Sample records for atropine methyl bromide

  1. Managing nematodes without methyl bromide. (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A; Halbrendt, John M; Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; LaMondia, James; McKenry, Michael V; Noling, Joe W


    Methyl bromide is an effective pre-plant soil fumigant used to control nematodes in many high-input, high-value crops in the United States, including vegetables, nursery plants, ornamentals, tree fruits, strawberries, and grapes. Because methyl bromide has provided a reliable return on investment for nematode control, many of these commodities have standardized their production practices based on the use of this chemical and will be negatively impacted if effective and economical alternatives are not identified. Alternative control measures based on other chemicals, genetic resistance, and cultural practices require a greater knowledge of nematode biology to achieve satisfactory results. Here, we provide an overview of nematode management practices that we believe will be relied upon heavily in U.S. high-value crop production systems in a world without methyl bromide. Included are case studies of U.S. high-value crop production systems to demonstrate how nematode management practices other than methyl bromide may be incorporated.

  2. 77 FR 35295 - Methyl Bromide; Pesticide Tolerances (United States)


    ... ] not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal... the proposed rule. EPA's response to these comments is discussed in Unit III. III. Response to... considerably more opportunity for digestion and detoxification of a simple molecule such as methyl bromide in...

  3. Health profiles of methyl bromide applicators in greenhouses in Turkey. (United States)

    Akca, Ergonen Toprak; Serpil, Salacin; Sezer, Uysal; Ozlem, Eminoglu; Ayşe, Gelal; Canan, Coker; Hakan, Baydur; Ozgur, Karcioglu; Banu, Onvural; Hulya, Guven


    Methyl bromide is a toxic substance that has hazardous effects on human health with acute and chronic exposure. Our previous study showed that methyl bromide applicators frequently use large amounts of methyl bromide haphazardly in greenhouses in the prefectures of Narlidere and Balcova in the Aegean city of Izmir. This study aims to evaluate the health conditions of these workers. Our previous study showed that there are 38 methyl bromide applicators in our study area. After the informed consent of methyl bromide applicators was obtained, a questionnaire was used for a survey of demography and symptoms. Each subject was examined before and after application of the compound. Blood and urine samples were collected and stored. Blood samples were analysed for methyl bromide and bromide ion, kidney and liver function tests and lipid profile. The age range of subjects was 19 to 53 years (mean age: 41 +/- 8.57). This study showed that methyl bromide applicators use large amounts of methyl bromide disregarding legal regulations and that some of them had nonspecific complaints. Subjects had been working as methyl bromide applicators for approximately 9.7 +/- 4.15 years. A total of 69.7% of methyl bromide applicators reported that they did not use protective equipment while 33.3% of them had a history of acute methyl bromide intoxication. A statistically significant relationship was found between the usage of protective equipment and the level of blood bromide ion in the blood (P <0.05). Usage of methyl bromide, training, screening and follow-up of applicators must be rigorously controlled in accordance with national legal arrangements and international protocols. Greater efforts are required in the implementation of controls to achieve the targets set by the legal regulations and to ensure continual improvement in the limitation of the risks of this environmental hazard.

  4. response of farmers to technological transfer in the methyl bromide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu


    Aug 30, 2012 ... BROMIDE PHASE-OUT PROGRAMME IN ZIMBABWE: THE FLOATING TRAY SYSTEM ... phase out the last 182 tonnes of methyl bromide then used in tobacco seedling production. ... le système du plateau flottant bien que 61 % étaientinformés de la technologie et ne pouvaient pas l'utiliser, en avançant ...

  5. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  6. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  7. 7 CFR 305.6 - Methyl bromide fumigation treatment schedules. (United States)


    ..., fumigation with methyl bromide for sapote fruit fly. Regulated citrus fruits originating inside an area... gas introduction, and allowed to run for at least 15 minutes. Fruit pulp temperature must be between 21.1 °C and 29.4 °C (70 °F and 85 °F). This temperature requirement refers to fruit pulp only and not...

  8. Methyl bromide soil fumigation: effect on grass yields | MGW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual herbage yields of grasses grown on sandy soils on Henderson Research Station seldom exceed 10 000 kg/ha dry matter, while on heavy clay soils yields of 18 000 kg/ha are consistently obtained with similar amounts of applied fertilizers. Keywords: methyl bromide|soils|fumigation|grasses|grass ...

  9. Food Safe Alternatives to Methyl Bromide in Country Ham Production


    Preisser III, Richard Herman


    Dry cured meat production is a costly and long term investment for producers. Ham mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae) are a common pest of dry cured products and cause devastating effects, potentially nullifying producers' investments due to loss of salable product, as well as regulatory concerns. Methyl bromide, a chemical fumigant used to control mite populations, is damaging to stratospheric ozone and will no longer be available. Presently, no alternative control measure has been approved to ...

  10. Evaluation of the use of atropine sulfate, a combination of butylscopolammonium bromide and metamizole sodium, and flunixin meglumine to ameliorate clinical adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses. (United States)

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Alfaqeeh, Sameh M; Mustafa, Ghazi; Qura'n, Lara; Al-Majali, Ahmad M


    To evaluate the ability of atropine sulfate, butylscopolammonium bromide combined with metamizole sodium, and flunixin meglumine to ameliorate the clinical adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses. 28 horses with piroplasmosis. 28 horses were randomly assigned to 4 equal groups according to the pretreatment administered. Fifteen minutes before administration of 2.4 mg of imidocarb dipropionate/kg IM, horses in the first group were pretreated with 0.02 mg of atropine sulfate/kg IV, the second group with a combination of 0.2 mg of butylscopolammonium bromide/kg IV and 25 mg of metamizole sodium/kg IV, the third group with 1.1 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg IV, and the fourth (control) group with 1 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution/50 kg IV. Physical examination, including evaluation of rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates, capillary refill time, mucous membrane color, hydration status, abdominal sounds, signs of abdominal pain, salivation, diarrhea, and number of defecations, was performed. Imidocarb dipropionate use in the control group was associated with serious adverse effects including signs of abdominal pain (4/7 horses) and diarrhea (2/7). Horses pretreated with atropine had no diarrhea, but 6 had signs of abdominal pain. Only 1 horse that received butylscopolammonium-metamizole pretreatment had signs of abdominal pain and 3 had diarrhea, which was numerically but not significantly different than the control group. Of horses pretreated with flunixin, 3 had signs of abdominal pain and 3 had diarrhea. A combination of butylscopolammonium bromide and metamizole sodium may be useful to ameliorate the adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses, although group size was small and significant differences from the control group were not found.

  11. Destruction of methyl bromide sorbed to activated carbon by thiosulfate and electrolysis (United States)

    Methyl bromide is widely used as a fumigant for post-harvest and quarantine uses at port facilities due to the low treatment times required, but it is vented to the atmosphere after its use. Due to the potential contributions of methyl bromide to stratospheric ozone depletion, technologies for the c...

  12. Methyl bromide determination in selected foods by headspace technique. (United States)

    Daft, J L


    A headspace method used earlier for determining methyl bromide (MB) in assorted nuts and peanut butters has been successfully applied to other foods that could potentially contain traces of this toxic fumigant. The foods tested include 63 off-the-shelf spices and seasonings, 83 table-ready items (grain-based, dried, or highly seasoned), 30 dried fruits and trail mixes, and 38 oil-based items (oil-seeds, cooking oils, or spicy oil-based dressings). Sample headspace gas is produced by blending < or = 50 g sample in 250 +/- 50 mL aqueous solution in a sealed 1000 mL blender cup. After equilibration at 25 degrees C, the headspace is sampled with a gas-tight syringe and injected into a dual column-dual detector gas chromatograph. One determination is made with a 20% OV-101 packed column and a 63Ni electron capture detector (ECD), the other with a GS-Q wide-bore capillary column and a Hall electrolytic conductivity detector (HECD). Of the approximately 200 samples tested, none contained detectable MB residue at a quantitation limit < 100 ng/g sample. All fortified samples yielded MB recovery. Samples were fortified at levels ranging from 78 to 3250 ng MB/g. Recoveries ranged from a mean high of 56% for spices and seasonings to a mean low of 30% for oil-based foods. The overall recovery and CV, including the results from assorted nuts and peanut butters, were 46 and 33%, respectively.

  13. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment Longer than 8 Hours (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  14. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment 8 Hours or Less (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  15. Effect of Methyl Bromide on Mycorrhizae and Growth of Sweetgum Seedlings (United States)

    T. H. Filer; E. R. Toole


    Fumigation of nursery beds with methyl bromide improved sweetgum, growth by reducing the population of soil-inhabiting pathogens . Although mycorrhizal fungi were reduced, sufficient inoculum survived for rapid mycorrhizal development

  16. Subsurface drip application of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for controlling nematodes in replanted grapevines. (United States)

    Cabrera, J Alfonso; Wang, Dong; Schneider, Sally M; Hanson, Bradley D


    Many California grape growers use preplant fumigation to ensure uniform and healthy grapevine establishment in replant situations. A field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of subsurface drip-applied chemical alternatives to methyl bromide on plant-parasitic nematodes, plant vigor and fruit yield during the 6 year period following replanting. Subsurface drip fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin and with iodomethane plus chloropicrin had generally similar nematicide activity as methyl bromide in three grape types, while sodium azide was less effective. The combination of 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin enhanced vine vigor similarly to methyl bromide. However, all plots treated with alternative fumigants produced less fruit yield than methyl bromide over the 4 years of evaluation. Subsurface drip fumigation with alternative chemicals to methyl bromide generally provided adequate management of plant-parasitic nematodes during the vine establishment period. However, further research is required to increase the performance of alternative chemicals against other components of the replant problem, as grape yield in vines grown in the alternative treatments was lower than in methyl bromide. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Control of insects with fumigants at low temperatures: toxicity of mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile to three species of insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E.J.; Buckland, C.T.


    Acrylonitrile can be mixed with methyl bromide to increase toxicity so that the quantity of methyl bromide required for control of Sitophilus granarius (L.), Tenebrio molitor L., and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duval is reduced by one half. Mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile are considerably more effective at low temperatures than methyl bromide alone.

  18. 78 FR 14508 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of... (United States)


    ... methyl bromide fumigation of cottonseed for the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp... schedule to neutralize the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) on cottonseed...

  19. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity. (United States)

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P


    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  20. Reactions of guanine with methyl chloride and methyl bromide: O6-methylation versus charge transfer complex formation (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.; Mishra, P. C.; Suhai, S.

    Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31+G* and B3LYP/AUG-cc-pVDZ levels was employed to study O6-methylation of guanine due to its reactions with methyl chloride and methyl bromide and to obtain explanation as to why the methyl halides cause genotoxicity and possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Geometries of the various isolated species involved in the reactions, reactant complexes (RCs), and product complexes (PCs) were optimized in gas phase. Transition states connecting the reactant complexes with the product complexes were also optimized in gas phase at the same levels of theory. The reactant complexes, product complexes, and transition states were solvated in aqueous media using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) of the self-consistent reaction field theory. Zero-point energy (ZPE) correction to total energy and the corresponding thermal energy correction to enthalpy were made in each case. The reactant complexes of the keto form of guanine with methyl chloride and methyl bromide in water are appreciably more stable than the corresponding complexes involving the enol form of guanine. The nature of binding in the product complexes was found to be of the charge transfer type (O6mG+ · X-, X dbond Cl, Br). Binding of HCl, HBr, and H2O molecules to the PCs obtained with the keto form of guanine did not alter the positions of the halide anions in the PCs, and the charge transfer character of the PCs was also not modified due to this binding. Further, the complexes obtained due to the binding of HCl, HBr, and H2O molecules to the PCs had greater stability than the isolated PCs. The reaction barriers involved in the formation of PCs were found to be quite high (?50 kcal/mol). Mechanisms of genotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis caused by the methyl halides appear to involve charge transfer-type complex formation. Thus the mechanisms of these processes involving the methyl halides appear to be quite different from those that involve the

  1. Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored-product and quarantine insects. (United States)

    Fields, Paul G; White, Noel D G


    Methyl bromide is used to control insects as a space fumigant in flour and feed mills and ship holds, as a product fumigant for some fruit and cereals, and for general quarantine purposes. Methyl bromide acts rapidly, controlling insects in less than 48 h in space fumigations, and it has a wide spectrum of activity, controlling not only insects but also nematodes and plant-pathogenic microbes. This chemical will be banned in 2005 in developed countries, except for exceptional quarantine purposes, because it depletes ozone in the atmosphere. Many alternatives have been tested as replacements for methyl bromide, from physical control methods such as heat, cold, and sanitation to fumigant replacements such as phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride, and carbonyl sulfide, among others. Individual situations will require their own type of pest control techniques, but the most promising include integrated pest management tactics and combinations of treatments such as phosphine, carbon dioxide, and heat.

  2. Managing Weeds and Soilborne Pests with Fumigant and Non-Fumigant Alternatives to Methyl Bromide


    McAvoy, Theodore Porter


    Methyl bromide (MBr) was widely used as a soil fumigant to manage soilborne pests in plasticulture vegetable production; however, it has been banned by the United Nations Environment Programme. Alternatives to MBr must be implemented to sustain fresh market tomato productivity. Possible MBr alternatives include new fumigant compounds, improved plastic mulch, and grafting. Methyl iodide (MeI) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were tested as fumigant alternatives to MBr for the control of yellow...

  3. Methyl bromide release from activated carbon and the soil/water/carbon interface (United States)

    Methyl Bromide (MB) is a major source of stratospheric bromine radical, a known depletor of ozone. The use of ozone-depleting chemicals, including MB, is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. Critical uses of MB are permitted, such as when postharvest fumigation is mandated by an importing country. Fo...

  4. The history and future of methyl bromide alternatives in the southern United States (United States)

    Tom E. Starkey


    This article gives a brief history of the efforts of the Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative (SFNMC) in testing methyl bromide (MBr) alternatives for soil fumigation. In the southeastern United States, fumigation with MBr has been the most commonly used method for producing high quality, pest-free forest seedlings in an environment that is conducive for soil...

  5. Methyl Bromide Measurements in the Taylor Dome M3C1 Ice Core, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set includes methyl bromide (CH3Br) measurements made on air extracted from 70 samples from the Taylor Dome M3C1 ice core. CH3Br was measured in air from...

  6. 76 FR 34700 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications... (United States)


    ... converting to alternatives such as: sulfuryl fluoride and phosphine. If relevant, the applicant should also...: sulfuryl fluoride, micro-sanitation, and heat. If relevant, the applicant should include the costs to.... Applicants must include information on the amount of methyl bromide and any other fumigants used as well as...

  7. 78 FR 32646 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications... (United States)


    ... control effectiveness between methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride or heat treatments. The cost of... three uses (strawberries, fresh dates and dry cured ham). Since information about alternatives, economic.../ temperature treatment system. Applicants should include the costs to retrofit equipment or design and...

  8. Characterization of methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes at temperate freshwater wetlands (United States)

    Hardacre, Catherine J.; Heal, Mathew R.


    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) are important natural sources of halogens to the atmosphere. A total of 568 CH3Br and 418 CH3Cl net flux measurements were made for up to 2 years at the same locations within four different wetlands in Scotland. Mean (± 1 standard deviation (SD)) CH3Br and CH3Cl net fluxes across all measurements at each wetland were: Auchencorth Moss, 8 (± 7) and 3560 (± 1260) ng m-2 h-1; Old Castle Farm, 420 (± 70) and 500 (± 260) ng m-2 h-1; Red Moss of Balerno, 500 (± 90) and 140,000 (± 36,000) ng m-2 h-1; and St Margaret's Marsh, 3600 (± 600) and -270 (± 450) ng m-2 h-1. None of the wetlands was a large net sink. Where substantial emissions were observed, these followed seasonal trends, increasing early in the growing season and declining in early autumn. Some diurnal cycles were observed, with emissions greatest during the day, although lower emissions were present at night. None of the measured environmental parameters was a strong "universal" driver for fluxes, which were heterogeneous within and between the wetlands, and larger on average than reported to date; plant species appeared to be the dominant factor, the latter confirmed by vegetation removal experiments. Calluna vulgaris and Phragmites australis emitted particularly large amounts of CH3Br, the former also emitting substantial CH3Cl. While acknowledging the substantial uncertainties in extrapolating globally, observations from this work suggest that wetlands contribute more CH3Br and CH3Cl to the atmosphere than current World Meteorological Organization estimates.

  9. Novel use of aliphatic n-methyl ketones as a fumigant and alternative to methyl bromide for insect control. (United States)

    Zhu, Jiwei; Dhammi, Anirudh; van Kretschmar, Jaap B; Vargo, Edward L; Apperson, Charles S; Michael Roe, R


    Fumigants like phosphine, methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride are highly effective for the control of structural, storage and agricultural arthropod pests. Unfortunately, many of these synthetic compounds are highly toxic to people, many pests have developed resistance to these compounds and methyl bromide, the 'gold standard' for fumigants, was de-registered because of its contribution to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Alternative fumigant chemistry is needed. Several plant species produce n-aliphatic methyl ketones to prevent plant herbivory. To examine the use of methyl ketones as a fumigant, structure-mortality studies were conducted using the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, as a model. A new easy-to-use, inexpensive and disposable bioassay system was developed for this study. The LC50 values for heptanone, octanone, nonanone and undecanone were 4.27, 5.11, 5.26 and 8.21 µg/cm3 of ambient air, respectively. Although heptanone, octanone and nonanone were more effective than undecanone, subsequent research was conducted with 2-undecanone because this compound already has US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registration as a biopesticide. In dose-response field studies, 12.4 mL of undecanone injected into mounds was the lowest application rate that produced no ant activity in the mound with no re-establishment of ants. Reagent grade undecanone was more cost-effective than methyl bromide for fire ants, adult German cockroaches and tobacco budworm eggs, but slightly more expensive for adult flour beetles. The naturally occurring methyl ketone undecanone has the potential to be an alternative to current fumigants for a variety of pest applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Evaluation of alternatives to methyl bromide in melon crops in Guatemala. (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, M; Camacho-Ferre, F; Diánez-Martínez, F; De Cara-García, M; Tello-Marquina, J C


    The monoculture of melon in Guatemala has caused the massive appearance of plants with an analogous syndrome for the well-known disease commonly called melon collapse, or vine decline, causing significant losses in crops. Methyl bromide is commonly used to sterilize soil prior to planting in Guatemala, but it must be phased out by 2015. The objective of this study was to evaluate the technique of grafting melon onto hybrids of Cucurbita (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata), as an alternative to using soil disinfectants (such as Metam sodium, 1,3-dichloropropene, and methyl bromide) for the control of collapse. The results suggested that both soil disinfection and grafting were not necessary in these locations, since there were no statistical differences in terms of yields between the treatments and the untreated control. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that decisions to disinfect the soil must be based on the firm identification of the causal agents, in addition to preliminary assessments of yield losses.

  11. Synthesis of Dimethyl Aryl Acylsulfonium Bromides from Aryl Methyl Ketones in a DMSO-HBr System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Cao


    Full Text Available A new, simplified method for the synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium salts has been developed. A series of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides were prepared by the reaction of aryl methyl ketones with hydrobromic acid and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. This sulfonium salt confirms that bromine production and the bromination reaction take place in the DMSO-HBr oxidation system. What’s more, it is also a key intermediate for the synthesis of arylglyoxals.

  12. Synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides from aryl methyl ketones in a DMSO-HBr system. (United States)

    Cao, Zhiling; Shi, Dahua; Qu, Yingying; Tao, Chuanzhou; Liu, Weiwei; Yao, Guowei


    A new, simplified method for the synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium salts has been developed. A series of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides were prepared by the reaction of aryl methyl ketones with hydrobromic acid and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). This sulfonium salt confirms that bromine production and the bromination reaction take place in the DMSO-HBr oxidation system. What's more, it is also a key intermediate for the synthesis of arylglyoxals.

  13. Replacing methyl bromide in annual strawberry production with glucosinolate-containing green manure crops. (United States)

    Lazzeri, Luca; Baruzzi, Gianluca; Malaguti, Lorena; Antoniacci, Loredana


    The use of biocidal green manure crops is an agronomic technique for amending soil with fresh organic matter containing volatile compounds active in controlling some soil-borne pests and diseases. Two new selections of the Brassicaceae family were cultivated, incorporated before planting strawberries and tested as an alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. Two biocidal green manure crops (Brassica juncea L sel ISCI20, Eruca sativa Mill cv Nemat) containing glucosinolate-myrosinase systems, a conventional green manure (barley), untreated soil and a fumigated control were evaluated during two seasons. The effect of these soil management systems on subsequent strawberry performance was evaluated by monitoring yield and plant growth parameters. In both years, biocidal plant green manure treatments led to a fruit yield lower than with methyl bromide, but higher than with conventional green manure or untreated soil. These results confirm the good prospects for biocidal green manures, not only as an environmentally friendly alternative to methyl bromide in conventional agriculture, but also in organic agriculture as an alternative to conventional green manure crops.

  14. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Horizontal Stacks, 8 Hours or Less (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  15. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, 8 Hours or Less (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  16. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, More than 8 Hours (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  17. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Lygia T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ozone-depleting methyl bromide was destined for phase-out by 2005, it is still widely applied as a consequence of various critical-use-exemptions and mandatory international regulations aiming to restrict the spread of pests and alien species (e.g. in globalized transport and storage. The withdrawal of methyl bromide because of its environmental risk could fortuitously help in the containment of its human toxicity. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature, including in vitro toxicological and epidemiological studies of occupational and community exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon pesticide methyl bromide. We focused on toxic (especially chronic or carcinogenic effects from the use of methyl bromide, on biomonitoring data and reference values. Eligible epidemiological studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results Out of the 542 peer reviewed publications between 1990-2011, we found only 91 referring to toxicity of methyl bromide and 29 using the term "carcinogenic", "neoplastic" or "mutagenic". Several studies provide new additional data pertaining to the mechanistic aspects of methyl bromide toxicity. Few studies have performed a detailed exposure assessment including biomonitoring. Three evaluated epidemiological studies assessed a possible association between cancer and methyl bromide. Overall, exposure to methyl bromide is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer OR, 1.21; 95% CI (0,98-1.49, P = 0.076. Two epidemiological studies have analyzed environmental, non-occupational exposure to methyl bromide providing evidence for its health risk to the general public. None of the epidemiological studies addressed its use as a fumigant in freight containers, although recent field and case reports do refer to its toxic effects associated with its use in shipping and storage. Conclusions Both the epidemiological evidence and toxicological data suggest a possible link between methyl

  18. Environmental and health risks of sulfuryl fluoride, a fumigant replacement for methyl bromide. (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien


    Sulfuryl fluoride (SO(2)F(2)) is used primarily as a fumigant in replacement of methyl bromide, but it has the potential to contribute significantly to the global warming. This article introduces SO(2)F(2) in the physicochemical properties, the current uses in agriculture and industry, the toxicological data, and the environmental implications on the basis of its environmental properties. The health hazards of SO(2)F(2) and its probable decomposition products were also evaluated based on their occupational exposure limits and possible exposure sources. The resident and occupational exposure assessment was further discussed to understand seriousness of risk caused by SO(2)F(2) and its decomposition products.

  19. Methyl bromide causes DNA methylation in rats and mice but fails to induce somatic mutations in lambda lacZ transgenic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pletsa, V.; Steenwinkel, M.J.; van Delft, J.H.M.; Baan, R.A.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.


    Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis, Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, Greece. Following single or multiple oral treatments of rats or lambda lacZ transgenic mice with methyl bromide, methylated DNA adducts (N7- and/or

  20. Chemical alternatives to methyl bromide for the control of root-knot nematodes in greenhouses. (United States)

    Giannakou, Ioannis O; Sidiropoulos, Artemios; Prophetou-Athanasiadou, Demetra


    The complete phase-out of methyl bromide from use in developed countries by 1 January 2005 will cause many problems in agricultural industries that are now heavily reliant on its use. Three field experiments were established to compare management tactics on tomato and cucumber in commercial greenhouses naturally infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp). Reduction of nematode juveniles in soil and roots to nil detection levels was observed in all plots following soil fumigation with methyl bromide. A significant reduction of nematode juveniles and root-galling index was observed in plots treated with metham-sodium, dazomet and 1,3-dichloropropene compared with the control and plots treated with non-fumigant nematicides. Reduction of the nematode population led to an increase in fruit yield. However, data collected from the second cultivation season indicated that single control methods such as fumigant or contact nematicides alone cannot drastically decrease initial nematode population and those nematodes which escape control lead to population increase by the end of the cropping season.

  1. Tailoring acidity of HZSM-5 nanoparticles for methyl bromide dehydrobromination by Al and Mg incorporation. (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Zhongdong; Xing, Wei; Komarneni, Sridhar; Yan, Zifeng; Gao, Xionghou; Zhou, Xiaoping


    Three kinds of HZSM-5 nanoparticles with different acidity were tailored by impregnating MgO or varying Si/Al ratios. Both the textural and acidic properties of the as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR or Py-FTIR). It was found that the intensity of Lewis acid sites with weak strength was enhanced by impregnating MgO or reducing Al concentration, and such an enhancement could be explained by the formation of Mg(OH)(+) or charge unbalance of the MgO framework on the surface of HZSM-5 support. The effect of HZSM-5 nanoparticles' acidity on methyl bromide dehydrobromination as catalyst was evaluated. As the results, MgHZ-360 catalyst with the highest concentration of Lewis acid sites showed excellent stability, which maintained methyl bromide conversion of up 97% in a period of 400 h on stream. Coke characterization by BET measurements and TGA/DTA and GC/MS analysis revealed that polymethylated naphthalenes species were formed outside the channels of the catalyst with higher acid intensity and higher Brønsted acid concentration during the initial period of reaction, while graphitic carbon formed in the channels of catalyst with lower acid intensity and higher Lewis acid concentration during the stable stage.

  2. Health effects associated with sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide exposure among structural fumigation workers. (United States)

    Calvert, G M; Mueller, C A; Fajen, J M; Chrislip, D W; Russo, J; Briggle, T; Fleming, L E; Suruda, A J; Steenland, K


    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the health effects associated with occupational exposure to methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride among structural fumigation workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 123 structural fumigation workers and 120 referents in south Florida was conducted. Nerve conduction, vibration, neurobehavioral, visual, olfactory, and renal function testing was included. RESULTS: The median lifetime duration of methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride exposure among workers was 1.20 years and 2.85 years, respectively. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure over the year preceding examination was associated with significantly reduced performance on the Pattern Memory Test and on olfactory testing. In addition, fumigation workers had significantly reduced performance on the Santa Ana Dexterity Test of the dominant hand and a nonsignificantly higher prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome than did the referents. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational sulfuryl fluoride exposures may be associated with subclinical effects on the central nervous system, including effects on olfactory and some cognitive functions. However, no widespread pattern of cognitive deficits was observed. The peripheral nerve effects were likely caused by ergonomic stresses experienced by the fumigation workers. PMID:9842373

  3. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric determination of doxycycline hyclate using bromate-bromide, methyl orange and indigo carmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavagada Jagannathamurthy Ramesh


    Full Text Available One titrimetric and two indirect spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of doxycycline hyclate (DCH in bulk drug and in its formulations. The methods use bromate-bromide, methyl orange and indigo carmine as reagents. In titrimetry (method A, DCH is treated with a known excess of bromate- -bromide mixture in acid medium and the residual bromine is back titrated iodometrically after the reaction between DCH and in situ bromine is ensured to be complete. In spectrophotometric methods, the excess of bromine is estimated by treating with a fixed amount of either methyl orange (method B or indigo carmine (method C and measuring the change in absorbance either at 520 or 610 nm. Titrimetric method is applicable over 1-8 mg range and the calculations are based on a 1:2 (DCH:bromate stoichiometric ratio. In spectrophotometry, the calibration graphs were found to be linear over 0.25-1.25 and 1.0-5.0 μg mL-1 for method B and C, respectively, with corresponding molar absorptivity values of 2.62×105 and 6.97×104 L mol-1 cm-1. The accuracy and precision of the assays were determined by computing the intra-day and inter-day variations at three different levels of DCH.

  4. Sociology in Global Environmental Governance? Neoliberalism, Protectionism and the Methyl Bromide Controversy in the Montreal Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Gareau


    Full Text Available Sociological studies of global agriculture need to pay close attention to the protectionist aspects of neoliberalism at the global scale of environmental governance. With agri-food studies in the social sciences broadening interrogations of the impact of neoliberalism on agri-food systems and their alternatives, investigating global environmental governance (GEG will help reveal its impacts on the global environment, global science/knowledge, and the potential emergence of ecologically sensible alternatives. It is argued here that as agri-food studies of neoliberalism sharpen the focus on these dimensions the widespread consequences of protectionism of US agri-industry in GEG will become better understood, and the solutions more readily identifiable. This paper illustrates how the delayed phase out of the toxic substance methyl bromide in the Montreal Protocol exemplifies the degree to which the US agri-industry may be protected at the global scale of environmental governance, thus prolonging the transition to ozone-friendly alternatives. Additionally, it is clear that protectionism has had a significant impact on the dissemination and interpretation of science/knowledge of methyl bromide and its alternatives. Revealing the role that protectionism plays more broadly in the agriculture/environmental governance interface, and its oftentimes negative impacts on science and potential alternatives, can shed light on how protectionism can be made to serve ends that are at odds with environmental protection.

  5. Alternatives to Methyl bromide in Strawberry Production in the United States of America and the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Ajwa


    Full Text Available Methyl bromide (MB is a broad-spectrum soil fumigant, which has been critical in strawberry production for forty years. Strawberry and other high-value cash crops benefit from pre-plant soil fumigation with MB and chloropicrin (Pic. Mixtures of these two fumigants work synergistically in controlling a wide range of plant pathogens and pests, including fungi, nematodes, insects, mites, rodents, weeds, and some bacteria. Methyl bromide was listed in 1993 by the Parties of the Montreal Protocol as an ozone-depleting compound. According to the Montreal Protocol, the import and manufacture of MB in the United States of America (USA and other developed countries will be banned by 2005, after stepwise reductions in 1999, 2001, and 2003. Currently, there is no single registered alternative fumigant for all of the MB uses and there is a need for environmentally sound and economically feasible alternatives. The fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D and Pic in combination with methyl isothiocyanate (MITC generators have shown to be the most promising alternatives to methyl bromide for strawberry production. Studies with the experimental fumigants methyl iodide and propargyl bromide suggested that these compounds have higher reactivity than MB as stand-alone fumigants. This review evaluates the commercially available and experimental alternatives to MB soil fumigation for strawberry production based on relevant scientific publications, proceedings, and personal communications.

  6. Ab initio study of methyl-bromide photodissociation in the à band (United States)

    Escure, Christelle; Leininger, Thierry; Lepetit, Bruno


    We performed a theoretical study of the photodissociation dynamics of CH3Br in the à band using a wave packet propagation technique on coupled ab initio potential energy curves. The present model involves the Q31 and Q11 excited states which can be populated from the ground state by a perpendicular transition and which are correlated at large methyl-bromide distance to the ground bromide spin-orbit state, as well as the Q30 and 4E states which can be excited by a parallel and perpendicular transition (respectively) and both correlate to excited Br∗ spin-orbit state. The model provides absorption cross sections and branching ratios in excellent agreement with experimental results. Due to weak spin-orbit interaction, the Q11 state is the dominant contributor to the absorption cross section, except for the red wing of the band where Q30 and Q31 states have significant absorption. However, spin-orbit coupling is strong enough to induce nonadiabatic transitions between the Q31 and Q11 states during the dissociation process which should be experimentally detectable in the alignment properties of the fragments. Nonadiabatic transitions at the conical intersection between Q30 and Q11 are shown to play a minor role in this system.

  7. The history and future of methyl bromide alternatives used in the production of forest seedlings in the southern United States (United States)

    Scott A. Enebak


    This paper gives a brief history of the Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative’s (SFNMC) efforts in testing methyl bromide (MBr) alternatives for soil fumigation. In the southeastern United States, fumigation with MBr has been the most commonly used method for producing high quality, pest-free forest-tree seedlings in an environment that is conducive for soil-...

  8. Evaluation of Methyl Bromide Alternatives Efficacy against Soil-Borne Pathogens, Nematodes and Soil Microbial Community (United States)

    Xie, Hongwei; Yan, Dongdong; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng


    Methyl bromide (MB) and other alternatives were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. and their influence on soil microbial communities. Both Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. were significantly reduced by the MB (30.74 mg kg-1), methyl iodide (MI: 45.58 mg kg-1), metham sodium (MS: 53.92 mg kg-1) treatments. MS exhibited comparable effectiveness to MB in controlling Meloidogyne spp. and total nematodes, followed by MI at the tested rate. By contrast, sulfuryl fluoride (SF: 33.04 mg kg-1) and chloroform (CF: 23.68 mg kg-1) showed low efficacy in controlling Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. MB, MI and MS significantly lowered the abundance of different microbial populations and microbial biomass in soil, whereas SF and CF had limited influence on them compared with the control. Diversity indices in Biolog studies decreased in response to fumigation, but no significant difference was found among treatments in PLFA studies. Principal component and cluster analyses of Biolog and PLFA data sets revealed that MB and MI treatments greatly influenced the soil microbial community functional and structural diversity compared with SF treatment. These results suggest that fumigants with high effectiveness in suppressing soil-borne disease could significantly influence soil microbial community. PMID:25723395

  9. Evaluation of methyl bromide alternatives efficacy against soil-borne pathogens, nematodes and soil microbial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Xie

    Full Text Available Methyl bromide (MB and other alternatives were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. and their influence on soil microbial communities. Both Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. were significantly reduced by the MB (30.74 mg kg-1, methyl iodide (MI: 45.58 mg kg-1, metham sodium (MS: 53.92 mg kg-1 treatments. MS exhibited comparable effectiveness to MB in controlling Meloidogyne spp. and total nematodes, followed by MI at the tested rate. By contrast, sulfuryl fluoride (SF: 33.04 mg kg-1 and chloroform (CF: 23.68 mg kg-1 showed low efficacy in controlling Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. MB, MI and MS significantly lowered the abundance of different microbial populations and microbial biomass in soil, whereas SF and CF had limited influence on them compared with the control. Diversity indices in Biolog studies decreased in response to fumigation, but no significant difference was found among treatments in PLFA studies. Principal component and cluster analyses of Biolog and PLFA data sets revealed that MB and MI treatments greatly influenced the soil microbial community functional and structural diversity compared with SF treatment. These results suggest that fumigants with high effectiveness in suppressing soil-borne disease could significantly influence soil microbial community.

  10. Degradation of methyl bromide by methanotrophic bacteria in cell suspensions and soils (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Culbertson, C.W.; Connell, T.L.; Jahnke, L.


    Cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus mineralized methyl bromide (MeBr), as evidenced by its removal from the gas phase, the quantitative recovery of Br- in the spent medium, and the production of 14CO2 from [14C]MeBr. Methyl fluoride (MeF) inhibited oxidation of methane as well as that of [14C]MeBr. The rate of MeBr consumption by cells varied inversely with the supply of methane, which suggested a competitive relationship between these two substrates. However, MeBr did not support growth of the methanotroph. In soils exposed to high levels (10,000 ppm) of MeBr, methane oxidation was completely inhibited. At this concentration, MeBr removal rates were equivalent in killed and live controls, which indicated a chemical rather than biological removal reaction. At lower concentrations (1,000 ppm) of MeBr, methanotrophs were active and MeBr consumption rates were 10-fold higher in live controls than in killed controls. Soils exposed to trace levels (10 ppm) of MeBr demonstrated complete consumption within 5 h of incubation, while controls inhibited with MeF or incubated without O2 had 50% lower removal rates. Aerobic soils oxidized [14C]MeBr to 14CO2, and MeF inhibited oxidation by 72%. Field experiments demonstrated slightly lower MeBr removal rates in chambers containing MeF than in chambers lacking MeF. Collectively, these results show that soil methanotrophic bacteria, as well as other microbes, can degrade MeBr present in the environment.

  11. Effect of phytosanitary irradiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the physical, sensory, and microbiological quality of blueberries and sweet cherries. (United States)

    Thang, Karen; Au, Kimberlee; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha


    The objective of this study was to determine whether irradiation could serve as a suitable phytosanitary treatment alternative to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation for blueberries and sweet cherry and also to determine the effect of phytosanitary irradiation treatment on survival of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on these fruit. 'Bluecrop' blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Sweetheart' cherries (Prunus avium) were irradiated at 0.4 kGy or fumigated with methyl bromide and evaluated for quality attributes during storage. Irradiation caused an immediate decrease in firmness of both fruit without further significant change during storage. Fumigated fruit, in contrast, softened by 11-14% during storage. Irradiation did not adversely affect blueberry and cherry shelf-life. MB fumigation did not impact blueberry and cherry quality attributes initially; however, fumigated fruit exhibited greater damage and mold growth than the control and irradiated samples during storage. Irradiation at 400 Gy resulted in a ∼1 log CFU g(-1) reduction in Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes counts, indicating that this treatment cannot significantly enhance safety. This study indicates that irradiation at a target dose of 0.4 kGy for phytosanitary treatment does not negatively impact blueberry and cherry quality and can serve as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Ligand-free palladium catalysed Heck reaction of methyl 2-acetamido acrylate and aryl bromides as key step in the synthesis of enantiopure substituted phenylalanines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willans, Charlotte E.; Mulders, Jan M.C.A.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Vries, André H.M. de


    A range of substituted aryl bromides were coupled with methyl 2-acetamido acrylate using ligand-free palladium catalysis. Subsequently asymmetric hydrogenation with Rh/MonoPhos yielded substituted phenylalanines in high enantioselectivities (e.e. 92-99%).

  13. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 50 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  14. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 25 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  15. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 5 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  16. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 25 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  17. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 5 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  18. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  19. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  20. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 50 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  1. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  2. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  3. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 10 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  4. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  5. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  6. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 10 Foot Stack Height (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  7. Atmospheric volatilization of methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, and propargyl bromide through two plastic films: transfer coefficient and temperature effect (United States)

    Wang, D.; Yates, S. R.; Gan, J.; Knuteson, J. A.

    Atmospheric emission of methyl bromide (MeBr) and its potential alternative chemicals such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and propargyl bromide (PrBr) can contribute to air pollution and ozone depletion (for MeBr). One of the main sources of these chemicals is from agricultural soil fumigation. To understand the volatilization dynamics, emission of MeBr, 1,3-D, and PrBr through a polyethylene-based high-barrier film (HBF) and a virtually impermeable film (VIF) was measured using an air flow and sampling system that produced >90% mass balance. The experiment was conducted outdoors and was subjected to ambient daily temperature variations. The HBF film was found to be very permeable to 1,3-D and PrBr, but somewhat less permeable to MeBr. The VIF film was very impermeable to 1,3-D, PrBr, or MeBr. Measured volatilization flux, in general, exhibited strong diurnal variations which were controlled by film temperature. Unlike the HBF film, a time lag (˜12 h) was observed between high-temperatures and high-emission flux values for the VIF film. An impermeable film may be used as an effective means of controlling the atmospheric emission of MeBr and its alternative chemicals.

  8. Synthesis and crystal structure of a new pyridinium bromide salt: 4-methyl-1-(3-phenoxypropylpyridinium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa A. Said


    Full Text Available In the cation of the title molecular salt, C15H18NO+·Br−, the pyridinium and phenyl rings are inclined to one another by 11.80 (8°. In the crystal, the Br− anion is linked to the cation by a C—H...Br hydrogen bond. The cations stack along the b-axis direction and are linked by further C—H...Br interactions, and offset π–π interactions [intercentroid distances = 3.5733 (19 and 3.8457 (19 Å], forming slabs parallel to the ab plane. The effects of the C—H...X− interaction on the NMR signals of the ortho- and meta-pyridinium protons in a series of related ionic liquids, viz. 4-methyl-1-(4-phenoxybutylpyridin-1-ium salts, are reported and discussed.

  9. An estimation of the global emission of methyl bromide from rapeseed ( Brassica napus) from 1961 to 2003 (United States)

    Mead, M. Iqbal; White, Iain R.; Nickless, Graham; Wang, Kuo-Ying; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    Gan et al. [Gan, J., Yates, S.R., Ohr, H.D., Sims, J.J., 1998. Production of methyl bromide by terrestrial higher plants. Geophysical Research Letters 25 (19), 3595-3598] have reported that plants of the family Brassicaceae take up bromide from soils and subsequently release methyl bromide (CH 3Br) to the atmosphere deriving a significant emission from this source of about 7 Gg(10 9 g) yr -1. In this study, we determine a yearly global emission rate for CH 3Br from one such species, rapeseed, from 1961 to 2003 using data on crop harvest index and growth rate in conjunction with global production data. This study suggests that CH 3Br emissions from rapeseed have increased 10-fold from 1961 to 2003 and by a factor of 3-4 since 1980. It also suggests that the geographical distribution of emissions has also changed substantially in the last 40 yr. The annual emission of CH 3Br from mustard and cabbage is also estimated; whilst relative levels emitted from these species are less significant, as these crops are continually exploited for new applications CH 3Br emissions are set to increase.

  10. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assay of felodipine in tablets using bromate–bromide, Methyl Orange and Indigo Carmine reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Three new methods based on titrimetric and spectrophotometric techniques are described for the determination of felodipine (FLD in the bulk drug and in tablets using a bromate–bromide mixture and two dyes, Methyl Orange and Indigo Carmine. In the titrimetric method (method A, the drug solution was treated with a measured excess of the bromate–bromide mixture in acid medium, and after the reaction was judged to be complete, the unreacted bromine was determined iodometrically. The two spectrophotometricmethods are based on the bromination of the drug with a known excess of the bromate–bromide mixture under acidic conditions followed by the estimation of the surplus bromine by reaction with either Methyl Orange (Method B or Indigo Carmine (Method C, and measuring the absorbance at 520 nm or 610 nm, respectively. In all the methods, the amount of reacted bromine corresponds to the drug content. The titrimetric procedure is applicable for between 6–15 mg and the reaction stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 (drug: BrO3-. The systems obey Beer’s law between 0.12 – 0.87 mgml-1 and 0.5 – 6.0 mgml-1 formethods B and C, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification are reported for both the spectrophotometricmethods. The methods could usefully be applied to routine quality control of pharmaceutical formulations containing FLD. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference method shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  11. Titrimetric, spectrophotometric and kinetic methods for the assay of atenolol using bromate–bromide and methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Three new methods have been developed for the determination of atenolol in bulk drug and in tablet formulation. The methods are based on the oxidation–bromination reaction of the drug by bromine, generated in situ by the action of acid on a bromate–bromide mixture. In the titrimetric method, the drug is treated with a known excess of bromate–bromide mixture in hydrochloric acid medium, followed by the determination of the unreacted bromine iodometrically. The spectrophotometric method involves the addition of a measured excess of bromate–bromide reagent in hydrochloric acid medium to atenolol, and after ensuring the reaction had gone to completion, the unreacted bromine is treated with a fixed amount of methyl orange, and absorbance measured at 520 nm. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of atenolol. The kinetic method depends on the existence of a linear relationship between the concentration of the drug and the time of the oxidation–bromination reaction, as indicated by the bleaching of methyl orange acid colour. The working conditions were optimized. The titrimetric method is based on a 1:1 reaction stoichiometry (atenolol:bromate and is applicable over the 3–20 mg range. The spectrophotometric method permits micro determination of the drug (0.5–4.0 mg ml-1with an apparentmolar absorptivity of 4.13x104 lmol-1 cm-1 and detection limit of 0.07 mg ml-1. The kinetic method is applicable in the concentration range 5–25 mg ml-1 with a detection limit of 3.72 mg ml-1. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of atenolol in tablet preparations with mean recoveries of 97.63 to 101.78 %. The reliability of the assay was established by parallel determination by the reference method and by recovery studies using the standard addition technique.

  12. Evaluation of the combination of dimethyl disulfide and dazomet as an efficient methyl bromide alternative for cucumber production in China. (United States)

    Mao, Liangang; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Liu, Pengfei; Shen, Jin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng


    The combination of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dazomet (DZ) is a potential alternative to methyl bromide (MB) for soil disinfestation. The efficacy of DMDS plus DZ in controlling key soilborne pests was evaluated in a laboratory study and in two commercial cucumber greenhouses. Laboratory studies found that all of the combinations had positive synergistic effects on root-knot nematodes, two key soilborne fungi, and two major weed seeds. Greenhouse trials revealed that the combination of DMDS and DZ (30 + 25 g m(-2)) successfully suppressed Meloidogyne spp. root galling, sharply reduced the colony-forming units of Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. on media, maintained high cucumber yields, and was not significantly different from MB or DMDS alone, but better than DZ alone. All of the chemical treatments provided significantly better results than the nontreated control. The results indicate that the combination of DMDS and DZ is an efficient MB alternative for cucumber production.

  13. Evaluation of sorbent materials for the sampling and analysis of phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide in air. (United States)

    Magnusson, R; Rittfeldt, L; Åstot, C


    Phosphine (PH3), sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) and methyl bromide (CH3Br) are highly toxic chemical substances commonly used for fumigation, i.e., pest control with gaseous pesticides. Residues of fumigation agents constitute a health risk for workers affected, and therefore accurate methods for air sampling and analysis are needed. In this study, three commercial adsorbent tubes; Carbosieve SIII™, Air Toxics™ and Tenax TA™, were evaluated for sampling these highly volatile chemicals in air and their subsequent analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The breakthrough volume (BTV) of each fumigant was experimentally determined on the different adsorbents at concentrations at or above their permissible exposure limits, using a method based on frontal chromatography of generated fumigant atmospheres. Carbosieve SIII™, a molecular sieve possessing a very high specific area, proved to be a better adsorbent than both Air Toxics™ and Tenax TA™, resulting in at least a 4-fold increase of the BTV50%. BTV50% for Carbosieve SIII™ at 20°C was measured as 4.7L/g, 5.5L/g and 126L/g for phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide, respectively, implying safe sampling volumes of 1.9L, 2.2L and 50L, respectively, for a commercial tube packed with 800mg Carbosieve SIII™. The temperature dependence of BTV was strong for Carbosieve SIII™, showing a reduction of 3-5%/°C in breakthrough volume within the range -20 to 40°C. Furthermore, although Carbosieve SIII™ reportedly has a higher affinity for water than most other adsorbents, relative humidity had only a moderate influence on the retention capacity of phosphine. Overall, the applicability of Carbosieve SIII™ adsorbent sampling in combination with TD-GC-MS analysis was demonstrated for highly volatile fumigants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Measured and predicted airshed concentrations of methyl bromide in an agricultural valley and applications to exposure assessment (United States)

    Honaganahalli, Puttanna S.; Seiber, James N.

    A field study was conducted in September 1995 to measure the ambient atmospheric concentrations of methyl bromide (MeBr) in the Salinas Valley, California. Air concentrations of MeBr were measured at 11 sites located on the adjacent mountains, valley floor and at the Pacific Ocean coast over a 4-d period. The concentrations ranged up to 8.98 μg m -3. Industrial Source Complex Short Term 3 (ISCST3) and CALPUFF dispersion model simulations were performed with several fumigated fields serving as sources, using two estimates of source strengths from published flux values. CALPUFF was driven by 3D meteorology from CALMET. With the lower of the two estimates, the ISCST3 model underpredicted concentrations for 76% of data and averaged 66% of measured, and the CALPUFF model also underpredicted concentrations for 67% of observations and averaged 84% of measured. With the higher of the two estimates the ISCST3 overpredicted by a factor of two for 67% of data, and CALPUFF overpredicted concentrations by a factor of 1.6 for over 50% of data. Between the model predicted and measured concentrations, the coefficient of determination, R 2, was ≈0.7 for both source strengths with ISCST3 model. The R 2 with CALPUFF model was 0.55 and 0.82 with source strength estimated from two prior flux studies. The margin of exposure (MOE) for the population of the city of Salinas was calculated based on the measured ambient concentrations and compared with the current benchmark used by US-EPA and California Department of Pesticide Regulation for acceptable human health risk. Based on the models predicted worst-case exposure concentration, the MOE for acute effects was approximately 10,000. For chronic effects it was approximately 100, indicating a need for attention to exposure to MeBr in areas of intense methyl bromide use.

  15. Activated carbons from end-products of tree nut and tree fruit production as sorbents for removing methyl bromide in ventilation effluent from postharvest chamber fumigation (United States)

    End-products of tree nuts and tree fruits grown in California, USA were evaluated for the ability to remove methyl bromide from the ventilation effluent of postharvest chamber fumigations. Activated carbon sorbents from walnut and almond shells as well as peach and prune pits were prepared using dif...

  16. Development of an activated carbon-based electrode for the capture and rapid electrolytic reductive debromination of methyl bromide from post-harvest fumigations (United States)

    Due to concerns surrounding its ozone depletion potential, there is a need for technologies to capture and destroy methyl bromide (CH3Br) emissions from post-harvest fumigations applied to control agricultural pests. Previously we described a system in which CH3Br fumes vented from fumigation chambe...

  17. Practical synthesis of aryl-2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ols from aryl bromides via conventional and decarboxylative copper-free Sonogashira coupling reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caporale


    Full Text Available Two efficient protocols for the palladium-catalyzed synthesis of aryl-2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ols from aryl bromides in the absence of copper were developed. A simple catalytic system consisting of Pd(OAc2 and P(p-tol3 using DBU as the base and THF as the solvent was found to be highly effective for the coupling reaction of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (4 with a wide range of aryl bromides in good to excellent yields. Analogously, the synthesis of aryl-2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ols was performed also through the decarboxylative coupling reaction of 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentynoic acid with aryl bromides, using a catalyst containing Pd(OAc2 in combination with SPhos or XPhos in the presence of tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF as the base and THF as the solvent. Therefore, new efficient approaches to the synthesis of terminal acetylenes from widely available aryl bromides rather than expensive iodides and using 4 or propiolic acid rather than TMS-acetylene as inexpensive alkyne sources are described.

  18. Cost comparison of Methyl Bromide and Sulfuryl Fluoride (ProFume®) for fumigating food processing facilities, warehouses, and cocoa beans


    Adam, B. D.; Bonjour, E. L.; Criswell, J. T.


    Costs of fumigating a food processing/warehouse facility using methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride (ProFume®) were compared using an economic-engineering approach. The two fumigants were also compared for fumigating cocoa beans. Sulfuryl fluoride is economically feasible for cocoa beans. It is economically feasible for some, but not all, applications in food processing facilities and warehouses.

  19. Degradation of methyl bromide and methyl chloride in soil microcosms: Use of stable C isotope fractionation and stable isotope probing to identify reactions and the responsible microorganisms (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Warner, K.L.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.; McDonald, I.R.; Radajewski, S.; Murrell, J.C.


    Bacteria in soil microcosm experiments oxidized elevated levels of methyl chloride (MeCl) and methyl bromide (MeBr), the former compound more rapidly than the latter. MeBr was also removed by chemical reactions while MeCl was not. Chemical degradation dominated the early removal of MeBr and accounted for more than half of its total loss. Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes during chemical degradation of MeBr resulted in a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 59 ?? 7???. Soil bacterial oxidation dominated the later removal of MeBr and MeCl and was characterized by different KIEs for each compound. The KIE for MeBr oxidation was 69 ?? 9??? and the KIE for MeCl oxidation was 49 ?? 3???. Stable isotope probing revealed that different populations of soil bacteria assimilated added 13C-labeled MeBr and MeCl. The identity of the active MeBr and MeCl degrading bacteria in soil was determined by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from 13C-DNA fractions, which identified a number of sequences from organisms not previously thought to be involved in methyl halide degradation. These included Burkholderia , the major clone type in the 13C-MeBr fraction, and Rhodobacter, Lysobacter and Nocardioides the major clone types in the 13C-MeCl fraction. None of the 16S rRNA gene sequences for methyl halide oxidizing bacteria currently in culture (including Aminobacter strain IMB-1 isolated from fumigated soil) were identified. Functional gene clone types closely related to Aminobacter spp. were identified in libraries containing the sequences for the cmuA gene, which codes for the enzyme known to catalyze the initial step in the oxidation of MeBr and MeCl. The cmuA gene was limited to members of the alpha-Proteobacteria whereas the greater diversity demonstrated by the 16S rRNA gene may indicate that other enzymes catalyze methyl halide oxidation in different groups of bacteria. Copyright ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Large-scale, on-site confirmatory, and varietal testing of a methyl bromide quarantine treatment to control codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in nectarines exported to Japan. (United States)

    Yokoyama, V Y; Miller, G T; Hartsell, P L; Leesch, J G


    In total, 30,491 codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), 1-d-old eggs on May Grand nectarines in two large-scale tests, and 17,410 eggs on Royal Giant nectarines in four on-site confirmatory tests were controlled with 100% mortality after fumigation with a methyl bromide quarantine treatment (48 g3 for 2 h at > or = 21 degrees C and 50% volume chamber load) on fruit in shipping containers for export to Japan. Ranges (mean +/- SEM) were for percentage sorption 34.7 +/- 6.2 to 46.5 +/- 2.5, and for concentration multiplied by time products 54.3 +/- 0.9 to 74.5 +/- 0.6 g.h/m3 in all tests. In large-scale tests with May Grand nectarines, inorganic bromide residues 48 h after fumigation ranged from 6.8 +/- 0.7 to 6.9 +/- 0.5 ppm, which were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tolerance of 20 ppm; and, organic bromide residues were site confirmatory test requirements, fumigation of 10 nectarine cultivars in shipping containers for export to Japan was approved in 1995. Comparison of LD50s developed for methyl bromide on 1-d-old codling moth eggs on May Grand and Summer Grand nectarines in 1997 versus those developed for nine cultivars in the previous 11 yr showed no significant differences in codling moth response among the cultivars.

