surface-emitted electrons with transient negative ion formation and subsequent molecular fragmentation. Both reaction pathways were energetically possible in the case of methyl iodide, yet, no methyl fragments were observed. As a likely explanation, the rapid quenching of the excited states prior to fragmentation is proposed. This quenching mechanism could be prevented by modification of the gold surface through pre-adsorption of iodine atoms. In contrast, the A-band of methyl bromide was not energetically directly accessible through 266 nm excitation. Nevertheless, the one-photon-induced dissociation was observed in the case of methyl bromide. This was interpreted as being due to a considerable energetic down-shift of the electronic A-band states of methyl bromide by about 1.5 eV through interaction with the gold substrate. Finally, for methyl chloride no photofragmentation could be detected at all.

  16. Exogenous bromide in the lactating rat influences iodine and bromide transfer to the suckling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    Athens : University of Athens, 2005, s. 322-327. [International Symposium on Trace Elements in Human: New Perspectives /5./. Athens (GR), 13.10.2005-15.10.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bromide * iodine * rat Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  17. Model prediction uncertainty of bromide and pesticides transport in laboratory column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Dohnal, Michal; Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Ray, Chittaranjan; Vogel, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of transport parameters of reactive solutes such as pesticides is a prerequisite for reliable predictions of their fate and transport in soil porous systems. Water flow and transport of bromide tracer and five pesticides (atrazine, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl, S-metolachlor, and imidacloprid) through an undisturbed soil column of tropical Oxisol were analyzed using a one-dimensional numerical model. Laboratory column leaching experiment with three flow interruptions was conducted. The applied numerical model is based on Richards' equation for solving water flow and the advection-dispersion equation for solving solute transport. A global optimization method was used to evaluate the model's sensitivity to transport parameters and the uncertainty of model predictions. Within the Monte Carlo modeling framework, multiple forward simulations searching through the parametric space, were executed to describe the observed breakthrough curves. All pesticides were found to be relatively mobile. Experimental data indicated significant non-conservative behavior of bromide tracer. All pesticides, with the exception of imidacloprid, were found less persistent. Three of the five pesticides (atrazine, sulfometuron methyl, and S-metolachlor) were better described by the linear kinetic sorption model, while the breakthrough curves of imazaquin and imidacloprid were more appropriately approximated using nonlinear instantaneous sorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the model is most sensitive to sorption distribution coefficient. The prediction limits contained most of the measured points of the experimental breakthrough curves, indicating adequate model concept and model structure for the description of transport processes in the soil column under study.

  18. The application of activation analysis for the control of bromide accumulation in vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil desinfestation with methyl bromide increases the uptake of bromine by plants. The natural bromine content of crops and fruits was found in the range of 1 up to 5 ppm in fresh weight. The highest acceptable level is 50 ppm in fresh weight. By using methyl bromide as a soil fumigant, a bromine accumulation was found in the crops to levels up to 20-500 ppm in fresh matter. The uptake of bromine differs in various parts of the vegetable crops. The highest bromine concentration could be observed in the leaves. The bromine uptake by plants depends on (a) the fumigation technique (applied amounts, reaction time, date of cultivation); (b) the growing conditions (soil type, climate and irrigation); (c) the plants (species, rotation, harvesting time etc.). The INAA is a simple and rapid method to analyse bromine in vegetables within a wide range using Br-80 and Br-82. Since several years this method has also been used to control imported crops. The samples were subjected to a short irradiation (1-3 minutes at 1013ncm-2sec-1). After the decay time of a few minutes the induced activity was measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a multi-channel analyzer. The limit of detection varies between 0.1 and 0.5 ppm Br in fresh vegetable samples. (T.G.)

  19. DNA Methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Alokail, Majed S.; Alenad, Amal M

    2015-01-01

    The DNA of E. coli contains 19,120 6-methyladenines and 12,045 5-methylcytosines in addition to the four regular bases and these are formed by the postreplicative action of three DNA methyltransferases. The majority of the methylated bases are formed by the Dam and Dcm methyltransferases encoded by the dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) and dcm (DNA cytosine methyltransferase) genes. Although not essential, Dam methylation is important for strand discrimination during repair of replication e...

  20. Irrigation, organic matter addition, and tarping as methods of reducing emissions of methyl iodide from agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is set to become increasingly used as a highly effective alternative to the soil fumigant methyl bromide. Due to its physical properties, its emission from soil to air is likely to be high and may become a human health risk. Using soil columns that make it possible to determine e...

  1. Bromism from daily over intake of bromide salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, C; Hoizey, G; Lamiable, D; Millart, H; Trenque, T

    2003-01-01

    Bromide intoxication today is an infrequent disease, but preparations containing bromide are still available in nonprescription compounds, on the French market. We report a casewith bromide intoxication due to daily over intake (approximately 20 tablets per day; i.e. total elemental bromide intake approximately 6 g/day) of calcium bromo-galactogluconate (Calcibronat) for 1.5 months. A 30-year-old woman with a long history of psychotropic drug abuse was hospitalized in a psychiatric department for neuropsychological manifestations. She presented a seriously disturbed mental status with confusion, disorientation, auditory and visual hallucinations, and loss of short-time memory. A markedly increased serum bromide level of 1717 mg/L (21.5 mEq/L) measured on the first day after her admission confirmed the diagnosis of chronic bromism suspected based on her symptomatology. During her hospitalization, bromide plasma concentrations were measured and monitored using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, a sensitive and very specific method. After withdrawal of the drug, the symptoms improved within 8 days. Serial bromide concentrations gradually declined throughout nearly 2 months of monitoring, until she was discharged from the hospital. We found an elimination half-life of bromide in blood of approximately of 10 days. This case demonstrates that, while today bromism occurs infrequently, it should still be included in the differential diagnosis of neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:12733857

  2. Glycopyrronium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riario-Sforza, Gian Galeazzo; Ridolo, Erminia; Riario-Sforza, Edoardo; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2015-02-01

    Glycopyrronium bromide is a new long-acting muscarinic antagonist to be used once-daily, which is approved as a bronchodilator for the symptomatic maintenance treatment of adult patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the Glycopyrronium bromide in chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease airWays trials, treatment with inhaled glycopyrronium bromide at 50 μg once daily achieved a significantly better lung function than placebo, as measured by the trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. The lung function improvement was maintained for up to 52 weeks. Other improved indexes were dyspnea scores, health status, exacerbation rates and time of exercise endurance. Studies comparing the efficacy of glycopyrronium versus tiotropium bromide found substantial equivalence of the two drugs. Glycopyrronium was generally well tolerated. These data add inhaled glycopyrronium bromide to the treatment of patients with moderate to severe COPD as an effective once-daily LAMA. PMID:25547422

  3. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of bromide in clidinium-c drug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Sheibani; M. Reza Shishehbore; Zahra Tavakolian Ardakani

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method has been described for the determination of the trace amounts of bromide. The method is based on the catalytic effect of bromide ion on the oxidation of methylene blue by bromate in sulfuric acid media. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of methylene blue at 665 nm. Bromide was determined in the range of 0.05-1.90 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.03 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations of five replicate determinations of 0.20 and 10.0 μg/mL of bromide were 2.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering ions and substances was studied. The method is applied to the analysis of bromide in clidinium-c tablet as a real sample.

  4. Prolactin release during exercise in normal and adrenodemedullated untrained rats submitted to central cholinergic blockade with atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, N R; Pereira, W; Reis, A M; Coimbra, C C; Marubayashi, U

    2001-12-01

    To study the role of the central cholinergic system in pituitary prolactin (PRL) release during exercise we injected atropine (5 x 10(-7) mol) into the lateral cerebral ventricle of intact or adrenodemedullated (ADM) untrained rats, at rest or submitted to exercise on a treadmill (18 m x min(-1), 5% grade) until exhaustion. The rats were implanted with chronic jugular catheters for blood sampling and with unilateral intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulas placed in the right lateral ventricle. Blood prolactin concentrations were measured before and every 10 min after the start of exercise for a period of 60 min. After the animals started running, plasma prolactin levels rose rapidly in both normal and ADM rats, reaching near maximum at 10 min. Close to exhaustion (19.8 +/- 2.9 min for intact rats and 23.5 +/- 4.1 min for ADM) they were still high, remained increased until 30 min, and returned to preexercise levels at 40 min. Icv injections of atropine decreased the time to exhaustion by 67% in intact rats and by 96.2% in ADM and also reduced the exercise-induced PRL release in both intact (50%) and ADM rats (90%). The results showed that prolactin release induced by exercise was dependent on the exercise workload and could be observed as early as after 10 min of running, remaining increased until 30 min. These data indicate that adrenodemedullation does not affect prolactin secretion induced by exercise, although adrenodemedullated rats proved to be more sensitive to the reducing effect of central cholinergic blockade on their maximal capacity for exercise. PMID:11716582

  5. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  6. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhote, Franck, E-mail: franck.dhote@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, André [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); and others

    2012-03-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  7. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  8. Selective oxidation of bromide in wastewater brines from hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-07-01

    Brines generated from oil and natural gas production, including flowback water and produced water from hydraulic fracturing of shale gas, may contain elevated concentrations of bromide (~1 g/L). Bromide is a broad concern due to the potential for forming brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Conventional treatment processes for bromide removal is costly and not specific. Selective bromide removal is technically challenging due to the presence of other ions in the brine, especially chloride as high as 30-200 g/L. This study evaluates the ability of solid graphite electrodes to selectively oxidize bromide to bromine in flowback water and produced water from a shale gas operation in Southwestern PA. The bromine can then be outgassed from the solution and recovered, as a process well understood in the bromine industry. This study revealed that bromide may be selectively and rapidly removed from oil and gas brines (~10 h(-1) m(-2) for produced water and ~60 h(-1) m(-2) for flowback water). The electrolysis occurs with a current efficiency between 60 and 90%, and the estimated energy cost is ~6 kJ/g Br. These data are similar to those for the chlor-alkali process that is commonly used for chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide production. The results demonstrate that bromide may be selectively removed from oil and gas brines to create an opportunity for environmental protection and resource recovery. PMID:23726709

  9. M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors may play a role in the neurotoxicity of anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a cocaine pyrolysis product

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Caio Tamborelli Garcia; Livia Mendonça Munhoz Dati; Larissa Helena Torres; Mariana Aguilera Alencar da Silva; Mariana Sayuri Berto Udo; Fernando Maurício Francis Abdalla; José Luiz da Costa; Renata Gorjão; Solange Castro Afeche; Mauricio Yonamine; Niswender, Colleen M.; P. Jeffrey Conn; Rosana Camarini; Maria Regina Lopes Sandoval; Tania Marcourakis

    2015-01-01

    The smoke of crack cocaine contains cocaine and its pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME possesses greater neurotoxic potential than cocaine and an additive effect when they are combined. Since atropine prevented AEME-induced neurotoxicity, it has been suggested that its toxic effects may involve the muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). Our aim is to understand the interaction between AEME and mAChRs and how it can lead to neuronal death. Using a rat primary hipp...

  10. Sodium bromide acts as a contrast material on DEXA scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, T G; Ryan, D H

    1994-02-01

    Subjects undergoing a series of procedures to determine body composition, including dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning and extracellular water volume determination by bromide dilution, demonstrated abnormal DEXA scans in some cases. Oral doses of sodium bromide in the stomach were detected on total body DEXA scanning as contrast material. The physical principles that cause bromide to be imaged in a manner similar to calcium by the DEXA scanner are discussed so that other investigators may be aware of this potential pitfall in body composition analysis. PMID:8195668

  11. Structure, function and carcinogenicity of metabolites of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesher, James W; Lehner, Andreas F

    2016-03-01

    The Unified Theory of PAH Carcinogenicity accommodates the activities of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and states that substitution of methyl groups on meso-methyl substituted PAHs with hydroxy, acetoxy, chloride, bromide or sulfuric acid ester groups imparts potent cancer producing properties. It incorporates specific predictions from past researchers on the mechanism of carcinogenesis by methyl-substituted hydrocarbons, including (1) requirement for metabolism to an ArCH2X type structure where X is a good leaving group and (2) biological substitution of a meso-methyl group at the most reactive center in non-methylated hydrocarbons. The Theory incorporates strong inferences of Fieser: (1) The mechanism of carcinogenesis involves a specific metabolic substitution of a hydrocarbon at its most reactive center and (2) Metabolic elimination of a carcinogen is a detoxifying process competitive with that of carcinogenesis and occurring by a different mechanism. According to this outlook, chemical or biochemical substitution of a methyl group at the reactive meso-position of non-methylated hydrocarbons is the first step in the mechanism of carcinogenesis for most, if not all, PAHs and the most potent metabolites of PAHs are to be found among the meso methyl-substituted hydrocarbons. Some PAHs and their known or potential metabolites and closely related compounds have been tested in rats for production of sarcomas at the site of subcutaneous injection and the results strongly support the specific predictions of the Unified Theory. PMID:26894797

  12. A new convenient access to highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yubo Jiang; Chunxiang Kuang

    2009-11-01

    Highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides were prepared in high yields through a new convenient access by acylation of ()-4-(2-bromovinyl)phenol with fatty and aromatic acids at room temperature using dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC) and dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP).

  13. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Chlorate-Bromide Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T P; Faria, Roberto B

    2015-11-01

    The chlorate-bromide reaction, ClO3(-) + 6Br(-) + 6H(+) → 3Br2 + Cl(-) + 3H2O, was followed at the Br3(-)/Br2 isosbestic point (446 nm). A fifth-order rate law was found: (1)/3 d[Br2]/dt = k[ClO3(-)][Br(-)][H(+)](3) (k = 5.10 × 10(-6) s(-1) L(4) mol(-4)) at 25 °C and I = 2.4 mol L(-1). At high bromide concentrations, the bromide order becomes close to zero, indicating a saturation profile on bromide concentration, similar to the chloride saturation profile observed in the chlorate-chloride reaction. A mechanism is proposed that considers the formation of the intermediate BrOClO2(2-), similar to the intermediate ClOClO2(2-) proposed in the mechanism of the chlorate-chloride reaction. PMID:26467822

  14. Vasoespasmo coronariano induzido pela ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina Coronary spasm induced by dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Bogaz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de mulher de 45 anos de idade, com antecedentes de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e tabagismo, submetida a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina para investigação de doença arterial coronariana. No pico do estresse, a paciente apresentou dor precordial súbita e de forte intensidade. O eletrocardiograma de doze derivações revelou elevação do segmento ST nas derivações DII, DIII, aVF, V5 e V6 e depressão do segmento ST nas derivações DI, aVL, V2 e V3. Pela monitoração das imagens ecocardiográficas foi observado aparecimento de discinesia do septo inferior e acinesia da parede inferior do ventrículo esquerdo. O exame foi interrompido imediatamente, a paciente foi medicada e evoluiu com melhora da dor precordial e das alterações de motilidade segmentar. A angiografia coronariana revelou lesões coronarianas irregulares com menos de 50% de obstrução do diâmetro luminal. Trata-se de um caso de vasoespasmo coronariano induzido por estimulação alfa-adrenérgica durante a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina.This is the report on a 45-year-old female, with a history of systemic arterial hypertension and cigarette smoking, submitted to dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography for the investigation of coronary artery disease. At stress peak, the patient reported sudden, highly intense precordial pain. The 12-lead electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in DII, DIII, aVF, V5 and V6, and depression in DI, aVL, V2 and V3. Echocardiographic imaging monitoring showed dyskinesia of inferior septum and akinesia of inferior wall. The test was interrupted immediately. The patient was medicated and improved her precordial pain condition as well as wall motion abnormalities. Coronary angiography showed irregular coronary lesions with <50% luminal diameter obstruction. It is a case of coronary spasm induced by alpha-adrenergic stimulation during dobutamine-atropine stress

  15. Quantum Chemistry Study on Dissociation of Oxalyl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The multi-bond dissociation dynamics of oxalyl bromide ((BrCO)2) has been investigated by DFT and CIS calculations. Upon the results, conclusion could be drawn that dissociation of C-Br bond of oxalyl bromide at the ground state (S0) is of barrierless. After the absorption of a photon, (BrCO)2 is excited to the first excited state and one of its C-Br bonds is broken to yield dissociate.

  16. Effects of ipratropium bromide and fenoterol aerosols in pulmonary emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, J A; Tobin, M. J.; Bellamy, D; Hutchison, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    In patients with radiological evidence of pulmonary emphysema the bronchodilator drugs fenoterol and ipratropium bromide produced a considerable increase in vital capacity and reduction in residual volume. The response to fenoterol was virtually complete 15 minutes after administration, but after ipratropium bromide vital capacity was still increasing at 60 minutes. The change in vital capacity was slightly greater with a combination of the two drugs than with either used alone. Changes in FE...

  17. Carbon nanotubes as an efficient hole collector for high voltage methylammonium lead bromide perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Boix, Pablo P; Xing, Guichuan; Fu, Kunwu; Kulkarni, Sneha A; Batabyal, Sudip K; Xu, Wenjing; Cao, Anyuan; Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-03-28

    A high open circuit voltage (V(OC)) close to 1.4 V under AM 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2) conditions is achieved when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as a hole conductor in methyl ammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite solar cells. Time-resolved photoluminescence and impedance spectroscopy investigations suggest that the observed high V(OC) is a result of the better charge extraction and lower recombination of the CNT hole conductor. Tandem solar cells with all perovskite absorbers are demonstrated with a MAPbBr3/CNT top cell and a MAPbI3 bottom cell, achieving a V(OC) of 2.24 V in series connection. The semitransparent and high voltage MAPbBr3/CNT solar cells show great potential for applications in solar cell windows, tandem solar cells and solar driven water splitting. PMID:26646241

  18. Performance of large lanthanum bromide scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide, LaBr3(Ce), scintillator possesses several outstanding properties that make it an attractive choice for security, medical, and geophysical radiation detection applications. Among these properties are good density (5.1 g/cc), excellent energy resolution (∼3% full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) at Eγ=662 keV), brightness (>65,000 photon/MeV), and speed, (τd100 cc). The anisotropic thermal expansion exhibited by this material makes it difficult to grow large ingots due to the build up of internal stresses as it cools, causing fracturing. Recently, Saint-Gobain Crystals has achieved successful growths of large unfractured ingots, from which large detectors have been assembled (>150 cc). The outstanding properties seen in small pieces are retained up to at least 155 cc (the largest assembled into a single detector thus far). A cylindrical LaBr3(Ce=5%) crystal with dimensions of diameter=51 mm, and length=76 mm achieves energy resolution of 3.1% FWHM at 662 keV, and brightness of 165% of NaI with good uniformity throughout the crystal. Scintillation light yield and energy resolution have been examined as a function of crystal size and γ-ray energy. Spatial mapping of a large crystal was examined and shown to be uniform. Large crystals enable accurate measurements of the intrinsic γ-ray background from 138La (0.09% nat. abun., γ-ray emission at 1436 and 789 keV). This background is shown to scale appropriately in size with theoretical calculations

  19. Carbon nanotubes as an efficient hole collector for high voltage methylammonium lead bromide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Boix, Pablo P.; Xing, Guichuan; Fu, Kunwu; Kulkarni, Sneha A.; Batabyal, Sudip K.; Xu, Wenjing; Cao, Anyuan; Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-03-01

    A high open circuit voltage (VOC) close to 1.4 V under AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2 conditions is achieved when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as a hole conductor in methyl ammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite solar cells. Time-resolved photoluminescence and impedance spectroscopy investigations suggest that the observed high VOC is a result of the better charge extraction and lower recombination of the CNT hole conductor. Tandem solar cells with all perovskite absorbers are demonstrated with a MAPbBr3/CNT top cell and a MAPbI3 bottom cell, achieving a VOC of 2.24 V in series connection. The semitransparent and high voltage MAPbBr3/CNT solar cells show great potential for applications in solar cell windows, tandem solar cells and solar driven water splitting.A high open circuit voltage (VOC) close to 1.4 V under AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2 conditions is achieved when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as a hole conductor in methyl ammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite solar cells. Time-resolved photoluminescence and impedance spectroscopy investigations suggest that the observed high VOC is a result of the better charge extraction and lower recombination of the CNT hole conductor. Tandem solar cells with all perovskite absorbers are demonstrated with a MAPbBr3/CNT top cell and a MAPbI3 bottom cell, achieving a VOC of 2.24 V in series connection. The semitransparent and high voltage MAPbBr3/CNT solar cells show great potential for applications in solar cell windows, tandem solar cells and solar driven water splitting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06177f

  20. Assessment of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide removal from aqueous matrices by adsorption on cupric oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop an effective adsorbent and to study the adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide from aqueous solution using the CuO nanoparticles. The characteristics of CuO nanoparticles were determined and found to have a surface area 89.59m(2)/g. Operational parameters such as pH, contact time and adsorbent concentration, initial concentration and temperature were also studied. The amount of removal increases with the increase in pH from one to seven and reaches the maximum when the pH is nine. Adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Florry-Huggins models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum adsorption capacities of 0.868 and 0.662mg/g for Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide, respectively. The adsorption process was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, namely ΔG, ΔH and ΔS showed that adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide was spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions. PMID:24630576

  1. The Effect of Intramuscular Administration of Atropine and Hyoscine Combination on Labor Progress and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Primigravid Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mehri Jamilian; Maryam Karamali; Bahman Sadeghi; Maasoumeh Ghazi Mirsaeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported that neonatal and maternal complications as well as duration of labor could be diminished through labor management. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of intramuscular (IM) administration of atropine and hyoscine combination on labor progress and maternal and neonatal outcomes in primigravid women admitted to Taleghani Hospital of Arak, Iran. Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 216 primigravid women were randomly a...

  2. Hippocampal rhythmical slow activity following ibotenic acid lesions of the septal region. I. Relations to behavior and effects of atropine and urethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D J; Vanderwolf, C H

    1987-10-13

    The effects of intraseptal injections of various concentrations of ibotenic acid on hippocampal electrical activity were studied in freely moving and urethane-anesthetized rats. Ibotenic acid selectively abolished the atropine-sensitive form of hippocampal rhythmical slow activity (RSA) normally seen during urethane anesthesia. Large amplitude irregular activity (LIA) and RSA in the waking state were somewhat depressed as well. Despite this, clear RSA persisted in the waking state in association with locomotion or struggling (Type 1 behavior). As in normal rats, such RSA was resistant to systemic administration of atropine. Analysis of brain sections stained with gallocyanin or for acetylcholinesterase showed that ibotenic acid produced cell loss in the dorsal lateral septal nucleus and the septohippocampal nucleus. Cells in the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei were resistant to ibotenic acid. The results suggest that intrinsic septal circuitry is critically involved in the generation of the atropine-sensitive (presumably cholinergic) form of RSA. The mechanisms by which LIA and the two forms of RSA are generated in the hippocampus is discussed. PMID:3676823

  3. Changes of The Muscle Na and K Content, Kidney Functions and Cholinesterase in Rats Injected with Atropine and Serotonin Pre-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of the double treatment with atropine and serotonin (5-HT) as a protective agent against gamma-radiation on Na and K content and Na/K ratio in both heart and diaphragm muscles and plasma levels of urea, creatinine and cholinesterase at 1,3 and 5 hr post-irradiation. Male albino rats were divided into four groups: control, whole body gamma-irradiated (6 Gy), injected i.p. with atropine ( 0.5 mg/100 g b. wt.) followed by immediate i.p.injection with serotonin (100 mug /100 g b. wt.) and 15 min. pre-irradiation injected with both drugs. The study suggests that: 1-Combined treatment with atropine and serotonin showed a restricted prophylactic role for restoring the induced radiation impairments of Na+ and K+ contents in both cardiac and skeletal muscles during the early period post-irradiation. 2- During the early period after irradiation, the changes in plasma levels of Ch E and urea were proportional with time. So, they can be used as adjunct tests for the study of hematological indices for the early diagnosis of pre-acute forms of irradiation sickness

  4. Large methyl halide emissions from south Texas salt marshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Rhew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal salt marshes are natural sources of methyl chloride (CH3Cl and methyl bromide (CH3Br to the atmosphere, but measured emission rates vary widely by geography. Here we report large methyl halide fluxes from subtropical salt marshes of south Texas. Sites with the halophytic plant, Batis maritima, emitted methyl halides at rates that are orders of magnitude greater than sites containing other vascular plants or macroalgae. B. maritima emissions were generally highest at midday; however, diurnal variability was more pronounced for CH3Br than CH3Cl, and surprisingly high nighttime CH3Cl fluxes were observed in July. Seasonal and intra-site variability were large, even taking into account biomass differences. Overall, these subtropical salt marsh sites show much higher emission rates than temperate salt marshes at similar times of the year, supporting the contention that low-latitude salt marshes are significant sources of CH3Cl and CH3Br.

  5. Methyl gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Pagola

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound (systematic name: methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate, C8H8O5, is composed of essentially planar molecules [maximum departures from the mean carbon and oxygen skeleton plane of 0.0348 (10 Å]. The H atoms of the three hydroxyl groups, which function as hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors simultaneously, are oriented in the same direction around the aromatic ring. In addition to two intramolecular hydrogen bonds, each molecule is hydrogen bonded to six others, creating a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network.

  6. Methyl gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Deborah; Pagola, Silvina

    2009-01-01

    THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE TITLE COMPOUND (SYSTEMATIC NAME: methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxy-benzoate), C(8)H(8)O(5), is composed of essentially planar mol-ecules [maximum departures from the mean carbon and oxygen skeleton plane of 0.0348 (10) Å]. The H atoms of the three hydroxyl groups, which function as hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors simultaneously, are oriented in the same direction around the aromatic ring. In addition to two intra-molecular hydrogen bonds, each mol-ecule is hydrogen bonded to six others, creating a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network. PMID:21581923

  7. Methyl gallate

    OpenAIRE

    Silvina Pagola; Deborah Bebout

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound (systematic name: methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate), C8H8O5, is composed of essentially planar molecules [maximum departures from the mean carbon and oxygen skeleton plane of 0.0348 (10) Å]. The H atoms of the three hydroxyl groups, which function as hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors simultaneously, are oriented in the same direction around the aromatic ring. In addition to two intramolecular hydrogen bonds, each molecule is hydroge...

  8. Crystal structure of 2-bromo-3-dimethylamino-N,N,N′,N′,4-pentamethyl-4-(trimethylsilyloxypent-2-eneamidinium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tiritiris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of the orthoamide 1,1,1-tris(dimethylamino-4-methyl-4-(trimethylsilyloxypent-2-yne with bromine in benzene, yields the title salt, C15H33BrN3OSi+·Br−. The C—N bond lengths in the amidinium unit are 1.319 (6 and 1.333 (6 Å, indicating double-bond character, pointing towards charge delocalization within the NCN plane. The C—Br bond length of 1.926 (5 Å is characteristic for a C—Br single bond. Additionally, there is a bromine–bromine interaction [3.229 (3 Å] present involving the anion and cation. In the crystal, weak C—H...Br interactions between the methyl H atoms of the cation and the bromide ions are present.

  9. Anestesia endovenosa en perros mediante el uso de propofol en dosis única, premedicado con acepromazina-atropina y xilazina-atropina Intravenous anaesthesia in dogs using a single dose of propofol premedicated with atropine _ acepromazine or atropine _ xylazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. THIBAUT

    2002-01-01

    anestesia; en el grupo 1 tremores musculares (3 casos y opistótono (1 caso, en el grupo 2 apnea transitoria (2 casos. Se concluye que propofol premedicado con atropina - xilacina reduce el período de latencia, aumenta el tiempo de anestesia y recuperación sin alterar significativamente las variables fisiológicasTwenty mongrel dogs, both sexes, of 1 to 6 years were divided into two groups of ten animals each. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg of acepromazine was administered to the first group (A.A.P of 16.2±1,63 kg body weight. The second group (X.A.P of 11.9±1.7.1 kg. body weight, received a 3 mg/kg i.m. dose of xylazine. Both groups received atropine 0.1 mg/kg s.c. ten minutes before the administration of propofol 5 mg/kg i.v. The effects of Propofol on latency period, surgical anesthesia duration, recovery period, respiratory rate, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and body temperature were evaluated. Adverse reactions to propofol were registered. The results of the anesthesiological variable significantly differed between the two groups: induction of anesthesia was 0.45 + 0.03 min in the first and 0.26 + 0.03 in the second group. Surgical anesthesia period was 12.3 + 1.89 min in the first and 25.2 + 1.78 min in the second group, and recovery period was 4.5 + 0.63 min and 10.1 + 0.98 min in group 1 and 2, respectively. The physiological variables in both groups were maintained without significant modification during the surgical anesthesia period; respiratory rate had an initial average of 14.3 + 2.45 and 13.0 + 1.54 breaths/min in group 1 and 2 respectively. The heart rate was 175 + 11.81 beats/min in the first and 148.,4 + 9.04 beats/min in the second group; the average arterial blood pressure was 102.6 + 5.69 and 111.8 + 10.43 mm Hg for the first and second group, respectively. Body temperature in the first group was 38.5 + 0.17 and 38.7 + 0.2 ºC for the second group. Adverse reactions were muscle twitching (3 cases and opisthotonus (1 case in group 1; transitory apnea (2

  10. Influence of Soil fumigation by Methyl Bromide and Methyl Iodide on Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities were evaluated on roots and leaves of growth chamber-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa (L.) cv. Green Forest) plants by culture-dependent and -independent methods after soil fumigation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with 16S rRNA primer...

  11. Interaction of cephradine monohydrate with Cetyldimethylethylammonium Bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We carry out the interaction of CDM drugs with CDMEAB conductometrically. • We examine the effect of drugs on the critical micelle concentration of CDMEAB. • Two critical micelle concentrations are obtained for drug-CDMEAB system. • Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between drug and surfactant are proposed. • Effect of KCl and K2SO4 is observed on interaction between drug and surfactant. -- Abstract: Interaction of cephradine monohydrate (CDM) with Cetyldimethylethylammonium Bromide (CDMEAB) has been studied by conductance measurements in pure form and in the presence of salts like potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K2SO4) over the temperature range of (298.15 to 318.15) K. From conductivity vs. surfactant concentration plots, two critical micelle concentrations like c1∗ and c1∗ were obtained for (CDM + CDMEAB) systems. The variation of c∗ values of CDMEAB in the presence of CDM is the indication of the interaction between CDM and CDMEAB. For the (CDM + CDMEAB) system, the values of c∗ values are higher in magnitude in contrast to that of pure CDMEAB in water over the range in temperature studied. In aqueous solutions of KCl and K2SO4, the c∗ values are changed with the increase of the concentration of salts and hence the micellization is dependent on salt concentration. The ΔGm0 values were negative and the spontaneity of micellization process is found to be increased with increase of temperature. The values of ΔH1,m0 and ΔS1,m0 indicated that the drug mediated CDMEAB aggregation in water was controlled at lower temperatures while at higher temperatures the aggregation was both enthalpy and entropy controlled. The ΔH2,m0 and ΔS2,m0 values revealed that the micellization in water was both enthalpy and entropy controlled at lower and higher temperatures though the effect of entropy at middle temperature was dominant. The results indicated that binding interactions between CDM and CDMEAB are both

  12. Intensification of sonochemical degradation of malachite green by bromide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumeni, Ouarda; Hamdaoui, Oualid

    2012-05-01

    Sonochemical oxidation has been investigated as a viable advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the destruction of various pollutants in water. Ultrasonic irradiation generates ()OH radicals that can recombine, react with other gaseous species present in the cavity, or diffuse out of the bubble into the bulk liquid medium where they are able to react with solute molecules. The extent of degradation of an organic dye such as malachite green (MG) is limited by the quantity of hydroxyl radicals diffused from cavitation bubbles. In this work, the effect of bromide ions on sonolytic degradation of MG was investigated. The obtained results clearly demonstrated the considerable enhancement of sonochemical destruction of MG in the presence of bromide. No significant differences were observed in the presence of chloride and sulfate, excluding the salting-out effect. Positive effect of bromide ions, which increases with increasing bromide level and decreasing MG concentration, is due to the generation of dibromine radical anion (Br(2)(-)) formed by reaction of Br(-) with ()OH radicals followed by rapid complexation with another anion. The generated Br(2)(-) radicals, reactive but less than ()OH, are likely able to migrate far from the cavitation bubbles towards the solution bulk and are suitable for degradation of an organic dye such as MG. Additionally, Br(2)(-) radicals undergo radical-radical recombination at a lesser extent than hydroxyl radicals and would be more available than ()OH for substrate degradation, both at the bubble surface and in the solution bulk. This effect compensates for the lower reactivity of Br(2)(-) compared to ()OH toward organic substrate. Addition of bromide to natural and sea waters induces a slight positive effect on MG degradation. In the absence of bromide, ultrasonic treatment for the removal of MG was promoted in complex matrices such as natural and sea waters. PMID:21911308

  13. Oxidation of manganese(II) during chlorination: role of bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, S; Fouche, L; Dick, J; Heitz, A; von Gunten, U

    2013-08-01

    The oxidation of dissolved manganese(II) (Mn(II)) during chlorination is a relatively slow process which may lead to residual Mn(II) in treated drinking waters. Chemical Mn(II) oxidation is autocatalytic and consists of a homogeneous and a heterogeneous process; the oxidation of Mn(II) is mainly driven by the latter process. This study demonstrates that Mn(II) oxidation during chlorination is enhanced in bromide-containing waters by the formation of reactive bromine species (e.g., HOBr, BrCl, Br2O) from the oxidation of bromide by chlorine. During oxidation of Mn(II) by chlorine in bromide-containing waters, bromide is recycled and acts as a catalyst. For a chlorine dose of 1 mg/L and a bromide level as low as 10 μg/L, the oxidation of Mn(II) by reactive bromine species becomes the main pathway. It was demonstrated that the kinetics of the reaction are dominated by the adsorbed Mn(OH)2 species for both chlorine and bromine at circumneutral pH. Reactive bromine species such as Br2O and BrCl significantly influence the rate of manganese oxidation and may even outweigh the reactivity of HOBr. Reaction orders in [HOBr]tot were found to be 1.33 (±0.15) at pH 7.8 and increased to 1.97 (±0.17) at pH 8.2 consistent with an important contribution of Br2O which is second order in [HOBr]tot. These findings highlight the need to take bromide, and the subsequent reactive bromine species formed upon chlorination, into account to assess Mn(II) removal during water treatment with chlorine. PMID:23859083

  14. Radioactive bromide partition test in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utility of the radioactive bromide partition test in differentiating tuberculous meningitis (TBM) from other forms of meningitis has been assessed. The test was carried out in 19 patients with TBM, 6 patients with partially treated pyogenic meningitis and 17 non-meningitis controls. Eighteen of the 19 TBM patients gave bromide partition ratio (BPR) value below 1.3 while the value was above this level in all control patients including partially treated meningitis. The results indicate that the test is useful in the differential diagnosis of TBM. (author)

  15. Chemistry of pyrrolizines; reactions with cyanogen bromide and trifluoroacetic anhydride

    OpenAIRE

    Verboom, W.; Visser, G.W.; Reinhoudt, D.N.

