Comparison of efficacy of atropine versus atropine with pralidoxime in organophosphorus poisoning
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Vikrama Raja
2013-12-01
Results: Total hospital stay was not significantly different between the treatment groups (95% CI of difference: -4.227, 0.784. Length of stay was also not significantly different between patients who received atropine plus PAM within 6 hours of consumption of poison and those who received 6 hours later (95% CI of difference: -4.154, 0.954; p value: 0.2. Conclusion: Our data supports the use of only atropine over atropine plus PAM in patients with OP poisoning on account of no significant difference /reduction of hospital/ICU stay and mortality in the latter group. However, a study with a larger sample needs to be conducted, to be able to draw a definitive conclusion. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 810-813
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Enrique Baca-García
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications after drinking an infusion prepared with Pulmonaria officinalis. Conclusions: Despite the lack of scientific evidence for its clinical use, medicinal plants continue being widely used. In spite of severe adverse effects reported, the general thought is that herbal remedies are harmless. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. We suspect that the lungwort infusion may have been contaminated with some other substance with atropinic properties.
Determination of atropine using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as novel luminescent sensitizers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that ZnS quantum dots acted as enhancers of the weak CL emission produced upon oxidation of sulfite by Ce(IV) in acidic medium. Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots yielding a significant chemiluminescence enhancement of the Ce(IV)–SO32−–ZnS QD system. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of atropine. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of atropine in the range of 1×10−9–1×10−6 M of atropine with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9992. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 2.54×10−10 M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. -- Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite system. • ZnS quantum dots were used as the nanocatalyst. • Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots. • This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of atropine commercial drugs. • Detection limit of atropine was obtained 2.54×10−10 mol L−1
Preparation and Evaluation of Veterinary 0.1% Injectable Solution of Atropine Sulphate
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F K Mohammad
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This study introduces the know-how of preparing a multiple injection form atropine sulphate solution. An injectable aqueous solution of atropine sulphate at a concentration of 0.1%. was prepared under aseptic conditions in dark glass bottles each containing 50 ml. The preparation was intended for animal use only. It contained 1g atropine sulphate, 9 g sodium chloride as a normal saline, benzyl alcohol 15 ml as a preservative and water for injection up to 1000 ml. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 4.2 (range 3.0-6.5. The preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution was clear colorless solution free from undesired particles. It complied with the requirements for injectable solutions. Further, the preparation was safe when used under laboratory conditions in chicks, rats and donkeys. It was also effective in preventing dichlorvos (an organophosphate insecticide-induced poisoning in chicks in a manner comparable to a commercial preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate. In conclusion, the know-how of a preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution is presented for veterinary use. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 145-149
The Effect of Atropine on Post-ECT Bradycardia in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
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Hassan Farashbandi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is utilized for treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD. One of the major complications in using ECT is cardiovascular problems i.e., bradycardia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of atropine on the pulse rate (PR of the patients under treatment with ECT. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with diagnosis of MDD who received atropine before ECT treatment (control group were compared with 30 patients with the same diagnosis without receiving atropine (experimental group under ECT treatment. Both groups received ECT under the same term and condition. The PR of the patients were recorded 7 times (twice before anesthesia and ECT and 5 fixed one min intervals immediately after receiving ECT; for 10 sessions of treatment with ECT (3 times a week. The results were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. The PR under 50 was the cut off point for differentiating the patients suffering from bradycardia and those without it. Results: Slight increment in PRs for experimental group (patient who did not receive atropine in contrast to control group were observed, but it did not reach a statistically significant level. The gender (male/female did not have different PR. The age of the patients and initial PR (regarded as co-variances did not show significant effect on PR for total sample. Conclusion: There seems to be not necessary to use atropine treatment for depressed patients receiving ECT.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wetterslev, J; Jarnvig, I; Jørgensen, L N;
1991-01-01
The effects of a split-dose of atropine sulphate versus a single dose of glycopyrrolate given with neostigmine for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade were studied in 55 patients undergoing gynaecological surgery. The patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of......, whereas none occurred in the glycopyrrolate group (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that a split-dose of atropine has similar chronotropic effects to a single dose of glycopyrrolate for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade. However, the finding of a higher incidence of cardiac...... arrhythmias in the atropine group suggests that this reversal regime should be reserved for patients without cardiac disease....