  1. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve


    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control.

  2. Banning of methyl bromide for seed treatment: could Ditylenchus dipsaci again become a major threat to alfalfa production in Europe? (United States)

    Mouttet, Raphaëlle; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham; Esquibet, Magali; Gentzbittel, Laurent; Mugniéry, Didier; Reignault, Philippe; Sarniguet, Corinne; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe


    In Europe, the stem and bulb nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci has been listed as a quarantine pest by EPPO: without any control, it may cause complete failure of alfalfa crops. Movement of nematodes associated with seeds is considered to be the highest-risk pathway for the spread of this pest. Since the 2010 official withdrawal of methyl bromide in Europe, and in the absence of any alternative chemical, fumigation of contaminated seed batches is no longer possible, which makes the production of nematode-free alfalfa seeds difficult to achieve and leads to unmarketable seed batches. Thermotherapy is being considered as a realistic alternative strategy, but its efficiency still remains to be validated. The combination of the currently available methods (i.e. use of resistant cultivars, seed production according to a certification scheme, mechanical sieving, seed batch inspection) could significantly reduce the likelihood of seed contamination. However, it does not guarantee a total eradication of the nematode. Although it is already widely distributed all over Europe, reclassification of D. dipsaci as a regulated non-quarantine pest to reduce the possibility of further introductions and the rate of spread of this pest appears to be a risky strategy because of the lack of up-to-date documented data to evaluate damage thresholds and determine acceptable tolerance levels. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Dermal absorption of fumigant gases during HAZMAT incident exposure scenarios-Methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride, and chloropicrin. (United States)

    Gaskin, Sharyn; Heath, Linda; Pisaniello, Dino; Edwards, John W; Logan, Michael; Baxter, Christina


    Accidental or intentional releases of toxic gases or vapors are the most common occurrence in hazardous material (HAZMAT) incidents that result in human injuries. The most serious hazard from exposure to gases or vapors is via the respiratory system. Dermal uptake, as a secondary route, is still a concern, most acutely for the unprotected public. There is a limited evidence base describing skin absorption of toxic gases and vapors in HAZMAT exposure scenarios, which are relatively brief compared with traditional test periods for skin absorption studies. We describe research designed to provide experimental data to support decision-making by first responders regarding skin decontamination in HAZMAT-focused exposure scenarios involving toxic gases. We present findings for three common fumigants, methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride, and chloropicrin assessed using an Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development in vitro toxicology protocol utilizing human skin and gas/vapor exposures. Results indicate that for atmospheric concentrations that would be lethal via inhalation (LCLo), intact skin provides an excellent barrier to exposures up to 30 min, with little influence of common clothing fabric and high temperature and humidity conditions. The findings may challenge the current HAZMAT dogma requiring mass personal decontamination by strip and shower for short-term exposures to sulfuryl fluoride and chloropicrin gas/vapor.

  4. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Methyl Bromide in the Decontamination of Building and Interior Materials Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores (United States)

    Wendling, Morgan; Richter, William; Lastivka, Andrew; Mickelsen, Leroy


    The primary goal of this study was to determine the conditions required for the effective inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores on materials by using methyl bromide (MeBr) gas. Another objective was to obtain comparative decontamination efficacy data with three avirulent microorganisms to assess their potential for use as surrogates for B. anthracis Ames. Decontamination tests were conducted with spores of B. anthracis Ames and Geobacillus stearothermophilus, B. anthracis NNR1Δ1, and B. anthracis Sterne inoculated onto six different materials. Experimental variables included temperature, relative humidity (RH), MeBr concentration, and contact time. MeBr was found to be an effective decontaminant under a number of conditions. This study highlights the important role that RH has when fumigation is performed with MeBr. There were no tests in which a ≥6-log10 reduction (LR) of B. anthracis Ames was achieved on all materials when fumigation was done at 45% RH. At 75% RH, an increase in the temperature, the MeBr concentration, or contact time generally improved the efficacy of fumigation with MeBr. This study provides new information for the effective use of MeBr at temperatures and RH levels lower than those that have been recommended previously. The study also provides data to assist with the selection of an avirulent surrogate for B. anthracis Ames spores when additional tests with MeBr are conducted. PMID:26801580

  5. Evaluation of chemical and integrated strategies as alternatives to methyl bromide for the control of root-knot nematodes in Greece. (United States)

    Giannakou, Ioannis O; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G


    Current environmental awareness has led to a greater demand for alternative nematode control strategies. Three field experiments were established to compare management tactics on cucumber in commercial greenhouses naturally infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp). Cucumber rootstocks which have shown resistance to soil-borne diseases were tested to reveal any resistance/tolerance to root-knot nematodes, and integration of these rootstocks with nematicides was investigated. Metham-sodium and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) provided good control of nematode populations when their application was followed by the application of a non-fumigant nematicide such as cadusafos or oxamyl. Neither fumigant could provide season-long control of nematode populations, and a further application of cadusafos was required for satisfactory control. The efficacy of metham-sodium was significantly increased when injected into soil in comparison with its application through the drip irrigation system. The use of rootstocks resistant to soil-borne fungal pathogens used together with chemical means of nematode control provided promising results for their further use in integrated strategies as alternatives to methyl bromide. However, the latter was the superior treatment for the control of root-knot nematodes in soil infested with residues of galled roots. Dazomet, metham-sodium nor the non-fumigant nematicides oxamyl and fenamiphos could reduce nematode population as efficiently as methyl bromide. None of the chemicals tested except methyl bromide could enter galled roots and kill surviving nematodes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HABER, S.B.


    This report provides a detailed account of a two year chronic inhalation study of methyl bromide toxicity in B6C3Fl mice conducted for the National Toxicology Program. Mice were randomized into three dose groups (10, 33 and 100 ppm methyl bromide) and one control group (0 ppm) per sex and exposed 5 days/week, 6 hours/day, for a total of 103 weeks. Endpoints included body weight; clinical signs and mortality, and at 6, 15 and 24 months of exposure, animals were sacrificed for organ weights, hematology and histopathology. In addition, a subgroup of animals in each dosage group was monitored for neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes. After only 20 weeks of exposure, 48% of the males and 12% of the females in the 100 ppm group had died. Exposures were terminated in that group and the surviving mice were observed for the duration of the study. Exposure of B6C3Fl mice to methyl bromide, even for only 20 weeks, produced significant changes in growth rate, mortality, organ weights and neurobehavioral functioning. These changes occurred in both males and females, but were more pronounced in males.

  7. Identification of Methyl Halide-Utilizing Genes in the Methyl Bromide-Utilizing Bacterial Strain IMB-1 Suggests a High Degree of Conservation of Methyl Halide-Specific Genes in Gram-Negative Bacteria (United States)

    Woodall, C.A.; Warner, K.L.; Oremland, R.S.; Murrell, J.C.; McDonald, I.R.


    Strain IMB-1, an aerobic methylotrophic member of the alpha subgroup of the Proteobacteria, can grow with methyl bromide as a sole carbon and energy source. A single cmu gene cluster was identified in IMB-1 that contained six open reading frames: cmuC, cmuA, orf146, paaE, hutI, and partial metF. CmuA from IMB-1 has high sequence homology to the methyltransferase CmuA from Methylobacterium chloromethanicum and Hyphomicrobium chloromethanicum and contains a C-terminal corrinoid-binding motif and an N-terminal methyl-transferase motif. However, cmuB, identified in M. chloromethanicum and H. chloromethanicum, was not detected in IMB-1.

  8. Quarantine Treatments of Imported Nursery Plants and Exported Cut Flowers by Phosphine Gas (PH3) as Methyl Bromide Alternative. (United States)

    Su Kim, Bong; Park, Chung Gyoo; Mi Moon, Young; Sung, Bo Kyung; Ren, Yonglin; Wylie, Stephen J; Ho Lee, Byung


    Quarantine treatments by phosphine (PH3) gas have been performed to replace methyl bromide (MeBr) for export cut flowers and imported nursery plant in Korea. In this preliminary study, two dominant insect pests of cut flowers, Tetranychus urticae Koch and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, and the dominant insect pest of nursery plants, Planococcus citri Risso, were used to certify optimum concentration and fumigation time, along with evaluation of phytotoxic damages. To validate the results of preliminary tests, quarantine treatments for export cut flowers was performed in a 58-m(3) reefer container. When 14 species of cut flowers were fumigated with 2 g m(-3) PH3 for 24 h (Ct product was 30.9 g h m(-3)) at 5 °C, all pests were effectively controlled and no phytotoxic damage were observed on roses and chrysanthemums. On quarantine trials for imported nursery trees, which was performed at 10 m(3) scale covered with a PVC-tarpaulin tent, 2 g m(-3) of PH3 for 24 h (Ct product was 30.0 g h m(-3)) at 15 °C was enough to kill all pests and no damage was observed on seven species of nursery plants. Phosphine gas shows the promise as MeBr alternative to perishable commodities in terms of efficacy to certain quarantine pest and maintenance of its quality as well as being a more environmentally safe fumigant. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  9. Two Zn and Hg bromide salts based on 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium ionic liquid: Ionothermal synthesis, structures and supramolecular organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Cheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Two Zn(II and Hg(II bromide salts, [EMI]2[ZnBr4] (1 and [EMI][HgBr3] (2, have been synthesized under ionothermal conditions using 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide ([EMI]Br as solvents. 1 consists of tetrahedral anion [ZnBr4]2− and 2 consists of 1D double chain locating in the cavities surrounded by [EMI]+ cations. Both compounds exhibit 3D supramolecular architectures organized by the C-H•••Br hydrogen bondings and alkyl-alkyl interactions.DOI:

  10. 78 FR 68021 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of... (United States)


    ... species, Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) and Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly... bromide treatment schedule to mitigate risk from C. capitata and A. fraterculus, as described in the TED...

  11. Dissociation of internal energy-selected methyl bromide ion revealed from threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence velocity imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaofeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Zhou, Xiaoguo, E-mail:, E-mail:; Liu, Shilin [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun, Zhongfa [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Fuyi; Sheng, Liusi [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Yan, Bing, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)


    Dissociative photoionization of methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br) in an excitation energy range of 10.45–16.90 eV has been investigated by using threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) velocity imaging. The coincident time-of-flight mass spectra indicate that the ground state X{sup 2}E of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} is stable, and both A{sup 2}A{sub 1} and B{sup 2}E ionic excited states are fully dissociative to produce the unique fragment ion of CH{sub 3}{sup +}. From TPEPICO 3D time-sliced velocity images of CH{sub 3}{sup +} dissociated from specific state-selected CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} ion, kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) and angular distribution of CH{sub 3}{sup +} fragment ion are directly obtained. Both spin-orbit states of Br({sup 2}P) atom can be clearly observed in fast dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sub 1}) ion along C–Br rupture, while a KERD of Maxwell-Boltzmann profile is obtained in dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(B{sup 2}E) ion. With the aid of the re-calculated potential energy curves of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} including spin-orbit coupling, dissociation mechanisms of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} ion in A{sup 2}A{sub 1} and B{sup 2}E states along C–Br rupture are revealed. For CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sub 1}) ion, the CH{sub 3}{sup +} + Br({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) channel is occurred via an adiabatic dissociation by vibration, while the Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) formation is through vibronic coupling to the high vibrational level of X{sup 2}E state followed by rapid dissociation. C–Br bond breaking of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(B{sup 2}E) ion can occur via slow internal conversion to the excited vibrational level of the lower electronic states and then dissociation.

  12. Henry's law constants and mass transfer coefficients for methyl bromide and 1,3-dichloropropene applied to Florida sandy field soil. (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; Allen, Leon H; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W


    Methyl bromide, a pre-emergent soil fumigant, is scheduled to be phased out in the US by 2005, with exceptions for critical use. Comparison of some of the physical constants related to distribution and retention for methyl bromide (MBr) to other fumigants yields a useful quantification of possible alternatives. In this study, the atmospheric and subsurface dissipation of methyl bromide as well as (Z)- and (E)-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) isomers in Telone II were examined. The Henry's law constants of the three chemicals at soil temperature and their mass transfer coefficients for movement through an agricultural mulch of UV-resistant, high-density polyethylene (PE) were evaluated using field data. At the soil temperature of 16.4 degrees C, calculated Henry's law constant gave a fumigant ranking of MBr (0.21)>(Z)-1,3-D (0.041)>(E)-1,3-D (0.027). Since rapid subsurface distribution of a fumigant is highly dependent on the amount in the gas phase, the greater value for Henry's law constant implies faster distribution throughout the soil. After distribution through the soil, retention of the fumigant becomes imperative. Calculation of the fumigant's mass transfer coefficients through PE from field data gave a ranking of the three chemicals: MBr (1.08 cm/h)<(E)-1,3-D (3.25 cm/h)<(Z)-1,3-D (4.13 cm/h). With mass transfer coefficients of this magnitude, it was concluded that PE film was an inadequate barrier for retaining these fumigants in an agricultural setting.

  13. Synthesis of tetraaza bromide macrocyclic and studies of its effect on poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) - lithium tertrafluoroborate (LiBF4) films (United States)

    Mariam, Siti Nor; Yamin, Bohari M.; Ahmad, Azizan


    Good Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Grafted natural Rubber (MG49) films with homogeneous and smooth surface were obtained in the presence of Lithium Tertrafluoroborate (LiBF4) and 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-dienium bromide, (Me6N4H4)Br2 as dopants. The conductivity was found to be 3.63×10-6 S/cm an increase by seven fold compare to the undoped MG49.

  14. Synthesis and crystal structure of a new pyridinium bromide salt: 4-methyl-1-(3-phen-oxy-prop-yl)pyridinium bromide. (United States)

    Said, Musa A; Aouad, Mohamed R; Hughes, David L; Almehmadi, Meshal A; Messali, Mouslim


    In the cation of the title mol-ecular salt, C 15 H 18 NO + ·Br - , the pyridinium and phenyl rings are inclined to one another by 11.80 (8)°. In the crystal, the Br - anion is linked to the cation by a C-H⋯Br hydrogen bond. The cations stack along the b -axis direction and are linked by further C-H⋯Br inter-actions, and offset π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distances = 3.5733 (19) and 3.8457 (19) Å], forming slabs parallel to the ab plane. The effects of the C-H⋯ X - inter-action on the NMR signals of the ortho- and meta- pyridinium protons in a series of related ionic liquids, viz . 4-methyl-1-(4-phen-oxy-but-yl)pyridin-1-ium salts, are reported and discussed.

  15. Synthesis and crystal structure of a new pyridinium bromide salt: 4-methyl-1-(3-phen­oxy­prop­yl)pyridinium bromide (United States)

    Said, Musa A.; Aouad, Mohamed R.; Hughes, David L.; Almehmadi, Meshal A.; Messali, Mouslim


    In the cation of the title mol­ecular salt, C15H18NO+·Br−, the pyridinium and phenyl rings are inclined to one another by 11.80 (8)°. In the crystal, the Br− anion is linked to the cation by a C—H⋯Br hydrogen bond. The cations stack along the b-axis direction and are linked by further C—H⋯Br inter­actions, and offset π–π inter­actions [inter­centroid distances = 3.5733 (19) and 3.8457 (19) Å], forming slabs parallel to the ab plane. The effects of the C—H⋯X − inter­action on the NMR signals of the ortho- and meta-pyridinium protons in a series of related ionic liquids, viz. 4-methyl-1-(4-phen­oxy­but­yl)pyridin-1-ium salts, are reported and discussed. PMID:29250397

  16. Morphology and local organization of water-containing (1R,2S)-dodecyl(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)dimethylammonium bromide reverse micelles dispersed in toluene (United States)

    Longo, Alessandro; Giannici, Francesco; Portale, Giuseppe; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Calandra, Pietro; Liveri, Vincenzo Turco


    The structure of (1R,2S)-dodecyl(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)dimethylammonium bromide (DMEB) reverse micelles, at various water-to-surfactant molar ratio (Rw, Rw = [water]/[DMEB]) and DMEB concentrations, has been investigated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). SAXS data of dry reverse micelles are consistent with a model of spherical hydrophilic core surrounded by DMEB alkyl chains whose polydispersity decreases significantly with surfactant concentration. By adding water, a sphere to cylinder transition occurs leading to a one-dimensional growth of reverse micellar cores with Rw and surfactant concentration. The observed behavior was taken as an indication that water molecules are confined in the core of DMEB reverse micelles, quite uniformly distributed among them and mainly located among surfactant head groups. EXAFS data allow to focus within the hydrophilic micellar core to solve the short range local environment around the Br- counterion and to follow its changing with surfactant concentration and Rw. Analysis of Fourier transform of the EXAFS spectra indicates the existence of a local order nearby the bromide ions; pointing toward a quite structured hydrophilic core of DMEB reverse micelles. However, as a consequence of the fluid nature of reverse micelles, such local order is lower than that found in the lamellar structure of solid DMEB. Water confinement within the reverse micellar cores induces an increase of the local disorder suggesting an enhancement of the micellar core dynamics.

  17. Evaluation of microwave irradiation for analysis of carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, cyanogen, ethyl formate, methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride, propylene oxide, and phosphine in hay. (United States)

    Ren, Yonglin; Mahon, Daphne


    Fumigant residues in hay were "extracted" by microwave irradiation. Hay, in gastight glass flasks, was placed in a domestic microwave oven, and fumigants were released into the headspace by microwave irradiation. Power settings for maximum release of fumigants were determined for carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS(2)), cyanogen (C(2)N(2)), ethyl formate (EF), methyl bromide (CH(3)Br), sulfuryl fluoride (SF), propylene oxide (PPO), and phosphine (PH(3)). Recoveries of fortified samples were >91% for COS, CS(2), CH(3)Br, SF, PPO, and PH(3) and >76% for C(2)N(2) and EF. Completeness of extraction was assessed from the amount of fumigant retained by the microwaved hay. This amount was determined from further microwave irradiation and was always small (microwave method is rapid and solvent-free. However, care is required in selecting the appropriate power setting. The safety implications of heating sealed flasks in microwave ovens should be noted.

  18. New Sensitive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Raloxifene Hydrochloride in Pharmaceuticals Using Bromate-Bromide,Methyl Orange and Indigo Carmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Basavaiah


    Full Text Available Two new sensitive spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX using bromate-bromide mixture and two dyes, methyl orange and indigocarmine, as reagents. The methods entail the addition of a known excess of bromate-bromide mixture to RLX in hydrochloric acid medium followed by determination of residual bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of either methyl orange and measuring the absorbance at 520 nm (Method A or indigo carmine and measuring the absorbance at 610 nm (Method B. In both methods, the amount of bromine reacted corresponds to the amount of RLX. The absorbance is found to increase linearly with concentration of RLX. Under the optimum conditions, RLX could be assayed in the concentration range 0.1-2.0 and 0.5-6.0 μg mL-1 by method A and method B, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivities are calculated to be 1.9×105 and 4.5×104 L mol-1cm-1 for method A and method B, respectively, and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values are 0.003 and 0.011 μg cm-2. The limits of detection and quantification are also reported for both methods. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the developed methods were evaluated as per the current ICH guidelines. The methods were successfully applied to the assay of RLX in its tablet formulation and the results were compared with those of a reference method by calculating the Student’s t-value and F-value. No interference was observed from common tablet adjuvants. The accuracy and reliability of the methods were further ascertained by recovery experiments via standard-addition procedure.

  19. Development of an Activated Carbon-Based Electrode for the Capture and Rapid Electrolytic Reductive Debromination of Methyl Bromide from Postharvest Fumigations. (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Liu, Chong; Cui, Yi; Walse, Spencer S; Olver, Ryan; Zilberman, David; Mitch, William A


    Due to concerns surrounding its ozone depletion potential, there is a need for technologies to capture and destroy methyl bromide (CH 3 Br) emissions from postharvest fumigations applied to control agricultural pests. Previously, we described a system in which CH 3 Br fumes vented from fumigation chambers could be captured by granular activated carbon (GAC). The GAC was converted to a cathode by submergence in a high ionic strength solution and connection to the electrical grid, resulting in reductive debromination of the sorbed CH 3 Br. The GAC bed was drained and dried for reuse to capture and destroy CH 3 Br fumes from the next fumigation. However, the loose GAC particles and slow kinetics of this primitive electrode necessitated improvements. Here, we report the development of a cathode containing a thin layer of small GAC particles coating carbon cloth as a current distributor. Combining the high sorption potential of GAC for CH 3 Br with the conductivity of the carbon cloth current distributor, the cathode significantly lowered the total cell resistance and achieved 96% reductive debromination of CH 3 Br sorbed at 30% by weight to the GAC within 15 h at -1 V applied potential vs standard hydrogen electrode, a time scale and efficiency suitable for postharvest fumigations. The cathode exhibited stable performance over 50 CH 3 Br capture and destruction cycles. Initial cost estimates indicate that this technique could treat CH 3 Br fumes at ∼$5/kg, roughly one-third of the cost of current alternatives.

  20. Atropine and Other Anticholinergic Drugs (United States)


    compromise near- who first analyzed the pharmacology and toxicol- vision in the case of accidental use. Military re- ogy of tabun obtained from captured...Lipp JA and Dola TJ (1978). Effect of atropine upon 290-293. the cerebrovascular system during soman-induced NakajimaT.Ohta S. Morita H etal. (1997...sarin: Clinical manifes- Wills JH (1963). Pharmacological antagonists of the tations and treatment of accidental poisoning by anticholinesterase agents

  1. Aclidinium Bromide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli


    Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of inhaled aclidinium bromide, a novel long......-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, for the treatment of COPD....

  2. Effect of atropine on sputum production. (United States)

    Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Costello, J; Clark, T J; Das, I; Keal, E E; Reid, L


    The effect of atropine on sputum production has been studied in patients with asthama, chronic bronchitis, and bronchiectasis in some of whom there was bronchorrhoea. In three patients a reduction in sputum volume was observed after atropine but it would seem that the decrease was mainly due to the inhibitory effect on salivary secretion which facilitates spitting. The one patient treated with long-term oral atropine showed a marked reduction in sputum volume although chemical constituents and viscosity levels remained unchanged, suggesting that in this case atropine had an inhibitory effect on bronchial gland secretion.

  3. Refractory reverse amblyopia with atropine penalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Ajit Patil


    Full Text Available Pharmacological penalization with atropine has been shown to be equally effective as conventional occlusion therapy in the treatment of amblyopia in children. Reverse amblyopia of the sound eye with atropine penalization has been reported before, but is more common in cases where the effect is augmented with optical penalization and is mostly reversible. We report a case of reverse amblyopia with atropine penalization, in a 4-year-old girl, which was refractory to treatment. This report highlights the need for strict monitoring of the vision in the sound eye and regular follow-up in children undergoing amblyopia treatment.

  4. Compliance and patching and atropine amblyopia treatments. (United States)

    Wang, Jingyun


    In the past 20 years, there has been a great advancement in knowledge pertaining to compliance with amblyopia treatments. The occlusion dose monitor introduced quantitative monitoring methods in patching, which sparked our initial understanding of the dose-response relationship for patching amblyopia treatment. This review focuses on current compliance knowledge and the impact it has on patching and atropine amblyopia treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extraction of atropine by ultrasounds in different solvent systems. (United States)

    Djilani, A; Legseir, B


    The use of ultrasounds for extraction of atropine from Egyptian henbane (Hyoscyamus muticus) has been studied. The kinetic of extraction using various solvent systems was carried out. The results obtained have shown that the most efficient system of solvents was CH3OH/CH3CN (80:20). The amount of atropine was calculated by HPLC.

  6. [Cycloplegic effectiveness of cyclopentolate and tropicamide preparations compared with atropinization]. (United States)

    Proskurina, O V


    To gain a comparative estimate of cycloplegic agents with mild effect vs conventional atropinization, a study was performed on refraction in 57 children after instillations of cyclopentolate and atropine and in 57 children after instillations of tropicamide and atropine. A difference was determined in refraction after instillation of cycloplegic agents with mild effect and atropine. It turned out that by depth of cycloplegic effect cyclopentolate is reaching that of atropine. Cyclopentolate can be used in initial study of refraction in children with hypermetropic and myopic refraction and in repeated studies of any refraction. Tropicamide is less effective cycloplegic agent than cyclopentolate and thus it can be used in initial studies of refraction in children with myopia and in repeat studies of refraction in children with myopia and hypermetropia and also in cases of intolerance of other cycloplegic agents.

  7. Physicochemistry of hexadecylammonium bromide and its methyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    tating materials that cause haze in wines, juice, vinegar, etc. The coacervate hardens in presence of an aldehyde and is used suitably for encapsulation in pharmaceutics. Gelatin also forms coacervates with oppositely charged surfactants, and to this end, stud- ies have been mainly made with anionic surfac- tants.21–40 ...

  8. [(1S,2S,3R,4R-3-Hydroxy-4,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]methyl[(E-3-(trimethylsilylprop-2-enyl]selenonium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang


    Full Text Available The title compound, a selenonium bromide, C17H33OSeSi+·Br−, was obtained from the reaction of enantiomerically pure 4,7,7-trimethyl-2-methylselanylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-3-ol and (3-bromopropenyltrimethylsilane in acetone. Due to the chiral bicyclic substituent, the crystal structure is not centrosymmetric and has no symmetry plane, with four chiral C atoms in the cation. The asymmetric unit contains one selenonium cation and one bromide anion. C–H...Br and O–H...Br hydrogen bonds link the ions, forming a one-dimensional R-helical chain-like supramolecular structure.

  9. The pharmacokinetics of intraosseous atropine in hypovolemic swine. (United States)

    Yost, Jonathan; Baldwin, Phillip; Bellenger, Sarah; Bradshaw, Freida; Causapin, Edna; Demotica, Richelle; Livingston, Michael; Lee, Cynthia; Gegel, Brian; Burgert, James; Claessens, Adam; Johnson, Don; Loughren, Michael


    Compare the pharmacokinetics of atropine administered via the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and intraosseous (IO) routes in a normovolemic and hypovolemic swine model. Prospective, between subjects, experimental study. Vivarium. Yorkshire-cross swine (N = 36). Atropine was administered via IV, IM, or IO routes to normovolemic and hypovolemic swine. Blood samples were drawn at regular intervals after atropine administration and analyzed for plasma atropine concentration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained from modeling the plasma concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum concentration (Cmax) and time to maximum concentration (Tmax). The IV and IO groups in both the normovolemic and hypovolemic models reached peak plasma concentration immediately and had a very rapid distribution phase with no apparent absorption phase for the IO groups. Peak plasma concentration and time to reach peak concentration were both significantly lower for the IM groups. There was a significant increase in absorption time with IM administration in the hypovolemic model compared to the normovolemic model. The IO route is an effective method of administering atropine and is comparable to the IV route even under conditions of significant hemorrhage. Therapeutic levels of atropine may be delayed and possibly difficult to obtain via IM injection in the presence of hypovolemic shock.

  10. N-(2-Bromobenzylcinchoninium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skórska-Stania


    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-(2-bromobenzyl-5-ethenyl-2-[hydroxy(quinolin-4-ylmethyl]-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium bromide}, C26H28BrN2O+·Br−, is a chiral quaternary ammonium salt of one of the Cinchona alkaloids. The planes of the quinoline and of the bromobenzyl substituent are inclined to one another by 9.11 (9°. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond occurs. The crystal structure features strong O—H...Br hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...Br interactions.

  11. (3R,4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-Cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-dihydroxy-3-methyl-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfeng Chen


    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H26NO4+·Br−, also known as R-methylnaltrexone (MNTX bromide, is a selective peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist with a oroxymorphone skeleton, synthesized by hydroxyl protection, N-methylation, deprotection and anion exchange of naltrexone. It comprises a five-ring system A/B/C/D/E. Rings C and E adopt distorted chair conformations, whereas ring D is in half-chair conformation. The C/E ring junctions are trans fused. The dihedral angle between rings D and E is 82.3 (1°, while the dihedral angles between the planes of rings C and A, and rings D and E are respectively 81.7 (1, 75.9 (1 and 12.2 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

  12. Stable arylsilver compounds containing dimethylamino, (dimethylamino)methyl or methoxy groups at the aryl nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Leusink, A.J.; Noltes, J.G.


    The following organosilver compounds have been prepared from the corresponding lithium compounds and silver bromide : {2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl}silver, {2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl}silver.silver bromide, bis{[2-(dimethylamino)phenyl]silver} . silver bromide, (2, 6-dimethoxyphenyl)silver

  13. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou


    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  14. Atropine exposure in adolescence predispose to adult memory loss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the brain malfunctions in adulthoods have been linked to the developmental process in their childhood, especially in most adolescent who have been exposed to one form of drug abuse or another. This study investigated the effect of atropine exposure at adolescence on the memory and histology of the frontal ...

  15. Atropine exposure in adolescence predispose to adult memory loss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Department of Anatomy, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515 Ilorin, Nigeria. 2 Department of Anatomy, Afe Babalola University, P.M.B. 5454 Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. 3 Department of Physiology, ... study investigated the effect of atropine exposure at adolescence on the memory and histology of the frontal cortex of Wistar rats and its ...

  16. Influence of atropine and loperamide on reduced intestinal transit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Calotropis procera latex alone and in the presence of loperamide and atropine on intestinal transit in rats were determined to elucidate the action of C. procera on intestinal transit. Six groups of rats containing ten rats per group were used. Each rat in the control group (I) received 0.5 ml of normal saline.

  17. Impurity profiling of atropine sulfate by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography. (United States)

    Bitar, Yaser; Holzgrabe, Ulrike


    An oil-in-water microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) method has been developed and validated for the determination of atropine, its major degradation products (tropic acid, apoatropine and atropic acid) and related substances from plants material (noratropine, 6-hydroxyhyoscyamine, 7-hydroxyhyoscyamine, hyoscine and littorine). Separation of atropine and all impurities was optimized by varying the voltage, the nature of the oil droplet and the buffer, as well as the organic modifier (methanol, 2-propanol or acetonitrile) and the surfactant type and concentration. The optimum O/W microemulsion background electrolyte (BGE) solution consists of 0.8% (w/w) octane, 6.62% (w/w) 1-butanol, 2.0% (w/w) 2-propanol, 4.44% (w/w) SDS and 86.14% (w/w) 10 mM sodium tetraborate buffer pH 9.2. In order to shorten the analysis time a voltage gradient was applied. The validation was performed with respect to specificity, linearity, range, limit of quantification and detection, precision, accuracy and robustness. The established method allowed the detection and determination of atropine sulfate related substances at impurity levels given in the European Pharmacopoeia. Good agreement was obtained between the established MEEKC method and the traditional RP-HPLC method.

  18. Comparison of exercise, dobutamine-atropine and dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography in detecting coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrasinovic Zorica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dipyridamole and dobutamine stress echocardiography testing are most widely utilized, but their sensitivity remained suboptimal in comparison to routine exercise stress echocardiography. The aim of our study is to compare, head-to-head, exercise, dobutamine and dipyridamole stress echocardiography tests, performed with state-of-the-art protocols in a large scale prospective group of patients. Methods Dipyridamole-atropine (Dipatro: 0.84 mg/kg over 10 min i.v. dipyridamole with addition of up to 1 mg of atropine, dobutamine-atropine (Dobatro: up to 40 mcg/kg/min i.v. dobutamine with addition of up to 1 mg of atropine and exercise (Ex, Bruce were performed in 166 pts. Of them, 117 pts without resting wall motion abnormalities were enrolled in study (91 male; mean age 54 ± 10 years; previous non-transmural myocardial infarction in 32 pts, angina pectoris in 69 pts and atypical chest pain in 16 pts. Tests were performed in random sequence, in 3 different days, within 5 day period under identical therapy. All patients underwent coronary angiography. Results Significant coronary artery disease (CAD; ≥50% diameter stenosis was present in 69 pts (57 pts 1-vessel CAD, 12 multivessel CAD and absent in 48 pts. Sensitivity (Sn was 96%, 93% and 90%, whereas specificity (Sp was 92%, 92% and 87% for Dobatro, Dipatro and Ex, respectively (p = ns. Concomitant beta blocker therapy did not influence peak rate-pressure product and Sn of Dobatro and Dipatro (p = ns. Conclusion When state-of-the-art protocols are used, dipyridamole and dobutamine stress echocardiography have comparable and high diagnostic accuracy, similar to maximal post-exercise treadmill stress echocardiography.

  19. Comparison of exercise, dobutamine-atropine and dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography in detecting coronary artery disease (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Ivana; Ostojic, Miodrag; Beleslin, Branko; Djordjevic-Dikic, Ana; Stepanovic, Jelena; Nedeljkovic, Milan; Stojkovic, Sinisa; Stankovic, Goran; Saponjski, Jovica; Petrasinovic, Zorica; Giga, Vojislav; Mitrovic, Predrag


    Background Dipyridamole and dobutamine stress echocardiography testing are most widely utilized, but their sensitivity remained suboptimal in comparison to routine exercise stress echocardiography. The aim of our study is to compare, head-to-head, exercise, dobutamine and dipyridamole stress echocardiography tests, performed with state-of-the-art protocols in a large scale prospective group of patients. Methods Dipyridamole-atropine (Dipatro: 0.84 mg/kg over 10 min i.v. dipyridamole with addition of up to 1 mg of atropine), dobutamine-atropine (Dobatro: up to 40 mcg/kg/min i.v. dobutamine with addition of up to 1 mg of atropine) and exercise (Ex, Bruce) were performed in 166 pts. Of them, 117 pts without resting wall motion abnormalities were enrolled in study (91 male; mean age 54 ± 10 years; previous non-transmural myocardial infarction in 32 pts, angina pectoris in 69 pts and atypical chest pain in 16 pts). Tests were performed in random sequence, in 3 different days, within 5 day period under identical therapy. All patients underwent coronary angiography. Results Significant coronary artery disease (CAD; ≥50% diameter stenosis) was present in 69 pts (57 pts 1-vessel CAD, 12 multivessel CAD) and absent in 48 pts. Sensitivity (Sn) was 96%, 93% and 90%, whereas specificity (Sp) was 92%, 92% and 87% for Dobatro, Dipatro and Ex, respectively (p = ns). Concomitant beta blocker therapy did not influence peak rate-pressure product and Sn of Dobatro and Dipatro (p = ns). Conclusion When state-of-the-art protocols are used, dipyridamole and dobutamine stress echocardiography have comparable and high diagnostic accuracy, similar to maximal post-exercise treadmill stress echocardiography. PMID:16672046

  20. Effects of Atropine and Azaprophen on Matching and Detection in Rhesus Monkeys (United States)


    substantially more potent than atropine for inhibiting termining whether atropine and azaprophen could be differ- carbachol-induced c,- amylase release (6. 7, 13...investigated the behavioral effects of azap- tion of daily fruit and vitamin supplements, was presented rophen and atropine in rhesus monkeys using...thank Jeffrey Witkin for helpful comments on the with results from carbachol-induced a- amylase release (6, 7, manuscript and Donald Conrad and Lisa King

  1. Efficacy of atropine and anisodamine eye drops for adolescent pseudomyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jie Wang


    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect and local influence of atropine and anisodamine eye drops on adolescent pseudomyopia. METHODS:Totally 110 cases of juvenile pseudomyopia were randomly divided into two groups, the control group was given 10g/L atropine sulfate eye gel, and the observation group was treated with 5g/L raceanisodamine eye drops. The efficacy of two methods, the changes of axial length and intraocular pressure before and after treatment, and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in cure rate between the two groups(χ2=0.533, P=0.465, but the effective rate of observation group was significantly better than the control group(χ2=3.907, P=0.048. Compared with the same group before treatment, the length of the axial length of the two groups increased in different degrees,and the increase value of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05. The intraocular pressure of the two groups was significantly lower than that of the same group before treatment, and the difference between the two groups after treatments was not statistically significant(P >0.05. The incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group(χ2=18.939, PCONCLUSION: Anisodamine eye drops in the treatment of juvenile pseudomyopia has obvious curative effect, its efficacy and safety are better than atropine eye gel.

  2. Split-dose atropine versus glycopyrrolate with neostigmine for reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, J; Jarnvig, I; Jørgensen, L N


    of glycopyrrolate (7 or two doses of atropine (8 each), given with an interval of 1 min. There were no differences between the two methods with respect to percentage heart rate changes, salivation or arousal time. Four patients demonstrated cardiac arhythmias in the atropine group...

  3. Bromide in some coastal and oceanic waters of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Dalal, V.N.K.

    Bromide concentration and bromide/chlorinity ratio are estimated in coastal waters of Goa, Minicoy Lagoon, Western Arabian Sea and Western Bay of Bengal. The influence of precipitation and river runoff on bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratio...

  4. Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Atropine in Childhood Myopia: A Meta-analysis. (United States)

    Gong, Qianwen; Janowski, Miroslaw; Luo, Mi; Wei, Hong; Chen, Bingjie; Yang, Guoyuan; Liu, Longqian


    Some uncertainty about the clinical value and dosing of atropine for the treatment of myopia in children remains. To evaluate the efficacy vs the adverse effects of various doses of atropine in the therapy for myopia in children. Data were obtained from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from inception to April 30, 2016. The reference lists of published reviews and were searched for additional relevant studies. Key search terms included myopia, refractive errors, and atropine. Only studies published in English were included. Randomized clinical trials and cohort studies that enrolled patients younger than 18 years with myopia who received atropine in at least 1 treatment arm and that reported the annual rate of myopia progression and/or any adverse effects of atropine therapy were included in the analysis. Two reviewers independently abstracted the data. Heterogeneity was statistically quantified by Q, H, and I2 statistics, and a meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model. The Cochrane Collaboration 6 aspects of bias and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to assess the risk for bias. The primary outcome was a difference in efficacy and the presence of adverse effects at different doses of atropine vs control conditions. The secondary outcomes included the differences in adverse effects between Asian and white patients. Nineteen unique studies involving 3137 unique children were included in the analysis. The weighted mean differences between the atropine and control groups in myopia progression were 0.50 diopters (D) per year (95% CI, 0.24-0.76 D per year) for low-dose atropine, 0.57 D per year (95% CI, 0.43-0.71 D per year) for moderate-dose atropine, and 0.62 D per year (95% CI, 0.45-0.79 D per year) for high-dose atropine (P myopia progression (P = .15). High-dose atropine were associated with more adverse effects, such as the 43.1% incidence of photophobia compared with 6.3% for low

  5. Atropine and glycopyrrolate do not support bacterial growth-safety and economic considerations. (United States)

    Ittzes, Balazs; Weiling, Zsolt; Batai, Istvan Zoard; Kerenyi, Monika; Batai, Istvan


    Evaluation of bacterial growth in atropine and glycopyrrolate. Laboratory investigation. Standard microbiological methods were used to evaluate the impact of atropine and glycopyrrolate on the growth of Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Bacterial count was checked at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours. Atropine or glycopyrrolate did not support the growth of the above bacteria at any examined time at room temperature. Glycopyrrolate killed all of the examined strains (P < .05), whereas in atropine, only the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus and Acinetobacter were killed (P < .05). Drawing up atropine or glycopyrrolate at the beginning of the operating list and use within 24 hours if needed are a safe practice and do not pose infection hazard. We can also reduce hospital costs if we do not throw away these unused syringes following each case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Civilian adult self injections of atropine-trimedoxime (TMB4) auto-injectors. (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Layish, Ido; Krivoy, Amir; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Rotman, Eran; Haim, Shmuel Bar; Yehezkelli, Yoav; Kozer, Eran


    The clinical effects of self injections of atropine-trimedoxime auto-injectors distributed to the civilian population as a field antidote for nerve agent attack were assessed. Data on self injections by adults (> or = 18 years) were collected from the Israel Poison Information Center and a hospital Emergency Department's records during a 2-year period. The data included demographics, time interval from injection, type of auto-injector, clinical manifestations and atropinization score. Sixty-five patients, all with unintentional self injections, were reported. Systemic atropine effects were observed in 24 patients, but no severe atropinization. The atropinization score was significantly higher in the 2 mg atropine dose group than in the two lower dose groups, which were in the normal range. No specific adverse effects attributable to trimedoxime were observed. Intravenous fluids and physostigmine were not required. Only mild reactions were observed following self-injection of atropine trimedoxime auto-injectors in adults, attesting to their relative safety under these conditions.

  7. A randomized trial of adding a plano lens to atropine for amblyopia. (United States)

    Wallace, David K; Lazar, Elizabeth L; Repka, Michael X; Holmes, Jonathan M; Kraker, Raymond T; Hoover, Darren L; Weise, Katherine K; Waters, Amy L; Rice, Melissa L; Peters, Robert J


    Some children have residual amblyopia after treatment with atropine eyedrops for amblyopia due to strabismus and/or anisometropia. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of augmenting the effect of atropine by changing the lens over the fellow eye to plano in children with residual amblyopia. A total of 73 children 3 to amblyopia (range, 20/32 to 20/160, mean 20/63(+1)) were enrolled after at least 12 weeks of atropine treatment of the fellow eye. Participants were randomly assigned to continuing weekend atropine alone or wearing a plano lens over the fellow eye (while continuing atropine). The primary outcome was assessed at 10 weeks, and participants were followed until improvement ceased. At the 10-week primary outcome visit, amblyopic-eye visual acuity had improved an average of 1.1 lines with the plano lens and 0.6 lines with atropine only (difference adjusted for baseline visual acuity = + 0.5 line; 95% CI, -0.1 to +1.2). At the primary outcome or later visit when the best-measured visual acuity was observed, the mean amblyopic-eye improvement from baseline was 1.9 lines with the plano lens and 0.8 lines with atropine only. When amblyopic-eye visual acuity stops improving with atropine treatment, there may be a small benefit to augmenting atropine therapy with a plano lens over the fellow eye. However, the effect was not statistically significant, and the large confidence interval raises the possibility of no benefit or a benefit larger than we observed. A larger study would be necessary to get a more precise estimate of the treatment effect. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Zinc Mediated Tandem Fragmentation-Allylation of Methyl 5-Iodopentofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Madsen, Robert


    In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols....

  9. Infrared spectroscopy of organoclays synthesized with the surfactant octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (United States)

    Xi, Yunfei; Ding, Zhe; He, Hongping; Frost, Ray L.


    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy using a smart endurance single bounce diamond attenuated total reflection (ATR) cell has been used to study the changes in the spectra of the surfactant octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) bromide upon intercalation into a sodium montmorillonite. The wavenumbers of bands attributed to CH-stretching and CH-bending vibrations, in general, decrease as the concentration of the surfactant measured in terms of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) up to 1.0 CEC. After this point, the bands increase approaching a value the same as that of the surfactant. Significant changes occur in the HCH deformation modes of the methyl groups of the surfactant. These changes are attributed to the methyl groups locking into the siloxane (SiO) surface of the montmorillonite. Such a concept is supported by changes in the SiO-stretching bands of the montmorillonite siloxane surface.

  10. response of farmers to technological transfer in the methyl bromide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu


    Aug 30, 2012 ... In addition, the survey sought to find out the role tobacco production played in deforestation and food security among ... le rôlejoué par la production du tabac dans la déforestation et la sécurité alimentaire parmi d'autres objectifs secondaires. ..... the environment, including climate change. (Masau, 2012).

  11. Atmospheric methyl bromide - Trends and global mass balance (United States)

    Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Gunawardena, R.


    A decadal time series of global CH3Br concentrations in the earth's atmosphere is presented. It is shown that average concentrations are about 10 pptv and during the last 4 yr may be increasing at 0.3 +/- 0.1 pptv/yr. It is estimated that the atmospheric lifetime of CH3Br that is due to reaction with OH is about 2 yr, which results in a calculated global emission rate of about 100 Gg/yr. Ocean supersaturations of 140-180 percent are observed, and atmospheric concentrations over the open oceans are higher than at comparably located coastal sites. The ocean source is estimated to be about 35 Gg/yr. The remaining emissions must come from other natural sources and anthropogenic activities.

  12. 77 FR 20752 - Methyl Bromide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance (United States)


    ... potential pests of concern such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ] vasinfectum strains Boggabilla (VCG01112) and Cecil Plains (VCG01111) that imported undelinted cottonseed could harbor. These Fusarium strains are not known to occur in the United States. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum causes Fusarium wilt of...

  13. Response of farmers to technological transfer in the methyl bromide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement technology chosen was the floating tray system. Floating tray system equipment for effective phase out was distributed to farmers ... Almost all farmers (91%) used the proceeds from the tobacco crop to support their maize crop. The few who used the floating tray system agreed that, it was easy (96%) and ...

  14. Inhibition of HERG potassium channels by domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Long, Yan; Chen, Wanjuan; Lin, Zuoxian; Sun, Hongmao; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiyuan


    Domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide were widely used environmental chemicals with potent activity on blockade of human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) channels. But the mechanism of their action is not clear. The kinetics of block of HERG channels by domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide was studied in order to characterize the inhibition of HERG currents by these quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide inhibited HERG channel currents in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 9nM and 5nM, respectively. Block of HERG channel by domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide was voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide caused substantial negative shift of the activation curves, accelerated activated process, but had no effects on the deactivation and reactivation processes. The docking models implied that these two compounds bound to PAS domain of HERG channels and inhibited its function. Our data demonstrated that domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide blocked the HERG channel with a preference for the activated channel state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytotoxicity of atropine to human corneal endothelial cells by inducing mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis. (United States)

    Wen, Qian; Fan, Ting-Jun; Tian, Cheng-Lei


    Atropine, a widely used topical anticholinergic drug, might have adverse effects on human corneas in vivo. However, its cytotoxic effect on human corneal endothelium (HCE) and its possible mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of atropine and its underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms using an in vitro model of HCE cells and verified the cytotoxicity using cat corneal endothelium (CCE) in vivo. Our results showed that atropine at concentrations above 0.3125 g/L could induce abnormal morphology and viability decline in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro. The cytotoxicity of atropine was proven by the induced density decrease and abnormality of morphology and ultrastructure of CCE cells in vivo. Meanwhile, atropine could also induce dose- and time-dependent elevation of plasma membrane permeability, G1 phase arrest, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation of HCE cells. Moreover, 2.5 g/L atropine could also induce caspase-2/-3/-9 activation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential disruption, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bad, and upregulation of cytoplasmic cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor. In conclusion, atropine above 1/128 of its clinical therapeutic dosage has a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCE cells in vitro which is confirmed by CCE cells in vivo, and its cytotoxicity is achieved by inducing HCE cell apoptosis via a death receptor-mediated mitochondrion-dependent signaling pathway. Our findings provide new insights into the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing effect of atropine which should be used with great caution in eye clinic. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  16. [Objective refraction in black children: cyclopentolate and tropicamide combination, a reliable alternative to atropine?]. (United States)

    Ka, A M; De Medeiros, M E; Sow, A S; Ndiaye, P A; Weladji, C; Diallo, H M; Wane, A M; Diagne, J P; Kane, A; Ndiaye, J M M; Ndoye Roth, P A; Ba, E A; Ndiaye, M R


    Cycloplegia allows for an objective refraction in children. Atropine is the gold standard but causes prolonged blurred vision. Cyclopentolate is less effective but less disabling. Tropicamide is a weak cycloplegic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a cyclopentolate and tropicamide combination (CTA) versus atropine for refraction in black children. We performed a prospective study between October 2011 and July 2012 on all children seen in consultation. Objective refraction was performed after cycloplegia with cyclopentolate 0.5% combined with tropicamide 0.5%, and then after cycloplegia with atropine. Thirty-three patients were recruited, 14 boys and 19 girls. The average age was 9.9 years. The mean age of the patients was 9.9 years. Astigmatism was found in 96.9% of cases. It was 1.34±1.32 diopters with CTA and 1.35±1.22 diopters with atropine. The mean axis was 98.15 and 99.8, respectively. Hyperopia and myopia were found in 39 and 27 eyes, respectively with ACT (average 1.73 and 5.37 diopters), and in 41 and 19 eyes with atropine (average 2.06 and 6.11 diopters). There is a good correlation of results with regards to cylindrical and spherical refractive error between the two protocols. Atropine is the best cycloplegic, however ACT provides reliable results. The cyclopentolate-tropicamide combination is satisfactory for routine cycloplegia in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Atropine unmasks bed-rest effect - A spectral analysis of cardiac interbeat intervals (United States)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Goldwater, Danielle; Bhargava, Valmik


    Heart rate spectral data obtained for 10 male subjects between 35-49 years following orthostatic tolerance testing with lower body negative pressure prebed rest and after 7-10 days of bed rest, while on placebo and after intravenous atropine are analyzed. Comparison of the spectral atropine rms for subjects prebed rest and after bed rest reveal a decrease from 63 + or - 24 ms to 40 + or - 23 ms. It is observed that heart rate interval variability for subjects after bed rest and with atropine is reduced; the heart rate at bed rest with atropine is increased from 70.4 + or - 12.4 beats/min prebed rest to 83.7 + or - 18.9 beats/min; and the exercise tolerance time for subjects in the atropine prebed-rest phase (658 + or - 352 s) is higher than the bed-rest phase (505 + or - 252 s). It is noted that bed rest impairs the cardiovascular capacity to adaptively modulate physiological responses, atropine exposes bed-rest deconditioning effects, and spectral analysis is useful for studying the effects of bed-rest deconditioning on cardiac dynamics.

  18. Tiotropium bromide inhibits human monocyte chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurai M


    Full Text Available Tiotropium bromide (Spiriva® is used as a bronchodilator in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, clinical evidence suggests that tiotropium bromide may improve COPD by mechanisms beyond bronchodilation. We hypothesized that tiotropium bromide may act as an anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting monocyte chemotaxis, a process that plays an important role in the lung inflammation of COPD. To test this hypothesis monocytes were pretreated with tiotropium bromide prior to exposure to chemotactic agents and monocyte chemotactic activity (MCA was evaluated with a blind chamber technique. Tiotropium bromide inhibited MCA in a dose- and time- dependent manner (respectively, p< 0.01 by directly acting on the monocyte. Acetylcholine (ACh challenge increased MCA (p< 0.01, and tiotropium bromide effectively reduced (p< 0.01 the increase in MCA by ACh. The inhibition of MCA by tiotropium bromide was reversed by a muscarinic type 3 (M3-muscarinic receptor antagonist (p< 0.01, and was not effected by an M2 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, a selective M3 receptor agonist, cevimeline, and Gq protein stimulator, Pasteurella multocida toxin, significantly increased MCA (P < 0.01, and tiotropium bromide pretreatment reduced (p< 0.01 the increase in MCA induced by these agents. These results suggest that tiotropium might regulate monocyte chemotaxis, in part, by interfering with M3-muscarinic receptor coupled Gq protein signal transduction. These results provide new insight that an anti-cholinergic therapeutic may provide anti-inflammatory action in the pulmonary system.