    1982-01-01

    Interaction of the pyrrolizine 3 with cyanogen bromide in a tetrahydrofuran/water mixture affords addition to the enamine double bond with formation of 5 which can be aromatized to 6 by silica gel. Reaction of 6 with cyanogen bromide in the same solvent mixture yields the indoline 8a which structure is proved in a chemical way by conversion of the product into the aldehyde 8d. The different reaction pathway is discussed in terms of steric hindrance by the ester groups. Treatment of 6 with tri...

  16. Stability analysis for complexes in calcium-alkali bromide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the dependence of the stability of tetrahedral complexes in molten halide mixtures on the halogen species. This is done by calculating the equilibrium concentration of (CaBr4)2- complexes in calcium-alkali bromide solutions as a function of composition, in comparison with earlier calculations on the calcium-alkali chloride systems. The comparison supports a possible trend of increasing stability from chlorides to bromides, provided that halogen polarizability or chemical bonding contribute appreciably to the binding of a complex. Supporting evidence is noted and further experiments are suggested. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  17. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: Small-plot trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Georgia, the loss of MeBr directly impacts the production and profitability of several fruiting vegetables [specifically, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), eggplant (Solanum melogena L.), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)) and cucurbits (specifically, squash [yellow (Cucurbita pepo L.)], melon...

  18. EVALUATION OF CURRENTLY AVAILABLE ALTERNATIVES TO METHYL BROMIDE FOR ORNAMENTAL CROP PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were designed to test the efficacy of the chemical alternatives, Midas™ (iodomethane:chloropicrin (pic) 50:50 [MI 50:50] and 98:2 [MI 98:2], Arysta LifeScience Corp., Cary, NC) and dimethyl disulfide:pic (Paladin™ 79:21 [DMDS], United Phosphorous, Inc., King of Prussia, PA) compared with met...

  19. Spain-Phase-out of Methyl Bromide in pepper production in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Bello Pérez, Antonio; Piedra Buena, A.; Díez-Rojo, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Non-chemical alternatives to MB for soil disinfection in pepper crops have been evaluated and are being increasingly adopted in Spain. They show that integrating practices like biofumigation with fresh pepper crop residues, chicken manure and sheep manure, biosolarisation, and grafting on resistant rootstocks, can be as effective as MB for controlling plant parasitic nematodes and fungi. MB consumption in Spain has been reduced by 96% since 1997.9

  20. Corrosion Inhibition Properties of Some Novel N-Methyl Diethanolammonium Bromide Cationic Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of novel cationic surface-active agents containing two hydrophobic chains were evaluated for their corrosion inhibition efficiency at different doses using the weight loss method at 25 degree C. The applicability of these inhibitors for mild steel was examined using (4M HCl) at 50, 100 and 200 ppm of the inhibitor concentrations. The results were correlated to their chemical structures and their geometry. The results showed that increasing the hydrophobic chain length, as well as, the number of conjugated double bonds along the alkyl chains of these inhibitors increases their corrosion inhibition efficiency. The maximum corrosion inhibition efficiency of the synthesized inhibitors containing similar hydrophobic groups was discussed

  1. 75 FR 41177 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... nominations must be approved each year at the international level by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and... (CAA) authority for the critical use exemption? B. What is the Montreal Protocol authority for the... available for that use. The Parties to the Montreal Protocol have developed an ``International Index''...

  2. Irradiation as an alternative treatment to methyl bromide for insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is the leading country in the world, in production and exports of dried fig, apricot, raisin and hazelnut. One of main problem in the export trade is infestation by stored product insects. Using MB is very effective for controlling stored product insects in Turkey. MB has also listed as an ozone depleting substance and worldwide production will be phased out in the near future, than Turkey will be faced very serious problem for export dry fruits and hazelnut. Use of irradiation to disinfest agricultural products has obvius advantages, most of which are influenced by environmental, cultural, economic, commercial and govermental factors. The first two factors, effectiveness and economy, are adressed principally. Research conducted world-wide in the past four decades have shown that radiation processing is an effective and safe method for controlling insect pests of stored products. Irradiation offers an effective alternative quarantine treatment which is more environmentally friendly and sustainable as compared to fumigants. In view of the phasing out of the currently used post harvest chemical fumigants, irradiation either alone or in conjuction with other post-harvest procedures can contribute towards the goals of achieving food security in developing and less developed countries by effectively reducing post-harvest losses

  3. The photodissociation of methyl bromide chemisorbed on Cu{111}: influence of pre-adsorbed bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, C. L. A.; Conrad, H.; Bradshaw, A. M.

    1993-05-01

    The photodissociation cross-section of CH 3Br chemisorbed on a Cu{111} surface pre-covered with Br has been measured as a function of wavelength. The onset for the reaction shifts to higher energy with increasing Br coverage and can be correlated with the increase in work function. The data are compatible with the charge-transfer mechanism involving excitation of an electron from the d-band in the substrate directly into the σ ∗ CBr orbital.

  4. 76 FR 7200 - Methyl Bromide; Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Amend Registrations To Terminate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... trays (use allowed until December 31, 2014). These requests would not affect post-harvest fumigant... all soil uses. This request does not cover the post harvest uses on the label. The requests would not... prevalently as a soil fumigant, but is also used as a post harvest treatment of commodities. In letters...

  5. 76 FR 34700 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... FR 36752, 43 FR 40000, 50 FR 51661. If no claim of confidentiality accompanies the information when.... Structures and Facilities (flour mills, rice mills, pet food): Applicants must address potential pest losses... demonstrated that an appropriate effort is being made to ] evaluate, commercialize and secure...

  6. 77 FR 29341 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... part 2 subpart B; 41 FR 36752, 43 FR 40000, 50 FR 51661. If no claim of confidentiality accompanies the.... Structures and Facilities (Flour Mills, Rice Mills, Pet Food) Applicants must address potential economic..., commercialize and secure national regulatory approval of alternatives and substitutes, taking into...

  7. Effects of box liner perforation area on methyl bromide diffusion into table grape packages during fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastic liners are used inside boxes of table grapes to retard moisture loss from the grapes and to contain sulfur dioxide gas released inside the packages to control postharvest decay. However, to control organisms of quarantine concern, regulators specify exported packages must be fumigated with m...

  8. 3-(2-Bromobenzyl-1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Yu Dong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H12BrN2+·Br−, the imidazole and phenyl rings are nearly perpendicular, making a dihedral angle of 87.71 (7°. The crystal structure is stabilized by non-classical intermolecular C—H...Br hydrogen bonds and inversion-related molecules are linked through π–π interactions between the imidazole ring systems [centroid–centroid distance = 3.472 (6 Å].

  9. Radioactive bromide partition test in early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of the radioactive bromide partition test in the early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis is described briefly. Results of the (1) normal control group, (2) tuberculous menigitis group and (3) non-tuberculous lymphocytic meningitis are reported. Dose rates administered are specified. (K.B.)

  10. Bromide interference with iodine metabolism in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    Hersonissos: ISTERH, 2007. E073-E073. [Conference International Society for Trace Element Research in Humans /8./. 21.10.2007-26.10.2007, Hersonisssos] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB401630701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spr2 * bromide * iodine * metabolism Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  11. Bromide interference with iodine metabolism in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 24, Suppl.1 (2008), S97-S98. ISSN 0742-2091. [Trace Elements in Diet , Nutrition and Health. 21.10.2008-26.10.2008, Hersonissos] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpr1 * bromide * iodine * metabolism Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  12. Effects of exogenous bromide on the metabolism of iodine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    Athens : University of Athens, 2003 - (Ermidou-Pollet, S.; Pollet, S.), s. 615-624 [Trace Elements in Human : New Perspectives /4./. Athens (GR), 09.10.2003-11.10.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : bromide * iodine * metabolism Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  13. Palladium(0)-catalyzed methylenecyclopropanation of norbornenes with vinyl bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiangang; Bao, Weiliang

    2014-05-16

    Highly strained methylenecyclopropane derivatives have been achieved via a novel and efficient Pd(0)-catalyzed domino reaction. The formal [2 + 1] cycloaddition reaction of vinyl bromides to norbornenes involves a Heck-type coupling and a C(sp(2))-H bond activation. PMID:24784731

  14. Environmental controls over methyl halide emissions from rice paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redeker, K. R.; Cicerone, R. J.

    2004-03-01

    This paper examines primary controlling factors that affect methyl halide emissions from rice paddy ecosystems. Observations of four cultivars under multiple growth conditions during studies in commercial fields and the University of California, Irvine, greenhouse lead to the conclusion that daily emissions of methyl halides are primarily determined by the growth stage of the rice plant, with the exception that methyl chloride emissions show no clear seasonal pattern. Methyl chloride emissions appear to be more from the paddy water and/or soil as opposed to the plants; however, in soils with high chloride content, these emissions appear to peak during the reproductive phase. Strong secondary influences include air temperature, soil halide concentration, and soil pore water saturation. The cultivars studied had statistically separate seasonally integrated emissions. Irradiant light and aboveground biomass appear to have little effect on emissions. Emissions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide, and methyl iodide are estimated to be 3.5, 2.3, and 48 mg/m2/yr, or 5.3, 3.5, and 72 Gg/yr, from rice paddies globally.

  15. Physicochemical and thermodynamic characterization of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromides and its aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawadzki, Maciej, E-mail: mzawadzki@ch.pw.edu.pl; Królikowska, Marta; Lipiński, Paweł

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • The aqueous solutions of bromide-based ionic liquids have been studied. • The synthesis and basic thermal characterization of pure IL have been done. • The density, dynamic viscosity, SLE and VLE have been determined. • The experimental data have been correlated using appropriate equations. - Abstract: This work is a continuation of our research of ionic liquids to investigate the physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of (ionic liquid + water) binary mixtures as a novel alternative working pair for the absorption heat pump cycle. In this work, a series of organic salts: N-propyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide, [C{sub 1}C{sub 3}PYR]Br; N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium, [C{sub 1}C{sub 4}PYR]Br and N-pentyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide, [C{sub 1}C{sub 5}PYR]Br have been synthesized. The structures of new compounds have been confirmed using NMR spectra and elementary analysis. The basic thermal characterization of pure ILs, including temperature and enthalpy of phase transition (T{sub tr}, Δ{sub tr}H), temperature and enthalpy of melting (T{sub m,} Δ{sub m}H) have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition temperature of the tested ILs were detected by the simultaneous TG/DTA experiments. The effect of temperature on the density (ρ) and dynamic viscosity (η) is reported over a wide temperature range from 298.15 to 343.15 K at ambient pressure. From experimental density data, the excess molar volumes (V{sup E}) were calculated and correlated using Redlich–Kister equation. The isothermal vapour–liquid phase equilibria (VLE) have been measured by an ebulliometric method at wide temperature range from 328.15 to 368.15 K and pressure up to 85 kPa. Experimental data have been correlated by means of NRTL equation. The solid–liquid phase equilibria (SLE) for the tested binary mixtures have been determined over whole composition range using dynamic method. The NRTL equation using parameters

  16. Bromide interference with iodine metabolism: goitrogenic and whole-body effects of excessive inorganic bromide in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    Oxford: Academic Press, 2009 - (Preedy, V.; Burrow, G.; Watson, R.), s. 587-595 ISBN 978-0-12-374135-6 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSHG-CT-2004-511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bromide * iodine * metabolism Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  17. Association of defects in lead chloride and lead bromide: Ionic conductivity and dielectric loss measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Schoonman, J.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1972-01-01

    The ionic conductivity data of pure and doped lead bromide without associated defects are used in order to explain the anomalous conductivity behaviour of copper (I) bromide and lead oxide-doped lead-bromide crystals. In these crystals precipitated dopant and associated defects are present. The asso

  18. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  19. Detection of lipopolysaccharides by ethidium bromide staining after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kido, N; Ohta, M; Kato, N

    1990-01-01

    A rapid and easy method for staining lipopolysaccharides with ethidium bromide is described. Lipopolysaccharides could be visualized by ethidium bromide with almost the same sensitivity as found with the silver-staining method in less than 30 min. The ethidium bromide-staining method was particularly suitable for staining lipopolysaccharides possessing acidic O-specific polysaccharides, which were poorly visualized by silver staining.

  20. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi; Mohammad Tehrani; Mohammad Bashashati

    2010-01-01

    Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B). Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission tim...

  1. 76 FR 65139 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: The 2012 Critical Use Exemption From the Phaseout of Methyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Supply Chain Factor (SCF). The SCF is EPA's technical estimate of the amount of methyl bromide inventory... calendar year 2011; and SCF 2012 is the supply chain factor for 2012. Using this formula, EPA calculates... levels before this rule is finalized, EPA may substitute that data for this estimate. Supply Chain...

  2. 75 FR 23167 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: The 2010 Critical Use Exemption From the Phaseout of Methyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... reflect a recent consensus decision taken by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that... methyl bromide for critical uses authorized by the parties to the Montreal Protocol? V. What is the... on August 12, 1988 (53 FR 30566), in response to the 1987 signing and subsequent ratification of...

  3. 77 FR 74435 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: The 2013 Critical Use Exemption From the Phaseout of Methyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer at the Twenty-Third Meeting of the... methyl bromide for critical uses authorized by the parties to the Montreal Protocol? V. What is the... A. The regulatory program was originally published in the Federal Register on August 12, 1988 (53...

  4. 76 FR 23769 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: The 2011 Critical Use Exemption From the Phaseout of Methyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... methyl bromide that may be produced, imported, or supplied from existing pre-phaseout inventory for those... at the Twenty-First Meeting of the Parties. EPA is seeking comment on the list of critical uses and... CAA as production plus imports minus exports) and production was phased out on January 1, 2005,...

  5. Kapok oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased need for biodiesel feedstocks has caused various vegetable oils to be examined for this purpose. In the present work, the methyl esters of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil were prepared. The essential fuel properties were comprehensively determined and evaluated in comparison to specifications in biodiesel standards and some prior results. The kinematic viscosity of kapok oil methyl esters was greater than expected, an observation traced to the elevated amounts of methyl esters with cyclic moieties. Overall, kapok oil is a potential biodiesel feedstock. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of kapok methyl esters are reported. - Highlights: • Methyl esters of kapok oil generally acceptable as a biodiesel fuel. • Kapok oil methyl esters a fuel with elevated content of fatty acid methyl esters containing cyclic moieties. • Kinematic viscosity of kapok oil methyl esters elevated likely due to fatty ester methyl esters with cyclic moieties. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  6. [2,6-Bis(dimethylaminomethylphenyl]selenium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Varga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated molecular salt, C12H19N2Se+·Br−·H2O, the two independent bromide anions lie on a twofold rotation axis. Strong intramolecular N→Se interactions [2.185 (3 and 2.181 (3 Å] are established by both N atoms of the organic group in the cation, in trans positions to each other, with an N—Se—N angle of 161.6 (1°, resulting in a T-shaped (C,N,N′Se core. In the crystal, dimeric associations are formed by Br...Se [3.662 (2 Å] and Br...H interactions [2.56 (6 and 2.63 (7 Å] involving two bromide anions, two cations and two water molecules.

  7. Use of 82Br and 131I radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interference of excessive bromide intake with iodine metabolism in the rat was studied using 82Br and 131I radionuclides. Mainly lactating rat dams and their pups were used, in addition to adult male rats, in the present studies. Particularly, the influence of high bromide intake in lactating rat dams on the transfer of iodine and bromide to suckling young through breast milk was evaluated. The induction of hypothyroid status in the pups by high bromide intake in the mothers was proved unambiguously. Excessive bromide in lactating rat dams caused a marked decrease in plasma levels of thyroid hormones both, in the mothers and in their sucklings. The effects of an enhanced bromide intake on the thyroid function in relation to iodine status in the animals were also followed. Marked goitrogenic and thyrotoxic effects of excessive bromide in adult rats were significantly enhanced under the conditions of simultaneous iodine deficiency in the experimental animals. (author)

  8. Very long terahertz free induction decay in gaseous hydrogen bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free induction decay radiation was observed in low pressure hydrogen bromide that continued for more than 180 ns after excitation by a terahertz pulse from a free electron laser. The signal was measured in real time using an ultrafast Schottky diode detector. Such a signal corresponds in frequency domain spectral resolution to about 10 MHz, which allows for resolution of the isotopic and quadrupole structure of the absorption line. (letter)

  9. Thyrotoxic effects of exogenous bromide in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    Bratislava: Slovak University of Technology, 2008 - (Manová, A.; Čacho, F.), s. 173-174 ISSN 1335-3160. [Priemyselná toxikológia 08 /28./. Tatranská Štrba (SK), 18.06.2008-20.06.2008] Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB401630701; MYORES(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid gland * bromide * rat Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  10. High-speed Laser Micromachining with Copper Bromide Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Balchev, I I; Minkovski, N I; Sabotinov, N V; Balchev, Ivaylo I.; Kostadinov, Ivan K.; Minkovski, Nikolai I.; Sabotinov, Nikola V.

    2006-01-01

    The application of the copper bromide (CuBr) laser as an attractive tool in the micro-machining of different materials has been demonstrated. High-quality drilling by trepanning and precision cutting was established on several materials with a negligible heat-affected zone (HAZ). That good performance was a result of the combination of high power visible radiation, short pulses, and close to the diffraction-limited laser beam quality with high-speed galvo scanner beam steering.

  11. Criticality in aqueous solutions of 3-methylpyridine and sodium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostko, A F; Anisimov, M A; Sengers, J V

    2004-08-01

    We address a controversial issue regarding the nature of critical behavior in ternary electrolyte solutions of water, 3-methylpyridine, and sodium bromide. Earlier light-scattering studies showed an anomalous critical behavior in this system that was attributed to the formation of a microheterogeneous phase associated with ion-molecule clustering [M.A. Anisimov, J. Jacob, A. Kumar, V.A. Agayan, and J. V. Sengers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2336 (2000)

  12. ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION OF DODECYLPYRIDINIUM BROMIDE IN APROTIC SOLVENTS: MECHANISTIC STUDIES

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hromadová, Magdaléna; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Sokolová, Romana; Kolivoška, Viliam

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 12 (2011), s. 1895-1908. ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400802; GA ČR GA203/08/1157; GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB041006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : spectroelectrochemistry * dodecylpyridinium bromide * mechanistic studies Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  13. 4-Hydroxy-1,2,6-trimethylpyridinium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Seethalakshmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, C8H12NO+·Br−·H2O, is isomorphous with the chloride analogue [Seethalakshmi et al. (2013. Acta Cryst. E69, o835–o836]. In the solid state, the cations, anions and water molecules are interlinked by a network of O—H...O, O—H...Br and C—H...Br interactions. The water molecule makes two O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, generating [010] zigzag chains of alternating water molecules and bromide anions. The cation is involved in two intermolecular C—H...Cl interactions in the chloride salt, whereas three intermolecular C—H...Br interactions are observed in the title bromide salt. This additional intermolecular C—H...Br interaction links the adjacent water and bromide zigzag chains via cationic molecules. In addition, weak π–π stacking interactions are observed between pyridinium rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5664 (13 Å].

  14. Structural, vibrational and theoretical studies of L-histidine bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. Ben; Feki, H.; Abid, Y.; Boughzala, H.; Mlayah, A.

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations of the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a non linear optical material, L-histidine bromide. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on the geometric structure available in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystals of L-histidine bromide have been grown by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro symmetric space group P2 12 12 1 of the orthorhombic system. Raman spectra have been recorded in the range [200-3500 cm -1]. All observed vibrational bands have been discussed and assigned to normal mode or to combinations and overtones on the basis of our calculations. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using HF and DFT (B3LYP and BLYP) show good agreement with the experimental data. Comparison between the measured and the calculated vibrational frequencies indicate that B3LYP is superior to the scaled HF approach for molecular vibrational problems. To investigate microscopic second order non linear optical properties of L-histidine bromide, the electric dipole μ, the polarizability α and the hyperpolarizability β were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. According to our calculations, the title compound exhibits non-zero β value revealing microscopic second order NLO behaviour.

  15. L-Tryptophan L-tryptophanium bromide: Anhydrous and monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaryan, V. V.; Giester, G.; Fleck, M.; Petrosyan, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    L-Tryptophan L-tryptophanium bromide (I) and L-tryptophan L-tryptophanium bromide monohydrate (II) are new salts with (A⋯A+) type dimeric cation. The salt (I) crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P21, Z = 2) and is isostructural with respective chloride (V.V. Ghazaryan et al., Spectrochim. Acta A 136(2015) 743-750), while the salt (II) was obtained previously (T. Takigawa et al., Bull. Chem. Soc. Jap. 39(1966) 2369-2378) and described as hemyhydrate without structure determination. The salt (II) crystallizes in orthorhombic system (space group P212121, Z = 4). The dimeric cations in (I) and (II) are formed by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds with the O⋯O distances equal to 2.538(3) Å and 2.481(3) Å respectively. The infrared and Raman spectra of the crystals are studied and compared with the spectra of L-tryptophan L-tryptophanium chloride and L-tryptophanium bromide.

  16. Palladium-catalyzed thiocarbonylation of aryl, vinyl, and benzyl bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhardt, Mia N; Ahlburg, Andreas; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2014-12-19

    A catalytic protocol for synthesis of thioesters from aryl, vinyl, and benzyl bromides as well as benzyl chlorides was developed using only stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide, produced from a solid CO precursor inside a two-chamber system. As a catalytic system, the combination of bis(benzonitrile) palladium(II) chloride and Xantphos furnished the highest yields of the desired compounds, along with the weak base, NaOAc, in anisole at 120 °C. The choice of catalytic system as well as solvent turned out to be important in order to ensure a high chemoselectivity in the reaction. Both electron-rich and electron-deficient aryl bromides worked well in this reaction. Addition of 1 equiv of sodium iodide to the reaction improved the chemoselectivity with the electron-deficient aryl bromides. The thiol scope included both aryl and alkyl thiols, including 2-mercaptobenzophenones, whereby a thiocarbonylation followed by a subsequent McMurry coupling yielded differently substituted benzothiophenes. It was demonstrated that the methodology could be applied for (13)C introduction into the thiophene ring. PMID:24919457

  17. Dissociation dynamics of methylal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaud, P.; Frey, H.-M.; Gerber, T.; Mischler, B.; Radi, P.P.; Tzannis, A.-P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The dissociation of methylal is investigated using mass spectrometry, combined with a pyrolytic radical source and femtosecond pump probe experiments. Based on preliminary results two reaction paths of methylal dissociation are proposed and discussed. (author) 4 fig., 3 refs.

  18. Photoinduced Dissociation Of N-alkyl Bromides On Gallium Arsenide(110) And Gallium Arsenide(100) Electron And Fragment Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, K A

    1999-01-01

    In this study we investigate the UV-initiated electron transfer and dissociation fragment dynamics of selected n-alkyl bromides physisorbed on single crystals of GaAs. By systematically varying different chemical and structural parameters of the adsorbate/substrate system we explore a number of fundamental questions regarding the basic physics and chemistry of photochemical processes on surfaces. Monolayers of methyl, ethyl and propyl bromide were deposited on the (110), Ga-terminated (100) and As- terminated (100) surfaces of GaAs without thermal decomposition at 80 K. Substrate-mediated electron transfer to the molecule, induced by exposure to UV light at 193, 248 and 351 nm, causes C-Br bond cleavage. The electron transfer dynamics of this mechanism are examined as a function of wavelength and molecular complexity of the adsorbate to better understand the flow of energy and charge across the adsorbate/substrate interface. The photodynamics of the alkyl fragments are studied using mass-, energy- and angle-r...

  19. High bromide intake in the lactating rat significantly influences transfer of iodine and bromide via mother's milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    Brno : Masarykova univerzita, 2007. s. 13-14. ISBN 80-120-3942-6. [Pracovní setkání biochemiků a molekulárních biologů /10./. 08.02.2006-09.02.2006, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spr2 * bromide * iodine * rat Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  20. High bromide intake in the lactating rat significantly influences transfer of iodine and bromide via mother's milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    Brno : Masarykova univerzita v Brně, 2006 - (Wimmerová, M.; Beneš, P.). s. 13-14 ISBN 80-210-3942-6. [Pracovní setkání biochemiků a molekulárních biologů /10./. 08.02.2006-09.02.2006, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bromide * iodine * mother's milk Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  1. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D.

    1984-01-01

    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride + sodi

  2. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD50 of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD50), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD50 of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD50 soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after soman, blocked seizures.

  3. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Steven L., E-mail: stevenmiller17@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki, E-mail: vanderjaska@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Figueiredo, Taiza H., E-mail: taiza.figueiredo.ctr@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Prager, Eric M., E-mail: eric.prager683@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Almeida-Suhett, Camila P., E-mail: camilapalmeida@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Apland, James P., E-mail: james.p.apland.civ@mail.mil [Neurotoxicology Branch, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD{sub 50} of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD{sub 50}), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD{sub 50} soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after

  4. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of dihydroxy quaternary ammonium salts with long chain alkyl bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Shuai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Sun, Ju-Feng; Hou, Gui-Ge; Wang, Yu-Peng; Qu, Rong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Five N-methyl-N-R-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromides (R = -benzyl (chloride, BNQAS), -dodecyl (C12QAS), -tetradecyl (C14QAS), -hexadecyl (C16QAS), -octadecyl (C18QAS)) were prepared based on N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and halohydrocarbon. Five QAS were characterized by FTIR, NMR, and MS. BNQAS, C12QAS, C14QAS, and C16QAS were confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Their antibacterial properties indicated good antibacterial abilities against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, especially C12QAS with the best antibacterial ability (100% to E. coli, 95.65% to S. aureus, and 91.41% to B. subtilis). In addition, C12QAS also displayed the best antifungal activities than BNQAS and C18QAS against Cytospora mandshurica, Botryosphaeria ribis, Physalospora piricola, and Glomerella cingulata with the ratio of full marks. The strategy provides a facile way to design and develop new types of antibacterial drugs for application in preventing the fruit rot, especially apple. PMID:25215430

  5. Transport of bromide and pesticides through an undisturbed soil column: a modeling study with global optimization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Dohnal, Michal; Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Ray, Chittaranjan; Vogel, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The fate of pesticides in tropical soils is still not understood as well as it is for soils in temperate regions. In this study, water flow and transport of bromide tracer and five pesticides (atrazine, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl, S-metolachlor, and imidacloprid) through an undisturbed soil column of tropical Oxisol were analyzed using a one-dimensional numerical model. The numerical model is based on Richards' equation for solving water flow, and the advection-dispersion equation for solving solute transport. Data from a laboratory column leaching experiment were used in the uncertainty analysis using a global optimization methodology to evaluate the model's sensitivity to transport parameters. All pesticides were found to be relatively mobile (sorption distribution coefficients lower than 2 cm(3) g(-1)). Experimental data indicated significant non-conservative behavior of bromide tracer. All pesticides, with the exception of imidacloprid, were found less persistent (degradation half-lives smaller than 45 days). Three of the five pesticides (atrazine, sulfometuron methyl, and S-metolachlor) were better described by the linear kinetic sorption model, while the breakthrough curves of imazaquin and imidacloprid were more appropriately approximated using nonlinear instantaneous sorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the model is most sensitive to sorption distribution coefficient. The prediction limits contained most of the measured points of the experimental breakthrough curves, indicating adequate model concept and model structure for the description of transport processes in the soil column under study. Uncertainty analysis using a physically-based Monte Carlo modeling of pesticide fate and transport provides useful information for the evaluation of chemical leaching in Hawaii soils. PMID:25703186

  6. Transport of bromide and pesticides through an undisturbed soil column: A modeling study with global optimization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Dohnal, Michal; Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Ray, Chittaranjan; Vogel, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    The fate of pesticides in tropical soils is still not understood as well as it is for soils in temperate regions. In this study, water flow and transport of bromide tracer and five pesticides (atrazine, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl, S-metolachlor, and imidacloprid) through an undisturbed soil column of tropical Oxisol were analyzed using a one-dimensional numerical model. The numerical model is based on Richards' equation for solving water flow, and the advection-dispersion equation for solving solute transport. Data from a laboratory column leaching experiment were used in the uncertainty analysis using a global optimization methodology to evaluate the model's sensitivity to transport parameters. All pesticides were found to be relatively mobile (sorption distribution coefficients lower than 2 cm3 g- 1). Experimental data indicated significant non-conservative behavior of bromide tracer. All pesticides, with the exception of imidacloprid, were found less persistent (degradation half-lives smaller than 45 days). Three of the five pesticides (atrazine, sulfometuron methyl, and S-metolachlor) were better described by the linear kinetic sorption model, while the breakthrough curves of imazaquin and imidacloprid were more appropriately approximated using nonlinear instantaneous sorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the model is most sensitive to sorption distribution coefficient. The prediction limits contained most of the measured points of the experimental breakthrough curves, indicating adequate model concept and model structure for the description of transport processes in the soil column under study. Uncertainty analysis using a physically-based Monte Carlo modeling of pesticide fate and transport provides useful information for the evaluation of chemical leaching in Hawaii soils.

  7. An Environmentally Benign Access to Dimethylated 1,6-Dihydropyrimidines Using Dimethyl Carbonate as Methylating Agent under Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-Cun; QUAN Zheng-Jun; ZHANG Zhang

    2008-01-01

    An environmentally benign procedure for dimethylated 1,6-dihydropyrimidines has been developed by the reaction of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-thiones with dimethyl carbonate, a non-toxic and environmentally friendly reagent.The methylation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-thione was promoted by MgO and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) under microwave.This protocol avoids the use of strong bases and highly toxic methylating agents such as methyl halide or dimethyl sulfate.Additionally, the possible role of MgO/TBAB in the reaction was also presented.

  8. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response

  9. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  10. Non-neuronal, but atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short-chain fatty acids: age-dependent desensitization and restoration under inflammatory conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Masako; Kimura, Shunsuke; Karaki, Shinichiro; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Yajima, Takaji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells sense short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh). However, the roles of luminalSCFAs and epithelialACh under normal and pathological conditions remain unknown. We examined ileal contractile responses toSCFAs at different ages and their mucosal cholinergic alterations under inflammatory conditions. Ileal contractile responses toSCFAs in 1-day-old pups to 7-week-old mice were compared using an isotonic transducer, and responses to an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in 7-week-old mice. ThemRNAexpression levels of aSCFAactivate free fatty acid receptor, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (Chat), and choline transporter-like protein 4 (CTL4) were measured using real-time quantitativeRT-PCRAChE was analyzed by histochemical and optical enzymatic assays. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs occurred in all 1-day-old pups, but were frequently desensitized after the weaning period. These contractile responses were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and did not appear when the mucosal layer had been scraped off. Contractile desensitization in 7-week-old mice was abolished in the presence of theAChE inhibitor, eserine, which was consistent with increasedAChE activity after weaning. Ileal contractions toSCFAs in adult mice were restored byLPS, which significantly increased the epithelialmRNAexpression of Chat andCTL4. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs constitutively occur in the newborn period, and are desensitized during developmental stages following the up-regulated expression ofAChE in the villous mucosa, but are restored under inflammatory conditions possibly via the release of epithelialACh. PMID:27053293

  11. Automated determination of bromide in waters by ion chromatography with an amperometric detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyen, G.S.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    An automated ion chromatograph, including a program controller, an automatic sampler, an integrator, and an amperometric detector, was used to develop a procedure for the determination of bromide in rain water and many ground waters. Approximately 10 min is required to obtain a chromatogram. The detection limit for bromide is 0.01 mg l-1 and the relative standard deivation is <5% for bromide concentrations between 0.05 and 0.5 mg l-1. Chloride interferes if the chloride-to-bromide ratio is greater than 1 000:1 for a range of 0.01-0.1 mg l-1 bromide; similarly, chloride interferes in the 0.1-1.0 mg l-1 range if the ratio is greater than 5 000:1. In the latter case, a maximum of 2 000 mg l-1 of chloride can be tolerated. Recoveries of known concentrations of bromide added to several samples, ranged from 97 to 110%. ?? 1983.

  12. A study of bromide in the Mandovi-Zuari river system of Goa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Francisca P.; Dalal, V. N. Kamat

    1985-10-01

    Bromide was the subject of detailed investigation in the Mandovi-Zuari river system and information was compiled on its spatial and temporal distribution. A simple mixture relation of Carpenter et al. was applied and seawater percentage and bromide concentrations were computed. The variation of bromide with chlorinity was linear indicating the purely conservative character of bromide and its seawater origin. Seawater ranged between 1 and 3% in monsoon, 76 and 91% in post-monsoon and 92 and 97% in pre-monsoon in the Mandovi-Zuari river system. As the bromide concentration varied linearly with chlorinity both longitudinally and depthwise, it followed that bromide exhibited a simple distribution pattern established by conservative mixing.

  13. On the complexing of certain transition metal bromides with trimecaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis and IR spectroscopy of the structure of cadmium bromide coordination compounds and certain other elements with trimecaine (diethylamino-2,4-6-trymethylacetanilidine, L) are carried out. Complexes of the CdLBr2(1) and Cd(LH)2Br4(2) composition are prepared, this molecular structure is established. In complex 1 cadmium atom is shown to be coordinately related to the nitrogen atom of the ternary aminogroup; in complex 2 the bond between the CdBr42- anion and ternary nitrogen atom of the ligand is of the ionic character

  14. Interaction between gaseous ozone and crystalline potassium bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanov, A. V.; Maksimov, I. B.; Isaikina, O. Ya.; Antipenko, E. E.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The formation of nonvolatile products of the oxidation of a bromide ion during the interaction between gaseous ozone and powdered crystalline KBr is studied. It is found that potassium bromate KBrO3 is the main product of the reaction. The influence of major experimental factors (the duration of ozonation, the concentration of ozone, the humidity of the initial gas, and the temperature) on the rate of formation of bromate is studied. The effective constants of the formation of bromate during the interaction between O3 and Br- in a heterogeneous gas-solid body system and in a homogeneous aqueous solution are compared.

  15. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.

  16. The reasonable application of atropine in the treatment of acute organic phosphorus poisoning%阿托品在治疗急性有机磷中毒中的合理应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭育旋

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the reasonable application of atropine in the treatment of acute organic phosphorus poisoning. Methods:37 patients with acute organic phosphorus poisoning were selected.After emetic,gastric lavage and other routine therapy, they were given atropine treatment.We analyzed the recovery of the patients.Results:In 37 patients,the recovery of 36 cases(97.3%) was good after the use of atropine treatment.1 case(2.7%) died because of atropine poisoning.Conclusion:In the treatment process of patients with organic phosphorus poisoning,the reasonable application of atropine was the important factor for affecting the therapeutic effects.%目的:探讨阿托品在抢救急性有机磷农药中毒患者时的合理应用。方法:收治急性有机磷中毒患者37例,通过催吐、洗胃等常规治疗,再使用阿托品治疗,分析患者恢复情况。结果:37例患者中,使用阿托品治疗后恢复情况良好36例(97.3%),死于阿托品中毒1例(2.7%)。结论:在有机磷中毒患者救治过程中,合理应用阿托品是救治成功的重要因素。

  17. Modeling water/lithium bromide absorption chillers in ASPEN Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Single- and double-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller designs are numerically modeled using ASPEN. → The modeling procedure is described and the results are compared to published modeling data to access prediction accuracy. → Predictions for the single- and double-effect designs are within 3% and 5%, respectively of published data for all cycle parameters of interest. → The absorption cycle models presented allow investigation of using absorption chillers for waste heat utilization in the oil and gas industry. -- Abstract: Absorption chillers are a viable option for providing waste heat-powered cooling or refrigeration in oil and gas processing plants, thereby improving energy efficiency. In this paper, single- and double-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller designs are numerically modeled using ASPEN. The modeling procedure is described and the results are compared to published modeling data to access prediction accuracy. Predictions for the single- and double-effect designs are within 3% and 5%, respectively of published data for all cycle parameters of interest. The absorption cycle models presented not only allow investigation into the benefits of using absorption chillers for waste heat utilization in the oil and gas industry, but are also generically applicable to a wide range of other applications.