The molal volumes of atropine and hyoscine in relation to their respective potencies.
Cohen, S.; Haberman, F.
1984-01-01
The partial molal volumes, V2, at infinite dilution of atropine and hyoscine were determined in each of eight different solvents having cohesive energy densities in the range 64 to 144 cal cm-3. V2 for hyoscine in a given solvent was invariably and significantly smaller than that of atropine in the same solvent. The difference being 1.58 cm3 mol-1 in the least polar solvent (n-propylbenzene) and 4.29 cm3 mol-1 in the most polar one (acetonitrile) in the series studied. It is proposed that the...
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Chaudhari L
1989-01-01
Full Text Available The use of atropine sulphate in the paediatric age group as a premedicant orally in a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg body weight 70 minutes prior to surgery was found to be as effective as atropine sulphate given intramuscularly 35 minutes prior to surgery in a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. This avoids the unpleasant memory of needle prick; The duration of effect as studied in the normal healthy children not subjected to surgery was found to be 2 1/2-3 hours.
Efficacy of atropine combined with paroxetine in vagus nerve excitatory panic disorder
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Du N
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Na Du, Xue-Li Sun Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Panic disorder is often associated with the autonomic nervous system pattern – sympathetic activation and parasympathetic (vagal withdrawal. However, we present one special case here to show a totally reversed pathogenesis – vagal activation occupying the leading role, which requires atropine to cure the patient’s symptoms. Through this report, it is reasonably proven that panic disorder may be a heterogeneous condition, whose mechanism might be the imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. Keywords: panic disorder, vagal activation, bradycardia, atropine
Determination of atropine using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as novel luminescent sensitizers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azizi, Seyed Naser [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chaichi, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: jchaichi@yahoo.com [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakeri, Parmis [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar 4741695447 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-12-15
A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that ZnS quantum dots acted as enhancers of the weak CL emission produced upon oxidation of sulfite by Ce(IV) in acidic medium. Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots yielding a significant chemiluminescence enhancement of the Ce(IV)–SO{sub 3}{sup 2−}–ZnS QD system. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of atropine. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative chemiluminescence intensity and the concentration of atropine in the range of 1×10{sup −9}–1×10{sup −6} M of atropine with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of 0.9992. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 2.54×10{sup −10} M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. -- Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots could enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite system. • ZnS quantum dots were used as the nanocatalyst. • Trace amounts of atropine improved the sensitize effect of ZnS quantum dots. • This work is introduced as a new method for the determination of atropine commercial drugs. • Detection limit of atropine was obtained 2.54×10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1}.
[Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].
Xu, Jiang-tao
2012-09-01
For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time. PMID:23141569
[Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].
Xu, Jiang-tao
2012-09-01
For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.
A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function
Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.
2011-01-01
Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…
Asano, Kyouhei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya
2013-12-01
Leaf tissues of Atropa belladonna were transformed by Sdrac2, a Rac GTPase gene, that is isolated from Scoparia dulcis, and the change in atropine concentration of the transformants was examined. Re-differentiated A. belladonna overexpressing Sdrac2 accumulated considerable concentration of atropine in the leaf tissues, whereas the leaves of plants transformed by an empty vector accumulated only a very low concentration of the compound. A. belladonna transformed by CASdrac2, a modified Sdrac2 of which translate was expected to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP) permanently, accumulated very high concentrations of atropine (approximately 2.4-fold excess to those found in the wild-type plant in its natural habitat). In sharp contrast, the atropine concentration in transformed A. belladonna prepared with negatively modified Sdrac2, DNSdrac2, expected to bind guanosine diphosphate instead of GTP, was very low. These results suggested that Rac GTPases play an important role in the regulation of secondary metabolism in plant cells and that overexpression of the gene(s) may be capable of enhancing the production of natural products accumulated in higher plant cells. PMID:23852262
Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs
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Koplovitz, I.; Menton, R.; Matthews, C.; Shutz, M.; Nalls, C.
1995-12-31
H1-6 (1-2-hydrnxyiminomethyl-1 pyridino-3-(4-carbameyl- 1--pyddino)-2- oxaprnpane dichioride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI-6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman.