  19. Atropine and Roscovitine Release from Model Silicone Hydrogels. (United States)

    Lasowski, Frances; Sheardown, Heather


    Drug delivery to the anterior eye has a low compliance and results in significant drug losses. In pediatric patients, eye diseases such as myopia and retinoblastoma can potentially be treated pharmacologically, but the risk associated with high drug concentrations coupled with the need for regular dosing limits their effectiveness. The current study examined the feasibility of atropine and roscovitine delivery from model silicone hydrogel materials which could potentially be used to treat myopia and retinoblastoma, respectively. Model silicone hydrogel materials that comprised TRIS and DMA were prepared with the drug incorporated during synthesis. Various materials properties, with and without incorporated drug, were investigated including water uptake, water contact angle, and light transmission. Drug release was evaluated under sink conditions into phosphate buffered saline. The results demonstrate that up to 2 wt% of the drugs can be incorporated into model silicone hydrogel materials without adversely affecting critical materials properties such as water uptake, light transmission, and surface hydrophilicity. Equilibrium water content ranged from 15 to 32% and transmission exceeded 89% for materials with at least 70% DMA. Extended release exceeding 14 days was possible with both drugs, with the total amount of drug released from the materials ranging from 16% to over 76%. Although a burst effect was noted, this was thought to be due to surface-bound drug, and therefore storage in an appropriate packaging solution could be used to overcome this if desired. Silicone hydrogel materials have the potential to deliver drugs for over 2 weeks without compromising lens properties. This could potentially overcome the need for regular drop instillation and allow for the maintenance of drug concentration in the tear film over the period of wear. This represents a potential option for treating a host of ophthalmic disorders in children including myopia and retinoblastoma.

  20. Is oxygen required before atropine administration in organophosphorus or carbamate pesticide poisoning? – A cohort study (United States)

    Konickx, L. A.; Bingham, K.


    Background Early and adequate atropine administration in organophosphorus (OP) or carbamate insecticide poisoning improves outcome. However, some authors advise that oxygen must be given before atropine due to the risk of inducing ventricular dysrhythmias in hypoxic patients. Because oxygen is frequently unavailable in district hospitals of rural Asia, where the majority of patients with insecticide poisoning present, this guidance has significant implications for patient care. The published evidence for this advice is weak. We therefore performed a patient cohort analysis to look for early cardiac deaths in patients poisoned by anticholinesterase pesticides. Methods We analysed a prospective Sri Lankan cohort of OP or carbamate-poisoned patients treated with early atropine without the benefit of oxygen for evidence of early deaths. The incidence of fatal primary cardiac arrests within 3 h of admission was used as a sensitive (but non-specific) marker of possible ventricular dysrhythmias. Results The cohort consisted of 1957 patients. The incidence of a primary cardiac death within 3 h of atropine administration was 4 (0.2%) of 1957 patients. The majority of deaths occurred at a later time point from respiratory complications of poisoning. Conclusion We found no evidence of a high number of early deaths in an observational study of 1957 patients routinely given atropine before oxygen that might support guidance that oxygen must be given before atropine. The published literature indicates that early and rapid administration of atropine during resuscitation is life-saving. Therefore, whether oxygen is available or not, early atropinisation of OP- and carbamate-poisoned patients should be performed. PMID:24810796

  1. [Comparative effects of terbutaline sulphate and ipratropium bromide on the respiratory system (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Villate Navarro, J I; Sobradillo Peña, V; Atxotequi Iaraoligoitia, V; Salaverri Nalda, A; Orive Martínez, C


    Bronchodilator action of two pharmacologically different drugs have been compared. Ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) is a synthetic atropine derivative and terbutaline sulphate is a beta-stimulating agent. Twelve asthmatic patients and eight patients with chronic bronquitis received terbutaline 0.50 mg. and ipratropium 0.04 mg by aerosol inhalation. Both drugs were given at random on a consecutive-day schedule. All patients were clinically stable before treatment (basal FEV/VC less than 60 percent). Total lung capacity (TLC) forced expiratory volume (FEV), SRaw, and V'/V curves before and at 15, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the produce administration were registered. Presence of side-effects was also checked. An intensive bronchodilator action was observed either after inhalation of ipratropium bromide or terbutaline, but statistical studies showed no significant differences between both drugs in relation to intensity and duration of their actions. Sch 1000 caused similar bronchodilator effects in all cases; a more intense effect in patients with chronic bronchitis could not be noticed. Evaluation of V'/V curve, and especially its relation to a same pulmonary volume, pointed out that both drugs act upon small respiratory airways. Advance side-effects were not present.

  2. The Effect of Atropine on Post-ECT Bradycardia in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Farashbandi


    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is utilized for treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD. One of the major complications in using ECT is cardiovascular problems i.e., bradycardia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of atropine on the pulse rate (PR of the patients under treatment with ECT. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with diagnosis of MDD who received atropine before ECT treatment (control group were compared with 30 patients with the same diagnosis without receiving atropine (experimental group under ECT treatment. Both groups received ECT under the same term and condition. The PR of the patients were recorded 7 times (twice before anesthesia and ECT and 5 fixed one min intervals immediately after receiving ECT; for 10 sessions of treatment with ECT (3 times a week. The results were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. The PR under 50 was the cut off point for differentiating the patients suffering from bradycardia and those without it. Results: Slight increment in PRs for experimental group (patient who did not receive atropine in contrast to control group were observed, but it did not reach a statistically significant level. The gender (male/female did not have different PR. The age of the patients and initial PR (regarded as co-variances did not show significant effect on PR for total sample. Conclusion: There seems to be not necessary to use atropine treatment for depressed patients receiving ECT.

  3. Haemodynamic effects of remifentanil in children with and without intravenous atropine. An echocardiographic study. (United States)

    Chanavaz, C; Tirel, O; Wodey, E; Bansard, J Y; Senhadji, L; Robert, J C; Ecoffey, C


    Remifentanil is known to cause bradycardia and hypotension. We aimed to characterize the haemodynamic profile of remifentanil during sevoflurane anaesthesia in children with or without atropine. Forty children who required elective surgery received inhalational induction of anaesthesia using 8% sevoflurane. They were allocated randomly to receive either atropine, 20 microg kg(-1) (atropine group) or Ringer's lactate (control group) after 10 min of steady-state 1 MAC sevoflurane anaesthesia (baseline). Three minutes later (T0), all children received remifentanil 1 microg kg(-1) injected over a 60 s period, followed by an infusion of 0.25 microg kg(-1) min(-1) for 10 min then 0.5 microg kg(-1) min(-1) for 10 min. Haemodynamic variables and echocardiographic data were determined at baseline, T0, T5, T10, T15 and T20 min. Remifentanil caused a significant decrease in heart rate compared with the T0 value, which was greater at T20 than T10 in the two groups: however, the values at T10 and T20 were not significantly different from baseline in the atropine group. In comparison with T0, there was a significant fall in blood pressure in the two groups. Remifentanil caused a significant decrease in the cardiac index with or without atropine. Remifentanil did not cause variation in stroke volume (SV). In both groups, a significant increase in systemic vascular resistance occurred after administration of remifentanil. Contractility decreased significantly in the two groups, but this decrease remained moderate (between -2 and +2 sd). Remifentanil produced a fall in blood pressure and cardiac index, mainly as a result of a fall in heart rate. Although atropine was able to reduce the fall in heart rate, it did not completely prevent the reduction in cardiac index.

  4. Comparison of sugammadex and neostigmine–atropine on intraocular pressure and postoperative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Hakimoğlu


    Full Text Available During surgery, changes in intraocular pressure (IOP can be observed resulting from several factors, such as airway manipulations and drugs used. We aimed to investigate the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine on IOP, hemodynamic parameters, and complications after extubation. Our study comprised 60 patients, aged 18–65 years, with a risk status of the American Society of Anesthesiologists I–II who underwent arthroscopic surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. At the end of the surgery, the neuromuscular block was reversed using neostigmine (50 μg/kg plus atropine (15 μg/kg in Group 1, and sugammadex (4 mg/kg in Group 2. Neuromuscular blockade was monitored using acceleromyography and a train-of-four mode of stimulation. IOP was measured before induction and at 30 seconds, 2 minutes, and 10 minutes after extubation. A Tono-Pen XL applanation tonometer was used to measure IOP. This showed that elevation in IOP of patients reversed using sugammadex was similar to that recorded in patients reversed using neostigmine–atropine. When heart rate was compared, there was a significant difference between basal values and those obtained at 30 seconds and 10 minutes after extubation in the neostigmine–atropine group. Extubation time (time from withdrawal of anesthetic gas to extubation was significantly shorter in the sugammadex group (p = 0.003 than in the neostigmine–atropine group. The postextubation IOP values of the sugammadex group were similar to the neostigmine–atropine group. Extubation time (time from withdrawal of anesthetic gas to extubation was significantly shorter in the sugammadex group (p = 0.003 than in the neostigmine–atropine group.

  5. Multiple eccrine hidrocystomas: Report of two cases treated unsuccessfully with atropine ointment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khunger Niti


    Full Text Available Eccrine hidrocystomas are rare, benign, cystic lesions with a lining that resembles that of the eccrine sweat gland and may be solitary or multiple. Multiple eccrine hidrocystomas occur predominantly on the face as asymptomatic, skin-colored to bluish lesions associated with a chronic course and seasonal variability. Treatment of multiple lesions on the face is challenging. Efficacy with atropine ointment is variable. Botulinum toxin and pulsed dye laser are reported to be beneficial. Two cases of multiple eccrine hidrocystomas are reported who showed no response to 1% atropine ointment.

  6. Efficacy of atropine combined with paroxetine in vagus nerve excitatory panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du N


    Full Text Available Na Du, Xue-Li Sun Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Panic disorder is often associated with the autonomic nervous system pattern – sympathetic activation and parasympathetic (vagal withdrawal. However, we present one special case here to show a totally reversed pathogenesis – vagal activation occupying the leading role, which requires atropine to cure the patient’s symptoms. Through this report, it is reasonably proven that panic disorder may be a heterogeneous condition, whose mechanism might be the imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. Keywords: panic disorder, vagal activation, bradycardia, atropine

  7. Comparative study of oral and intramuscular atropine sulphate as a premedicant in paediatric age group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari L


    Full Text Available The use of atropine sulphate in the paediatric age group as a premedicant orally in a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg body weight 70 minutes prior to surgery was found to be as effective as atropine sulphate given intramuscularly 35 minutes prior to surgery in a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. This avoids the unpleasant memory of needle prick; The duration of effect as studied in the normal healthy children not subjected to surgery was found to be 2 1/2-3 hours.

  8. Treatment outcomes of myopic anisometropia with 1% atropine: a pilot study. (United States)

    Lin, Lixia; Lan, Weizhong; Liao, Yunru; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Can; Yang, Zhikuan


    To investigate the safety and efficacy of the treatment of myopic anisometropia with 1% atropine. Twenty-two children with myopic anisometropia were prescribed 1% solution of atropine sulfate to the more myopic eye, one drop before sleep every 3 days. Children were visited every 3 to 4 months until the degree of anisometropia was no more than 0.5 diopters (D) ("Success") or unchanged after 9 months of treatment ("No effect"). The treatment effect was assessed by comparing the interocular imbalance in refraction and axial length before and after the treatment. A detailed questionnaire about subjective symptoms in each visit and an electroretinogram in the end were administered to evaluate the side effects of this treatment. The subjects were followed for 7 to 16 months. Six subjects withdrew participation on their own accord, and three were excluded because of inconstant usage of drug. Of the 13 remaining subjects, the refraction of the treated eyes decreased by 0.63 ± 0.59 D (p = 0.007), whereas that of the untreated eyes increased by -0.72 ± 0.65 D (p anisometropia was reduced from 1.82 ± 0.73 D to 0.47 ± 0.65 D (p anisometropia, although with some tolerable side effects. Nevertheless, an attenuated benefit was observed after cessation of atropine treatment. Thus, participants should be informed of a possible rebound effect before the administration of atropine for myopic anisometropia.

  9. Intravenous and inhalation toxicokinetics of sarin stereoisomers in atropinized guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, W.E.T.; Langenberg, J.P.; Trap, H.C.; Wiel, H.J. van der; Helmich, R.B.; Helden, H.P.M. van; Benschop, H.P.


    We report the first toxicokinetic studies of (±)-sarin. The toxicokinetics of the stereoisomers of this nerve agent were studied in anesthetized, atropinized, and restrained guinea pigs after intravenous bolus administration of a dose corresponding to 0.8 LD50 and after nose-only exposure to vapor

  10. Prophylactic administration of atropine attenuates the negative haemodynamic effects of propofol/remifentanil induction of anaesthesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poterman, Marieke; Scheeren, Thomas; van der Velde, M.I.; Struys, Michel; Kalmar, A.F.


    Background and Goal of Study:   Induction of anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil often induces unwanted bradycardia and hypotension. This raises the concern for preserving haemodynamic stability and adequate tissue oxygenation. We previously demonstrated that atropine significantly

  11. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate]. (United States)

    Xu, Jiang-tao


    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.

  12. Cycloplegic effect of atropine compared with cyclopentolate-tropicamide combination in children with hypermetropia. (United States)

    Sani, Rabi Yahaya; Hassan, Sadiq; Habib, Saudat Garba; Ifeanyichukwu, Ebisike Philips


    Cycloplegic refraction is important in assessing children with hypermetropia. Atropine, though the gold standard cycloplegic agent for refraction in children, has a long duration of action and more severe side effects compared to short-acting cycloplegic agents. The aim of the study was to compare the cycloplegic effect of atropine with cyclopentolate and tropicamide combination in children with hypermetropia. This was a crossover interventional study in children with hypermetropia. Cycloplegic refraction using two separate regimens of cycloplegic drugs was done on all subjects. Data were analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 22.0. The mean spherical equivalent values of regimen 1 (atropine 1%) and regimen 2 (cyclopentolate 1% and tropicamide 1%) were presented as mean and standard deviation. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. One hundred and twenty-six eyes of 63 subjects aged 5-12 years were examined. The mean spherical equivalent values for regimen 1 and regimen 2 for the right eyes were 4.73 ± 2.1 DS and 4.54 ± 1.9 DS, respectively (P = 0.59). The mean spherical equivalent values for regimens 1 and 2 for the left eyes were 4.74 ± 2.0 DS and 4.54 ± 1.8 DS, respectively (P = 0.56). The combination of 1% cyclopentolate and 1% tropicamide could be a useful alternative to atropine 1% for cycloplegic refraction in children with hypermetropia.

  13. Effect of Pre-medication with Atropine on the Blood Pressure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were recorded every 3 minutes. The patients were asked to report any symptoms of nausea or fainting. Results: Both the incidence and severity of hypotension were reduced in the patients that had atropine prophylaxis (Group B) compared with the control group that received normal ...

  14. Efficacy of tropicamide, homatropine, cyclopentolate, atropine and hyoscine as mydriatics in Angora goats. (United States)

    Whelan, N C; Castillo-Alcala, F; Lizarraga, I


    To document the efficacy of five commercially available mydriatics for their potential for diagnostic and therapeutic use in Angora goats. Over 8 weeks, the mydriatic effects of 1% tropicamide, 2% homatropine, 1% cyclopentolate, 1% atropine and 0.25% hyoscine were evaluated. Given as block treatments, drugs were applied randomly to one eye of 10 Angora goats, and the contralateral eye served as a control. Vertical and horizontal pupil diameters were measured to document onset of effect, time to reach a difference of 5 mm in the vertical/horizontal pupil diameter between eyes, time to maximum pupillary dilation, and duration of mydriatic action. Onset of mydriasis for all drugs occurred within 15 minutes. Time to reach a difference of 5 mm in the vertical pupil diameter between eyes was shortest for 1% tropicamide and 0.25% hyoscine (0.5 h), then 2% homatropine and 1% atropine (0.75 h), and longest for 1% cyclopentolate (1.5 h). The maximum vertical pupillary dilation occurred earliest with 1% tropicamide and 1% atropine (2 h), followed by 0.25% hyoscine (3 h), 2% homatropine (4 h), and latest with 1% cyclopentolate (8 h). The duration of vertical dilation of the pupil was shortest with 1% tropicamide (6 h), then 2% homatropine (12 h), 1% cyclopentolate (12 h), 1% atropine (24 h), and longest for 0.25% hyoscine (96 h). The time to reach maximum horizontal dilation of the pupil in treated eyes was shortest with 1% cyclopentolate (1 h), followed by 1% tropicamide (1.5 h), 0.25% hyoscine (3 h), 2% homatropine (3.5 h), and 1% atropine (4 h). The duration of horizontal pupil dilation was shortest with 1% tropicamide (4.5 h), and longest with 0.25% hyoscine (48 h). All five mydriatics induced clinical dilation. Tropicamide (1%) had the shortest duration of effect, but gave incomplete dilation. Good dilation was achieved with 1% cyclopentolate and 2% homatropine, but took too long to reach maximum dilation for routine mydriasis. The largest vertical dilation of the pupil

  15. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplovitz, I.; Menton, R.; Matthews, C.; Shutz, M.; Nalls, C.


    H1-6 (1-2-hydrnxyiminomethyl-1 pyridino-3-(4-carbameyl- 1--pyddino)-2- oxaprnpane dichioride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI-6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman.

  16. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Lianxiang [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Lin Xiangtao, E-mail: [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Cao Jinfeng [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wang Xueyu [Division of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Wu Lebin [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China)


    Purpose: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Methods: Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5 mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24 h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. Results: These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. Conclusion: In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.

  17. Electrical polarization of lead bromide crystals. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, A.; Macke, A.J.H.

    An attempt was made to measure electronic conductivity in lead bromide in equilibrium with lead, since experimental data on the cell −Pb/PbBr2/C+ in the literature are not consistent with existing theories. Combination of our results with published data for bromine-induced hole conduction in lead

  18. Methyl Halide Production by Fungi (United States)

    Dailey, G. D.; Varner, R. K.; Blanchard, R. O.; Sive, B. C.; Crill, P. M.


    Methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl iodide (CH3I) are methyl halide gases that contribute significant amounts of halogen radicals to the atmosphere. In an effort to better understand the global budget of methyl halides and their impact on the atmosphere, we need to identify the natural sources in addition to the known anthropogenic sources of these compounds. We are investigating the role of fungi in the production of methyl halides in the soils and wetlands in southern New Hampshire, USA. Previous research has shown that wood decay fungi and ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are within a group of fungi called basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. In our study, measurements of headspace gas extracted from flasks containing fungi grown in culture demonstrate that a variety of fungi, including basidiomycetes and non-basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. Our research sites include four ecosystems: an agricultural field, a temperate forest, a fresh water wetland, and coastal salt marshes. We have collected and isolated fungi at each site by culturing tissue samples of fruiting bodies and plant material, by using wood baits, and from the direct culture of soil. We compared the rates of methyl halide emissions from the fungi in the four ecosystems. In addition, we measured emissions from previously assayed fungal isolates after reintroducing them to sterilized soils that were collected from their original environments. Fungal biomass was determined by substrate-induced respiration (SIR). The emission rate by the fungus was determined by a linear regression of the concentration of methyl halide in the sample headspace over time divided by the fungal biomass.

  19. Elevated serum bromide in patients taking lithium carbonate. (United States)

    Handorf, C R; Coleman, J H; Rawls, W N


    Serum bromide levels were determined for 20 patients receiving lithium carbonate for manic depressive illness. Bromides averaged 17.06 +/- 8.15 mg/dl, which exceeded the control average of 3.22 +/- 3.2 mg/dl. Elevated serum bromide in patients taking lithium may reflect altered renal function.

  20. Minimizing E-factor in the continuous-flow synthesis of diazepam and atropine. (United States)

    Bédard, Anne-Catherine; Longstreet, Ashley R; Britton, Joshua; Wang, Yuran; Moriguchi, Hideki; Hicklin, Robert W; Green, William H; Jamison, Timothy F


    Minimizing the waste stream associated with the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and commodity chemicals is of high interest within the chemical industry from an economic and environmental perspective. In exploring solutions to this area, we herein report a highly optimized and environmentally conscious continuous-flow synthesis of two APIs identified as essential medicines by the World Health Organization, namely diazepam and atropine. Notably, these approaches significantly reduced the E-factor of previously published routes through the combination of continuous-flow chemistry techniques, computational calculations and solvent minimization. The E-factor associated with the synthesis of atropine was reduced by 94-fold (about two orders of magnitude), from 2245 to 24, while the E-factor for the synthesis of diazepam was reduced by 4-fold, from 36 to 9. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Primacy and recency effects in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a serial probe recognition task: II. Effects of atropine sulfate. (United States)

    Castro, C A


    Nonhuman primates display both a primacy and a recency effect when trained on a 6-item serial probe recognition task. The author has previously shown that in the rhesus monkey, diazepam (3.2 mg/kg im) interferes with the memory processes that mediate the recency effect without affecting those memory processes involved in the primacy effect (C. A. Castro, 1995). This study assessed the effects of atropine sulfate (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mg/kg im) on the primacy and recency effects in these same monkeys. Opposite the effects of diazepam, atropine disrupted the primacy component of the serial position curve and had no measurable effect on the recency component. In addition, the 2 highest doses of atropine disrupted accuracy on the nonmatching probe trials, whereas all 3 doses of atropine resulted in increased response latencies. These reports indicate that the primacy and recency effects in the nonhuman primate can be pharmacologically dissociated.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of IM,IV and IO Atropine in Normovolemic and Hypovolemic Swine (United States)


    support the bioequivalence of intraosseous and intravenous administration of atropine. In theory , drug could distribute to the bone marrow of humans; however, pigs are very similar in anatomy and physiology and should approximate results with humans. In fact, the tibia of a 70-kilogram...marrow volume and is made up of red marrow compared to the adult tibia which is made up of almost entirely yellow marrow. In theory , the sternal IO route

  3. Content of atropine and scopolamine in poisonous solanaceae plants from Slovenia

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    Javor Kac


    Full Text Available Background: Some species from the Solanaceae family are still the cause of serious poisoning among youth in Slovenia. Usually intoxication is due to abuse of these plants to provoke hallucinations. There is still not enough data about the alkaloid content of these plants growing in Slovenia.Methods: Different plant samples were analyzed for the content of atropine and scopolamine with capillary electrophoresis after solid phase extraction of alkaloids. Plants were gathered from different areas of Slovenia between April and September 2004.Results: Results were compared and possible correlations between the alkaloid content and species, plant parts, growth conditions, and time of harvest were suggested. Atropine and scopolamine contents were assessed in deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna L., thorn apple (Datura stramonium L., scopolia (Scopolia carniolica Jacq. and angel trumpet. The common name angel trumpet is used for Datura inoxia Mill. as well as for different Brugmansia Pers. species. The most intriguing results were the variable alkaloid content in various Brugmansia species and generally great differences in alkaloid content among various plants and their plant parts.Conclusions: All investigated plants have noticeable atropine and/or scopolamine content. The content is variable between various plants and their plant parts and therefore special care should be taken in cases of possible intoxication. It was shown that smaller or greater amounts of ingested drug can cause the same level of intoxication due to the variability in alkaloid content.

  4. Physiological responses wearing MOPP-IV after atropine and pralidoxime administration in warm and cool environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolka, M.A.; Cadarette, B.S.


    The effect of cholinolytic and oxime (2 mg atropine + 600 mg pralidoxime) therapy on temperature regulation was evaluated in 8 subjects wearing chemical warfare protective clothing (MOPP-level IV). Subjects were tested in two environments: 35 c, 60% rh and 13 C, 44% rh during very light physical activity (1-2 Met) over a six-hour period. Sweating was suppressed approximately 40% by atropine and pralidoxime, and heart rate increased approximately 30 beats/min with drug treatment. At 13 C, all eight subjects completed 350 minutes of exposure in both drug and control experiments. Rectal temperature (t sub re) averaged 38.24 C in both treatments when subjects terminated their exposure at 35 C. Mean skin temperature averaged 37.42 C for both groups at termination. The treatment of subjects with atropine and pralidoxime when wearing chemical protective clothing does not adversely affect the length of time individuals can remain in a cool environment during very light work. However, the wearing of chemical protective clothing will decrease exposure time significantly (approx. 40%) in both control and drug treated subjects in a warm environment.

  5. Sedation management during therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy: atropine premedication for endotracheal intubation causes a prolonged increase in heart rate. (United States)

    Gill, Hannah; Thoresen, Marianne; Smit, Elisa; Davis, Jonathan; Liu, Xun; Dingley, John; Elstad, Maja


    Heart rate (HR) plays an important role in the assessment of stress during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for neonatal encephalopathy; we aimed to quantify the effect on HR of endotracheal (ET) intubation and drugs given to facilitate it. If atropine premedication independently increased HR, the main indicator of effective sedation, we hypothesised that increased sedation would have been given. Thirty-two, term, neonates recruited into a randomised pilot study comparing TH and TH combined with 50% Xenon inhalation were studied. Indications for ET intubation included: resuscitation at delivery, clinical need and elective re-intubation with a cuffed ET tube if randomised to Xenon. Standard intubation drugs comprised one or more of intravenous morphine, atropine, and suxamethonium. Local cooling guidelines were followed including morphine infusion for sedation. At postnatal hours five to eight atropine increased HR in a linear regression model (psedation given up to 8h into the treatment period was significantly higher (psedation and total morphine dose for sedation during early TH was increased where more than one dose of atropine was given. Bradycardia was not reported in any neonate, even without atropine premedication. We suggest that the use of atropine as part of standard premedication for ET intubation of term neonates undergoing TH should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative study of clonidine versus a combination of diazepam and atropine for premedication in orthopaedic patients.

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    Chaurasia S


    Full Text Available Sixty patients in the age group of 18-60 years of A.S.A. Grade I/II risk, scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied for pre-medication with either oral clonidine or with combination of effects of diazepam & atropine. Patients in Group A (clonidine group received tablet clonidine 100 mcg (1 tablet if less than 50 kg in weight and 200 mcg if weighing more than 50 kg two hours before surgery. Patients in Group B (Diazepam-atropine group received one tablet of Diazepam (10 mg orally two hours before surgery and injection atropine-sulphate 0.01 mg/kg half an hour preoperatively by intramuscular route. In our study, the sedative and anti-sialogogue effects of clonidine were comparable to those of diazepam-atropine combination, which are commonly used premedicants. The anti-anxiety effect of clonidine was found to be better than that of diazepam-atropine combination. Clonidine also proved to be a better agent for the attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Thus, oral clonidine is a better premedicant compared to atropine-diazepam combination. Also, it is a more acceptable agent because of its oral route of administration.

  7. Thallium bromide iodide crystal acoustic anisotropy examination. (United States)

    Mantsevich, S N


    Thallium bromide iodide crystal also known as KRS-5 is the well known material used in far infrared radiation applications for optical windows and lenses fabrication. The main advantage of this material is the transparency in wide band of wavelengths from 0.53 to 50μm. Despite such advantages as transparency and large acousto-optic figure of merit values, KRS-5 is rarely used in acousto-optics. Nevertheless this material seems to be promising for far infrared acousto-optic applications. The acoustic and acousto-optic properties of KRS-5 needed for the full use in optoelectronics are not well understood to date. In this paper the detailed examination of thallium bromide iodide crystal acoustic properties is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of neostigmine and atropine on basal and handling-induced acetylcholine output from ventral hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, E; Schirm, Eric; Jacsó, J; Westerink, B.H.C.

    The involvement of muscarinic autoreceptors in the regulation of hippocampal acetylcholine levels during acetylcholinesterase inhibition was examined by perfusing the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine bromide(10, 100 or 1000 nM) alone and in the presence of the muscarinic receptor

  9. Systemic delivery of atropine sulfate by the MicroDose Dry-Powder Inhaler. (United States)

    Corcoran, T E; Venkataramanan, R; Hoffman, R M; George, M P; Petrov, A; Richards, T; Zhang, S; Choi, J; Gao, Y Y; Oakum, C D; Cook, R O; Donahoe, M


    Inhaled atropine is being developed as a systemic and pulmonary treatment for the extended recovery period after chemical weapons exposure. We performed a pharmacokinetics study comparing inhaled atropine delivery using the MicroDose Therapeutx Dry Powder Inhaler (DPIA) with intramuscular (IM) atropine delivery via auto-injector (AUTO). The MicroDose DPIA utilizes a novel piezoelectric system to aerosolize drug and excipient from a foil dosing blister. Subjects inhaled a 1.95-mg atropine sulfate dose from the dry powder inhaler on one study day [5 doses × 0.4 mg per dose (nominal) delivered over 12 min] and received a 2-mg IM injection via the AtroPen® auto-injector on another. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic response, and safety were studied for 12 hr. A total of 17 subjects were enrolled. All subjects completed IM dosing. One subject did not perform inhaled delivery due to a skin reaction from the IM dose. Pharmacokinetic results were as follows: area under the curve concentration, DPIA=20.1±5.8, AUTO=23.7±4.9 ng hr/mL (means±SD); maximum concentration reached, DPIA=7.7±3.5, AUTO=11.0±3.8 ng/mL; time to reach maximum concentration, DPIA=0.25±0.47, AUTO=0.19±0.23 hr. Pharmacodynamic results were as follows: maximum increase in heart rate, DPIA=18±12, AUTO=23±13 beats/min; average change in 1-sec forced expiratory volume at 30 min, DPIA=0.16±0.22 L, AUTO=0.11±0.29 L. The relative bioavailability for DPIA was 87% (based on output dose). Two subjects demonstrated allergic responses: one to the first dose (AUTO), which was mild and transient, and one to the second dose (DPIA), which was moderate in severity, required treatment with oral and intravenous (IV) diphenhydramine and IV steroids, and lasted more than 7 days. Dry powder inhalation is a highly bioavailable route for attaining rapid and consistent systemic concentrations of atropine.

  10. Removal of bromide from aqueous solutions using the UV/ZnO process based on the multivariate analysis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Mohammad Moradi


    Full Text Available Background: Bromide is found naturally in groundwater and surface water. The rapid growth of industrial activities, drainage of surface runoff, and use of methyl bromide in pesticides has increased bromide discharge to the environment. Disinfection of water-containing bromide causes the creation of additional products of organo-halogenated that are considered cancer-causing agents. In this study, the effect and optimization of factors in removal of this ion was evaluated by using the nano-photocatalytic UV/ZnO process. Methods: This analytical study was conducted in a batch system by the phenol-red method. The test design was performed through the analysis model of multi-factor variance with 99 subjects, while the main, interactive, and reciprocal effects of variables, such as reaction time, catalyst concentration, bromide concentration, and pH at different levels of each factor, were analysed by using SPSS version 16. Results: The main, interactive, and reciprocal effects of factors were significant in three different levels with P < 0.001, and the optimal level of the factors reaction time, catalyst concentration, bromide concentration, and pH were 120 minutes, 0.5, 0.1, and 7 mg/L, respectively, by using the Schaffer test. The highest removal efficiency of 95% was obtained at least 91.56 and a maximum of 94.76% was obtained under optimal conditions of all factors. Conclusion: The results show that by optimization of factors, this process can be effectively used to remove bromide from aquatic environments.

  11. Atropine for the Prevention of Myopia Progression in Children: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. (United States)

    Pineles, Stacy L; Kraker, Raymond T; VanderVeen, Deborah K; Hutchinson, Amy K; Galvin, Jennifer A; Wilson, Lorri B; Lambert, Scott R


    To review the published literature on the efficacy of topical atropine for the prevention of myopic progression in children. Literature searches were last conducted in December 2016 in the PubMed database with no date restrictions, but were limited to studies published in English, and in the Cochrane Library database without any restrictions. The combined searches yielded 98 citations, 23 of which were reviewed in full text. Of these, 17 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and subsequently were assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. Seventeen level I, II, and III studies were identified. Most of the studies reported less myopic progression in children treated with atropine compared with various control groups. All 8 of the level I and II studies that evaluated primarily myopic progression revealed less myopic progression with atropine (myopic progression ranging from 0.04±0.63 to 0.47±0.91 diopters (D)/year) compared with control participants (myopic progression ranging from 0.38±0.39 to 1.19±2.48 D/year). In studies that evaluated myopic progression after cessation of treatment, a rebound effect was noted. Several studies evaluated the optimal dosage of atropine with regard to myopic progression, rebound after treatment cessation, and minimization of side effects. Lower dosages of atropine (0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.01%) were found to be slightly less effective during treatment periods of 1 to 2 years, but they were associated with less rebound myopic progression (for atropine 0.01%, mean myopic progression after treatment cessation of 0.28±0.33 D/year, compared with atropine 0.5%, 0.87±0.52 D/year), fewer side effects, and similar long-term results for myopic progression after the study period and rebound effect were considered. The most robust and well-designed studies were carried out in Asian populations. Studies involving patients of other ethnic backgrounds failed to provide sufficient evidence of an

  12. Genetic control of methyl halide production in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Rhew, Robert C; Østergaard, Lars; Saltzman, Eric S; Yanofsky, Martin F


    Methyl chloride (CH(3)Cl) and methyl bromide (CH(3)Br) are the primary carriers of natural chlorine and bromine, respectively, to the stratosphere, where they catalyze the destruction of ozone, whereas methyl iodide (CH(3)I) influences aerosol formation and ozone loss in the boundary layer. CH(3)Br is also an agricultural pesticide whose use is regulated by international agreement. Despite the economic and environmental importance of these methyl halides, their natural sources and biological production mechanisms are poorly understood. Besides CH(3)Br fumigation, important sources include oceans, biomass burning, tropical plants, salt marshes, and certain crops and fungi. Here, we demonstrate that the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana produces and emits methyl halides and that the enzyme primarily responsible for the production is encoded by the HARMLESS TO OZONE LAYER (HOL) gene. The encoded protein belongs to a group of methyltransferases capable of catalyzing the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methylation of chloride (Cl(-)), bromide (Br(-)), and iodide (I(-)) to produce methyl halides. In mutant plants with the HOL gene disrupted, methyl halide production is largely eliminated. A phylogenetic analysis with the HOL gene suggests that the ability to produce methyl halides is widespread among vascular plants. This approach provides a genetic basis for understanding and predicting patterns of methyl halide production by plants.

  13. Aclidinium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (United States)

    Stone, Lowell E; Skelley, Jessica W; Kyle, Jeffrey A; Elmore, Lindsey K


    The safety and efficacy of the second U.S.-approved long-acting inhaled anticholinergic for controlling bronchospasm in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are reviewed. Aclidinium bromide (Tudorza, Forest Pharmaceuticals) is indicated for long-term maintenance therapy for COPD-associated bronchospasm. It is marketed as a 60-dose metered-dose inhaler to be used twice daily. In Phase II and III clinical trials involving a total of more than 3000 patients, daily use of aclidinium bromide was found to significantly improve selected key indicators of lung function (trough values for forced expiratory volume at one second [FEV1] and other FEV1 outcome measures) compared with placebo use. Other benefits of aclidinium bromide therapy, including a significant reduction in nighttime COPD symptoms, were demonstrated for up to one year. However, aclidinium bromide has not been consistently demonstrated to be more effective than the other currently available long-acting inhaled anticholinergic, tiotropium bromide. Furthermore, the clinical trials indicated no significant difference between aclidinium bromide and tiotropium bromide with regard to rates of systemic adverse effects. For some patients, aclidinium bromide may offer advantages over tiotropium bromide (e.g., a faster time to peak FEV1, lower cost of therapy). Aclidinium bromide is an inhaled anticholinergic that improves lung function measures in patients with COPD. The most common adverse effects during clinical trials of the drug were headache, nasopharyngitis, and cough, none of which occurred at significantly higher rates than were seen with placebo use.

  14. Clinical study of a new therapy for nerve agent poisoning: Ascending dose tolerance study of HI-6 + atropine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, J.G.; Madill, H.D.; Bailey, D.; Spence, J.D.


    This report details a double-blind, placebo controlled, ascending dose tolerance and pharmacokinetic study of HI-6 + atropine sulfate 2 mg in 24 healthy male volunteers. HI-6 was rapidly absorbed from an IM injection site. Maximum HI-6 plasma concentrations of 1.88, 4.96, 8.31 and 15.0 micrograms/mL were found 30-36 min after administration and maintained above 4 micrograms/mL concentration for 0, 39, 112 and 172.5 min following injection of 62.5, 125, 250 or 500 mg HI-6 + atropine (2 mg), respectively. The calculated half life of HI-6 was 78.2 min following 62.5 mg HI-6 + atropine dose and approximately 64-67 min following 125-500 mg HI-6 + atropine doses. Approximately 50% of the total dose of HI-6 was eliminated unchanged in the urine. There were significant changes (p < 0.05) in AST, CPK, creatinine and gamma GT following the 500 mg HI-6 + atropine dose but they were not considered to be clinically significant. Urinalysis, hematology and semen analysis over the 24 hr observation period was uneventful. There were no clinically significant changes in heart rate or ECG trace, respiration or blood pressure, visual and mental acuity following HI-6 + atropine. The various doses of HI-6 + atropine were well tolerated by the subjects as no serious clinical complaints were reported. With the rapid absorption and the lack of clinically significant side effects, combined with the superior efficacy against all nerve agents, HI-6 shows great promise as a replacement oxime in the therapy of nerve agent poisoning.

  15. 40 CFR 180.123 - Inorganic bromide residues resulting from fumigation with methyl bromide; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ....0 Cotton, undelinted seed, postharvest 200.0 Cucumber, postharvest 30.0 Cumin, seed, postharvest 100... residues are present in malt beverage, fermented in accordance with 21 CFR 172.730(a)(2), the amount shall...

  16. The reactions of 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenylcopper and -lithium tetramer with cuprous and cupric halides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Noltes, J.G.


    2-[(Dimethylamino)methyl]phenylcopper tetramer (R{4}Cu{4}) forms a red 11 complex (RCu - CuBr){n} with cuprous bromide. The 11 interaction of 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenylcopper with cupric halides results in the formation of the dimer R@?R, the 2-halo-substituted benzylamine R-Halide and minor

  17. Oxime and atropine failure to prevent intermediate syndrome development in acute organophosphate poisoning

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    Vučinić Slavica


    Full Text Available Introduction. Intermediate syndrome (IMS was described a few decades ago, however, there is still a controversy regarding its exact etiology, risk factors, diagnostic parameters and required therapy. Considering that acute poisonings are treated in different types of medical institutions this serious complication of organophosphate insecticide (OPI poisoning is frequently overlooked. The aim of this paper was to present a case of IMS in organophosphate poisoning, which, we believe, provides additional data on the use of oxime or atropine. Case report. After a well-resolved cholinergic crisis, the patient developed clinical presentation of IMS within the first 72 h from deliberate malathion ingestion. The signs of IMS were weakness of proximal limb muscles and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves, followed by the weakness of respiratory muscles and serious respiratory insufficiency. Malathion and its active metabolite were confirmed by analytical procedure (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pralidoxime methylsulphate, adiministered as a continuous infusion until day 8 (total dose 38.4 g, and atropine until the day 10 (total dose 922 mg did not prevent the development of IMS, hence the mechanical ventilation that was stopped after 27 h had to be continued until the day 10. Conclusion. Continuous pralidoxime methylsulphate infusion with atropine did not prevent the development of IMS, most likely due to the delayed treatment and insufficient oxime dose but also because of chemical structure and lipophilicity of ingested OPI. A prolonged intensive care monitoring and respiratory care are the key management for the intermediate syndrome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 176018, No. 46009

  18. Anesthesia of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) using a medetomidine-ketamine-atropine combination. (United States)

    Ward, David G; Blyde, David; Lemon, John; Johnston, Steve


    Seven captive male African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) weighing 25-32 kg each, were anesthetized by i.m. injection via hand syringe with a combination of 1.5 mg/kg ketamine, 40 microg/kg medetomidine, and 0.05 mg/kg atropine. Following endotracheal intubation, each animal was connected to a bain closed-circuit system that delivered 1.5% isoflurane and 2 L/min oxygen. Atipamezole (0.1 mg/kg i.v.; 0.1 mg/kg i.m.) was given at the end of each procedure (60 min following injection of medetomidine/ketamine/atropine). Time to sternal recumbency was 5-8 min. Times to standing after atipamezole administration were 8-20 min. This anesthetic regimen was repeated on three separate occasions (September 2000, February 2002, and October 2002) on all males to perform electroejaculation procedures. Each procedure was Dogs showed excellent muscle relaxation during the procedures. Arterial blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals for blood gases in one procedure (September 2000). Separate venous samples were taken from each dog during each procedure for hematology and biochemistry. These values were within the normal range for this species. Arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously in addition to other anesthesia monitoring procedures (body temperature, respiratory rate [RR], capillary refill time, blink response, pupil position, deep pain perception reflex). All dogs maintained relatively stable SpO2 profiles during monitoring, with a mean (+/-SD) SpO2 of 92% +/-5.4%. All other physiological variables (HR, RR, body temperature, blood pressure) were within normal limits. Following each procedure, normal behavior was noted in all dogs. All the dogs were reunited into the pack at completion of their anesthetic procedures. An injectable medetomidine-ketamine-atropine combination with maintenance by gaseous isoflurane and oxygen provides an inexpensive, reliable anesthetic for captive African wild dogs.

  19. Atropine and ODQ antagonize tetanic fade induced by L-arginine in cats

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    J.M. Cruciol-Souza


    Full Text Available Although it has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO released from sodium nitrite induces tetanic fade in the cat neuromuscular preparations, the effect of L-arginine on tetanic fade and its origin induced by NO have not been studied in these preparations. Furthermore, atropine reduces tetanic fade induced by several cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs in these preparations, whose mechanism is suggested to be mediated by the interaction of acetylcholine with inhibitory presynaptic muscarinic receptors. The present study was conducted in cats to determine the effects of L-arginine alone or after pretreatment with atropine or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ on neuromuscular preparations indirectly stimulated at high frequency. Drugs were injected into the middle genicular artery. L-arginine (2 mg/kg and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 16 µg/kg induced tetanic fade. The Nw-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 2 mg/kg alone did not produce any effect, but reduced the tetanic fade induced by L-arginine. D-arginine (2 mg/kg did not induce changes in tetanic fade. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine or SNAP was reduced by previous injection of atropine (1.0 µg/kg or ODQ (15 µg/kg. ODQ alone did not change tetanic fade. The data suggest that the NO-synthase-GC pathway participates in the L-arginine-induced tetanic fade in cat neuromuscular preparations. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine probably depends on the action of NO at the presynaptic level. NO may stimulate guanylate cyclase increasing acetylcholine release and thereby stimulating presynaptic muscarinic receptors.

  20. Investigating and comparing effects of atropine and physostigmine in peripheral pain examination due to formalin injection on rats

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    Mohammad Pourahmadi


    Full Text Available There areseveral neurotransmittersat feel the pain and processing nervoussystem, and until now cholinergic system has not been well studied in this field. The purpose of this research is investigating effects of atropine and physostigmine on the response of formalin pain test. We divided 50 male wistar head rats into 5 groups , first group ( saline normal injection 5 µ , second group ( 1% formalin injection into 50 µ , third group ( physostigmine injection 0/1 mg / kg , fourth group (atropine injection 2 mg / kg , fifth group ( atropine injection 2 mg / kg and physostigmine 0/1 mg/kg , after formalin injection , the animals were placed inside mirror pain machine and it was recorded pain response at the time ranges 0-5 and 15-45 . Results investigated with spss software and ANOVA and Duncan’s test. Formalin injection causes pain response in both time ranges. Atropine injection alone had no effect on pain response. Physostigmine effect alone, with a significant reduction (p< 0/05 in the number of foot motions in both stage and duration causesof licking and biting in the 15-45 minutes stage . Atropine and physostigmine injections in fifth group cause significant reduction in the number of foot motions and duration of licking and biting in the time range of 15-45 minutes.Perhaps there is a close relationship between cholinergic system and peripheral pain that can be taken through the action of muscarinic receptors.

  1. Clinical study of a new therapy for nerve agent poisoning: Ascending dose tolerance study of HI-6 + atropine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, J.G.; Bailey, D.G.; Madill, H.D.; Spence, J.D.


    HI-6 was rapidly absorbed from an IM injection site. Maximum HI-6 plasma concentrations of 1.88, 4.96, 8.31 15.0 ug/ml were found 28-36 min after administration and maintained above 4 ug/ml concentration for 0, 39, 112 172.5 min following administration of 62.5, 125, 250 or 500 mg HI-6 + atropine (2 mg), respectively. The calculated half life of HI-6 was 78.2 min following 62.5 mg HI-6 + atropine dose and approximately 64-67 min following 125-500 mg HI-6 + atropine doses. Approximately 50 % of the total dose of HI-6 was eliminated unchanged in the urine. There were significant changes (p < 0.05) in AST, CPK, creatinine and gamma GT following the 500 mg HI-6 + atropine dose but they were not considered to be clinically significant. Urinalysis, hematology and semen analysis over the 24 hr observation period was uneventful. There were no clinically significant changes in heart rate or ECG trace, respiration or blood pressure, visual and mental acuity following HI-6 + atropine.

  2. Atropine Ophthalmic (United States)

    ... following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: fever irritability fast pulse irregular heartbeat mental confusion difficulty urinating If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  3. Synthesis and Heme Polymerization Inhibitory Activity (HPIA Assay of Antiplasmodium of (1-N-(3,4-Dimethoxybenzyl-1,10-Phenanthrolinium Bromide from Vanillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhina Fitriastuti


    Full Text Available The synthesis of (1-N-(3,4-dimethoxy-benzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide had been conducted from vanillin. Heme polymerization inhibitory activity assay of the synthesized antiplasmodium has also been carried out. The first step of reaction was methylation of vanillin using dimethylsulfate and NaOH. The mixture was refluxed for 2 h to yield veratraldehyde in the form of light yellow solid (79% yield. Methylation product was reduced using sodium borohydride (NaBH4 with grinding method and yielded veratryl alcohol in the form of yellow liquid (98% yield. Veratryl alcohol was brominated using PBr3 to yield yellowish black liquid (85% yield. The final step was benzylation of 1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate with the synthesized veratryl bromide under reflux condition in acetone for 14 h to afford (1-N-(3,4-dimethoxy-benzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide (84% as yellow solid with melting point of 166-177 °C. The structures of products were characterized by FT-IR, GC-MS and 1H-NMR spectrometers. The results of heme polymerization inhibitory activity assay of (1-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide showed that it had IC50 HPIA of 3.63 mM, while chloroquine had IC50 of4.37 mM. These results indicated that (1-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide was more potential antiplasmodium than chloroquine.

  4. Intravenously administered oxotremorine and atropine, in doses known to affect pain threshold, affect the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban


    /kg). Spinal microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally at approximately the C2-C5 spinal level for sampling of acetylcholine and dialysis delivery of atropine (0.1, 1, 10 nM). Additionally, the tail-flick behaviour was tested on conscious rats injected intraperitoneally with saline, atropine (10, 100...... muscarinic agonists and antagonists modify nociceptive threshold by affecting intraspinal release of acetylcholine (ACh). Catheters were inserted into the femoral vein in rats maintained on isoflurane anaesthesia for administration of oxotremorine (10-300 microg/kg) and atropine (0.1, 10, 5000 microg...... and 5000 microg/kg), or subcutaneously with oxotremorine (30, 100, 300 microg/kg). Subcutaneous administration of oxotremorine (30, 100, 300 microg/kg) significantly increased the tail-flick latency. These doses of oxotremorine dose-dependently increased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine...

  5. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 9, 2014 ... Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of ...

  6. Hole conduction in pure and doped lead bromide crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, J.

    The conductivity of pure and doped lead bromide was measured in a bromine atmosphere in the temperature region 25–200°C. The defect chemistry of nonstoichiometric lead bromide is presented. The hole mobility was derived from the time dependent change in the conductivity after admission/removal of

  7. Potassium bromide, KBr/ ε: New Force Field (United States)

    Fuentes-Azcatl, Raúl; Barbosa, Marcia C.


    We propose a new force field for the Potassium Bromide, the KBr/ ε. The crystal density and structure, as well as, the density, the viscosity and the dielectric constant of the solution in water were computed and compared with the experiments and other atomistic models. Next, the transferability of the KBr/ ε and of the NaCl/ ε models is verified by creating the KCl/ ε and the NaBr/ ε models. The strategy was to employ the same parameters obtained for the NaCl/ ε and for the KBr/ ε force fields for the building up of the KCl/ ε and the NaBr/ ε models . The thermodynamic and dynamic properties of these two new models were compared with the experimental

  8. Hydrogen-bond interactions in morpholinium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro S. de Sousa


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C4H10NO+·Br−, which was synthesized by dehydration of diethanolamine with HBr, morpholinium and bromide ions are linked into chains by N—H...Br hydrogen bonds describing a C21(4 graph-set motif. Weaker bifurcated N—H...Br interactions join centrosymmetrically related chains through alternating binary graph-set R42(8 and R22(4 motifs, to form ladders along [100]. In addition, C—H...O interactions between centrosymmetric morpholinium cations link ladders, via R^2_2(8 motifs, to yield sheets parallel to (101, which in turn are crosslinked by weak C—H...O interactions, related across a glide plane, to form a three-dimensional network.

  9. Femtosecond time-resolved photodissociation dynamics of methyl halide molecules on ultrathin gold films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai E. Vaida


    Full Text Available The photodissociation of small organic molecules, namely methyl iodide, methyl bromide, and methyl chloride, adsorbed on a metal surface was investigated in real time by means of femtosecond-laser pump–probe mass spectrometry. A weakly interacting gold surface was employed as substrate because the intact adsorption of the methyl halide molecules was desired prior to photoexcitation. The gold surface was prepared as an ultrathin film on Mo(100. The molecular adsorption behavior was characterized by coverage dependent temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy. Submonolayer preparations were irradiated with UV light of 266 nm wavelength and the subsequently emerging methyl fragments were probed by photoionization and mass spectrometric detection. A strong dependence of the excitation mechanism and the light-induced dynamics on the type of molecule was observed. Possible photoexcitation mechanisms included direct photoexcitation to the dissociative A-band of the methyl halide molecules as well as the attachment of surface-emitted electrons with transient negative ion formation and subsequent molecular fragmentation. Both reaction pathways were energetically possible in the case of methyl iodide, yet, no methyl fragments were observed. As a likely explanation, the rapid quenching of the excited states prior to fragmentation is proposed. This quenching mechanism could be prevented by modification of the gold surface through pre-adsorption of iodine atoms. In contrast, the A-band of methyl bromide was not energetically directly accessible through 266 nm excitation. Nevertheless, the one-photon-induced dissociation was observed in the case of methyl bromide. This was interpreted as being due to a considerable energetic down-shift of the electronic A-band states of methyl bromide by about 1.5 eV through interaction with the gold substrate. Finally, for methyl chloride no photofragmentation could be detected at all.

  10. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine. (United States)

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan


    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures.

  11. Electrochemical determination of atropine at multi-wall carbon nanotube electrode based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate. (United States)

    Dar, Riyaz Ahmad; Brahman, Pradeep Kumar; Tiwari, Sweety; Pitre, Krishna Sadashiv


    Herein, a new electrochemical method was described for the determination of atropine based on the enhancement effect of an anionic surfactant: sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS). In pH 10.5 tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide as supporting electrolyte and in the presence of 0.4×10(-4)M SDBS, atropine yields a well-defined and sensitive oxidation peak at the multi-wall carbon nanotube electrode (MWCNTE). Compared with that in the absence of SDBS, the oxidation peak current of atropine remarkably increases in the presence of SDBS. The experimental parameters, such as supporting electrolyte, concentration of SDBS, and accumulation time, were optimized for atropine determination. The oxidation peak current is proportional to the concentration of atropine over the range from 3.98 ng/ml to 27.23 ng/ml. The detection limit is 0.449 ng/ml after 2 min of accumulation. This new voltammetric method was successfully used to determine atropine in Indian traditional medicine (seeds and leaves of Datura stramonium) with satisfactory recoveries. The developed method was also used for the analysis of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation of ophthalmic solution (eye drop). The relative standard deviations of intraday and interday analyses for atropine were 0.67% and 0.86% respectively (n=3) for the accumulation time of 120 s. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ready-to-use pre-filled syringes of atropine for anaesthesia care in French hospitals - a budget impact analysis. (United States)

    Benhamou, Dan; Piriou, Vincent; De Vaumas, Cyrille; Albaladejo, Pierre; Malinovsky, Jean-Marc; Doz, Marianne; Lafuma, Antoine; Bouaziz, Hervé


    Patient safety is improved by the use of labelled, ready-to-use, pre-filled syringes (PFS) when compared to conventional methods of syringe preparation (CMP) of the same product from an ampoule. However, the PFS presentation costs more than the CMP presentation. To estimate the budget impact for French hospitals of switching from atropine in ampoules to atropine PFS for anaesthesia care. A model was constructed to simulate the financial consequences of the use of atropine PFS in operating theatres, taking into account wastage and medication errors. The model tested different scenarios and a sensitivity analysis was performed. In a reference scenario, the systematic use of atropine PFS rather than atropine CMP yielded a net one-year budget saving of €5,255,304. Medication errors outweighed other cost factors relating to the use of atropine CMP (€9,425,448). Avoidance of wastage in the case of atropine CMP (prepared and unused) was a major source of savings (€1,167,323). Significant savings were made by means of other scenarios examined. The sensitivity analysis suggests that the results obtained are robust and stable for a range of parameter estimates and assumptions. The financial model was based on data obtained from the literature and expert opinions. The budget impact analysis shows that even though atropine PFS is more expensive than atropine CMP, its use would lead to significant cost savings. Savings would mainly be due to fewer medication errors and their associated consequences and the absence of wastage when atropine syringes are prepared in advance. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Leaching of zinc compound from rubber stoppers into the contents of automatic atropine injectors. (United States)

    Ellin, R I; Kaminskis, A; Zvirblis, P; Sultan, W E; Shutz, M B; Matthews, R


    This report describes how a material within the cartridge of an automatic injector contaminated its contents. On prolonged storage, a formulation that contained atropine produced lethality in mice. The toxic material originated from zinc compounds that were present in the rubber stopper and plunger of the container and that subsequently leached into the formulation. The contents of cartridges that contained greater than or equal to 0.75 mg/mL of solubilized zinc were lethal to at least 20% of the mice tested; those that contained 0.42 mg/mL showed no lethality. The problem resulted from the physicochemical properties of the rubber, not the concentration of zinc used in the vulcanization process.