  18. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power amplifier system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G N Tiwari; R K Mishra; R Khare; S V Nakhe

    2014-02-01

    Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of operating parameters. The electrical input power was varied from 2.6 to 4.3 kW, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was changed from 16 to 19 kHz, and the pressure of the buffer gas (neon) was kept fixed at 20 mbar. When the electrical input power was increased to 4.3 kW from 2.6 kW, the tube-wall temperature also increased to 488°C from 426°C but the ratio of the green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 3.73. The ratio of green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 1.63 when the PRF of the laser was increased to 19 kHz from 16 kHz. These observations are explained in terms of electron temperature, energy levels of transitions, and voltage and current waveforms across the laser head.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercuric Bromide-Phenothiazine Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidisha A. Alwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available N-alkylphenothiazines (NAPTZs are biologically active heterocyclic compounds that find extensive applications in the field of medicine. In the pharmaceutical industry, they are used as psychotherapeutic, antiemetic, and antihistaminic drugs. In this study, complexation reactions of mercuric bromide with NAPTZs as principal ligands have been investigated in MeOH medium. Five mercuric bromide complexes of the NAPTZ ligands namely, chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CP.HCl, promethazine hydrochloride (PM.HCl, ethopropazine hydrochloride (EP.HCl, trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TF.2HCl and thioridazine hydrochloride (TR.HCl have been synthesized. These complexes were subjected to elemental analysis, solubility, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility, U.V-Vis, I.R, and NMR spectroscopy. The molecular formulations of the complexes have been found to be: [HgBr2(CP2].4H2O; [HgBr2(PM2].2H2O; [HgBr2(EP2]; [HgBr2(TF2].2H2O and [HgBr2(TR2]. Tentative molecular structures have been proposed and presented.

  20. Bromoform formation in ozonated groundwater containing bromide and humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.J.; Amy, G.L.; Moore, C.A.; Zika, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of bromide ion, organic carbon concentration (natural aquatic humic substances), pH, and solar irradiation on the formation of bromoform in ozonated groundwater has been studied. The studies were conducted on four unique samples of groundwater taken from different regions of the Biscayne Aquifer in southern Florida. All other conditions being equal, increases in bromide ion concentrations resulted in increases in CHBr/sub 3/ formation. In three of the four samples, CHBr/sub 3/ formation decreased as the pH level increased from 5 to 9. The fourth sample exhibited an opposite trend whereby the CHBr/sub 3/ concentration increased with increasing pH. Bromoform concentration increased with increased O/sub 3/ concentration over an ozone dosage range of 3.4 to 6.7 mg/L. Ozonated samples placed in sunlight immediately after ozone addition showed a decrease in the formation of CHBr/sub 3/ presumably due to the photodecomposition of HOBr/OBr.

  1. Bromoform formation in ozonated groundwater containing bromide and humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copper, W.J. (Florida International Univ., Miami (United States)); Amy, G.L. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)); Moore, C.A.; Zika, R.G. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States))

    The effect of bromide ion, organic carbon concentration (natural aquatic humic substances), pH, and solar irradiation on the formation of bromoform in ozonated groundwater has been studied. The studies were conducted on four unique samples of groundwater taken from different regions of the Biscayne Aquifer in southern Florida. All other conditions being equal, increases in bromide ion concentrations resulted in increases in CHBr{sub 3} formation. In three of the four samples, CHBr{sub 3} formation decreased as the pH level increased from 5 to 9. The fourth sample exhibited an opposite trend whereby the CHBr{sub 3} concentration increased with increasing pH. Bromoform concentration increased with increased O{sub 3} concentration over an ozone dosage range of 3.4 to 6.7 mg/L. Ozonated samples placed in sunlight immediately after ozone addition showed a decrease in the formation of CHBr{sub 3}, presumably due to the photodecomposition of HOBr/OBr.

  2. A Novel Synthesis of N-Methyl-N-aryl Carbamates from Aromatic Amines and Dimethyl Carbonate Catalyzed by K2CO3/Bu4NBr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Lu SHEN; Xuan Zhen JIANG

    2004-01-01

    A facile synthesis of N-methyl-N-aryl carbamates from aromatic amines and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) has been achieved with high yields in the presence of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and tetrabutylammonium bromide (Bu4NBr) under solvent-free conditions.

  3. Validation of an automated fluorescein method for determining bromide in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, M. J.; Schroder, L.J.; Friedman, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    Surface, atmospheric precipitation and deionized water samples were spiked with ??g l-1 concentrations of bromide, and the solutions stored in polyethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene bottles. Bromide was determined periodically for 30 days. Automated fluorescein and ion chromatography methods were used to determine bromide in these prepared samples. Analysis of the data by the paired t-test indicates that the two methods are not significantly different at a probability of 95% for samples containing from 0.015 to 0.5 mg l-1 of bromide. The correlation coefficient for the same sets of paired data is 0.9987. Recovery data, except for the surface water samples to which 0.005 mg l-1 of bromide was added, range from 89 to 112%. There appears to be no loss of bromide from solution in either type of container.Surface, atmospheric precipitation and deionized water samples were spiked with mu g l** minus **1 concentrations of bromide, and the solutions stored in polyethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene bottles. Bromide was determined periodically for 30 days. Automated fluorescein and ion chromatography methods were used to determine bromide in these prepared samples. Analysis of the data by the paired t-test indicates that the two methods are not significantly different at a probability of 95% for samples containing from 0. 015 to 0. 5 mg l** minus **1 of bromide. The correlation coefficient for the same sets of paired data is 0. 9987. Recovery data, except for the surface water samples to which 0. 005 mg l** minus **1 of bromide was added, range from 89 to 112%. Refs.

  4. 阿托品救治有机磷中毒不同给药途径的疗效比较%Study on Atropine Administration Methods in Rescuing Patients with Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新桥; 谭琪敏; 钟房友; 钟丽娴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of different atropine medications in remedy of severely acute organophosphorus pesticide. Methods A retrospective study were performed.This study was carried out in 75 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. The patients were divided into three groups according atropine medications: Group A(25 cases), were treated with intravenous injection of atropine and artificial; Group B(25 cases)directly with micro pump delivery, Group C(25 cases)achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration patients are atropine artificial intravenous injection, the patient achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration; Compared the efficacy and complications among the three groups. Results There is significant difference between minim continuous pump after atropine administration and interval injecting or minim continuous pump. As a result, the patients in Group C were more effective and fewer complications than that in Group A and C. Conclusion Using micro-pump after atropine administration artificial intravenous injection of atropine was the better effect, it has proved to be a fine medication.%目的:分析基层医院救治有机磷中毒患者时,阿托品不同给药方式的疗效差异,为探索其最佳给药方法提供依据。方法回顾分析75例急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,25例进行人工间歇静脉推注阿托品法(A 组),25例采用微量泵持续静脉输注阿托品法(B 组,25例先间歇静脉推注阿托品,达阿托品化后再用微量泵泵入阿托品(C 组),分析比较三组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、疗效以及不良反应和并发症。结果 C 组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、阿托品过量、不足中毒、用量、尿潴留和多器官功能损害等明显降低而治愈率显著提高(P <0.05)。结论采用阿托品人工静脉推注,待患者阿托品化再予以微量泵给药,不仅起效

  5. High Biomass Specific Methyl Halide Production Rates of Selected Coastal Marsh Plants and its Relationship to Halide Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, S. L.; Wang, N.; Cicerone, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    Salt tolerant coastal marsh plants (halophytes) have previously been shown to be globally significant producers of methyl chloride (MeCl) and methyl bromide (MeBr). While halophytes are known for their high salt content, there are few reports of their halide content. Our studies have attempted to quantify biomass specific methyl halide (MeX) production from these plants and relate it to tissue halide levels. MeCl, MeBr and MeI production rates and tissue chloride, bromide and iodide concentrations from selected coastal marsh plants were measured for nearly a year. Certain halophyte species (i.e. Batis and Frankenia) have very high summer biomass specific production rates for MeX (e.g. Frankenia: 1 ug MeCl /gfwt/hr; 80 ng MeBr/gfwt/hr; 8 ng MeI/gfwt/hr). These rates of MeCl and MeBr production are much higher than those from other coastal marsh plants or seaweeds. Plant halide levels remain high throughout the year, while MeX production peaks at a high level in mid summer falling to low winter rates. This implies a linkage to plant growth. Higher levels of chloride and bromide were seen in the fleshy marsh plants such as Batis (saltwort, approximately 20 percent dry wt chloride, 0.4 percent dry wt bromide) and Salicornia (pickleweed) than in the others such as Frankenia (alkali heath) approx 7 percent dry wt chloride, 0.1 percent dry wt bromide) or Spartina (cordgrass). No such trend was seen for iodide, which ranged from 4 - 10 ppm. Calculations show the daily halide losses from MeX production are far less than the variability in tissue halide content. MeX production removes a small fraction of the total tissue halide from these plants suggesting that MeX production is not a mechanism used by these species to control internal halide levels. Saltwort cell-free extracts incubated with bromide or iodide in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) produced the corresponding MeX. MeBr production was inhibited by caffeic acid the substrate of lignin-specific O-methyl

  6. Determination of micro-amount bromide in uranium trioxide by spectrophotometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of bromide in the production of uranium trioxide is one of the most important control factors, so determining it accurately seems important. When uranium trioxide is dissolved in nitric acid, in the presence of AgNO3 solution, micro-amount bromide can be co- precipitated with AgCl. Bromide can be separated by centrifugation from a large amount of UO22+ and other anions. In the existing of KOH and H2O2, AgCl can be changed into free bromide. By adding ammonium molybdate as catalyst, bromide and excessive KBrO3 can react and produce Br2. In the medium of tert-butanol-ethanol, Br2 can react with basic fuchsine and produce a purple compound which is stable, the bromide content is determined by spectrophotometric method. The results show that it is a highly sensitive method with low detection limit. Its apparent molar absorption coefficient κ' is 1.7 x 104 L/(mol·cm). Its detection limit is 9 μg/L and determination limit is 0.13 mg/L. The linear relationship is in the range of 0.2-1.6 mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. The relative standard deviation is less than 10% after it is determed six times at the same time. For bromide content of 4.00 and 8.00 μg, the bromide recovery obtained are between 94% and 103%. (authors)

  7. Removal of bromide by aluminium chloride coagulant in the presence of humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Fei; Shu, Haimin; Dai, Youzhi

    2007-08-17

    Bromide can form disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water disinfection process, which have adverse effects on human health. Using aluminium chloride as a model coagulant, removal of bromide by coagulation was investigated in the absence or presence of humic acid (HA) in synthetic water and then was conducted in raw water. Results demonstrated that in synthetic water, 93.3-99.2% removal efficiency of bromide was achieved in the absence of HA with 3-15 mg/L coagulant, while 78.4-98.4% removal efficiency of bromide was obtained in the presence of HA with the same coagulant dosage and 86.8-98.8% HA was removed simultaneously. Bromide in raw water was removed 87.0% with 15 mg/L coagulant. HA apparently reduced the removal of bromide with low coagulant dosage or at high pH, while minor influence on removal of bromide was observed with high coagulant dosage or at low pH. Thus, bromide could be reduced effectively by enhanced coagulation in drinking water treatment. PMID:17289257

  8. SYNTHESIS AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF HYDROPHOBICALLY MODIFIED POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    YANG, YJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1991-01-01

    A series of hydrophobically modified homo- and copolymers of the poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide) type has been prepared by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers in aqueous solution. Depending on the length of the alkyl side chain (varied between

  9. The method of molecular dynamics in ethidium bromide-DNA interaction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of ethidium bromide with the DNA by the method of molecular dynamics was studied. The geometric and energy parameters of DNA-ethidium bromide connectivity had been calculated. A comparative analysis of the experimentally identified connectivity parameters by different methods and parameters of molecular dynamics method had been carried out

  10. Xanthine Biosensor Based on Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Modified Pyrolytic Graphite Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG,Ji-Lin(唐纪琳); HAN,Xiao-Jun(韩晓军); HUANG,Wei-Min(黄卫民); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)

    2002-01-01

    The vesicle of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)which contained tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was mixed with xanthine oxidase, and the mixture was cast on the pyrolytic graphite electrode. The lipid films were used to supply a biological environment resembling biomembrane on the surface of the electrode. TTF was used as a mediator because of its high electron-transfer efficiency. A novel xanthine biosensor based on cast DDAB film was developed. The effects of pH and operating potential were explored for optimum analytical performance by using the amperometric method. The response time of the biosensor was less than 10 s. The detection limit of the biosensor was 3.2 × 10-7 mol/L and the liner range was from 4 × 10-7 mol/L to 2.4 × 10-6 mol/L.

  11. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba

    2007-11-01

    The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (), hydrogen bond donor ability () and dipolarity/polarizability (*) of the solvent. The LSER derived from the statistical analysis indicates that the transition state is more solvated than the reactants due to hydrogen bond donation and polarizability of the solvent while the reactant is more solvated than the transition state due to electrophilicity of the solvent. Study of the reaction in methanol, dimethyl formamide mixtures suggests that the rate is maximum when dipolar interactions between the two solvents are maximum.

  12. Timing resolution measurements of a 3 in. lanthanum bromide detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, L., E-mail: luca.galli@pi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); De Gerone, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Largo Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli Studi di Genova, Largo Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Dussoni, S. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli Studi di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Papa, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Tenchini, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli Studi di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Signorelli, G. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce) is a scintillator that presents very good energy and timing resolutions and it is a perfect candidate for photon detector in future experiments to search for lepton flavor violation as in μ→eγ or μ→e conversion. While energy resolution was thoroughly investigated, timing resolution at several MeV presents some experimental challenge. We measured the timing resolution of a 3 in.×3 in. cylindrical LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) crystal versus few reference detectors by means of a nuclear reaction from a Cockcroft–Walton accelerator that produces coincident γ-rays in the 4.4–11.6 MeV range. Preliminary results allow us to extrapolate the properties of a segmented γ-ray detector in the 50–100 MeV range.

  13. Optical studies of X-irradiated sodium bromide single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical absorption of sodium bromide single crystals colored by X-rays for durations ranging from 8 hours to 200 hours at room temperature has been studied. Two well-resolved absorption bands one at 535 nm (F-band) and the other at 255 nm have been observed in all the samples. Another band at 840 nm (M-band) has also been observed when the irradiation time was extended to 200 hours. A band at 770 nm has been detected for the first time during the process of optical bleaching. The effects of optical bleaching with F-band light on these absorption bands have been studied in detail for durations ranging from a few seconds to 1820 minutes at temperature below the coloration temperature. (author)

  14. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ) Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun(马礼敦); CHENG,Guang-Hui(程广辉); WU,Hong-Xiang(吴宏翔); LIN,Han-Yi(林涵毅); SHEN,Xiao-Liang(沈孝良); SHI,Guo-Shun(施国顺)

    2002-01-01

    There are two theories, SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide (AAC-B).Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at different reaction time. In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were de-termined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)and the reaction process wes studied by the combination of Xray powder diffraction and EXAFS. It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  15. Radioiodine tracers as useful tools in studies of thyrotoxic effects of exogenous bromide and perchlorate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the use of 125I and 131I radionuclides, we followed the effects of exogenous bromide and perchlorate ions on the metabolism of iodine and of thyroid hormone in the rat. The presumed thyrotoxic effects of bromide and perchlorate have been confirmed and quantified. Correct assay conditions for the radiometric determination of the enzyme activity of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) have been established. The use of the adapted radiometric assay revealed a divergent influence of bromide and perchlorate ions on the TPO activity in the rat thyroids. Excessive bromide exerted a biphasic effect, depending on the extent of bromide intake in the animals. In contrast, in all the rats that were administered with high amounts of perchlorate were found elevated TPO activities. (author)

  16. Estudio comparativo del efecto de las asociaciones anestésicas atropina-tiletamina/zolazepam y atropina-ketamina/diazepam en emúes (Dromaius novaehollandiae adultos Effects of the anaesthetic associations atropine-tiletamine/zolazepam and atropine-ketamine/diazepam on adult emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pulgar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se determinó el efecto de las asociaciones anestésicas atropina IM (0,05 mg/kg-tiletamina/zolazepam EV (4 mg/kg total y atropina IM (0,05 mg/kg-ketamina EV (5 mg/kg total/diazepam (0,5 mg/kg sobre la respuesta fisiológica, anestésica y bioquímica de emúes adultos. Los ejemplares (n = 7 por grupo fueron asignados al azar a dos tratamientos anestésicos. La frecuencia cardiaca y la temperatura corporal de los emúes mostraron un incremento al inicio del tratamiento experimental (entre 5-10 min, P = 0,001. Sin embargo, la frecuencia respiratoria y pulso disminuyeron (entre 5-15 min, P = 0,003. Estos patrones fueron detectados para ambas asociaciones anestésicas. Por otra parte, la inducción anestésica y el tiempo de recuperación anestésica no fueron afectados por los tratamientos (P = 0,12 y P = 0,13 respectivamente. Los emúes tratados con tiletamina mostraron un mayor tiempo de anestesia quirúrgica, comparados con los emúes tratados con ketamina (P = 0,012. En el caso de A.S.T. y glucosa, ambas variables presentaron un incremento a las 24 h de la aplicación del tratamiento anestésico, resultando los niveles de glucosa más altos en emúes tratados con ketamina (P = 0,006 y P = 0,008 respectivamente. Finalmente, la hemoglobina, proteínas totales y ácido úrico no presentaron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (P = 0,99, P = 0,97 y P = 0,81 respectivamente. En conclusión, los dos protocolos anestésicos resultaron seguros y eficientes para la manipulación de los animales; sin embargo, el mayor tiempo de anestesia observado en animales tratados con tiletamina podría determinar la preferencia por esta asociación anestésica.In this study, the effects of the anaesthetic associations atropine IM (0.05 mg/kg-tiletamine/zolazepam IV (4 mg/kg total and atropine IM (0.05 mg/kg-ketamine IV (5 mg/kg total/diazepam (0.5 mg/kg on physiological, anaesthetic and biochemical responses were determined on adult

  17. 阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果研究%The study on the effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果.方法:60例有机磷中毒患者随机均分为两组,每组各30例,A组采用阿托品联合血液灌流进行治疗,B组单纯采用阿托品进行治疗,后将两组患者的综合治疗效果进行比较.结果:A组的各项治疗效果评价项目均优于B组,P<0.05,差异均有统计学意义.结论:阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果较佳,值得临床推广应用.%Objective: To study the effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning. Methods: 60 patients with organophosphorus poisoning were randomly divided into two groups with 30 patients in each group, and the group A were treated with atropine combined with hemoperfusion, the group B were treated with atropine, then the comprehensive effect of the two groups were compared. Results: The various evaluation items of group A were all better than those of group B, all ρ<0.05, there were significant differences. Conclusion: The effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning is better, and it is worthy of popularization and application.

  18. The reactivity of phenancyl bromide under β-cyclodextrin as supramolecular catalyst: a computational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yali; Wang, Xueye; Liu, Na

    2015-05-01

    Phenacyl bromide as one starting material in multicomponent reactions (MCRs) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as catalyst can get an excellent yield in short reaction times. The interaction of β-CD with phenacyl bromide plays an important role in this process. This paper studies the complex of β-CD with phenacyl bromide using density functional theory (DFT) method. Energy is investigated to find out the lowest energy of two possible complexation models. Hydrogen bonds are researched on the basis of natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis. The relative position between phenacyl bromide and β-CD is confirmed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)HNMR). The results of frontier molecular orbitals and charge distribution reveal that β-CD catalyst improves the reactivity and electrophilicity of phenacyl bromide, meanwhile, the carbonyl group of phenacyl bromide more easily gives a carbocationic intermediate in the presence of β-CD as catalyst. The reactivity of phenancyl bromide under β-CD as supramolecular catalysis is improved. PMID:25929992

  19. Lysine methylation: beyond histones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Zhang; Hong Wen; Xiaobing Shi

    2012-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins,such as acetylation,methylation,phosphorylation,and ubiquitylation,play essential roles in regulating chromatin dynamics.Combinations of different modifications on the histone proteins,termed 'histone code' in many cases,extend the information potential of the genetic code by regulating DNA at the epigenetic level.Many PTMs occur on non-histone proteins as well as histones,regulating protein-protein interactions,stability,localization,and/or enzymatic activities of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes.Although protein phosphorylation,ubiquitylation,and acetylation have been extensively studied,only a few proteins other than histones have been reported that can be modified by lysine methylation.This review summarizes the current progress on lysine methylation of nonhistone proteins,and we propose that lysine methylation,like phosphorylation and acetylation,is a common PTM that regulates proteins in diverse cellular processes.

  20. Methylated DNA in Borrelia species.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, C A; Johnson, R C

    1990-01-01

    The DNA of Borrelia species was examined for the presence of methylated GATC sequences. The relapsing-fever Borrelia sp., B. coriaceae, and only 3 of 22 strains of B. burgdorferi contained adenine methylation systems. B. anserina lacked an adenine methylation system. Fundamental differences in DNA methylation exist among members of the genus Borrelia.

  1. Inheritance of Cytosine Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillo, Desiree; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Vinson, Charles

    2016-11-01

    There are numerous examples of parental transgenerational inheritance that is epigenetic. The informational molecules include RNA, chromatin modifications, and cytosine methylation. With advances in DNA sequencing technologies, the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms mediating these effects are now starting to be uncovered. This mini-review will highlight some of the examples of epigenetic inheritance, the establishment of cytosine methylation in sperm, and recent genomic studies linking sperm cytosine methylation to epigenetic effects on offspring. A recent paper examining changes in diet and sperm cytosine methylation from pools of eight animals each, found differences between a normal diet, a high fat diet, and a low protein diet. However, epivariation between individuals within a group was greater than the differences between groups obscuring any potential methylation changes linked to diet. Learning more about epivariation may help unravel the mechanisms that regulate cytosine methylation. In addition, other experimental and genetic systems may also produce more dramatic changes in the sperm methylome, making it easier to unravel potential transgenerational phenomena. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2346-2352, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26910768

  2. SYNTHESIS OF POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)-graft-POLYSTYRENE BY ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-min Gong; Qun-sheng Li; Yan Shi; Zhi-feng Fu; Shu-ke Jiao; Wan-tai Yang

    2003-01-01

    The radical copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate was carried out via atom complex. This polymerization proceeds in a living fashion with controlled molecular weight and low polydispersity. The obtained copolymer was esterified with 2-bromoisobutylryl bromide yielding a macroinitiator, poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)ethyl methacrylate), and its structure was characterized by 1HNMR. This macroinitiator was used for ATRP of styrene to synthesize poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafi-polystyrene. The molecular weight of graft copolymer increased with the monomer conversion, and the polydispersity remained relatively low.The individual grafted polystyrene chains were cleaved from the macroinitiator backbone by hydrolysis and the hydrolyzed product was characterized by 1H-NMR and GPC.

  3. Absorber performance of a water/lithium-bromide absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guozhen [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China)], E-mail: xieguozhen@bucea.edu.cn; Sheng Guogang [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China); Bansal, Pradeep Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand); Li, Guang [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2008-09-15

    An absorber is one of the most important components of a lithium-bromide absorption chiller (LBAC) as its absorbing characteristics directly influence the performance of the whole chiller. It has been indicated that the absorbing efficiency and cooling capacity could be improved by increasing the solution concentration. In this paper, based on the mechanism of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes, the theoretical models of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes have been established. A series of programs used for computing the theoretical mathematical models, including simulation of LBAC cycle and falling film absorption, have been programmed. The models have been validated reasonably by the experimental data. The results show that the cooling capacity of the LBAC varies in parabola shape of curve with the solution concentration from 52.5% to 58.5%, and that the best coefficient of performance (COP) occurs at concentration of 57%. The investigation proposes the absorbing process of sub-steady thermodynamic equilibrium for the duality solution under increase absorbing pressure.

  4. Absorber performance of a water/lithium-bromide absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Guozhen; Sheng, Guogang; Li, Guang [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China); Bansal, Pradeep Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand)

    2008-09-15

    An absorber is one of the most important components of a lithium-bromide absorption chiller (LBAC) as its absorbing characteristics directly influence the performance of the whole chiller. It has been indicated that the absorbing efficiency and cooling capacity could be improved by increasing the solution concentration. In this paper, based on the mechanism of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes, the theoretical models of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes have been established. A series of programs used for computing the theoretical mathematical models, including simulation of LBAC cycle and falling film absorption, have been programmed. The models have been validated reasonably by the experimental data. The results show that the cooling capacity of the LBAC varies in parabola shape of curve with the solution concentration from 52.5% to 58.5%, and that the best coefficient of performance (COP) occurs at concentration of 57%. The investigation proposes the absorbing process of sub-steady thermodynamic equilibrium for the duality solution under increase absorbing pressure. (author)

  5. Structural and electronic properties of Diisopropylammonium bromide molecular ferroelectric crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaad, A.; Qattan, I. A.; Ahmad, A. A.; Al-Aqtash, N.; Sabirianov, R. F.

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of ab-initio calculations based on Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) and hybrid functional (HSE06) of electronic band structure, density of states and partial density of states to get a deep insight into structural and electronic properties of P21 ferroelectric phase of Diisopropylammonium Bromide molecular crystal (DIPAB). We found that the optical band gap of the polar phase of DIPAB is ∼ 5 eV confirming it as a good dielectric. Examination of the density of states and partial density of states reveal that the valence band maximum is mainly composed of bromine 4p orbitals and the conduction band minimum is dominated by carbon 2p, carbon 2s, and nitrogen 2s orbitals. A unique aspect of P21 ferroelectric phase is the permanent dipole within the material. We found that P21 DIPAB has a spontaneous polarization of 22.64 consistent with recent findings which make it good candidate for the creation of ferroelectric tunneling junctions (FTJs) which have the potential to be used as memory devices.

  6. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2014-08-26

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  7. 4-Bromophenacyl bromide specifically inhibits rhoptry secretion during Toxoplasma invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Sandeep; Lodoen, Melissa B; Verhelst, Steven H L; Bogyo, Matthew; Boothroyd, John C

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa that is able to infect a wide variety of host cells. During its active invasion process it secretes proteins from discrete secretory organelles: the micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules. Although a number of rhoptry proteins have been shown to be involved in important interactions with the host cell, very little is known about the mechanism of secretion of any Toxoplasma protein into the host cell. We used a chemical inhibitor of phospholipase A2s, 4-bromophenacyl bromide (4-BPB), to look at the role of such lipases in the secretion of Toxoplasma proteins. We found that 4-BPB was a potent inhibitor of rhoptry secretion in Toxoplasma invasion. This drug specifically blocked rhoptry secretion but not microneme secretion, thus effectively showing that the two processes can be de-coupled. It affected parasite motility and invasion, but not attachment or egress. Using propargyl- or azido-derivatives of the drug (so-called click chemistry derivatives) and a series of 4-BPB-resistant mutants, we found that the drug has a very large number of target proteins in the parasite that are involved in at least two key steps: invasion and intracellular growth. This potent compound, the modified "click-chemistry" forms of it, and the resistant mutants should serve as useful tools to further study the processes of Toxoplasma early invasion, in general, and rhoptry secretion, in particular. PMID:19956582

  8. Organomontmorillonites Modified with 2-Methacryloyloxy Ethyl Alkyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-quan; WU Wen-hui

    2007-01-01

    Organomontmorillonites (organo-MMT) were synthesized by means of montmorillonites (MMT) modified with a series of 2-methacryloyloxy ethyl alkyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (MAAB) having different alkyl chain lengths as cationic surfactants through a cationic exchanging reaction, and were characterized by FTIR, TG, elemental analysis, and XRD. The microenvironment of the organic interlayer such as the orientation and arrangement of the alkyl chains of MAAB, as well as the properties of nanocomposite hydrogels, were also investigated. The amount of organic components absorbed on interlayer and the basal spacing of organo-MMT both increase with the increasing of alkyl length of MAAB. When carbon number of alkyl chain is in the region of 8 to 14, the alkyl chains between layers would adopt a disordered gauche conformation; while the carbon number is 16, an ordered all-trans conformation with a vertical orientation would be found together with the disordered gauche conformation according to the results of XRD and FTIR. Due to the difference of microenvironment of organic interlayer, the Young's moduli of the nanocomposite hydrogels increased as the alkyl chains of MAAB became longer.

  9. Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht

    2013-10-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

  10. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  11. Improved spectrometric characteristics of thallium bromide nuclear radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hitomi, K; Shoji, T; Suehiro, T; Hiratate, Y

    1999-01-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a compound semiconductor with a high atomic number and wide band gap. In this study, nuclear radiation detectors have been fabricated from the TlBr crystals. The TlBr crystals were grown by the horizontal travelling molten zone (TMZ) method using the materials purified by many pass zone refining. The crystals were characterized by measuring the resistivity, the mobility-lifetime (mu tau) product and the energy required to create an electron-hole pair (the epsilon value). Improved energy resolution has been obtained by the TlBr radiation detectors. At room temperature the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the 59.5, 122 and 662 keV gamma-ray photo peak obtained from the detectors were 3.3, 8.8 and 29.5 keV, respectively. By comparing the saturated peak position of the TlBr detector with that of the CdTe detector, the epsilon value has been estimated to be about 5.85 eV for the TlBr crystal.

  12. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    A numerical model was developed for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very-important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy.

  13. Nanocapsules of perfluorooctyl bromide for theranostics: from formulation to targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diou, O.; Fattal, E.; Payen, T.; Bridal, S. L.; Valette, J.; Tsapis, N.

    2014-03-01

    The need to detect cancer at its early stages, as well as, to deliver chemotherapy to targeted site motivates many researchers to build theranostic platforms which combine diagnostic and therapy. Among imaging modalities, ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are widely available, non invasive and complement each other. Both techniques often require the use of contrast agents. We have developed nanocapsules of perfluorooctyl bromide as dual contrast agent for both imaging modalities. The soft, amorphous polymer shell provides echogenicity, while the high-density perfluorinated liquid core allows detection by 19F MRI. We have used a shell of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) since this polymer is biodegradable, biocompatible and can be loaded with drugs. These capsules were shown to be efficient in vitro as contrast agents for both 19F MRI and ultrasonography. In addition, for in vivo applications a poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) coating promotes stability and prolonged circulation. Being stealth, nanocapsule can accumulate passively into implanted tumors by the EPR effect. We will present nanocapsule formulation and characterization, and will show promising in vivo results obtained for both ultrasonography and 19F MRI.

  14. Application of critical thinking in atropine dynamic observation and nursing intervention%评判性思维在阿托品化动态观察与护理干预中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨评判性思维在阿托品化动态观察与护理干预中的应用效果。方法:将我院2013年1~12月期间收治的重度有机磷中毒患者60例作为观察组,将我院2012年1~12月期间收治的重度有机磷中毒患者60例作为对照组。对照组采用常规方式进行业务培训,对阿托品化进行常规观察与护理,观察组应用评判性思维模式进行业务培训,对阿托品化进行动态观察与干预。观察对比两组患者阿托品化误判率、并发中间综合征例数及平均住院时间。结果:观察组患者阿托品化误判率、并发中间综合征、平均住院时间均少于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。结论:在阿托品化观察过程中,护士应用评判性思维模式,对阿托品化进行动态观察与干预,可降低阿托品化误判率,减少并发症的发生,并可缩短患者住院时间。%Objective:To investigate the application of critical thinking in atropine dynamic observation and nursing intervention. Methods:From January to December 2013 in our hospital severe organophosphate poisoning patients admitted as the observation group 60 cases,and the severe organophosphate poison-ing patients admitted to our hospital from January to December 2012 period 60 cases as the control group. Control group with conventional ways for project training,atropine routine observation and care,while the observation group of critical thinking for project training,atropine dynamic observation and interven-tion. Compared the two groups with observed atropine false positive rate,the number of cases and average length of stay in the middle of concurrent syn-drome. Results:The atropine false positive rate,concurrent intermediate syndrome,average hospital stay of observation group were less than the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion:In atropine observation process,the nurse applied critical

  15. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  16. Radioactive bromide partition test in the diagnosis of tubercular meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive 82bromide (0.64 μCi/kg) was administered orally to 52 children in the age group of 0-12 yr, 41 patients with suspected tubercular meningitis (TBM) and 11 with non-tubercular meningitis. The bromide activity in the serum and CSF were obtained at 48 h. A serum to CSF bromide partition ratio (BPR) of 1.9 and below was highly specific for TBM, and was seen in 38 of 41 patients, this included the 11 patients where the diagnosis of tuberculosis was proved by AFB isolation and/or histopathology. In the non-tubercular group BPR was above 1.9 in all the patients with no false positivity. The present study re-affirms the value of bromide partition test in the diagnosis of tubercular meningitis. (author)

  17. Electrochemical removal of bromide and reduction of THM formation potential in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, David Eugene; Suffet, I H

    2002-11-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs), a by-product of the chlorination of natural waters containing dissolved organic carbon and bromide, are the focus of considerable public health concern and regulation due to their potential as a carcinogen by ingestion. This paper presents a promising new water treatment process that lowers the concentration of bromide in drinking water and thus, lowers the THM formation potential. Bromide is oxidized by electrolysis to bromine and then the bromine apparently volatilized. The electrolyzed water, when chlorinated, produces measurably lower amounts of THMs and proportionately fewer brominated THMs, which are of greater public health concern than the chlorinated THMs. Removing bromide should also reduce the formation of other disinfection by-products such as bromate and haloacetic acids. PMID:12448534

  18. Plasmid DNA induces dodecyl triethyl ammonium bromide to aggregate into vesicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Mei Ran; Xia Guo; Jia Tong Ding

    2012-01-01

    Single-chained cationic surfactant dodecyl triethyl ammonium bromide and plasmid DNA together can form vesicles once the concentration of plasmid DNA reaches a critical value (Ccvc).Bigger the size of plasmid DNA,higher the value of Ccvc.

  19. Stabilized thallium bromide radiation detectors and methods of making the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Cedric Rocha; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    According to one embodiment, a crystal includes thallium bromide (TlBr), one or more positively charged dopants, and one or more negatively charged dopants. According to another embodiment, a system includes a monolithic crystal including thallium bromide (TlBr), one or more positively charged dopants, and one or more negatively charged dopants; and a detector configured to detect a signal response of the crystal.