Mukherjee, Jhindan; Wong, Pamela T; Tang, Shengzhuang; Gam, Kristina; Coulter, Alexa; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki
2015-12-01
Despite extensive studies on drug delivery using multivalent complexation systems, the biophysical basis for release kinetics remains poorly defined. The present study addresses this aspect involved in the complexation of a fifth generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer with atropine, an essential antidote used for treating organophosphate poisoning. First, we designed (1)H NMR titration studies for determining the molecular basis of the drug complexation with a glutarate-modified anionic dendrimer. These provide evidence pointing to a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as the driving forces for dendrimer complexation with the alkaloid drug molecule. Second, using LC-MS/MS spectrometry, we determined the dissociation constants (KD) at steady state and also measured the drug release kinetics of atropine complexes with four negatively charged dendrimer types. Each of these dendrimers has a high payload capacity for up to ∼ 100 atropine molecules. However, the affinity of the atropine to the carrier was highly dependent on the drug to dendrimer ratio. Thus, a complex made at a lower loading ratio (≤ 0.1) displayed greater atropine affinity (KD ≈ μM) than other complexes prepared at higher ratios (>10), which showed only mM affinity. This negative cooperative variation in affinity is tightly associated with the nonlinear release kinetics observed for each complex in which drug release occurs more slowly at the later time phase at a lower loading ratio. In summary, the present study provides novel insights on the cooperativity as the mechanistic basis for nonlinear release kinetics observed in multivalent carrier systems. PMID:26485315
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To investigate the role of the vagus nerve in acute inflammatory and cardiorespiratory responses to diesel particulate (DP) in the rat airway, we measured changes in respiration, blood pressure and neutrophils in lungs of urethane anesthetized Wistar rats 6-h post-instillation of DP (500 μg) and studied the effect of mid-cervical vagotomy or atropine (1 mg kg-1) pre-treatment. In conscious rats, we investigated DP, with and without atropine pre-treatment. DP increased neutrophil level in BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) fluid from intact anesthetized rats to 2.5 ± 0.7 x 106 cells (n = 8), compared with saline instillation (0.3 ± 0.1 x 106, n = 7; P 6 cells (n = 8; P 6 (n = 4; P 6, n = 4, was reduced by pre-treatment with atropine to 2.2 ± 1.2 x 106 cells, n = 3. Hyperventilation occurred 6 h after DP in anesthetized rats with intact vagi, but not in bilaterally vagotomized or atropine pre-treated animals and was abolished by vagotomy (P < 0.05, paired test). There were no significant differences in the other variables (mean blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability) measured before and 360 min after DP. In conclusion, DP activates a pro-inflammatory vago-vagal reflex which is reduced by atropine. Muscarinic ACh receptors in the rat lung are involved in DP-induced neutrophilia, and hence muscarinic antagonists may reduce airway and/or cardiovascular inflammation evoked by inhaled atmospheric DP in susceptible individuals
Braun, U; Gansohr, B; Flückiger, M
2003-03-01
This study was carried out to determine whether the administration of atropine, scopolamine or xylazine to cows before the administration of a magnet orally would help to position it in the reticulum. The transit time of the magnet through the oesophagus was also measured. Sixty Swiss Braunvieh cows were examined by radiography and ultrasonography to locate the reticulum. They were then divided into six groups of 10. Before the administration of the magnet, a control group received 4 ml saline solution subcutaneously, one group received 0.10 mg/kg of atropine subcutaneously, a second received 0.05 mg/kg of atropine intravenously, a third received 0.15 mg/kg of scopolamine intravenously, a fourth group received 0.02 mg/kg of xylazine intravenously, and the cows in the fifth group were positioned so that their forelimbs were 30 cm lower than their hindlimbs during the administration of the magnet. The passage of the magnet through the oesophagus was timed with a stopwatch and monitored with a compass. In the control group the magnet passed through in less than 60 seconds, but in four of the cows receiving either atropine or xylazine intravenously, or having their forelimbs positioned lower than their hindlimbs, it took longer than 60 seconds. In the cows receiving atropine subcutaneously or scopolamine intravenously, it took the same time as in the control group. All the cows were radiographed one-and-a-half hours after the administration of the magnet to determine its location. In seven of the 10 cows in the control group, the magnet was located in the reticulum, but in the other three it was in the cranial dorsal blind sac of the rumen. In the other five groups the magnet was located in the reticulum of between four and seven of the 10 cows, but in the cranial dorsal sac of the rumen, the rumen or in other sites in the other cows.