  14. Effect of remifentanil with and without atropine on heart rate variability and RR interval in children. (United States)

    Tirel, O; Chanavaz, C; Bansard, J Y; Carré, F; Ecoffey, C; Senhadji, L; Wodey, E


    Remifentanil can cause bradycardia either by parasympathetic activation or by other negative chronotropic effects. The high frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of parasympathetic activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of remifentanil on RR interval and on HRV in children. Forty children ASA I or II were studied after approval by the human studies committee and informed parental consent was obtained. After stabilisation at sevoflurane 1 MAC, they were randomly divided into two groups: one received a 20 atropine injection (AT + REMI) and the other ringer lactate solution (REMI). Three minutes later, a 1 bolus of remifentanil was administered over 1 min, followed by a continual infusion at 0.25 for 10 min increased to 0.5 for a further 10 min. A time varying, autoregressive analysis of RR sequences was used to estimate classical spectral parameters: low (0.04-0.15 Hz; LF) and high (0.15-0.45 Hz; HF) frequency, whereas the root mean square of successive differences of RR intervals (rmssd) was derived directly from the temporal sequence. Statistical analyses were conducted by means of the multiple correspondence analysis and with non parametrical tests. Remifentanil induced an RR interval lengthening, i.e. bradycardia, in both groups compared to pretreatment values and was associated with an increase of HF and rmssd only for the REMI group. The parasympathetic inhibition by atropine did not totally prevent remifentanil's negative chronotropic effect. A direct negative chronotropic effect of remifentanil is proposed.

  15. Pharmacokinetic analysis of pralidoxime after its intramuscular injection alone or in combination with atropine-avizafone in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Abbara, C; Rousseau, J M; Lelièvre, B; Turcant, A; Lallement, G; Ferec, S; Bardot, I; Diquet, B


    Treatment of organophosphate poisoning with pralidoxime needs to be improved. Here we have studied the pharmacokinetics of pralidoxime after its intramuscular injection alone or in combination with avizafone and atropine using an auto-injector device. The study was conducted in an open, randomized, single-dose, two-way, cross-over design. At each period, each subject received either intramuscular injections of pralidoxime (700 mg), or two injections of the combination: pralidoxime (350 mg), atropine (2 mg), avizafone (20 mg). Pralidoxime concentrations were quantified using a validated LC/MS-MS method. Two approaches were used to analyse these data: (i) a non-compartmental approach; and (ii) a compartmental modelling approach. The injection of pralidoxime combination with atropine and avizafone provided a higher pralidoxime maximal concentration than that obtained after the injection of pralidoxime alone (out of bioequivalence range), while pralidoxime AUC values were equivalent. Pralidoxime concentrations reached their maximal value earlier after the injection of the combination. According to Akaike and to goodness of fit criteria, the best model describing the pharmacokinetics of pralidoxime was a two-compartment with a zero-order absorption model. When avizafone and atropine were injected with pralidoxime, the best model describing pralidoxime pharmacokinetics becomes a two-compartment with a first-order absorption model. The two approaches, non-compartmental and compartmental, showed that the administration of avizafone and atropine with pralidoxime results in a faster absorption into the general circulation and higher maximal concentrations, compared with the administration of pralidoxime alone. © 2010 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Subsurface Ectomycorrhizal Fungi: A New Source of Atmospheric Methyl Halides? (United States)

    Treseder, K. K.; Redeker, K. R.; Allen, M. F.


    Incomplete source budgets for methyl halides---compounds that release inorganic halogen radicals which, in turn, catalyze atmospheric ozone depletion---limit our abilities to predict the fate of the stratospheric ozone layer. We tested the ability ectomycorrhizal fungi to produce methyl bromide and methyl iodide. These fungi are abundant in temperate forests, where they colonize tree roots and provide nutrients to their symbiotic plants in exchange for carbon compounds. The observed range of emissions from seven different species in culture is 0.001- to 100-μ g g-1 fungi d-1 for methyl bromide, and 0.5- to 500-μ g g-1 fungi d-1 for methyl iodide. While methyl chloride was not specifically tested, large emissions were observed from several species with little to no emissions observed from others. Further analyses of the effects of substrate concentration, headspace concentration, and temperature were performed on the species Cenococcum geophilum, one of the most abundant ectomycorrhizal fungi. Our results suggest that subsurface fungal emissions may be a significant global source of methyl halides.

  17. Growth and Characterization of Tetraphenylphosphonium Bromide Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqiang Wang


    Full Text Available Multiple-phenyl phosphorous compounds are a group of chemical materials that have been used as reactants, pharmaceutical intermediates, extractants, and catalysts in organic synthetic reactions. However, the crystal growth of bulk crystals of multiple-phenyl phosphorous compounds, which may expand their applications in photonics technology, have been largely overlooked. In this article, the crystal growth of tetraphenylphosphonium bromide (TPPB has been studied in organic solvents and water. The crystal structures and crystallization features are analyzed by X-ray diffraction data. By a slow temperature-lowering method, a single-crystal of TPPB (2H2O with the size of 27 × 20 × 20 mm3 has been obtained in water. The basic thermal and optical properties were characterized. We find that the TPPB (2H2O crystal shows excellent transparent property in the near-IR region. Large Raman shifts and strong Raman scattering intensity indicate that TPPB is a potential candidate in Raman-scattering-based nonlinearity applications.

  18. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan


    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  19. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Heart Surgery, Avellino (Italy); Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Avellino (Italy); Daniele, Stefania [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, Alberto [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)


    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR ({>=}85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  20. Assessment of drug content uniformity of atropine sulfate triturate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, X-ray powder diffraction, and Raman chemical imaging. (United States)

    Moriyama, Kei; Takami, Yoichiro; Uozumi, Natsuki; Okuda, Akiko; Yamashita, Mayumi; Yokomizo, Rie; Shimada, Kenichi; Egawa, Takashi; Kamei, Takehito; Takayanagi, Kazunobu


    Atropine sulfate is an anticholinergic agent for treatment of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and is orally administrated as a triturate with lactose hydrate. Because of the low safety margin of atropine sulfate, triturate uniformity is a key safety factor. In this study, we assessed the uniformity of atropine sulfate in 1000-fold triturates prepared by wet mixing and dry mixing methods and discussed the cause of the difference in uniformity between two preparation methods. A 1000-fold triturate of atropine sulfate with lactose hydrate was prepared by two different methods: wet mixing and dry mixing. The wet mixing was performed according to Kurashiki Central Hospital protocol and the dry mixing was a simple physical mixing by a rocking mixer. The uniformity of atropine sulfate content in aliquots of a 1000-fold triturate with lactate hydrate was assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantification. Solid-state analyses of the triturates by Raman chemical imaging and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were performed to investigate the difference in uniformity. The LC-MS/MS quantification showed that the uniformity of atropine sulfate in the 1000-fold triturate was excellent for wet mixing but was significantly variable for dry mixing. On the basis of the Raman chemical imaging and XRPD analyses, it was indicated that an amorphous thin film of atropine sulfate coated the surfaces of the lactose hydrate particles during wet mixing and contributed to the uniformity of the triturate. In contrast, clusters of the crystalline atropine sulfate were found in the dry mixing samples. The results showed that better atropine sulfate triturate uniformity was achieved using the wet mixing method rather than the dry method and the cause of the uniformity difference between two mixing methods was indicated by the multilateral assessment.

  1. Analysis of atropine, its degradation products and related substances of natural origin by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Kirchhoff, C; Bitar, Y; Ebel, S; Holzgrabe, U


    Chromatographic separation and quantification methods of tropa alkaloids were often described. In order to separate atropine from its degradation products ion-pair chromatography (IPC) has been frequently applied. Beside long equilibration times IPC often suffers from poor robustness. The aim of this study was to develop robust and simple HPLC methods for both stability testing of atropine solutions and limitation of related substances in atropine from plant material. Using a hydrophilic embedded RP18 column and a gradient elution gave baseline separation of all components.

  2. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian


    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  3. Disinfection byproduct regulatory compliance surrogates and bromide-associated risk. (United States)

    Kolb, Chelsea; Francis, Royce A; VanBriesen, Jeanne M


    Natural and anthropogenic factors can alter bromide concentrations in drinking water sources. Increasing source water bromide concentrations increases the formation and alters the speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment. Brominated DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogs, and thus have a greater impact on human health. However, DBPs are regulated based on the mass sum of DBPs within a given class (e.g., trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids), not based on species-specific risk or extent of bromine incorporation. The regulated surrogate measures are intended to protect against not only the species they directly represent, but also against unregulated DBPs that are not routinely measured. Surrogates that do not incorporate effects of increasing bromide may not adequately capture human health risk associated with drinking water when source water bromide is elevated. The present study analyzes trihalomethanes (THMs), measured as TTHM, with varying source water bromide concentrations, and assesses its correlation with brominated THM, TTHM risk and species-specific THM concentrations and associated risk. Alternative potential surrogates are evaluated to assess their ability to capture THM risk under different source water bromide concentration conditions. The results of the present study indicate that TTHM does not adequately capture risk of the regulated species when source water bromide concentrations are elevated, and thus would also likely be an inadequate surrogate for many unregulated brominated species. Alternative surrogate measures, including THM3 and the bromodichloromethane concentration, are more robust surrogates for species-specific THM risk at varying source water bromide concentrations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercuric Bromide-Phenothiazine Complexes


    Vidisha A. Alwani; Kishore Cholkar; Ananth A Nayak; Netkal M. Made Gowda


    N-alkylphenothiazines (NAPTZs) are biologically active heterocyclic compounds that find extensive applications in the field of medicine. In the pharmaceutical industry, they are used as psychotherapeutic, antiemetic, and antihistaminic drugs. In this study, complexation reactions of mercuric bromide with NAPTZs as principal ligands have been investigated in MeOH medium. Five mercuric bromide complexes of the NAPTZ ligands namely, chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CP.HCl), promethazine hydrochl...

  5. Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power (United States)


    FINAL REPORT Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power ESTCP Project EW-201242 SEPTEMBER 2016 Ryan...Bromide (Zn/Br) Flow Battery -based Energy Storage System (ESS) at the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar. The effort integrates an innovative Zn...Zn/Br) Flow Battery -based Energy Storage System (ESS) at the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar. The effort integrates an innovative Zn/Br


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcellino Rudyanto


    Full Text Available A research on conversion of eugenol to methyl isoeugenol via one-step reaction with microwave irradiation has been carried out. Mixtures containing eugenol, sodium or potassium carbonate as solid support, with or without sodium or potassium hydroxide as base, with or without tetrabutylammonium bromide as phase transfer catalyst, with dimethyl sulfate as the methylating agent were irradiated in a domestic microwave oven for 20 - 50 seconds. It was revealed that one-step methylation and isomerization required combinations of sodium or potassium hydroxide base and tetrabutylammonium bromide. Without combination of base and TBAB only one product, i.e. methyl eugenol, was formed.   Keywords: eugenol, methyl eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, microwave

  7. Carbon nanotubes as an efficient hole collector for high voltage methylammonium lead bromide perovskite solar cells. (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Boix, Pablo P; Xing, Guichuan; Fu, Kunwu; Kulkarni, Sneha A; Batabyal, Sudip K; Xu, Wenjing; Cao, Anyuan; Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Wong, Lydia Helena


    A high open circuit voltage (V(OC)) close to 1.4 V under AM 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2) conditions is achieved when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as a hole conductor in methyl ammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite solar cells. Time-resolved photoluminescence and impedance spectroscopy investigations suggest that the observed high V(OC) is a result of the better charge extraction and lower recombination of the CNT hole conductor. Tandem solar cells with all perovskite absorbers are demonstrated with a MAPbBr3/CNT top cell and a MAPbI3 bottom cell, achieving a V(OC) of 2.24 V in series connection. The semitransparent and high voltage MAPbBr3/CNT solar cells show great potential for applications in solar cell windows, tandem solar cells and solar driven water splitting.

  8. Intranasal ipratropium bromide for the common cold. (United States)

    AlBalawi, Zaina H; Othman, Sahar S; Alfaleh, Khalid


    The common cold is one of the most common illnesses in humans and constitutes an economic burden both in terms of productivity and expenditure for treatment. There is no proven cure for the common cold and symptomatic relief is the mainstay of treatment. The use of intranasal ipratropium bromide (IB) has been addressed in several studies and might prove an effective treatment for the common cold. To determine the effect of IB versus placebo or no treatment on severity of rhinorrhoea and nasal congestion in children and adults with the common cold. Subjective overall improvement was another primary outcome and side effects (for example, dry mucous membranes, epistaxis and systemic anticholinergic effects) were reported as a secondary outcome. In this updated review we searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 3, MEDLINE (1950 to March week 4, 2013), MEDLINE in-process and other non-indexed citations (8 April 2013), EMBASE (1974 to April 2013), AMED (1985 to April 2013), Biosis (1974 to February 2011) and LILACS (1985 to April 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IB to placebo or no treatment in children and adults with the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We used a standardised form to extract relevant data and we contacted trial authors for additional information. Seven trials with a total of 2144 participants were included. Four studies (1959 participants) addressed subjective change in severity of rhinorrhoea. All studies were consistent in reporting statistically significant changes in favour of IB. Nasal congestion was reported in four studies and was found to have no significant change between the two groups. Two studies found a positive response in the IB group for the global assessment of overall improvement. Side effects were more frequent in the IB group, odds ratio (OR) 2.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40 to 3.11). Commonly encountered side effects included nasal dryness, blood tinged mucus

  9. Isolation of atropine and scopolamine from plant material using liquid-liquid extraction and EXtrelut® columns. (United States)

    Śramska, Paula; Maciejka, Artur; Topolewska, Anna; Stepnowski, Piotr; Haliński, Łukasz P


    Tropane alkaloids are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Solanaceae plants. Among them, plants from Datura genus produce significant amounts of scopolamine and hyoscyamine; the latter undergoes racemization to atropine during isolation. Because of their biological importance, toxic properties and commonly reported food and animal feed contamination by different Datura sp. organs, there is a constant need for reliable methods for the analysis of tropane alkaloids in many matrices. In the current study, three extraction and sample-clean up procedures for the determination of scopolamine and atropine in plant material were compared in terms of their effectiveness and repeatability. Standard liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and EXtrelut® NT 3 columns were used for the sample clean-up. Combined ultrasound-assisted extraction and 24h static extraction using ethyl acetate, followed by multiple LLE steps was found the most effective separation method among tested. However, absolute extraction recovery was relatively low and reached 45-67% for atropine and 52-73% for scopolamine, depending on the compound concentration. The same method was also the most effective one for the isolation of target compounds from Datura stramonium leaves. EXtrelut® columns, on the other hand, displayed relatively low effectiveness in isolating atropine and scopolamine from such a complex matrix and hence could not be recommended. The most effective method was also applied to the extraction of alkaloids from roots and stems of D. stramonium. Quantitative analyses were performed using validated method based on gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Based on the results, the importance of the proper selection of internal standards in the analysis of tropane alkaloids was stressed out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute and chronic effects of glucose and carbachol on insulin secretion and phospholipase C activation: studies with diazoxide and atropine. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hanae; Philbrick, William; Zawalich, Kathleen C; Zawalich, Walter S


    The acute and chronic effects of 20 mM glucose and 10 microM carbachol on beta-cell responses were investigated. Acute exposure of rat islets to 20 mM glucose increased glucose usage rates and resulted in a large insulin-secretory response during a dynamic perifusion. The secretory, but not the metabolic, effect of 20 mM glucose was abolished by simultaneous exposure to 100 microM diazoxide. Glucose (20 mM) significantly increased inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation, an index of phospholipase C (PLC) activation, from [(3)H]inositol-prelabeled islets. Diazoxide, but not atropine, abolished this effect as well. Unlike 20 mM glucose, 10 microM carbachol (in the presence of 5 mM glucose) increased IP accumulation but had no effect on insulin secretion or glucose (5 mM) metabolism. The IP effect was abolished by 50 microM atropine but not by diazoxide. Chronic 3-h exposure of islets to 20 mM glucose or 10 microM carbachol profoundly reduced both the insulin-secretory and PLC responses to a subsequent 20 mM glucose stimulus. The adverse effects of chronic glucose exposure were abolished by diazoxide but not by atropine. In contrast, the adverse effects of carbachol were abolished by atropine but not by diazoxide. Prior 3 h of exposure to 20 mM glucose or carbachol had no inhibitory effect on glucose metabolism. Significant secretory responses could be evoked from 20 mM glucose- or carbachol-pretreated islets by the inclusion of forskolin. These findings support the concept that an early event in the evolution of beta-cell desensitization is the impaired activation of islet PLC.

  11. Highly sensitive determination of atropine using cobalt oxide nanostructures: Influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soomro, Razium Ali, E-mail: [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Nafady, Ayman [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt); Hallam, Keith Richard [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Jawaid, Sana [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Al Enizi, Abdullah [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Sirajuddin [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain [Dr M.A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080 (Pakistan); Willander, Magnus [Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoping, Linkoping University, SE-60174, Norrkoping (Sweden)


    This study describes sensitive determination of atropine using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. The as-synthesised nanostructures were grown using cysteine (CYS), glutathione (GSH) and histidine (HYS) as effective templates under hydrothermal action. The obtained morphologies revealed interesting structural features, including both cavity-based and flower-shaped structures. The as-synthesised morphologies were noted to actively participate in electro-catalysis of atropine (AT) drug where GSH-assisted structures exhibited the best signal response in terms of current density and over-potential value. The study also discusses the influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity of atropine electro-oxidation. The functionalisation was carried with the amino acids originally used as effective templates for the growth of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. The highest increment was obtained when GSH was used as the surface functionalising agent. The GSH-functionalised Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-modified electrode was utilised for the electro-chemical sensing of AT in a concentration range of 0.01–0.46 μM. The developed sensor exhibited excellent working linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.999) and signal sensitivity up to 0.001 μM of AT. The noted high sensitivity of the sensor is associated with the synergy of superb surface architectures and favourable interaction facilitating the electron transfer kinetics for the electro-catalytic oxidation of AT. Significantly, the developed sensor demonstrated excellent working capability when used for AT detection in human urine samples with strong anti-interference potential against common co-existing species, such as glucose, fructose, cysteine, uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. - Highlights: • Template-assisted growth of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. • Shape-dependent electro-catalysis of atropine. • Effect of functionalisation of signal sensitivity.

  12. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay. (United States)

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M


    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation.

  13. Intravenous and inhalation toxicokinetics of sarin stereoisomers in atropinized guinea pigs. (United States)

    Spruit, H E; Langenberg, J P; Trap, H C; van der Wiel, H J; Helmich, R B; van Helden, H P; Benschop, H P


    We report the first toxicokinetic studies of (+/-)-sarin. The toxicokinetics of the stereoisomers of this nerve agent were studied in anesthetized, atropinized, and restrained guinea pigs after intravenous bolus administration of a dose corresponding to 0.8 LD50 and after nose-only exposure to vapor concentrations yielding 0.4 and 0.8 LCt50 in an 8-min exposure time. During exposure the respiratory minute volume and frequency were monitored. Blood samples were taken for gas chromatographic analysis of the nerve agent stereoisomers and for measurement of the activity of blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In all experiments, the concentration of (+)-sarin was below the detection limit (sarin, after an intravenous bolus was adequately described with a two-exponential equation. (-)-Sarin is distributed ca. 10-fold faster than C(-)P(-)-soman, whereas its elimination proceeds almost 10-fold slower. During nose-only exposure to 0.4 and 0.8 LCt50 of (+/-)-sarin in 8 min, (-)-sarin appeared to be rapidly absorbed. The blood AChE activity decreased during the exposure period to ca. 15 and 70% of control activity, respectively. There were no effects on the respiratory parameters. A significant nonlinearity of the toxicokinetics with dose was observed for the respiratory experiments. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Use of atropine to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari


    Full Text Available This cohort study included children with esotropia and hypermetropia of ≥ +2.0 diopters (D. The deviation was measured at presentation, under atropine cycloplegia and 3 months after full refractive correction. Of 44 children with a mean age of 5.2 ± 2.4 years, 25 were males. Eighteen (41% had fully refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE, 10 (23% had partial accommodative esotropia (PAE, and 5 (11% had nonaccommodative esotropia (NAE. Eleven (25% had convergence excess (CE. Under cycloplegia, all with RAE and RAE with CE had orthotropia. There was no significant change in the deviation in the patients with NAE. The deviation under cycloplegia and that with full refractive correction in PAE and PAE with CE (with +3.0 D addition were not different. The intraclass correlation coefficient for deviation under cycloplegia and after full refractive correction (+3.0 D addition for CE was 0.89. It was concluded that ocular deviation under cycloplegia can help to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia.

  15. Determination of atropine sulfate using a novel sensitive DNA-biosensor based on its interaction on a modified pencil graphite electrode. (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A; Nasr-Esfahani, Parisa; Heydari-Bafrooei, Esmaeil; Rezaei, B


    A novel, selective, rapid and simple electrochemical method is developed for the determination of atropine sulfate. UV-Vis and differential pulse voltammetry are used to study the interaction of atropine sulfate with salmon sperm ds-DNA on the surface of salmon sperm ds-DNA modified-pencil graphite electrode (PGE). For this purpose, a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs), and poly-dialyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) decorated with ds-DNA is tested for the determination of atropine sulfate. The electrochemical oxidation peak current of adenine and guanine bonded on the surface of ds-DNA/PDDA-TiO2NPs-MWCNTs/PGE is used to obtain the analytical signal. Decreases in the intensities of guanine and adenine oxidation signals after their interaction with atropine sulfate are used as indicator signals for the sensitive determination of atropine sulfate. Using ds-DNA/PDDA-TiO2NPs-MWCNTs/PGE and based on the guanine signal, linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.6 to 30.0 μmol L(-1) and 30.0 to 600.0 μmol L(-1) atropine sulfate with low detection limits of 30.0 nmol L(-1). The biosensor shows a good selectivity for the determination of atropine sulfate. Finally, the applicability of the biosensor is evaluated by measuring atropine sulfate in real samples with good accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enantiomeric differentiation of atropine/hyoscyamine by (13) C NMR spectroscopy and its application to Datura stramonium extract. (United States)

    Antoine Lanfranchi, Don; Tomi, Félix; Casanova, Joseph


    The two enantiomers of hyoscyamine, an alkaloid found in many plant species, have distinct pharmacological and biological properties. Methods for the discrimination of both enantiomers are almost exclusively based on chiral HPLC/UV. Determination of the enantiomeric ratio (e.r.) of hyoscyamine is a challenging problem since this compound tends to racaemise, forming atropine during acid-base extraction. To develop a protocol for the calculation of enantiomeric ratio of hyoscyamine in a plant extract using a (13) C NMR method. Samples were prepared by extraction of dried Datura stramonium seeds. Observation of C12 and C15 NMR signals of hyoscyamine in the presence of one equivalent of TFA and sub-stoichiometric amount of Yb(hfc)(3) allowed the calculation of the e.r. of S-(-) and R-(+)-hyoscyamine.The method was optimised with various mixtures of (+) and (-)-hyoscyamine ranging from 50:50 (racaemic mixture, i.e. atropine) to 98.5:1.5. The e.r. measured by NMR on the signals of aromatic C12 and C15 were in agreement with the gravimetrically prepared samples. The method was then applied to an extract of Datura stramonium and S-(-)-hyoscyamine was the unique enantiomer. The study showed that the e.r. determination of atropine/hyoscyamine was achieved with a routine NMR spectrometer, using CLSR/TFA on pure compounds as well as on the crude extract of Datura stramonium. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Crystal structure of 2-bromo-3-dimethylamino-N,N,N′,N′,4-pentamethyl-4-(trimethylsilyloxypent-2-eneamidinium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tiritiris


    Full Text Available The reaction of the orthoamide 1,1,1-tris(dimethylamino-4-methyl-4-(trimethylsilyloxypent-2-yne with bromine in benzene, yields the title salt, C15H33BrN3OSi+·Br−. The C—N bond lengths in the amidinium unit are 1.319 (6 and 1.333 (6 Å, indicating double-bond character, pointing towards charge delocalization within the NCN plane. The C—Br bond length of 1.926 (5 Å is characteristic for a C—Br single bond. Additionally, there is a bromine–bromine interaction [3.229 (3 Å] present involving the anion and cation. In the crystal, weak C—H...Br interactions between the methyl H atoms of the cation and the bromide ions are present.

  18. Discovery of subtype selective muscarinic receptor antagonists as alternatives to atropine using in silico pharmacophore modeling and virtual screening methods. (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Apurba K; Pomponio, James W; Evans, Sarah A; Pervitsky, Dmitry; Gordon, Richard K


    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have five known subtypes which are widely distributed in both the peripheral and central nervous system for regulation of a variety of cholinergic functions. Atropine is a well known muscarinic subtype non-specific antagonist that competitively inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) at postganglionic muscarinic sites. Atropine is used to treat organophosphate (OP) poisoning and resulting seizures in the warfighter because it competitively inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) at the muscarinic cholinergic receptors. ACh accumulates due to OP inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that hydrolyzes ACh. However, atropine produces several unwanted side-effects including dilated pupils, blurred vision, light sensitivity, and dry mouth. To overcome these side-effects, our goal was to find an alternative to atropine that emphasizes M1 (seizure prevention) antagonism but has minimum M2 (cardiac) and M3 (e.g., eye) antagonism so that an effective less toxic medical countermeasure may be developed to protect the warfighter against OP and other chemical warfare agents (CWAs). We adopted an in silico pharmacophore modeling strategy to develop features that are characteristics of known M1 subtype-selective compounds and used the model to identify several antagonists by screening an in-house (WRAIR-CIS) compound database. The generated model for the M1 selectivity was found to contain two hydrogen bond acceptors, one aliphatic hydrophobic, and one ring aromatic feature distributed in a 3D space. From an initial identification of about five hundred compounds, 173 compounds were selected through principal component and cluster analyses and in silico ADME/Toxicity evaluations. Next, these selected compounds were evaluated in a subtype-selective in vitro radioligand binding assay. Twenty eight of the compounds showed antimuscarinic activity. Nine compounds showed specificity for M1 receptors and low specificity for M3 receptors. The p

  19. Determination of tropane alkaloids atropine and scopolamine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in plant organs of Datura species. (United States)

    Jakabová, Silvia; Vincze, Lajos; Farkas, Agnes; Kilár, Ferenc; Boros, Borbála; Felinger, Attila


    Hyoscyamine (atropine) and scopolamine are the predominant tropane alkaloids in the Datura genus, occurring in all plant organs. The assessment of the alkaloid content of various plant parts is essential from the viewpoint of medical use, but also as a potential risk of toxicity for humans and animals. Therefore, a reliable method for the determination of tropane alkaloid content is of high importance. The present work aimed at the elaboration of a rapid method for determination of the most abundant Datura alkaloids by LC-MS technique using a new generation of core-shell particle packed column. Tropane alkaloid content was investigated in various plant organs of four Datura taxa (D. innoxia, D. metel, D. stramonium, and D. stramonium var. tatula), grown under the same conditions, in two developmental stages. We have developed a rapid LC-MS method for the quantitative determination of atropine and scopolamine, which was successfully applied to quantify the alkaloids in different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, seeds) of thorn apples after a simple sample preparation step. Elaboration and validation of the method and analysis of plant extracts were done by UFLC-MS technique, employing an Ascentis Express C18 column. Detection was done in positive ionization mode (ESI+) and the method suitability was evaluated by several validation characteristics. Quantitation limits are 333 and 167 pgmL(-1) for scopolamine and atropine, respectively, and the method shows very good repeatability. The analysis of Datura extracts revealed significant differences depending on the species, the organ and the sampling period. Atropine was found to be dominant over scopolamine in three out of the four taxa investigated. D. innoxia showed the highest concentrations of scopolamine in all organs examined, whereas D. metel accumulated the lowest scopolamine levels. Hyoscyamine, measured as atropine, was the highest in D. stramonium var. tatula, and the lowest in D. innoxia. Samples

  20. Clinical potential of aclidinium bromide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong J


    Full Text Available Jun Zhong, Michael Roth Pneumology and Pulmonary Cell Research, Department of Biomedicine and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is increasing worldwide and is predicted to become the third most frequent cause of death by 2030. Muscarinic receptor antagonists, alone or in combination with long-acting ß2-agonists, are frequently used for COPD therapy. Aclidinium bromide is a novel muscarinic receptor antagonist, and clinical studies indicate that its metabolism is more rapid than that of other muscarinic receptor inhibitors, so systemic side effects are expected to occur less frequently. Aclidinium bromide is well tolerated, and when compared with other muscarinic receptor antagonists, the drug achieves better control of lung function, especially night-time symptoms in COPD patients. This review summarizes the safety profile and side effects reported by recent clinical studies using aclidinium bromide alone. Keywords: aclidinium, tiotropium, side effects, clinical safety

  1. Water- Lithium Bromide-γ- Butyrolactone Absorption Refrigerating Machine (United States)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Uemura, Tadashi

    This investigation was carried out in order to find corrosion inhibitors which would be effective in controlling the corrosion for the water-lithium bromide-γ-butyrolactone (20 moles water/1 mole γ-butyrolactone) absorption refrigerating machine. The experiments were carried out on continuous boiling test, intermittent boiling test and galvanic corrosion test with the use of organic inhibitors and inorganic inhibitors in γ-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide. The metals used in these corrosion tests were mainly SS 41 and copper. From these experimental results, the most suitable corrosion inhibitors for SS 41 and copper in γ-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide Were recognized to be benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and lithium molybdate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Gorda


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the comparison of induction, duration and recoverytime of anaesthesia with addition of premedication atropine-xylazine and atropinediazepamfor anaesthesia of ketamine in pigeon (Columba livia.Complete Random Device (RAL was used to analisis. The total of eight teen of pigeonused for this study. They were divided into three groups i.e. (I treated with ketamine : 75mg/kg of body weight as a positive control, (II treated with combination of atropinexylazine-ketamine with dose 0,02 mg/kg of body weight, 4 mg/kg of body weight and 75mg/kg of body weight and (III treated with combination of atropine-diazepam-ketaminewith dose 0,02 mg/kg of body weight, 2,5 mg/kg of body weight and 75 mg/kg of bodyweight. Data were analized with Analysis of Variance. (Steel and Torrie, 1989. Theresult showed that the anaesthesia of ketamine and the combination of atropine-diazepamketaminewas not resulted the induction and duration time of anaesthesia. That mean,recovery time of anaesthesia ketamine and the combination of atropine-diazepam-ketamineare 114,4 minutes and 138,1 minutes. The combination of atropine-xylazine-ketamine wasresulting the mean of induction 13,4 minutes, duration 82,8 minutes and recovery 139,6minutes. The result showed that no significantly different (P > 0.05 the time of recoverybetween the anaesthesia of ketamine, combination of atropine-xylazine-ketamine andcombination of atropine-diazepam-ketamine.

  3. 76 FR 7200 - Methyl Bromide; Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Amend Registrations To Terminate... (United States)


    ... prevalently as a soil fumigant, but is also used as a post harvest treatment of commodities. In letters dated... trays (use allowed until December 31, 2014). These requests would not affect post-harvest fumigant... all soil uses. This request does not cover the post harvest uses on the label. The requests would not...

  4. 78 FR 36507 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document... hardship for the exporters, in 2009 Argentina requested and subsequently provided the supporting efficacy...

  5. Comparison of leakage rates of methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride during structural fumigations


    Maier. D. E.; Subramanyam, B.; Chayaprasert, W.


    In structural fumigations, half-loss time (HLT) is the most frequently used indicator for comparing fumigant leakage rates. In practical situations where gas leakage rates during structural fumigations are compared, environmental conditions generally are not analyzed in detail and sealing quality is assumed to be constant or fixed. This gives a false impression that a certain gas fumigant might be contained in a structure better than another fumigant. During commercial structural fumigations ...

  6. 77 FR 31564 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Cottonseed (United States)


    ... regulations in 7 CFR chapter III are intended, among other things, to prevent the introduction or... 01112. These strains are quarantine pests and could have significant impacts on U.S. cotton production... animal feed has been hurt by recent droughts in cotton-growing regions of the United States. In addition...

  7. 76 FR 29238 - Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses (United States)


    ..., 2011, Federal Register Notice of Receipt of Requests from the registrants listed in Table 2 of Unit II...; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members of the public interested in the sale, distribution... section 3 of FIFRA. These registrations are listed in sequence by registration number in Tables 1A and 1B...

  8. Directions for Determining Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation with Methyl Bromide (United States)

    Buffer zones for commodity and food handling structural applications are distributed across numerous tables. This document provides directions for determining the factors to use to identify the correct table for a given application.

  9. 77 FR 29341 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications... (United States)


    .... Applications can be obtained in the following ways: 1. PDF, Microsoft Word, and Microsoft Excel formats at EPA's Web site: ; 2. PDF, Microsoft Word, and Microsoft Excel..., application rates, differences in labor inputs (i.e., hours and wages) associated with alternatives, the...

  10. 75 FR 41177 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications... (United States)


    ... 6 in full regardless of whether you submitted an application in 2009. You need only complete the... excess of the amount of unexpended critical use allowances held by the producer or importer, unless... allowances may be used only for the appropriate category of approved critical uses as listed in Appendix L to...

  11. Re-manufacture of cobalt-manganese-bromide as a liquid catalyst from spent catalyst containing cobalt generated from petrochemical processes via hydrometallurgy. (United States)

    Joo, Sung-Ho; Shin, Dong Ju; Oh, Chang Hyun; Wang, Jei-Pil; Shin, Shun Myung


    Cobalt and manganese have been the subject of individual separation studies because their fields of application are different. However, this study shows that high-value products can be manufactured in the form of a cobalt-manganese-bromide (CMB) liquid catalyst by simultaneously recovering cobalt and manganese. Na-bis-(2,4,4-tri-methyl-pentyl)phosphinic acid was employed in order to manufacture the CMB liquid catalyst from the spent catalyst generated from petroleum chemistry processes. The pH-isotherm, degree of saponification of solvent and separation factor values were investigated. ΔpH50 and separation factor values show that Co and Mn can be separated from impurities such as Mg and Ca. Further, the extraction stages and organic/aqueous ratio isotherms were investigated using counter-current simulation extraction batch tests. To prepare CMB from a loaded organic phase obtained in a stripping study using hydrogen bromide, the Co and Mn were completely stripped and concentrated by a factor of 6 using a 2M hydrogen bromide solution. When compared with manufactured and commercial CMB, the CMB liquid catalyst could be produced by supplying a shortage of Mn in the form of manganese bromide. Finally, the method of manufacture of CMB was subjected to a real pilot plant test. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Glycosylation with Disarmed Glycosyl Bromides Promoted by Iodonium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanz, Gyrithe; Madsen, Robert


    Iodonium ions have been developed for activating glycosyl bromides in the coupling to glycosyl acceptors. The iodonium ions are generated from N-iodosuccinimide and a protic acid such as camphorsulfonic acid or triflic acid, where the latter gives the most reactive promoter system. The couplings ...

  13. Effectiveness of hyoscine butyl bromide in shortening the first stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prolonged labour from cervical dystocia or stasis is one of the common indications for caesarean delivery. Hyoscine N-butyl bromide (HBB), an anticholinergic and antispasmodic drug, has been found effective in shortening the first stage of labour with no adverse effects on feto-maternal outcomes.

  14. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods of administration of ipratropium bromide (Atrovent; Boehringer Ingelheim) to wheezing children'< 25 months of age were compared: (i) the conventional nebulisation (15 children); and (ii) a metered-dose aerosol plus spacer and mask (MDA group, 17 children). The drug induced a significant and similar fall in ...

  15. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 21, 1990 ... metered aerosol method compared with nebulisation of ipra- tropium bromide when given to wheezing infants and toddlers. The former method is convenient for primary health care facilities or home use, since it does not depend upon the availability of the nebuliser apparatus or a gas or electricity source.

  16. Revisiting the Kinetics and Mechanism of Bromate-Bromide Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côrtes Carlos Eduardo S.


    Full Text Available The bromate-bromide reaction was investigated in an acidity range not studied yet. The reaction was followed at the Br2/Br3- isosbestic point (lambda = 446 nm. It was observed a first-order behavior for bromate and bromide ions and a second-order behavior for H+ ion that results in the rate law nu = k[BrO3-][Br- ][H+]². This rate law suggests a mechanism involving two successive protonation of bromate followed by the interaction of the intermediate species H2BrO3+ with bromide. These results disagree with the obtained by other authors who observed a second-order behavior for the bromide and first-order for H+, and have proposed intermediate species like H2Br2O3 and HBr2O3-. The second-order for [H+] observed in the range 0.005 <= [H+] <= 2.77 mol L-1 sets down that the pKa of bromic acid, HBrO3, must be lower than -0.5 (T = 25 °C, different from all other values for this pKa proposed in the literature.

  17. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (E), hydrogen bond donor ability ...

  18. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (), hydrogen bond donor ability () and ...

  19. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations. (United States)

    Fisher, C M


    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium.

  20. Measurement of atropine and scopolamine in hair by LC-MS/MS after Datura stramonium chronic exposure. (United States)

    Ricard, Florian; Abe, Emuri; Duverneuil-Mayer, Charlotte; Charlier, Philippe; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy; Alvarez, Jean Claude


    Datura stramonium is an herbaceous annual plant. All parts of the plant contain tropane alkaloids such as atropine and scopolamine. We report the case of a 22-year-old man admitted to a general hospital for visual and aural hallucinations. One week after his admission, as the hallucinations remained, the patient was transferred to a psychiatric hospital. Neither blood nor urine was conserved during his hospitalization, so a hair analysis was requested in order to identify a possible consumption of a Datura seed infusion. After decontamination and washing, hair strands were segmented into four pieces and grinded into a fine and homogeneous powder. We then incubated 20 mg for 10 min in 1 mL of phosphate buffer at pH 5.0 in the presence of 100 ng of ketamine-d4, used as internal standard (IS). Liquid-liquid extraction was performed with 4 mL of a mixture of hexane/ethyl acetate (1/1, v/v). The residue was reconstituted in 80 μL of mobile phase. A further 10 μL were injected into an 1.9 μm Hypersil GOLD PFP column (100 mm×2.1 mm) eluted with a gradient of acetonitrile and 2 mmol/L 0.1% formate buffer at a flow rate of 300 μL/min. Compounds were detected by a LCQ TSQ Vantage XP triple-quadripole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source set in positive mode. SRM transitions m/z 290.2→124.1, m/z 304.2→138.1, and m/z 242.1→129.1 were optimized for atropine, scopolamine and IS, respectively. The assay was accurate and precise over the range of 1.0 (lower limit of quantification) to 1000.0 pg/mg (upper limit of quantification) in hair. Both atropine (from 8.4 to 15.0 pg/mg) and scopolamine (1.0-1.3 pg/mg) were identified in the four segment of the hair showing a regular consumption of Datura admitted by the patient himself. We report here the first description of atropine with scopolamine in a Caucasian dark man's hair after D. stramonium chronic exposure, using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  1. Atropine sulfate for treatment of bradycardia in a patient with morbid obesity: what may happen when you least expect it


    Carron, Michele; Veronese, Stefano


    A 74-year-old morbidly obese man was scheduled for surgical repair of an incisional ventral hernia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl, and maintained with desflurane. A second dose of fentanyl 0.2 mg, given before starting surgery, resulted in sinus bradycardia and mild decrease of arterial blood pressure. Atropine sulfate 0.5 mg was administered. One minute later, the ECG rhythm on the monitor changed to third degree atrioventricular block with a ventricular response rate of...

  2. Effect of Intensive Atropine Doses (Rapid Incremental Loading and Titration for Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh Ahmed


    Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance.  Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh.    How to cite this article: Ahmed AS

  3. Physicochemical and thermodynamic characterization of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromides and its aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawadzki, Maciej, E-mail:; Królikowska, Marta; Lipiński, Paweł


    Highlights: • The aqueous solutions of bromide-based ionic liquids have been studied. • The synthesis and basic thermal characterization of pure IL have been done. • The density, dynamic viscosity, SLE and VLE have been determined. • The experimental data have been correlated using appropriate equations. - Abstract: This work is a continuation of our research of ionic liquids to investigate the physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of (ionic liquid + water) binary mixtures as a novel alternative working pair for the absorption heat pump cycle. In this work, a series of organic salts: N-propyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide, [C{sub 1}C{sub 3}PYR]Br; N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium, [C{sub 1}C{sub 4}PYR]Br and N-pentyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide, [C{sub 1}C{sub 5}PYR]Br have been synthesized. The structures of new compounds have been confirmed using NMR spectra and elementary analysis. The basic thermal characterization of pure ILs, including temperature and enthalpy of phase transition (T{sub tr}, Δ{sub tr}H), temperature and enthalpy of melting (T{sub m,} Δ{sub m}H) have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition temperature of the tested ILs were detected by the simultaneous TG/DTA experiments. The effect of temperature on the density (ρ) and dynamic viscosity (η) is reported over a wide temperature range from 298.15 to 343.15 K at ambient pressure. From experimental density data, the excess molar volumes (V{sup E}) were calculated and correlated using Redlich–Kister equation. The isothermal vapour–liquid phase equilibria (VLE) have been measured by an ebulliometric method at wide temperature range from 328.15 to 368.15 K and pressure up to 85 kPa. Experimental data have been correlated by means of NRTL equation. The solid–liquid phase equilibria (SLE) for the tested binary mixtures have been determined over whole composition range using dynamic method. The NRTL equation using parameters

  4. Association of defects in lead chloride and lead bromide: Ionic conductivity and dielectric loss measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Schoonman, J.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    The ionic conductivity data of pure and doped lead bromide without associated defects are used in order to explain the anomalous conductivity behaviour of copper (I) bromide and lead oxide-doped lead-bromide crystals. In these crystals precipitated dopant and associated defects are present. The

  5. [Biotransformation of 4-methyl-7-allyloxy coumarin by transgenic hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum]. (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Deng, Wen-juan; Zhou, Liang-bin; Yan, Chun-yan; Yu, Rong-min


    To synthesis 4-methyl-7-allyloxy coumarin by Williamson etherification from 4-methyl-7-hydroxy coumarin and apply as a substrate in hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum. The synthesis reaction of 4-methyl-7-allyloxy coumarin used the allyl bromide and potassium carbonate as catalysts, and acetone as solvent reacted for 17 hours, then the product was isolated. 4-methyl-7-allyloxy coumarin was added into the media of supension transgenic hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum which had been precultured for 8 d, and then co-cultured for another 7 d. The biotransformation products were detected by TLC and HPLC and isolated by various chromatographic methods. Two biotransformation products, 4-methyl-7-hydroxy coumarin and 4-methyl-coumarin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside were isolated and identified. Hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum contains not only glycosyltransferase but also hydrolysis enzymes.

  6. Thermal stability of octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide modified montmorillonite organoclay. (United States)

    Xi, Yunfei; Zhou, Qin; Frost, Ray L; He, Hongping


    Organoclays are significant for providing a mechanism for the adsorption of organic molecules from potable water. As such their thermal stability is important. A combination of thermogravimetric analysis and infrared emission spectroscopy was used to determine this stability. Infrared emission spectroscopy (IES) was used to investigate the changes in the structure and surface characteristics of water and surfactant molecules in montmorillonite, octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and organoclays prepared with the surfactant octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide with different surfactant loadings. These spectra collected at different temperatures give support to the results obtained from the thermal analysis and also provide additional evidence for the dehydration which is difficult to obtain by normal thermoanalytical techniques. The spectra provide information on the conformation of the surfactant molecules in the clay layers and the thermal decomposition of the organoclays. Infrared emission spectroscopy proved to be a useful tool for the study of the thermal stability of the organoclays.

  7. Liquid chromatographic determination of bromide in human milk and plasma. (United States)

    Goewie, C E; Hogendoorn, E A


    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of bromide present in human body fluids at the level of 0.5-5.0 ppm is presented. The method involves liquid--liquid extraction of lipids and other lipophilic compounds, destruction of the aqueous phase and analysis of the residue on an aminopropyl bonded silica column with UV detection at 214 nm. The method was applied to the analysis of 278 samples of Dutch human milk. Comparison of the results obtained with those from a routinely used colorimetric procedure for plasma indicated excellent agreement. The ease of automation of the described procedure and its excellent reproducibility make it a good alternative to existing methods for bromide analysis in body fluids.

  8. [2,6-Bis(dimethylaminomethylphenyl]selenium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Varga


    Full Text Available In the title hydrated molecular salt, C12H19N2Se+·Br−·H2O, the two independent bromide anions lie on a twofold rotation axis. Strong intramolecular N→Se interactions [2.185 (3 and 2.181 (3 Å] are established by both N atoms of the organic group in the cation, in trans positions to each other, with an N—Se—N angle of 161.6 (1°, resulting in a T-shaped (C,N,N′Se core. In the crystal, dimeric associations are formed by Br...Se [3.662 (2 Å] and Br...H interactions [2.56 (6 and 2.63 (7 Å] involving two bromide anions, two cations and two water molecules.

  9. Conservative tracer bromide inhibits pesticide mineralisation in soil. (United States)

    Bech, Tina B; Rosenbom, Annette E; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Jacobsen, Carsten S


    Bromide is a conservative tracer that is often applied with non-conservative solutes such as pesticides to estimate their retardation in the soil. It has been applied in concentrations of up to 250 g Br L-1, levels at which the growth of single-celled organisms can be inhibited. Bromide applications may therefore affect the biodegradation of non-conservative solutes in soil. The present study investigated the effect of potassium bromide (KBr) on the mineralisation of three pesticides - glyphosate, MCPA and metribuzin - in four agricultural A-horizon soils. KBr was added to soil microcosms at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.5 and 5 g Br- L-1 in the soil solution. The study concluded that KBr had a negative effect on pesticide mineralisation. The inhibitory effect varied depending on the KBr concentration, the type of pesticide and the type of soil. Furthermore, 16 S amplicon sequencing revealed that the KBr treatment generally reduced the abundance of bacteroidetes and proteobacteria on both an RNA and DNA level. Therefore, in order to reduce the effect of KBr on the soil bacterial community and consequently also on xenobiotic degradation, it is recommended that KBr be applied in a concentration that does not exceed 0.5 g Br- L-1 in the soil water. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Two new bismuth thiourea bromides: crystal structure, growth, and characterization. (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, R K


    Crystals of two new bismuth thiourea bromides, bismuth trithiourea bromide (Bi[CS(NH2)2]3Br3, BTB) and bismuth protonated-hexathiourea bromide (Bi[CS(NH2)2H]6Br9, BHB), have been successfully grown from hydrobromic acid solution with different pH values by slow evaporation. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that BTB is isostructural to its Cl-analog crystallizing in a monoclinic space group Cc with unit cell dimensions of a = 8.6238(7) Å, b = 12.2506(11) Å, c = 15.5040(13) Å, β = 90.7810(10)° and Z = 4. In contrast, BHB crystallizes in a trigonal space group R3[combining macron]c with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 12.748(17) Å, c = 40.45(11) Å, and Z = 6. The protonation of the thiourea in BHB is confirmed by the structure solution, IR and Raman spectroscopy. The UV diffuse reflection spectra clearly indicate that both of the two crystals have good optical transparency in the range below 2000 nm. Both compounds decompose above 190 °C, and BHB melts at around 140 °C while BTB possesses a phase transition at 145 °C as indicated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA).

  11. Utilization of bromination reactions for the determination of carbamazepine using bromate–bromide mixture as a green brominating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura Basavaiah


    Full Text Available One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric procedures have been developed for the assay of carbamazepine (CBZ in bulk drug, formulations and spiked human urine. The methods are based on the bromination of CBZ by the bromine generated in situ by the action of the acid on the bromate–bromide mixture. The twin advantages of avoiding liquid bromine and analysis in a cost-effective manner are realized. In titrimetry, the drug was treated with a known excess of bromate–bromide mixture in hydrochloric acid medium followed by the determination of unreacted bromine iodometrically. Spectrophotometry involves the addition of a measured excess of bromate–bromide reagent in acid medium to CBZ, and after the reaction is ensured to be complete, the residual bromine was determined by reacting with a fixed amount of either methyl orange and measuring the absorbance at 510 nm (method A or indigo carmine and measuring the absorbance at 610 nm (method B. Titrimetric procedure is applicable over the range of 1.00–7.50 mg CBZ, and the calculations are based on a 1:1 reaction stoichiometry (CBZ:KBrO3. In spectrophotometric methods, Beer’s law is valid within concentration ranges of 0.25–1.50 and 0.50–6.00 μg ml−1 CBZ for methods A and B, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of CBZ in tablets and syrup, in addition to spiked human urine by the spectrophotometric methods, with mean recoveries of 95.50–104.0% and the results were statistically compared with those of an official method by applying Student’s t-test and F-test.

  12. Enantioselective decomposition of chiral alkyl bromides on Cu(6 4 3) R&S: Effects of moving the chiral center (United States)

    Rampulla, D. M.; Gellman, A. J.


    The enantioselective surface chemistry of two chiral alkyl halides, S-1-bromo-2-methylbutane and R-2-bromobutane, have been compared on the naturally chiral Cu(6 4 3) R&S surfaces. Temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy was used to quantify the yields of the various decomposition products during heating. A fraction of the adsorbed alkyl bromides desorb intact while the remainder decomposes by debromination to form either S-2-methyl-1-butyl or R-2-butyl groups on the surfaces. The S-2-methyl-1-butyl group then reacts by β-hydride elimination to form 2-methyl-1-butene or by hydrogenation to form 2-methylbutane. The R-2-butyl group reacts by β-hydride elimination to form butene or by hydrogenation to form butane. This surface chemistry on Cu(6 4 3) R&S is not enantioselective at low coverages but is enantioselective at high coverages. In R-2-bromobutane the chiral carbon atom coincides with the debromination reaction center while the β-hydride elimination centers are achiral. In S-1-bromo-2-methylbutane the chiral carbon atom coincides with the β-hydride elimination reaction center while the center for debromination is achiral. Results show that the enantioselectivities are influenced by the surface structure to a greater extent than they are by the adsorbate structure.

  13. 76 FR 65139 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: The 2012 Critical Use Exemption From the Phaseout of Methyl... (United States)


    ... insects, weeds, rodents, pathogens, and nematodes. Information on methyl bromide can be found at http... and spices, and spaces and equipment in associated processing and storage facilities.'' MBTOC found..., EPA registered Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS) to control nematodes, weeds, and pathogens in tomatoes...

  14. In vitro activation of the medial septum-diagonal band complex generates atropine-sensitive and atropine-resistant hippocampal theta rhythm: an investigation using a complete septohippocampal preparation. (United States)

    Goutagny, Romain; Manseau, Frédéric; Jackson, Jesse; Danik, Marc; Williams, Sylvain


    The medial septum and diagonal band complex (MS-DB) is believed to play a key role in generating theta oscillations in the hippocampus, a phenomenon critical for learning and memory. Although the importance of the MS-DB in hippocampal theta rhythm generation is generally accepted, it remains to be determined whether the MS-DB alone can generate hippocampal oscillations or is only a transducer of rhythmic activity from other brain areas. Secondly, it is known that hippocampal theta rhythm can be separated into an atropine-sensitive and insensitive component. However, it remains to be established if the MS-DB can generate both types of rhythm. To answer these questions, we used a new in vitro rat septohippocampal preparation placed in a hermetically separated two side recording chamber. We showed that carbachol activation of the MS-DB generated large theta oscillations in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. These oscillations were blocked by applying either the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline or the AMPA/kainate antagonist DNQX to the hippocampus. Interestingly, the application of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine produced only a partial decrease in the amplitude, without modification of the frequency, of theta. These results show for the first time, that upon optimal excitation, the MS-DB alone is able to generate hippocampal oscillations in the theta frequency band. Moreover, these MS-DB generated theta oscillations are mediated by muscarinic and nonmuscarinic receptors and have a pharmacological profile similar to theta rhythm observed in awake animals. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D.