  20. Interaction of removal Ethidium Bromide with Carbon Nanotube: Equilibrium and Isotherm studies

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Omid; Norouzi, Mehdi; FAKHRI, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water resources may be contaminated with Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) which is commonly used in molecular biology laboratories for DNA identification in electrophoresis. Carbon nanotubes are expected to play an important role in sensing, pollution treatment and separation techniques. In this study adsorption of Ethidium Bromide on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and carboxylate group functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-COOH) surfaces have been investigated by UV–vi...

  1. A case report of QT prolongation with glycopyrronium bromide in a patient with chronic tamoxifen use

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Michael H.; Al-Majed, Nawaf S.; Stubbins, Ryan; Pollmann, Dylan; Sandhu, Roopinder K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycopyrronium bromide has recently been approved as a once daily maintenance inhalation therapy for moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Efficacy and safety trial data have found rare cases of significant QT prolongation. To our knowledge, we describe the first case report of QT prolongation >600 ms with initiation of glycopyrronium bromide in a real world setting. Case presentation A 78-year-old female with moderate COPD recently started on glycopyrron...

  2. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: mmattos@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2014-05-15

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  3. Inhibition of methoxamine-induced bronchoconstriction by ipratropium bromide and disodium cromoglycate in asthmatic subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, J.; Vincenc, K; Salome, C.

    1985-01-01

    We compared the effects of pretreatment with saline, ipratropium bromide, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on bronchoconstriction induced by methoxamine--an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in asthmatic subjects. All 12 patients bronchoconstricted in response to methoxamine after saline. The PD20 (the dose of methoxamine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) ranged from 0.3-18 mumol. Ipratropium bromide (200 micrograms administered by aerosol) significantly inhibited (P les...

  4. Corrosion Behavior of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels in Lithium Bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo Samuel AFOLABI; Alaneme, K.K.; Samson Oluwaseyi BADA

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in various concentrations of lithium, bromide solution was investigated by using the conventional weight loss measurement method. The results obtained show that corrosion of these steels occurred due to the aggressive bromide ion in the medium. Duplex stainless steel shows a greater resistance to corrosion than austenitic stainless steel in the medium. This was attributed to equal volume proportion of ferrite and austenite in th...

  5. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaogang Liu; Zhiliang Zhu; Yanling Qiu; Jianfu Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions,four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species,which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  6. Electrochemical Recognition of Metalloproteins by Bromide-modified Silver Electrode - A New Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rostami

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A bromide–modified silver electrode is reported, in the present study, to catalyzethe redox reactions of metalloproteins. This study describes that the bromide ions showvery good redox behavior with silver electrode. The cathodic and anodic peak potentialswere related to the concentration of bromide ions involved in making bromide-modifiedsilver electrode. The electrode reaction in the bromine solution was a diffusion-controlledprocess. Positive potential shift of the bromide ions was seen when different proteins wereadded to the solution using a silver electrode. New cathodic and anodic peaks wereobserved at different potential ranges for myoglobin, cytochrome c and catalase. A linearlyincreasing cathodic peak current of bromide ions was seen when the concentration ofsuperoxide dismutase was increased in the test solution. However, no change for albuminwas observed when its concentration was increased in the test solution. Present data provesour methodology as an easy-to-use analysis for comparing the redox potentials of differentmetalloproteins and differentiating the metallo- from non-metalloproteins. In this study, weintroduced an interesting method for bio-electrochemical analyses.

  7. Partial molar volume and isentropic compressibility of symmetrical and asymmetrical quaternary ammonium bromides in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Structural effects of the cations on surrounding water molecules are discussed. • Alkyl-chain geometry determines the hydration of Bu4N+ isomers. • The “compactness” in the hydration shells varies significantly among the isomers. - Abstract: Values of apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility of symmetric and asymmetric isomers of tetrabutylammonium bromide, namely tetra-n-butylammonium bromide, tetra-iso-butylammonium bromide, tetra-sec-butylammonium bromide, di-n-butyl-di-iso-butylammonium bromide and di-n-butyl-di-sec-butylammonium bromide, in aqueous solution were determined from density and speed of sound measurements. These properties were obtained as a function of molal concentration within the range of 0.01 < m/mol · kg−1 < 0.1 covering temperatures from 278.15 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 293.15. The partial molar volumes and the apparent isentropic molar compressibility at infinite dilution were calculated and their dependence on temperature examined. The results show that cations with sec-butyl chains have larger structural volumes compared to those with iso-butyl chains. In addition, cations with sec-butyl chains induce smaller structural changes in their hydration shell than the others

  8. Irradiation as an alternative treatment to methyl bromide for the disinfestation of tribolium castaneum in stored cacao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of irradiation on red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults were examined. Data was taken on mortality, adult emergence, and sterility after irradiation at doses between 0.02 and 0.16 kGy. Mature eggs were more resistant to irradiation than young eggs; development to adults was prevented at a dose of 0.08 kGy for one to two day old eggs but was not stopped for the three to four day old eggs at doses as high as 0.16 kGy. Larvae were the most sensitive to irradiation. Young larvae appeared to be more resistant to irradiation than older larvae. Pupae were the most resistant to irradiation, and older pupae were more resistant than younger pupae. Development to adults was not prevented in both types of pupae up to 0.16 kGy. Survivors were not observed after four weeks for adults receiving a dose of 0.10 kGy or higher. Adults emerging from irradiated eggs, larvae, and pupae were sterile, in some cases, at slightly higher doses than those required to prevent adult emergence. Adults from irradiated eggs and larvae were sterile at 0.06 kGy. For pupae, sterility was achieved at 0.06 and 0.12 kGy for the one to two days and four to five days old pupae, respectively. Adult sterility was achieved at 0.12 kGy. As expected, when one member of a mating pair was left unirradiated, the dose requirements were higher. The effect of mating combination is still being analyzed. Data are still being collected and analyzed for Ephestia cautella, another major pest of stored cacao bean. Tests with T. castaneum and E. cautella must be completed before a dose can be recommended for commercial treatment. (author)

  9. Interaction between cationic surfactant of 1-methyl-3-tetradecylimidazolium bromide and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, VIC 252059 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Engineering Research Center for Fine Chemicals of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Shanxi Province, VIC 030006 (China); Kang, Wenpei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Shandong Province, VIC 250100 (China); Sun, Dezhi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, VIC 252059 (China); Liu, Jie, E-mail: liujie@lcu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, VIC 252059 (China); Wei, Xilian, E-mail: weixilian@126.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, VIC 252059 (China)

    2013-08-15

    The interaction between long-chain imidazolium ionic liquid (C{sub 14}mimBr) and anionic polyelectrolyte of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) has been studied using surface tension, isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scatting (DLS) and conductance methods. The result shows that the surface tension plots have a pronounced hump in the surface tension at surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the surfactant. The cooperative adsorption of surfactant and polymer on the surface (PS{sub S}) and the formation of polymer/surfactant aggregate in bulk solution (PS{sub M}) provide a rational explanation about it. The formation of surfactant/polymer complexes is affected by the concentration of the surfactant or NaPSS, which is also ascertained by ITC and DLS measurements. Further, the thermodynamic parameters are derived from calorimetric titration and conductance curves, and the effects of polymer concentration and temperature on the parameters are evaluated in detail.

  10. Interaction between cationic surfactant of 1-methyl-3-tetradecylimidazolium bromide and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between long-chain imidazolium ionic liquid (C14mimBr) and anionic polyelectrolyte of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) has been studied using surface tension, isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scatting (DLS) and conductance methods. The result shows that the surface tension plots have a pronounced hump in the surface tension at surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the surfactant. The cooperative adsorption of surfactant and polymer on the surface (PSS) and the formation of polymer/surfactant aggregate in bulk solution (PSM) provide a rational explanation about it. The formation of surfactant/polymer complexes is affected by the concentration of the surfactant or NaPSS, which is also ascertained by ITC and DLS measurements. Further, the thermodynamic parameters are derived from calorimetric titration and conductance curves, and the effects of polymer concentration and temperature on the parameters are evaluated in detail.

  11. [DNA methylation in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywka, Małgorzata; Kieć-Wilk, Beata; Polus, Anna; Wybrańska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes), have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA) synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described. PMID:25531701

  12. Structure and scintillation of Eu2+-activated calcium bromide iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the structure and scintillation properties of Eu2+-activated calcium bromide iodide. CaBr0.7I1.3 was the only composition that could be synthesized in the CaBr2–CaI2 system. The compound has an effective atomic number of 47 and crystallizes in a trigonal crystal system with the R-3 space group and a density of 3.93 g/cc. The structure is layered and contains Ca in an octahedral environment with the Br/I anions jointly occupying a single site. Eu2+-activated samples show an intense narrow emission, characteristic of the 5d–4f transition of Eu2+, when excited with UV or X-rays. The sample with 0.5% Eu shows a light output of 63,000 ph/MeV at 662 keV with 96% of the light emitted with a monoexponential decay time of 1332 ns. An energy resolution of 10.4% full width at half maximum (FWHM) has been achieved for 662 keV gamma rays at room temperature. - Highlights: • CaBr0.7I1.3 is the only composition that formed in the CaBr2–CaI2 system. • Crystallizes in a trigonal crystal system with the R-3 space group. • Eu2+-activation yields scintillator with bright blue emission centered at 465 nm. • Light output is 63,000 ph/MeV with 10.4% energy resolution at 662 keV. • Monoexponential decay time of 1332 ns

  13. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 °C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1–4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h

  14. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoobakht, Fatemeh; Ganji, Fariba, E-mail: fganji@modares.ac.ir; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim [Tarbiat Modares University, Biomedical Engineering Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad [Tarbiat Modares University, Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 Degree-Sign C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1-4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h.

  15. The use of lanthanum bromide detectors for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3) is a type of scintillation detector that has become commercially available recently. According to the manufacturer and studies conducted at a laboratory level, this new gamma-ray detector presents improved characteristics in comparison with traditional sodium iodine (NaI) detectors. Better energy resolution, relative efficiency and stability with temperature are some of the features that may impact positively the performance of the measurements made with this detector, which works at room temperature. Uranium enrichment measurements performed in the field is of special interest at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Typical applications include quality control, U-235 inventory verification and nuclear safeguards. The Safeguards Laboratory of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) have initiated the evaluation of the performance of a LaBr3 probe model BrilLanceCe 380 (B380) for U-235 enrichment determination in uranium compounds typically found in nuclear facilities under safeguards. This activity is routinely performed by national and international safeguards inspectors in both Brazilian and Argentine facilities. Depending on the characteristics of the material to be verified and the conditions at the measurement location, NaI or high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) are usually selected as the standard gamma-ray spectroscopic system for enrichment determination. This paper presents the conclusions of the initial studies jointly conducted by CNEN and ABACC regarding the use of a LaBr3 detector for enrichment determination, based on the comparison with NaI and HPGe typical performances. It also discusses the possibility to use this new gamma-ray detector as a standard technique for safeguards applications, compliant with national and international performance values. (author)

  16. The killing of African trypanosomes by ethidium bromide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Roy Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence of viable parasites lacking kDNA (dyskinetoplastic led many to think that kDNA loss could not be the mechanism of killing. When recent studies indicated that kDNA is indeed essential in bloodstream trypanosomes and that dyskinetoplastic cells survive only if they have a compensating mutation in the nuclear genome, we investigated the effect of EB on kDNA and its replication. We here report some remarkable effects of EB. Using EM and other techniques, we found that binding of EB to network minicircles is low, probably because of their association with proteins that prevent helix unwinding. In contrast, covalently-closed minicircles that had been released from the network for replication bind EB extensively, causing them, after isolation, to become highly supertwisted and to develop regions of left-handed Z-DNA (without EB, these circles are fully relaxed. In vivo, EB causes helix distortion of free minicircles, preventing replication initiation and resulting in kDNA loss and cell death. Unexpectedly, EB also kills dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes, lacking kDNA, by inhibiting nuclear replication. Since the effect on kDNA occurs at a >10-fold lower EB concentration than that on nuclear DNA, we conclude that minicircle replication initiation is likely EB's most vulnerable target, but the effect on nuclear replication may also contribute to cell killing.

  17. Apoptosis and DNA Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Meehan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms assist in maintaining gene expression patterns and cellular properties in developing and adult tissues. The molecular pathology of disease states frequently includes perturbation of DNA and histone methylation patterns, which can activate apoptotic pathways associated with maintenance of genome integrity. This perspective focuses on the pathways linking DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG binding proteins to apoptosis, and includes new bioinformatic analyses to characterize the evolutionary origin of two G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylases, MBD4 and TDG.

  18. DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Torrisani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results.

  19. Methylated β-Cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Westh, Peter; Madsen, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    groups at O2 promote complexation by extending the hydrophobic cavity. Like in the case of 2-hydroxypropylated cyclodextrins, the methyl substituents cause an increased release of ordered water from the hydration shell of the bile salts, resulting in a strong increase in both the enthalpy and the entropy...

  20. Aclidinium bromide combined with formoterol inhibits remodeling parameters in lung epithelial cells through cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, Christopher; Costa, Luigi; Ying, Qi; Zhong, Jun; Lardinois, Didier; Dekan, Gerhard; Schuller, Elisabeth; Roth, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Combined muscarinic receptor antagonists and long acting β2-agonists improve symptom control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) significantly. In clinical studies aclidinium bromide achieved better beneficial effects than other bronchodilators; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. This study assessed the effect of aclidinium bromide combined with formoterol on COPD lung (n=20) and non-COPD lung (n=10) derived epithelial cells stimulated with TGF-β1+carbachol on: (i) the generation of mesenchymal cells in relation to epithelial cells, (II) extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and (iii) the interaction of ECM on the generation of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. TGF-β1+carbachol enhanced the generation of mesenchymal cells, which was significantly reduced by aclidinium bromide or formoterol. The effect of combined drugs was additive. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase and Smad by specific inhibitors or aclidinium bromide reduced the generation of mesenchymal cells. In mesenchymal cells, TGF-β1+carbachol induced the deposition of collagen-I and fibronectin which was prevented by both drugs dose-dependently. Formoterol alone reduced collagen-I deposition via cAMP, this however, was overruled by TGF-β1+carbachol and rescued by aclidinium bromide. Inhibition of fibronectin was cAMP independent, but involved p38 MAP kinase and Smad. Seeding epithelial cells on ECM collagen-I and fibronectin induced mesenchymal cell generation, which was reduced by aclidinium bromide and formoterol. Our results suggest that the beneficial effect of aclidinium bromide and formoterol involves cAMP affecting both, the accumulation of mesenchymal cells and ECM remodeling, which may explain the beneficial effect of the drugs on lung function in COPD. PMID:26546746

  1. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time, high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS instrument to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06±0.30, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.98; intercept = −3.5 pptv between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pptv under unpolluted conditions (NO < 100 pptv, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BROTROPVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BROTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  2. Event extraction for DNA methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta Tomoko; Pyysalo Sampo; Miwa Makoto; Tsujii Jun’ichi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts inc...

  3. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with [3H-methyl]-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile [3H]methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the [3H]methyl group

  4. Reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method to measure migration of semivolatile compound, vanillin, in ipratropium bromide inhalation solution

    OpenAIRE

    Conkins, Dennis; Economou, Julia E; Boersma, James A; Dedhiya, Mehendra G; Hansen, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    Ipratropium bromide, a bronchodilator, is used as an inhalation solution. Commercial ipratropium bromide solution products are packaged in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) vials, through which semivolatile compounds are reported to migrate. In this article, a specific reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method to assay vanillin, a semivolatile compound, in ipratropium bromide solution is described. The method was validated for a concentration range for vanillin from 30 ng/mL...

  5. [Bowel obstruction-induced cholinergic crisis with progressive respiratory failure following distigmine bromide treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Hirose, Yasuo

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old female experienced rapid respiratory failure while being transported in an ambulance to our emergency department for evaluation and management of constipation and abdominal pain. The patient was on treatment with distigmine bromide for postoperative urination disorder and magnesium oxide for constipation. Increased salivary secretions, diminished respiratory excursion, type 2 respiratory failure (PaCO2 : 65 mmHg), low serum cholinesterase, and hypermagnesemia were detected. Imaging studies revealed that the patient had bilateral aspiration pneumonia, fecal impaction in the rectum, and a distended colon causing ileus. The patient was mechanically ventilated and was weaned off the ventilator on day 3. Therapeutic drug monitoring after discharge revealed that the serum level of distigmine bromide on admission was markedly elevated (377.8 ng/mL vs. the normal therapeutic level of 5-10 ng/mL). Distigmine bromide induced a cholinergic crisis with a resultant increase in airway secretions and respiratory failure. In this particular case, orally administered distigmine bromide was excessively absorbed because of prolonged intestinal transit time secondary to fecal impaction and sluggish bowel movement; this caused a cholinergic crisis and hypermagnesemia contributing to respiratory failure. Clinicians should be aware that bowel obstruction in a patient treated with distigmine bromide can increase the risk of a cholinergic crisis. PMID:27255021

  6. Current and Potential Future Bromide Loads from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Allegheny River Basin and Their Effects on Downstream Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    The presence of bromide in rivers does not affect ecosystems or present a human health risk; however, elevated concentrations of bromide in drinking water sources can lead to difficulty meeting drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations. Recent attention has focused on oil and gas wastewater and coal-fired power plant wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater bromide discharges. Bromide can be added to coal to enhance mercury removal, and increased use of bromide at some power plants is expected. Evaluation of potential increases in bromide concentrations from bromide addition for mercury control is lacking. The present work utilizes bromide monitoring data in the Allegheny River and a mass-balance approach to elucidate bromide contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources under current and future scenarios. For the Allegheny River, the current bromide is associated approximately 49% with oil- and gas-produced water discharges and 33% with coal-fired power plants operating wet FGD, with 18% derived from natural sources during mean flow conditions in August. Median wet FGD bromide loads could increase 3-fold from 610 to 1900 kg/day if all plants implement bromide addition for mercury control. Median bromide concentrations in the lower Allegheny River in August would rise to 410, 200, and 180 μg/L under low-, mean-, and high-flow conditions, respectively, for the bromide-addition scenario. PMID:27538590

  7. Bromide and iodide removal from waters under dynamic conditions by Ag-doped aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Polo, M; Rivera-Utrilla, J; von Gunten, U

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the efficiency of Ag-doped aerogels in the removal of bromide and iodide from water. To test the applicability of these aerogels in water treatment, adsorption of bromide and iodide was studied under dynamic conditions using waters from Lake Zurich and a mineral water. The results obtained by using these waters showed a high breakthrough volume (V(0.02)=0.4 L) of the columns, while the height of the mass transfer zone (H(MTZ)=6.8 cm) was low, regardless of the anion under study. Bromide- and iodide-saturated columns were regenerated with NH4OH. No change in the column characteristics was observed after two regeneration treatments, regardless of the type of water considered. PMID:17109877

  8. Skin injuries afflicting three oil workers following contact with calcium bromide and/or calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, W R; Distante, S; Holmes, J D; Kolhe, P S

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bromide brine is a highly concentrated aqueous solution of calcium bromide and calcium chloride. It is used extensively in the oil industry. This solution and its components are recognized as causes of skin injury and information is available from the manufacturers on their safe use and handling. Two patients who were injured following unprotected skin exposure to this solution and one patient who was injured following exposure to calcium chloride powder are reported. All sustained skin injuries characterised by an absence of pain and a delayed clinical appearance of the full extent of the injury. Furthermore healing was complicated by graft loss or was slow. Although organic bromine compounds are recognized as a cause of skin injuries, no previous reports of such injuries to humans secondary to calcium chloride or bromide exposure were found in the medical literature. Our experience with these patients is described. PMID:9568340

  9. Corrosion Behavior of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels in Lithium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo Samuel AFOLABI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in various concentrations of lithium, bromide solution was investigated by using the conventional weight loss measurement method. The results obtained show that corrosion of these steels occurred due to the aggressive bromide ion in the medium. Duplex stainless steel shows a greater resistance to corrosion than austenitic stainless steel in the medium. This was attributed to equal volume proportion of ferrite and austenite in the structure of duplex stainless steel coupled with higher content of chromium in its composition. Both steels produced electrochemical noise at increased concentrations of lithium bromide due to continuous film breakdown and repair caused by reduction in medium concentration by the alkaline corrosion product while surface passivity observed in duplex stainless steel is attributed to film stability on this steel.

  10. Characterization of cyanogen bromide peptides of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase by a micromethod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT-EC 2.4.2.8), either from erythrocytes labeled in vitro with 125I or from HeLa cells labeled in vivo with [3H]leucine, [3H]lysine, or [3H]arginine, was cleaved with cyanogen bromide. All four labeled enzymes produced cyanogen bromide peptides with molecular weights of 7800, 5600, 4100, 2500, and 1300 which were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Experiments with [35S]methionine-labeled HPRT indicated that 88 to 94% of the 35S label was released by the cyanogen bromide reaction. The relative distribution of radioactivity in each of the tritiated peptides indicates that there are 20 leucines, 15 lysines, and 12 arginines per enzyme subunit

  11. Chloride/bromide ratios in leachate derived from farm-animal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results have important implications for identifying animal sources of contaminated groundwater. - Ratios of conservative chemicals have been used to identify sources of groundwater contamination. While chloride/bromide ratios have been reported for several common sources of groundwater contamination, little work has been done on leachate derived from farm-animal waste. In this study, chloride/bromide ratios were measured in leachate derived from longhorn-cattle, quarter-horse, and pygme-goat waste at a farm in Abilene, Texas, USA. (Minimum, median, and maximum) chloride/bromide ratios of (66.5, 85.6, and 167), (119, 146, and 156), and (35.4, 57.8, and 165) were observed for cattle, horses, and goats, respectively. These ratios are below typical values for domestic wastewater and within the range commonly observed for oilfield brine. Results of this study have important implications for identifying sources of contaminated groundwater in settings with significant livestock and/or oil production

  12. EFFECT OF ORTHO-METHOXYCINNAMIC ACID ON THE SOL-GEL TRANSITION OF METHYLCELLULOSE SOLUTIONS IN THE PRESENCE OF CETYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Tao; Hai-yang Yang; Xiang Hao; Yong-jun Xie; Hua-yu Li

    2013-01-01

    The sol-gel transition of methylcellulose (MC) solutions in the presence of ortho-methoxycinnamic acid (OMCA) or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and in the coexistence of OMCA and CTAB was determined by the rheological measurement.It has been found that the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solutions increases linearly with the concentration of either OMCA or CTAB in solution,respectively.However,in the coexistence of OMCA and CTAB,the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solutions remains invariable,independent of the concentration of CTAB in solution.The experimental results show that OMCA has priority to adsorb on the methyl group of MC chains to form polymer-bound aggregates.In particular,these aggregates inhibit the hydrophobic interaction between CTAB and the methyl group of MC chains completely.Taking into account the fact that OMCA is almost insoluble in MC-free solutions but dissolves very well in aqueous MC solutions,we propose the formation of the core-shell architecture prompted by OMCA and the methyl group of MC chains,with the methyl group of MC chains serving as the core and the self-assembly of OMCA molecules serving as the shell.Obviously,the formation of the core-shell structure increases the solubility of OMCA,improves the stability of methyl groups of MC chains at high temperatures and inhibits the hydrophobic interaction between CTAB and the methyl group of MC chains in solution.The abnormal behavior relating to the sol-gel transition of MC solutions in the presence of OMCA or in the coexistence of OMCA and CTAB is therefore explained.Upon UV irradiation,the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solutions in the presence of OMCA,or in the coexistence of OMCA and CTAB,decreases notably.However,the dependence of the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solutions as a function of OMCA concentration,or CTAB concentration in the presence of OMCA,does not change after UV irradiation.

  13. A New and Practical Synthetic Method for the Synthesis of 6-O-Methyl-scutellarein: One Metabolite of Scutellarin in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Lin; Wei Zhang; Ze-Xi Dong; Ting Gu; Nian-Guang Li; Zhi-Hao Shi; Jun Kai; Cheng Qu; Guan-Xiong Shang; Yu-Ping Tang; Fang Fang; He-Min Li; Jian-Ping Yang; Jin-Ao Duan

    2015-01-01

    Scutellarin (1) has been used for the treatment of angina pectoris, cerebral infarction and coronary heart disease with a large market share in China. Pharmacokinetic studies on scutellarin showed that scutellarin (1) is readily converted into its metabolites in vivo. In this paper, a new and practical synthetic method for the synthesis of 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (3) (one metabolite of scutellarin in vivo) is reported. The benzyl bromide was firstly used to selectively replace the acetyl gro...

  14. Methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The development of HCC is a complex, multistep, multistage process. The molecular pathogenesis of HCC appears to involve multiple genetic aberrations in the molecular control of hepatocyte proliferation, differentiation and death and the maintenance of genomic integrity. This process is influenced by the cumulative activation and inactivation of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other genes. p53, a tumor suppressor gene, is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. There is also a striking sequence specific binding and induction of mutations by AFB1 at codon 249 of p53 in HCC.

    Epigenetic alterations are also involved in cancer development and progression. Methylation of promoter CpG islands is associated with inhibition of transcriptional initiation and permanent silencing of downstream genes.

    It is now known that most important tumor suppressor genes are inactivated, not only by mutations and deletions but also by promoter methylation. Several studies indicated that p16, p15, RASSF1A, MGMT, and GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation are prevalent in HCC. In addition, geographic variation in the methylation status of tumor DNA indicates that environmental factors may influence the frequent and concordant degree of hypermethylation in multiple genes in HCC and that epigeneticenvironmental interactions may be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. We have found significant relationships between promoter methylation and AFB1-DNA adducts confirming the impact of environmental exposures on gene methylation.

    DNA isolated from serum or plasma of cancer patients frequently contains the same genetic and

  15. Kinetics of bromide catalysed oxidation of dextrose by cerium (IV) in aqueous sulphuric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of bromide catalysed oxidation of dextrose by CeIV in aqueous sulphuric acid medium show first order dependence each in dextrose and cerium(IV). The reaction rate decreases on increasing the concentration of hydrogen ion. The increase in [HSO4-] or [SO42-] decreases the rate. The bromide ion shows positive catalytic effect on the reaction rate. The value of activation energy has been calculated and a suitable mechanism confirming to the kinetic data is proposed. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs

  16. COMPARISON OF ROCURONIUM BROMIDE AND SUCCINYLCHOLINE CHLORIDE FOR USE DURING RAPID SEQUENCE INTUBATION IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Penchalaiah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : The goal of rapid sequence intubation is to secure the patients airway smoothly and quickly, minimizing the chances of regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. Traditionally succinylcholine chloride has been the neuromuscular blocking drug of choi ce for use in rapid sequence intubation because of its rapid onset of action and profound relaxation. Succinylcholine chloride remains unsurpassed in providing ideal intubating conditions. However the use of succinylcholine chloride is associated with many side effects like muscle pain, bradycardia, hyperkalaemia and rise in intragastric and intraocular pressure. Rocuronium bromide is the only drug currently available which has the rapidity of onset of action like succinylcholine chloride. Hence the present study was undertaken to compare rocuronium bromide with succinylcholine chloride for use during rapid sequence intubation in adult patients. METHODOLOGY : The study population consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 - 60 years posted for various elective su rgeries requiring general anaesthesia . S tudy population was randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 patients in each sub group. 1. Group I : Intubated with 1 mg kg - 1 of succinylcholine chloride (n=30 . 2. Grou p II : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . 3. Group III : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . Intubating conditions were assessed at 60 seconds based on the scale adopted by Toni Magorian et al. 1993. The haemodynamic para meters in the present study were compared using p - value obtained from student t - test . RESULTS : It was noted that succinylcholine chloride 1 mg kg - 1 body weight produced excellent intubating conditions in all patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 body we ight produced excellent intubating conditions in 53.33% of patients but produced good to excellent intubating conditions in 96.67% of patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1

  17. Photochemical reactions involving nitrosylpentacyanoferrate (II) - bromide system using cadmium sulphide as semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium nitroprusside contains cyanide ligands that are not easily replaced chemically. An effort has been made to substitute this ligand by another anionic ligand like bromide. The rate of this photochemical reaction has been observed spectrophotometrically in the presence of cadmium sulphide as a semiconductor. The effect of different parameters like pH, intensity of light, concentration of sodium nitroprusside and bromide ion on the rate of this substitution reaction has been studied. The product was isolated and characterized by different analytical methods. A tentative mechanism for this photochemical substitution has been proposed. (Author)

  18. Well-Defined Copper(I) Fluoroalkoxide Complexes for Trifluoroethoxylation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ronglu

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing dinitrogen ligands were synthesized and the structure and reactivity of the complexes toward trifluoroethoxylation, pentafluoropropoxylation, and tetrafluoropropoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides were investigated. Efficiency drive: A series of copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing N,N ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized. These well-defined complexes serve as efficient reagents for the fluoroalkoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides to produce a wide range of trifluoroethyl, pentafluoropropyl, and tetrafluoropropyl (hetero)aryl ethers in good to excellent yields.

  19. Replacing Conventional Carbon Nucleophiles with Electrophiles: Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Alkylation of Aryl Bromides and Chlorides

    OpenAIRE

    Everson, Daniel A.; Jones, Brittany A.; Weix, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    A general method is presented for the synthesis of alkylated arenes by the chemoselective combination of two electrophilic carbons. Under the optimized conditions, a variety of aryl and vinyl bromides are reductively coupled with alkyl bromides in high yields. Under similar conditions, activated aryl chlorides can also be coupled with bromoalkanes. The protocols are highly functional-group tolerant (−OH, −NHTs, −OAc, −OTs, −OTf, −COMe, −NHBoc, −NHCbz, −CN, −SO2Me), and the reactions are assem...

  20. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (Seebri Breezhaler(®)) for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    also on health status. Furthermore, glycopyrronium bromide also has beneficial effects on dynamic hyperinflation and, probably by that, exercise tolerance. Glycopyrronium bromide has been shown to reduce the rate of exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD, although as a secondary outcome...

  1. Nickel-catalyzed Kumada cross-coupling reactions of tertiary alkylmagnesium halides and aryl bromides/triflates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi-Pangu, Amruta; Wang, Chao-Yuan; Biscoe, Mark R

    2011-06-01

    We report a Ni-catalyzed process for the cross-coupling of tertiary alkyl nucleophiles and aryl bromides. This process is extremely general for a wide range of electrophiles and generally occurs with a ratio of retention to isomerization >30:1. The same procedure also accommodates the use of aryl triflates, vinyl chlorides, and vinyl bromides as the electrophilic component. PMID:21553878

  2. Aberrant methylation patterns in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hudler, Petra; Videtič, Alja

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, DNA hydroxymethylation, post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins affecting nucleosome remodelling, and regulation by small and large non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) work in concert with cis and trans acting elements to drive appropriate gene expression. Advances in detection methods and development of dedicated platforms and methylation arrays resulted in an explo - sion of information on aberrantly methylated sequences linking devia...

  3. Molecular structure of the complex of octano-8-lactam with magnesium bromide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, Jaroslav; Dybal, Jiří; Kurková, Dana; Prokopová, I.; Hroch, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 202, č. 17 (2001), s. 3371-3378. ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2050602; GA ČR GA106/98/0699 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : anionic polymerization * coordination * magnesium bromide Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.629, year: 2001

  4. Microwave-Enhanced Cross-Coupling Reactions Involving Alkynyltrifluoroborates with Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Kabalka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-catalyzed alkynylation has emerged as one of the most reliable methods for the synthesis of alkynes which are often used in natural product syntheses and material science. An efficient method for coupling alkynyltrifluoroborates with various aryl bromides in the presence of a palladium catalyst has been developed using microwave irradiation. The microwave reactions are rapid and efficient.

  5. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health. PMID:27105403

  6. Iodine transfer through mother´s milk: the influence of bromide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    Oxford : Academic Press, 2009 - (Preedy, V.; Burrow, G.; Watson, R.), s. 199-206 ISBN 978-0-12-374135-6 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) LSHG-CT-2004-511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bromide * iodine * mother’s milk Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  7. Effects of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging on the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium bromide in neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of intraoperative magnetic resonance (iMR) imaging on the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium bromide were investigated in neurosurgery. Fifty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I-II scheduled for craniotomy operation were divided into two groups (n=25 each) with no difference in demographic data: the iMR imaging group and control group. Train-of-four (TOF) stimulation through an accelerometer was used to monitor onset, maintenance, and recovery of muscle relaxation caused by vecuronium. Vecuronium bromide was intravenously injected after anesthesia induction. The dosage of vecuronium bromide in the iMR imaging group was larger than in the control group, but not significantly. Duration of vecuronium bromide administration and operation time were significantly longer in the iMR imaging group than in the control group. Time from drug discontinuation to operation termination, and to return to neurosurgery intensive care unit were not different. Time taken by first twitch (T1) in response to TOF stimulation to recover by 25%, and muscle relaxant recovery index were significantly greater in the control group than in the iMR imaging group. The body temperature of the patients increased gradually in the iMR imaging group but decreased in the control group. iMR imaging can prolong the operation time, increase the body temperature of the patient, and remarkably shorten the clinical action time and muscle relaxation recovery index of vecuronium. (author)

  8. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold;

    2008-01-01

    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...

  9. Strontium and bromide as tracers in X-ray microanalysis of biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis cannot distinguish between isotopes of the same element, alternative methods have to be used to get information similar to that obtained in experiments with radioactive tracers. In the present study, strontium was used as a tracer for calcium, and bromide as a tracer for chloride. Rats were injected with strontium chloride in vivo, and the uptake of strontium in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland was studied. Eventually a Sr/Ca ratio of 0.3 was reached. In some animals, secretion of mucus had been elicited by stimulation with isoproterenol 4 h prior to injection of strontium chloride. Exchange of calcium for strontium was enhanced by prior injection with isoproterenol. In a second experiment, rats were injected with sodium bromide, and the uptake of bromide by the submandibular acinar cells was followed in time, both in pilocarpine-stimulated and unstimulated glands. Under the experimental conditions, bromide was rapidly taken up by the cells, and the cellular Br/Cl ratio was close to that found in serum. Submandibular glands take up Br somewhat faster than other tissues (liver, heart muscle, skeletal muscle). The uptake of Br in pancreatic acinar cells was studied in vitro. These experiments showed a 1:1 ratio (molar) exchange of Cl for Br

  10. COMPARISON OF ONSET TIME, DURATION OF ACTION AND INTUBATING CONDITION SACHIEVED WITH SUXAMETHONIUM AND ROCURONIUM BROMIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit P; Alok P; Devendra Singh

    2013-01-01

    Adverse event profile ofSuxamethonium which is still the relaxant of choice to facilitate tracheal intubation inspired us to conduct a study in which we compared Onset time, Duration of Action and Intubating Conditions Achieved with Suxametho nium and Rocuronium Bromide with the Help of TOF Guard. AIMS : W e compared the onset of relaxation time, intubating condition, and duration of action, the ...