EFFECTS OF ATROPINE ON ANTIGEN-INDUCED BRONCHOSPASM IN THE HORSE
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K.B. Mirbahar, R.B. Mirbahar, Nasreen Akhter, W.N. McDonell1 and P. Eyre2,
2001-07-01
Full Text Available The efficacy of atropine to attenuate Ascaris suum induced bronchospasm was studied in 6 conscious standing horses. Animals were challenged with saline and a 10-2 dilution of A. suum aerosolized for 3 minutes. Pulmonary function tests (PFT were performed at 15, 30 and 60 minutes after antigen challenge. Pulmonary mechanics and ventilation values were measured using a differential pressure transducer and a Fleisch Pnemotachograph. One week later, animals were treated with atropine sulfate (6.0 mg administered IM and rechallenged with saline followed by same dose of A. suum. Clinical signs noted after the inhalation of A. suum alone included hyperpnea, dyspnea, sweating and salivation. The effect of antigen was rapid in onset starting during the inhalation and lasting for over 60 minutes. The PFT revealed significant (P<0.05 increases in Wb, max. Ppl RL, V1, f, and VT whereas the Cdyn decreased (P<0.05. The changes were more severe in lower airways. Atropine abolished the clinical signs. Comparison of post atropine saline and A. suum challenge values revealed significant increase in Wb, max. Ppl at 15 minutes post antigen challenge. Changes in RL, f and Cdyn were abolished. Comparison of responses to A. suum in the presence and absence of atropine revealed a significant (P<0.05 inhibition of changes in max. Ppl, Wb, inspiratory and expiratory RL, VI, f and flow. The study suggested that the A. suum induced bronchospasm in the horses is mediated, at least in part by vagal reflexes.
Utility of atropine in patients under beta-blocker effect during exercise stress echocardiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objective is to assess the usefulness of adding atropine 0.5 to 1.0 mg by intravenous injection during peak exercise in patients under beta-blocker effect that are subjected to exercise stress echocardiography. Population: exercise stress echocardiography was performed in 73 patients receiving beta-blocking agents with basal heart rate below 60 beats per minute (BPM). Two groups were established at random: group I (18 patients that did not receive atropine during maximal exercise) and group II (50 patients from whom 28 received 0.5 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before concluding the exercise and 22 patients who received 1.0 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before its conclusion). From a demographic point of view, there were no differences between the two groups. Mean age was 59 ± 10.8 years (57% male). Most of the patients received metoprolol (87%) and no significant statistical differences in relation with the doses were found in these two groups. At the end of the exercise, the patients had a mean heart rate of 84% from their maximal heart rate (MHR). The values post-exercise were 76% at 30 seconds, 68% at 60 sec., 62% at 90 sec., and 59% of the maximal heart rate at 120 sec. When comparing the percentage of the maximal heart rate achieved in maximal exercise and the one observed during the first 120 sec. after exercise, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: during the performance of stress exercise echocardiography, the administration of intravenous atropine was of no use for incrementing the peak heart rate post-exercise in patients with significant beta-blocker effect (basal heart rate < 60 BPM)
MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine
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Xiao Lianxiang [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Lin Xiangtao, E-mail: yishui1982@126.com [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Cao Jinfeng [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wang Xueyu [Division of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Wu Lebin [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China)
2011-09-15
Purpose: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Methods: Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5 mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24 h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. Results: These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. Conclusion: In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.