    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride +

  16. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide


    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D


    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride + sodium chloride and solid lithium iodide + sodium iodide.

  17. On the distribution of bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratios in the waters of the Arabian sea off central Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; SenGupta, R.

    Water samples from surface to 2000 m depth at two stations in the Arabian Sea collected during the 82nd cruise of R V Gaveshani in November, 1980 were analysed for bromide. The average bromide concentration was 0.068 g/kg plus or minus 0...

  18. Surface Tension Characteristics of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solution with Alcoholic Surfactant (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Ogawa, Kiyoshi

    At present, the combination of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr) solution as an absorbent and water as a refrigerant have widely been used as the working fluid for absorption refrigerating machines. In order to obtain absorption enhancement of water vapor into the LiBr solution by Marangoni convection, an alcoholic surfactant is being added in the LiBr solution. In that case, the surface tension of the LiBr solution with the surfactant plays an important role for the vapor absorption. In this study, the surface tensions of the LiBr solution with several alcoholic surfactants such as 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were measured by Wilhelmy plate method. As a result, the surface tensions of 50 wt% LiBr solution with several surfactants were obtained over the LiBr solution temperature range from 298 K to 318 K and the surfactant concentration range from 0 to 104 ppm by mass. The measured surface tension has decreased with the increasing number of carbons included in the surfactant at constant concentration, and the surface tension has increased with the increasing temperature of 50 wt% LiBr solution. The surface tension increase of 1-octanol became greater than any other surfactant used in this work. The effective carbon number of the surfactant for the absorption enhancement was in the range from 7 to 8.

  19. Low level nose-only exposure to the nerve agent soman: Toxicokinetics of soman stereoisomers and cholinesterase inhibition in atropinized guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, H.P.; Trap, H.C.; Spruit, H.E.T.; Wiel, H.J. van der; Langenberg, J.P.; Jong, L.P.A. de


    In order to initiate a quantitative basis for the toxicology of low level exposure to nerve agents, the toxicokinetics of soman stereoisomers during nose-only exposure for 5 h to 20 ppb (160 μg/m3) of C(±)P(±)- soman in air were studied in restrained, anesthetized, and atropinized guinea pigs. The

  20. High spatial resolution myocardial perfusion imaging during high dose dobutamine/atropine stress magnetic resonance using k-t SENSE. (United States)

    Gebker, R; Jahnke, C; Manka, R; Frick, M; Hucko, T; Kozerke, S; Schnackenburg, B; Fleck, E; Paetsch, I


    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of high spatial resolution myocardial perfusion imaging during high dose dobutamine/atropine stress magnetic resonance (DSMR) for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). DSMR-wall motion was combined with perfusion imaging (DSMR-perfusion) in 78 patients prior to clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography. For DSMR-perfusion an in-plane spatial resolution of 1.5 × 1.5mm(2) was attained by using 8 × k-space and time sensitivity encoding (k-t SENSE). Image quality and extent of artifacts during perfusion imaging were evaluated. Wall motion and perfusion data were interpreted sequentially. Significant CAD (stenosis ≥ 70%) was present in 52 patients and involved 86 coronary territories. One patient did not reach target heart rate despite maximum infusion of dobutamine/atropine. Two studies (3%) were non-diagnostic due k-t SENSE related artifacts resulting from insufficient breathhold capability. Overall image quality was good. Dark-rim artifacts were limited to the endocardial border at a mean width of 1.8mm. The addition of DSMR-perfusion to DSMR-wall motion data improved sensitivity for the detection of CAD (92% vs. 81%, P=0.03) and accurate determination of disease extent (85% vs. 66% of territories, Pspatial resolution DSMR-perfusion imaging at maximum stress level was feasible, improved sensitivity over DSMR-wall motion for the detection of CAD and allowed an accurate determination of disease extent. Specificity of DSMR-perfusion with k-t SENSE improved compared to prior studies using lower spatial resolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhote, Franck, E-mail: [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, André [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); and others


    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  2. An Efficacy and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Dose of Diazepam That Will Reduce the Incidence of Convulsions in Indian Rhesus Monkeys Pretreated with Pyridostigmine Bromide, Challenged with Soman, and Treated with Atropine and Pralidoxime Chloride with the Diazepam (United States)


    cord (three sections), peripheral nerve (sciatic, brachial- plexus , ulnar, radial, phrenic), adrenal gland, liver, kidney, lung, ileum, stomach...hydroxide (10 percent solution) for G agents. E. Equipment: Safety equipped cart, freezer ( locked ), refrigerator ( locked ), tatx gloves, labels, should be kept frozen when not in use. All XCSM samples and standard solutions are stored double contained at -70 C in a locked Revcofreezer4 6

  3. Transient anisocoria in a patient treated with nebulized ipratropium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pejic


    Conclusions and importance: Presence of anisocoria may be a concerning neurological sign. If there are no other neurological or ophthalmological signs and symptoms and a recent ipratropium bromide inhalation treatment exists in the patient's history, we should consider iatrogenic side-effect of drugs as a possible reason of anisocoria and possibly spare the patient extensive and invasive diagnostic procedures that can also raise costs of treatment significantly. Observing neurological status and testing with 1% pilocarpine solution may be necessary to determine the etiology of this condition.

  4. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan


    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.

  5. Obtaining tabular silver bromide crystals using double-jet method in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyonizy, A.; Nowak, P. [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze St., Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)


    Water-gelatine suspensions containing tabular crystals of silver bromide were obtained using the modified double-jet method, in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide and an excess of bromide ions, used to increase silver bromide solubility. The size and morphology of crystals obtained depend mostly on the constant concentration of complexing agents in the dispersive solution, during nucleation and crystal growth. The influence of excessive bromide ions concentration and volumetric concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide in the crystallising mixture on the formation of tabular - triangular or hexagonal thin plates - of high aspect ratio has been analysed. During experiment, optimal ranges of dimethyl sulfoxide and excessive bromide ions concentrations for obtaining interesting forms of flat silver bromide crystals were determined. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Morphology of silver bromide crystals produced at presence of N,N -dimethylformamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyonizy, A.; Nowak, P. [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology (Poland)


    The study deals with examination of conditions that are necessary to obtain flat crystals of silver bromide that grow in a water and gelatine crystallization environment where N,N -dimethylformamide is used as the agent that is conducive to complexing of sparingly soluble silver bromide. The examination focused on the issue how changes in volumetric concentration of N,N -dimethylformamide as well as concentration of excessive ions of silver bromide in the dispersive solution affect morphology and size of newly created of silver bromide. The completed experiments enabled to determine boundary limits of both N,N -dimethylformamide and bromide ions concentration where suspensions of silver bromide crystals exhibit predominant content of triangular, transient and hexagonal flat forms with very high aspect ratio. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. A review of bacterial methyl halide degradation: biochemistry, genetics and molecular ecology (United States)

    McDonald, I.R.; Warner, K.L.; McAnulla, C.; Woodall, C.A.; Oremland, R.S.; Murrell, J.C.


    Methyl halide-degrading bacteria are a diverse group of organisms that are found in both terrestrial and marine environments. They potentially play an important role in mitigating ozone depletion resulting from methyl chloride and methyl bromide emissions. The first step in the pathway(s) of methyl halide degradation involves a methyltransferase and, recently, the presence of this pathway has been studied in a number of bacteria. This paper reviews the biochemistry and genetics of methyl halide utilization in the aerobic bacteria Methylobacterium chloromethanicum CM4T, Hyphomicrobium chloromethanicum CM2T, Aminobacter strain IMB-1 and Aminobacter strain CC495. These bacteria are able to use methyl halides as a sole source of carbon and energy, are all members of the α-Proteobacteria and were isolated from a variety of polluted and pristine terrestrial environments. An understanding of the genetics of these bacteria identified a unique gene (cmuA) involved in the degradation of methyl halides, which codes for a protein (CmuA) with unique methyltransferase and corrinoid functions. This unique functional gene, cmuA, is being used to develop molecular ecology techniques to examine the diversity and distribution of methyl halide-utilizing bacteria in the environment and hopefully to understand their role in methyl halide degradation in different environments. These techniques will also enable the detection of potentially novel methyl halide-degrading bacteria.

  8. Dissociation dynamics of methylal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaud, P.; Frey, H.-M.; Gerber, T.; Mischler, B.; Radi, P.P.; Tzannis, A.-P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The dissociation of methylal is investigated using mass spectrometry, combined with a pyrolytic radical source and femtosecond pump probe experiments. Based on preliminary results two reaction paths of methylal dissociation are proposed and discussed. (author) 4 fig., 3 refs.

  9. Transient neuromyopathy after bromide intoxication in a dog with idiopathic epilepsy


    Steinmetz Sonja; Tipold Andrea; Bilzer Thomas; Schenk Henning


    Abstract A seven-year old Australian Shepherd, suffering from idiopathic epilepsy under treatment with phenobarbitone and potassium bromide, was presented with generalised lower motor neuron signs. Electrophysiology and muscle-nerve biopsies revealed a neuromyopathy. The serum bromide concentration was increased more than two-fold above the upper reference value. Clinical signs disappeared after applying diuretics and reducing the potassium bromide dose rate. This is the first case report des...

  10. Tetradentate N2O2 Chelated Palladium(II Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity towards Mizoroki-Heck Reaction of Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Kamilah Che Soh


    Full Text Available Four air and moisture-stable palladium(II-Schiff base complexes, N,N′-bis(α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2a, N,N′-bis(4-methyl-α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2b, N,N′-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2c, and N,N′-bis(4-methoxy-salicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2d, have been successfully synthesised and characterised by CHN elemental analyses and conventional spectroscopic methods. These complexes were investigated as catalysts in the phosphine-free Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reactions of aryl bromides with methyl acrylate.

  11. Transient neuromyopathy after bromide intoxication in a dog with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Sonja


    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-year old Australian Shepherd, suffering from idiopathic epilepsy under treatment with phenobarbitone and potassium bromide, was presented with generalised lower motor neuron signs. Electrophysiology and muscle-nerve biopsies revealed a neuromyopathy. The serum bromide concentration was increased more than two-fold above the upper reference value. Clinical signs disappeared after applying diuretics and reducing the potassium bromide dose rate. This is the first case report describing electrophysiological and histopathological findings associated with bromide induced lower motor neuron dysfunction in a dog.

  12. The in vitro and in vivo profile of aclidinium bromide in comparison with glycopyrronium bromide. (United States)

    Gavaldà, Amadeu; Ramos, Israel; Carcasona, Carla; Calama, Elena; Otal, Raquel; Montero, José Luis; Sentellas, Sonia; Aparici, Monica; Vilella, Dolors; Alberti, Joan; Beleta, Jorge; Miralpeix, Montserrat


    This study characterised the in vitro and in vivo profiles of two novel long-acting muscarinic antagonists, aclidinium bromide and glycopyrronium bromide, using tiotropium bromide and ipratropium bromide as comparators. All four antagonists had high affinity for the five muscarinic receptor sub-types (M1-M5); aclidinium had comparable affinity to tiotropium but higher affinity than glycopyrronium and ipratropium for all receptors. Glycopyrronium dissociated faster from recombinant M3 receptors than aclidinium and tiotropium but more slowly than ipratropium; all four compounds dissociated more rapidly from M2 receptors than from M3 receptors. In vitro, aclidinium, glycopyrronium and tiotropium had a long duration of action at native M3 receptors (>8 h versus 42 min for ipratropium). In vivo, all compounds were equi-potent at reversing acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Aclidinium, glycopyrronium and ipratropium had a faster onset of bronchodilator action than tiotropium. Aclidinium had a longer duration of action than glycopyronnium (time to 50% recovery of effect [t½ offset] = 29 h and 13 h, respectively); these compare with a t½ offset of 64 h and 8 h for tiotropium and ipratropium, respectively. Aclidinium was less potent than glycopyrronium and tiotropium at inhibiting salivation in conscious rats (dose required to produce half-maximal effect [ED50] = 38, 0.74 and 0.88 μg/kg, respectively) and was more rapidly hydrolysed in rat, guinea pig and human plasma compared with glycopyrronium or tiotropium. These results indicate that while aclidinium and glycopyrronium are both potent antagonists at muscarinic receptors with similar kinetic selectivity for M3 receptors versus M2, aclidinium has a longer dissociation half-life at M3 receptors and a longer duration of bronchodilator action in vivo than glycopyrronium. The rapid plasma hydrolysis of aclidinium, coupled to its kinetic selectivity, may confer a reduced propensity for systemic

  13. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 94. Rare Earth Metal Iodides and Bromides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 2. Bromides (United States)

    Mioduski, Tomasz; Gumiński, Cezary; Zeng, Dewen; Voigt, Heidelore


    This work presents solubility data for rare earth metal bromides in water and in aqueous ternary systems. Compilations of all available experimental data are introduced for each rare earth metal bromide with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such evaluation contains a collection of all solubility results in water, a selection of suggested solubility data and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Because the ternary systems were almost never studied more than once, no critical evaluations of such data were possible. Only simple bromides (no complexes) are treated as the input substances in this work. The literature has been covered through the end of 2011.

  14. Effects of Pyridostigmine Bromide on A-10 Pilots During Execution of a Simulated Mission: Physiology (United States)


    warfare began at an early date in hurnan history . There is evidence that various ancient societies--used chemicals much as do certain contemporary...atropine and 2-PAM chloride, to be administered coordinately with an anticonvulsart and muscle relaxant, such as Valium , after exposure to a toxic nerve

  15. Phytoremediation potentials of selected tropical plants for ethidium bromide. (United States)

    Uera, Raynato B; Paz-Alberto, Annie Melinda; Sigua, Gilbert C


    Research and development has its own benefits and inconveniences. One of the inconveniences is the generation of enormous quantity of diverse toxic and hazardous wastes and its eventual contamination to soil and groundwater resources. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is one of the commonly used substances in molecular biology experiments. It is highly mutagenic and moderately toxic substance used in DNA-staining during electrophoresis. Interest in phytoremediation as a method to solve chemical contamination has been growing rapidly in recent years. The technology has been utilized to clean up soil and groundwater from heavy metals and other toxic organic compounds in many countries like the United States, Russia, and most of European countries. Phytoremediation requires somewhat limited resources and very useful in treating wide variety of environmental contaminants. This study aimed to assess the potential of selected tropical plants as phytoremediators of EtBr. This study used tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), mustard (Brassica alba), vetivergrass (Vetiveria zizanioedes), cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), carabaograss (Paspalum conjugatum), and talahib (Saccharum spontaneum) to remove EtBr from laboratory wastes. The six tropical plants were planted in individual plastic bags containing soil and 10% EtBr-stained agarose gel. The plants were allowed to establish and grow in soil for 30 days. Ethidium bromide content of the test plants and the soil were analyzed before and after soil treatment. Ethidium bromide contents of the plants and soils were analyzed using an UV VIS spectrophotometer. Results showed a highly significant (ptechnologies. Mustard had the highest potential as phytoremediator of EtBr in soil. However, the absorption capabilities of the other test plants may also be considered in terms of period of maturity and productivity. It is recommended that a more detailed and complete investigation of the phytoremediation properties of the different plants tested

  16. A trial of emepronium bromide for the treatment of urinary incontinence in the elderly mentally ill. (United States)

    Williams, A J; Prematalake, J K; Palmer, R L


    A double-blind controlled trial was conducted of emepronium bromide against placebo in elderly mentally ill patients in hospital with urinary incontinence. No significant difference was found between 200 mg emepronium bromide 3-times daily and placebo in treating day-time or nocturnal urinary incontinence for patients suffering from chronic organic brain syndrome or from chronic functional psychiatric illness.

  17. A study of bromide in the Mandovi-Zuari river system of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Dalal, V.N.K.

    concentrations were computed. The variation of bromide with chlorinity was linear indicating the purely conservative character of bromide and its seawater origin. Seawater ranged between 1 and 3% in monsoon, 76 and 91% in post-monsoon and 92 and 97% in pre...

  18. Mechanism of photolysis of Fe(III) bromide complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khmelinskii, I.V.; Plyusnin, V.F.; Grivin, V.P.


    Laser flash photolysis has been used to investigate the primary photoprocesses for bromide complexes of Fe(III) in a mixture of methanol and diethyl ether. The formation of the ion-radical Br/sub 2//sup -/ in the coordination sphere, followed by release into the bulk of the solvent, has been observed for the complex FeBr/sub 3/. In the case of FeBr/sub 2//sup +/ the Br atom is released into the solvent which in the reaction with the free Br/sup -/ ion also forms Br/sub 2//sup -/ . In the case of both complexes these channels compete with the transfer of an electron from the solvent molecules. The later reaction is suppressed for FeBr/sub 4//sup -/, leading mainly to the formation of the ion-radical Br/sub 2//sup -/.

  19. Timing resolution measurements of a 3 in. lanthanum bromide detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, L., E-mail: [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); De Gerone, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Largo Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli Studi di Genova, Largo Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Dussoni, S. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli Studi di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Papa, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Tenchini, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli Studi di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Signorelli, G. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)


    Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce) is a scintillator that presents very good energy and timing resolutions and it is a perfect candidate for photon detector in future experiments to search for lepton flavor violation as in μ→eγ or μ→e conversion. While energy resolution was thoroughly investigated, timing resolution at several MeV presents some experimental challenge. We measured the timing resolution of a 3 in.×3 in. cylindrical LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) crystal versus few reference detectors by means of a nuclear reaction from a Cockcroft–Walton accelerator that produces coincident γ-rays in the 4.4–11.6 MeV range. Preliminary results allow us to extrapolate the properties of a segmented γ-ray detector in the 50–100 MeV range.

  20. Accelerated degradation of methyl iodide by agrochemicals. (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Papiernik, Sharon K; Guo, Mingxin; Yates, Scott R


    The fumigant methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane) is considered a promising alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for soil-borne pest control in high-cash-value crops. However, the high vapor pressure of MeI results in emissions of a significant proportion of the applied mass into the ambient air, and this may lead to pollution of the environment. Integrating the application of certain agrochemicals with soil fumigation provides a novel approach to reduce excessive fumigant emissions. This study investigated the potential for several agrochemicals that are commonly used in farming operations, including fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors, to transform MeI in aqueous solution. The pseudo-first-order hydrolysis half-life (t(1/2)) of MeI was approximately 108 d, while the transformation of MeI in aqueous solutions containing selected agrochemicals was more rapid, with t(1/2) nitrification inhibitors). The influence of these agrochemicals on the rate of MeI degradation in soil was also determined. Adsorption to soil apparently reduced the availability of some nitrification inhibitors in the soil aqueous phase and lowered the degradation rate in soil. In contrast, addition of the nitrification inhibitors thiourea and allylthiourea to soil significantly accelerated the degradation of MeI, possibly due to soil surface catalysis. The t(1/2) of MeI was 300 h).

  1. Bioavailability of diazepam after intramuscular injection of its water-soluble prodrug alone or with atropine-pralidoxime in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Abbara, C; Rousseau, J M; Turcant, A; Lallement, G; Comets, E; Bardot, I; Clair, P; Diquet, B


    The aim of this study was to assess the relative bioavailability of diazepam after administration of diazepam itself or as a water-soluble prodrug, avizafone, in humans. The study was conducted in an open, randomized, single-dose, three-way, cross-over design. Each subject received intramuscular injections of avizafone (20 mg), diazepam (11.3 mg) or avizafone (20 mg) combined with atropine (2 mg) and pralidoxime (350 mg) using a bi-compartmental auto-injector (AIBC). Plasma concentrations of diazepam were quantified using a validated LC/MS-MS assay, and were analysed by both a non-compartmental approach and by compartmental modelling. The maximum concentration (C(max)) of diazepam after avizafone injection was higher than that obtained after injection of diazepam itself (231 vs. 148 ng.mL(-1)), while area under the curve (AUC) values were equal. Diazepam concentrations reached their maximal value faster after injection of avizafone. Injection of avizafone with atropine-pralidoxime (AIBC) had no effect on diazepam C(max) and AUC, but the time to C(max) was increased, relative to avizafone injected alone. According to the Akaike criterion, the pharmacokinetics of diazepam after injection as a prodrug was best described as a two-compartment with zero-order absorption model. When atropine and pralidoxime were injected with avizafone, the best pharmacokinetic model was a two-compartment with a first-order absorption model. Diazepam had a faster entry to the general circulation and achieved higher C(max) after injection of prodrug than after the parent drug. Administration of avizafone in combination with atropine and pralidoxime by AIBC had no significant effect on diazepam AUC and C(max).

  2. Oxidation of methyl linoleate in micellar solutions induced by the combination of iron(II)/ascorbic acid and iron(II)/H2O2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micciche, F.; Haveren, van J.; Oostveen, E.A.; Laven, J.; Ming, W.; Oyman, Z.O.; Linde, van der R.


    The oxidation of methyl linoleate (ML) was studied in the presence of Fe(II) alone and its combination with either ascorbic acid (AsAH2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at different molar ratios. Reactions were carried out in micellar solutions of TTAB (tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide) and SDS

  3. Sorption and degradation of the herbicide 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNOC) under aerobic conditions in a sandy aquifer in Vejen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Tuxen, Nina; Rügge, K.


    A pulse (7 days) and a continuous (216 days), natural gradient field injection experiment with herbicides, including 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (4,6-dinitro-o-cresol, abbreviated DNOC), and a bromide tracer were conducted in a shallow, aerobic aquifer near Vejen, Denmark. The pulse and continuous...

  4. Net Ecosystem Fluxes of Methyl Halides from a Coastal Salt Marsh with Invasive Pepperweed (United States)

    Deventer, M. J.; Jiao, Y.; Lewis, J. A.; Weiss, R. F.; Rhew, R. C.; Turnipseed, A. A.


    Terrestrial emissions of methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) are believed to constitute the `missing' source of these compounds to the atmosphere, but the variability of emission rates from natural ecosystems has led to large uncertainties in scaling up. Since April 2016, surface-atmosphere fluxes for methyl halides have been measured at Suisun Marsh, a coastal salt marsh in northern California, USA. Flux measurements are performed in two ways: tower based relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) for net ecosystem fluxes and static flux chamber measurements for plant-scale fluxes. The study site is invaded by perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), a methyl halide emitting species, covering a significant part of the flux source area. Both, REA and chamber samples are analyzed for methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and methyl bromide (CH3Br) using gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The analytical precision [ppt] and REA flux detection limits [μmol m-2 d-1] are on the order of 3.9/0.6 for CH3Cl and 0.01/0.2 for CH3Br. Chamber measurements confirmed that methyl halide emissions of pepperweed are large, but that the native alkali heath (Frankenia salina) is a much stronger emitter, when normalized by biomass. REA measurements show that during the summer, the studied marsh is a substantial methyl halide source with net fluxes of 20 μmol m-2 d-1 (CH3Cl) and 1 μmol m-2 d-1 (CH3Br). Notably, these fluxes are comparable with reported chamber based emissions from southern California salt marshes. Furthermore, a positive response to light and temperature was found. The presentation will also expand on the diurnal variability and seasonality of the measured fluxes.

  5. Atropine vs patching for treatment of moderate amblyopia: follow-up at 15 years of age of a randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Repka, Michael X; Kraker, Raymond T; Holmes, Jonathan M; Summers, Allison I; Glaser, Stephen R; Barnhardt, Carmen N; Tien, David R


    Initial treatment for amblyopia of the fellow eye with patching and atropine sulfate eyedrops improves visual acuity. Long-term data on the durability of treatment benefit are needed. To report visual acuity at 15 years of age among patients who were younger than 7 years when enrolled in a treatment trial for moderate amblyopia. In a multicenter clinical trial, 419 children with amblyopia (visual acuity, 20/40 to 20/100) were randomly assigned to patching (minimum of 6 h/d) or atropine sulfate eyedrops, 1% (1 drop daily), for 6 months. Treatment after 6 months was at the discretion of the investigator. Two years after enrollment, an unselected subgroup of 188 children were enrolled into long-term follow-up. Initial treatment with patching or atropine with subsequent treatment at investigator discretion. Visual acuity at 15 years of age with the electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study test in amblyopic and fellow eyes. Mean visual acuity in the amblyopic eye measured in 147 participants at 15 years of age was 0.14 logMAR (approximately 20/25); 59.9% of amblyopic eyes had visual acuity of 20/25 or better and 33.3%, 20/20 or better. Mean interocular acuity difference (IOD) at 15 years of age was 0.21 logMAR (2.1 lines); 48.3% had an IOD of 2 or more lines and 71.4%, 1 or more lines. Treatment (other than spectacles) was prescribed for 9 participants (6.1%) aged 10 to 15 years. Mean IOD was similar at examinations at 10 and 15 years of age (2.0 and 2.1 logMAR lines, respectively; P = .39). Better visual acuity at the 15-year examination was achieved in those who were younger than 5 years at the time of entry into the randomized clinical trial (mean logMAR, 0.09) compared with those aged 5 to 6 years (mean logMAR, 0.18; P treatment with atropine or patching, no significant differences were observed in visual acuity of amblyopic and fellow eyes at 15 years of age (P = .44 and P = .43, respectively). At 15 years of age, most children treated

  6. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut... RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls... to cattle of peanut hay and peanut hulls containing residues of inorganic bromides will contribute...

  7. The Multiple Role of Bromide Ion in PPCPs Degradation under UV/Chlorine Treatment. (United States)

    Cheng, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Xinran; Yang, Xin; Shang, Chii; Song, Weihua; Fang, Jingyun; Pan, Yanheng


    This study investigated the role of bromide ions in the degradation of nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during the UV/chlorine treatment of simulated drinking water containing 2.5 mgC L-1 natural organic matter (NOM). The kinetics of contributions from UV irradiation and from oxidation by free chlorine, free bromine, hydroxyl radical and reactive halogen species were evaluated. The observed loss rate constants of PPCPs in the presence of 10 μM bromide were 1.6-23 times of those observed in the absence of bromide (except for iopromide and ibuprofen). Bromide was shown to play multiple roles in PPCP degradation. It reacts rapidly with free chlorine to produce a trace amount of free bromine, which then contributes to up to 55% of the degradation of some PPCPs during 15 min of UV/chlorine treatment. Bromide was also shown to reduce the level of HO• and to change the reactive chlorine species to bromine-containing species, which resulted in decreases in ibuprofen degradation and enhancement in carbamazepine and caffeine degradation, respectively. Reactive halogen species contributed to between 37 and 96% of the degradation of the studied PPCPs except ibuprofen in the presence of 10 μM bromide ion. The effect of bromide is non-negligible during the UV/chlorine treatment.

  8. Clinical signs, risk factors, and outcomes associated with bromide toxicosis (bromism) in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. (United States)

    Rossmeisl, John H; Inzana, Karen D


    To evaluate clinical signs, risk factors, and outcomes associated with bromide toxicosis (bromism) in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy treated with potassium or sodium bromide. Retrospective case-control study. 83 clinically ill epileptic dogs with (cases; n = 31) and without (controls; 52) bromism. Medical records were reviewed for information regarding signalment, epilepsy history, treatment, diet, clinicopathologic test results, concurrent diseases, clinical signs, and outcome. Case and control dogs were matched by the veterinary hospitals from which they were referred and by month of admission. A presumptive diagnosis of bromism was made in case dogs when treatment for primary clinical signs was limited to induction of diuresis or reduction in the dose of bromide administered, and this diagnosis was supported by serum bromide concentrations. Potential risk factors for bromism were identified via univariate and subsequent multivariate logistic regression analyses. Common clinical signs of bromism included alterations in consciousness, ataxia, and upper and lower motor neuron tetraparesis and paraparesis. The multivariate analysis identified bromide dose at admission to the hospital as the only factor significantly associated with bromism. In all dogs with bromism, treatment via dose reduction or facilitated renal excretion of bromide resulted in rapid clinical improvement, although breakthrough seizures happened during treatment in 8 of 31 (26%) dogs. Bromism is a clinically heterogeneous, dose-dependent neurotoxicosis that is largely reversible with treatment. Regular serial monitoring of serum bromide concentrations is recommended to optimize anticonvulsant treatment in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

  9. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)


    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  10. Gold micro- and nano-particles for surface enhanced vibrational spectroscopy of pyridostigmine bromide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgov, Leonid; Fesenko, Olena; Kavelin, Vladyslav


    Triangular gold microprisms and spherical silica nanoparticles with attached gold nano-islands were examined as an active nanostructures for the surface enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopy. These particles were probed for the detection of pyridostigmine bromide as a safe analog of military...... compound sarin. Raman and infrared spectral bands of the pyridostigmine bromide were measured. Detailed correlation of obtained spectral bands with specific vibrations in pyridostigmine bromide was done. Silica nanoparticles with attached gold nano-islands showed more essential enhancement of the Raman...

  11. Advanced crystal growth techniques for thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors (United States)

    Datta, Amlan; Becla, Piotr; Guguschev, Christo; Motakef, Shariar


    Thallium Bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. Currently, Travelling Molten Zone (TMZ) technique is widely used for growth of semiconductor-grade TlBr crystals. However, there are several challenges associated with this type of crystal growth process including lower yield, high thermal stress, and low crystal uniformity. To overcome these shortcomings of the current technique, several different crystal growth techniques have been implemented in this study. These include: Vertical Bridgman (VB), Physical Vapor Transport (PVT), Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG), and Czochralski Growth (Cz). Techniques based on melt pulling (EFG and Cz) were demonstrated for the first time for semiconductor grade TlBr material. The viability of each process along with the associated challenges for TlBr growth has been discussed. The purity of the TlBr crystals along with its crystalline and electronic properties were analyzed and correlated with the growth techniques. Uncorrected 662 keV energy resolutions around 2% were obtained from 5 mm x 5 mm x 10 mm TlBr devices with virtual Frisch-grid configuration.

  12. Determination of the spectroscopic properties of indium bromide (United States)

    Mulders, H. C. J.; Rijke, A. J.; Haverlag, M.; Kroesen, G. M. W.


    To develop a more efficient plasma light source, molecules are considered as the prime source of radiation because they can potentially avoid the conversion losses of the low-pressure mercury lamp as well as the thermal losses of the high-pressure mercury lamps. A candidate to serve as the prime radiator in such a lamp could be indium bromide, but spectroscopic data to assess its aptitude are largely unavailable. To increase the knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of these molecules and InBr in particular, an experiment was designed to acquire this information. Laser-induced fluorescence was used to study the radiative properties of InBr for lighting purposes. Using an innovative method to interpret the measured data, detection--excitation (detex) plots, more information can be obtained from the spectra. Also the effect of a background gas and plasma was investigated for both a capacitive and an inductive plasma. Mainly the electronic A-state of InBr was investigated. Results include newly identified rotational transitions, vibrational constants, rotational constants for different vibrational levels, band head wave numbers and Franck-Condon factors for various vibrational transitions.

  13. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth


    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  14. Micellization of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: effect of small chain Bola electrolytes. (United States)

    Pan, Animesh; Sil, Pallabi; Dutta, Sounak; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra; Rakshit, Animesh Kumar; Aswal, Vinod Kumar; Moulik, Satya Priya


    Sodium dicarboxylates (or Bola salts) with methylene spacers 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 were studied in aqueous solution to investigate their influence on the micellization of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Since bolas with spacer length ≤12 are known not to micellize in general, the herein used sodium dicarboxylates were treated as 2:1 amphiphilic electrolytes which reduced surface tension of water (except sodium oxalate with zero spacer) without self-association. Their concentration dependent conductance was also linear without breaks. The bolas affected the micellization of CTAB but acted like salts to decrease its CMC. Their combinations did not form bilayer aggregates as found in vesicles. Nevertheless, they synergistically interacted with CTAB at the air/water interface as revealed from Rosen's thermodynamic model. Hydrodynamic radius (Rh), Zeta-potential (ζ), and electrical double layer behavior of bola interacted CTAB micelles were assessed. From SANS measurements, micelle shape, shape parameters, aggregation number (Nagg), surface charge of the bola influenced CTAB micelles were also determined. NMR study as well supported the non-mixing of bolas with the CTAB micelles. They interacted in solution like "amphiphilic electrolytes" to influence the surface and micelle forming properties of CTAB.

  15. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan


    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  16. DNA methylation in plants. (United States)

    Vanyushin, B F


    DNA in plants is highly methylated, containing 5-methylcytosine (m5C) and N6-methyladenine (m6A); m5C is located mainly in symmetrical CG and CNG sequences but it may occur also in other non-symmetrical contexts. m6A but not m5C was found in plant mitochondrial DNA. DNA methylation in plants is species-, tissue-, organelle- and age-specific. It is controlled by phytohormones and changes on seed germination, flowering and under the influence of various pathogens (viral, bacterial, fungal). DNA methylation controls plant growth and development, with particular involvement in regulation of gene expression and DNA replication. DNA replication is accompanied by the appearance of under-methylated, newly formed DNA strands including Okazaki fragments; asymmetry of strand DNA methylation disappears until the end of the cell cycle. A model for regulation of DNA replication by methylation is suggested. Cytosine DNA methylation in plants is more rich and diverse compared with animals. It is carried out by the families of specific enzymes that belong to at least three classes of DNA methyltransferases. Open reading frames (ORF) for adenine DNA methyltransferases are found in plant and animal genomes, and a first eukaryotic (plant) adenine DNA methyltransferase (wadmtase) is described; the enzyme seems to be involved in regulation of the mitochondria replication. Like in animals, DNA methylation in plants is closely associated with histone modifications and it affects binding of specific proteins to DNA and formation of respective transcription complexes in chromatin. The same gene (DRM2) in Arabidopsis thaliana is methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues; thus, at least two different, and probably interdependent, systems of DNA modification are present in plants. Plants seem to have a restriction-modification (R-M) system. RNA-directed DNA methylation has been observed in plants; it involves de novo methylation of almost all cytosine residues in a region of si

  17. Open-label randomized controlled study comparing continuous infusion versus intermittent bolus dose of atropine with or without pralidoxime in the treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C Kumaraswamy


    Full Text Available Background: Severe organophosphorus (OPC poisoning is one of the serious problems in developing world, taking great toll on life. Though Atropine is used as an antidote, there are no clear guidelines. We conducted an open label randomized controlled clinical study to compare the efficacy of continuous infusion of atropine to that of intermittent bolus dose in the treatment of OPC poisoning. Methods and Material: Patients aged above 12 years with clinical evidence of OPC poisoning were studied. Both the groups received initial bolus of 1to3 mg of atropine. Then, Group-A received intermittent bolus and group-B, continuous infusion, until adequately atropinized. Results: Out of 743 patients (group-A: 356 and group-B: 387, females were 54%. 83% had suicidal intent. Mean atropine dose was 126.6mg in group-A and 78mg in group-B (P < 0.0001 . 21.07% (group-A and 12.92% (group-B developed intermediate syndrome (P = 0.003 , mortality was 27.25%(97 in group-A v/s 13%(50 in group-B (P < 0.0001 . Ventilator support needed in 36%(group-A against 17% in group-B (P < 0.0001 and duration of ventilation was 1.5 days lesser in group B (P < 0.0001 . 23.03% had atropine toxicity in group-A as compared to 8% in group-B (P < 0.0001 . Hospital stay was 1.67 (P < 0.0001 days shorter for group-B. Conclusion: Continuous atropine infusion should be standard of care in treating OPC poisoning.

  18. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi


    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  19. [Advantages of oxythiamine bromide as a specific inhibitor of activity of thiamine-dependent enzymes]. (United States)

    Oparin, D A; Zimatkina, T I; Ostrovskiĭ, Iu M


    Production of hydrogen bromide salt of hydroxythiamine (Ht. HBr) from thiamine bromide was developed its toxic and inhibitory properties towards transketolase and pyruvate dehydrogenase were studied as compared with commercial preparation hydroxythiamine chloride (HT. HCl). As compared with HT. HCl, synthesis of HT. HBr was more simple, the higher yield and purity of the end product were achieved. At the same time, the preparation was less toxic and exhibited the antivitaminous activity similar to the commercial chloride form.

  20. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica


    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  1. On the mechanism of cyclization of 5-hexenylchromate intermediates in the reactions of Fischer carbene complexes with a lithium enolate and allylmagnesium bromide. (United States)

    Campomanes, Pablo; Flórez, Josefa; Pérez-Sánchez, Iván; Suero, Marcos G; Sordo, Tomás L; Menéndez, M Isabel


    The mechanisms for the evolution of pentacarbonyl-5-hexenylchromate complexes, unsubstituted and methyl substituted at C2, formed from a pentacarbonyl(alkoxy)carbene complex of chromium, the corresponding ketone lithium enolate, and allylmagnesium bromide, were theoretically investigated by using DFT (Density Functional Theory) at the B3PW91/6-31G* level (LANL2DZ for Cr and Br) taking into account the effect of THF solvent through the PCM model (Polarizable Continuum Model). Methyl substitution at C2 provokes a shortening of about 5 degrees in the C1-C2-C3 angle that favors the formation of the pentacyclic product. Also, the presence of this methyl substituent at C2 sterically disfavors the formation of the hexacyclic product. Thus, our results yield the hexacyclic system as the most favored product for the evolution of the unsubstituted alkylpentacarbonylchromate complex, and the pentacyclic product in the case of the substituted system, in good agreement with the experimental findings. The stereochemistry of the products experimentally observed is determined at the transition state for the migration of the Cr(CO)(5) fragment from C1 to C6 and the conformational rearrangement of the C1-C6 skeleton. Amine molecules, present in the reaction medium, can play a catalytic role by assisting the 1,2-H migration in the last step for the formation of hexacyclic products.

  2. Effects of beta-blockade and atropine on ischemic responses in left ventricular regions subtending coronary stenosis during dobutamine stress echocardiography. (United States)

    Chen, L; Ma, L; de Prada, V A; Chen, M; Feng, Y J; Waters, D; Gillam, L; Chen, C


    This study was designed to examine the effects of a beta-adrenergic blocking agent on the ischemic response to dobutamine stress and to determine the degree to which these effects can be abolished by the addition of atropine. Whether beta-blockade affects the sensitivity of dobutamine stress echocardiography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease has been controversial. In nine pigs, a left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis was created to reduce flow reserve (maximal/rest flow) to 1.1 to 1.9 without baseline regional wall motion abnormalities. This corresponded to a 50% to 90% diameter stenosis. Wall thickening was measured using epicardial echocardiography. Regional lactate production and coronary venous pH were monitored from an adjacent cardiac vein. A standard protocol of dobutamine stress echocardiography was first performed. After normalization of the ischemic abnormalities elicited with this infusion, esmolol was infused at 50 micrograms/kg body weight per min and the dobutamine test was repeated, with 1.0 mg of atropine added at the maximal dobutamine dose. Without esmolol, dobutamine stress induced myocardial ischemia with a reduction in regional wall thickening and lactate production in all nine pigs. Multiple regression analysis revealed that coronary flow per heartbeat (p rate and regional oxygen consumption and altered the relation between coronary flow per heartbeat and regional wall thickening (p heartbeat was demonstrated during baseline dobutamine stress. Beta-blockade shifted this relation so that dobutamine stress-induced myocardial ischemia was attenuated. The mechanisms by which beta-blockade prevents dobutamine-induced ischemia appeared to be mainly through decreases in heart rate and rate of rise in left ventricular pressure, improvement of regional coronary flow per heartbeat and attenuation of regional ischemic lactate production. Adding atropine in conventional doses enhanced the ability of dobutamine stress to induce


    Springer, Andrea; Razafimanantsoa, Léonard; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M


    Although research on lemurid primates in Madagascar has been ongoing for several decades, reports on different drug regimes to immobilize wild lemurs are limited. This study compares the efficacy, reliability, and side effects of ketamine-xylazine, ketamine-xylazine-atropine, and tiletamine-zolazepam immobilization in wild Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). In the course of a long-term study in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar, eight animals each received a mixture of ketamine (5.32±1.71 mg/kg) and xylazine (0.56±0.19 mg/kg) (KX; 7 males, 1 female) and ketamine (6.58±1.36 mg/kg), xylazine (1.28±0.28 mg/kg), and atropine (0.013±0.003 mg/kg) (KXA; 5 males, 3 females), respectively, and 14 individuals received tiletamine-zolazepam (7.73±1.37 mg/kg) (TZ; 9 males, 5 females). Induction was smooth in all protocols, but showed considerable variation in duration when animals had received KXA. Immobilization as well as recovery lasted significantly longer with TZ than with KX (Pimmobilized with TZ. Heart rate measurement at 10 min after onset of complete immobilization yielded significantly higher values if the animals had been immobilized with TZ compared to KX (Pimmobilized animals, whereas immobilization with TZ resulted in an increase in heart rate. The results suggest that KX produces good, but short, immobilization in Verreaux's sifakas at approximately 5 mg/kg ketamine and 0.5 mg/kg xylazine and a smoother and shorter recovery phase than 5 to 10 mg/kg TZ, whereas adding atropine to KX did not provide any benefits.

  4. Comparing the preventive effect of 2 percent Topical Lidocaine and Intravenous Atropine on oculocardiac reflex in Ophthalmological Surgeries under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sajedi


    Full Text Available Background: The current study aimed to determine preventive effect of 2 percent topical xylocaine on oculocardiac reflex in ophthalmological surgeries except strabismus, including retinal detachment and vitrectomy with scleral buckling under general anesthesia. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 150 patients aged 18-90 years undergoing ophthalmological surgeries under general anesthesia. Samples randomly divided into the experimental group (received four drops of 2 percent topical xylocaine instilled in desired eye and control group (received 0.5 mg atropine sulfate injection. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure of patients and baseline heart rate were recorded. They were compared regarding the incidence of bradycardia, heart rate less than 60 beats/minute, hypotension and blood pressure less than 90 mm/Hg. Data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20 using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results: The difference between two groups was not statistically significant regarding demographic and basic variables. The incidence of bradycardia in both groups was respectively (90.7 percent vs. 17.3 percent, heart rate less than 60 beats/minute (40 percent vs. 13.3 percent, hypotension (76 percent vs. 32 percent and blood pressure less than 90 mmHg was (28 percent vs. 8 percent. Accordingly, the differences between both groups were statistically significant (P > 0.001. Conclusions: The preventive impact of topical xylocaine upon oculocardiac reflex in ophthalmological surgeries such as retinal detachment and vitrectomy with scleral buckling under general anesthesia was less effective than that of atropine injection. Therefore, to avoid this reflex in high-risk patients, injecting atropine would be safer.

  5. Lung lesions and anti-ulcer agents beneficial effect: anti-ulcer agents pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine, omeprazole and atropine ameliorate lung lesion in rats. (United States)

    Stancic-Rokotov, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Aralica, J; Aralica, G; Perovic, D; Staresinic, M; Gjurasin, M; Anic, T; Zoricic, I; Buljat, G; Prkacin, I; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Kokic, N; Jagic, V; Boban-Blagaic, A


    Anti-ulcer agents may likely attenuate lesions outside the gastrointestinal tract, since they had protected gastrectomized rats (a "direct cytoprotective effect"). Therefore, their therapeutic potential in lung/stomach lesions were shown. Rats received an intratracheal (i.t.) HCl instillation [1.5 ml/kg HCl (pH 1.75)] (lung lesion), and an intragastric (i.g.) instillation of 96% ethanol (gastric lesion; 1 ml/rat, 24 h after i.t. HCl instillation), then sacrificed 1 h after ethanol. Basically, in lung-injured rats, the subsequent ethanol-gastric lesion was markedly aggravated. This aggravation, however, in turn, did not affect the severity of the lung lesions in the further period, at least for 1 h of observation. Taking intratracheal HCl-instillation as time 0, a gastric pentadecapeptide, GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W.1419, coded BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg), ranitidine (10 mg), atropine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg), were given [/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] (i) once, only prophylactically [as a pre-treatment (at -1h)], or as a co-treatment [at 0)], or only therapeutically (at +18h or +24 h); (ii) repeatedly, combining prophylactic/therapeutic regimens [(-1 h)+(+24 h)] or [(0)+(+24 h)], or therapeutic/therapeutic regimens [(+18 h)+(+24 h)]. For all agents, combining their prophylactic and salutary regimens (at -1 h/+24 h, or at 0/+24 h) attenuated lung lesions; even if effect had been not seen already with a single application, it became prominent after repeated treatment. In single application studies, relative to controls, a co-treatment (except to omeprazole), a pre-treatment (at -1 h) (pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and atropine, but not ranitidine and omeprazole) regularly attenuated, while therapeutically, atropine (at +18 h), pentadecapeptide BPC 157 highest dose and omeprazole (at +24 h), reversed the otherwise more severe lung lesions.

  6. Comparison of the effects of atropine and labetalol on trigeminocardiac reflex-induced hemodynamic alterations during percutaneous microballoon compression of the trigeminal ganglion. (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Luo, Chiao-Fen; Hsu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Jyi-Feng; Day, Yuan-Ji


    A significant abrupt drop in heart rate is the most frequent complication during percutaneous microballoon compression of the trigeminal ganglion. It is suggested that co-activation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems plays an important role in this occurrence. We hypothesized that not only atropine, but also labetalol might be effective in preventing this cardiovascular reflex during percutaneous microballoon compression of the trigeminal ganglion. Patients who underwent percutaneous microballoon compression for trigeminal neuralgia between September 2007 and December 2009 were prospectively evaluated. The relationship between the hemodynamic changes and intraoperative use of atropine (0.01 mg/kg) or labetalol (0.05 mg/kg) was compared. One-way analysis of variance with Bartlett's and Tukey's post-tests was used, and a value of p labetalol, and 45 received normal saline as a control. Of the patients who received normal saline, 31.3% had moderate bradycardia (heart rate labetalol, 16.7% had moderate bradycardia, 5.6% had severe bradycardia, and 2.8% had arrhythmia. Systemic blood pressure was markedly elevated straight after compression in all groups and tended to normalize 3 minutes afterwards. Both atropine and labetalol were able to lower the frequency of bradycardia. Neither of them could abolish episodes of bradycardia during the procedure. Patients receiving labetalol before microballoon compression were subject to a smaller change in hemodynamics. Our findings verified that the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems may be involved in the complex interneuronal interaction of the trigeminocardiac reflex. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. NO system dependence of atropine-induced mydriasis and L-NAME- and L-arginine-induced miosis: Reversal by the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in rats and guinea pigs. (United States)

    Kokot, Antonio; Zlatar, Mirna; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Drmic, Domagoj; Radic, Radivoje; Vcev, Aleksandar; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag


    We revealed an immediate and hours-lasting particular NO-specific parallel miotic effect of L-NAME and L-arginine in rats and guinea pigs and a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 157-particular effect vs. that of atropine-induced mydriasis while examining the NO system role in the normal pupils responses and pupils with atropine-induced mydriasis. We also assessed the responses to BPC 157 and its possible modulation of the changes caused by L-NAME/L-arginine and atropine. We administered locally (two drops/eye) or systemically (intraperitoneally/kg) [BPC 157 (0.4µg/eye; 10µg, 10ng, 10pg/kg), L-NAME (0.1mg/eye; 5mg/kg), and L-arginine (2mg/eye; 100mg/kg) alone and combined] at 3min prior to assessment (normal pupils) or alternatively at maximal 1% atropine-induced mydriasis (30min after two drops were administered to each eye). L-NAME/L-arginine. Normal pupil. L-NAME-miosis and L-arginine-miosis shortened and attenuated each other's responses when combined (L-NAME+L-arginine) (except with guinea pigs treated locally) and were thereby NO-specific. Atropine-pupil. Both L-NAME and L-arginine counteracted atropine-induced mydriasis. With few exceptions, the atropine+L-NAME+L-arginine-animals showed a consistent shift toward the left. BPC 157. Normal pupil. Always, BPC 157 alone (both species; locally; systemically; all regimens) did not affect normal pupils. Despite specific exceptions, BPC 157 distinctively affects L-arginine-miosis (prolongation) and L-NAME-miosis (shortening). When L-arginine and L-NAME were combined (L-NAME+L-arginine+BPC 157), the effect was less pronounced. Atropine-pupil. BPC 157 alone counteracted atropine-induced mydriasis. With few exceptions (when administered with L-NAME or L-arginine or L-NAME+L-arginine), BPC 157 augments their counteracting effects. Thus, along with its l-NAME/L-arginine effects, BPC 157 participates in ocular control, potentially via NO-mediated and cholinergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors (United States)

    Datta, A.; Fiala, J.; Becla, P.; Motakef, Shariar


    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br- species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10-8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br- ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation) for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  9. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta


    Full Text Available Thallium bromide (TlBr is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br− species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10−8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br− ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  10. Trihalomethanes and haloacetic acid species from the chlorination of algal organic matter and bromide. (United States)

    Wei, Y Y; Liu, Y; Dai, R H; Liu, X; Wu, J J; Shi, Z; Ren, J; Zhang, Y


    Bromide and algal pollution are important factors influencing disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation and speciation in reservoir water in coastal areas. In this study, the chlorination of model algal cellular compounds (bovine serum albumin, fish oil and starch), Microcystis aeruginosa and its extra-cellular organic matter (EOM) were conducted in the absence and presence of bromide. The main aim of the present study is to explore their potential as precursors for trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acid (HAAs) speciation upon chlorination in the presence of bromide. The results showed that all brominated THMs species were generated, whereas only bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA) or/and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) was/were produced as for brominated HAAs (Br-HAAs) from the three model compounds in the presence of bromide. The effect of bromide on Br-HAAs speciation upon fish oil chlorination was more evident than with BSA and starch. There was a good correlation between the species predicted from the model compounds and those obtained from specific algal species. Br-HAAs and Br-THMs species from Microcystis aeruginosa cells or EOM were the same as those from bovine serum albumin in the presence of bromide.

  11. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K


    in antinociception by investigating the involvement of muscarinic, nicotinic and opioid receptors in nociceptive tests in this species. The effects of systemic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine and the nicotinic receptor agonist epibatidine were investigated in the tail-flick, the hot......-plate, and the formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect...

  12. Sensitive and rapid titrimetric and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of stavudine in pharmaceuticals using bromate-bromide and three dyes. (United States)

    Basavaiah, Kanakapura; Ramakrishna, Veeraiah; Somashekar, Chikkaswamy; Kumar, Urdigere R Anil


    Four sensitive and rapid methods for the determination of stavudine (STV) in bulk drug and in dosage forms were developed and optimized. In titrimetry, aqueous solution of STV was treated with a known excess of bromate-bromide in HCl medium followed by estimation of unreacted bromine by iodometric back titration. Spectrophotometric methods involve the addition of a measured excess of bromate-bromide in HCl medium and subsequent estimation of the residual bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of methyl orange, indigocarmine or thymol blue followed by measurement of absorbance at 520 nm (method A), 610 nm (method B) or 550 nm (method C). In all the methods, the amount of bromate reacted corresponds to the amount of STV. Calculations in titrimetry were based on a 1:0.666 (STV:KBrO3) stoichiometry and the method was found to be applicable over 3.5-10 mg range. A linear increase in absorbance with concentration of STV was observed in the spectrophotometric methods, and the Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration ranges 0.125-1.75, 1-10 and 1-9.0 microg mL-1 STV for method A, method B and method C, respectively. The methods when applied to the determination of STV in tablets and capsules were found to give satisfactory results.