  11. Hydrophobic Ion-Pairing of Low Molecular Weight Heparin with Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Nermin E. Eleraky; Mohamed, Dina F; Mohamed A. Attia; Pauletti, Giovanni M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Unfavorable physicochemical properties of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) restrict membrane permeation of this therapeutic macromolecule to paracellular passive diffusion. To augment LMWH flux across biological membranes using contributions of transcellular transport mechanisms, this study explored formation of electrostatically stabilized association complexes via ion-pairing with the lipophilic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Methods: LMWH/CTAB interactions were assessed...

  12. The stereoselective synthesis of dienes through dehalogenative homocoupling of terminal alkenyl bromides on Cu(110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Cai, Liangliang; Ma, Honghong; Yuan, Chunxue; Xu, Wei

    2016-05-21

    We have successfully achieved the stereoselective synthesis of a specific cis-diene moiety through a dehalogenative homocoupling of alkenyl bromides on the Cu(110) surface, where the formation of a cis-form organometallic intermediate is the key to such a stereoselectivity as determined by DFT calculations. PMID:27063567

  13. Combinatorial electrochemistry using metal nanoparticles: from proof-of-concept to practical realisation for bromide detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sljukić, Biljana; Baron, Ronan; Salter, Chris; Crossley, Alison; Compton, Richard G

    2007-05-01

    Principles and practical application of combinatorial electrochemistry in search for new electroactive materials in electroanalysis have been explored. Nanoparticles of three different metals: silver, gold and palladium have been independently synthesized on the glassy carbon spherical powder surface by electroless deposition process and characterized using both spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. These three materials were then combined together onto basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode surface and the application of the combinatorial approach to find the electrode material for bromide detection as model target analyte was demonstrated. The component electroactive for bromide detection was next identified and it was found that silver nanoparticles were the active ones. A composite electrode based on silver nanoparticle modified glassy carbon powder and epoxy resin was then fabricated and it was found to allow accurate determination of bromide. The electroactivity for the bromide determination of the composite electrode was compared with that of a bulk silver electrode and it was shown that the composite electrode is very efficient with a comparable electroactivity with only a portion of precious metals being used for its construction. PMID:17416224

  14. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform for...

  15. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Long-acting bronchodilators are central in the pharmacological management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the studies evaluating the safety and clinical efficacy of inhaled glycopyrronium bromide, a nove...

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Aryl Bromides with N-Substituted Cyanamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lian, Zhong; Friis, Stig D.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;

    2014-01-01

    The palladium(0)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction of aryl bromides, carbon monoxide, and N-alkyl cyan­amides has been developed employing a two-chamber system with ex situ generation of carbon monoxide from a silacarboxylic acid. The reactions proceeded well and were complete with a...

  17. Use of Br-82 and I-131 radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 2 (2012), s. 379-383. ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bromide * goitrogenic effect * iodine radionuclides * thyroid hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2012

  18. Radioiodine tracers as useful tools in studies of thyrotoxic effects of exogenous bromide and perchlorate ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 2 (2012), s. 405-408. ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bromide * perchlorate * radioiodine tracer * thyroid hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2012

  19. Bromate formation from bromide oxidation by the UV/persulfate process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing-Yun; Shang, Chii

    2012-08-21

    Bromate formation from bromide oxidation by the UV/persulfate process was investigated, along with changes in pH, persulfate dosages, and bromide concentrations in ultrapure water and in bromide-spiked real water. In general, the bromate formation increased with increasing persulfate dosage and bromide concentration. The bromate formation was initiated and primarily driven by sulfate radicals (SO(4)(•-)) and involved the formation of hypobromous acid/hypobromite (HOBr/OBr(-)) as an intermediate and bromate as the final product. Under the test conditions, the rate of the first step driven by SO(4)(•-) is slower than that of the second step. Direct UV photolysis of HOBr/OBr(-) to form bromate and the photolysis of bromate are insignificant. The bromate formation was similar for pH 4-7 but decreased over 90% with increasing pH from 7 to above 9. Less bromate was formed in the real water sample than in ultrapure water, which was primarily attributable to the presence of natural organic matter that reacts with bromine atoms, HOBr/OBr(-) and SO(4)(•-). The extent of bromate formation and degradation of micropollutants are nevertheless coupled processes unless intermediate bromine species are consumed by NOM in real water. PMID:22831804

  20. Removal of bromide and iodide anions from drinking water by silver-activated carbon aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Polo, M; Rivera-Utrilla, J; Salhi, E; von Gunten, U

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the use of Ag-doped activated carbon aerogels for bromide and iodide removal from drinking water and to study how the activation of Ag-doped aerogels affects their behavior. It has been observed that the carbonization treatment and activation process of Ag-doped aerogels increased the surface area value ( [Formula: see text] ), whereas the volume of meso-(V(2)) and macropores (V(3)) decreased slightly. Chemical characterization of the materials revealed that carbonization and especially activation process considerably increased the surface basicity of the sample. Original sample (A) presented acidic surface properties (pH(PZC)=4.5) with 21% surface oxygen, whereas the sample that underwent activation showed mainly basic surface chemical properties (pH(PZC)=9.5) with only 6% of surface oxygen. Carbonization and especially, activation process considerable increased the adsorption capacity of bromide and iodide ions. This would mainly be produced by (i) an increase in the microporosity of the sample, which increases Ag-adsorption sites available to halide anions, and (ii) a rise of the basicity of the sample, which produces an increase in attractive electrostatic interactions between the aerogel surface, positively charged at the working pH (pH(solution)water treatment, adsorption of bromide and iodide was studied under dynamic conditions using waters from Lake Zurich. Results obtained showed that the carbonization and activation processes increased the adsorptive capacity of the aerogel sample. However, results showed that the adsorption capacity of the aerogel samples studied was considerably lower in water from Lake Zurich. Results showed X(0.02) (amount adsorbed to initial breakthrough) values of 0.1 and 4.3 mg/g for chloride anion and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), respectively, during bromide adsorption process in water from Lake Zurich. This indicates that the adsorptive capacity reduction observed may be due to (i) blocking

  1. Suppression of IL-8 production from airway cells by tiotropium bromide in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzaki I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Isao Suzaki1, Kazuhito Asano2, Yusuke Shikama3, Taisuke Hamasaki1, Ayako Kanei1, Harumi Suzaki11Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Division of Physiology, School of Nursing and Rehabilitation Sciences, Showa University, Yokohama, Japan; 3Department of Respiratory Diseases, Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, Yokohama, JapanBackground: COPD is characterized by persistent and progressive airway inflammation. Although neutrophilic airway inflammation is generally accepted to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of COPD, the influence of the agents used for the treatment of COPD on neutrophil functions such as chemotaxis is not fully understood.Purpose: The present study aimed to examine the influence of tiotropium bromide on the production of interleukin (IL-8 from human airway epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts (LFs after lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation in vitro.Methods: BEAS-2B cells, human bronchial epithelial cell line, and LFs, at a concentration of 5 × 105 cells/mL, were stimulated with LPS in the presence of various concentrations of tiotropium bromide. IL-8 in culture supernatants was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. IL-8 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The influence of tiotropium bromide on LPS-induced signaling pathways was also analyzed by examining nuclear factor-kappa (NF-κB activation and signaling protein phosphorylation by ELISA.Results: Tiotropium bromide at >15 pg/mL inhibited IL-8 production from both BEAS-2B cells and LFs after LPS stimulation. Tiotropium bromide also suppressed IL-8 mRNA expression through the inhibition of NF-κB activation and signaling protein, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, phosphorylation.Conclusion: The present results strongly suggest that tiotropium bromide exerts the inhibitory effect on neutrophilic

  2. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  3. Curative effect observation on combined using of nefopam and atropine to treat renal colic%平痛新联合阿托品用于肾绞痛镇痛的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜霖; 韩凤东; 赵英男

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察平痛新联合阿托品对肾绞痛镇痛的效果.方法 对临床确诊的257例由泌尿系结石所引起急性肾绞痛患者随机分组,131例为观察组,应用平痛新联合阿托品肌注;126例为对照组,应用哌替啶联合阿托品肌注.对比观察两组止痛效果及副作用.结果 观察组总有效率为90.9%,对照组总有效率为92.9%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).而观察组复发率低,副作用小.结论 平痛新联合阿托品对泌尿系结石所致肾绞痛镇痛效果与哌替啶联合阿托品的镇痛效果无明显差别,且复发率低,副作用少,无成瘾性.%Objective To observe the analgesic effect of combined using of nefopam and atropine on renal colic. Methods 257 confirmed patients who suffered renal colic caused by urinary stone were divided into two groups; 131 for observation group who were jointly used nefopam and atropine and 126 for control group who were jointly used pethidine and atropine. The effect of relieving pain and side effect were observed and compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of the observation group is 90. 9% and the control group is 92. 9% . The difference between two groups showed no statistical significance( P > 0. 05 ) . However the recurrence rate and side effete of the observation group are lower than the control group. Conclusion It is no significant difference between the observation group and the control group to treat renal colic caused by urinary stone and it is worthy of using for clinic patients because of its lower recurrence rate and addiction.

  4. [Effectiveness of pinaverium bromide therapy on colonic motility disorders in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, T; Fehér, A; Rosztóczy, A; Jánosi, J

    1999-02-28

    The special patterns of the slow wave activity in irrittable bowel syndrome by means of surface electromyography were examined and the effect of pinaverium bromide on the symptoms and on the colonic motility in this disease was estimated. Twenty two patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 7 healthy controls were selected to the study. The clinical symptoms were abdominal pain and bloating in all patients, constipation in 9, and diarrhoea in 6 cases. Surface electromyography was carried out before and on the 14th day of the treatment with pinaverium bromide (50 mg t. i. d). The colonic motility was analysed in a 2 hour fasting and a 2 hour postprandial period following a standard (800 kCal) meal. The slow wave frequency of 0.01-0.04 Hz were selected and analysed. The mean frequency of activity peaks (n/10 min) and power-index (area under curve, microV 10 min) were measured. For statistical analysis Student's t-test was applied. Electromyogram of patients with irritable bowel syndrome showed a significant increase of the measured colonic motility parameters both in fasting and postprandial states. Fourteen days of pinaverium bromide treatment was able to significantly reduce the intensity of the colonic motor activity. Administration of pinaverium bromide completely released in 6 and significantly improved the abdominal pain in other 12 patients, while the bloating disappeared in 12 and was significantly improved in 5 from 22 patients. Pinaverium bromide was able to normalise the stool frequency: the weekly number of stools was decreased from 16 to 7 in the patients complaining diarrhoea ant it was increased from 2 to 6 in the patients with constipation. PMID:10204402

  5. Unexpected regiospecific formation and DNA binding of new 3-(acridin-9-yl)methyl-2-iminothiazolidin-4-ones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ján Imrich; Danica Sabolová; Mária Vilková; Júlia Kudláčová

    2016-02-01

    New 3-(acridin-9-yl)methyl-2-substituted imino-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were regiospecifically synthesized from unstable (acridin-9-yl)methyl thioureas and methyl bromoacetate (MBA) or bromoacetyl bromide (BAB). Unexpected formation of only one thiazolidinone regioisomer with both the reagents was due to a new mechanism involving a transient spiro 9,10-dihydroacridine intermediate. These results are in contrast with the reactions of acridin-9-yl thioureas with MBA/BAB that afforded two different thiazolidinone regioisomers with these reagents. UV-vis titrations, CD spectra, and fluorescence quenching have shown that new products intercalated into calf thymus (CT) DNA, and displaced ethidium bromide (EB) from a CT DNA–EB complex. Intrinsic binding constants, , and Stern-Volmer constants, , were found in the range 0.79✕105 – 2.85✕105 M−1 and 17950 – 3360M−1, respectively. The strongest binding affinity was found for an electrondonated 2-(4-methoxyphenylimino) thiazolidinone. Additional evidence for DNA intercalation was obtained from thermal denaturation studies. Gel electrophoresis has proven that thiazolidinone products nicked the supercoiled plasmid DNA in 5.0 M concentration.

  6. 强效睫状肌麻痹剂环戊通能否替代阿托品%Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许江涛

    2012-01-01

    For a long time,atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China,while internationally,cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic.In recent years,1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country.This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedoophthalmiaters.According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs,the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children.However,the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So,for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old,all esotropia children,Am children,and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry.In this article,we also discuss the medication dosage,medication method,possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.%阿托品眼膏长期以来都是中国儿童验光主流使用的睫状肌麻痹剂,而国际上则普遍使用环戊通滴眼液作为一线的睫状肌麻痹药物.近年来,国内引了进1%盐酸环戊通眼液,这种快速强效的睫状肌麻痹剂已被国内小儿眼科医师所关注.一系列国内外自身对照药物疗效研究证实,环戊通的睫状肌麻痹效果接近于阿托品,能广泛应用于中国儿童验光前的睫状肌麻痹.尽管如此,其药物疗效仍略逊于阿托品,故对于7岁以内的远视儿童、所有内斜视儿童、混合性散光儿童及短期内视力下降需要排除调节性近视的儿童,验光前仍应常规使用阿托品眼膏行睫状肌麻痹.本文同时对环戊通眼液的用药剂量、用药方法、可

  7. DNA methylation in metabolic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Zierath, Juleen R

    2011-01-01

    have provided evidence that environmental factors at all ages could modify DNA methylation in somatic tissues, which suggests that DNA methylation is a more dynamic process than previously appreciated. Because of the importance of lifestyle factors in metabolic disorders, DNA methylation provides...... a mechanism by which environmental factors, including diet and exercise, can modify genetic predisposition to disease. This article considers the current evidence that defines a role for DNA methylation in metabolic disorders.......DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity are associated with profound alterations in gene expression that are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recent reports...

  8. Methods of DNA methylation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

  9. 弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效%Efficacy of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘真; 陈玮; 刘玉岭; 赵梅

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia. Methods One hundred and twenty children (240 eyes with ametropic amblyopia) were grouped randomly, and the improvement of visual acuity and visual function between the two methods were compared. Results The differences in binocularvision improvement and stereopsis visual acuity of the two methods were significant(t=2.24,P<0.05).Conclusions Low level laser combined with atropine therapy seems to be superio to traditional treatment in binocularvision improvement and recovery.%目的 观察弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效.方法 120例(240只弱视眼)患儿随机分为治疗组(弱激光联合阿托品疗法)和对照组(传统治疗),比较两种方法对视力的提升效果及双眼视功能的改善情况.结果 弱激光联合阿托品疗法使弱视眼视力进步有效率及立体视锐度与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.24,P<0.05).结论 弱激光联合阿托品疗法更有利于患儿视力提升、双眼视力恢复.

  10. DNA Methylation in Thyroid Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer with 1,690 deaths each year. There are four main types of which the papillary and follicular types together account for >90% followed by medullary cancers with 3% to 5% and anaplastic carcinomas making up <3%. Epigenetic events of DNA hypermethylation are emerging as promising molecular targets for cancer detection. Our immediate and long term goal is to identify DNA methylation markers for early detection of thyroid cancer. This pilot study comprised of 21 patients to include 11 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), 2 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 5 normal thyroid cases, and 3 hyperthyroid cases. Aberrant promoter methylation was examined in 24 tumor suppressor genes using the methylation specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) assay and in the NIS gene using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). The frequently methylated genes were CASP8 (17/21), RASSF1 (16/21) and NIS (9/21). In the normal samples, CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were methylated in 5/5, 4/5 and 1/5 respectively. In the hyperthyroid samples, CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were methylated in 3/3, 2/3 and 1/3 respectively. In the thyroid cancers, CASP8, RASSF1, and NIS were methylated in 9/13, 10/13, and 7/13 respectively. CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were also methylated in concurrently present normal thyroid tissue in 3/11, 4/11 and 3/11 matched thyroid cancer cases (matched for presence of both normal thyroid tissue and thyroid cancer), respectively. Our data suggests that aberrant methylation of CASP8, RASSF1, and NIS maybe an early change in thyroid tumorigenesis regardless of cell type

  11. Comparative microvascular exchange kinetics of [{sup 77}Br]bromide and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Claire [Department of Clinical Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Skehan, Stephen J.; Rolph, Susan M.; Flaxman, Mary E.; Ballinger, James R.; Bird, Nicholas J.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    The plasma clearance curves of small hydrophilic solutes comprise three exponentials, consistent with a three-compartmental distribution model. A previous comparison between inulin and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that these three compartments are in series, the first being plasma and the second and third representing compartments within the extravascular space. Moreover, whilst the total distribution volumes of these two indicators were similar, the volume of the second compartment was higher for DTPA. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a solute smaller than DTPA, namely bromide, fits the hypothesis that the second space volume is an inverse function of the size of the solute. Two groups of subjects were studied: group A comprised eight patients undergoing routine diagnostic arteriography and group B, eight patients referred for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate plus two normal volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and sodium [{sup 77}Br]bromide were intravenously administered simultaneously. In group A, frequent arterial samples were obtained up to 40 min after injection, and antecubital venous samples 30 s after each arterial sample. In group B, frequent venous samples were obtained up to 280 min after injection. Volume measurements based on bromide were corrected for erythrocyte bromide accumulation. In both subject groups, the normalised venous concentration ratio of bromide to DTPA, corrected for red cell bromide uptake, was significantly less than unity in the earliest blood samples, being 0.56 (SD 0.08) at 1 min, consistent with faster diffusion of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid. Furthermore, the extraction fraction of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid in the forearm was about 0.6, higher than that of DTPA (about 0.5) in spite of red cell bromide accumulation which equilibrated with plasma bromide within 20 s and resulted in a red cell to plasma concentration ratio of 0.51 (0

  12. Cobalt-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Grignards with Allylic and Vinylic Bromides: Use of Sarcosine as a Natural Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frlan, Rok; Sova, Matej; Gobec, Stanislav; Stavber, Gaj; Časar, Zdenko

    2015-08-01

    Sarcosine was discovered to be an excellent ligand for cobalt-catalyzed carbon-carbon cross-coupling of Grignard reagents with allylic and vinylic bromides. The Co(II)/sarcosine catalytic system is shown to perform efficiently when phenyl and benzyl Grignards are coupled with alkenyl bromides. Notably, previously unachievable Co-catalyzed coupling of allylic bromides with Grignards to linearly coupled α-products was also realized with Co(II)/sarcosine catalyst. This method was used for efficient preparation of the key intermediate in an alternative synthesis of the antihyperglycemic drug sitagliptin. PMID:26158563

  13. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate)/OMMT nanocomposites by γ-ray irradiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) was synthesized by cationic exchange between Na-MMT and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in an aqueous solution. Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)/(OMMT) nanocomposites was prepared by γ-ray irradiation polymerization. The dispersion degree and the intercalation spacing of these nanocomposites were investigated with the X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The thermal stabilities of the samples were studied by the thermal gravimetric analysis. The nanocomposites had higher storage modulus and higher glass transition temperature (Tg) than the pure PMMA, which were measured by dynamic mechanical analysis

  14. Thorium electrode potentials in equimolar melt of potassium and sodium bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium electrode potentials of thorium in an equimolar mixture of potassium and sodium bromides are measured for 700, 800 and 900 deg C within the concentration range from 0.3 to 3.0 molar %. Th. The bi - and tetravalent ions are found to dominate in equilibrium with the metal. Temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant of reaction Th(solid) + Th4+(melt) reversible 2 Th2+(melt) is obtained and the conventional standard thorium electrode potentials with respect to its bi - and tetravalent ions are measured. Upon replacement of chlorine aniones by bromine ones the reaction shifted to the right hand side. Experimental data enabled to estimate the thermodynamics of mixing liquid thorium tetrabromide with the melted mixture of potassium and sodium bromides

  15. Indirect complexometric determination of mercury(II) using potassium bromide as selective masking agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complexometric method for the determination of mercury in presence of other metal ions based on the selective masking ability of potassium bromide towards mercury is described. Mercury(II) present in a given sample solution is first complexed with a known excess of EDTA and the surplus EDTA is titrated against zinc sulfate solution at pH 5-6 using xylenol orange as the indicator. A known excess of 10 % solution of potassium bromide is then added and the EDTA released from Hg-EDTA complex is titrated against standard zinc sulfate solution. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 8 mg to 250 mg of mercury(II) with a relative error ±0.28 % and standard deviations /leg 0.5 mg. The interference of various ions is studied. This method was applied to the determination of mercury(II) in its alloys. (author)

  16. Plasma fluoride and bromide concentrations during occupational exposure to enflurane or halothane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, P.; Ekstrand, J.; Hallen, B.

    1985-10-01

    The plasma fluoride and bromide concentrations were studied in operating theatre personnel. When enflurane was used, the increase in plasma fluoride concentration could not be distinguished from normal individual variations, but the plasma bromide concentration increased significantly when halothane was used. Seven patients were exposed to enflurane in a concentration of 200 parts per million for 4 h. A significant increase in the plasma concentration of fluoride was observed. The peak concentrations of fluoride occurred during exposure and the increase lasted less than 12 h. The increase in fluoride concentration was larger at this trace concentration than reported after anesthetic concentrations. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fluoride concentration was also studied; a smaller and delayed increase was found in CSF compared to plasma.

  17. Study of the corrosion resistance of metals in a lithium bromide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel' nik, V.V.; Spivak, R.Sh.; Sokolov, V.V.; Trofimenko, A.G.

    1988-07-01

    Results are reported of a study of the corrosion resistance of the stainless steels 12Kh19N10T, 10Kh17N13M3T, 08Kh17N15M3T, 10Kh21N6M2T, and 06KhI28MDT, cupronickel MNZhMts 30-1-1, nickel NP-2, and titanium alloys VT1-0, PT-1M, and PT-3V in a solution of lithium bromide for purposes of assessing these alloys for use in absorption-type refrigerating units using the bromide as an absorbent. The uniform corrosion rate was determined from the weight loss; the nonuniform corrosion rate was determined by measuring the maximum depth of the pits under a microscope. Results are comparatively evaluated.

  18. Study of the isotope effect in hydrogen exchange reactions in liquid hydrogen bromide and liquid ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of the investigation was the thermodynamic isotope effects in naphthalene-hydrogen bromide and benzene-ammonia systems in the presence of potassium amide acting as a catalyst. Protium, deuterium and tritium atoms were present in the system during the experiments. In the experiments on direct and ''reverse'' exchange, the kinetic isotope effects of hydrogen were measured in the liquid-phase systems hydrogen bromide-diphenvl and benzene-ammonia. The mechanisms of exchange reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons with HBr and NH3 are considered with regard to the findings of kinetic experiments. There is a brief description of the methods of preparation in which deuterized and tritiated compounds are used. For tritium counting a scintillation coincidence system was used; and spectroscopic and mass spectrometric methods were used for the isotopic analysis of deuterized substances. (author)

  19. Apparent molal volumes of symmetrical and asymmetrical isomers of tetrabutylammonium bromide in water at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Apparent molal volumes of five isomers of Bu4NBr in water have been measured. • The structural effect of branched and linear chains is discussed. • The structural contributions to the ionic volume were calculated. -- Abstract: Apparent molal volumes of a series of differently substituted quaternary ammonium bromides, namely tetra-iso-butyl-, tetra-sec-butyl-, tetra-n-butyl-, di-n-butyl-di-sec-butyl- and di-n-butyl-di-iso-butylammonium bromide have been determined as a function of molal concentration at (298.15, 303.15 and 308.15) K. Partial molar volumes at infinite dilution and ionic molar volumes of these quaternary ammonium cations were determined. Structural volume contributions to the ionic molar volume were also calculated. The symmetric and asymmetric quaternary ammonium cations are “structure making” ions. The contribution of the branched butyl chains predominates over the linear butyl chains in the asymmetric cations

  20. Facile Synthesis of Heterocycles via 2-Picolinium Bromide and Antimicrobial Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2-picolinium N-ylide 4, generated in situ from the N-acylmethyl-2-picolinium bromide 3, underwent cycloaddition to N-phenylmaleimide or carbon disulfideto give the corresponding cycloadducts 6 and 8, respectively similar reactions ofcompound 3 with some electron-deficient alkenes in the presence of MnO2 yielded theproducts 11 and 12. In addition, reaction of 4 with arylidene cyanothioacetamide andmalononitrile derivatives afforded the thiophene and aniline derivatives 15 and 17,respectively. Heating of picolinium bromide 3 with triethylamine in benzene furnished 2-(2-thienylindolizine (18. The structures of the isolated products were confirmed byelemental analysis as well as by 1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and MS data. Both thestereochemistry and the regioselectivity of the studied reactions are discussed. Thebiological activity of the newly synthesized compounds was examined and showedpromising results.

  1. A novel model-based approach for dose determination of glycopyrronium bromide in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arievich Helen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237 is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist in development for treatment of COPD. This study compared the efficacy and safety of once-daily (OD and twice-daily (BID glycopyrronium bromide regimens, using a novel model-based approach, in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Methods Double-blind, randomized, dose-finding trial with an eight-treatment, two-period, balanced incomplete block design. Patients (smoking history ≥10 pack-years, post-bronchodilator FEV1 ≥30% and 1/FVC 1 at Day 28. Results 385 patients (mean age 61.2 years; mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 53% predicted were randomized; 88.6% completed. All OD and BID dosing regimens produced dose-dependent bronchodilation; at Day 28, increases in mean trough FEV1 versus placebo were statistically significant for all regimens, ranging from 51 mL (glycopyrronium bromide 12.5 μg OD to 160 mL (glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg BID. Pharmacodynamic steady-state was reached by Day 7. There was a small separation (≤37 mL between BID and OD dose–response curves for mean trough FEV1 at steady-state in favour of BID dosing. Over 24 hours, separation between OD and BID regimens was even smaller (FEV1 AUC0-24h maximum difference for equivalent daily dose regimens: 8 mL. Dose–response results for FEV1 at 12 hours, FEV1 AUC0-12h and FEV1 AUC0-4h at steady-state showed OD regimens provided greater improvement over placebo than BID regimens for total daily doses of 25 μg, 50 μg and 100 μg, while the reverse was true for OD versus BID regimens from 12–24 hours. The 12.5 μg BID dose produced a marginally higher improvement in trough FEV1 versus placebo than 50 μg OD, however, the response at 12 hours over placebo was suboptimal (74 mL. Glycopyrronium bromide was safe and well tolerated at all doses. Conclusions Glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg OD provides significant bronchodilation over a 24 hour period

  2. Comparison of injection drotaverine and injection valethamate bromide on duration and course of labor

    OpenAIRE

    Pradnya Rajendra Changede

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous drugs have been used to shorten the active phase of labor. How rationale is it to use these drugs to shorten the active phase of labor? Do they really shorten the duration of labor? What adverse effects do they have on the baby and the mother? These questions were the basis to perform the present study of comparing two of such drugs, injection drotaverine and injection Valethamate bromide with control subjects. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in a terti...

  3. Ethidium Bromide MIC Screening for Enhanced Efflux Pump Gene Expression or Efflux Activity in Staphylococcus aureus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Diixa; Kosmidis, Christos; Seo, Susan M.; Kaatz, Glenn W.

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug resistance efflux pumps contribute to antimicrobial and biocide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The detection of strains capable of efflux is time-consuming and labor-intensive using currently available techniques. A simple and inexpensive method to identify such strains is needed. Ethidium bromide is a substrate for all but one of the characterized S. aureus multidrug-resistant (MDR) efflux pumps (NorC), leading us to examine the utility of simple broth microtiter MIC determin...

  4. Effect of Impeller Agitation on Preparation of Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semiclathrate Hydrate Slurries

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiro Inoue; Kazunari Ohgaki; Shunsuke Hashimoto; Hiroyuki Ito

    2012-01-01

    The slurries-containing tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) solution and its semiclathrate hydrate have attracted a lot of interest as latent heat transport media. These hydrate slurries contain some microparticles of crystal, and the size and shape of these hydrate particles could affect the mobility of slurries. Hence, it is essential to investigate the efficient hydrate-slurry preparation methods and the effect of hydrate particles on the fluid property of slurries for the application to...

  5. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei [National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: li_zhiyuan@gibh.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  6. Tiotropium bromide in the routine care of GOLD stage II COPD patients: a pharmaeconomic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Orietta Zaniolo; Michela Carsi; Sergio Iannazzo

    2011-01-01

    Background: a secondary pre-specified analysis of the UPLIFT cohort demonstrated that the inclusion of tiotropium bromide in the routine care of GOLD stage II (moderate) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is associated with stronger improvements of survival, quality of life, and exacerbation rate than those shown in the total cohort; in this subgroup, tiotropium furthermore induces a significant reduction in the rate of FEV1 decline.Objective: to adapt the Spiriva® model, o...

  7. Linear free energy relationship in reactions between diphenyl amine and benzyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba

    2006-05-01

    Rate of reaction between benzyl bromide and diphenyl amine is retarded by electron-donating groups and enhanced by electron-withdrawing groups present on the benzene ring of the substrate. Hammett's reaction constant of the reaction decreases with increase in temperature according to the equation, \\rho = -11.92 + 3.54/ T. Minimal structural effects observed are attributed to the fact that the isokinetic temperature of the reaction is close to the reaction temperature.

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Drop-in Solvent Alternatives to n-Propyl Bromide for Vapor Degreasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on this limited laboratory study, solvent blends of trans-1,2 dichloroethylene with HFEs, HFCs, or PFCs appear to be viable alternatives to n-propyl bromide for vapor degreasing. The lower boiling points of these blends may lead to greater solvent loss during use. Additional factors must be considered when selecting a solvent substitute, including stability over time, VOC, GWP, toxicity, and business considerations.

  9. High resolution single strand conformation polymorphism analysis using formamide and ethidium bromide staining

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, T.; Ho, SL; Ma, OCK

    1997-01-01

    Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis using ethidium bromide can be improved by adding formamide as the denaturant. This gives higher resolution than previous SSCP methods; it had 100% sensitivity in the discrimination of 14 PCR samples from two different genes, even for a long fragment close to the upper limit of 250 base pairs. This modified procedure is a rapid, simple, safe, and yet highly sensitive method for detecting structural differences in DNA fragments.

  10. Use of Br-82 and I-131 radionuclides in studies of thyrotoxic effects of exogenous bromide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    Vol.3. Kolkata: Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 2010 - (Lahiri, S.; Maiti, M.; Das, S.), s. 342-344 ISSN 0973-256X. [Application of Radiotracers in Chemical, Environmental and Biological Sciences. Kolkata (IN), 07.11.2010-13.11.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bromide * metabolism of iodine * thyrotoxic Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  11. Interference of exogenous bromide with the metabolism of thyroid hormones in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    České Budějovice: -, 2008. s. 205-205. ISBN 80-86313-21-2. [Biochemický sjezd /21./. 14.09.2008-17.09.2008, České Budějovice] Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB401630701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spo2 * bromide * metabolism * thyroid hormone Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  12. Radiometric quantification of thyrotoxic and goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide and perchlorate ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    Bratislava: Slovenská technická univerzita, 2012, s. 152-156. ISBN 978-80-227-3722-7. [Priemyselná toxikológia 2012 /32./. Svit, Vysoké Tatry (SK), 20.06.2012-22.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bromide * perchlorate * radiometric assay * thyroid peroxidase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  13. Tetrabutylammonium Bromide (TBABr)-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) and Their Physical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Rizana Yusof; Emilia Abdulmalek; Kamaliah Sirat; Mohd. Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscos...

  14. Tryptophan modification by 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide studied by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strohalm, M.; Kodíček, M.; Pechar, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 312, č. 3 (2003), s. 811-816. ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0922; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry * 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide * Koshland reagent Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.836, year: 2003

  15. Replacing conventional carbon nucleophiles with electrophiles: nickel-catalyzed reductive alkylation of aryl bromides and chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Daniel A; Jones, Brittany A; Weix, Daniel J

    2012-04-11

    A general method is presented for the synthesis of alkylated arenes by the chemoselective combination of two electrophilic carbons. Under the optimized conditions, a variety of aryl and vinyl bromides are reductively coupled with alkyl bromides in high yields. Under similar conditions, activated aryl chlorides can also be coupled with bromoalkanes. The protocols are highly functional-group tolerant (-OH, -NHTs, -OAc, -OTs, -OTf, -COMe, -NHBoc, -NHCbz, -CN, -SO(2)Me), and the reactions are assembled on the benchtop with no special precautions to exclude air or moisture. The reaction displays different chemoselectivity than conventional cross-coupling reactions, such as the Suzuki-Miyaura, Stille, and Hiyama-Denmark reactions. Substrates bearing both an electrophilic and nucleophilic carbon result in selective coupling at the electrophilic carbon (R-X) and no reaction at the nucleophilic carbon (R-[M]) for organoboron (-Bpin), organotin (-SnMe(3)), and organosilicon (-SiMe(2)OH) containing organic halides (X-R-[M]). A Hammett study showed a linear correlation of σ and σ(-) parameters with the relative rate of reaction of substituted aryl bromides with bromoalkanes. The small ρ values for these correlations (1.2-1.7) indicate that oxidative addition of the bromoarene is not the turnover-frequency determining step. The rate of reaction has a positive dependence on the concentration of alkyl bromide and catalyst, no dependence upon the amount of zinc (reducing agent), and an inverse dependence upon aryl halide concentration. These results and studies with an organic reductant (TDAE) argue against the intermediacy of organozinc reagents. PMID:22463689

  16. Ethidium Bromide MIC Screening for Enhanced Efflux Pump Gene Expression or Efflux Activity in Staphylococcus aureus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Diixa; Kosmidis, Christos; Seo, Susan M.; Kaatz, Glenn W.

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug resistance efflux pumps contribute to antimicrobial and biocide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The detection of strains capable of efflux is time-consuming and labor-intensive using currently available techniques. A simple and inexpensive method to identify such strains is needed. Ethidium bromide is a substrate for all but one of the characterized S. aureus multidrug-resistant (MDR) efflux pumps (NorC), leading us to examine the utility of simple broth microtiter MIC determinations using this compound in identifying efflux-proficient strains. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR identified the increased expression of one or more MDR efflux pump genes in 151/309 clinical strains (49%). Ethidium bromide MIC testing was insensitive (48%) but specific (92%) in identifying strains with gene overexpression, but it was highly sensitive (95%) and specific (99%) in identifying strains capable of ethidium efflux. The increased expression of norA with or without other genes was most commonly associated with efflux, and in the majority of cases that efflux was inhibited by reserpine. Ethidium bromide MIC testing is a simple and straightforward method to identify effluxing strains and can provide accurate predictions of efflux prevalence in large strain sets in a short period of time. PMID:20855743

  17. Transport of bromide measured by soil coring, suction plates, and lysimeters under transient flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteel, R.; Pütz, Th.; Vereecken, H.

    2003-04-01

    Lysimeter studies are one step within the registration procedure of pesticides. Flow and transport in these free-draining lysimeters do not reflect the field situation mainly because of the occurence of a zone of local saturation at the lower boundary (seepage face). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of flow and transport behaviour of bromide detected with different measuring devices (lysimeters, suction plates, and soil coring) by comparing experimental results with numerical simulations in heterogeneous flow domains. We applied bromide as a small pulse to the bare soil surface (Orthic Luvisol) of the three devices and the displacement of bromide was regurlarly sampled for three years under natural wheather conditions. Based on the mean breakthrough curves we observe experimentally that lysimeters have a lower effective pore-water velocity and exhibit more solute spreading resulting in a larger dispersivity than the suction plates. This can be ascribed to the artefact of the lower boundary. We performed numerical transport simulations in 2-D heterogeneous flow fields (scaling approach) choosing appropriate boundary conditions for the various devices. The simulations allow to follow the temporal evolution of flow and transport processes in the various devices and to gain additional process understanding. We conclude that the model is essentially capable to reproduce the main experimental findings only if we account for the spatial correlation structure of the hydraulic properties, i.e. soil heterogeneity.