Mukherjee, Jhindan; Wong, Pamela T; Tang, Shengzhuang; Gam, Kristina; Coulter, Alexa; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki
2015-12-01
Despite extensive studies on drug delivery using multivalent complexation systems, the biophysical basis for release kinetics remains poorly defined. The present study addresses this aspect involved in the complexation of a fifth generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer with atropine, an essential antidote used for treating organophosphate poisoning. First, we designed (1)H NMR titration studies for determining the molecular basis of the drug complexation with a glutarate-modified anionic dendrimer. These provide evidence pointing to a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as the driving forces for dendrimer complexation with the alkaloid drug molecule. Second, using LC-MS/MS spectrometry, we determined the dissociation constants (KD) at steady state and also measured the drug release kinetics of atropine complexes with four negatively charged dendrimer types. Each of these dendrimers has a high payload capacity for up to ∼ 100 atropine molecules. However, the affinity of the atropine to the carrier was highly dependent on the drug to dendrimer ratio. Thus, a complex made at a lower loading ratio (≤ 0.1) displayed greater atropine affinity (KD ≈ μM) than other complexes prepared at higher ratios (>10), which showed only mM affinity. This negative cooperative variation in affinity is tightly associated with the nonlinear release kinetics observed for each complex in which drug release occurs more slowly at the later time phase at a lower loading ratio. In summary, the present study provides novel insights on the cooperativity as the mechanistic basis for nonlinear release kinetics observed in multivalent carrier systems.
A comparison of the effects of atropine on real-feeding and sham-feeding of sucrose in rats.
Nissenbaum, J W; Sclafani, A
1988-02-01
In Experiment 1 the influence of atropine methyl nitrate on the sham-feeding response of adult female rats to a sucrose solution was determined. Atropine (1 or 5 mg/kg) reliably suppressed the sham-intake of sucrose when the drug was administered 30 or 0 min prior to, or 17 min after the start of the feeding session. The suppressive effect was less, however, when the drug was administered 30 min before testing compared to the other two injection-test conditions. In Experiment 2 atropine failed to reliably decrease the real-feeding of a sucrose solution whether it was injected 30, 15, or 0 min prior to testing. These results were replicated in Experiment 3; atropine (0 min injection-test interval) reduced the sham-intake but not the real-intake of a sucrose solution. However, atropine decreased the rate of feeding under both real- and sham-feeding conditions. The fact that atropine reduced feeding rate but not meal size in the real-feeding condition was attributed to the drug's lack of effect on postingestive satiety. The present findings along with other recent results indicate that (1) the injection-test interval is a potentially important variable in studies involving atropine; (2) results obtained with sham-feeding animals do not always generalize to real-feeding animals; and (3) cholinergically-mediated cephalic responses are of questionable importance in the control of meal size.
Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs.
Koplovitz, I; Menton, R; Matthews, C; Shutz, M; Nalls, C; Kelly, S
1995-01-01
HI-6 (1-2-hydroxyiminomethyl-1-pyridino-3-(4-carbamoyl-1-pyridino -2- oxapropane dichloride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman. It is concluded that 1) ATR has a large effect on the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 2) the dose of ATR must be carefully selected in studies investigating the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 3) the effective dose of ATR in the guinea pig is approximately 16 mg/kg, and 4) diazepam is a useful
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Chaurasia S
1999-07-01
Full Text Available Sixty patients in the age group of 18-60 years of A.S.A. Grade I/II risk, scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied for pre-medication with either oral clonidine or with combination of effects of diazepam & atropine. Patients in Group A (clonidine group received tablet clonidine 100 mcg (1 tablet if less than 50 kg in weight and 200 mcg if weighing more than 50 kg two hours before surgery. Patients in Group B (Diazepam-atropine group received one tablet of Diazepam (10 mg orally two hours before surgery and injection atropine-sulphate 0.01 mg/kg half an hour preoperatively by intramuscular route. In our study, the sedative and anti-sialogogue effects of clonidine were comparable to those of diazepam-atropine combination, which are commonly used premedicants. The anti-anxiety effect of clonidine was found to be better than that of diazepam-atropine combination. Clonidine also proved to be a better agent for the attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Thus, oral clonidine is a better premedicant compared to atropine-diazepam combination. Also, it is a more acceptable agent because of its oral route of administration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on binding constant, binding sites, and conformation were studied in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 7.40) by ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study results show that aconitine quenched the endogenous fluorescence of BSA via a dynamic quenching procedure. Predominant intermolecular forces between aconitine and BSA were hydrophobic interactions, which stabilized the complex of aconitine–BSA. The distance between the donor and acceptor was 2.62 nm. The conformation of BSA was investigated by synchronous fluorescence techniques, indicating that the microenvironment around tryptophan (Trp) residues was changed. Furthermore, with the addition of atropine sulphate or glycyrrhizic acid, binding constant and the number of binding sites of aconitine to BSA were decreased, and the conformation had no change, which provide an important theoretical support for aconitine detoxification by atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid. - Highlights: ► Effect of atropine or glycyrrhizic acid on aconitine–BSA binding. ► UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques used. ► Aconitine quenched BSA fluorescence via dynamic quenching with r=2.62 nm. ► Atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid decreased KA and n of aconitine–BSA. ► Support for aconitine detoxification by atropine and glycyrrhizic acid.