  13. Potential impurities in drug substances: Compound-specific toxicology limits for 20 synthetic reagents and by-products, and a class-specific toxicology limit for alkyl bromides. (United States)

    Bercu, J P; Galloway, S M; Parris, P; Teasdale, A; Masuda-Herrera, M; Dobo, K; Heard, P; Kenyon, M; Nicolette, J; Vock, E; Ku, W; Harvey, J; White, A; Glowienke, S; Martin, E A; Custer, L; Jolly, R A; Thybaud, V


    This paper provides compound-specific toxicology limits for 20 widely used synthetic reagents and common by-products that are potential impurities in drug substances. In addition, a 15 μg/day class-specific limit was developed for monofunctional alkyl bromides, aligning this with the class-specific limit previously defined for monofunctional alkyl chlorides. Both the compound- and class-specific toxicology limits assume a lifetime chronic exposure for the general population (including sensitive subpopulations) by all routes of exposure for pharmaceuticals. Inhalation-specific toxicology limits were also derived for acrolein, formaldehyde, and methyl bromide because of their localized toxicity via that route. Mode of action was an important consideration for a compound-specific toxicology limit. Acceptable intake (AI) calculations for certain mutagenic carcinogens assumed a linear dose-response for tumor induction, and permissible daily exposure (PDE) determination assumed a non-linear dose-response. Several compounds evaluated have been previously incorrectly assumed to be mutagenic, or to be mutagenic carcinogens, but the evidence reported here for such compounds indicates a lack of mutagenicity, and a non-mutagenic mode of action for tumor induction. For non-mutagens with insufficient data to develop a toxicology limit, the ICH Q3A qualification thresholds are recommended. The compound- and class-specific toxicology limits described here may be adjusted for an individual drug substance based on treatment duration, dosing schedule, severity of the disease and therapeutic indication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effects of Liposomes Charge on Extending Sciatic Nerve Blockade of N-ethyl Bromide of Lidocaine in Rats (United States)

    Yin, Qinqin; Ke, Bowen; Chen, Xiaobing; Guan, Yikai; Feng, Ping; Chen, Guo; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Wensheng; Nie, Yu


    N-methyl bromide of lidocaine (QX-314) is a potential local anaesthetic with compromised penetration through cell membranes due to its obligated positive charge. Liposomes have been widely used for drug delivery with promising efficacy and safety. Therefore we investigated the local anaesthetic effects and tissue reactions of QX-314 in combination with anionic, cationic or neutral liposomes in rat sciatic nerve block model, and explored the effects of these liposomes on cellular entry of QX-314 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The results demonstrated that anionic liposomes substantially prolonged the duration of sensory (25.7 ± 8.3 h) and motor (41.4 ± 6.1 h) blocks of QX-314, while cationic and neutral ones had little effects. Tissue reactions from QX-314 with anionic liposomes were similar to those with commonly used local anaesthetic bupivacaine. Consistent with in vivo results, the anionic liposomes produced the greatest promotion of cellular entry of QX-314 in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, ultra-long lasting nerve blocks were achieved by a mixture of QX-314 and anionic liposomes with a satisfactory safety profile, indicating a potential approach to improve postoperative pain management. The liposome-induced enhancement in cellular uptake of QX-314 may underlie the in vivo effects.

  15. Atmospheric lifetimes and ozone depletion potentials of methyl bromide (CH3Br) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellouki, A.; Talukdar, R.K.; Schmoltner, A.; Gierczak, T.; Mills, M.J.; Solomon, S.; Ravishankara, A.R. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))


    The rate coefficients for the reactions of OH radical with CH3Br and CH2Br2 were measured as functions of temperature using the laser photolysis - laser induced fluorescence method. This data was incorporated into a semiempirical model (Solomon et al., 1992) and a 2D model to calculate the steady-state ozone depletion potentials (ODP) and atmospheri lifetimes, tau, with greatly improved accuracy as compared to earlier studies. The calculated ODPs and tau are 0.65 and 1.7 years and 0.17 and 0.41 years for CH3Br and CH2Br2, respectively, using the semiempirical model. These lifetimes agree well with those calculated using a 2D model. This study better quantifies the ODPs and tau of these species which are needed inputs for discussion of possible regulation of human emissions currently under international considerations. 29 refs.

  16. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Methyl Bromide in the Decontamination of Building and Interior Materials Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spreadsheets containing data for recovery of spores from different materials. Data on the fumigation parameters are also included. This dataset is associated with...

  17. About the photoionization of methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br). Photoelectron and photoionization mass spectrometric investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locht, R. [Laboratoire de Dynamique Moleculaire, Departement de Chimie, Institut de Chimie, Bat. B6c, Universite de Liege, Sart-Tilman par B-4000 Liege 1 (Belgium)], E-mail:; Leyh, B. [Laboratoire de Dynamique Moleculaire, Departement de Chimie, Institut de Chimie, Bat. B6c, Universite de Liege, Sart-Tilman par B-4000 Liege 1 (Belgium); Dehareng, D. [Centre d' Ingenierie des Proteines, Institut de Chimie, Bat. B6a, Universite de Liege, Sart-Tilman par B-4000 Liege 1 (Belgium); Hottmann, K. [Institut fuer Chemie, Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Takustrasse 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Jochims, H.W. [Institut fuer Chemie, Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Takustrasse 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Baumgaertel, H. [Institut fuer Chemie, Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Takustrasse 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)


    The threshold photoelectron (TPES) and the photoionization mass spectrometric study of CH{sub 3}Br in the 8-20eV photon energy range is presented. The interpretation and assignments are supported by ab initio calculations. The TPES shows several new discrete features in the Jahn-Teller split ground state X-bar {sup 2}E({sup 2}A{sup '}-{sup 2}A{sup '}') of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}. An additional continuous band starts at about 11.8eV. These observations are both correlated with direct ionization and autoionizing transitions. This is supported by constant ion state (CIS) spectroscopy. A large enhancement of the transitions to the A-bar {sup 2}A and B-bar {sup 2}E states is ascribed to important autoionizing contributions. Based on the present calculations, the weak to very weak bands in the 17.5-22.0eV photon energy range were mainly assigned to 2a{sub 1}{sup -1} ionization and to double excitations described essentially by the 2e{sup -2}4a{sub 1}{sup 1} and 1e{sup -1}2e{sup -1}4a{sub 1}{sup 1} configurations. The photoionization mass spectrometric study allowed us to investigate in detail the ionization and dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} leading to CH{sub 2}{sup +}, CH{sub 3}{sup +}, Br{sup +} and CH{sub 2}Br{sup +} from threshold up to 20eV photon energy. The experimental data are compared to ab initio dissociation energies. At the onset, the CH{sub 3}{sup +} and CH{sub 2}Br{sup +} fragment ion production is correlated with the ground state of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} and both fragment ions have to appear through dissociative autoionization from the (3a{sub 1}{sup 1}/1e{sup 3})6s or 5s Rydberg state. This interpretation is supported by the photoabsorption spectrum measured recently in the same photon energy range. At higher energies, beside a likely direct (pre)dissociation of the A-bar {sup 2}A{sub 1} and B-bar {sup 2}E states of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}, autoionization also contributes to the fragmentation in all decay channels. Avoided crossings in a manifold of {sup 2}A' states are likely to be involved. This is supported by ab initio calculations. For CH{sub 3}{sup +} the photoion-pair process is analyzed and detailed assignments are proposed on the basis of our latest VUV photoabsorption spectroscopic data.

  18. 2,6-Bis(oxazolinyl)phenylnickel(II) Bromide and 2,6-Bis(ketimine)phenylnickel(II) Bromide: Synthesis, Structural Features, and Redox Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, M.; Snelders, D.J.M.; Godbole, M.D.; Havenith, R.W.A.; Haddleton, D.M.; Clarkson, G.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; van Klink, G.P.M.; van Koten, G.


    2,6-Bis(oxazolinyl)phenylnickel bromide complexes [NiBr(R,R'-Phebox)] (2) were synthesized via two synthetic routes (A and B). In route A, selective bis-ortho lithiation of [R,R'-PheboxBr], followed by a transmetalation reaction with [NiBr2(PEt3)2], yielded not only complexes 2 with an

  19. Bronchodilator efficacy of extrafine glycopyrronium bromide: the Glyco 2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh D


    Full Text Available Dave Singh,1 Mario Scuri,2 Sara Collarini,2 Stefano Vezzoli,2 Fabrizia Mariotti,2 Annamaria Muraro,2 Daniela Acerbi2 1Medicines Evaluation, University Of Manchester, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK; 2Global Clinical Development, Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA, Parma, Italy Abstract: An extrafine formulation of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium bromide (GB is in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, in combination with beclometasone dipropionate and formoterol fumarate – a “fixed triple”. This two-part study was randomized, double blind, placebo controlled in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD: Part 1: single-dose escalation, GB 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 200 µg versus placebo; Part 2: repeat-dose (7-day, four-period crossover, GB 12.5, 25 or 50 µg twice daily (BID versus placebo, with an open-label extension in which all patients received tiotropium 18 µg once daily. On the morning of Day 8 in all five periods, patients also received formoterol 12 µg. In study Part 1, 27 patients were recruited. All GB doses significantly increased from baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 area under the curve (AUC0–12h and peak FEV1, with a trend toward greater efficacy with higher GB dose. All adverse events were mild–moderate in severity, with a lower incidence with GB than placebo and no evidence of a dose–response relationship. In study Part 2, of 38 patients recruited, 34 completed the study. Adjusted mean differences from placebo in 12 h trough FEV1 on Day 7 (primary were 115, 142 and 136 mL for GB 12.5, 25 and 50 µg BID, respectively (all P<0.001. GB 25 and 50 µg BID were superior (P<0.05 to GB 12.5 µg BID for pre-dose morning FEV1 on Day 8. For this endpoint, GB 25 and 50 µg BID were also superior to tiotropium. Compared with Day 7, addition of formoterol significantly increased Day 8 FEV1 peak and AUC0–12h with all GB doses and placebo (all P<0.001. All

  20. Are tropane alkaloids present in organic foods? Detection of scopolamine and atropine in organic buckwheat (Fagopyron esculentum L.) products by UHPLC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Cirlini, Martina; Demuth, Teresa M; Biancardi, Alberto; Rychlik, Michael; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Bruni, Renato


    A closer monitoring of tropane alkaloids (TA) in foods is now recommended by the European Commission, following a series of alerts related to the contamination of buckwheat with weeds of the genus Datura. A novel, accurate UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the rapid detection of scopolamine and atropine in buckwheat foods. A suitable extraction protocol was set up to maximize recoveries and detection limits in different raw, processed and baked foods. The method offers good performances in terms of sensitivity, accuracy and precision, with LOQs at 0.04 and 0.10µg/kg. The established method is suitable for routine determination of trace levels of TA and was applied to 26 different buckwheat-derived organic foods, detecting TA in 3 samples (13.9-83.9µg/kg for atropine and 5.7-10.4µg/kg for scopolamine). Only in one case the level of contamination was relevant in terms of food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous determination of atropine and scopolamine in buckwheat and related products using modified QuEChERS and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Chen, Hongping; Marín-Sáez, Jesús; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia


    A method was developed for the determination of atropine and scopolamine in buckwheat and related products. A modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction procedure was evaluated. Dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) was studied as clean-up step, using graphitized black carbon (GBC) and primary secondary amine (PSA). The extract was diluted with water (50:50, v/v) prior to chromatographic analysis. The method was validated and recoveries (except chia samples spiked at 10μg/kg) ranged from 75% to 92%. Intra and inter-day precision was lower than or equal to 17%. The limit of quantification of atropine and scopolamine was 0.4 and 2μg/kg, respectively. Eight types of samples (buckwheat, wheat, soy, buckwheat flour, buckwheat noodle, amaranth grain, chia seeds and peeled millet) were analyzed. Target compounds were not found above the detection limits of the method, but three transformation products of scopolamine (norscopine, hydroscopolamine and dihydroxyscopolamine) were putative identified in the tested samples using high resolution mass spectrometry (Exactive-Orbitrap). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslin Hadanu


    Full Text Available Synthesis of (1-N-(4-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthroline bromide from 1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde as starting material and evaluation of its antiplasmodial activities have been carried out. The 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol was prepared from 4-methoxy-benzaldehyde using sodium borohydride (NaBH4 reagent and ethanol absolute solution. The mixture was refluxed for 3 h. To yield colorless dilution compound with 90.41 % in efficiency. Furthermore, bromination of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol with phosphorus bromide (PBr3 was conducted by refluxing for 3 h. The product of this reaction was yellow liquid of 4-methoxybenzyl bromide, 79.03% yield and 95.34 % purity. The final step of reaction was benzylation of 1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate with 4-methoxybenzyl bromide reagent. It was conducted by refluxing in aceton for 8 h at 55 oC. The yield of the reaction was (1-N-(4-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthroline bromide (77.63%. It is pink solid form, and its melting point is 192-193 oC. Identification of the product was carried out by means of GC-MS, IR and 1H-NMR spectrometers. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity on chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum FCR-3 strain and chloroquine sensitive P. falciparum D10 strain for (1-N-(4-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthroline bromide were determined by microscopic method. The result showed that after 72 h incubation, it has IC50 0.93±0.02 µM and 1.21±0.09 µM, respectively.   Keywords: 1,10-phenanthroline,  (1-N-(4-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthroline bromide, 4 methoxybenzaldehyde, antiplasmodial activities

  3. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine. (United States)

    Poletto, Rosangela; Janczak, Andrew M; Marchant-Forde, Ruth M; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N; Matthews, Donald L; Dowell, Carol A; Hogan, Daniel F; Freeman, Lynetta J; Lay, Donald C


    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for assessing farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency domain analyses may provide a sensitive and reliable measure of affective states and stress-mediated changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic tones. The aim of this research was to define low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power spectral ranges using pharmacological autonomic blockade, and to examine HRV and BPV parameter changes in response to atropine and propranolol in swine. Ten, 13-week old, barrows (n=6) and gilts (n=4) underwent surgery to place an intra-cardiac electrode and a blood pressure catheter attached to a biotelemetric transmitter; pigs had a 3-week recovery period prior to data collection. Each pig was subjected to administration of 4 intravenous (i.v.) drug treatments: a control treatment, 3 mL of saline, and 3 blockade treatments; 0.1 mg/kg of atropine, 1.0 mg/kg of propranolol, and .1 mg/kg of atropine together with 1.0 mg/kg of propranolol. All treatments were delivered by injection in the jugular vein with a minimum of 48 h between individual treatments. Behavior, ECG and blood pressure data were recorded continuously for a total of 1h, from 30 min pre-injection to 30 min post-injection. For data analyses, two 512-beat intervals were selected for each treatment while the pig was lying and inactive. The first interval was selected from the pre-injection period (baseline), and the second was selected between 10 and 30 min post-injection. Time and frequency domain (power spectral density) analyses were performed on each data interval. Subsequent, LF and HF bands from the power spectral densities were defined based on general linear and regression analyses. The HRV and BPV were computed with a covariate (baseline) factorial analysis of treatment by sex

  4. DNA methylation in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pokrywka


    Full Text Available The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes, have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described.

  5. Utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization affected by highly transient flow conditions (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew


    A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained "noise" caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

  6. Apoptosis and DNA Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Meehan


    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms assist in maintaining gene expression patterns and cellular properties in developing and adult tissues. The molecular pathology of disease states frequently includes perturbation of DNA and histone methylation patterns, which can activate apoptotic pathways associated with maintenance of genome integrity. This perspective focuses on the pathways linking DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG binding proteins to apoptosis, and includes new bioinformatic analyses to characterize the evolutionary origin of two G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylases, MBD4 and TDG.

  7. Characterization of micelle formation of dodecyldimethyl-N-2-phenoxyethylammonium bromide in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Khatua, Dibyendu; Gupta, Abhisek; Dey, Joykrishna


    Aggregation behavior of dodecyldimethyl-N-2-phenoxyethylammonium bromide commonly called domiphen bromide (DB) was studied in aqueous solution. The Krafft temperature of the surfactant was measured. The surfactant has been shown to form micellar structures in a wide concentration range. The critical micelle concentration was determined by surface tension, conductivity, and fluorescence methods. The conductivity data were also employed to determine the degree of surfactant counterion dissociation. The changes in Gibb's free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of the micellization process were determined at different temperature. The steady-state fluorescence quenching measurements with pyrene and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as fluorescence probes were performed to obtain micellar aggregation number. The results were compared with those of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) surfactant. The micelle formation is energetically more favored in DB compared to that in DTAB. The 1H-NMR spectra were used to show that the 2-phenoxyethyl group, which folds back onto the micellar surface facilitates aggregate formation in DB.

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels in Lithium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo Samuel AFOLABI


    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in various concentrations of lithium, bromide solution was investigated by using the conventional weight loss measurement method. The results obtained show that corrosion of these steels occurred due to the aggressive bromide ion in the medium. Duplex stainless steel shows a greater resistance to corrosion than austenitic stainless steel in the medium. This was attributed to equal volume proportion of ferrite and austenite in the structure of duplex stainless steel coupled with higher content of chromium in its composition. Both steels produced electrochemical noise at increased concentrations of lithium bromide due to continuous film breakdown and repair caused by reduction in medium concentration by the alkaline corrosion product while surface passivity observed in duplex stainless steel is attributed to film stability on this steel.

  9. Kinetics adsorption study of the ethidium bromide by graphene oxide as adsorbent from aqueous matrices (United States)

    Rajabi, M.; Moradi, O.; Zare, K.


    In this study of ethidium bromide, adsorption from aqueous matrices by graphene oxide as adsorbent was investigated. Influencing parameters in the adsorption study included contact time, temperature, and pH. The optimum time was selected 17 min, and the best value of pH was determined at 8. All adsorption experiments were performed at 298 K temperature. The maximum wavelength of ethidium bromide was 475 nm. The Elovich, four types of the pseudo-second-order, the pseudo-first-order, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic adsorption models were used for kinetic study, and the results show that adsorption of ethidium bromide on graphene oxide surface best complied with type (I) of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  10. Whole-genome methylation caller designed for methyl-DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA methylation is an indispensable epigenetic modification required for regulating the expression of mammalian genomes. Continued efforts have been made to unravel the methylation states genome-wide, featuring the methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) coupled with next-generation sequencing. Our method ...

  11. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Steven L., E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Figueiredo, Taiza H., E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Prager, Eric M., E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Almeida-Suhett, Camila P., E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Apland, James P., E-mail: [Neurotoxicology Branch, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); and others


    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD{sub 50} of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD{sub 50}), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD{sub 50} soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after

  12. Methylated β-Cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Westh, Peter; Madsen, Jens Christian


    groups at O2 promote complexation by extending the hydrophobic cavity. Like in the case of 2-hydroxypropylated cyclodextrins, the methyl substituents cause an increased release of ordered water from the hydration shell of the bile salts, resulting in a strong increase in both the enthalpy and the entropy...

  13. DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis (United States)

    Delpu, Yannick; Cordelier, Pierre; Cho, William C.; Torrisani, Jérôme


    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results. PMID:23873296

  14. Pregabalin as an adjunct to phenobarbital, potassium bromide, or a combination of phenobarbital and potassium bromide for treatment of dogs with suspected idiopathic epilepsy. (United States)

    Dewey, Curtis W; Cerda-Gonzalez, Sofia; Levine, Jonathan M; Badgley, Britton L; Ducoté, Julie M; Silver, Gena M; Cooper, Jocelyn J; Packer, Rebecca A; Lavely, James A


    To assess tolerability and short-term efficacy of oral administration of pregabalin as an adjunct to phenobarbital, potassium bromide, or a combination of phenobarbital and potassium bromide for treatment of dogs with poorly controlled suspected idiopathic epilepsy. Open-label, noncomparative clinical trial. 11 client-owned dogs suspected of having idiopathic epilepsy that was inadequately controlled with phenobarbital, potassium bromide, or a combination of these 2 drugs. Dogs were treated with pregabalin (3 to 4 mg/kg [1.4 to 1.8 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 3 months. Number of generalized seizures in the 3 months before and after initiation of pregabalin treatment was recorded. Number of responders (>or= 50% reduction in seizure frequency) was recorded, and seizure frequency before and after initiation of pregabalin treatment was compared by use of a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Seizures were significantly reduced (mean, 57%; median, 50%) after pregabalin administration in the 9 dogs that completed the study; 7 were considered responders with mean and median seizure reductions of 64% and 58%, respectively. Adverse effects for pregabalin were reported in 10 dogs. Mean and median plasma pregabalin concentrations for all dogs were 6.4 and 7.3 microg/mL, respectively. Pregabalin may hold promise as a safe and effective adjunct anticonvulsant drug for epileptic dogs poorly controlled with the standard drugs phenobarbital or potassium bromide. Adverse effects of pregabalin appeared to be mild. Additional studies with larger numbers of dogs and longer follow-up intervals are warranted.

  15. Well-Defined Copper(I) Fluoroalkoxide Complexes for Trifluoroethoxylation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ronglu


    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing dinitrogen ligands were synthesized and the structure and reactivity of the complexes toward trifluoroethoxylation, pentafluoropropoxylation, and tetrafluoropropoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides were investigated. Efficiency drive: A series of copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing N,N ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized. These well-defined complexes serve as efficient reagents for the fluoroalkoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides to produce a wide range of trifluoroethyl, pentafluoropropyl, and tetrafluoropropyl (hetero)aryl ethers in good to excellent yields.

  16. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations, and Specific Conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007-08 (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, collected water-quality data from 11 sites on Lake Texoma, a reservoir on the Texas-Oklahoma border, during April 2007-September 2008. At 10 of the sites, physical properties (depth, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity) were measured and samples were collected for analysis of selected dissolved constituents (bromide, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate); at one site, only physical properties were measured. The primary constituent of interest was bromide. Bromate can form when ozone is used to disinfect raw water containing bromide, and bromate is a suspected human carcinogen. Chloride and sulfate were of secondary interest. Only the analytical results for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and measured specific conductance are discussed in this report. Median dissolved bromide concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 0.60 milligrams per liter. The largest median dissolved bromide concentration (0.60 milligram per liter at site 11) was from the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. Dissolved bromide concentrations generally were larger in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma than in the Washita arm of the lake. Median dissolved chloride concentrations were largest in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma at site 11 (431 milligrams per liter) and smallest at site 8 (122 milligrams per liter) in the Washita arm. At site 11 in the Red River arm, the mean and median chloride concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter for chloride established by the 'Texas Surface Water Quality Standards' for surface-water bodies designated for the public water supply use. Median dissolved sulfate concentrations ranged from 182 milligrams per liter at site 4 in the Big Mineral arm to 246 milligrams per liter at site 11 in the Red River arm. None of the mean or median sulfate concentrations

  17. Lithium Bromide/Water as Additives in Dearomatizing Samarium-Ketyl (Hetero)Arene Cyclizations. (United States)

    Rao, Chintada Nageswara; Bentz, Christoph; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich


    New conditions for dearomatizing samarium-ketyl (hetero)arene cyclizations are reported. In many examples of these samarium diiodide-mediated reactions, lithium bromide and water can be used as additives instead of the carcinogenic and mutagenic hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA). The best results were obtained for the cyclizations of N-acylated indole derivatives delivering the expected indolines in good yields and excellent diastereoselectivities. A new type of cyclization delivering indolyl-substituted allene derivatives is also described. The scope and limitations of the lithium bromide/water system are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Lithium bromide-induced structural changes in a nickel bis-alkoxide complex. (United States)

    Ichiokai, Hiromi; Vicic, David A


    The bis-alkoxide [(DEAMP)2Ni] (1, DEAMP = 1-(diethylamino)-2-methylpropan-2-olate) was found to react with trace amounts of lithium bromide to afford the bis-LiBr adduct 2, in which the oxygens of the DEAMP ligand coordinate to lithium to form a chiral-at-metal complex. This new complex is five-coordinate at nickel, and contains nickel and oxygen atoms which are all chiral. One diastereomer precipitates from pentane solution. The two lithium ions rigidify the new structure in the solid state by coordinating to the oxygen and bromide atoms.

  19. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena


    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoion......The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate...... photoionization processes and to describe molecular electronic structure. Theoretical results are compared with available experimental data....

  20. DNA methylation dynamics in neurogenesis (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqin; Tang, Beisha; He, Yuquan; Jin, Peng


    Neurogenesis is not limited to the embryonic stage, but continually proceeds in the adult brain throughout life. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and noncoding RNA, play important roles in neurogenesis. For decades, DNA methylation was thought to be a stable modification, except for demethylation in the early embryo. In recent years, DNA methylation has proved to be dynamic during development. In this review, we summarize the latest understanding about DNA methylation dynamics in neurogenesis, including the roles of different methylation forms (5-methylcytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine), as well as their ‘writers’, ‘readers’ and interactions with histone modifications. PMID:26950681

  1. Autonomic cardiovascular control in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2) deficient mice. (United States)

    Bissonnette, John M; Knopp, Sharon J; Maylie, James; Thong, Tran


    Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 is a transcription factor that is involved in gene silencing. It is mutated in the majority of cases of Rett syndrome. This X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder is reported to involve abnormalities in autonomic cardiovascular regulation. As an initial step in understanding the basis for these abnormalities we have characterized autonomic cardiovascular function in Mecp2 deficient mice. Arterial pressure waves were recorded in freely moving animals using telemetry. Baseline blood pressure and pulse interval (PI) as well as indices of heart rate variability (HRV): standard deviation of PI (SDNN), range encompassing 90% of PIs (PI90) and standard deviation of adjacent PIs (SDSD) were similar in Mecp2(+/+) and Mecp2(+/-) animals. Spectral analysis of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and PI in the frequency domain showed similar relative power in low frequency 1 (LF1, 08-0.4 Hz), low frequency 2 (LF2, 0.4-1.0 Hz), middle frequency (MF, 1-3 Hz) and high frequency (HF, 3.0-10.0 Hz) bands. Autonomic blockade with atropine or propranolol as well as elevation in ambient temperature to 32 degrees C resulted in changes in blood pressure, PI and HRV that did not differ between the strains. Atropine, propranolol and elevated temperature resulted in similar changes in both MAP and PI spectral power. Baroreceptor function was tested using intravenous injections of nitroprusside followed by phenylephrine. Maximum gain was not different. These results do reveal any disturbance of autonomic cardiovascular regulation in the Mecp2 deficient mouse genotype.

  2. Comparison of bromide and nitrate transport in the Bainsvlei soil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bromide is commonly used to simulate the movement of nitrate fertilisers through the soil profile. However, there exists no comparative evaluation of the leaching properties of Br- and NO3-_N under local soil and rainfall conditions at Bloemfontein. The purpose of this work was to conduct a field experiment to evaluate the ...

  3. Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Xie, Fang-Yan; Zhao, Ni; Wong, Ching-Ping


    Mixed iodide-bromide (I-Br) organolead perovskites are of great interest for both single junction and tandem solar cells since the optical bandgap of the materials can be tuned by varying the bromine to iodine ratio. Yet, it remains unclear how bromine incorporation modifies the properties of the

  4. Microwave-Enhanced Cross-Coupling Reactions Involving Alkynyltrifluoroborates with Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Kabalka


    Full Text Available Palladium-catalyzed alkynylation has emerged as one of the most reliable methods for the synthesis of alkynes which are often used in natural product syntheses and material science. An efficient method for coupling alkynyltrifluoroborates with various aryl bromides in the presence of a palladium catalyst has been developed using microwave irradiation. The microwave reactions are rapid and efficient.

  5. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli


    Long-acting bronchodilators are central in the pharmacological management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the studies evaluating the safety and clinical efficacy of inhaled glycopyrronium bromide, a novel...

  6. Comparison of bromide and nitrate transport in the Bainsvlei soil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2004 ... 9. Available on website Comparison of bromide and nitrate transport in the Bainsvlei soil of South Africa under natural rainfall. Ketema Tilahun1*, Joseph F Botha1 and Alan TP Bennie2. 1Institute for Groundwater Studies, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, ...

  7. Iodine catalyzed and tertiary butyl ammonium bromide promoted p reparation of b enzoxazaphosphininyl phenylboronates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Kishore K. Reddy,


    Full Text Available Benzoxazaphosphininyl Phenylboronates were prepared by O-Phosphorylation of potassium salt ofphenylboronic acid with cyclic phosphoromonochloridates in the presence of stoichiometric amount of Iodineand catalytic amount of tertiary butyl ammonium bromide at 50-60 °C in dry toluene.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Cross-linked, hydrophobically associating homo- and copolymers were synthesized by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers with a small amount of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The cross-linked

  9. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.


    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform...

  10. A facile one-pot synthesis of deep blue luminescent lead bromide perovskite microdisks. (United States)

    Yuan, Zhao; Shu, Yu; Tian, Yu; Xin, Yan; Ma, Biwu


    We report a facile one-pot synthetic method to prepare highly luminescent layered lead(II) bromide perovskite microdisks with the lateral size of a few micrometers and thickness of 100-150 nm, featuring narrow deep blue emissions with quantum yields of up to 53% in toluene solutions and thin films at room temperature.

  11. Experimental study of negative temperatures in lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating machines (United States)

    Stepanov, K. I.; Mukhin, D. G.; Alekseenko, S. V.; Volkova, O. V.


    The authors have developed a method and presented experimental data for obtaining negative temperatures of evaporation in lithium-bromide absorption chillers driven by heat recovery. It has been found that the attainable temperature of the refrigerated medium is the value of -5 °C.

  12. Electrical conductivity of miscibility gap salt systems based on lithium fluoride with alkali metal bromides (United States)

    Babushkina, L. M.; Dokashenko, S. I.; Stepanov, V. P.; Shcherbakov, K. N.


    The electrical conductivity κ of miscibility gap ionic melts of lithium fluoride with potassium, rubidium, and cesium bromides is measured. The role of the size and temperature factors in migration is discussed for the systems with a predominant Coulomb interaction of particles in the saturation line.

  13. Bromination of Benzonorbornadiene Using a Mixture of Sodium Bromide and Sodium Perborate at High Temperatures


    Şenocak, Erdal; Yavuz TAŞKESENLİGİL


    Bromination of benzonorbornadiene (1) with sodium bromide in the presence of sodium perborate at room temperature gave only one product, the dibromide 2 produced via Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. However, at high temperatures, bromination resulted predominantly in the formation of rearranged solvolytic products whose formation mechanisms are discussed.

  14. Detection of DNA cross-links in tumor cells with the ethidium bromide fluorescence assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven; Zijlstra, J G; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Mulder, N H; de Vries, Liesbeth


    Until now the fluorescence assay with ethidium bromide has only been used on pure DNA. This assay depends on the difference in fluorescence between single- and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Cross-links in DNA are measured by the return of fluorescence of dsDNA after heat denaturation at pH 12. Under

  15. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao


    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  16. Methyl 2-(5-methyl-3-methyl-sulfinyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl)acetate. (United States)

    Choi, Hong Dae; Seo, Pil Ja; Son, Byeng Wha; Lee, Uk


    The title compound, C(13)H(14)O(4)S, was prepared by oxidation of methyl 2-(5-methyl-3-methyl-sulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-yl)acetate with 3-chloro-peroxy-benzoic acid. The O atom and methyl group of the methyl-sulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the plane of the benzofuran system. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular aromatic π-π inter-actions between the benzene rings of neighbouring mol-ecules, with a centroid-centroid separation of 3.841 (3) Å.

  17. Effect of Ispaghula and Oxyphenonium Bromide on the Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome - A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Paik


    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic continuous or remittent gastrointestinal illness characterized byfrequent unexplained symptoms that include abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel disturbance, in our country, no studyhas been conducted using the Ispaghula husk and oxyphenonium bromide for the treatment of IBS patients. Objectives:To compare the efficacy of treatment with Ispaghula husk and Oxyphenonium bromide. Methods: Total sixty patientsdiagnosed clinically as irritable bowel syndrome irrespective of subtype who fulfilled the Rome II criteria were includedequally into two groups-Group-I (Ispaghula group & Group-II (Oxyphenonium group. In Group-I patients were given30gm of Ispaghula husk at night daily and in Group-II patients were given 5mg of oxyphenonium bromide. After sixweeks the clinical parameters of both the groups recorded in the case record forms were taken for analysis. Results: Themean age of the patients in the Group- I were 33.4±11.9 yrs and that of the patients in the Group-II were 31.0±17.5 yrs.Male and female ratio in group I was 14:1 and in group II was 23:7. Most of the patients were recorded in the age groupof 26-30 in both groups. Symptom free patients were graded in 16.7% patients in Group-I and in 20% patients in Group-II. No improvement was occurred in 16.7% patients in Group-I and in 10% patients in Group-II. Conclusions: Ispaghulahusk shows the better efficacy to improve the symptoms of IBS like abdominal pain or discomfort and sense of well beingthan Oxyphenonium bromide. Oxephenonium bromide shows the better efficacy to decrease the stool frequency frombase line than Ispaghula husk.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i1.5506BSMMU J 2010; 3(1: 3-8

  18. Kinetics of Chlorination of Benzophenone-3 in the Presence of Bromide and Ammonia. (United States)

    Abdallah, Pamela; Deborde, Marie; Dossier Berne, Florence; Karpel Vel Leitner, Nathalie


    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chlorination on the degradation of one of the most commonly used UV filters (benzophenone-3 (BP-3)) and the effects of bromide and ammonia on the kinetics of BP-3 elimination. Bromide and ammonia are rapidly converted to bromine and chloramines during chlorination. At first, the rate constants of chlorine, bromine and monochloramine with BP-3 were determined at various pH levels. BP-3 was found to react rapidly with chlorine and bromine, with values of apparent second order rate constants equal to 1.25(±0.14) × 10(3) M(-1)·s(-1) and 4.04(±0.54) × 10(6) M(-1)·s(-1) at pH 8.5 for kChlorine/BP-3 and kBromine/BP-3, respectively, whereas low monochloramine reactivity was observed (kNH2Cl/BP-3 = 0.112 M(-1)·s(-1)). To assess the impact of the inorganic content of water on BP-3 degradation, chlorination experiments with different added concentrations of bromide and/or ammonia were conducted. Under these conditions, BP-3 degradation was found to be enhanced in the presence of bromide due to the formation of bromine, whereas it was inhibited in the presence of ammonia. However, the results obtained were pH dependent. Finally, a kinetic model considering 18 reactions was developed using Copasi to estimate BP-3 degradation during chlorination in the presence of bromide and ammonia.

  19. A novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in connected soil structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Klaus


    Full Text Available The present study tests whether an explicit treatment of worm burrows and tile drains as connected structures is feasible for simulating water flow, bromide and pesticide transport in structured heterogeneous soils at hillslope scale. The essence is to represent worm burrows as morphologically connected paths of low flow resistance in a hillslope model. A recent Monte Carlo study (Klaus and Zehe, 2010, Hydrological Processes, 24, p. 1595–1609 revealed that this approach allowed successful reproduction of tile drain event discharge recorded during an irrigation experiment at a tile drained field site. However, several "hillslope architectures" that were all consistent with the available extensive data base allowed a good reproduction of tile drain flow response. Our second objective was thus to find out whether this "equifinality" in spatial model setups may be reduced when including bromide tracer data in the model falsification process. We thus simulated transport of bromide for the 13 spatial model setups that performed best with respect to reproduce tile drain event discharge, without any further calibration. All model setups allowed a very good prediction of the temporal dynamics of cumulated bromide leaching into the tile drain, while only four of them matched the accumulated water balance and accumulated bromide loss into the tile drain. The number of behavioural model architectures could thus be reduced to four. One of those setups was used for simulating transport of Isoproturon, using different parameter combinations to characterise adsorption according to the Footprint data base. Simulations could, however, only reproduce the observed leaching behaviour, when we allowed for retardation coefficients that were very close to one.

  20. The role of bromide ions in seeding growth of Au nanorods. (United States)

    Garg, Niti; Scholl, Clark; Mohanty, Ashok; Jin, Rongchao


    We report our findings on the important role of bromide ions in the seeding growth process of Au nanorods. The seed-mediated process constitutes a well-developed method for synthesizing gold nanorods in high yield, which is facilitated by a micelle-forming surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTA-Br). Despite the tremendous work in recent years, the growth mechanism of Au nanorods has not been fully understood. Contrary to the widely accepted mechanism of CTA(+) micelle-templated growth of Au nanorods, we have identified the critical role of bromide ions in the seeding growth of Au nanorods. We found that even when the micelle-forming agent (CTA(+)) concentration is below its critical micelle concentration (cmc), bromide ions added in the form of NaBr can successfully effect the growth of Au nanorods in good yield. By controlling the concentration of externally added bromide ions, the rod shape and dimensions of the resulting Au nanoparticles can be readily controlled in the presence of only a minimum amount of CTABr (as a steric stabilizer for nanorods). High-resolution TEM studies show that the as-formed nanorods are perfectly single crystalline, instead of penta-twinned ones, and are bound by {111} and {100} facets with a [110] direction as the elongation direction. A mechanism is proposed to account for the seeding growth of single crystalline Au nanorods. Overall, this work explicitly demonstrates that Br(-) indeed serves as an important shape-directing agent for gold nanorod formation in the seed-mediated process.

  1. Study of the n-methyl-d-aspartate antagonistic properties of anticholinergic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough, J.H.; Shih, T.M.


    A study of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonistic properties of anticholinergic drugs. PHARMACOL BIOCHEM BEHAV. 51(2/3) 249-253, 1995. Drugs that act at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex have the ability to terminate nerve agent-induced seizures and modulate the neuropathologic consequences of agent exposure. Drugs with mixed anticholinergic and anti-NMDA properties potentially provide an ideal class of compounds for development as anticonvulsant treatments for nerve agent casualties. The present experiment evaluated the potential NMDA antagonist activity of 11 anticholinergic drugs by determining whether pretreatment with the compound was capable of protecting mice from the lethal effects of NMDA. The following anticholinergic drugs antagonized NMDA lethality and are ranked according to their potency: mecamylamine > procyclidine = benactyzine > biperiden > tribexyphenidyl. The anticholinergics atropine, aprophen, azaprophen, benztropine, 3-quinudidinyl benzilate (QNB), and scopolamine failed to show NMDA antagonist properties. In addition, and unexpectedly, diazepam, ethanol, and pentobarbital were also shown to be capable of antagonizing NMDA lethality over a certain range of doses. The advantages and limitations of using antagonism of NMDA lethality in mice as a bioassay for determining the NMDA antagonist properties of drugs are also discussed.

  2. Methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella


    Full Text Available

    The development of HCC is a complex, multistep, multistage process. The molecular pathogenesis of HCC appears to involve multiple genetic aberrations in the molecular control of hepatocyte proliferation, differentiation and death and the maintenance of genomic integrity. This process is influenced by the cumulative activation and inactivation of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other genes. p53, a tumor suppressor gene, is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. There is also a striking sequence specific binding and induction of mutations by AFB1 at codon 249 of p53 in HCC.

    Epigenetic alterations are also involved in cancer development and progression. Methylation of promoter CpG islands is associated with inhibition of transcriptional initiation and permanent silencing of downstream genes.

    It is now known that most important tumor suppressor genes are inactivated, not only by mutations and deletions but also by promoter methylation. Several studies indicated that p16, p15, RASSF1A, MGMT, and GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation are prevalent in HCC. In addition, geographic variation in the methylation status of tumor DNA indicates that environmental factors may influence the frequent and concordant degree of hypermethylation in multiple genes in HCC and that epigeneticenvironmental interactions may be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. We have found significant relationships between promoter methylation and AFB1-DNA adducts confirming the impact of environmental exposures on gene methylation.

    DNA isolated from serum or plasma of cancer patients frequently contains the same genetic and

  3. Free energy changes in denaturation of ribonuclease A by mixed denaturants. Effects of combinations of guanidine hydrochloride and one of the denaturants lithium bromide, lithium chloride, and sodium bromide. (United States)

    Ahmad, F


    The denaturation of ribonuclease A by guanidine hydrochloride, lithium bromide, and lithium chloride and by mixed denaturants consisting of guanidine hydrochloride and one of the denaturants lithium chloride, lithium bromide, and sodium bromide was followed by difference spectral measurements at pH 4.8 and 25 degrees C. Both components of mixed denaturant systems enhance each other's effect in unfolding the protein. The effect of lithium bromide on the midpoint of guanidine hydrochloride denaturation transition is approximately the sum of the effects of the constituent ions. For all the mixed denaturants tested, the dependence of the free energy change on denaturation is linear. The conformational free energy associated with the guanidine hydrochloride denaturation transition in water is 7.5 +/- 0.1 kcal mol-1, and it is unchanged in the presence of low concentrations of lithium bromide, lithium chloride, and sodium bromide which by themselves are not concentrated enough to unfold the protein. The conformational free energy associated with the lithium bromide denaturation transition in water is 11.7 +/- 0.3 kcal mol-1, and it is not affected by the presence of low concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride which by themselves do not disrupt the structure of native ribonuclease A.

  4. DNA methylation program during development. (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C


    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark when occurring in the promoter and enhancer regions regulates the accessibility of the binding protein and gene transcription. DNA methylation is inheritable and can be de novo-synthesized, erased and reinstated, making it arguably one of the most dynamic upstream regulators for gene expression and the most influential pacer for development. Recent progress has demonstrated that two forms of cytosine methylation and two pathways for demethylation constitute ample complexity for an instructional program for orchestrated gene expression and development. The forum of the current discussion and review are whether there is such a program, if so what the DNA methylation program entails, and what environment can change the DNA methylation program. The translational implication of the DNA methylation program is also proposed.

  5. Bromate formation in bromide-containing water through the cobalt-mediated activation of peroxymonosulfate. (United States)

    Li, Zhaobing; Chen, Zhi; Xiang, Yingying; Ling, Li; Fang, Jingyun; Shang, Chii; Dionysiou, Dionysios D


    Bromate formation in bromide-containing water through the cobalt (Co)-mediated activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) was investigated. Increasing the PMS dosage and the cobalt dosage increased the formation of bromate and bromate yields of up to 100% were recorded under the test conditions. The bromate yield increased to a maximum as the pH rose from 2.7 to 6 before decreasing by over 90% as the pH rose further from 6 to above 9. The bromate formation is a two-step process involving free bromine as a key intermediate and bromate as the final product. In the first step, apart from the known oxidation of bromide to free bromine and of free bromine to bromate by sulfate radicals (SO4(-)), Co(III) produced from the oxidation of Co(II) by PMS and SO4(-) also oxidizes bromide to free bromine. The contribution of Co(III) to the bromate formation was verified with the addition of methanol and EDTA, a radical scavenger and a Co(III) ligand, respectively. In the presence of methanol, free bromine formation increased with increasing Co(II) dosage but no bromate was detected, indicating that Co(III) oxidized bromide to form free bromine but not bromate. In the presence of both EDTA and methanol, no free bromine or bromate was detected, as Co(III) was stabilized by EDTA to form the Co(III)EDTA(-) complex, which could not oxidize bromide. Mathematical simulation further suggested that Co(III) outweighed SO4(-) to oxidize bromide to free bromine. On the other hand, SO4(-) is essential for the oxidation of free bromine to bromate in the second step. In real water, the presence of NOM significantly decreased the bromate formation but caused the brominated organic DBP formation with high quantity. This is the first study to demonstrate the significant bromate formation in the Co/PMS system and the substantial contribution of Co(III) to the formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of phenobarbital with bromide as a first-choice antiepileptic drug for treatment of epilepsy in dogs. (United States)

    Boothe, Dawn Merton; Dewey, Curtis; Carpenter, David Mark


    To compare efficacy and safety of treatment with phenobarbital or bromide as the first-choice antiepileptic drug (AED) in dogs. Double-blinded, randomized, parallel, clinical trial. 46 AED-naïve dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy. Study inclusion was based on age, history, findings on physical and neurologic examinations, and clinicopathologic test results. For either phenobarbital treatment (21 dogs) or bromide treatment (25), a 7-day loading dose period was initiated along with a maintenance dose, which was adjusted on the basis of monthly monitoring. Efficacy and safety outcomes were compared between times (baseline and study end [generally 6 months]) and between drugs. Phenobarbital treatment resulted in eradication of seizures (17/20 [85%]) significantly more often than did bromide (12/23 [52%]); phenobarbital treatment also resulted in a greater percentage decrease in seizure duration (88 ± 34%), compared with bromide (49 ± 75%). Seizure activity worsened in 3 bromide-treated dogs only. In dogs with seizure eradication, mean ± SD serum phenobarbital concentration was 25 ± 6 μg/mL (phenobarbital dosage, 4.1 ± 1.1 mg/kg [1.9 ± 0.5 mg/lb], p.o., q 12 h) and mean serum bromide concentration was 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/mL (bromide dosage, 31 ± 11 mg/kg [14 ± 5 mg/lb], p.o., q 12 h). Ataxia, lethargy, and polydipsia were greater at 1 month for phenobarbital-treated dogs; vomiting was greater for bromide-treated dogs at 1 month and study end. Both phenobarbital and bromide were reasonable first-choice AEDs for dogs, but phenobarbital was more effective and better tolerated during the first 6 months of treatment.

  7. Comparative microvascular exchange kinetics of [{sup 77}Br]bromide and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Claire [Department of Clinical Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Skehan, Stephen J.; Rolph, Susan M.; Flaxman, Mary E.; Ballinger, James R.; Bird, Nicholas J.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The plasma clearance curves of small hydrophilic solutes comprise three exponentials, consistent with a three-compartmental distribution model. A previous comparison between inulin and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that these three compartments are in series, the first being plasma and the second and third representing compartments within the extravascular space. Moreover, whilst the total distribution volumes of these two indicators were similar, the volume of the second compartment was higher for DTPA. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a solute smaller than DTPA, namely bromide, fits the hypothesis that the second space volume is an inverse function of the size of the solute. Two groups of subjects were studied: group A comprised eight patients undergoing routine diagnostic arteriography and group B, eight patients referred for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate plus two normal volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and sodium [{sup 77}Br]bromide were intravenously administered simultaneously. In group A, frequent arterial samples were obtained up to 40 min after injection, and antecubital venous samples 30 s after each arterial sample. In group B, frequent venous samples were obtained up to 280 min after injection. Volume measurements based on bromide were corrected for erythrocyte bromide accumulation. In both subject groups, the normalised venous concentration ratio of bromide to DTPA, corrected for red cell bromide uptake, was significantly less than unity in the earliest blood samples, being 0.56 (SD 0.08) at 1 min, consistent with faster diffusion of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid. Furthermore, the extraction fraction of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid in the forearm was about 0.6, higher than that of DTPA (about 0.5) in spite of red cell bromide accumulation which equilibrated with plasma bromide within 20 s and resulted in a red cell to plasma concentration ratio of 0.51 (0

  8. "Combined Occlusion and Atropine Therapy" Versus "Augmented Part-Time Patching" in Children with Refractory/Residual Amblyopia: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Sachdeva, Virender; Mittal, Vaibhev; Gupta, Varun; Gunturu, Rekha; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Chandrasekharan, Anjali; Chabblani, Preeti Patil; Rao, Harsha L


    To compare the efficacy of combined occlusion and atropine therapy (COAT) and augmented part-time patching for the treatment of unilateral refractory/residual amblyopia. This retrospective study evaluated children between 4 and 11 years with refractory/residual amblyopia who were treated with either additional atropine (COAT group) or increased hours of patching (augmented group). Data were collected on improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] units) at each follow-up visit. There were 19 children in the COAT group and 17 children in the augmented group. The baseline BCVA of the amblyopic eye was 0.79 ± 0.36 logMAR in the COAT group and 0.72 ± 0.26 logMAR in augmented group. Children were statistically significantly younger in the COAT group (6.4 ± 2.2 years) compared to the augmented group (8.6 ± 3.3 years, P = 0.02). The mean duration of follow-up was statistically significantly longer in the augmented group (20.2 COAT group; 13.9 months augmented group) (P = 0.03). Compliance was similar in both groups. LogMAR BCVA (adjusted for difference in age and baseline BCVA) was statistically significantly better in the COAT group (0.56 ± 0.04) compared to the augmented group (0.80 ± 0.04) at 3 months (P = 0.000); 6 months (COAT group, 0.50 ± 0.04 vs. augmented group, 0.74 ± 0.04; P = 0.04) and at 1 year (COAT group, 0.42 ± 0.04 vs. augmented group, 0.67 ± 0.04, P = 0.000). There was statistically significantly greater improvement in logMAR BCVA at 6 months in COAT group (0.26 ± 0.15) compared to the augmented group (0.02 ± 0.14), (P = 0.0002). Age, gender, pretreatment BCVA, duration of follow-up, or compliance to patching did not affect improvement in BCVA. COAT may result in greater improvement in BCVA than augmented part-time patching in children with unilateral residual/refractory amblyopia.

  9. Comparative analysis of rubber seed methyl ester with other methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The important properties of biodiesel such as specific gravity, flash point, cloud point and pour point were determined and compared with that of diesel. Other properties such as kinematic viscosity sulphur content, Aniline point and Acid value of rubber seed methyl ester were deduced and compared with other methyl esters.

  10. Penggunaan Biosorben Biji Pepaya Sebagai Penjerap Zat Warna Methyl Orange, Methyl Violet dan Methyl Red


    Ranita, Lara Indra


    120405009 Biosorben adalah bahan yang memiliki banyak pori dimana proses adsorpsi berlangsung pada dinding pori atau terjadi pada daerah tertentu di dalam partikel tersebut. Biosorben dari biji pepaya digunakan untuk menyerap zat warna tekstil, yaitu methyl orange, methyl violet dan methyl red. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mempelajari pengaruh waktu adsorpsi dan massa biosorben terhadap kemampuan daya serap zat warna. Penelitian ini menggunakan biji pepaya sebagai ba...

  11. Facile Synthesis of Heterocycles via 2-Picolinium Bromide and Antimicrobial Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish


    Full Text Available The 2-picolinium N-ylide 4, generated in situ from the N-acylmethyl-2-picolinium bromide 3, underwent cycloaddition to N-phenylmaleimide or carbon disulfideto give the corresponding cycloadducts 6 and 8, respectively similar reactions ofcompound 3 with some electron-deficient alkenes in the presence of MnO2 yielded theproducts 11 and 12. In addition, reaction of 4 with arylidene cyanothioacetamide andmalononitrile derivatives afforded the thiophene and aniline derivatives 15 and 17,respectively. Heating of picolinium bromide 3 with triethylamine in benzene furnished 2-(2-thienylindolizine (18. The structures of the isolated products were confirmed byelemental analysis as well as by 1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and MS data. Both thestereochemistry and the regioselectivity of the studied reactions are discussed. Thebiological activity of the newly synthesized compounds was examined and showedpromising results.

  12. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters. (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D; Ingersoll, Chris G


    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response of H. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2425-2429. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  13. Flow Boiling Heat Transfer to Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution in Subcooled Region (United States)

    Kaji, Masao; Furukawa, Masahiro; Nishizumi, Takeharu; Ozaki, Shinji; Sekoguchi, Kotohiko

    A theoretical prediction model of the boiling heat transfer coefficient in the subcooled region for water and lithium bromide aqueous solution flowing in a rectangular channel is proposed. In the present heat transfer model, a heat flux is assumed to consist of both the forced convective and the boiling effect components. The forced convective component is evaluated from the empirical correlation of convective heat transfer coefficient for single-phase flow considering the effect of increase of liquid velocity due to net vapor generation. Empirical correlations for determining the heat flux due to the boiling effect and the quality at the onset point of net vapor generation are obtained from the data presented in the first report1). Agreement between the present theoretical prediction and the experimental data is satisfactorily good both for water and lithium bromide aqueous solution.

  14. Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen + Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semi-Clathrate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hashimoto


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic stability and hydrogen occupancy on the hydrogen + tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrate were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopic and phase equilibrium measurements under the three-phase equilibrium condition. The structure of mixed gas hydrates changes from tetragonal to another structure around 95 MPa and 292 K depending on surrounding hydrogen fugacity. The occupied amount of hydrogen in the semi-clathrate hydrate increases significantly associated with the structural transition. Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrates can absorb hydrogen molecules by a pressure-swing without destroying the hydrogen bonds of hydrate cages at 15 MPa or over.

  15. Preparation and optical characteristics of layered perovskite-type lead-bromide-incorporated azobenzene chromophores (United States)

    Sasai, Ryo; Shinomura, Hisashi


    Lead bromide-based layered perovskite powders with azobenzene derivatives were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. From the diffuse reflectance (DR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the hybrid powder materials, the present hybrids exhibited sharp absorption and PL peaks originating from excitons produced in the PbBr42- layer. When the present hybrid powder was irradiated with UV light at 350 nm, the absorption band from the trans-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 350 nm, decreased, while the absorption band from the cis-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 450 nm, increased. These results indicate that azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid materials exhibit reversible photoisomerization. Moreover, it was found that the PL intensity from the exciton also varied due to photoisomerization of the azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid. Thus, for the first time we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation.