  18. Preparation and optical characteristics of layered perovskite-type lead-bromide-incorporated azobenzene chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasai, Ryo, E-mail: rsasai@riko.shimane-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, F3-3(250), Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Shinomura, Hisashi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, F3-3(250), Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Lead bromide-based layered perovskite powders with azobenzene derivatives were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. From the diffuse reflectance (DR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the hybrid powder materials, the present hybrids exhibited sharp absorption and PL peaks originating from excitons produced in the PbBr{sub 4}{sup 2-} layer. When the present hybrid powder was irradiated with UV light at 350 nm, the absorption band from the trans-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 350 nm, decreased, while the absorption band from the cis-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 450 nm, increased. These results indicate that azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid materials exhibit reversible photoisomerization. Moreover, it was found that the PL intensity from the exciton also varied due to photoisomerization of the azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid. Thus, for the first time we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation. - Graphical abstract: For the first time, we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PbBr-based layered perovskite with azobenezene derivatives could be synthesized by a homogeneous precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Azobenzene derivatives incorporated the present hybrid that exhibited reversible photoisomerization under UV and/or visible light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL property of the present hybrid could also be varied by photoisomerization.

  19. Preparation and optical characteristics of layered perovskite-type lead-bromide-incorporated azobenzene chromophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead bromide-based layered perovskite powders with azobenzene derivatives were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. From the diffuse reflectance (DR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the hybrid powder materials, the present hybrids exhibited sharp absorption and PL peaks originating from excitons produced in the PbBr42− layer. When the present hybrid powder was irradiated with UV light at 350 nm, the absorption band from the trans-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 350 nm, decreased, while the absorption band from the cis-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 450 nm, increased. These results indicate that azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid materials exhibit reversible photoisomerization. Moreover, it was found that the PL intensity from the exciton also varied due to photoisomerization of the azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid. Thus, for the first time we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation. - Graphical abstract: For the first time, we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation. Highlights: ► PbBr-based layered perovskite with azobenezene derivatives could be synthesized by a homogeneous precipitation method. ► Azobenzene derivatives incorporated the present hybrid that exhibited reversible photoisomerization under UV and/or visible light irradiation. ► PL property of the present hybrid could also be varied by photoisomerization.

  20. Continuous Inhalation of Ipratropium Bromide for Acute Asthma Refractory to β2-agonist Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumbourlis, Anastassios C; Mastropietro, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    To present the case of a patient with persistent bronchospasm, refractory to treatment with β2-agonists, that resolved promptly with continuous inhalation of large dose (1000 mcg/hr) ipratropium bromide, and to discuss the possibility of tolerance to β2-agonists as the cause for his failure to respond to adrenergic medications. The patient had received multiple doses of albuterol, as well as subcutaneous terbutaline (0.3 mg), intravenous magnesium sulfate (1 g) and intravenous dexamethasone (10 mg) prior to his admission to the intensive care unit. He remained symptomatic despite systemic intravenous steroids, continuous intravenous terbutaline (up to 0.6 mcg/kg/min), and continuous nebulized albuterol (up to 20 mg/hr for 57 hr) followed by 49 hours of continuous levalbuterol (7 mg/hr). Due to the lack of response, all β2-agonists were discontinued at 106 hours post-admission, and he was started on large dose ipratropium bromide (1000 mcg/hr) by continuous nebulization. Clinical improvement was evident within 1 hour and complete resolution of his symptoms within 4 hours. Continuous inhalation of large dose ipratropium bromide may be an effective regimen for the treatment of patients hospitalized with acute asthma who are deemed to be nonresponsive and/or tolerant to β2-agonist therapy. PMID:25859173

  1. Managing opioid-induced constipation in advanced illness: focus on methylnaltrexone bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Elina Clemens

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Katri Elina Clemens1,2, Eberhard Klaschik11Department of Science and Research, Centre for Palliative Medicine, University of Bonn, Germany; 2Department of Palliative Medicine and Pain Therapy, Malteser Hospital Bonn/Rhein-Sieg, GermanyAbstract: Constipation is a common symptom in palliative care patients which can generate considerable suffering. There is uncertainty about the choice of treatment options from varying recommendations for management of constipation and a varying clinical practice in palliative care settings. The purpose of the review was to evaluate the current recommendations of therapy guidelines for the management of opioid-induced constipation in palliative care patients with a focus on methylnaltrexone bromide. Recent findings in the literature and related information on the opioid-induced gastrointestinal disorders in patients with advanced illness, as well as information on the opioid-antagonist methylnaltrexone, are discussed. Knowledge of the role of definitions, the causes of constipation and the pathophysiology of opioid-induced constipation must be given high priority in the treatment of patients receiving opioids. Diagnosis and therapy of constipation, therefore, should relate to findings in clinical investigation. Opioid-induced constipation and its adequate treatment is an important issue for patients with advanced illness and also poses therapeutic challenge for clinicians in daily routine. Methylnaltrexone bromide may represent an important therapeutic option for palliative care patients who are suffering from opioid-induced constipation with failure of conventional prophylactic oral laxative treatment.Keywords: opioid-induced constipation, palliative care, opioids, methylnaltrexone bromide

  2. Room temperature synthesis of silver nanowires from tabular silver bromide crystals in the presence of gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long silver nanowires were synthesized at room temperature by a simple and fast process derived from the development of photographic films. A film consisting of an emulsion of tabular silver bromide grains in gelatin was treated with a photographic developer (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate (metol), citric acid) in the presence of additional aqueous silver nitrate. The silver nanowires have lengths of more than 50 μm, some even more than 100 μm, and average diameters of about 80 nm. Approximately, 70% of the metallic silver formed in the reduction consists of silver nanowires. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicate that the silver nanowires grow along the [111] direction. It was found that the presence of gelatin, tabular silver bromide crystals and silver ions in solution are essential for the formation of the silver nanowires. The nanowires appear to originate from the edges of the silver bromide crystals. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SAED, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  3. Flight Experiment to Study Double-Diffusive Instabilities in Silver-Doped Lead Bromide Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Rosch, W. R.; Suhre, D. R.; Coriell, S. R.; Duval, W. M. B.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed study on the effect of convection on crystal quality was carried out by growing lead bromide crystals in transparent Bridgman furnace. Direct observations were made on the solid-liquid interface and a new kind of instability was observed. This could be explained on the basis of toroidal flow in the AgBr-doped lead bromide sample. With the increasing translation velocity, the interface changed from flat to depressed, and then formed a cavity in the center of the growth tube. The crystal grown at the lowest thermal Rayleigh number showed the highest quality and crystal grown at the largest thermal Rayleigh number showed the worst quality. Numerical studies were carried out to provide a framework for interpreting the observed convective and morphological instabilities, and to determine the critical (limiting) concentration of dopant for a particular growth velocity and gravity level. Theoretical instability diagrams were compared with data obtained from the experimental studies. These studies provided basic data on convective behavior in doped lead bromide crystals grown by the commercially important Bridgman process.

  4. Electrolytic coloration and spectral properties of hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Lan, E-mail: lqipaper@eyou.com [Department of Hydroelectricity, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Song, Cuiying [School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Gu, Hongen [Department of Physics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide single crystals are colored electrolytically at various temperatures and voltages by using a pointed cathode and a flat anode. The characteristic OH{sup -} spectral band is observed in absorption spectrum of uncolored single crystal. The characteristic O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, U, V{sub 2}, O{sup 2-}-V{sub a}{sup +}, M{sub L1}, F and M spectral bands are observed simultaneously in absorption spectra of colored single crystals. Current-time curve for electrolytic coloration of hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide single crystal and its relationship with electrolytic coloration processes are given. Production and conversion of color centers are explained. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We expanded the traditional electrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide crystals were colored electrolytically for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Useful V, F and F-aggregate color centers were produced in colored crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer V color centers were produced directly and F as well as F-aggregate color centers indirectly.

  5. Detection of water contamination from hydraulic fracturing wastewater: a μPAD for bromide analysis in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Leslie J; Bandara, Gayan C; Weber, Genevieve L; Remcho, Vincent T

    2015-08-21

    Due to the rapid expansion in hydraulic fracturing (fracking), there is a need for robust, portable and specific water analysis techniques. Early detection of contamination is crucial for the prevention of lasting environmental damage. Bromide can potentially function as an early indicator of water contamination by fracking waste, because there is a high concentration of bromide ions in fracking wastewaters. To facilitate this, a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) has been developed and optimized for the quantitative colorimetric detection of bromide in water using a smartphone. A paper microfluidic platform offers the advantages of inexpensive fabrication, elimination of unstable wet reagents, portability and high adaptability for widespread distribution. These features make this assay an attractive option for a new field test for on-site determination of bromide. PMID:26161586

  6. Electrochemical synthesis of niobium methylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of niobium(V) methylate in methanol against the background of lithium chloride is studied. It is found that, in the anodic dissolution of niobium in the diaphragm-free electrolytic tank, formed niobium(V) methylate is partially reduced to the four-valent state at the cathode. In order to suppress the reduction of Nb(V), an electrolytic tank was designed, which enabled one to separate the anolyte from the catholyte using the difference between their densities. Niobium methylate was not found in the anolyte; however, it formed as a result of mixing the anolyte with the catholyte after completion of electrolysis. The current efficiency of niobium methylate of 96-97% was achieved. Possible mechanism of the process is discussed

  7. HISTONE METHYLATION REGULATES MEMORY FORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Swati; Kim, Se Y.; Artis, Sonja; Molfese, David L.; Schumacher, Armin; Sweatt, J. David; Paylor, Richard E.; Lubin, Farah D.

    2010-01-01

    It has been established that regulation of chromatin structure through post-translational modification of histone proteins, primarily histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation, is an important early step in the induction of synaptic plasticity and formation of long-term memory. In this study, we investigated the contribution of another histone modification, histone methylation, to memory formation in the adult hippocampus. We found that tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4), an ac...

  8. Reaction of Lithium Diethylamide with an Alkyl Bromide and Alkyl Benzenesulfonate: Origins of Alkylation, Elimination, and Sulfonation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Lekha; Ramírez, Antonio; Collum, David B.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of NMR, kinetic, and computational methods are used to examine reactions of lithium diethylamide in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with n-dodecyl bromide and n-octyl benzenesulfonate. The alkyl bromide undergoes competitive SN2 substitution and E2 elimination in proportions independent of all concentrations except for a minor medium effect. Rate studies show that both reactions occur via trisolvated-monomer-based transition structures. The alkyl benzenesulfonate undergoes competitive SN2...

  9. To compare the efficacy of Drotaverine hydrochloride and Valethamate bromide in shortening of the first stage of labour

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Raman Jogi

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare the efficacy of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Valethamate Bromide in shortening of the first stage of Labor. Drotaverine is more effective in regards of shorten the 1st stage of labor, rate of cervical dilatation with less side effects in compare to Valethamate Bromide. Methods: Two Hundred demographically similes woman with full term pregnancy in active labour were included in the study and divided into two groups viz. First Group: 100 women were given injection...

  10. Nickel-catalyzed vinylation of aryl chlorides and bromides with vinyl ZnBr.MgBrCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tetsu

    2009-05-01

    The Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl halides and vinylzinc bromide for the synthesis of styrene derivatives was investigated. Of the catalysts surveyed, the combination of Ni(acac)(2) and Xantphos was found to be the most effective for this cross-coupling. This catalyst could be used in reactions with various aryl bromides and chlorides, including electron-rich aryl chlorides such as chloroanisoles. PMID:19354270

  11. Methylation: a regulator of HIV-1 replication?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeang Kuan-Teh; Yedavalli Venkat RK

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Recent characterizations of methyl transferases as regulators of cellular processes have spurred investigations into how methylation events might influence the HIV-1 life cycle. Emerging evidence suggests that protein-methylation can positively and negatively regulate HIV-1 replication. How DNA- and RNA- methylation might impact HIV-1 is also discussed.

  12. Different emissive states in the bulk and at the surface of methylammonium lead bromide perovskite revealed by two-photon micro-spectroscopy and lifetime measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Khadga Jung; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zhang, Wei; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2016-07-01

    Two photon photoluminescence (2PPL) from single crystals of methyl ammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3, MAPbBr3) is studied. We observe two components in the 2PPL spectra, which we assign to the photoluminescence (PL) from the carrier recombination at the band edge and the recombination due to self-trapping of excitons. The PL Stokes shift of self-trapped excitons is about 100 meV from the band-gap energy. Our measurements show that about 15% of the total PL from regions about 40 μm deep inside the crystal is due to the emission from self-trapped exciton. This contribution increases to about 20% in the PL from the regions close to the surface. Time resolved measurements of 2PPL show that the PL due to band-edge recombination has a life time of about 8 ns while the PL lifetime of self-trapped excitons is in the order of 100 ns. Quantification of self-trapped excitons in the materials used in photovoltaics is important as such excitons hinder charge separation. As our results also show that an appreciable fraction of photo-generated carriers get trapped, the results are important in rational design of photovoltaics. On the other hand, our results also show that the self-trapped excitons broaden the emission spectrum, which may be useful in designing broadband light emitting devices.

  13. Segurança e exeqüibilidade do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina e atropina em pacientes octogenários Safety and feasibility of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography in octogenarian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sebastião de Abreu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a exeqüibilidade e segurança do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina e atropina (EED em octogenários. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 5.467 EED, distribuídos entre grupo dos octogenários (GI=203 e grupo controle (GII=5.264. A idade média no GI=83±3 (80-95 e no GII=59±11 (17-79 anos. Os parâmetros resultantes do EED, coletados prospectivamente, foram comparados e analisados. RESULTADOS: O percentual de pacientes que atingiram freqüência cardíaca máxima foi em GI=63,5% e GII=41% (GI vs. GII; pOBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and safety of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE in octogenarians. METHODS: We evaluated 5,467 DASE which were distributed in two groups: group I (GI with 203 DASE performed in octogenarians, and group II (GII, the control group, with 5,264 DASE. The mean age of GI and GII was 83±3 (80-95 and 59±11 (17-79 years, respectively. DASE parameters that were prospectively collected, were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The percentage of patients that achieved maximum heart rate was 63.5% in GI and 41% in GII (p<0.001, and GI patients required less atropine compared to GII (GI=47%, GII=78%, p<0.001.The presence of chest pain (GI=13%, GII=15.6%, p=0.429 and DASE positive for myocardial ischemia (GI=20.7%, GII=16.9%, p=0.296 were not statistically different between the two groups. However, concomitant positive DASE and absence of chest pain (GI=17%, GII=11%, p=0.029 was higher in GI. The incidence of premature beats in GI was higher than in GII (GI=47.8%, GII=27.6%, p<0.001, and there were more supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (ST in GI than in GII (GI=5.9%, GII=1.9%, p=0.001. Out of 11 ST that happened in GI, 9 reverted spontaneously. There weren't either deaths or acute myocardial infarction. Ventricular fibrillation only happened in GII (2 cases, 0.03%. CONCLUSION: In the present study, octogenarians achieved maximum heart rate more frequently despite the lesser amount of atropine

  14. N,N'-(Hexane-1,6-diylbis(4-methyl-N-(oxiran-2-ylmethylbenzenesulfonamide: Synthesis via cyclodextrin mediated N-alkylation in aqueous solution and further Prilezhaev epoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Fischer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available N-alkylation of N,N'-(hexane-1,6-diylbis(4-methylbenzenesulfonamide with allyl bromide and subsequent Prilezhaev reaction with m-chloroperbenzoic acid to give N,N'-(hexane-1,6-diylbis(4-methyl-N-(oxiran-2-ylmethylbenzenesulfonamide is described. This twofold alkylation was performed in aqueous solution, whereby α-, and randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin were used as adequate phase transfer catalysts and the cyclodextrin–guest complexes were characterized by 1H NMR and 2D NMR ROESY spectroscopy. Finally, the curing properties of the diepoxide with lysine-based α-amino-ε-caprolactam were analyzed by rheological measurements.

  15. The Clinical Study on the Effect of Tropicamide and Atropine Ophthalmic Solution in Mydriatic Refractometry for Children%托吡卡胺与阿托品对儿童散瞳验光效果的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李战梅; 黄海; 周李

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect of tropicamide and atropine ophthalmic solution in mydriatic refractometry for children.Methods:Totally 260 cases (520 eyes) of ametropia children from 4 to 14 years without other eye disease were received optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops and 1%atropine sulfate,The results of optometry were compared by paired T-test.Results:There existed statistically significant difference between the hyperopia and myopia in 4 to 7 years old group,hyperopia in 8 to 11 years old group.But there were no significant difference between the myopia in 8 to 11 years old group,myopia and hyperopia in 12 to 14 years old group.Conclusion:Aged 8 years and older children with myopia and hyperopia in aged 12 years and above children could receive optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops.%  目的:对比托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对儿童散瞳验光的效果。方法:用托吡卡胺眼液和1%硫酸阿托品眼膏先后分别对4~14岁260例(520只眼),无其它眼疾,眼位正常的屈光不正儿童散瞳后进行电脑验光,采用自身配对t检验对两种药物验光结果进行比较。结果:4~7岁组远视、近视和8~11岁组远视两种药物散瞳验光所得结果差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:托吡卡胺散瞳验光方法适用于眼位正常的8岁及以上近视儿童和12岁及以上远视儿童。

  16. Synthesis of [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]olivetolic acid, methyl [1'-13C]olivetolate and [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]cannabigerolic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential advanced intermediates in the biosynthesis of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive principle of marijuana, have been synthesized labeled with two contiguous 13C atoms and 14C. Methyl [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]olivetolate was prepared from lithium [13C2]acetylide and dimethyl [2-14C]malonate. Reaction with geranyl bromide afforded methyl [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]cannabigerolate, and hydrolysis of these methyl esters with lithium propyl mercaptide yielded the corresponding labeled acids. The 13C-13C couplings observable in the 13C NMR spectra of these 13C-enriched compounds and their synthetic precursors are recorded. Methyl [1'-14C]olivetolate was prepared from 13CO2 to confirm assignments of the 13C chemical shifts in the pentyl side chain of these compounds. (author)

  17. PCMdb: Pancreatic Cancer Methylation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Gandharva; Sharma, Minakshi; Kumar, Shailesh; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Gupta, Sudheer; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2014-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth most aggressive malignancy and urgently requires new biomarkers to facilitate early detection. For providing impetus to the biomarker discovery, we have developed Pancreatic Cancer Methylation Database (PCMDB, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/pcmdb/), a comprehensive resource dedicated to methylation of genes in pancreatic cancer. Data was collected and compiled manually from published literature. PCMdb has 65907 entries for methylation status of 4342 unique genes. In PCMdb, data was compiled for both cancer cell lines (53565 entries for 88 cell lines) and cancer tissues (12342 entries for 3078 tissue samples). Among these entries, 47.22% entries reported a high level of methylation for the corresponding genes while 10.87% entries reported low level of methylation. PCMdb covers five major subtypes of pancreatic cancer; however, most of the entries were compiled for adenocarcinomas (88.38%) and mucinous neoplasms (5.76%). A user-friendly interface has been developed for data browsing, searching and analysis. We anticipate that PCMdb will be helpful for pancreatic cancer biomarker discovery.

  18. New Synthesis and Antiparasitic Activity of Model 5-Aryl-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M. El-Abadelah

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of 5-aryl-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazoles 5a-f have been synthesized in good yields by the Suzuki coupling reaction between 5-chloro-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazole (3 and arylboronic acids 4a-f, aided by dichlorobis-(triphenylphosphinepalladium(II, K2CO3, and tetrabutylammonium bromide in water at 70-80 °C. Compounds 5a-f were characterized by elemental analysis, NMR and MS spectral data. On the basis of in vitro screening data, 5-(3-chlorophenyl-1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazole (5fexhibited potent lethal activity against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis with IC50 = 1.47 µM/mL, a value lower by a factor of two than that of the standard drug, metronidazole. The boosted activity of 5f was not accompanied by any increased cytotoxicity.The rest of the series also exhibited potent antiparasitic activity with IC50 valuesin the 1.72-4.43 µM/mL range. The cytotoxicity of the derivatives 5c and 5e was increased compared to the precursor compound, metronidazole, although they remain non-cytotoxic at concentrations much higher than the antiparasitic concentration of the two derivatives.

  19. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riet-Correa G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.

  20. On the Mechanism of Electrochemical Reduction of Dodecylpyridinium Bromide in Aprotic Media. An Impedance Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hromadová, Magdaléna; Kolivoška, Viliam; Pospíšil, Lubomír

    Ústí nad Labem: BEST servis, 2010 - (Navrátil, T.; Barek, J.), s. 77-79 ISBN 978-80-254-6710-7. [Modern Electroanalytical Methods /30./. Jetřichovice (CZ), 24.05.2010-28.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1157; GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA AV ČR IAA400400802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : dodecylpyridinium bromide * reduction mechanism * impendance spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  1. Promotion of hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide to the damage of Alexandrium sp. LC3 by cupric glutamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hao; MIAO Jin-lai; CUI Feng-xia; LI Guang-you

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide (HDTMAB) on the removal of A lexandrium sp. LC3 under cupric glutamate stress was investigated. Toxic effect of cupric glutamate on A lexandrium sp. LC3 was significantly promoted in the presence of HDTMAB, especially at 3.0 cmc of HDTMAB. It was found that the sulfhydryl group content of the cell decreased, while the malonaldehyde content and membrane permeability increased when Alexandrium sp. LC3 was treated with HDTMAB and cupric glutamate complex, compared with cupric glutamate alone. The data suggest that HDTMAB might stimulate the damage of A lexandrium sp. LC3 by enhancing the membrane permeability.

  2. Radiation Induced Formation of Acrylated Palm Oil Nanoparticles using Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Microemulsion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we report the preparation of Acrylated Palm Oil (APO) nanoparticles using aqueous Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) microemulsion system. This microemulsion system which contains the dispersed APO nano droplets was subjected to the gamma irradiation to induce the formation of the crosslinked APO nanoparticle. After irradiation at higher doses, the size of APO nanoparticles was transformed from a submicron-sized to a nano-sized of the particles. Size decreasing might be due to the intermolecular and the intramolecular crosslinking reactions of the APO nanoparticles during the irradiation process. (author)

  3. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Clinacanthus nutans through dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays

    OpenAIRE

    Vajrabhaya, La-Ongthong; Korsuwannawong, Suwanna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the results of dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays of Clinacanthus nutans cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Mouse fibroblast (L929) cells were exposed to 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% (W/V) C. nutans in a 96-cluster-well-culture plate for 24 h. The cell viability after exposure to C. nutans was determined by MTT and NRU assays in separate tissue culture plates. The two assays were compared thr...

  4. Efficient SN2 fluorination of primary and secondary alkyl bromides by copper(I) fluoride complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yanpin

    2013-11-11

    Copper(I) fluoride complexes ligated by phenanthroline derivatives have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes adopt as either ionic or neutral forms in the solid state, depending on the steric bulkiness of the substituent groups on the phenanthroline ligands. These complexes react with primary and secondary alkyl bromides to produce the corresponding alkyl fluorides in modest to good yields. This new method is compatible with a variety of important functional groups such as ether, thioether, amide, nitrile, methoxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, ester, and heterocycle moieties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Highly stable, luminescent core-shell type methylammonium-octylammonium lead bromide layered perovskite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Saikat; Veldhuis, Sjoerd A; Ng, Yan Fong; Li, Mingjie; Muduli, Subas Kumar; Sum, Tze Chien; Damodaran, Bahulayan; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Mathews, Nripan

    2016-06-01

    A new protocol for the synthesis of a highly stable (over 2 months under ambient conditions) solution-processed core-shell type structure of mixed methylammonium-octylammonium lead bromide perovskite nanoparticles (5-12 nm), having spherical shape, color tunability in the blue to green spectral region (438-521 nm) and a high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of up to 92% is described. The color tunability, high PLQY and stability are due to the quantum confinement imparted by the crystal engineering associated with core-shell nanoparticle formation during growth. PMID:27165565

  6. Copper(I) Bromide: An Alternative Emitter for Blue-Colored Flame Pyrotechnics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknelevicius, Dominykas; Karvinen, Eero; Klapötke, Thomas M; Kubilius, Rytis; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Rusan, Magdalena

    2015-10-19

    Copper(I) bromide was evaluated as an alternative emitter for blue flame pyrotechnic compositions. CuBr and CuCl emission spectra were recorded from a butane torch flame and compared. Cu(BrO3 )2 was synthesized and used in pyrotechnic compositions as an oxidizer and the source for the generation of CuBr species. Pyrotechnic compositions, which contained copper and potassium bromates as oxidizers, were optimized for the generation of blue flames. The experimental data, including emission spectra of the flames, chromaticity coordinates, burning rates, luminous intensities, and sensitivity tests, were analyzed and compared. PMID:26471445

  7. Ethidium bromide transport across Mycobacterium smegmatis cell-wall: correlation with antibiotic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Couto Isabel; Ramos Jorge; Rodrigues Liliana; Amaral Leonard; Viveiros Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Active efflux systems and reduced cell-wall permeability are considered to be the main causes of mycobacterial intrinsic resistance to many antimicrobials. In this study, we have compared the Mycobacterium smegmatis wild-type strain mc2155 with knockout mutants for porins MspA (the main porin of M. smegmatis) and MspC, the efflux pump LfrA (the main efflux pump system of M. smegmatis) and its repressor LfrR for their ability to transport ethidium bromide (EtBr) on a real-t...

  8. Efficient Stille cross-coupling reaction using aryl chlorides or bromides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian; Lerebours, Rachel

    2003-09-19

    An efficient Stille cross-coupling reaction using a variety of aryl halides in neat water has been developed. Employing palladium-phosphinous acid catalyst [(t-Bu)(2)P(OH)](2)PdCl(2) allows formation of biaryls from aryl chlorides and bromides in good to high yields. Functional groups such as ketones and nitriles are tolerated, and organic cosolvents are not required. The air stability and solubility in water of the palladium complexes used in this study facilitate operation of the coupling reaction and product isolation. The feasibility of catalyst recycling has also been demonstrated. PMID:12968920

  9. Raman Spectroscopy Study of the Doping Effect of the Encapsulated Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Bromides on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna V. Kharlamova

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution the modification of the electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) filled with nickel bromide, cobalt bromide, and iron bromide was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The doping-induced alterations of the radial breathing mode (RBM) and G-mode in the Raman spectra of the filled SWCNTs were analyzed in detail. The observed shifts of the components of the Raman modes and changes of their profiles allowed concluding that the embedded compounds have an accep...

  10. Sensitive and rapid titrimetric and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of stavudine in pharmaceuticals using bromate-bromide and three dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura Basavaiah

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Four sensitive and rapid methods for the determination of stavudine (STV in bulk drug and in dosage forms were developed and optimized. In titrimetry, aqueous solution of STV was treated with a known excess of bromate-bromide in HCl medium followed by estimation of unreacted bromine by iodometric back titration. Spectrophotometric methods involve the addition of a measured excess of bromate-bromide in HCl medium and subsequent estimation of the residual bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of methyl orange, indigocarmine or thymol blue followed by measurement of absorbance at 520 nm (method A, 610 nm (method B or 550 nm (method C. In all the methods, the amount of bromate reacted corresponds to the amount of STV. Calculations in titrimetry were based on a 1:0.666 (STV:KBrO3 stoichiometry and the method was found to be applicable over 3.5-10 mg range. A linear increase in absorbance with concentration of STV was observed in the spectrophotometric methods, and the Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration ranges 0.125-1.75, 1-10 and 1-9.0 µg mL-1 STV for method A, method B and method C, respectively. The methods when applied to the determination of STV in tablets and capsules were found to give satisfactory results.Este trabalho descreve quatro métodos rápidos e sensíveispara a determinação de estavudina (STV na matéria-prima ou em produtos formulados. Soluções aquosas de STV podem ser tituladas tratando-as com excesso de bromato-brometo em meio ácido clorídrico, seguido da determinação iodimétrica de bromo em excesso. Métodos espectrofotométricos tambémenvolvem a adição de excesso de bromato-brometo à amostra, seguida da determinação de bromo residual por adição de uma quantidade fixa de alaranjado de metila, índigo-carmim ou azul de timol, e de medidas de absorbância nos comprimentos de onda apropriados: 520, 610 ou 550 nm. Em todos os métodos, a quantidade de bromato consumida corresponde à quantidade de STV e

  11. Phase behavior of multi-arm star-shaped polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sangshin; Moon, Hong Chul; Bae, Dusik; Kwak, Jonghen; Kim, Jin Kon

    2013-03-01

    We synthesized star-shaped polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer (PS- b-PMMA) by utilizing α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) as a core of the star-shaped block copolymer. Eighteen hydroxyl groups on α-CD were transformed to bromine by the reaction with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide. We found that the number of bromine substituted arms per one α-CD was higher than 16, which was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. We could control molecular weight of block copolymers by changing polymerization times. The block copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Phase behaviors of these star-shaped block copolymers were investigated by small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

  12. Phase Behavior of Star-shaped polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sangshin; Moon, Hongchul; Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Jin Kon

    2012-02-01

    Star-shaped polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer (PS-b-PMMA) was synthesized by utilizing α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) as a junction point of the star-shaped block copolymer. Eighteen hydroxyl groups on α-CD were substituted with bromine by the reaction with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide for atom transfer radical polymerization. We found that the number of bromine substituted arms per one α-CD was higher than 16 measured by nuclear magnetic resonance and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. We could control molecular weight of this unusual kind of block copolymer depending on polymerization times. Those polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Phase behavior of these star-shaped block copolymers were investigated.

  13. (Benzoylamino)methyl 4-Hydroxybenzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Mladenovska; Emil Popovski

    2010-01-01

    (Benzoylamino)methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (“Benzamidomethylparaben”) (3) was obtained from a reaction of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2) with a dioxane suspension of (benzamidomethyl)triethylammonium chloride (1). The phenolic group in 2 cannot be benzamidomethylated with 1 in aqueous media.

  14. Using prechloramination to control trihalomethanes formation in River Huang water with high bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Hui; CHEN Wei; LIN Tao; LIU Cheng; CHEN Jie; LI Gui-bai

    2008-01-01

    An effective technology in controlling trihalomethanes (THMs)formation in the case of large amounts of bromide presenting wag proposed,and the water of River Huang seriously polluted by bromide in winter in Tianjin City wag studied.The THMs formation characteristics during prechloramination using preformed chloramines and convened chloramines were studied through jar tests.Results show that,in prechloramination process,the formation of THMs by preformed chloramines is very few,while that by converted chloramines is a little higher.And the formation of THMs,especially Br-substituted THMs,increases with tIle increase of time and Cl2:N ratio as well as the decrease of pH.The result obtained in a pilot plant shows that compared with preehlorination,the prechlommination process can efficiendy control the formation of THMs,especially the Br-substituted species.With equal chlorine dosage.the prechloramination can maintain a hrser chlorine residue which offers a larger CT value than prechlorination.

  15. Iodide, bromide, and ammonium in hydraulic fracturing and oil and gas wastewaters: environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Jennifer S; Dwyer, Gary S; Warner, Nathaniel R; Parker, Kimberly M; Mitch, William A; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of unconventional shale gas and hydraulic fracturing has increased the volume of the oil and gas wastewater (OGW) generated in the U.S. Here we demonstrate that OGW from Marcellus and Fayetteville hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids and Appalachian conventional produced waters is characterized by high chloride, bromide, iodide (up to 56 mg/L), and ammonium (up to 420 mg/L). Br/Cl ratios were consistent for all Appalachian brines, which reflect an origin from a common parent brine, while the I/Cl and NH4/Cl ratios varied among brines from different geological formations, reflecting geogenic processes. There were no differences in halides and ammonium concentrations between OGW originating from hydraulic fracturing and conventional oil and gas operations. Analysis of discharged effluents from three brine treatment sites in Pennsylvania and a spill site in West Virginia show elevated levels of halides (iodide up to 28 mg/L) and ammonium (12 to 106 mg/L) that mimic the composition of OGW and mix conservatively in downstream surface waters. Bromide, iodide, and ammonium in surface waters can impact stream ecosystems and promote the formation of toxic brominated-, iodinated-, and nitrogen disinfection byproducts during chlorination at downstream drinking water treatment plants. Our findings indicate that discharge and accidental spills of OGW to waterways pose risks to both human health and the environment. PMID:25587644

  16. Modeling Water Flow and Bromide Transport in a Two-Scale-Structured Lignitic Mine Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, J.; Gerke, H. H.; Vogel, T.; Maurer, T.; Buczko, U.

    2008-12-01

    Two-dimensional single- and dual-permeability simulations are used to analyze water and solute fluxes in heterogeneous lignitic mine soil at a forest-reclaimed mine spoil heap. The soil heterogeneity on this experimental site "Barenbrucker Hohe" resulted from inclined dumping structures and sediment mixtures that consist of sand with lignitic dust and embedded lignitic fragments. Observations on undisturbed field suction- cell lysimeters including tracer experiments revealed funneling-type preferential flow with lateral water and bromide movement along inclined sediment structures. The spatial distribution of soil structures and fragment distributions was acquired by a digital camera and identified by a supervised classification of the digital profile image. First, a classical single-domain modeling approach was proposed with spatially variable scaling factors inferred from image analyses. In the next step, a two-continuum scenario was constructed to examine additional effects of nonequilibrium on the flow regime. The scaling factors used for the preferential flow domain are here obtained from the gradient of the grayscale images. So far, the single domain scenarios failed to predict the bromide leaching patterns although water effluent could be described. Dual-permeability model allows the incorporation of structural effects and can be used as a tool to further testing other approaches that account for structure effects. The numerical study suggests that additional experiments are required to obtain better understanding of the highly complex transport processes on this experimental site.

  17. Interaction of removal Ethidium Bromide with Carbon Nanotube: Equilibrium and Isotherm studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Omid; Norouzi, Mehdi; Fakhri, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water resources may be contaminated with Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) which is commonly used in molecular biology laboratories for DNA identification in electrophoresis. Carbon nanotubes are expected to play an important role in sensing, pollution treatment and separation techniques. In this study adsorption of Ethidium Bromide on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and carboxylate group functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-COOH) surfaces have been investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The effect of contact time, initial concentration and temperature were investigated. The adsorbents exhibits high efficiency for EtBr adsorption and equilibrium can be achieved in 6 and 3 min for SWCNTs and SWCNT-COOH, respectively. The effect of temperature on adsorption of EtBr by toward adsorbents shows the process in this research has been endothermic. The results showed that the equilibrium data were well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.770 and 0.830 mg/g for SWCNTs and SWCNT-COOH, respectively. The adsorption of EtBr on SWCNT-COOH is more than SWCNTs surfaces. A comparison of kinetic models was evaluated for the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order models. Pseudo second-order was found to agree well with the experimental data. PMID:24401790

  18. The influence of nitrogen oxides on the activation of bromide and chloride in salt aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, S.; Buxmann, J. C.; Sander, R.; Riedel, T. P.; Thornton, J. A.; Platt, U.; Zetzsch, C.