Atropine and ODQ antagonize tetanic fade induced by L-arginine in cats
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J.M. Cruciol-Souza
1999-10-01
Full Text Available Although it has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO released from sodium nitrite induces tetanic fade in the cat neuromuscular preparations, the effect of L-arginine on tetanic fade and its origin induced by NO have not been studied in these preparations. Furthermore, atropine reduces tetanic fade induced by several cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs in these preparations, whose mechanism is suggested to be mediated by the interaction of acetylcholine with inhibitory presynaptic muscarinic receptors. The present study was conducted in cats to determine the effects of L-arginine alone or after pretreatment with atropine or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ on neuromuscular preparations indirectly stimulated at high frequency. Drugs were injected into the middle genicular artery. L-arginine (2 mg/kg and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 16 µg/kg induced tetanic fade. The Nw-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 2 mg/kg alone did not produce any effect, but reduced the tetanic fade induced by L-arginine. D-arginine (2 mg/kg did not induce changes in tetanic fade. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine or SNAP was reduced by previous injection of atropine (1.0 µg/kg or ODQ (15 µg/kg. ODQ alone did not change tetanic fade. The data suggest that the NO-synthase-GC pathway participates in the L-arginine-induced tetanic fade in cat neuromuscular preparations. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine probably depends on the action of NO at the presynaptic level. NO may stimulate guanylate cyclase increasing acetylcholine release and thereby stimulating presynaptic muscarinic receptors.
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Vučinić Slavica
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Intermediate syndrome (IMS was described a few decades ago, however, there is still a controversy regarding its exact etiology, risk factors, diagnostic parameters and required therapy. Considering that acute poisonings are treated in different types of medical institutions this serious complication of organophosphate insecticide (OPI poisoning is frequently overlooked. The aim of this paper was to present a case of IMS in organophosphate poisoning, which, we believe, provides additional data on the use of oxime or atropine. Case report. After a well-resolved cholinergic crisis, the patient developed clinical presentation of IMS within the first 72 h from deliberate malathion ingestion. The signs of IMS were weakness of proximal limb muscles and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves, followed by the weakness of respiratory muscles and serious respiratory insufficiency. Malathion and its active metabolite were confirmed by analytical procedure (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pralidoxime methylsulphate, adiministered as a continuous infusion until day 8 (total dose 38.4 g, and atropine until the day 10 (total dose 922 mg did not prevent the development of IMS, hence the mechanical ventilation that was stopped after 27 h had to be continued until the day 10. Conclusion. Continuous pralidoxime methylsulphate infusion with atropine did not prevent the development of IMS, most likely due to the delayed treatment and insufficient oxime dose but also because of chemical structure and lipophilicity of ingested OPI. A prolonged intensive care monitoring and respiratory care are the key management for the intermediate syndrome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 176018, No. 46009
... following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: fever irritability fast pulse irregular heartbeat mental confusion difficulty urinating If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...
The QT interval and cycle length: the influence of atropine, hyoscine and exercise.