  16. Effect of Concentration on Evaporation Rate for Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution in a Falling Film Heater (United States)

    Matsuda, Akira; Ide, Tetsuo

    Experiments on evaporation for lithium bromide aqueous solution (0-55 wt% LiBr) were made in Summary a externally heated wetted-wall column under reduced pressures. The evaporation rates of 5 and 8 wt% LiBr-water solutions were similar to those of water. The evaporation rates, however, owered with further increase of the concentration of LiBr, and at low feed rates the evaporation rates lowered with decrease of the feed rate because the temperature of the falling film rose. On the other hand, at high feed rates the evaporation rates lowered with increase of feed rates because the heat transfer coefficients of the falling film decreased. Therefore, a maximum evaporation rate existed and it was supposed that there is the optimum feed rate. The experimental data agreed with the values that were calculated numerically based on the unidirectional model that lithium bromide didn't move through falling film.

  17. Pd-catalyzed Heck reactions of aryl bromides with 1,2-diarylethenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limberger, Jones; Poersch, Silvia; Monteiro, Adriano L., E-mail: adriano.monteiro@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LCM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. of Molecular Catalysis


    A catalytic system composed of Pd(OAc){sub 2} and P(o-tol){sub 3} was found to be effective for the Heck reaction of aryl bromides with diarylethylenes. Using K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a base and DMF as a solvent, trisubstituted olefins were obtained in good to excellent yields. Aryl bromides containing an electron-withdrawing group in para position were less reactive for the Heck coupling reaction and gave substantial amount of homocoupling by-product suggesting that oxidative addition is not the rate-determining step. Electron withdrawing group substituent in the para position of stilbene affects the regioselectivity of the reaction. In this case, the phenyl group from the Ph-Pd complex migrates preferentially to the same carbon of the double bond to which the phenyl is bonded. Finally, a one pot sequential double Heck arylation of styrene was performed, giving trisubstituted olefin with an overall yield of 73%. (author)

  18. Formation pathways of brominated products from benzophenone-4 chlorination in the presence of bromide ions. (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Wei, Dongbin; Li, Liping; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Huimin; Du, Yuguo


    The brominated products, formed in chlorination treatment of benzophenone-4 in the presence of bromide ions, were identified, and the formation pathways were proposed. Under disinfection conditions, benzophenone-4 would undertake electrophilic substitution generating mono- or di-halogenated products, which would be oxidized to esters and further hydrolyzed to phenol derivatives. The generated catechol intermediate would be transformed into furan-like heterocyclic product. The product species were pH-dependent, while benzophenone-4 elimination was chlorine dose-dependent. When the chlorination treatment was performed on ambient water spiked with benzophenone-4 and bromide ions, most of brominated byproducts could be detected, and the acute toxicity significantly increased as well. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A novel model-based approach for dose determination of glycopyrronium bromide in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arievich Helen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237 is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist in development for treatment of COPD. This study compared the efficacy and safety of once-daily (OD and twice-daily (BID glycopyrronium bromide regimens, using a novel model-based approach, in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Methods Double-blind, randomized, dose-finding trial with an eight-treatment, two-period, balanced incomplete block design. Patients (smoking history ≥10 pack-years, post-bronchodilator FEV1 ≥30% and 1/FVC 1 at Day 28. Results 385 patients (mean age 61.2 years; mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 53% predicted were randomized; 88.6% completed. All OD and BID dosing regimens produced dose-dependent bronchodilation; at Day 28, increases in mean trough FEV1 versus placebo were statistically significant for all regimens, ranging from 51 mL (glycopyrronium bromide 12.5 μg OD to 160 mL (glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg BID. Pharmacodynamic steady-state was reached by Day 7. There was a small separation (≤37 mL between BID and OD dose–response curves for mean trough FEV1 at steady-state in favour of BID dosing. Over 24 hours, separation between OD and BID regimens was even smaller (FEV1 AUC0-24h maximum difference for equivalent daily dose regimens: 8 mL. Dose–response results for FEV1 at 12 hours, FEV1 AUC0-12h and FEV1 AUC0-4h at steady-state showed OD regimens provided greater improvement over placebo than BID regimens for total daily doses of 25 μg, 50 μg and 100 μg, while the reverse was true for OD versus BID regimens from 12–24 hours. The 12.5 μg BID dose produced a marginally higher improvement in trough FEV1 versus placebo than 50 μg OD, however, the response at 12 hours over placebo was suboptimal (74 mL. Glycopyrronium bromide was safe and well tolerated at all doses. Conclusions Glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg OD provides significant bronchodilation over a 24 hour period

  20. Charging of silver bromide aqueous interface: evaluation of interfacial equilibrium constants from surface potential data. (United States)

    Preočanin, Tajana; Supljika, Filip; Kallay, Nikola


    A single crystal silver bromide electrode (SCr-AgBr) was used to measure the inner surface potential (Ψ(0)) at the silver bromide aqueous electrolyte interface as a function of the activities of Br(-) and Ag(+). Absolute values of the surface potential were calculated from electrode potentials of SCr-AgBr using the value of point of zero charge (pBr(pzc)=6.9 [H.A. Hoyen, R.M. Cole, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 41 (1972) 93.]) as the value of point of zero potential. Measurements were performed in potassium nitrate aqueous solutions. The Ψ(0)(pBr) function was linear and slightly dependent on the ionic strength. The reduction values of the slope with respect to the Nernst equation, expressed by the α coefficient, were 0.880,0.935, and 0.950 at ionic strengths of 10(-4), 10(-3), and 10(-2) mol dm(-3), respectively. The results were successfully interpreted by employing the surface complexation model, developed originally for metal oxides and adapted for silver halides. The thermodynamic ("intrinsic") equilibrium constants for binding of bromide (K(n)(∘)) and silver (K(p)(∘)) ions on the corresponding sites at the silver bromide surface were evaluated as lgK(n)(∘)=3.98; lgK(p)(∘)=2.48. Symmetrical counterion surface association was assumed and equilibrium constants were obtained as lgK(NO(3)(-))(∘)=lgK(K(+))(∘)=4.30. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 1-Bromomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. Finke


    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H14BrN2+·Br−, was prepared by nucleophilic substitution of DABCO (systematic name: 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane with dibromomethane in acetone. The structure features Br...H close contacts (2.79 and 2.90 Å as well as a weak bromine–bromide interaction [3.6625 (6 Å].

  2. Replacing conventional carbon nucleophiles with electrophiles: nickel-catalyzed reductive alkylation of aryl bromides and chlorides. (United States)

    Everson, Daniel A; Jones, Brittany A; Weix, Daniel J


    A general method is presented for the synthesis of alkylated arenes by the chemoselective combination of two electrophilic carbons. Under the optimized conditions, a variety of aryl and vinyl bromides are reductively coupled with alkyl bromides in high yields. Under similar conditions, activated aryl chlorides can also be coupled with bromoalkanes. The protocols are highly functional-group tolerant (-OH, -NHTs, -OAc, -OTs, -OTf, -COMe, -NHBoc, -NHCbz, -CN, -SO(2)Me), and the reactions are assembled on the benchtop with no special precautions to exclude air or moisture. The reaction displays different chemoselectivity than conventional cross-coupling reactions, such as the Suzuki-Miyaura, Stille, and Hiyama-Denmark reactions. Substrates bearing both an electrophilic and nucleophilic carbon result in selective coupling at the electrophilic carbon (R-X) and no reaction at the nucleophilic carbon (R-[M]) for organoboron (-Bpin), organotin (-SnMe(3)), and organosilicon (-SiMe(2)OH) containing organic halides (X-R-[M]). A Hammett study showed a linear correlation of σ and σ(-) parameters with the relative rate of reaction of substituted aryl bromides with bromoalkanes. The small ρ values for these correlations (1.2-1.7) indicate that oxidative addition of the bromoarene is not the turnover-frequency determining step. The rate of reaction has a positive dependence on the concentration of alkyl bromide and catalyst, no dependence upon the amount of zinc (reducing agent), and an inverse dependence upon aryl halide concentration. These results and studies with an organic reductant (TDAE) argue against the intermediacy of organozinc reagents. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  3. Factors Affecting the Stability and Performance of Ipratropium Bromide; Fenoterol Hydrobromide Pressurized-Metered Dose Inhalers


    Ninbovorl, Jenjira; Sawatdee, Somchai; Srichana, Teerapol


    The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the stability and performance of ipratropium bromide and fenoterol hydrobromide in a pressurized-metered dose inhaler (pMDI). A factorial design was applied to investigate the effects of three parameters (propellant, water, and ethanol) on the performance of 27 designed formulations of a solution-based pMDI. The formulations that contained a hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellant lower than 72% v/v and an ethanol concentration higher t...

  4. Adsorption of Indigo Carmine Dye Using Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) Surfactant Modified Zeolite


    Fauziyah, Nurul; Sriatun, Sriatun; Pardoyo, Pardoyo


    Research of indigo carmine dye adsorption using natural zeolite modified by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant has been done. The purpose of this study was to modify the natural zeolite using CTAB surfactant and to determine its ability on the adsorption of indigo carmine dye. The stages of the study included the activation of zeolites, modifying zeolites using CTAB surfactant and adsorption test of indigo carmine dye. The results showed that the zeolites could be modified by CT...

  5. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei [National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China)


    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  6. 1-(2-Bromoethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide tetrafluoroborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-mei Xiao


    Full Text Available In the crystal of the title compound, C8H17BrN22+·Br−·BF4−, a weak intermolecular N—H...Br hydrogen bond is observed between the cation and the bromide anion. A two-part disorder model was applied to the BF4− anion with a refined major–minor occupancy ratio of 0.837 (14:0.163 (14.

  7. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines. (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J


    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  8. Serum triglyceride concentration in dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide. (United States)

    Kluger, Elissa K; Malik, Richard; Ilkin, William J; Snow, David; Sullivan, David R; Govendir, Merran


    To compare serum triglyceride concentrations obtained after food had been withheld (i.e., fasting concentrations) in dogs with epilepsy that had been treated long term (> or = 3 months) with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and potassium bromide with concentrations in healthy control dogs. Cross-sectional study. 57 epileptic dogs that had been treated with phenobarbital (n=28) or with phenobarbital and bromide (29) and 57 healthy, untreated control dogs matched on the basis of age, breed, sex, neuter status, and body condition score. Blood samples were collected after food had been withheld for at least 12 hours, and serum biochemical and lipid concentrations were determined. Oral fat tolerance tests were performed in 15 control dogs and 9 dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital alone. 19 of the 57 (33%) epileptic dogs had fasting serum triglyceride concentrations greater than the upper reference limit. Nine (16%) dogs had a history of pancreatitis, and 5 of the 9 had high fasting serum triglyceride concentrations at the time of the study. A significant relationship was found between body condition score and fasting serum triglyceride concentration in all dogs, but serum triglyceride concentration was not significantly associated with phenobarbital dosage or serum phenobarbital concentration. Results suggested that dogs treated long term with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide may develop hypertriglyceridemia. Fasting serum triglyceride concentration should be periodically monitored in dogs treated with phenobarbital because hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for pancreatitis.

  9. [Treating irritable bowel syndrome by wuling capsule combined pinaverium bromide: a clinical research]. (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-wei; Hou, Yu; Ji, Hong-zan; Liang, Ming-ming; Xu, Lian-e; Wang, Fang-yu


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of wuling Capsule combined with Pinaverium Bromide in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Sixty-four IBS patients were randomized into two groups, the treatment group and the control group, 32 in each group. Patients in the treatment group took wuling Capsule (0. 33 g/capsule, 3 times per day) and Pinaverium Bromide (50 mg/tablet, one tablet each time, 3 times per day) , while those in the control group only took Pinaverium Bromide (50 mg/tablet, one tablet each time, 3 times per day). The therapeutic course for all was 6 weeks. IBS symptom score questionnaire, IBS-Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) , Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) , and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were assessed before and after treatment. Adverse reactions were also observed. The improvement of abdominal pain, stool frequency, and stool properties, as well as changing rates of integrals were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P body image, concerns for health, and dietary restriction of IBS-QOL, as well as changing rates of integrals were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P depression and anxiety of IBS patients with higher safety.

  10. Preparation and optical characteristics of layered perovskite-type lead-bromide-incorporated azobenzene chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasai, Ryo, E-mail: [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, F3-3(250), Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Shinomura, Hisashi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, F3-3(250), Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)


    Lead bromide-based layered perovskite powders with azobenzene derivatives were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. From the diffuse reflectance (DR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the hybrid powder materials, the present hybrids exhibited sharp absorption and PL peaks originating from excitons produced in the PbBr{sub 4}{sup 2-} layer. When the present hybrid powder was irradiated with UV light at 350 nm, the absorption band from the trans-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 350 nm, decreased, while the absorption band from the cis-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 450 nm, increased. These results indicate that azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid materials exhibit reversible photoisomerization. Moreover, it was found that the PL intensity from the exciton also varied due to photoisomerization of the azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid. Thus, for the first time we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation. - Graphical abstract: For the first time, we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PbBr-based layered perovskite with azobenezene derivatives could be synthesized by a homogeneous precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Azobenzene derivatives incorporated the present hybrid that exhibited reversible photoisomerization under UV and/or visible light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL property of the present hybrid could also be varied by photoisomerization.

  11. Study on Durability and Stability of an Aqueous Electrolyte Solution for Zinc Bromide Hybrid Flow Batteries (United States)

    Kim, Donghyeon; Jeon, Joonhyeon


    Zinc-bromine flow battery using aqueous electrolyte has advantages of cost effective and high energy density, but there still remains a problem improving stability and durability of electrolyte materials during long-time cell operation. This paper focuses on providing a homogeneous aqueous solution for durability and stability of zinc bromide electrolyte. For performance experiments of conventional and proposed electrolyte solutions, detailed cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements (at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1 in the range of -1.5 V~1.5 V) are carried out for 40 cycles and five kinds of electrolytes containing which has one of additives, such as (conventionally) zinc chloride, potassium chloride, (newly) lithium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate and zeolite-Y are compared with the 2.0 M ZnBr2 electrolyte, respectively. Experimental results show that using the proposed three additives provides higher anodic and cathodic peak current density of electrolytes than using other two conventional additives, and can lead to improved chemical reversibility of zinc bromide electrolyte. Especially, the solution of which the zeolite-Y added, shows enhanced electrochemical stability of zinc bromide electrolyte. Consequently, proposed electrolytes have a significant advantage in comparison with conventional electrolytes on higher stability and durability.

  12. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila


    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  13. Managing opioid-induced constipation in advanced illness: focus on methylnaltrexone bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Elina Clemens


    Full Text Available Katri Elina Clemens1,2, Eberhard Klaschik11Department of Science and Research, Centre for Palliative Medicine, University of Bonn, Germany; 2Department of Palliative Medicine and Pain Therapy, Malteser Hospital Bonn/Rhein-Sieg, GermanyAbstract: Constipation is a common symptom in palliative care patients which can generate considerable suffering. There is uncertainty about the choice of treatment options from varying recommendations for management of constipation and a varying clinical practice in palliative care settings. The purpose of the review was to evaluate the current recommendations of therapy guidelines for the management of opioid-induced constipation in palliative care patients with a focus on methylnaltrexone bromide. Recent findings in the literature and related information on the opioid-induced gastrointestinal disorders in patients with advanced illness, as well as information on the opioid-antagonist methylnaltrexone, are discussed. Knowledge of the role of definitions, the causes of constipation and the pathophysiology of opioid-induced constipation must be given high priority in the treatment of patients receiving opioids. Diagnosis and therapy of constipation, therefore, should relate to findings in clinical investigation. Opioid-induced constipation and its adequate treatment is an important issue for patients with advanced illness and also poses therapeutic challenge for clinicians in daily routine. Methylnaltrexone bromide may represent an important therapeutic option for palliative care patients who are suffering from opioid-induced constipation with failure of conventional prophylactic oral laxative treatment.Keywords: opioid-induced constipation, palliative care, opioids, methylnaltrexone bromide


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Injection of small aliquots of dipicolinate anions (sodium salt) into an aqueous solution containing dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DOAB) vesicles is endothermic at 50-degrees-C, becoming first more and then less endothermic. The injection process is effectively athermal for solutions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidan Firdaus


    Full Text Available A simple, energy-efficient, and relatively quick synthetic procedure for the synthesis of (1-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide, based on green chemistry principles has been carried out. The synthesis was started by solvent-free reduction of p-anisaldehyde with NaBH4 to give 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in 98% yield to be followed by solvent-free treatment of the resulted alcohol with PBr3 to yield 4-methoxybenzyl bromide (86%. Furthermore, the obtained bromide was reacted with 1,10-phenanthroline in acetone at reflux for 12 h to give the phenanthrolinium salt target in 68% yield.   Keywords: green chemistry, p-anisaldehyde, (1-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide

  16. An experimental investigation of thermo-capillary convection in solution of lithium bromide at non-isothermal absorption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bufetov N. S; Dekhtyar R. A; Ovchinikov V. V


    The aim of this work is to obtain new experimental data on the development of thermo-capillary convection in a solution of lithium bromide with non-isothermal absorption of water vapor in a confined vessel...

  17. Ethanol behaviour at the solution-air interface in the presence of Triton X-100 and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide mixture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magdalena Bielawska; Anna Zdziennicka


    ...)phenoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (Triton X-100 or TX-100) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) mixture with ethanol published in our previous paper, the process of ethanol adsorption was investigated...

  18. Detection of water contamination from hydraulic fracturing wastewater: a μPAD for bromide analysis in natural waters. (United States)

    Loh, Leslie J; Bandara, Gayan C; Weber, Genevieve L; Remcho, Vincent T


    Due to the rapid expansion in hydraulic fracturing (fracking), there is a need for robust, portable and specific water analysis techniques. Early detection of contamination is crucial for the prevention of lasting environmental damage. Bromide can potentially function as an early indicator of water contamination by fracking waste, because there is a high concentration of bromide ions in fracking wastewaters. To facilitate this, a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) has been developed and optimized for the quantitative colorimetric detection of bromide in water using a smartphone. A paper microfluidic platform offers the advantages of inexpensive fabrication, elimination of unstable wet reagents, portability and high adaptability for widespread distribution. These features make this assay an attractive option for a new field test for on-site determination of bromide.

  19. Enantiomeric determination and evaluation of the racemization process of atropine in Solanaceae seeds and contaminated samples by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Marín-Sáez, Jesús; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia


    A new method has been developed for the enantioselective separation of (-) and (+) hyoscyamine in Solanaceaes seeds and contaminated buckwheat. Chromatographic separation was optimized, evaluating two chiral columns, Chirobiotic V and Chiralpal-AY3. Better resolution was obtained using a Chiralpak-AY3 column, utilizing as mobile phase ethanol (0.1% diethanolamine). An extraction procedure based on a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) was applied, using water and acetonitrile containing 1% of acetic acid, and a clean-up step utilizing primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB) as sorbents. The extract was diluted with ethanol (50/:50, v/v) prior to chromatographic analysis, and the separation was carried out avoiding the racemization during this stage. Enantiomerization process of atropine was studied in samples at different conditions such as temperature (30, 50 and 80°C) and pH (3, 5, 7 and 9), observing that racemization occurs at high pH (9) and temperature (80°C). Stramonium and Brugmansia seeds were analyzed and the concentration of (-)-hyoscyamine was 1500mg/kg and 320mg/kg respectively. Contaminated buckwheat was also determined and (-)-hyoscyamine was detected at 170μg/kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Methods of DNA methylation detection (United States)

    Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)


    The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

  1. DNA methylation in metabolic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Zierath, Juleen R


    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity are associated with profound alterations in gene expression that are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recent reports...... have provided evidence that environmental factors at all ages could modify DNA methylation in somatic tissues, which suggests that DNA methylation is a more dynamic process than previously appreciated. Because of the importance of lifestyle factors in metabolic disorders, DNA methylation provides...... a mechanism by which environmental factors, including diet and exercise, can modify genetic predisposition to disease. This article considers the current evidence that defines a role for DNA methylation in metabolic disorders....

  2. DNA Methylation in Schizophrenia. (United States)

    Pries, Lotta-Katrin; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Kenis, Gunter


    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric condition that displays a complex phenotype. A multitude of genetic susceptibility loci have now been identified, but these fail to explain the high heritability estimates of schizophrenia. In addition, epidemiologically relevant environmental risk factors for schizophrenia may lead to permanent changes in brain function. In conjunction with genetic liability, these environmental risk factors-likely through epigenetic mechanisms-may give rise to schizophrenia, a clinical syndrome characterized by florid psychotic symptoms and moderate to severe cognitive impairment. These pathophysiological features point to the involvement of epigenetic processes. Recently, a wave of studies examining aberrant DNA modifications in schizophrenia was published. This chapter aims to comprehensively review the current findings, from both candidate gene studies and genome-wide approaches, on DNA methylation changes in schizophrenia.

  3. Catalytic Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide on the Oxidation of Triethylene glycol by Chloramine-T in Acidic Medium


    Sharma, Vandana; Sharma, K. V.; Bhagwat, V. W.


    The kinetics and mechanism of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide catalyzed oxidation of triethylene glycol [2,2'-ethylene diqxybis(ethanol)] by chloramine-T in acidic acid medium have been investigated. The reaction is first order dependence on chloramine-T and fractional order for triethylene glycol with excess concentration of other reactants. The catalytic effect due to cetyletrimethylammonium bromide has been studied. The small salt effect and increase in the reaction rate with increasing die...

  4. DNA Methylation in Thyroid Tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, Josena K., E-mail: [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Chitale, Dhananjay [Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Narra, Vinod [Essex Surgical Associates, PC, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Chen, Kang Mei; Sawhney, Raja; Worsham, Maria J. [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)


    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer with 1,690 deaths each year. There are four main types of which the papillary and follicular types together account for >90% followed by medullary cancers with 3% to 5% and anaplastic carcinomas making up <3%. Epigenetic events of DNA hypermethylation are emerging as promising molecular targets for cancer detection. Our immediate and long term goal is to identify DNA methylation markers for early detection of thyroid cancer. This pilot study comprised of 21 patients to include 11 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), 2 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 5 normal thyroid cases, and 3 hyperthyroid cases. Aberrant promoter methylation was examined in 24 tumor suppressor genes using the methylation specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) assay and in the NIS gene using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). The frequently methylated genes were CASP8 (17/21), RASSF1 (16/21) and NIS (9/21). In the normal samples, CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were methylated in 5/5, 4/5 and 1/5 respectively. In the hyperthyroid samples, CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were methylated in 3/3, 2/3 and 1/3 respectively. In the thyroid cancers, CASP8, RASSF1, and NIS were methylated in 9/13, 10/13, and 7/13 respectively. CASP8, RASSF1 and NIS were also methylated in concurrently present normal thyroid tissue in 3/11, 4/11 and 3/11 matched thyroid cancer cases (matched for presence of both normal thyroid tissue and thyroid cancer), respectively. Our data suggests that aberrant methylation of CASP8, RASSF1, and NIS maybe an early change in thyroid tumorigenesis regardless of cell type.

  5. DNA methylation pathways and their crosstalk with histone methylation (United States)

    Du, Jiamu; Johnson, Lianna M.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Patel, Dinshaw J.


    Methylation of DNA and of histone 3 at Lys 9 (H3K9) are highly correlated with gene silencing in eukaryotes from fungi to humans. Both of these epigenetic marks need to be established at specific regions of the genome and then maintained at these sites through cell division. Protein structural domains that specifically recognize methylated DNA and methylated histones are key for targeting enzymes that catalyse these marks to appropriate genome sites. Genetic, genomic, structural and biochemical data reveal connections between these two epigenetic marks, and these domains mediate much of the crosstalk. PMID:26296162

  6. Stereoselective synthesis of highly substituted bicyclic γ-lactones using homoaldol addition of 1-(1-cycloalkenyl)methyl carbamates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özlügedik, M.; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Reuber, J.


    Stereoselective addition of aldehydes 4 to metallated 1-(1-cycloalkenyl) methyl N,N-diisopropylcarbamates 1 gave cyclic homoaldol adducts 6. By applying the (-)-sparteine method, enantiomerically enriched products were obtained. These were oxidatively cyclized to diastereomerically pure ¿-lactones...... 8 via the ¿-lactol ethers 7. After deprotonation of ¿-lactones 8 with lithium hexamethyldisilazide, a further substitution was achieved. By trapping the lactone enolates 11 with ß-naphthylmethyl bromide, single diastereomers of ¿-lactones 12 were produced....

  7. DNA methylation: hemodialysis versus hemodiafiltration. (United States)

    Ghigolea, Adrian-Bogdan; Moldovan, Raluca Argentina; Gherman-Caprioara, Mirela


    Aberrant DNA methylation is an emerging characteristic of chronic kidney disease including dialysis patients. It appears to be associated to inflammation. We compared the global DNA methylation status in 10 control subjects compared to 80 dialysis patients (N = 40 on-line hemodiafiltration, N = 40 high-flux hemodialysis) in relation to the dialysis technique and inflammation. Whole blood DNA methylation was assessed with a 5-mc DNA enzyme linked immunosorbent assay Kit. Global DNA methylation was higher in hemodialysis (HD) compared to on-line hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients (0.045 vs. 0.039; P patients according to the median value of 5-mC. DNA methylation was highest in inflamed patients on hemodialysis. The dialysis technique was the only independent predictor of global DNA methylation in dialysis patients. On-line HDF could be associated with a favorable DNA methylation profile. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  8. In vitro anticancer activity of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit. (United States)

    Balachandran, C; Emi, N; Arun, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Ahilan, B; Sangeetha, B; Duraipandiyan, V; Inaguma, Yoko; Okamoto, Akinao; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A; Perumal, P T


    The present study was undertaken to investigate the anticancer activity of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action in MCF-7 cells. Cytotoxic properties of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were carried out against MCF-7 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Ethyl acetate extract showed good cytototoxic activities compared to hexane and methanol extracts. Methyl caffeate was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. Cytotoxic properties of methyl caffeate was investigated against MCF-7, A549, COLO320, HepG-2 and Vero cells. The compound showed potent cytotoxic properties against MCF-7 cells compared to A549, COLO320 and HepG-2 cells. Methyl caffeate significantly reduced cell proliferation and increased formation of fragmented DNA and apoptotic body in MCF-7 cells. Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, p53, caspase-3, PARP and cytochrome c release were detected by western blot analysis. The activities of caspases-3 and PARP gradually increased after the addition of isolated compound. Bcl-2 protein was down regulated; Bid and Bax were up regulated after the treatment with methyl caffeate. Molecular docking studies showed that the compound bound stably to the active sites of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1), B cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (MDM2) and tubulin. The results strongly suggested that methyl caffeate induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via caspase activation through cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Different emissive states in the bulk and at the surface of methylammonium lead bromide perovskite revealed by two-photon micro-spectroscopy and lifetime measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadga Jung Karki


    Full Text Available Two photon photoluminescence (2PPL from single crystals of methyl ammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3, MAPbBr3 is studied. We observe two components in the 2PPL spectra, which we assign to the photoluminescence (PL from the carrier recombination at the band edge and the recombination due to self-trapping of excitons. The PL Stokes shift of self-trapped excitons is about 100 meV from the band-gap energy. Our measurements show that about 15% of the total PL from regions about 40 μm deep inside the crystal is due to the emission from self-trapped exciton. This contribution increases to about 20% in the PL from the regions close to the surface. Time resolved measurements of 2PPL show that the PL due to band-edge recombination has a life time of about 8 ns while the PL lifetime of self-trapped excitons is in the order of 100 ns. Quantification of self-trapped excitons in the materials used in photovoltaics is important as such excitons hinder charge separation. As our results also show that an appreciable fraction of photo-generated carriers get trapped, the results are important in rational design of photovoltaics. On the other hand, our results also show that the self-trapped excitons broaden the emission spectrum, which may be useful in designing broadband light emitting devices.

  10. Methylation-Specific PCR Unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks


    Full Text Available Methylation‐specific PCR (MSP is a simple, quick and cost‐effective method to analyze the DNA methylation status of virtually any group of CpG sites within a CpG island. The technique comprises two parts: (1 sodium bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosine's to uracil under conditions whereby methylated cytosines remains unchanged and (2 detection of the bisulfite induced sequence differences by PCR using specific primer sets for both unmethylated and methylated DNA. This review discusses the critical parameters of MSP and presents an overview of the available MSP variants and the (clinical applications.

  11. The effects of pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin, alone or in combination, on response acquisition in male and female rats. (United States)

    Van Haaren, F; Cody, B; Hoy, J B; Karlix, J L; Schmidt, C J; Tebbett, I R; Wielbo, D


    It has been hypothesized that concurrent exposure to pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin may have contributed to the development of neurocognitive symptoms in Gulf War veterans. The present experiment was designed to investigate the effects of pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin alone, or in combination, on the acquisition of a novel response, one measure of normal cognitive functioning. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with pyridostigmine bromide (1.5 mg/kg/day, by gavage in a volume of 5 ml/kg) or its vehicle for 7 consecutive days. They then also received an intraperitoneal injection of permethrin (0, 15, or 60 mg/kg) before they were exposed to an experimental session during which they could earn food by pressing a lever in an operant chamber. Serum permethrin levels increased as a function of its dose, and were higher in rats treated with pyridostigmine bromide. Sex differences were observed as permethrin levels were higher in female rats than in male rats following the highest dose. Pyridostigmine bromide delayed response acquisition in male and female rats, and resulted in higher response rates on the inactive lever in female rats than in male rats. Although permethrin levels were higher in subjects treated with pyridostigmine bromide than in those treated with vehicle, there were no differences in the behavioral effects of permethrin. Whether or not these behavioral effects of pyridostigmine bromide are of central or peripheral origin will need to be determined in future studies, as its effects on motor activity and/or gastro-intestinal motility may have affected response acquisition.

  12. Midazolam and atropine alter theta oscillations in the hippocampal CA1 region by modulating both the somatic and distal dendritic dipoles. (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Shilpashree; Pearce, Robert A


    Theta (4-12 Hz) oscillations in the hippocampus play an important role in learning and memory. They are altered by a wide variety of drugs that impair memory, and these effects may underlie or contribute to drug-induced amnesia. However, the network mechanisms linking drug actions with changes in memory formation remain poorly defined. Here, we used a multisite linear electrode array to measure local field potentials simultaneously across the CA1 layers of the hippocampus during active exploration, and employed current source density analysis and computational modeling to investigate how midazolam and atropine-two amnestic drugs that are used clinically and experimentally-change the relative timing and strength of the drivers of θ-oscillations. We found that two dipoles are present, with active inputs that are centered at the soma and the distal apical dendrite and passive return pathways that overlap in the mid-apical dendrite. Both drugs shifted the position of the phase reversal in the local field potential that occurred in the mid-apical dendritic region, but in opposite directions, by changing the strength of the dendritic pole, without altering the somatic pole or relative timing. Computational modeling showed that this constellation of changes, as well as an additional effect on a variably present mid-apical pole, could be produced by simultaneous changes in the active somatic and distal dendritic inputs. These network-level changes, produced by two amnestic drugs that target different types of receptors, may thus serve as a common basis for impaired memory encoding. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Haloperidol-stomach lesions attenuation by pentadecapeptide BPC 157, omeprazole, bromocriptine, but not atropine, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, ranitidine, cimetidine and misoprostol in mice. (United States)

    Bilic, I; Zoricic, I; Anic, T; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Mikus, D; Buljat, G; Ivankovic, D; Aralica, G; Prkacin, I; Perovic, D; Mise, S; Rotkvic, I; Petek, M; Rucman, R; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P


    The focus was on haloperidol (central dopamine antagonist)-stomach lesion, a longly described suitable counterpart of dopamine blocker cysteamine-duodenal lesion. In this, the contribution of blockade of central/peripheral dopamine receptors and prostaglandins synthesis, along with influence of antiulcer agents was evaluated in mice. Male NMRI Hannnover mice were sacrificed 24 h after haloperidol (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p., given alone or with saline (haloperidol+saline) (i) or in combination (ii,iii)). Supporting central dopamine predominance for haloperidol stomach lesion induction, co-administration of peripheral dopamine receptor antagonist domperidone (5 mg/kg i.p.) (haloperidol+ domperidone) (ii), or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg s.c.) (haloperidol+ indomethacin) (iii) did not aggravate this lesion. (i) In haloperidol+saline challenged mice the lesions were inhibited by co-administration (/kg i.p.) of a gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, GlyGluProProProGlyLysProAlaAspAspAlaGlyLeuVal, M.W. 1419 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg, but not 1 pg, 100 fg, 10 fg), bromocriptine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg, 100 mg, but not 1 mg). Atropine (10, 100, 200 mg), pirenzepine (10, 100, 200 mg), misoprostol (10, 100, 200 microg), pantoprazole (1, 10, 100 mg), lansoprazole (0.1, 1, 10 mg), cimetidine (10, 100, 200 mg) and ranitidine (10, 100, 200 mg) were not effective. (ii) Dopamine peripheral blockade influence: in haloperidol+domperidone mice, previously effective bromocriptine, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg) or omeprazole (10 mg) did not attenuate stomach lesions. (iii) Prostaglandins synthesis blockade effect: in haloperidol+indomethacin mice, previously effective agents, bromocriptine or omeprazole were not active, while BPC 157 effect was only lessened.

  14. Effect of chronic administration of phenobarbital, or bromide, on pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in dogs with epilepsy. (United States)

    Muñana, K R; Nettifee-Osborne, J A; Papich, M G


    Levetiracetam (LEV) is a common add-on antiepileptic drug (AED) in dogs with refractory seizures. Concurrent phenobarbital administration alters the disposition of LEV in healthy dogs. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of LEV in dogs with epilepsy when administered concurrently with conventional AEDs. Eighteen client-owned dogs on maintenance treatment with LEV and phenobarbital (PB group, n = 6), LEV and bromide (BR group, n = 6) or LEV, phenobarbital and bromide (PB-BR group, n = 6). Prospective pharmacokinetic study. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after LEV administration. Plasma LEV concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. To account for dose differences among dogs, LEV concentrations were normalized to the mean study dose (26.4 mg/kg). Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on adjusted concentrations, using a noncompartmental method, and area-under-the-curve (AUC) calculated to the last measured time point. Compared to the PB and PB-BR groups, the BR group had significantly higher peak concentration (Cmax ) (73.4 ± 24.0 versus 37.5 ± 13.7 and 26.5 ± 8.96 μg/mL, respectively, P dogs compared to concurrent administration of bromide alone. Dosage increases might be indicated when utilizing LEV as add-on treatment with phenobarbital in dogs. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riet-Correa G.


    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.

  16. Bromide oxidation by ferrate(VI): The formation of active bromine and bromate. (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjun; Goodwill, Joseph E; Tobiason, John E; Reckhow, David A


    Ferrate (VI) (abbreviated as Fe(VI)) has long been considered as a green oxidant that does not produce any known hazardous byproducts. However, this work shows that Fe(VI) can slowly oxidize bromide forming active bromine (HOBr/OBr(-)) and bromate, and in natural waters total organic bromine (TOBr) can also be detected. Results showed that the highest levels of active bromine and bromate were formed at lower pHs and in the absence of phosphate. Hydrogen peroxide, which forms from the reaction of Fe(VI) and water, plays an essential role in suppressing bromate formation by reducing active bromine back to bromide. Fe(VI) decomposition products (assumed to be particulate phase Fe(III)) can catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by Fe(VI). Phosphate had a substantial inhibiting effect on the formation of active bromine, but less so on bromate formation. The presence of the raw water matrix in natural water suppressed bromate formation. For a natural water spiked with 0.1 mg/L of bromide, the bromate and TOBr concentrations after Fe(VI) oxidation were below 3.0 and 15 μg/L, respectively. No consistent trend regarding the effect of pH or buffer ions on TOBr formation was observed due to the competition between Fe(VI), hydrogen peroxide, and natural organic matter (NOM) for reaction with active bromine. Under environmentally relevant conditions, the formation of bromate and TOBr would not be a problem for Fe(VI) application as their concentration levels are quite low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methylated genes as new cancer biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Nils; Duffy, M.J; Napieralski, R.


    that measurement of the methylation status of the promoter regions of specific genes can aid early detection of cancer, determine prognosis and predict therapy responses. Promising DNA methylation biomarkers include the use of methylated GSTP1 for aiding the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, methylated PITX2...

  18. DNA methylation analysis in human cancer


    O'Sullivan, Eileen; Goggins, Michael


    The functional impact of aberrant DNA methylation and the widespread alterations in DNA methylation in cancer development has led to the development of a variety of methods to characterize the DNA methylation patterns. This chapter will critique and describe the major approaches to analyzing DNA methylation.

  19. Efficient SN2 fluorination of primary and secondary alkyl bromides by copper(I) fluoride complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yanpin


    Copper(I) fluoride complexes ligated by phenanthroline derivatives have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes adopt as either ionic or neutral forms in the solid state, depending on the steric bulkiness of the substituent groups on the phenanthroline ligands. These complexes react with primary and secondary alkyl bromides to produce the corresponding alkyl fluorides in modest to good yields. This new method is compatible with a variety of important functional groups such as ether, thioether, amide, nitrile, methoxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, ester, and heterocycle moieties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide


    Wei Song; Yu Deng; Hong Zhu


    In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br) as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulos...

  1. Aclidinium bromid forbedrer lungefunktionen og reducerer dyspnø hos patienter med KOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli


    Long-acting bronchodilators are central for treatment of COPD. This short review provides an overview of studies evaluating the efficacy of aclidinium bromide, a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, for the treatment of COPD. Twice-daily dosing of aclidinium leads to clinically important...... improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, health status, use of rescue medication, day-time dyspnoea and exercise tolerance. The available studies also suggest an effect on night-time dyspnoea and exacerbation rate in patients with COPD. Aclidinium seems to have potential for a significant role...... in the future management of COPD....

  2. 1-Cyanomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cai


    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C8H14N3+·Br−·2H2O, intermolecular O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonding occurs. The water molecules are connected into chains extending in the a-axis direction. The bromide anions are connected to the water molecules, forming 10-membered rings. The cations are connected to the anions via weak C—H...Br interactions. Two carbon atoms of the cation are disordered and were refined using a split model (occupancy ratio 0.70:0.3.

  3. Copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubarev, F A; Fedorov, K V; Evtushenko, G S [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fedorov, V F; Shiyanov, D V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    We report the development of a copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns. To lengthen the pulse, the discharge current was limited using a compound switch comprising a pulsed hydrogen thyratron and a tacitron. This technique permits limiting the excitation of the working levels at the initial stage of the discharge development to lengthen the inversion lifetime. The longest duration of a laser pulse was reached in tubes 25 and 50 mm in diameter for a pulse repetition rate of 2 – 4 kHz. (lasers and laser beams)

  4. Holographic Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficient of Lithium Bromide in Aqueous Solution (United States)

    Hattori, Masaru; Aoki, Kazuo; Yamada, Shuichi; Okubo, Takahiro

    About 90 points of diffusion coefficient of lithium bromide (LiBr) in aqueous solution were measured by holographic interferometry in the temperature range of 20∼50°C and the concentration range of 0.4∼55mass%. A correlation among concentration, temperature and diffusion coefficients was done, and an empirical equation to calculate the diffusion coefficient in the concentration and the temperature ranges mentioned above was proposed. Differences between experimental values and correlated expression were almost within±2%. Accuracy of the measured diffusion coefficients was discussed and the measurements are shown to be made within error of ±6.8%.

  5. Solution NMR structural study of a mixed aggregate of N-lithium triphenylphosphazene and lithium bromide. (United States)

    Fernández, Ignacio; Davidson, Matthew G; Price, Richard D; Ortiz, Fernando López


    The toluene solution structure of an N-lithio(triphenyl)phosphazene (Ph(3)PNLi) mixed aggregate with lithium bromide (LiBr), 5, has been elucidated for the first time based on multinuclear magnetic resonance measurements ((1)H, (6)Li, (7)Li, (13)C and (31)P). The structure consist of two dimers [Li(mu-Z)](2) (Z= Br, NPR(3)) linked through LiX (X= N, Br) bridges. This arrangement is a cubane-like structure analogous to that found in the solid-state.

  6. Catalytic Reduction of Alkyl and Aryl Bromides Using Propan-2-ol. (United States)

    Haibach, Michael C; Stoltz, Brian M; Grubbs, Robert H


    Milstein's complex, (PNN)RuHCl(CO), catalyzes the efficient reduction of aryl and alkyl halides under relatively mild conditions by using propan-2-ol and a base. Sterically hindered tertiary and neopentyl substrates are reduced efficiently, as well as more functionalized aryl and alkyl bromides. The reduction process is proposed to occur by radical abstraction/hydrodehalogenation steps at ruthenium. Our research represents a safer and more sustainable alternative to typical silane, lithium aluminium hydride, and tin-based conditions for these reductions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song


    Full Text Available In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulose. Additionally, the SEM image illustrates that there are many fine fibres in the pulp and the spaces between the fibres are large.

  8. Electron irradiation effects on optical properties of semiorganic antimony thiourea bromide monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahesha Upadhya, K., E-mail: [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, P.O. Srinivasnagar, Karnataka 575025 (India); Udayashankar, N.K. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, P.O. Srinivasnagar, Karnataka 575025 (India)


    Antimony thiourea bromide monohydrate (ATBM) single crystals were grown by solution growth technique at room temperature for the first time. The UV-vis, FT-IR and fluorescence spectra were recorded and electron irradiation effects on these properties were studied. The optical absorption edge of the UV-vis spectrum shifts towards lower wavelength with the increase of irradiation. The fluorescence quantum yield is increased for electron irradiated ATBM crystals. The FT-IR analysis shows that the water of crystallization is weakly bonded in as-grown and electron irradiated ATBM crystals.

  9. Cigarette smoking and DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken W.K Lee


    Full Text Available DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic modification, capable of controlling gene expression in the contexts of normal traits or diseases. It is highly dynamic during early embryogenesis and remains relatively stable throughout life, and such patterns are intricately related to human development. DNA methylation is a quantitative trait determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variants at a specific locus can influence both regional and distant DNA methylation. The environment can have varying effects on DNA methylation depending on when the exposure occurs, such as during prenatal life or during adulthood. In particular, cigarette smoking in the context of both current smoking and prenatal exposure is a strong modifier of DNA methylation. Epigenome-wide association studies have uncovered candidate genes associated with cigarette smoking that have biologically relevant functions in the etiology of smoking-related diseases. As such, DNA methylation is a potential mechanistic link between current smoking and cancer, as well as prenatal cigarette-smoke exposure and the development of adult chronic diseases.

  10. Construction of Differential-Methylation Subtractive Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu


    Full Text Available Stress-induced ROS changes DNA methylation patterns. A protocol combining methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease (MS-RE digestion with suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to construct the differential-methylation subtractive library was developed for finding genes regulated by methylation mechanism under cold stress. The total efficiency of target fragment detection was 74.64%. DNA methylation analysis demonstrated the methylation status of target fragments changed after low temperature or DNA methyltransferase inhibitor treatment. Transcription level analysis indicated that demethylation of DNA promotes gene expression level. The results proved that our protocol was reliable and efficient to obtain gene fragments in differential-methylation status.

  11. Pneumonic Plague (United States)

    ... Mercury (Organic) Case Definition: Mercury (Inorganic) Case Definition: Mercury (Elemental) Methyl bromide Case Definition: Methyl Bromide Poisoning Methyl isocyanate Case Definition: Methyl Isocyanate Poisoning Mustard ...

  12. Lewisite (United States)

    ... Mercury (Organic) Case Definition: Mercury (Inorganic) Case Definition: Mercury (Elemental) Methyl bromide Case Definition: Methyl Bromide Poisoning Methyl isocyanate Case Definition: Methyl Isocyanate Poisoning Mustard ...

  13. Nitrogen Mustards (United States)

    ... Mercury (Organic) Case Definition: Mercury (Inorganic) Case Definition: Mercury (Elemental) Methyl bromide Case Definition: Methyl Bromide Poisoning Methyl isocyanate Case Definition: Methyl Isocyanate Poisoning Mustard ...

  14. Arsine (United States)

    ... Mercury (Organic) Case Definition: Mercury (Inorganic) Case Definition: Mercury (Elemental) Methyl bromide Case Definition: Methyl Bromide Poisoning Methyl isocyanate Case Definition: Methyl Isocyanate Poisoning Mustard ...

  15. Tabun (United States)

    ... Mercury (Organic) Case Definition: Mercury (Inorganic) Case Definition: Mercury (Elemental) Methyl bromide Case Definition: Methyl Bromide Poisoning Methyl isocyanate Case Definition: Methyl Isocyanate Poisoning Mustard ...

  16. Cyanide (United States)

    ... Mercury (Organic) Case Definition: Mercury (Inorganic) Case Definition: Mercury (Elemental) Methyl bromide Case Definition: Methyl Bromide Poisoning Methyl isocyanate Case Definition: Methyl Isocyanate Poisoning Mustard ...

  17. Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases (United States)

    ... Mercury (Organic) Case Definition: Mercury (Inorganic) Case Definition: Mercury (Elemental) Methyl bromide Case Definition: Methyl Bromide Poisoning Methyl isocyanate Case Definition: Methyl Isocyanate Poisoning Mustard ...

  18. Sodium Azide (United States)

    ... Mercury (Organic) Case Definition: Mercury (Inorganic) Case Definition: Mercury (Elemental) Methyl bromide Case Definition: Methyl Bromide Poisoning Methyl isocyanate Case Definition: Methyl Isocyanate Poisoning Mustard ...

  19. Chemical Agents (United States)

    ... Mercury (Organic) Case Definition: Mercury (Inorganic) Case Definition: Mercury (Elemental) Methyl bromide Case Definition: Methyl Bromide Poisoning Methyl isocyanate Case Definition: Methyl Isocyanate Poisoning Mustard ...

  20. Abrin (United States)

    ... Mercury (Organic) Case Definition: Mercury (Inorganic) Case Definition: Mercury (Elemental) Methyl bromide Case Definition: Methyl Bromide Poisoning Methyl isocyanate Case Definition: Methyl Isocyanate Poisoning Mustard ...

  1. N,N'-(Hexane-1,6-diylbis(4-methyl-N-(oxiran-2-ylmethylbenzenesulfonamide: Synthesis via cyclodextrin mediated N-alkylation in aqueous solution and further Prilezhaev epoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Fischer


    Full Text Available N-alkylation of N,N'-(hexane-1,6-diylbis(4-methylbenzenesulfonamide with allyl bromide and subsequent Prilezhaev reaction with m-chloroperbenzoic acid to give N,N'-(hexane-1,6-diylbis(4-methyl-N-(oxiran-2-ylmethylbenzenesulfonamide is described. This twofold alkylation was performed in aqueous solution, whereby α-, and randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin were used as adequate phase transfer catalysts and the cyclodextrin–guest complexes were characterized by 1H NMR and 2D NMR ROESY spectroscopy. Finally, the curing properties of the diepoxide with lysine-based α-amino-ε-caprolactam were analyzed by rheological measurements.

  2. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method for Trace Amounts Determination of Bromide in Pharmaceutical Samples Using Janus Green-Bromate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Reza Shishehbore


    Full Text Available A new simple and rapid kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed to trace amounts determination of bromide. This method is based on the catalytic effect of bromide on the reaction between Janus Green and bromate in sulfuric acid media. The reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance at 618 nm. The fixed-time method was used for the first 210 s. The influence of reagents concentration, temperature and time on the sensitivity was studied. Under optimum experimental conditions, bromide can be determined in the range of 10.0-1800.0 μg/L. The relative standard deviations (n = 10 were 0.22 and 0.19% for 100.0 and 1000.0 g/L of bromide, respectively. The detection limit of the proposed method was 4.1 μg/L. The influence of potential interfering of some ions and biological species on the selectivity was studied. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of bromide in pharmaceutical samples. The new developed method was found to have fairly good selectivity, sensitivity, simplicity and rapidity.

  3. Sensitive and rapid titrimetric and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of stavudine in pharmaceuticals using bromate-bromide and three dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura Basavaiah


    Full Text Available Four sensitive and rapid methods for the determination of stavudine (STV in bulk drug and in dosage forms were developed and optimized. In titrimetry, aqueous solution of STV was treated with a known excess of bromate-bromide in HCl medium followed by estimation of unreacted bromine by iodometric back titration. Spectrophotometric methods involve the addition of a measured excess of bromate-bromide in HCl medium and subsequent estimation of the residual bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of methyl orange, indigocarmine or thymol blue followed by measurement of absorbance at 520 nm (method A, 610 nm (method B or 550 nm (method C. In all the methods, the amount of bromate reacted corresponds to the amount of STV. Calculations in titrimetry were based on a 1:0.666 (STV:KBrO3 stoichiometry and the method was found to be applicable over 3.5-10 mg range. A linear increase in absorbance with concentration of STV was observed in the spectrophotometric methods, and the Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration ranges 0.125-1.75, 1-10 and 1-9.0 µg mL-1 STV for method A, method B and method C, respectively. The methods when applied to the determination of STV in tablets and capsules were found to give satisfactory results.Este trabalho descreve quatro métodos rápidos e sensíveispara a determinação de estavudina (STV na matéria-prima ou em produtos formulados. Soluções aquosas de STV podem ser tituladas tratando-as com excesso de bromato-brometo em meio ácido clorídrico, seguido da determinação iodimétrica de bromo em excesso. Métodos espectrofotométricos tambémenvolvem a adição de excesso de bromato-brometo à amostra, seguida da determinação de bromo residual por adição de uma quantidade fixa de alaranjado de metila, índigo-carmim ou azul de timol, e de medidas de absorbância nos comprimentos de onda apropriados: 520, 610 ou 550 nm. Em todos os métodos, a quantidade de bromato consumida corresponde à quantidade de STV e

  4. Effect of Mo on pitting corrosion of ferritic steels in bromide and chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, M. [Nippon Steel Corp., Futtsu Chiba (Japan). Steel Research Lab; Isaacs, H.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    A model for pitting corrosion of stainless steels, independent of changes of passive film properties, was tested using Fe-18%Cr-x%Mo alloys in bromide and chlorine solutions. In 1M LiCl the pitting potential improved from {minus}50 mV{sub sce} to about 1200 mV{sub sce} on increasing Mo from 2% to 10%. In 1M LiBr the pitting potential increased from 125 to only 560 mV{sub sce}. Active dissolution kinetics of these steels in saturated solutions in a simulated pit were measured. Tafel lines for dissolution moved to more noble potentials with increases in Mo, indicating Mo inhibited dissolution rates. The potential increases were found to be equal to the increases in pitting potential for both halides. Agreement was interpreted in terms maintaining high halide concentrations in the pit by high rates of active metal dissolution. Bromide was less effective suggesting it interacted with Mo adsorbed on the dissolving surface.

  5. Impact of Wildfire Emissions on Chloride and Bromide Depletion in Marine Aerosol Particles. (United States)

    Braun, Rachel A; Dadashazar, Hossein; MacDonald, Alexander B; Aldhaif, Abdulamonam M; Maudlin, Lindsay C; Crosbie, Ewan; Aghdam, Mojtaba Azadi; Hossein Mardi, Ali; Sorooshian, Armin


    This work examines particulate chloride (Cl-) and bromide (Br-) depletion in marine aerosol particles influenced by wildfires at a coastal California site in the summers of 2013 and 2016. Chloride exhibited a dominant coarse mode due to sea salt influence, with substantially diminished concentrations during fire periods as compared to nonfire periods. Bromide exhibited a peak in the submicrometer range during fire and nonfire periods, with an additional supermicrometer peak in the latter periods. Chloride and Br- depletions were enhanced during fire periods as compared to nonfire periods. The highest observed %Cl- depletion occurred in the submicrometer range, with maximum values of 98.9% (0.32-0.56 μm) and 85.6% (0.56-1 μm) during fire and nonfire periods, respectively. The highest %Br- depletion occurred in the supermicrometer range during fire and nonfire periods with peak depletion between 1.8-3.2 μm (78.8% and 58.6%, respectively). When accounting for the neutralization of sulfate by ammonium, organic acid particles showed the greatest influence on Cl- depletion in the submicrometer range. These results have implications for aerosol hygroscopicity and radiative forcing in areas with wildfire influence owing to depletion effects on composition.