    2014-04-01

    Experiments on salt aerosol with different salt contents were performed in a Teflon chamber under tropospheric light conditions with various initial contents of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). A strong activation of halogens was found at high NOx mixing ratios, even in samples with lower bromide contents such as road salts. The ozone depletion by reactive halogen species released from the aerosol, was found to be a function of the initial NOx mixing ratio. Besides bromine, large amounts of chlorine have been released in our smog chamber. Time profiles of the halogen species Cl2, Br2, ClNO2, BrNO2 and BrO, ClO, OClO and Cl atoms were simultaneously measured by various techniques (chemical ionization mass spectrometry, differential optical absorption spectrometry coupled with a multi-reflection cell and gas chromatography of hydrocarbon tracers for Cl and OH, employing cryogenic preconcentration and flame ionization detection). Measurements are compared to calculations by the CAABA/MECCA 0-D box model, which was adapted to the chamber conditions and took the aerosol liquid water content and composition into account. The model results agree reasonably with the observations and provide important information about the prerequisites for halogen release, such as the time profiles of the aerosol bromide and chloride contents as well as the aerosol pH.

  19. One- and two-dimensional polymers from proline and calcium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Kevin; Şerb, Mihaela-Diana; Englert, Ulli

    2015-04-01

    Reactions of calcium bromide with enantiopure and racemic proline in aqueous solution lead to two solids in which the zwitterionic amino acid acts as a bridging ligand between neighbouring cations. Depending on the chirality of the amino acid, topologically very different products are obtained. With racemic proline, bromide acts as a simple uncoordinated counter-anion for the cationic heterochiral chains in catena-poly[[aquacalcium(II)]-μ-aqua-μ3-DL-proline-μ2-DL-proline], {[Ca(C5H9NO2)2(H2O)2]Br2}n. In agreement with chemical intuition, only carboxylate and aqua O atoms coordinate the alkaline earth cation in a low-symmetry arrangement. In contrast, L-proline affords the two-dimensional network poly[dibromidobis(μ2-L-proline)calcium(II)], [CaBr2(C5H9NO2)2]n, with an unexpected CaBr2 unit in a more regular coordination sphere. PMID:25836292

  20. Fusion and Thermal Degradation Behavior of Symmetric Sulfur-Containing Quaternary Ammonium Bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thai L Y; Poiroux, Kaitlyn; O'Brien, Richard A; West, Kevin N; Davis, James H; West, Christy Wheeler

    2016-02-25

    Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in consumer products and industrial processes, where their instability at elevated temperatures limits their range of applications. In this work, the thermal behavior of a new class of quaternary ammonium salts was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. These salts contain a sulfur atom in each chain at the fourth position from the central nitrogen and are thus termed thiaquats. The temperatures at which these salts melt and thermally degrade were determined, and enthalpies and entropies of fusion were evaluated. Their melting points increase with chain lengths, in contrast to the behavior of traditional quaternary ammonium salts. Furthermore, they exhibit enthalpies and entropies of fusion significantly lower than corresponding tetraalkyl analogues. These trends provide physical insight into the molecular-level behavior of these salts, suggesting that they do not fully dissociate upon melting. The thiaquats also exhibit thermal stability to markedly higher temperatures than traditional quaternary ammonium bromides, a phenomenon that can be explained in by strong pairing between the quaternary cation and bromide anion, which inhibits possible decomposition mechanisms. This enhanced thermal stability may enable applications of these salts in processes where traditional salts are not viable, such as phase-transfer-catalyzed systems performed at elevated temperatures. PMID:26849572

  1. Thermodynamics of micellization of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in propylene glycol-water mixture: A conductivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janošević-Ležaić Aleksandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micellization of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (syn. cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB in propylene glycol-water (30% v/v binary mixture, as well as the thermodynamic properties of the resulting micelles, were investigated by electrical conductivity measurements. The conductivity data were used to determine both the critical micellar concentration (CMC and the micellar ionization degree (α of CTin the temperature range 298.2-310.2 K. The equilibrium model of micelle formation was applied in order to obtain the thermodynamic parameters (the standard molar Gibbs free energy, ΔGm0, enthalpy, ΔHm0 and entropy, ΔSm0 of the micellization process. The values of DGm0 and DHm0 were found to be negative at all investigated temperatures, while the values of ΔSm0 were positive and became more positive as temperature increased. A linear dependence between ΔSm0 and ΔHm0, i.e. an enthalpy-entropy compensation effect, was observed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172015

  2. Experimental measurements of carbon dioxide solubility in aqueous tetra-n-butylammonium bromide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We report experimental CO2 solubility data in aqueous tetra-n-butylammonium bromide. • The absolute gravimetric technique was used for the CO2 solubility measurements. • CO2 solubility in pure water agrees with the literature data. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the absolute measurements of CO2 solubility in aqueous tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) solution. The measurement range was 0.2 MPa < P < 4 MPa, 286.15 K < T < 298.15 K, with 0 (pure water) < wTBAB < 0.4, where P, T, and wTBAB denote the pressure, temperature, and mass fraction of TBAB in the aqueous feed solutions, respectively. These thermodynamic conditions are outside the hydrate formation region. We evaluated salting-in and -out effects based on the experimental data, and confirmed that the CO2 salting-out effect of TBAB clearly appeared at T = 292 K with wTBAB < 0.32 and the salting-in effect may exist for P > 3 MPa and T > 292 K with wTBAB ⩾ 0.4 mass fraction of TBAB

  3. Study of the Reaction 2-(p-Nitrophenylethyl Bromide + OH− in Dimeric Micellar Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Moyá

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The dehydrobromination reaction 2-(p-nitrophenylethyl bromide + OH− was investigated in several alkanediyl-a-w-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide, 12-s-12,2Br− (with s = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 micellar solutions, in the presence of NaOH 5 × 10−3 M. The kinetic data were quantitatively rationalized within the whole surfactant concentration range by using an equation based on the pseudophase ion-exchange model and taking the variations in the micellar ionization degree caused by the morphological transitions into account. The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental data was good in all the dimeric micellar media studied, except for the 12-2-12,2Br− micellar solutions. In this case, the strong tendency to micellar growth shown by the 12-2-12,2Br− micelles could be responsible for the lack of accordance. Results showed that the dimeric micelles accelerate the reaction more than two orders of magnitude as compared to water.

  4. Enhancement of frequency domain indices of heart rate variability by cholinergic stimulation with pyridostigmine bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Ali Asghar; Foroutan, Seyyed Abbas; Foroutan, Seyyed Mohsen; Erfanian Omidvar, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of orally administration of single dose sustained-released tablet of pyridostigmine bromide (PBSR) on the frequency domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV). Thirty-two healthy young men were participated in this study. They were divided into 2 groups; the pyridostigmine group (n = 22) and the placebo group (n = 10). Electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded at 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300 and 420 min after PBSR administration. At each time, simultaneously, a blood sample was prepared and PB plasma concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Statistical analysis showed that in different indices of HRV, there is a significant increase in low frequency (LF) band at 300 min, but no difference in high frequency band (HF). It also showed significant decreases in normalized high frequency band (Hfnu), normalized low frequency band (Lfnu) and LF/HF ratio at 120, 240 and 300 min after PBSR administration. Maximum plasma concentration of PB was 150 min after the administration. In conclusion, administration of a single dose PBSR can enhance the frequency domains indices of HRV and improvesympathovagal balance. PMID:24250427

  5. Prolonged release matrix tablet of pyridostigmine bromide: formulation and optimization using statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolourchian, Noushin; Rangchian, Maryam; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to design and optimize a prolonged release matrix formulation of pyridostigmine bromide, an effective drug in myasthenia gravis and poisoning with nerve gas, using hydrophilic - hydrophobic polymers via D-optimal experimental design. HPMC and carnauba wax as retarding agents as well as tricalcium phosphate were used in matrix formulation and considered as independent variables. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique and the percentage of drug released at 1 (Y(1)), 4 (Y(2)) and 8 (Y(3)) hours were considered as dependent variables (responses) in this investigation. These experimental responses were best fitted for the cubic, cubic and linear models, respectively. The optimal formulation obtained in this study, consisted of 12.8 % HPMC, 24.4 % carnauba wax and 26.7 % tricalcium phosphate, had a suitable prolonged release behavior followed by Higuchi model in which observed and predicted values were very close. The study revealed that D-optimal design could facilitate the optimization of prolonged release matrix tablet containing pyridostigmine bromide. Accelerated stability studies confirmed that the optimized formulation remains unchanged after exposing in stability conditions for six months. PMID:22713949

  6. Treatment of adult asthma: controlled double-blind clinical trial of oxitropium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taytard, A; Auzerie, J; Vergeret, J; Tozon, N; Freour, P

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen young adult sufferers from extrinsic paroxysmal asthma with pollen hypersensitivity took part in a therapeutic trial of the synthetic anticholinergic agent oxitropium bromide administered by a metered dose inhaler. The study comprised three 3-week periods. The first, run-in period was carried out to confirm the ability of the patients to maintain a daily record of symptoms. During the second and third periods, the patient received 3 X 2 inhalations of drug or placebo in a cross-over design. The medical staff was blind to the nature of the aerosol (drug or placebo), which was given in random order. The run-in clinical score was high. Asymptomatic days were relatively infrequent and daily drug consumption was high. Functional studies between the cross-over periods showed flow-rate values close to normal, with an increase in residual volume and functional residual capacity. During treatment either with placebo or oxitropium, there was a statistically significant decrease in clinical scores. Results for oxitropium bromide treatment were significantly better than the run-in values (p less than 0.005) and the placebo period (p less than 0.02). There was no significant change in non-trial drug consumption. Functional values showed no difference in terms of flow rate, although oxitropium did cause a significant improvement in the RV/TLC ratio (p less than 0.05). No adverse reactions were reported. PMID:6376144

  7. Comparison of inorganic inhibitors of copper, nickel and copper-nickels in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behavior of copper, nickel and two copper-nickel (Cu90/Ni10 and Cu70/Ni30) alloys in 850 g/L LiBr solution in the absence and presence of three different inorganic inhibitors (chromate CrO42-, molybdate MoO42-, and tetraborate B4O72-) has been studied. Differences in inhibition efficiency are discussed in terms of potentiodynamic and cyclic measurements. The best protection is obtained by adding chromate to the 850 g/L LiBr solution while the inhibition efficiencies of molybdate and tetraborate ions were not markedly high. Very aggressive anions, such as bromides, in the present experimental conditions, notably reduce the action of the less efficient molecules (molybdate and tetraborate), but not that of the most efficient ones (chromate). The results of the investigation show that the inhibiting properties depend on the nickel content in the alloy; this element improves the general corrosion resistance of the material in the sense that it shifts free corrosion potential towards more noble values and density corrosion currents towards lower levels. The nickel content in the alloy also enlarges the passivating region of the materials in chromate and molybdate-containing solution; furthermore it decreases the current passivating values to lower values. Nickel addition improves the localized corrosion resistance in the bromide media

  8. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung

    1999-02-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  9. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, M. L.; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  10. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L., E-mail: umbertofulco@gmail.com; Albuquerque, E. L. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Freire, V. N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Caetano, E. W. S. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió-AL (Brazil)

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  11. M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors may play a role in the neurotoxicity of anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a cocaine pyrolysis product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raphael Caio Tamborelli; Dati, Livia Mendonça Munhoz; Torres, Larissa Helena; da Silva, Mariana Aguilera Alencar; Udo, Mariana Sayuri Berto; Abdalla, Fernando Maurício Francis; da Costa, José Luiz; Gorjão, Renata; Afeche, Solange Castro; Yonamine, Mauricio; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Camarini, Rosana; Sandoval, Maria Regina Lopes; Marcourakis, Tania

    2015-01-01

    The smoke of crack cocaine contains cocaine and its pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME possesses greater neurotoxic potential than cocaine and an additive effect when they are combined. Since atropine prevented AEME-induced neurotoxicity, it has been suggested that its toxic effects may involve the muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). Our aim is to understand the interaction between AEME and mAChRs and how it can lead to neuronal death. Using a rat primary hippocampal cell culture, AEME was shown to cause a concentration-dependent increase on both total [(3)H]inositol phosphate and intracellular calcium, and to induce DNA fragmentation after 24 hours of exposure, in line with the activation of caspase-3 previously shown. Additionally, we assessed AEME activity at rat mAChR subtypes 1-5 heterologously expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. l-[N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine competition binding showed a preference of AEME for the M2 subtype; calcium mobilization tests revealed partial agonist effects at M1 and M3 and antagonist activity at the remaining subtypes. The selective M1 and M3 antagonists and the phospholipase C inhibitor, were able to prevent AEME-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting that the toxicity is due to the partial agonist effect at M1 and M3 mAChRs, leading to DNA fragmentation and neuronal death by apoptosis. PMID:26626425

  12. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  13. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite (α-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  14. Protective effect of testosterone on cognitive deficits induced by ethidium bromide in experimental model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallahadin Feizollah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS. The hippocampus is a vital center for learning and memory; it is extremely vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases. The male hormones could be neuroprotective for the CNS. The current study is an attempt to investigate the effect of testosterone on learning and spatial memory following the demyelination of CA1 area by the injection of ethidium bromide in the rats' hippocampus. Methods: This experimental study has been conducted on healthy rats in the faculty of science of the Urmia University from September 2013 to February 2015. For demyelination in all previously gonadectomized healthy rats, 3µl ethidium bromide was injected into the CA1 area of rats by stereotaxic surgery. In addition, the treatment groups received 1µl testosterone (6µg/µl during a 20-day timeframe on a daily basis after demyelination by the ethidium bromide. The control groups had no drug injection. The process of the learning and spatial memory of the rats were closely monitored by the radial Maze. The demyelination and remyelination in the hippocampus were checked by the myelin-specific coloring (Luxol fast blue and Cresyl violet. Results: The histological results suggest that the testosterone is capable of minimizing the destructive impacts of ethidium bromide in the treatment group as well as enhancing the remyelination process. In the group treated by testosterone, the percentage of the pyknotic cells 20 days after demyelination induction, represented a significant reduction compared to that of ethidium bromide group (P=0.008. The behavioral studies analyses show that the amount of the food finding time in those groups received ethidium bromide was significantly longer than those of the control groups (P=0.001. Furthermore, the application of the testosterone in the treatment groups reduced the extent of demyelination while the memory impairment induced by the

  15. Spectral and Non Radiative Decay Studies of Lead Di Bromide Single Crystals by Mode Matched Thermal Lens Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Thomas, V; Nampoori, V P N; Radhakrishnan, P

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, the investigations on the non radiative decay mechanism, optical band gap determination from absorption spectroscopic studies and fluorescence emission by photo luminescence techniques using different excitation wavelengths on gel derived lead di bromide single crystals are reported. Non radiative decay of the sample is studied using high sensitive dual beam mode matched thermal lens technique. For the thermal lensing experiment the crystal in solution phase is incorporated with rhodamine 6G dye for enhancing the absorption of the crystal sample. The thermal diffusivity of lead di bromide is determined using the probe beam intensity v/s time measurements. PMID:27165040

  16. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N., E-mail: tnava@imp.mx; Likhanova, N. V. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Olivares-Xometl, O. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica (Mexico); Flores, E. A. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Lijanova, I. V. [CIITEC, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  17. Methyl 5-bromo-2-[methyl(methylsulfonylamino]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Hayat Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H12BrNO4S, is an intermediate in the synthesis of benzothiazine. The planar methyl ester group (maximum deviation is 0.0065 Å is oriented at a dihedral angle of 39.09 (13° with respect to the aromatic ring. In the crystal structure, weak intermolecular C—H...O interactions link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers, through R22(10 ring motifs.

  18. Folate deficiency affects histone methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Benjamin A; Luka, Zigmund; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; Bhanu, Natarajan V; Wagner, Conrad

    2016-03-01

    Formaldehyde is extremely toxic reacting with proteins to crosslinks peptide chains. Formaldehyde is a metabolic product in many enzymatic reactions and the question of how these enzymes are protected from the formaldehyde that is generated has largely remained unanswered. Early experiments from our laboratory showed that two liver mitochondrial enzymes, dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH) and sarcosine dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyze oxidative demethylation reactions (sarcosine is a common name for monomethylglycine). The enzymatic products of these enzymes were the demethylated substrates and formaldehyde, produced from the removed methyl group. Both DMGDH and SDH contain FAD and both have tightly bound tetrahydrofolate (THF), a folate coenzyme. THF binds reversibly with formaldehyde to form 5,10-methylene-THF. At that time we showed that purified DMGDH, with tightly bound THF, reacted with formaldehyde generated during the reaction to form 5,10-methylene-THF. This effectively scavenged the formaldehyde to protect the enzyme. Recently, post-translational modifications on histone tails have been shown to be responsible for epigenetic regulation of gene expression. One of these modifications is methylation of lysine residues. The first enzyme discovered to accomplish demethylation of these modified histones was histone lysine demethylase (LSD1). LSD1 specifically removes methyl groups from di- and mono-methylated lysines at position 4 of histone 3. This enzyme contained tightly bound FAD and the products of the reaction were the demethylated lysine residue and formaldehyde. The mechanism of LSD1 demethylation is analogous to the mechanism previously postulated for DMGDH, i.e. oxidation of the N-methyl bond to the methylene imine followed by hydrolysis to generate formaldehyde. This suggested that THF might also be involved in the LSD1 reaction to scavenge the formaldehyde produced. Our hypotheses are that THF is bound to native LSD1 by analogy to DMGDH and SDH and

  19. Distribution and leaching of methyl iodide in soil following emulated shank and drip application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingxin; Zheng, Wei; Papiernik, Sharon K; Yates, Scott R

    2004-01-01

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is a promising alternative to methyl bromide in soil fumigation. The pest-control efficacy and ground water contamination risks of MeI as a fumigant are highly related to its gas-phase distribution and leaching after soil application. In this study, the distribution and leaching of MeI in soil following shank injection and subsurface drip application were investigated. Methyl iodide (200 kg ha(-1)) was directly injected or drip-applied at a 20-cm depth into Arlington sandy loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, thermic Haplic Durixeralfs) columns (12-cm i.d., 70-cm height) tarped with virtually impermeable film. Concentration profiles of MeI in the soil air were monitored for 7 d. Methyl iodide diffused rapidly after soil application, and reached a 70-cm depth within 2 h. Relative to shank injection, drip application inhibited diffusion, resulting in significantly lower concentration profiles in the soil air. Seven days after MeI application, fumigated soil was uncapped, aerated for 7 d, and leached with water. Leaching of MeI was significant from the soil columns under both application methods, with concentrations of >10 mug L(-1) in the early leachate. The leaching was greater following shank injection than drip application, with an overall potential of 33 g ha(-1) for shank injection and 19 g ha(-1) for drip application. Persistent residues of MeI remaining in soils after leaching were 50 to 240 ng kg(-1), and the contents were slightly higher following shank injection than drip application. The results suggest that fumigation with MeI may pose a risk of ground water contamination in vulnerable areas. PMID:15537937

  20. Methylated genes as new cancer biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Nils; Duffy, M.J; Napieralski, R.;

    2009-01-01

    measurement of the methylation status of the promoter regions of specific genes can aid early detection of cancer, determine prognosis and predict therapy responses. Promising DNA methylation biomarkers include the use of methylated GSTP1 for aiding the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, methylated PITX2 for...... predicting outcome in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients and methylated MGMT in predicting benefit from alkylating agents in patients with glioblastomas. However, prior to clinical utilisation, these findings require validation in prospective clinical studies. Furthermore, assays for measuring gene...

  1. COPD patient satisfaction with ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat: a randomized, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson GT

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gary T Ferguson,1 Mo Ghafouri,2 Luyan Dai,2 Leonard J Dunn31Pulmonary Research Institute of Southeast Michigan, Livonia, MI, USA; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Ridgefield, CT, USA; 3Clinical Research of West Florida, Inc, Clearwater, FL, USABackground: Ipratropium bromide/albuterol Respimat inhaler (CVT-R was developed as an environmentally friendly alternative to ipratropium bromide/albuterol metered-dose inhaler (CVT-MDI, which uses a chlorofluorocarbon propellant.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction, device usage, and long-term safety of CVT-R compared to CVT-MDI, and to the simultaneous administration of ipratropium bromide hydrofluoroalkane (HFA; I and albuterol HFA (A metered-dose inhalers as dual monotherapies (I + A.Design: This is a 48-week, open-label, randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group study (n = 470 comparing CVT-R to CVT-MDI and to I + A.Participants: Patients were at least 40 years of age, diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and current or exsmokers.Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive: (1 CVT-R, one inhalation four times daily (QID; or (2 CVT-MDI, two inhalations QID; or (3 I + A two inhalations of each inhaler QID.Main measures: Patient Satisfaction and Preference Questionnaire (PASAPQ performance score (primary endpoint and adverse events.Key results: PASAPQ performance score was significantly higher (CVT-R versus CVT-MDI, 9.6; and CVT-R versus I + A, 6.2; both P < 0.001 when using CVT-R compared to CVT-MDI or I + A at all visits starting from week 3, while CVT-MDI and I + A treatment groups were similar. Time to first COPD exacerbation was slightly longer in the CVT-R group compared to the other treatment groups, although it did not reach statistical significance (CVT-R versus CVT-MDI, P = 0.57; CVT-R versus I + A, P = 0.22. Rates of withdrawal and patient refusal to continue treatment were lower in CVT-R compared with CVT

  2. Nanosized sustained-release pyridostigmine bromide microcapsules: process optimization and evaluation of characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Q

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Qunyou Tan,1,* Rong Jiang,3,* Meiling Xu,2,4,* Guodong Liu,5,* Songlin Li,1 Jingqing Zhang21Department of Thoracic Surgery, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, 2Medicine Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, 3Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering Research, Chongqing Medical University, 4Department of Pharmacy, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, 5Eighth Department, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Pyridostigmine bromide (3-[[(dimethylamino-carbonyl]oxy]-1-methylpyridinium bromide, a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase, is given orally in tablet form, and a treatment schedule of multiple daily doses is recommended for adult patients. Nanotechnology was used in this study to develop an alternative sustained-release delivery system for pyridostigmine, a synthetic drug with high solubility and poor oral bioavailability, hence a Class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Novel nanosized pyridostigmine-poly(lactic acid microcapsules (PPNMCs were expected to have a longer duration of action than free pyridostigmine and previously reported sustained-release formulations of pyridostigmine.Methods: The PPNMCs were prepared using a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method to achieve sustained-release characteristics for pyridostigmine. The preparation process for the PPNMCs was optimized by single-factor experiments. The size distribution, zeta potential, and sustained-release behavior were evaluated in different types of release medium.Results: The optimal volume ratio of inner phase to external phase, poly(lactic acid concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration, and amount of pyridostigmine were 1:10, 6%, 3% and 40 mg, respectively. The negatively charged PPNMCs had an average particle size of 937.9 nm

  3. miRNAting control of DNA methylation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashwani Jha; Ravi Shankar

    2014-06-01

    DNA methylation is a type of epigenetic modification where a methyl group is added to the cytosine or adenine residue of a given DNA sequence. It has been observed that DNA methylation is achieved by some collaborative agglomeration of certain proteins and non-coding RNAs. The assembly of IDN2 and its homologous proteins with siRNAs recruits the enzyme DRM2, which adds a methyl group at certain cytosine residues within the DNA sequence. In this study, it was found that de novo DNA methylation might be regulated by miRNAs through systematic targeting of the genes involved in DNA methylation. A comprehensive genome-wide and system-level study of miRNA targeting, transcription factors, DNA-methylation-causing genes and their target genes has provided a clear picture of an interconnected relationship of all these factors which regulate DNA methylation in Arabidopsis. The study has identified a DNA methylation system that is controlled by four different genes: IDN2, IDNl1, IDNl2 and DRM2. These four genes along with various critical transcription factors appear to be controlled by five different miRNAs. Altogether, DNA methylation appears to be a finely tuned process of opposite control systems of DNA-methylation-causing genes and certain miRNAs pitted against each other.

  4. Altered DNA methylation in PAH deficient phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Steven F; Lyons-Weiler, James; Spridik, Kayla; Biery, Amy; Breck, Jane; Vockley, Jerry; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Sultana, Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    While phenylalanine (PHE) is the toxic insult in phenylketonuria (PKU), mechanisms underlying PHE toxicity remain ill-defined. Altered DNA methylation in response to toxic exposures is well-recognized. DNA methylation patterns were assessed in blood and brain from PKU patients to determine if PHE toxicity impacts methylation. Methylome assessment, utilizing methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and paired-end sequencing, was performed in DNA obtained from brain tissue of classical PKU patients, leukocytes from poorly controlled PKU patients, leukocytes from well controlled PKU patients, and appropriate control tissues. In PKU brain tissue, expression analysis determined the impact of methylation on gene function. Differential methylation was observed in brain tissue of PKU patients and expression studies identified downstream impact on gene expression. Altered patterns of methylation were observed in leukocytes of well controlled and poorly controlled patients with more extensive methylation in patients with high PHE exposure. Differential methylation of noncoding RNA genes was extensive in patients with high PHE exposure but minimal in well controlled patients. Methylome repatterning leading to altered gene expression was present in brain tissue of PKU patients, suggesting a role in neuropathology. Aberrant methylation is observed in leukocytes of PKU patients and is influenced by PHE exposure. DNA methylation may provide a biomarker relating to historic PHE exposure. PMID:25990862

  5. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, including commodity oils, however, the methyl esters of avocado and olive oil would likely be suitable as biodiesel fuel. In order to expand the database and comprehensive evaluation of the properties of vegetable oil esters, in this work the fuel-related properties of avocado and olive oil methyl esters, which exhibit similar fatty acid profiles including high oleic acid content, are determined. The cetane numbers of avocado oil methyl esters and olive oil methyl esters are relatively high, determined as 59.2 and 62.5, respectively, due to their elevated content of methyl oleate. Other properties are well within the ranges specified in biodiesel standards. The cloud points of both esters are slightly above 0 °C due to their content of saturated esters, especially methyl palmitate. Overall, avocado and olive oil yield methyl esters with fuel properties comparable to methyl esters from other commodity vegetable oils. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of avocado and olive oil methyl esters are reported. -- Highlights: • Methyl esters of avocado and olive oil meet biodiesel fuel standards. • Provides comparison for methyl esters of other vegetable oils with high oleic content. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  6. Methylated genes as new cancer biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J

    2012-02-01

    Aberrant hypermethylation of promoter regions in specific genes is a key event in the formation and progression of cancer. In at least some situations, these aberrant alterations occur early in the formation of malignancy and appear to be tumour specific. Multiple reports have suggested that measurement of the methylation status of the promoter regions of specific genes can aid early detection of cancer, determine prognosis and predict therapy responses. Promising DNA methylation biomarkers include the use of methylated GSTP1 for aiding the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, methylated PITX2 for predicting outcome in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients and methylated MGMT in predicting benefit from alkylating agents in patients with glioblastomas. However, prior to clinical utilisation, these findings require validation in prospective clinical studies. Furthermore, assays for measuring gene methylation need to be standardised, simplified and evaluated in external quality assurance programmes. It is concluded that methylated genes have the potential to provide a new generation of cancer biomarkers.

  7. Copper-catalysed N-arylation of arylsulfonamides with aryl bromides and aryl iodides using KF/Al2O3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahman Hosseinzadeh; Mahmood Tajbakhsh; Maryam Mohadjerani; Mohammad Alikarami

    2010-03-01

    An efficient synthesis of -arylsulfonamides with a variety of aryl bromides, aryl iodides and heteroaryl bromides using KF/Al2O3 as a suitable base, CuI as an inexpensive catalyst and ,'-dimethylethylenediamine (,'-DMEDA) as an effective ligand is described.

  8. DNA methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iris Tischoff; Andrea Tannapfel

    2008-01-01

    As for many other tumors, development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) must be understood as a multistep process with accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in regulatory genes, leading to activation of oncogenes and inactivation or loss of tumor suppressor genes (TSG). In the last decades, in addition to genetic alterations, epigenetic inactivation of (tumor suppressor) genes by promoter hypermethylation has been recognized as an important and alternative mechanism in tumorigenesis. In HCC, aberrant methylation of promoter sequences occurs not only in advanced tumors, it has been also observed in premalignant conditions just as chronic viral hepatitis B or C and cirrhotic liver. This review discusses the epigenetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma focusing DNA methylation.

  9. Putting muscle in DNA methylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James P Reddington; Richard R Meehan

    2011-01-01

    Over 25 years ago seminal experiments from the labs of Peter Jones and Harold Weintraub demonstrated that alteration in the DNA modification state underlie the myogenic conversion of fibroblast cell lines [1,2].This paved the way for the identification of myogenic helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins in muscle differentiation,but the mechanism by which DNA methylation regulates muscle differentiation has remained elusive [3].

  10. Increase in mitotic recombination in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans in response to ethidium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia C.A. Becker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethidium bromide (EB is an intercalating inhibitor of topoisomerase II and its activities are related to chemotherapeutic drugs used in anti-cancer treatments. EB promotes several genotoxic effects in exposed cells by stabilising the DNA-enzyme complex. The recombinagenic potential of EB was evaluated in our in vivo study by the loss of heterozygosity of nutritional markers in diploid Aspergillus nidulans cells through Homozygotization Index (HI. A DNA repair mutation, uvsZ and a chromosome duplication DP (II-I were introduced in the genome of tested cells to obtain a sensitive system for the recombinagenesis detection. EB-treated diploid cells had HI values significantly greater than the control at both concentrations (4.0 x 10-3 and 5.0 x 10-3 mM. Results indicate that the intercalating agent is potentially capable of inducing mitotic crossing-over in diploid A. nidulans cells.

  11. Lithium bromide absorption machines: Pressure drop and mass transfer in solutions conical sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, E. [Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica Industrial, U.P.M., Ronda de Valencia 3, Madrid 28012 (Spain); Izquierdo, M. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja. C.S.I.C., Serrano Galvache 4, Madrid 28033 (Spain); Lizarte, R. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, Madrid 28911 (Spain); Marcos, J.D. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, U.N.E.D., Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    Adiabatic vapour absorption in conical liquid sheets is studied with a view to use in air conditioning. The sheets consist in a lithium bromide aqueous solution sprayed at mass flow rates ranging from 0.0078 to 0.0116 kg/s (28-42 kg/h). The experimental results show that the deformation rate associated with conical sheet development has a significant effect on absorption, with 60% of the total reached by the time the liquid sheet disintegrates, 4 ms after injection. In the conical sheet configuration, about 150 g of vapour are absorbed per kJ of solution flow work. The vapour absorption rate per chamber absorption volume, in turn, is found to be over 1 g/s l in absorption chambers 75 mm long or less. (author)

  12. Bromide removal by hydrotalcite-like compounds in a continuous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echigo, S; Itoh, S; Kuwahara, M

    2007-01-01

    Bromide ion removal from a real water matrix by hydrortalcite-like compounds (HTCs) was attempted in a column reactor to control the formation of brominated disinfection by-products in drinking water treatment process. The performance of HTCs was found to be comparable to a commercially available ion exchange resin for relatively low alkalinity water. Also, it was deduced that HTCs are better than ion exchange resins for high sulfate water because of their unique ion selectivity. In addition, the ion exchange reactions by HTCs were faster than a commercially available resin. Thus, HTCs are expected to provide similar performance to organic resins without the concern about secondary contamination (i.e., elution of organic compounds from resins). PMID:18057649

  13. Fluorescence studies on the interaction of ethidium bromide with duplex, triplex and quadruplex DNA structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪光; 曹恩华; 何裕建; 秦静芬

    1999-01-01

    Under different conditions, oligonucleotides can form several alternative DNA structures such as duplex, triplex and quadruplex. All these structures can interact with ethidium bromide (EB) and make its fluorescence intensity change. The fluorescence spectra and other related parameters provided by static fluorescence techniques showed that the interaction mechanisms between EB and these structures were not always the same. Among them, B type duplex and triplex DNA adopt an intercalative mode when binding to the EB, which has a relatively high efficiency of energy transfer and the fluorescence of EB cannot be quenched easily. While for the parallel duplex DNA, the interaction mode is an outside binding in which energy transfer can hardly happen and its fluorescence intensity as well as Stern-Volmer constant is almost the same to the free EB. For the quadruplex, the binding mechanism to EB is more complex. Results from the energy transfer and quenching studies indicate that the two interaction modes note

  14. Suzuki Reaction of Aryl Bromides Using a Phosphine-Free Magnetic Nanoparticle-Supported Palladium Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nghia T. BUI; Trung B. DANG; Ha V. LE; Nam T. S. PHAN

    2011-01-01

    A palladium catalyst immobilized on superparaganetic nanoparticles was prepared with a palladium loading of 0.30 mmol/g.The catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy,vibrating sample magnetometry,thermogravimetric analysis,Fourier transform infrared,atomic absorption spectrophotometry,and nitrogen adsorption.The immobilized palladium catalyst was an efficient catalyst without added phosphine ligands for the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of several aryl bromides with phenylboronic acid.The recovery of catalyst was simply by magnetic decantation in the presence of a magnet.The immobilized palladium catalyst can be reused many times without significant degradation in catalytic activity.No leaching of active palladium species into the reaction solution was detected.

  15. 2-(4-Methylsulfanylphenyl-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ziaulla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title compound, C14H13N2S+·Br−, the essentially planar benzimidazole system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0082 Å is substituted with a 4-methylsulfanylphenyl ring. The dihedral angle between the benzimidazole system and the 4-methylsulfanylphenyl ring is 2.133 (2°. The crystal structure is characterized by strong and highly directional intermolecular N—H...Br hydrogen bonds involving the bromide ion. Moreover, C—H...S interactions result in chains of molecules along the c axis. The supramolecular assembly is further stabilized by π–π stacking interactions between the benzimidazole system and 4-methylsulfanylphenyl rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.477 (4 Å].