Staniforth, D H
1983-01-01
Twenty-seven healthy male subjects of mean age 24.3 +/- 4.0 years and mean weight 74.9 +/- 9.1 kg took part in an investigation to assess the most suitable correction for the QT interval as a function of cardiac cycle length. 547 sets of data points were generated. Atropine 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mg, and hyoscine 0.4 and 0.8 mg, and exercise on a bicycle ergometer at power levels of 50-250 watts together with post-exercise values were employed to obtain a range of heart rates. Simultaneous measurem...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban
2002-01-01
muscarinic agonists and antagonists modify nociceptive threshold by affecting intraspinal release of acetylcholine (ACh). Catheters were inserted into the femoral vein in rats maintained on isoflurane anaesthesia for administration of oxotremorine (10-300 microg/kg) and atropine (0.1, 10, 5000 microg....../kg). Spinal microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally at approximately the C2-C5 spinal level for sampling of acetylcholine and dialysis delivery of atropine (0.1, 1, 10 nM). Additionally, the tail-flick behaviour was tested on conscious rats injected intraperitoneally with saline, atropine (10, 100...... and 5000 microg/kg), or subcutaneously with oxotremorine (30, 100, 300 microg/kg). Subcutaneous administration of oxotremorine (30, 100, 300 microg/kg) significantly increased the tail-flick latency. These doses of oxotremorine dose-dependently increased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine...
Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan
2016-01-01
This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures. PMID:26453200
Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan
2016-01-01
This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures.
Leaching of zinc compound from rubber stoppers into the contents of automatic atropine injectors.
Ellin, R I; Kaminskis, A; Zvirblis, P; Sultan, W E; Shutz, M B; Matthews, R
1985-07-01
This report describes how a material within the cartridge of an automatic injector contaminated its contents. On prolonged storage, a formulation that contained atropine produced lethality in mice. The toxic material originated from zinc compounds that were present in the rubber stopper and plunger of the container and that subsequently leached into the formulation. The contents of cartridges that contained greater than or equal to 0.75 mg/mL of solubilized zinc were lethal to at least 20% of the mice tested; those that contained 0.42 mg/mL showed no lethality. The problem resulted from the physicochemical properties of the rubber, not the concentration of zinc used in the vulcanization process.
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Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Heart Surgery, Avellino (Italy); Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina [San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Avellino (Italy); Daniele, Stefania [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, Alberto [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development (SDN), Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, Naples (Italy)
2011-02-15
To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR ({>=}85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)
Bocskai, Tímea; Németh, Adrienne; Bogár, Lajos; Pytel, József
2013-12-01
Authors investigated sedation quality in children for auditory brainstem response testing. Two-hundred and seventy-six sedation procedures were retrospectively analyzed using recorded data focusing on efficacy of sedation and complications. Intramuscular ketamine-midazolam-atropine combination was administered on sedation preceded by narcotic suppository as pre-medication. On using the combination vital parameters remained within normal range, the complication rate was minimal. Pulse rate, arterial blood pressure and pulse oxymetry readings were stable, hypoventilation developed in 4, apnoea in none of the cases, post-sedation agitation occurred in 3 and nausea and/or vomiting in 2 cases. Repeated administration of narcotic agent was necessary in a single case only. Our practice is suitable for the sedation assisting hearing examinations in children. It has no influence on the auditory brainstem testing, the conditions necessary for the test can be met entirely with minimal side-effects. Our practice provides a more lasting sedation time in children during the examination hence there is no need for the repetition of the narcotics.
Use of atropine to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia
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Mihir Kothari
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This cohort study included children with esotropia and hypermetropia of ≥ +2.0 diopters (D. The deviation was measured at presentation, under atropine cycloplegia and 3 months after full refractive correction. Of 44 children with a mean age of 5.2 ± 2.4 years, 25 were males. Eighteen (41% had fully refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE, 10 (23% had partial accommodative esotropia (PAE, and 5 (11% had nonaccommodative esotropia (NAE. Eleven (25% had convergence excess (CE. Under cycloplegia, all with RAE and RAE with CE had orthotropia. There was no significant change in the deviation in the patients with NAE. The deviation under cycloplegia and that with full refractive correction in PAE and PAE with CE (with +3.0 D addition were not different. The intraclass correlation coefficient for deviation under cycloplegia and after full refractive correction (+3.0 D addition for CE was 0.89. It was concluded that ocular deviation under cycloplegia can help to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia.