  6. Structural, vibrational and thermal characterization of phase transformation in L-histidinium bromide monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, G.M. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará, ICEN, Marabá, PA 68505-080 (Brazil); Carvalho, J.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Instituto Federal do Tocantins, Araguaína, TO, 77.826-170 (Brazil); Silva, M.C.D.; Façanha Filho, P.F. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Santos, A.O. dos, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil)


    L-Histidinium bromide monohydrate (LHBr) single crystal is a nonlinear optical material. In this work the high temperature phase transformation and the thermal stability of single crystals of LHBr was investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the LHBr phase transformation of orthorhombic (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}) to monoclinic system (P 1 2 1) at 120 °C, with the lattice parameters a = 12.162(1) Å, b = 16.821(2) Å, c = 19.477(2) Å and β = 108.56(2)°. These techniques are complementary and confirm the structural phase transformation due to loss water of crystallization. - Highlights: • -histidinium bromide single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. • X-ray diffraction characterize the high-temperature phase transformation. • The structural phase transformation occur due to loss of water of crystallization. • The LHBr thermal expansion coefficients exhibit an anisotropic behavior.

  7. A Vertical Falling Film Type of Absorber and Generator for Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solutions (United States)

    Matsuda, Akira; Hada, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Teruo

    Experiments on evaporation and absorption for lithium bromide aqueous solutions(0-60wt%LiBr) were made in a vertical falling film type of stainless steal columm under reduced pressure, 8.0kPa. The changes of concentration and temperature in the falling film columm and the rates of absorption and evaporation were equivalent in the absorber and generator. They agreed well with the values calculated by the one-dimentional difference method using heat transfer coefficient, mass transfer coeficient and the unidirectional diffusion model. Therefore, it is guessed that a falling film type of absorber and generator may be designed by the same method. Considering the relation between heat flux and degree of superheat at heat transfer surface, and the mixing condition of lithium bromide aqueous solution in a generator, it is found that a falling film type generator is superior to a pool boiling type for a generator in absorption-type refrigerator and heat pump driven by low temperature heat source.

  8. Study of the Reaction 2-(p-Nitrophenylethyl Bromide + OH− in Dimeric Micellar Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Moyá


    Full Text Available The dehydrobromination reaction 2-(p-nitrophenylethyl bromide + OH− was investigated in several alkanediyl-a-w-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide, 12-s-12,2Br− (with s = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 micellar solutions, in the presence of NaOH 5 × 10−3 M. The kinetic data were quantitatively rationalized within the whole surfactant concentration range by using an equation based on the pseudophase ion-exchange model and taking the variations in the micellar ionization degree caused by the morphological transitions into account. The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental data was good in all the dimeric micellar media studied, except for the 12-2-12,2Br− micellar solutions. In this case, the strong tendency to micellar growth shown by the 12-2-12,2Br− micelles could be responsible for the lack of accordance. Results showed that the dimeric micelles accelerate the reaction more than two orders of magnitude as compared to water.

  9. Mesoporous Silica Formation by Block Copolymers and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide as Structure Control Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Semsarzadeh


    Full Text Available Block copolymers and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as templates in nano silica structure formation like MCM-41Mobil Composition of Matter, SBA16 Santa Barbara Amorphous and a new compound namely SPB  silicone mesoporous particles, prepared by sol-gel method using PPG-PEG-PPG block copolymer to compare the porosity and regularity of the products together. In this work tetraethylorthosilicate  TEOS, as silica source and alcohol as surface modifying agent were used because of having the main advantage, compared to an ionic template such as etyltrimethylammonium bromide, in producing larger pores  and thicker walls for holding larger catalytic molecules in their pores or increasing  their resistance towards fragmentation. In order to study the copolymer as a template,  SPB structure was prepared and compared with SBA16 which was found to have  broader  pore-size  distribution  and  smaller  specifc  surface  area.  Using  alcohol  in particle production resulted in higher formation rate of micelles with improved  morphology. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction and electron scanning  microscopy confrmed the mesoporous structure and regularity of these synthesized  materials. Finally a mechanism is proposed for the formation of these structures.

  10. Surface Electronic Structure of Hybrid Organo Lead Bromide Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Komesu, Takashi


    The electronic structure and band dispersion of methylammonium lead bromide, CH3NH3PbBr3, has been investigated through a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES), as well as theoretical modeling based on density functional theory. The experimental band structures are consistent with the density functional calculations. The results demonstrate the presence of a dispersive valence band in MAPbBr3 that peaks at the M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The results also indicate that the surface termination of the CH3NH3PbBr3 is the methylammonium bromide (CH3NH3Br) layer. We find our results support models that predict a heavier hole effective mass in the region of -0.23 to -0.26 me, along the Γ (surface Brillouin center) to M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The surface appears to be n-type as a result of an excess of lead in the surface region. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  11. Modeling Water Flow and Bromide Transport in a Two-Scale-Structured Lignitic Mine Soil (United States)

    Dusek, J.; Gerke, H. H.; Vogel, T.; Maurer, T.; Buczko, U.


    Two-dimensional single- and dual-permeability simulations are used to analyze water and solute fluxes in heterogeneous lignitic mine soil at a forest-reclaimed mine spoil heap. The soil heterogeneity on this experimental site "Barenbrucker Hohe" resulted from inclined dumping structures and sediment mixtures that consist of sand with lignitic dust and embedded lignitic fragments. Observations on undisturbed field suction- cell lysimeters including tracer experiments revealed funneling-type preferential flow with lateral water and bromide movement along inclined sediment structures. The spatial distribution of soil structures and fragment distributions was acquired by a digital camera and identified by a supervised classification of the digital profile image. First, a classical single-domain modeling approach was proposed with spatially variable scaling factors inferred from image analyses. In the next step, a two-continuum scenario was constructed to examine additional effects of nonequilibrium on the flow regime. The scaling factors used for the preferential flow domain are here obtained from the gradient of the grayscale images. So far, the single domain scenarios failed to predict the bromide leaching patterns although water effluent could be described. Dual-permeability model allows the incorporation of structural effects and can be used as a tool to further testing other approaches that account for structure effects. The numerical study suggests that additional experiments are required to obtain better understanding of the highly complex transport processes on this experimental site.

  12. Evaluation of Five Simulation Models for Predicting Aldicarb and Bromide Behavior Under Field Conditions (United States)

    Pennell, K. D.; Hornsby, A. G.; Jessup, R. E.; Rao, P. S. C.


    Five pesticide simulation models (Chemical Movement in Layered Soils (CLMS), Method of Underground Solute Evaluation (MOUSE), Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Groundwater Leading Effects of Agriculture Management Systems (GLEAMS), and Leaching Estimation and Chemistry Model-Pesticides (LEACHMP)) were evaluated using data for the transport and transformation of aldicarb and bromide in the unsaturated zone. Although these models have been tested separately, to date no effort has been made to evaluate all of them using a comprehensive data set from a single field study. Model performance was evaluated based on their ability to predict: the depth of solute center of mass, solute dissipation, and solute concentration distributions within the soil profile. GLEAMS and MOUSE underestimated bromide and aldicarb dissipation, while the other models provided satisfactory predictions of both solute center of mass and pesticide degradation. None of the models accurately described measured solute concentration distributions. Recommendations are made for the selection and use of the models based on objective and subjective criteria including graphical analysis, objective functions, intended model use, and the difficulty in obtaining model input data.

  13. Iodide, bromide, and ammonium in hydraulic fracturing and oil and gas wastewaters: environmental implications. (United States)

    Harkness, Jennifer S; Dwyer, Gary S; Warner, Nathaniel R; Parker, Kimberly M; Mitch, William A; Vengosh, Avner


    The expansion of unconventional shale gas and hydraulic fracturing has increased the volume of the oil and gas wastewater (OGW) generated in the U.S. Here we demonstrate that OGW from Marcellus and Fayetteville hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids and Appalachian conventional produced waters is characterized by high chloride, bromide, iodide (up to 56 mg/L), and ammonium (up to 420 mg/L). Br/Cl ratios were consistent for all Appalachian brines, which reflect an origin from a common parent brine, while the I/Cl and NH4/Cl ratios varied among brines from different geological formations, reflecting geogenic processes. There were no differences in halides and ammonium concentrations between OGW originating from hydraulic fracturing and conventional oil and gas operations. Analysis of discharged effluents from three brine treatment sites in Pennsylvania and a spill site in West Virginia show elevated levels of halides (iodide up to 28 mg/L) and ammonium (12 to 106 mg/L) that mimic the composition of OGW and mix conservatively in downstream surface waters. Bromide, iodide, and ammonium in surface waters can impact stream ecosystems and promote the formation of toxic brominated-, iodinated-, and nitrogen disinfection byproducts during chlorination at downstream drinking water treatment plants. Our findings indicate that discharge and accidental spills of OGW to waterways pose risks to both human health and the environment.

  14. Efficient Sky-Blue Perovskite Light-Emitting Devices Based on Ethylammonium Bromide Induced Layered Perovskites. (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Ren, Jie; Peng, Xue-Feng; Ji, Xia-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Hui


    Low-dimensional organometallic halide perovskites are actively studied for the light-emitting applications due to their properties such as solution processability, high luminescence quantum yield, large exciton binding energy, and tunable band gap. Introduction of large-group ammonium halides not only serves as a convenient and versatile method to obtain layered perovskites but also allows the exploitation of the energy-funneling process to achieve a high-efficiency light emission. Herein, we investigate the influence of the addition of ethylammonium bromide on the morphology, crystallite structure, and optical properties of the resultant perovskite materials and report that the phase transition from bulk to layered perovskite occurs in the presence of excess ethylammonium bromide. On the basis of this strategy, we report green perovskite light-emitting devices with the maximum external quantum efficiency of ca. 3% and power efficiency of 9.3 lm/W. Notably, blue layered perovskite light-emitting devices with the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.23) exhibit the maximum external quantum efficiency of 2.6% and power efficiency of 1 lm/W at 100 cd/m2, representing a large improvement over the previously reported analogous devices.

  15. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung


    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  16. Modeling the dissociation conditions of salt hydrates and gas semiclathrate hydrates: application to lithium bromide, hydrogen iodide, and tetra-n-butylammonium bromide + carbon dioxide systems. (United States)

    Paricaud, Patrice


    A thermodynamic approach is proposed to determine the dissociation conditions of salt hydrates and semiclathrate hydrates. The thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase are described with the SAFT-VRE equation of state, and the solid-liquid equilibria are solved by applying the Gibbs energy minimization criterion under stoichiometric constraints. The methodology is applied to water + halide salt systems, and an excellent description of the solid-liquid coexistence curves is obtained. The approach is extended to the water + tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) binary mixture, and an accurate representation of the solid-liquid coexistence curves and dissociation enthalpies is obtained. The van der Waals-Platteeuw (vdW-P) theory combined with the new model for salt hydrates is used to determine the dissociation temperatures of semiclathrate hydrates of TBAB + carbon dioxide. A good description of the dissociation pressures of CO(2) semiclathrate hydrates is obtained over wide temperature, pressure, and TBAB composition ranges (AAD = 10.5%). For high TBAB weight fractions the new model predicts a change of hydrate structure from type A to type B as the partial pressure of CO(2) is increased. The model can also capture a change of behavior with respect to TBAB concentration, which has been observed experimentally: an increase of the TBAB weight fraction leads to a stabilization of the gas semiclathrate hydrate at low initial TBAB concentrations below the stoichiometric composition but leads to a destabilization of the hydrate at TBAB concentrations above the stoichiometric composition.

  17. Oxidation of micro or trace amounts of bromide to bromate by peroxodisulphate before their iodometric determination by titration or spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Lundström, U


    The optimum conditions for the oxidation of bromide to bromate by peroxodisulphate at 120 degrees as well as for the decomposition of the excess of oxidant have been determined. The predicted advantages of this oxidizing agent, viz. minimal blanks and destruction of small amounts of interfering organic matter and reducing substances, were confirmed. The bromate was determined iodometrically either by titration with thiosulphate or by spectrophotometry in absence of oxygen at 355 nm. The titrimetric finish applied to 0.8-8 micromole of bromide gave a mean yield of 100.0%, s = 6 nmole. The spectrophotometric finish applied to 0.05-0.25 micromole of bromide gave a mean yield of 98.9%, s = 1.1 nmole. Interfering amounts of iodide present in the sample and oxidized to iodate can be corrected for by making use of the pH-dependence of the reaction of iodide with bromate and iodate.

  18. Combination of ozonation and photocatalysis for purification of aqueous effluents containing formic acid as probe pollutant and bromide ion. (United States)

    Parrino, F; Camera-Roda, G; Loddo, V; Palmisano, G; Augugliaro, V


    The treatment by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) of waters contaminated by organic pollutants and containing also innocuous bromide ions may generate bromate ions as a co-product. In the present work heterogeneous photocatalysis and ozonation have individually been applied and in combination (integrated process) to degrade the organic compounds in water containing also bromide anions. The results show that: i) the sole photocatalysis does not produce bromate ions and in the case of its presence, it is able to reduce bromate to innocuous bromide ions; ii) the integration of photocatalysis and ozonation synergistically enhances the oxidation capabilities; and iii) in the integrated process bromate ions are not produced as long as some oxidizable organics are present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan


    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  20. Isotherm, thermodynamic, kinetics and adsorption mechanism studies of methyl orange by surfactant modified silkworm exuviae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hao, E-mail: [School of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Dongfang Road No. 605, Linhai 317000, Zhejiang (China); Zhao Jie; Wu Junyong; Dai Guoliang [School of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Dongfang Road No. 605, Linhai 317000, Zhejiang (China)


    This paper reports on the development of organo-modified silkworm exuviae (MSE) adsorbent prepared by using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB) for removing methyl orange (MO), a model anionic dye, from aqueous solution. The natural and modified samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to remove MO from its aqueous solutions using SE and MSE. It was observed that the adsorption capacity of MSE is 5-6 times of SE. The different parameters effecting on the adsorption capacity such as pH of the solution, initial dye concentration, temperature and contact time have been investigated. Analysis of adsorption results obtained at different temperatures showed that the adsorption pattern on the MSE can be described perfectly with Langmuir isotherm model compared with Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models, and the characteristic parameters for each adsorption isotherm were also determined. The adsorption process has been found exothermic in nature and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. The adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The results of FT-IR, EDS and desorption studies all suggest that methyl orange adsorption onto the MSE should be mainly controlled by the hydrophobic interaction mechanism, along with a considerable contribution of the anionic exchange mechanism. The results indicate that HDTMAB-modified silkworm exuviae could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of methyl orange anionic dye from wastewater.

  1. New Synthesis and Antiparasitic Activity of Model 5-Aryl-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M. El-Abadelah


    Full Text Available A number of 5-aryl-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazoles 5a-f have been synthesized in good yields by the Suzuki coupling reaction between 5-chloro-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazole (3 and arylboronic acids 4a-f, aided by dichlorobis-(triphenylphosphinepalladium(II, K2CO3, and tetrabutylammonium bromide in water at 70-80 °C. Compounds 5a-f were characterized by elemental analysis, NMR and MS spectral data. On the basis of in vitro screening data, 5-(3-chlorophenyl-1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazole (5fexhibited potent lethal activity against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis with IC50 = 1.47 µM/mL, a value lower by a factor of two than that of the standard drug, metronidazole. The boosted activity of 5f was not accompanied by any increased cytotoxicity.The rest of the series also exhibited potent antiparasitic activity with IC50 valuesin the 1.72-4.43 µM/mL range. The cytotoxicity of the derivatives 5c and 5e was increased compared to the precursor compound, metronidazole, although they remain non-cytotoxic at concentrations much higher than the antiparasitic concentration of the two derivatives.

  2. Negative regulation of DNA methylation in plants. (United States)

    Saze, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Taku; Kakutani, Tetsuji


    Cytosine methylation of repeats and genes is important for coordination of genome stability and proper gene function. In plants, DNA methylation is regulated by DNA methyltransferases, chromatin remodeling factors and RNAi machinery. Ectopic DNA hypermethylation at genes causes transcriptional repression and silencing, and the methylation patterns often become heritable over generations. DNA methylation is antagonized by the DNA demethylation enzymes. Recently, we identified a novel jmjC-domain containing gene IBM1 (increase in bonsai methylation1) that also negatively regulates DNA methylation in Arabidopsis. The ibm1 plants show a variety of developmental phenotypes. IBM1 prevents ectopic accumulation of DNA methylation at the BNS genic region, likely through removal of heterochromatic H3K9 methylation mark. DNA and histone demethylation pathways are important for genome-wide patterning of DNA methylation and for epigenetic regulation of plant development.

  3. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N., E-mail:; Likhanova, N. V. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Olivares-Xometl, O. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica (Mexico); Flores, E. A. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Lijanova, I. V. [CIITEC, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)


    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  4. tBuLi-Mediated One-Pot Direct Highly Selective Cross-Coupling of Two Distinct Aryl Bromides. (United States)

    Vila, Carlos; Cembellín, Sara; Hornillos, Valentín; Giannerini, Massimo; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    A Pd-catalyzed direct cross-coupling of two distinct aryl bromides mediated by tBuLi is described. The use of [Pd-PEPPSI-IPr] or [Pd-PEPPSI-IPent] as catalyst allows for the efficient one-pot synthesis of unsymmetrical biaryls at room temperature. The key for this selective cross-coupling is the use of an ortho-substituted bromide that undergoes lithium-halogen exchange preferentially. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor (United States)

    Nava, N.; Likhanova, N. V.; Olivares-Xometl, O.; Flores, E. A.; Lijanova, I. V.


    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ( α-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  6. Pyridostigmine bromide versus fludrocortisone in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease - a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Schreglmann, S R; Büchele, F; Sommerauer, M; Epprecht, L; Kägi, G; Hägele-Link, S; Götze, O; Zimmerli, L; Waldvogel, D; Baumann, C R


    Evidence for effective treatment options for orthostatic hypotension (OH) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is scarce. Elevation of cholinergic tone with pyridostigmine bromide has been reported as a way to improve blood pressure (bp) regulation in neurogenic hypotension without causing supine hypertension. This was a double-centre, double-blind, randomized, active-control, crossover, phase II non-inferiority trial of pyridostigmine bromide for OH in PD ( NCT01993680). Patients with confirmed OH were randomized to 14 days 3 × 60 mg/day pyridostigmine bromide or 1 × 0.2 mg/day fludrocortisone before crossover. Outcome was measured by peripheral and central bp monitoring during the Schellong manoeuvre and questionnaires. Thirteen participants were enrolled between April 2013 and April 2015 with nine participants completing each trial arm. Repeated measures comparison showed a significant 37% improvement with fludrocortisone for the primary outcome diastolic bp drop on orthostatic challenge (baseline 22.9 ± 13.6 vs. pyridostigmine bromide 22.1 ± 17.0 vs. fludrocortisone 14.0 ± 12.6 mmHg; P = 0.04), whilst pyridostigmine bromide had no effect. Fludrocortisone caused an 11% peripheral systolic supine bp rise (baseline 128.4 ± 12.8 vs. pyridostigmine bromide 130.4 ± 18.3 vs. fludrocortisone 143.2 ± 10.1 mmHg; P = 0.01) but no central mean arterial supine bp rise (baseline 107.2 ± 7.8 vs. pyridostigmine bromide 97.0 ± 12.0 vs. fludrocortisone 107.3 ± 6.3 mmHg; P = 0.047). Subjective OH severity, motor score and quality of life remained unchanged by both study interventions. Pyridostigmine bromide is inferior to fludrocortisone in the treatment of OH in PD. This trial provides first objective evidence of the efficacy of 0.2 mg/day fludrocortisone for OH in PD, causing minor peripheral but no central supine hypertension. In addition to peripheral bp, future trials should include central bp measurements, known to correlate more closely with

  7. Transfer of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles from water into an ionic liquid using alkyltrimethyl ammonium bromide: an anion-exchange process. (United States)

    Zhou, Yao; Lin, Wenshuang; Wang, Huixuan; Li, Qingbiao; Huang, Jiale; Du, Mingming; Lin, Liqin; Gao, Yixian; Lin, Ling; He, Ning


    Biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were transferred from water to a hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL), [Bmim]PF(6), with the assistance of alkyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The phase transfer mechanism was illustrated through the exemplification of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Interaction between GNPs and CTAB was demonstrated through zeta potential analysis. Moreover, an anion-exchange process was discovered between CTAB and IL. During the process, the hydrophobic CTAPF(6) formed in situ on the GNPs led to the hydrophobization and thus phase transfer of the GNPs. The phase transfer efficiency was found to be size-dependent.

  8. Synthesis and biochemical properties of 6-bromoandrostenedione derivatives with a 2,2-dimethyl or 2-methyl group as aromatase inhibitors. (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Handa, Wakako; Yamada, Keiko


    To gain insight into the mechanism for irreversible inactivation of aromatase by 6beta-bromoandrostenedione (1), one of the earliest discovered suicide substrates, in relation to the catalytic function of the enzyme, the 2,2-dimethyl derivative of compound 1, steroid 4, and its 6alpha-isomer 5, as well as 2-methyl-1,4-diene steroid 8 and its 6alpha-bromide 10, were synthesized. All of the steroids inhibited aromatase activity in human placental microsomes with apparent K(i)'s ranging between 10 and 81 nM. The 2,2-dimethyl-6beta- and 6alpha-bromo steroids 4 and 5 were extremely powerful inhibitors (K(i): 14 and 10 nM, respectively), but these two did not cause a time-dependent inactivation of aromatase in the presence of NADPH; in contrast, the 2-methyl-1,4-diene steroids 8 and 10 caused time-dependent inactivation with apparent k(inact) of 0.035 and 0.071 min(-1), respectively, in a suicide manner. These results indicate that the 2,2-dimethyl function of the 6beta-bromide 4 would prevent the inactivation of aromatase caused by inhibitor 1 in a suicide manner, probably through steric activity, whereas the 2-methyl group of steroid 8 did not significantly affect the suicidal inactivation by the parent 1,4-diene steroid, a typical suicide substrate.

  9. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects (United States)

    Vogel, Kevin J.; Moore, Allen J.; Schmitz, Robert J.


    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. PMID:28025279

  10. From trans-methylation to cytosine methylation: evolution of the methylation hypothesis of schizophrenia. (United States)

    Grayson, Dennis R; Chen, Ying; Dong, Erbo; Kundakovic, Marija; Guidotti, Alessandro


    The role of methylation in the history of psychiatry has traversed a storied path. The original trans-methylation hypothesis was proposed at a time when chlorpromazine had been synthesized but not yet marketed as an antipsychotic (Thorazine). The premise was that abnormal metabolism led to the methylation of biogenic amines in the brains of schizophrenia patients and that these hallucinogenic compounds produced positive symptoms of the disease. At the time, some psychiatrists were interested in drugs such as mescaline and lysergic acid diethylamide that replicated clinical symptoms. They understood that these compounds might provide a biological basis for psychosis. The amino acid methionine (MET) was given to patients in the hopes of confiriming the transmethylation hypothesis. However with time, many realized that the hunt for an endogenous psychotropic compound would remain elusive. We now believe that the MET studies may have produced a toxic reaction in susceptible patients by disrupting epigenetic regulation in the brain. The focus of the current review is on the coordinate regulation of multiple promoters expressed in neurons that may be modulated through methylation. While certainly the identification of genes and promoters regulated epigenetically has been steadily increasing over the years, there have been few studies that examine methylation changes as a consequence of increased levels of a dietary amino acid such as methionine (MET). We suggest that the MET mouse model may provide information regarding the identification of genes that are regulated by epigenetic perturbations. In addition to our studies with the reelin and GAD67 promoters, we also have evidence that additional promoters expressed in select neurons of the brain are similarly affected by MET administration. We suggest that to expand our knowledge of epigenetically-responsive promoters using MET might allow for a better appreciation of global methylation changes occurring in selected brain

  11. Synthesis and structure of [2-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline)-5-methylphenyl] methylphenyltin bromide : A novel triorganotin halide having a configurationally stable chiral tin center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Wehman, E.; Boersma, J.; Goubitz, K.; Heijdenrijk, D.


    Reaction of [2-(4, 4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline)-5-methylphenyl]copper with dimethyltin dibromide or methylphenyltin dibromide affords [2-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline)-5-methylphenyl]dimethyltin bromide (1) and [2-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline)-5-methylphenyl]methylphenyltin bromide (2), respectively. The


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Riza Putra


    Full Text Available A simple voltammetric technique for quantification of chromium(VI is presented in this work. The technique is based on linear sweep voltammetric reduction Cr(VI on hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMABr modified Lampung zeolite carbon paste electrode. Selected HDTMABr concentration for natural zeolite modification is obtained 200 mM. Working electrode for chromium(VI detection is made by graphite, paraffin oil and HDTMABr modified Lampung zeolite. The effect of supporting electrolyte matrix, pH and also scan rate is also investigated. The calibration curve for chromium(VI detection using the proposed method shows linearity from 0.2 to 1.0 mM with sensitivity, detection and quantification limit, and precision was 0.4294 mM, 3.63 x 10-4 mM, 1.197 x 10-3 mM, 4.49%, respectively.

  13. Increase in mitotic recombination in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans in response to ethidium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia C.A. Becker


    Full Text Available Ethidium bromide (EB is an intercalating inhibitor of topoisomerase II and its activities are related to chemotherapeutic drugs used in anti-cancer treatments. EB promotes several genotoxic effects in exposed cells by stabilising the DNA-enzyme complex. The recombinagenic potential of EB was evaluated in our in vivo study by the loss of heterozygosity of nutritional markers in diploid Aspergillus nidulans cells through Homozygotization Index (HI. A DNA repair mutation, uvsZ and a chromosome duplication DP (II-I were introduced in the genome of tested cells to obtain a sensitive system for the recombinagenesis detection. EB-treated diploid cells had HI values significantly greater than the control at both concentrations (4.0 x 10-3 and 5.0 x 10-3 mM. Results indicate that the intercalating agent is potentially capable of inducing mitotic crossing-over in diploid A. nidulans cells.

  14. Behavior of aqueous Tetrabutylammonium bromide - a combined approach of microscopic simulation and neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Debsindhu


    Aqueous solution of tetrabutylammonium bromide is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, to give information on the dynamic modes involving the ions present. Using a careful combination of two techniques, time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron spin echo (NSE), we de- couple the dynamic information in both the coherently and incoherently scattered signal from this system. We take advantage of the different intensity ratio of the two signals, as detected by each of the techniques, to achieve this decoupling. By using heavy water as the sol- vent, the tetrabutylammonium cation is the only hydrogen-containing species in the system and gives rise to a significant incoherent scattered intensity. The dynamic analysis of the incoherent signal (measured by TOF) leads to a translational diffusion coefficient of the cation as that is in good agreement with previous NMR, neutron scattering and tracer diffusion measurements. The dynamic analysis of the coherent signal observed at wave-vectors < 0.6 angstrom^(-1) (measu...

  15. Cobalt-catalyzed hydroalkylation of [60]fullerene with active alkyl bromides: selective synthesis of monoalkylated fullerenes. (United States)

    Lu, Shirong; Jin, Tienan; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori


    The Co-catalyzed hydroalkylation of C(60) with reactive alkyl bromides 1 (RBr) in the presence of Mn reductant and H(2)O at ambient temperature gave the monoalkylated C(60) (2) in good to high yields. The use of CoLn/Mn/H(2)O under Ar atmosphere is crucial for the success of the present transformation. The reaction most probably proceeds through the Co(0 or I) complex-promoted generation of a radical (R(•)) followed by addition to C(60). This hydroalkylation method was applied to the synthesis of zinc porphyrin attached C(60) (2l), dendrimer attached C(60) (2m), and fullerene dimer (2n), which were not easily available through the previously known methods.

  16. Resonance light scattering technique for the determination of protein with rutin and cetylpyridine bromide system (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Jinghe; Liu, Shufang; Wu, Xia; Su, Benyu; Wu, Tao


    A new resonance light scattering (RLS) assay of protein is presented. In Tris-NaOH (pH = 10.93) buffer, the RLS of rutin-cetylpyridine bromide (CPB) system can be greatly enhanced by protein, including bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA). The enhanced RLS intensities are in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5 × 10 -9 to 2.5 × 10 -6 g ml -1 for BSA and 2.5 × 10 -8 to 3.5 × 10 -6 g ml -1 for HSA. The detection limits (S/N = 3) are 3.0 ng ml -1 for BSA and 10.0 ng ml -1 for HSA. Samples are determined satisfactorily.

  17. Copper(I) Bromide: An Alternative Emitter for Blue-Colored Flame Pyrotechnics. (United States)

    Juknelevicius, Dominykas; Karvinen, Eero; Klapötke, Thomas M; Kubilius, Rytis; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Rusan, Magdalena


    Copper(I) bromide was evaluated as an alternative emitter for blue flame pyrotechnic compositions. CuBr and CuCl emission spectra were recorded from a butane torch flame and compared. Cu(BrO3 )2 was synthesized and used in pyrotechnic compositions as an oxidizer and the source for the generation of CuBr species. Pyrotechnic compositions, which contained copper and potassium bromates as oxidizers, were optimized for the generation of blue flames. The experimental data, including emission spectra of the flames, chromaticity coordinates, burning rates, luminous intensities, and sensitivity tests, were analyzed and compared. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of cobalt in the presence of dimethylglyoxime and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolczuk, Mieczyslaw; Moroziewicz, Aleksandra; Grabarczyk, Malgorzata; Kutyla, Romualda [Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Faculty of Chemistry, Lublin (Poland)


    A sensitive procedure for determination of micro-traces of Co(II) by adsorptive stripping voltammetry is proposed. The procedure exploits the enhancement of the cobalt peak obtained by use of the system Co(II) - dimethylglyoxime - piperazine-1,4-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid) - cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Using the optimized conditions, a detection limit (based on the 3{sigma} criterion) for Co(II) of 1.2 x 10{sup -11} mol L{sup -1} (0.7 ng L{sup -1}) was achieved. The calibration plot for an accumulation time of 30 s was linear from 5 x 10{sup -11} to 4 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1}. The procedure was validated by analysis of certified reference materials and natural water samples. (orig.)

  19. Monodisperse Formamidinium Lead Bromide Nanocrystals with Bright and Stable Green Photoluminescence. (United States)

    Protesescu, Loredana; Yakunin, Sergii; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Bertolotti, Federica; Masciocchi, Norberto; Guagliardi, Antonietta; Kovalenko, Maksym V


    Bright green emitters with adjustable photoluminescence (PL) maxima in the range of 530-535 nm and full-width at half-maxima (fwhm) of <25 nm are particularly desirable for applications in television displays and related technologies. Toward this goal, we have developed a facile synthesis of highly monodisperse, cubic-shaped formamidinium lead bromide nanocrystals (FAPbBr 3 NCs) with perovskite crystal structure, tunable PL in the range of 470-540 nm by adjusting the nanocrystal size (5-12 nm), high quantum yield (QY) of up to 85% and PL fwhm of <22 nm. High QYs are also retained in films of FAPbBr 3 NCs. In addition, these films exhibit low thresholds of 14 ± 2 μJ cm -2 for amplified spontaneous emission.

  20. Tetrabutylammonium Bromide (TBABr-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs and Their Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizana Yusof


    Full Text Available Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscosity of the studied DESs decreased with an increase in temperature, while ionic conductivity increases with temperature. In general, DESs made of TBABr and glycerol showed the highest density and viscosity and the lowest ionic conductivity when compared to other DESs. The presence of an extra hydroxyl group on glycerol in a DES affected the properties of the DES.

  1. Determination of critical micelle concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: Different procedures for analysis of experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goronja Jelena M.


    Full Text Available Conductivity of two micellar systems was measured in order to determine critical micelle concentration (CMC of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. Those systems were: CTin water and CTin binary mixture acetonitrile (ACN-water. Conductivity (κ-concentration (c data were treated by four different methods: conventional method, differential methods (first and second derivative and method of integration (methods A-D, respectively. As CTin water micellar system shows a sharp transition between premicellar and postmicellar part of the κ/c curve, any of the applied methods gives reliable CMC values and there is no statistically significant difference between them. However, for CTin ACN-water mixture micellar system the integration method for CMC determination is recommended due to a weak curvature of κ/c plot.

  2. Interaction between DNA and Trimethyl-Ammonium Bromides with Different Alkyl Chain Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Cheng


    Full Text Available The interaction between λ—DNA and cationic surfactants with varying alkyl chain lengths was investigated. By dynamic light scattering method, the trimethyl-ammonium bromides-DNA complex formation was shown to be dependent on the length of the surfactant’s alkyl chain. For surfactants with sufficient long alkyl chain (CTAB, TTAB, DTAB, the compacted particles exist with a size of ~60–110 nm at low surfactant concentrations. In contrast, high concentration of surfactants leads to aggregates with increased sizes. Atomic force microscope scanning also supports the above observation. Zeta potential measurements show that the potential of the particles decreases with the increase of surfactant concentration (CTAB, TTAB, DTAB, which contributes much to the coagulation of the particles. For OTAB, the surfactant with the shortest chain in this study, it cannot fully neutralize the charges of DNA molecules; consequently, the complex is looser than other surfactant-DNA structures.

  3. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold


    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...... expensive or non-commercial resin types. Secondary alcohols were only attached in moderate to low yields, while attempts to load a tertiary alcohol expectedly failed. Importantly, selective attachment of diols via a primary alcohol group in the presence of more hindered alcohol groups proved possible....... The effects of activation time and reagent excess as well as alcohol structure were investigated. This improved method provides a convenient access to O-linked resin-bound N-Fmoc-protected amino alcohols that may be employed in SPS of peptides with C-terminal alcohol functionalities. In the case...

  4. Characterization of potassium bromide crystals grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheswari, J. Uma, E-mail: [Department of Physics, The M.D.T.Hindu College, Tirunelveli 627010, Tamilnadu (India); Krishnan, C. [Department of Physics, Arignar Anna College, Aralvoymoli 629301, Tamilnadu (India); Kalyanaraman, S. [Physics Research Centre, Sri Paramakalyani College, Alwarkurichi 627412, Tamilnadu (India); Selvarajan, P. [Department of Physics, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628216, Tamilnadu (India)


    Potassium bromide crystals were grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis ensures that the grown sample is in Fm3m space group and FCC structure. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) reveals the presence of elements in the title compound. UV–Vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the grown sample is a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. FTIR analysis confirms the functional groups present in the sample. The thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTA) analyses ensure that the sample material is thermally stable up to 160 °C. The second harmonic efficiency of the sample is 1.3 times greater than that of standard KDP. The mechanical strength of the grown sample is estimated by Vickers microhardness tester. The electrical properties were investigated by impedance analysis and the results of various studies of the grown crystals are discussed.

  5. The Research of the Boiling Crisis of Hydrous Solution Lithium Bromide

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    Mironova Nina V.


    Full Text Available Experimental and theoretical investigate the process of non-isothermal desorption of water solutions of lithium bromide in the spheroidal state on the horizontal heating surface. It was established experimentally that on reaching average weight of the salt concentration of 15 ÷ 23% and 32 ÷ 34%, respectively, at a temperature of the heating surface 400 and 600° C, the solution direct contact with the heating surface and the boiling crisis is replaced by a crisis mode of “explosive” boiling up. Some possible causes of the phenomenon were investigated: decrease in the thickness of the vapor layer with increasing concentration, the effect of temperature of the heating surface, radiation heating and capillary instability of interphase.

  6. Evaporation for Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution in a Falling Film Heater under Reduced Pressures (United States)

    Matsuda, Akira; Ide, Tetsuo; Yukino, Keiji

    Experiments on evaporation for water and lithium bromide (LiBr) aqueous solution were made in a externally heated wetted-wall column under reduced pressures. For water, evaporation rate increased slightly as feed rate decreased. The heat transfer coefficients of falling film agreed with those for filmwise condensation. For LiBr solution, evaporation rate decreased and outlet temperature of LiBr solution increased as feed rate decreased. The equations of continuity, diffusion and energy which assume that only water moves to the surface and LiBr doesn't move through falling film of LiBr solution were solved numerically. Calculated values of evaporation rate and outlet temperature of solution agreed with experimental results. The results of this work were compared with pool boiling data reported previously, and it was shown that falling film heater is superior to pool boiling heater concerning heat transfer.

  7. Numerical simulation on vapor absorption by wavy lithium bromide aqueous solution films (United States)

    Bo, Shoushi; Ma, Xuehu; Chen, Hongxia; Lan, Zhong


    Numerical simulation has been made on heat and mass transfer of vapor absorption by wavy lithium bromide aqueous solution films. The velocity fields and interface positions are obtained by VOF model. Solitary waves are generated by periodically disturbed inflow boundary. Based on these, the temperature and concentration fields are obtained with a stationary interface shape. The effect of solitary waves on the heat and mass transfer across the film is investigated. It is shown that due to the mixing of circulation and stretch of large film thickness, the gradient of concentration and absorption rate decrease for solitary wave region. The region of capillary waves shows a significant amount of absorption enhancement. The percentage of absorption for the different regions is quantified.

  8. Complexation equilibria in tetrahydrofuran solutions of palladium(II) and lithium bromides (United States)

    Putin, A. Yu.; Katsman, E. A.; Temkin, O. N.; Bruk, L. G.


    The solutions of palladium PdBr2 and lithium LiBr bromides in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at different concentrations were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The data obtained were mathematically processed using various models. The best description was obtained with the model that includes the formation of four monomeric (PdBr+, PdBr2, PdBr 3 - , PdBr 4 2- ) and three dimeric (Pd2Br 2 2+ , Pd2Br4, Pd2Br 6 2- ) palladium complexes. The equilibrium constants of the monomer and dimer complexation stages and the extinction coefficients of the palladium complexes were calculated. The spectra of the individual monomer and dimer palladium complexes were calculated using this model.

  9. Bromodimethylsulfonium bromide (BDMS) mediated dithioacetalization of carbohydrates under solvent-free conditions. (United States)

    Khan, Abu T; Khan, Md Musawwer


    A variety of diethyl dithioacetals of sugars can be prepared in very good yields by the reaction of various monosaccharides with ethanethiol in the presence of 3 mol% bromodimethylsulfonium bromide (BDMS) at 0-5°C. Similarly, dipropyl dithioacetal derivatives can also be obtained in good yields using propanethiol under identical reaction conditions. These dithioacetal derivatives were characterized by per-O-acetylation using silica gel-supported perchloric acid. The significant features of the present protocol are good-to-excellent yields, mild, clean, and solvent-free reaction conditions. This method is extremely suitable for the large-scale preparation of dithioacetal derivatives of various sugars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interaction of Indigo Carmine with Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide and Application to Determination of Cationic Surfactant in Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hong Wen; Zhao, Jian Fu [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Hong Yan [Suzhou Teachers College, Suzhou (China)


    The microsurface adsorption - spectral correction (MSASC) technique has been applied to the interaction of indigo carmine (IC) with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The aggregation of IC on CTAB obeys Langmuir isothermal adsorption. The results show that both the monomer complex IC·CTAB and the micellar complex (IC·CTAB){sub 78} were formed. The binding constant of the monomer complex was calculated to be K{sub IC}·{sub CTAB} = 2.20 x 10{sup 5} L·mol{sup -1}, and the molar absorptivity of the micellar complex was calculated to be ε({sub IC}·{sub CTAB}){sub 78} {sup 560} {sup nm} = 8.58 x 10{sup 5} L·mol{sup -1}·cm{sup -1}. The aggregation was applied to the determination of cationic surfactant in wastewater.

  11. A quantitative structure–activity relationship study of tetrabutylphosphonium bromide analogs as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR of tetrabutyl­phosphonium bromide (TBPB analogs as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs agonists was studied. A suitable set of molecular descriptors was calculated and stepwise multiple linear regression (SW-MLR was employed to select those descriptors that resulted in the best fitted models. A MLR model with three selected descriptors was obtained. Furthermore, the MLR model was va­lidated using the leave-one-out (LOO and leave-group-out (LGO cross-vali­dation, and the Y-randomization test. This model, with high statistical signifi­cance (R2train = 0.982, F = 388.715, Q2LOO = 0.973, Q2LGO = 0.977 and R2test = 0.986 could predict the activity of the molecules with a percentage predic­tion error lower than 5 %.

  12. The matlockite-type praseodymium(III oxide bromide PrOBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Talmon-Gros


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the praseodymium(III oxide bromide, PrOBr, can be best described with layers of agglomerated square antiprisms [PrO4Br4]9−. These slabs are stacked along the c axis and linked via two different secondary contacts between Pr3+ and Br−. The Pr3+ cations occupy the Wyckoff site 2c with 4mm symmetry and carry four O2− anions as well as four primary Br− anions, yielding a coordination number of 8. While the Br− anions exhibit the same site symmetry as the Pr3+ cations, the oxide anions are located at the Wyckoff position 2a with site symmetry overline{4}m2 and have four Pr3+ cations as neighbours, defining a tetrahedron.

  13. Inhibition of multi-species oral biofilm by bromide doped bioactive glass. (United States)

    Galarraga-Vinueza, M E; Passoni, B; Benfatti, C A M; Mesquita-Guimarães, J; Henriques, B; Magini, R S; Fredel, M C; Meerbeek, B V; Teughels, W; Souza, J C M


    Bioactive glass is an attractive biomaterial that has shown excellent osteogenic and angiogenic effects for oral bone repairing procedures. However, anti-biofilm potential related to such biomaterial has not been completely validated, mainly against multi-species biofilms involved in early tissue infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm effect of 58 S bioactive glass embedding calcium bromide compounds at different concentrations. Bioactive glass free or containing 5, or 10 wt % CaBr 2 was synthesized by alkali sol-gel method and then characterized by physco-chemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, samples were tested by microbiological assays using optical density, real time q-PCR, and SEM. Bioactive glass particles showed accurate chemical composition and an angular shape with a bimodal size distribution ranging from 0.6 to 110 µm. The mean particle size was around 29 µm. Anti-biofilm effect was recorded for 5 wt % CaBr 2 -doped bioactive glass against S. mitis, V. parvula, P. gingivais, S. gordoni, A. viscosus, F, nucleatum, P. gingivais. F. nucleatum, and P. gingivalis. Such species are involved in the biofilm structure related to infections on hard and soft tissues in the oral cavity. The incorporation of calcium bromide into bioactive glass can be a strategy to enhance the anti-biofilm potential of bioactive glasses for bone healing and infection treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1994-2003, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Efficacy of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide in the management of acute bronchiolitis--a clinical trial. (United States)

    Karadag, Bulent; Ceran, Omer; Guven, Gulsah; Dursun, Esengul; Ipek, Ilke Ozahi; Karakoc, Fazilet; Ersu, Refika Hamutcu; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir; Inan, Savas; Dagli, Elif


    A wide range of drugs are commonly used to treat bronchiolitis, but evidence of their effectiveness is limited. To investigate the efficacy of ipratropium bromide and salbutamol in the treatment of patients with moderate-severe bronchiolitis. Sixty-nine infants with moderate-severe bronchiolitis hospitalized at their first episode of wheezing or crepitations in the chest were enrolled in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive nebulized salbutamol, ipratropium bromide or placebo. Main outcome measures were changes in oxygen saturation rates and clinical scores and duration of hospitalization. In the bronchodilator groups, clinical scores were better compared to the placebo group at 30 min (8.4 +/- 1.3 vs. 7.5 +/- 0.8, p < 0.05). Bronchodilator groups had also significantly lower clinical scores (7.3 +/- 1.2 vs. 5.9 +/- 1.1, p < 0.0001, and 5.3 +/- 1.4 vs. 4.5 +/- 1.6, p = 0.006, respectively) and higher oxygen saturation rates compared to the placebo group at 8 and 24 h (89.6 +/- 2.4 vs. 94.3 +/- 4.4, and 92.2 +/- 2.6 vs. 95.9 +/-4.4, respectively, p < 0.0001). Improvement rates and duration of hospitalization were not statistically different among groups. Clinical scores and oxygen saturation levels improved more rapidly in the bronchodilator groups than in the placebo group up to 24 h, but these drugs did not have a sufficient effect to change the natural course of the disease. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphism discrimination with and without an ethidium bromide intercalator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenati, Renzo A.; Connolly, Ashley R. [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Ellis, Amanda V., E-mail: [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)


    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is an important aspect in understanding genetic variations. Here, we discriminate SNPs using toe-hold mediated displacement reactions. The biological target is an 80 nucleotide long double-stranded–DNA from the mtDNA HV1 region, associated with maternal ancestry. This target has been specially designed with a pendant toehold and a cationic fluorophore, ATTO 647N, as a reporter, produced in a polymerase chain reaction. Rates of reaction for the toehold-polymerase chain reaction products (TPPs) with their corresponding complementary displacing sequences, labelled with a Black Hole Quencher 1, followed the order TPP–Cytosine > TPP–Thymine > TPP–Adenine ≥ TPP–Guanine. Non-complementary rates were the slowest with mismatches involving cytosine. These reactions, operating in a static/or contact mode, gave averaged readouts between SNPs within 15 min (with 80–90% quenching), compared to 25–30 min in previous studies involving fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Addition of an intercalating agent, ethidium bromide, retarded the rate of reaction in which cytosine was involved, presumably through stabilization of the base pairing, which resulted in markedly improved discrimination of cytosine containing SNPs. - Highlights: • Fluorophores and DNA intercalators effect the rate of toehold-mediated strand displacement. • Ethidium bromide had a destabilizing effect on mismatches that contained cytosine. • A cationic fluorophore and Black Hole Quencher 1 strand displacement system was 2–3 times faster than a FRET system. • This enabled SNP detection using toehold-mediated strand displacement in 15 min.

  16. Use of Exergy Analysis to Quantify the Effect of Lithium Bromide Concentration in an Absorption Chiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lake


    Full Text Available Absorption chillers present opportunities to utilize sustainable fuels in the production of chilled water. An assessment of the steam driven absorption chiller at the University of Idaho, was performed to quantify the current exergy destruction rates. Measurements of external processes and flows were used to create a mathematical model. Using engineering equation solver to analyze and identify the major sources of exergy destruction within the chiller. It was determined that the absorber, generator and condenser are the largest contribution to the exergy destruction at 30%, 31% and 28% of the respectively. The exergetic efficiency is found to be 16% with a Coefficient of performance (COP of 0.65. Impacts of weak solution concentration of lithium bromide on the exergy destruction rates were evaluated using parametric studies. The studies reveled an optimum concentration that could be obtained by increasing the weak solution concentration from 56% to 58.8% a net decrease in 0.4% of the exergy destruction caused by the absorption chiller can be obtained. The 2.8% increase in lithium-bromide concentration decreases the exergy destruction primarily within the absorber with a decrease of 5.1%. This increase in concentration is shown to also decrease the maximum cooling capacity by 3% and increase the exergy destruction of the generator by 4.9%. The study also shows that the increase in concentration will change the internal temperatures by 3 to 7 °C. Conversely, reducing the weak solution concentration results is also shown to increase the exergetic destruction rates while also potentially increasing the cooling capacity.

  17. Bromide supplementation exacerbated the renal dysfunction, injury and fibrosis in a mouse model of Alport syndrome.

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    Tsubasa Yokota

    Full Text Available A seminal study recently demonstrated that bromide (Br- has a critical function in the assembly of type IV collagen in basement membrane (BM, and suggested that Br- supplementation has therapeutic potential for BM diseases. Because salts of bromide (KBr and NaBr have been used as antiepileptic drugs for several decades, repositioning of Br- for BM diseases is probable. However, the effects of Br- on glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease such as Alport syndrome (AS and its impact on the kidney are still unknown. In this study, we administered daily for 16 weeks 75 mg/kg or 250 mg/kg (within clinical dosage NaBr or NaCl (control via drinking water to 6-week-old AS mice (mouse model of X-linked AS. Treatment with 75 mg/kg NaBr had no effect on AS progression. Surprisingly, compared with 250 mg/kg NaCl, 250 mg/kg NaBr exacerbated the progressive proteinuria and increased the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in AS mice. Histological analysis revealed that glomerular injury, renal inflammation and fibrosis were exacerbated in mice treated with 250 mg/kg NaBr compared with NaCl. The expressions of renal injury markers (Lcn2, Lysozyme, matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp-12, pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, Tnf-α, Il-1β and pro-fibrotic genes (Tgf-β, Col1a1, α-Sma were also exacerbated by 250 mg/kg NaBr treatment. Notably, the exacerbating effects of Br- were not observed in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that Br- supplementation needs to be carefully evaluated for real positive health benefits and for the absence of adverse side effects especially in GBM diseases such as AS.

  18. Ethidium bromide transport across Mycobacterium smegmatis cell-wall: correlation with antibiotic resistance

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    Couto Isabel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active efflux systems and reduced cell-wall permeability are considered to be the main causes of mycobacterial intrinsic resistance to many antimicrobials. In this study, we have compared the Mycobacterium smegmatis wild-type strain mc2155 with knockout mutants for porins MspA (the main porin of M. smegmatis and MspC, the efflux pump LfrA (the main efflux pump system of M. smegmatis and its repressor LfrR for their ability to transport ethidium bromide (EtBr on a real-time basis. This information was then correlated with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of several antibiotics in the presence or absence of the efflux inhibitors chlorpromazine, thioridazine and verapamil. Results In the absence of porins MspA and MspC, accumulation of ethidium bromide decreased and the cells became more resistant to several antibiotics, whereas the knockout mutant for the LfrA pump showed increased accumulation of EtBr and increased susceptibility to EtBr, rifampicin, ethambutol and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, the efflux inhibitors caused a reduction of the MICs of streptomycin, rifampicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin and erythromycin in most of the strains tested. Conclusions The methodology used in this study demonstrated that porin MspA plays an important role in the influx of quaternary ammonium compounds and antibiotics and that efflux via the LfrA pump is involved in low-level resistance to several antimicrobial drugs in M. smegmatis. The results obtained with this non-pathogenic mycobacterium will be used in future studies as a model for the evaluation of the activity of the same efflux inhibitors on the susceptibility of multidrug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid and rifampicin.

  19. Clinical potential of aclidinium bromide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Jones PW


    Full Text Available Paul W Jones Institute for Infection and Immunity, Faculty of Respiratory Medicine, St George’s, University of London, London, UK Abstract: Three long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs are now available in Europe, providing clinicians and patients with a choice of interventions, which is important in COPD, which is clinically a heterogeneous disease. The first LAMA, tiotropium, has been widely used over the last decade as a once-daily maintenance therapy in stable COPD to improve patients’ health-related quality of life and to reduce the risk of exacerbations. Administered via the HandiHaler® device, it is safe and well tolerated. Another new once-daily LAMA, glycopyrronium, has also been shown to improve health status and reduce exacerbations, and is well tolerated. The subject of this review is a third LAMA, aclidinium bromide, which was approved as a twice-daily maintenance bronchodilator treatment. In the pivotal Phase III clinical trials, patients receiving aclidinium achieved significantly greater improvements in lung function, reductions in breathlessness, and improvements in health status compared with placebo, for up to 24 weeks. In continuation studies, these improvements were sustained for up to 52 weeks. Pooled data showed exacerbation frequency was significantly reduced with aclidinium versus placebo. Preclinical and pharmacological studies demonstrating low systemic bioavailability and a low propensity to induce cardiac arrhythmias were translated into a favorable tolerability profile in the clinical trial program – the adverse event profile of aclidinium was similar to placebo, with a low incidence of anticholinergic and cardiac adverse events. While additional studies are needed to evaluate its full clinical potential, aclidinium is an important part of this recent expansion of LAMA therapeutic options, providing clinicians and patients with an effective and well-tolerated COPD treatment. Keywords: aclidinium bromide

  20. Role of once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237 in the management of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Urzo A


    Full Text Available Anthony D'UrzoDepartment of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Progressive airflow limitation is a hallmark feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD that ultimately leads to breathlessness, impaired quality of life, and reduced exercise capacity. Pharmacotherapy is used in patients with COPD to prevent and control symptoms, reduce both the frequency and severity of exacerbations, improve health status, and increase exercise tolerance. These strategies are intended to address management issues which promote both current disease control and a reduction in the risk of disease deterioration in the future. At the present time, long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs are available for maintenance therapy in patients with persistent symptoms. Tiotropium was the first LAMA to be approved for management of COPD, and many studies have described its beneficial effects on multiple clinically relevant outcomes. Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237, a new LAMA, has been developed and received regulatory approval for management of COPD in a number of countries around the world. Results from pivotal Phase III trials suggest that NVA237 is safe and well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe COPD, and provides rapid and sustained improvements in lung function. Further, these changes are associated with statistically and clinically meaningful improvements in dyspnea, health-related quality of life, and exercise tolerance. Treatment with NVA237 also results in a significant reduction in risk of exacerbations and the need for rescue medication, and has been comparable with tiotropium with respect to safety and efficacy outcomes. Finally, emerging data indicate that NVA237 is efficacious both as monotherapy and in combination with indacaterol.Keywords: glycopyrronium bromide, NVA237, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inhaled long-acting bronchodilators