  16. Spectroscopic study one thiosemicarbazone derivative with ctDNA using ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shaoguang; Wu, Qing; Shi, Lei; Cui, Fengling

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a thiosemicarbazone derivative (E)-2-((1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2-yl)methylene)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)hydrazinecarbothioamide (DAFPT) was synthesized, and the interaction of DAFPT with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was explored using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe. The binding mode between DAFPT and ctDNA was investigated by UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking. The fluorescence quenching mechanism of EB-ctDNA by DAFPT might be a combined quenching type. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the reaction was spontaneous. According to ionic strength, fluorescence polarization and melting temperature (T(m)) curve results, DAFPT-ctDNA interaction was groove binding. The molecular modeling results indicated that DAFPT could slide into the A-T rich region of ctDNA. PMID:23769721

  17. Flotation de-silicating from diasporic-bauxite with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓华; 胡岳华; 刘晓文

    2003-01-01

    Using cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as collector, the flotation de-silicating from diasporicbauxite was investigated. And the Zeta potentials and contact-angles of silicate minerals and diaspore were also stuite and illite become more positive, and the contact angles of these three silicates also increase evidently in the pH range of 2-8, but the Zeta potentials and contact angles of diaspore change little. So, the floatability of the four minerals is in the following order: pyrophyllite>kaolinite≈illite>diaspore. The open-circuit flotation results also show that a bauxite concentrate with m(Al2 O3 )/m(SiO2 ) over 9.3 and Al2 O3 recovery over 76% can be obtained from diasporic-bauxite ore. The result of XRD of the bauxite concentrate shows that pyrophyllite is easier to be removed from diasporic-bauxite than illite and kaolinite due to its better floatability.

  18. Small Angle Neutron Scattering Studies from Micellar Solutions of Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering from 0.1M solution of Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) without and with addition of varying concentrations of NaSal and KCl have been studied. It is observed that micelles are ellipsoidal (c=a≠b) and the a/b ratio depends on concentrations of CTAB, NaSal and KCl and on the temperature of the solution. The measured spectra show that on addition of NaSal, two or more of CTAB micelles join together to form together to from bigger micelle. These micelles disintergrate to smaller ones on heating. With the increase of KCl concentrations, the peak broadens without any significant shift in peak position. The broadening of the peak is a result of the reduction in coulomb interaction between the micelles

  19. Synthesis and photoluminescence of semiconductor quantum dots/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide vesicle core/shell nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis and photoluminescence properties of the SiC quantum dots (QDs)/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) multilayered vesicle core/shell nanostructures are reported. The Coulomb attraction force between the negatively charged surface of the QD and the positively charged ionized CTAB molecules drives the formation of the core/shell nanostructures. The outer CTAB molecules are demonstrated to form multilayered vesicles. The core/shell nanostructures exhibit strong near-UV photoluminescence which is supposed to stem from the outer CTAB vesicles. This novel semiconductor QD/vesicle core/shell structures can serve as a prototype for studying the QD–organic molecule interaction as well as the building block for constructing nanoscale devices.

  20. Improved hydrogen evolution on glassy carbon electrode modified with novel Pt/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide nanoscale aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jahan-Bakhsh Raoof; Sayed Reza Hosseini; Seyedeh Zeinab Mousavi-Sani

    2015-01-01

    A novel, cost‐effective, and simple electrocatalyst based on a Pt‐modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant, is reported. Am‐phiphilic CTAB molecules were adsorbed on GCE by immersion in a CTAB solution. The positively charged hydrophilic layer, which consisted of small aggregates of average size less than 100 nm, was used for accumulation and complexation of [PtCl6]2− anions by immersing the electrode in K2PtCl6 solution. The modified electrode was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. The electrocatalytic activity of the Pt particles in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was investigat‐ed. The results show that the CTAB surfactant enhances the electrocatalytic activity of the Pt parti‐cles in the HER in acidic solution.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of microamounts of scandium with o-chlorophenylfluorone and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Z M; He, W M

    1990-06-01

    The reaction of scandium(III) with o-chlorophenylfluorone (o-CIPF) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) has been studied. In an acetate buffer at pH 4.4, a red-purple complex is obtained, with maximum absorption at 569 nm and a molar absorptivity of 1.31 x 10(5)1.mole(-1).cm(-1). The composition of the complex is found to be 1:2:2 Sc-o-CIPF-CTMAB. Beer's law is obeyed over the range 0-12 mug/25 ml scandium. The proposed method has been used for determination of trace scandium in tungsten ores after its prior separation by solvent extraction. PMID:18964993

  2. Precipitation of silicic acid from geothermal water by addition of cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitsuki, Harumi; Yokoyama, Takushi; Shimada, Kanichi; Yamanaka, Chiho; Nishu, Keisuke; Shimizu, Shin; Tarutani, Toshikazu

    1986-01-25

    Cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to sodium silicate solution and geothermal hot water (Ohtake Geothermal Power Plant and Hatchobaru Geo-thermal Power Plant) to precipitate silica. 1) CTA ions do not react with monosilicic acid, but only the polymerization among the polysilicic acids proceeds and causes silica to precipitate. Optimum pH for the silica precipitation is 6 - 7 and the higher concentration of polysilicic acid will cause more precipitation. 2) When added to geothermal hot water, the silica precipita-tion increases with the increase of CTAB concentration within the range of 10/sup -7/ - 10/sup -4/ mol dm/sup 3/ concentration. Almost all poly-silicic acid precipitated at 10/sup -4/ mol dm/sup 3/ when measured for silica precipitation after 5 minutes. Total concentration of silicic acid was higher in the Hatchobaru geothermal water than that of the Ohtake geothermal water. (10 figs, 14 refs)

  3. Successful treatment of migrating partial seizures in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome with bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Ayako; Saito, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Yoko; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Ohno, Koyo; Sejima, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    A girl with mild psychomotor developmental delay developed right or left hemiclonic convulsion at 10months of age. One month later, clusters of hemiclonic or bilateral tonic seizures with eyelid twitching emerged, resulting in status epilepticus. Treatment with phenobarbital and potassium bromide completely terminated the seizures within 10days. Ictal electroencephalography revealed a migrating focus of rhythmic 3-4Hz waves from the right temporal to right frontal regions and then to the left frontal regions. Genetic analysis was conducted based on the characteristic facial appearance of the patient, which identified a 2.1-Mb terminal deletion on chromosome 4p. This is the first case of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome complicated by epilepsy with migrating partial seizures. PMID:26797656

  4. Tetrabutylammonium Bromide (TBABr-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs and Their Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizana Yusof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscosity of the studied DESs decreased with an increase in temperature, while ionic conductivity increases with temperature. In general, DESs made of TBABr and glycerol showed the highest density and viscosity and the lowest ionic conductivity when compared to other DESs. The presence of an extra hydroxyl group on glycerol in a DES affected the properties of the DES.

  5. Behavior of aqueous Tetrabutylammonium bromide - a combined approach of microscopic simulation and neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Debsindhu

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous solution of tetrabutylammonium bromide is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, to give information on the dynamic modes involving the ions present. Using a careful combination of two techniques, time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron spin echo (NSE), we de- couple the dynamic information in both the coherently and incoherently scattered signal from this system. We take advantage of the different intensity ratio of the two signals, as detected by each of the techniques, to achieve this decoupling. By using heavy water as the sol- vent, the tetrabutylammonium cation is the only hydrogen-containing species in the system and gives rise to a significant incoherent scattered intensity. The dynamic analysis of the incoherent signal (measured by TOF) leads to a translational diffusion coefficient of the cation as that is in good agreement with previous NMR, neutron scattering and tracer diffusion measurements. The dynamic analysis of the coherent signal observed at wave-vectors < 0.6 angstrom^(-1) (measu...

  6. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin in dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide film modified carbon ceramic electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Zhen Zhou; Hui Wang; She Ying Dong; An Xiang Tian; Zhi Xian He; Bin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin (Mb) were studied with Mb immobilized on dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) film modified carbon ceramic (CC) electrode. Cyclic voltammetry showed a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox peaks of Mb (FeⅡ/FeⅢ) at about -0.3 V vs. SCE (pH = 6.98). The currents of the redox peak were linear to scan rate, and rate constant (Ks) was estimated to be 3.03 s-1. The formal potential (E01) of Mb in the DTAB/CC electrodes shifted linearly with pH with a slope of-36.44 mV/pH, implying that the electron transfer between DTAB and CC electrodes is accompanied by proton transportation. The immobilized Mb exhibited excellent electrocatalytic response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

  7. Lithium bromide absorption machines: Pressure drop and mass transfer in solutions conical sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adiabatic vapour absorption in conical liquid sheets is studied with a view to use in air conditioning. The sheets consist in a lithium bromide aqueous solution sprayed at mass flow rates ranging from 0.0078 to 0.0116 kg/s (28-42 kg/h). The experimental results show that the deformation rate associated with conical sheet development has a significant effect on absorption, with 60% of the total reached by the time the liquid sheet disintegrates, 4 ms after injection. In the conical sheet configuration, about 150 g of vapour are absorbed per kJ of solution flow work. The vapour absorption rate per chamber absorption volume, in turn, is found to be over 1 g/s l in absorption chambers 75 mm long or less.

  8. Study on uranium(VI) biosorption of marine-derived fungus treated by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusarium sp. ZZF51 was chemically treated by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide to explore its potential for the removal of uranium(VI). The experimental results showed that the biosorption capacity and the removal efficiency for the modified mycelium under optimal conditions were 400.10 mg g-1 and 96.02 %, respectively, which were more than those of the native biomass (21.42 mg g-1 and 61.89 %). Lagergren's pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langumir isotherm model showed the better agreement with the experimental data. SEM experiment indicated the mycelium could provide ready access and rich surface area for uranium binding, and FTIR analysis revealed that hydroxyl, carbonyl, especially for nitrogen groups played important roles in biosorption. (author)

  9. Multimetallic catalysed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with aryl triflates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Laura K. G.; Lovell, Matthew M.; Weix, Daniel J.

    2015-08-01

    The advent of transition-metal catalysed strategies for forming new carbon-carbon bonds has revolutionized the field of organic chemistry, enabling the efficient synthesis of ligands, materials, and biologically active molecules. In cases where a single metal fails to promote a selective or efficient transformation, the synergistic cooperation of two distinct catalysts--multimetallic catalysis--can be used instead. Many important reactions rely on multimetallic catalysis, such as the Wacker oxidation of olefins and the Sonogashira coupling of alkynes with aryl halides, but this approach has largely been limited to the use of metals with distinct reactivities, with only one metal catalyst undergoing oxidative addition. Here, we demonstrate that cooperativity between two group 10 metal catalysts--(bipyridine)nickel and (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium--enables a general cross-Ullmann reaction (the cross-coupling of two different aryl electrophiles). Our method couples aryl bromides with aryl triflates directly, eliminating the use of arylmetal reagents and avoiding the challenge of differentiating between multiple carbon-hydrogen bonds that is required for direct arylation methods. Selectivity can be achieved without an excess of either substrate and originates from the orthogonal reactivity of the two catalysts and the relative stability of the two arylmetal intermediates. While (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium reacts preferentially with aryl triflates to afford a persistent intermediate, (bipyridine)nickel reacts preferentially with aryl bromides to form a transient, reactive intermediate. Although each catalyst forms less than 5 per cent cross-coupled product in isolation, together they are able to achieve a yield of up to 94 per cent. Our results reveal a new method for the synthesis of biaryls, heteroaryls, and dienes, as well as a general mechanism for the selective transfer of ligands between two metal catalysts. We anticipate that this

  10. Role of combined indacaterol and glycopyrronium bromide (QVA149 for the treatment of COPD in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horita N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nobuyuki Horita, Takeshi Kaneko Department of Pulmonology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan Abstract: Once-daily dual-bronchodilator therapy with combined indacaterol and glycopyrronium bromide in one device (Ultibro, Breezhaler, often called QVA149, was first approved in 2013 in Japan and Europe. As of November 2014, more than 40 countries had approved this medication except for the USA. This is the first dual bronchodilator in one device. Now, the Breezhaler is the only device that can provide long-acting muscarinic antagonist (glycopyrronium bromide, long-acting beta agonist (indacaterol, and a combination of the two medications (QVA149. The choice among the three medications allows a patient to use the same inhalation device even when the regimen is changed from single-bronchodilator therapy to dual-bronchodilator therapy. In addition, the quick bronchodilation effect and once-daily administration can improve patient adherence to medical treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. To our knowledge, as of November 2014, the safety and the efficacy of QVA149 have been evaluated in 14 randomized controlled trials. The 14 trials generally showed good safety profiles, and there were better or not-inferior bronchodilator effects of QVA149 when compared with placebo, or other inhaled medication. According to the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines, QVA149 is a combination of the two first-line bronchodilators. Our meta-analysis indicated that QVA149 is superior to the salmeterol–fluticasone combination to treat COPD in respect of the frequency of adverse effects, exacerbation, pneumonia, and improvement of trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1. Thus, we believe that QVA149 can be a key medication for COPD treatments. Keywords: bronchodilator agents, dry powder inhalers, delivery of health care, guideline, meta-analysis, muscarinic antagonists 

  11. Role of once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237 in the management of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Urzo A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony D'UrzoDepartment of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Progressive airflow limitation is a hallmark feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD that ultimately leads to breathlessness, impaired quality of life, and reduced exercise capacity. Pharmacotherapy is used in patients with COPD to prevent and control symptoms, reduce both the frequency and severity of exacerbations, improve health status, and increase exercise tolerance. These strategies are intended to address management issues which promote both current disease control and a reduction in the risk of disease deterioration in the future. At the present time, long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs are available for maintenance therapy in patients with persistent symptoms. Tiotropium was the first LAMA to be approved for management of COPD, and many studies have described its beneficial effects on multiple clinically relevant outcomes. Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237, a new LAMA, has been developed and received regulatory approval for management of COPD in a number of countries around the world. Results from pivotal Phase III trials suggest that NVA237 is safe and well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe COPD, and provides rapid and sustained improvements in lung function. Further, these changes are associated with statistically and clinically meaningful improvements in dyspnea, health-related quality of life, and exercise tolerance. Treatment with NVA237 also results in a significant reduction in risk of exacerbations and the need for rescue medication, and has been comparable with tiotropium with respect to safety and efficacy outcomes. Finally, emerging data indicate that NVA237 is efficacious both as monotherapy and in combination with indacaterol.Keywords: glycopyrronium bromide, NVA237, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inhaled long-acting bronchodilators

  12. Clinical potential of aclidinium bromide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones PW

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Paul W Jones Institute for Infection and Immunity, Faculty of Respiratory Medicine, St George’s, University of London, London, UK Abstract: Three long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs are now available in Europe, providing clinicians and patients with a choice of interventions, which is important in COPD, which is clinically a heterogeneous disease. The first LAMA, tiotropium, has been widely used over the last decade as a once-daily maintenance therapy in stable COPD to improve patients’ health-related quality of life and to reduce the risk of exacerbations. Administered via the HandiHaler® device, it is safe and well tolerated. Another new once-daily LAMA, glycopyrronium, has also been shown to improve health status and reduce exacerbations, and is well tolerated. The subject of this review is a third LAMA, aclidinium bromide, which was approved as a twice-daily maintenance bronchodilator treatment. In the pivotal Phase III clinical trials, patients receiving aclidinium achieved significantly greater improvements in lung function, reductions in breathlessness, and improvements in health status compared with placebo, for up to 24 weeks. In continuation studies, these improvements were sustained for up to 52 weeks. Pooled data showed exacerbation frequency was significantly reduced with aclidinium versus placebo. Preclinical and pharmacological studies demonstrating low systemic bioavailability and a low propensity to induce cardiac arrhythmias were translated into a favorable tolerability profile in the clinical trial program – the adverse event profile of aclidinium was similar to placebo, with a low incidence of anticholinergic and cardiac adverse events. While additional studies are needed to evaluate its full clinical potential, aclidinium is an important part of this recent expansion of LAMA therapeutic options, providing clinicians and patients with an effective and well-tolerated COPD treatment. Keywords: aclidinium bromide

  13. Thallium bromide chloride (TlBrxCl1-x) nuclear radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) has been studied as an X- and gamma-ray detector material and relatively good spectrometric performances have been obtained from the detectors. However, the energy resolution of the TlBr detectors is limited by the relatively low resistivity of the crystals. Thallium bromide chloride (TlBrxCl1-x) is a mixed crystal of TlBr and thallium chloride (TlCl). TlBr0.8Cl0.2 crystals have been grown by the traveling molten zone method (TMZ) from purified materials. Nuclear radiation detectors have been fabricated from the grown TlBr0.8Cl0.2 crystals and the detector performance has been characterized. Optical transmittance was evaluated in order to characterize bandgap of the grown crystal. The results confirm that the bandgap of TlBr0.8Cl0.2 is wider than the bandgap of TlBr. Leakage currents of the detectors were measured as a function of the bias voltage at room temperature. The resistivity of the TlBr0.8Cl0.2 detector is approximately equal to the resistivity of typical TlBr detector. A TlBr0.8Cl0.2 detector operated at room temperature was irradiated with gamma-rays from 137Cs source. The detector exhibited a clear peak corresponding 662 keV gamma-rays. The resolution obtained by the TlBr0.8Cl0.2 detector, however, was presently not better than the resolution obtained by the typical TlBr detector. (M. Suetake)

  14. Ethidium bromide transport across Mycobacterium smegmatis cell-wall: correlation with antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couto Isabel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active efflux systems and reduced cell-wall permeability are considered to be the main causes of mycobacterial intrinsic resistance to many antimicrobials. In this study, we have compared the Mycobacterium smegmatis wild-type strain mc2155 with knockout mutants for porins MspA (the main porin of M. smegmatis and MspC, the efflux pump LfrA (the main efflux pump system of M. smegmatis and its repressor LfrR for their ability to transport ethidium bromide (EtBr on a real-time basis. This information was then correlated with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of several antibiotics in the presence or absence of the efflux inhibitors chlorpromazine, thioridazine and verapamil. Results In the absence of porins MspA and MspC, accumulation of ethidium bromide decreased and the cells became more resistant to several antibiotics, whereas the knockout mutant for the LfrA pump showed increased accumulation of EtBr and increased susceptibility to EtBr, rifampicin, ethambutol and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, the efflux inhibitors caused a reduction of the MICs of streptomycin, rifampicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin and erythromycin in most of the strains tested. Conclusions The methodology used in this study demonstrated that porin MspA plays an important role in the influx of quaternary ammonium compounds and antibiotics and that efflux via the LfrA pump is involved in low-level resistance to several antimicrobial drugs in M. smegmatis. The results obtained with this non-pathogenic mycobacterium will be used in future studies as a model for the evaluation of the activity of the same efflux inhibitors on the susceptibility of multidrug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid and rifampicin.

  15. Boron-doped diamond anodic oxidation of ethidium bromide: Process optimization by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Boron-doped diamond was used to degrade ethidium bromide. ► The process was optimized by a central composite rotatable design coupled with response surface methodology. ► Applied current is proved to be the most significant variable. ► A possible reaction sequence involving all the detected byproducts was proposed. - Abstract: The degradation of ethidium bromide (EtBr), a DNA intercalating pollutant, had been studied by anodic oxidation on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode under galvanostatic conditions. A central composite rotatable design coupled with response surface methodology was implemented to optimize the various operating parameters involved, among initial pH, flow rate, applied current and supporting electrolyte concentration, on the treatment efficiency; the latter was assessed in terms of color removal, COD removal, specific energy consumption and general current efficiency. Of the four parameters involved, applied current had a considerable effect on all the response factors. Optimum EtBr degradation was achieved by applying a current of 0.90 A, 9.0 mM Na2SO4, flow rate of 400 ml min−1 and pH 6.2 at 60 min of electrolysis, being reduced color by 80.2% and COD by 29.7%, with an energy consumption of 398.32 kW h (kg COD)−1 and a general current efficiency of 10.1%. Under these optimized conditions, EtBr decays followed pseudo first-order kinetics. Moreover, HPLC analysis of the BDD-treated solution allowed the detection of a number of reaction intermediates, and a possible reaction sequence involving all the detected byproducts was proposed for the electrochemical oxidation of EtBr on BDD anode.

  16. Suzuki coupling reactions catalyzed by poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide stabilized palladium nanoparticles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available InIn this work, it was investigated to use of poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide stabilized palladium nanoparticles in the Suzuki reaction between phenylboronic acid and aryl halides in aqueous solution. The nanoparticles were isolated and re-used several times with low loss of activity.

  17. Strong Improper Ferroelasticity and Weak Canted Ferroelectricity in a Martensitic-Like Phase Transition of Diisobutylammonium Bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecha-Bisiorek, Anna; Białoska, Agata; Jakubas, Ryszard; Zieliski, Piotr; Wojciechowska, Martyna; Gałzka, Mirosław

    2015-09-01

    Diisobutylammonium bromide is found to be a unique improper ferroelastic in which the elastic degrees of freedom seem to play the essential role, giving rise to a domain pattern resembling that of martensitic phase transitions. A weak canted ferroelectricity turns out switchable by an electric field. PMID:26192617

  18. Impact of Long-Term Tiotropium Bromide Therapy on Annual Lung Function Decline in Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Brandt

    Full Text Available Chronic lung disease is the leading cause of death in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF and is often treated with bronchodilators. It is not known whether long-term tiotropium bromide treatment may have a positive impact on lung function.This retrospective cohort study estimated annual lung function decline utilizing longitudinal data for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.A total of 160 adult patients with CF were analyzed. The subjects treated for 24 months with tiotropium bromide had a significantly slower decline of mean annual change of FEV1 (treated: -0.3±4.0%; control: -2.3±5.0%; p = 0.0130. In patients with FEV1 ≥70% predicted, long-term tiotropium bromide treatment was associated with greater improvements in annual lung function decline (FEV1 ≥70% predicted: treated: +0.5±4.7%; control: -4.0±6.3%; p = 0.0132; FEV1 50-69% predicted: treated: -0.5±4.4%; control: -0.8±3.8%; p = 0.7142; FEV1 ≤49% predicted: treated: -0.6±3.4%; control: -2.4±4.8%; p = 0.0898.This study suggests that long-term tiotropium bromide treatment may be associated with reduced annual decline of FEV1 in patients with CF, particularly in adults with a mild degree of severity.

  19. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  20. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  1. MODIFICATION OF THE IODIMETRIC TITRATION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF BROMIDE AND ITS APPLICATION TO MIXED DOMESTIC - INDUSTRIAL WASTE EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The iodimetric titration method for the determination of bromide involves the observation of various color changes, making the method unsuitable for use with samples that are highly colored. A modification is described, which extends the usefulness of the method to highly colored...

  2. Biological half-life of bromide in the rat depends primarily on the magnitude of sodium intake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav; Babický, Arnošt; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2005), s. 639-644. ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : biological half-life * bromide * sodium Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  3. C-N Coupling of nitrogen nucleophiles with aryl and heteroaryl bromides using aminoarenethiolato-copper(I) (pre-)catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperotto, Elena; Klink, Gerard P.M. van; Vries, Johannes G. de; Koten, Gerard van

    2010-01-01

    The activity of a library of 2-aminoarenethiolato-copper(I) (CuSAr) (pre-)catalyst was explored in the arylation reaction of amines and N-containing heterocycles with aryl and heteroaryl bromides, respectively. These CuSAr pre-catalysts are thermally stable, are soluble in common organic solvents an

  4. Protective antiviral immune responses to pseudorabies virus induced by DNA vaccination using dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide as an adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, van E.M.A.; Glansbeek, H.L.; Hilgers, L.A.T.; Lintelo, te E.G.; Visser, de Y.E.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Haagmans, B.L.; Bianchi, A.T.J.

    2002-01-01

    To enhance the efficacy of a DNA vaccine against pseudorabies virus (PRV), we evaluated the adjuvant properties of plasmids coding for gamma interferon or interleukin-12, of CpG immunostimulatory motifs, and of the conventional adjuvants dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide in water (DDA) and sulfoli

  5. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Heck reaction of aryl bromides with vinyl ethers to 3-alkoxy alkenones and pyrazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranck, Johannes; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2012-04-16

    Three COming together: The first carbonylative Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides and vinyl ethers leading to 1-aryl-3-alkoxy-2-propen-1-ones has been established (see scheme). Based on this coupling methodology, a novel one-pot synthesis of aryl-substituted pyrazoles was also realized. PMID:22422673

  6. Palladium(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling of 1,1-diboronates with vinyl bromides and 1,1-dibromoalkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Zhang, Zhikun; Shangguan, Xianghang; Huang, Shan; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-10-27

    Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of 1,1-diboronates with vinyl bromides and dibromoalkenes were found to afford 1,4-dienes and allenes, respectively. These reactions utilize the high reactivities of both 1,1-diboronates and allylboron intermediates generated in the initial coupling. PMID:25213194

  7. Zinc mediated domino elimination-alkylation of methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Poulsen, Carina Storm; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    5-Iodopentofuranosides are converted with zinc and allyl/propargyl bromide into dienes/enynes which are further used in carbohydrate annulation reactions.......5-Iodopentofuranosides are converted with zinc and allyl/propargyl bromide into dienes/enynes which are further used in carbohydrate annulation reactions....

  8. Biotechnology application of organic mulch as an alternative to the plastic mulch-methyl bromide system for suppressing purple and yellow nutsedges in tomato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus (purple and yellow nutsedges, respectively) are among the most serious weed problems in many cropping systems in Florida and other parts of the world. They have been reported to cause yield losses of 20-89% in various horticultural crops. Production systems based o...

  9. Combustion characterization of methylal in reciprocating engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Methylal, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}, also known as dimethoxy-methane, is unique among oxygenates in that it has a low autoignition temperature, no carbon-carbon bonds, and is soluble in middle distillate fuels. Because of these properties, methylal has been shown to be a favorable fuel additive for reducing smoke in diesel engines. Recent measurements of ignition delay times indicate that methylal has a cetane number in the range of 45-50, which is compatible with diesel fuels. Engine tests have shown that adding methylal to diesel fuel significantly reduces smoke emissions. Gaseous emissions and combustion efficiencies obtained with methylal/diesel fuel blends remain essentially the same as those measured using neat diesel fuel. Lubricity measurements of methylal/diesel fuel blends with a ball on cylinder lubrication evaluator (BOCLE) show that methylal improves the lubricity of diesel fuel. Even though additions of methylal lower the fuel viscosity, the results of the BOCLE tests indicate that the methylal/diesel fuel blends cause less pump wear than neat diesel fuel. The one drawback is that methylal has a low boiling point (42{degrees}C) and a relatively high vapor pressure. As a result, it lowers the flash point of diesel fuel and causes a potential fuel tank flammability hazard. One solution to this increased volatility is to make polyoxymethylenes with the general formula of CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}O){sub x}CH{sub 3} where x > 2. The molecules are similar to methylal, but have higher molecular weights and thus higher viscosities and substantially lower vapor pressures. Therefore, their flash points will be compatible with regular diesel fuel. The polyoxymethylenes are expected to have combustion properties similar to methylal. It is theorized that by analogy with hydrocarbons, the ignition quality (i.e., cetane number) of the polyoxymethylenes will be better than that of methylal.

  10. Impact of bromide on halogen incorporation into organic moieties in chlorinated drinking water treatment and distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J; Allard, S; Gruchlik, Y; McDonald, S; Joll, C A; Heitz, A

    2016-01-15

    The impact of elevated bromide concentrations (399 to 750 μg/L) on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), namely trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), in two drinking water systems was investigated. Bromine was the main halogen incorporated into all of the DBP classes and into organic carbon, even though chlorine was present in large excess to maintain a disinfectant residual. Due to the higher reactivity of bromine compared to chlorine, brominated DBPs were rapidly formed, followed by a slower increase in chlorinated DBPs. Higher bromine substitution and incorporation factors for individual DBP classes were observed for the chlorinated water from the groundwater source (lower concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), which contained a higher concentration of bromide, than for the surface water source (higher DOC). The molar distribution of adsorbable organic bromine to chlorine (AOBr/AOCl) for AOX in the groundwater distribution system was 1.5:1 and almost 1:1 for the surface water system. The measured (regulated) DBPs only accounted for 16 to 33% of the total organic halogen, demonstrating that AOX measurements are essential to provide a full understanding of the formation of halogenated DBPs in drinking waters. In addition, the study demonstrated that a significant proportion (up to 94%) of the bromide in source waters can be converted AOBr. An evaluation of AOBr and AOCl through a second groundwater treatment plant that uses conventional treatment processes for DOC removal produced 70% of AOX as AOBr, with 69% of the initial source water bromide converted to AOBr. Exposure to organobromine compounds is suspected to result in greater adverse health consequences than their chlorinated analogues. Therefore, this study highlights the need for improved methods to selectively reduce the bromide content in source waters. PMID:26490534

  11. Corrosion Inhibition Of Mild Steel In 0.5 M H2so4 By 1-(2- Methyl-4-(2-Methylphenyldiazenyl Phenyl Azonapthalen-2-Ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.ANANTH KUMAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of addition of1-(2-methyl-4-(2-methylphenyldiazenyl phenyl azonapthalen-2-ol on the corrosion of steel in 0.5M H2SO4 acid has been studied by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with inhibitors content to attain 61.00% and 79.66% 1-(2-methyl-4-(2-methylphenyldiazenyl phenyl azonapthalen-2-ol and 25ppm(Tetra butyl ammonium bromideTBAB respectively. Data obtained from EIS studies were analyzed to determinate the model inhibition process through appropriate equivalent circuit models. Inhibition efficiency E (% obtained from the various methods is in good agreement.

  12. A New and Practical Synthetic Method for the Synthesis of 6-O-Methyl-scutellarein: One Metabolite of Scutellarin in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Scutellarin (1 has been used for the treatment of angina pectoris, cerebral infarction and coronary heart disease with a large market share in China. Pharmacokinetic studies on scutellarin showed that scutellarin (1 is readily converted into its metabolites in vivo. In this paper, a new and practical synthetic method for the synthesis of 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (3 (one metabolite of scutellarin in vivo is reported. The benzyl bromide was firstly used to selectively replace the acetyl group at C-7 in 7, and was then used to protect the hydroxy groups at C-4' in 10, 6-O-methyl-scutellarein (3 is obtained in high yield through these methods.

  13. Wp specific methylation of highly proliferated LCLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epigenetic regulation of viral genes may be important for the life cycle of EBV. We determined the methylation status of three viral promoters (Wp, Cp, Qp) from EBV B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by pyrosequencing. Our pyrosequencing data showed that the CpG region of Wp was methylated, but the others were not. Interestingly, Wp methylation was increased with proliferation of LCLs. Wp methylation was as high as 74.9% in late-passage LCLs, but 25.6% in early-passage LCLs. From two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, Wp specific hypermethylation was also found (>80%). Interestingly, the expression of EBNA2 gene which located directly next to Wp was associated with its methylation. Our data suggested that Wp specific methylation may be important for the indicator of the proliferation status of LCLs, and the epigenetic viral gene regulation of EBNA2 gene by Wp should be further defined possibly with other biological processes

  14. An Integrated Workflow for DNA Methylation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingchuan Li; Feray Demirci; Gayathri Mahalingam; Caghan Demirci; Mayumi Nakano; Blake C.Meyers

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of cytosine methylation provides a new way to assess and describe epigenetic regulation at a whole-genome level in many eukaryotes.DNA methylation has a demonstrated role in the genome stability and protection,regulation of gene expression and many other aspects of genome function and maintenance.BS-seq is a relatively unbiased method for profiling the DNA methylation,with a resolution capable of measuring methylation at individual cytosines.Here we describe,as an example,a workflow to handle DNA methylation analysis,from BS-seq library preparation to the data visualization.We describe some applications for the analysis and interpretation of these data.Our laboratory provides public access to plant DNA methylation data via visualization tools available at our "Next-Gen Sequence" websites (http://mpss.udel.edu),along with small RNA,RNA-seq and other data types.

  15. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Methyl benzoate

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Kiran Sankar

    2014-01-01

    Methyl benzoate (MB) is studied as a model compound for the development of new IR pulse schemes with possible applicability to biomolecules. Anharmonic vibrational modes of MB are calculated on different level (MP2, SCS, CCSD(T) with varying basis sets) ab-initio PESs using the vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) method and its correlation corrected extensions. Dual level schemes, combining different quantum chemical methods for diagonal and coupling potentials, are systematically studied and applied successfully to reduce the computational cost. Isotopic substitution of {\\beta}-hydrogen by deuterium is studied to obtain a better understanding of the molecular vibrational coupling topology.

  16. Hypoxic radiosensitization by the antimicrobial methyl paraben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.P.; Sade, N.

    1984-08-01

    The antimicrobial preservative, methyl paraben (methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate) sensitizes anoxic buffered suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus to gamma-radiation. The maximal response at an 0.5 mM concentration represents a 150 percent increase in response over that for deoxygenated suspensions without additive, and 80 percent of the response for aerated suspensions alone. Methyl paraben is not toxic to the test organism under the present test conditions.

  17. Hypoxic radiosensitization by the antimicrobial methyl paraben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antimicrobial preservative, methyl paraben (methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate) sensitizes anoxic buffered suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus to gamma-radiation. The maximal response at an 0.5 mM concentration represents a 150 percent increase in response over that for deoxygenated suspensions without additive, and 80 percent of the response for aerated suspensions alone. Methyl paraben is not toxic to the test organism under the present test conditions

  18. 托吡卡胺和阿托品用于儿童散瞳验光的对比%Tropicamide and atropine for comparison of children with refraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉洁; 门大伟; 陈娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:对比在儿童散瞳验光中采用托吡卡胺和阿托品的应用效果。方法:选取我院在2014年5月至2015年5月期间门诊收治的视力异常患儿168例,根据患儿的年龄将其分为3组,A组为4-8岁,B组为9-11岁,C组为12-14岁,每组有患儿56例,分2天给予托吡卡胺及阿托品进行散瞳验光。将其验光结果进行记录和对比。结果:A组与B组远视和近视结果对比具有统计学意义(P<0.05);B组与C组患儿近视和远视对比无明显的差异性,无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:在儿童验光中应用托吡卡胺对于9岁以上儿童近视及12岁以上儿童远视应用效果较好。%objective: to contrast in children’s specialized order pyrazole card amine and the application effects of atropine. Selection methods: our hospital in May 2014 to May 2015 outpatient treated 168 cases of abnormal vision, it can to the patient’s age, A group of 4 to 8 years, group B for 9 to 11 years of age, group C for 12-14 years old, each group had 56 cases. The optometry results recorded and compared. Results: in group A and group B hyperopia and myopia results compared statistically significant (P 0.05). Conclusion: applied in the children’s eyes pyrazole card amine for 9 years of age or older children myopia and 12 years of age or older children hyperopia application effect is good.

  19. Relaxation processes in aromatic methyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of compounds with methyl groups disposed ortho and peri on heteroaromatic frameworks have been prepared, and T1 values and methyl-methyl Overhauser effects measured for them. Most of the nuclear Overhauser effect values were ≤6%, but two examples of methyls flanked by two others exhibited values of 9% (6-hydroxy-4,4,5,7-tetramethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzopyran -2-one) and 15% (1,4,5,8,9-pentamethylcarbazole). 19 refs., 1tab

  20. Influence of DNA methylation on transgene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in gene expression in eukaryote. But DNA methylation of transgene usually leads to target gene silencing in plant genetic engineering. In this research, reporter gene b-glu- curonidase (GUS) gene (uidA) was introduced into tobaccos via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, and the foreign uidA gene became inactive in some transgenic tobaccos. No mRNA of uidA was detected in these plants by Northern blotting analysis, and DNA methylation of promoter region was found. The results indicated that gene silencing might be caused by DNA methylation of promoter.