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Hong-Ye Lin
2005-12-01
Full Text Available A new atropine drug-FET sensor, which was made of an ISFET (ion sensitivefield effect transistor and a drug sensitive membrane prepared by adding electric activematter to a ÃŽÂ²-cyclodextrin solution, was developed. The pH influence, selectivity, responsecurve, reproducibility, stability, response time and life of this sensor were investigated. Apreliminary application of the sensor was discussed as well. The experimental resultsindicated that the sensor showed a Nernst response to atropine with a slope of 58.0mV/decade over the concentration range of 5.0ÃƒÂ—10-3 Ã¯Â¼Â 1.0ÃƒÂ—10-6 mol/L and the pH rangeof 5.0Ã¯Â¼Â8.5. The sensor detection limit was 8.0ÃƒÂ—10-7 mol/L. The performance of this sensorwas very stable when it was used to determine atropine concentration in a medicinalinjection. The obtained results agreed well with the pharmacopoeia method.
Jandrić, Zora; Rathor, Mohammad N; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Mayr, Leopold; Resch, Christian; Bado, Souleymane; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Cannavan, Andrew
2013-01-01
Plant uptake of toxins and their translocation to edible plant parts are important processes in the transfer of contaminants into the food chain. Atropine, a highly toxic muscarine receptor antagonist produced by Solanacea species, is found in all plant tissues and can enter the soil and hence be available for uptake by crops. The absorption of atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and its distribution to shoots was investigated by growing wheat in soil spiked with unlabeled or (14)C-labeled atropine. Radioactivity attributable to (14)C-atropine and its transformation products was measurable in plants sampled at 15 d after sowing (DAS) and thereafter until the end of experiment. The highest accumulation of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products by plants was detected in leaves (between 73 and 90% of the total accumulated) with lower amounts in stems, roots, and seeds (approximately 14%, 9%, and 3%, respectively). (14)C-Atropine and/or its transformation products were detected in soil leachate at 30, 60, and 90 DAS and were strongly adsorbed to soil, with 60% of the applied dose adsorbed at 30 DAS, plateauing at 70% from 60 DAS. Unlabeled atropine was detected in shoots 30 DAS at a concentration of 3.9 ± 0.1 μg kg(-1) (mean ± SD). The observed bioconcentration factor was 2.3 ± 0.04. The results suggest a potential risk of atropine toxicity to consumers. PMID:24007480
The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.
Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J
2016-09-01
Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects. PMID:27108935
Fisher, C M
1991-02-01
Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium.
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Abu Saleh Ahmed
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Background:Acute poisoning with organophosphorus (OP pesticides is a common method of suicide and entails considerable mortality in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcomes of a protocol for treatment of OP poisoning that included titrated incremental atropine as loading dose and slow infusion for maintenance. Methods:In this prospective descriptive case series, definitive OP poisoned patients were enrolled in an adult medicine unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Clinical examinations were done as soon as the patient entered the ward. Patient’s demographics, comorbid conditions and the occurrence of specific clinical outcomes including death, need for assisted ventilation and clinical complications were recorded. The patients were treated according to the protocol. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled over the study period. The median age of the study population was 22.5 years. Most patients were men (67.8%. The most common clinical presentation was miosis (58.9%. In total, 11 patients died (19.6%. Intermediate syndrome developed in 12 patients (21.4% and 6 of them died. Assisted ventilation was required in 16 cases (28.5. Patients with diastolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mmHg and/or GCS ≤ 10 were significantly less likely to survive (P = 0.02, 0.006, respectively. Moreover, early respiratory failure (P < 0.001 and the need for assisted ventilation (P < 0.001 were significantly higher among deceased cases. The mortality rate in this study was similar to previous studies. The frequency of atropine toxicity in the present study (1.8% was considerably lower than conventional regimen used in previous studies. Conclusion:Using the new protocol, lower rate of atropine toxicity developed in victims. Hence, the new protocol appears to be safer and its effectiveness should be further evaluated in case control studies in Bangladesh. How to cite this article: Ahmed AS
Fisher, C M
1991-02-01
Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium. PMID:2036612
Carron, Michele; Veronese, Stefano
2015-01-29
A 74-year-old morbidly obese man was scheduled for surgical repair of an incisional ventral hernia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl, and maintained with desflurane. A second dose of fentanyl 0.2 mg, given before starting surgery, resulted in sinus bradycardia and mild decrease of arterial blood pressure. Atropine sulfate 0.5 mg was administered. One minute later, the ECG rhythm on the monitor changed to third degree atrioventricular block with a ventricular response rate of 40 beats/min associated with marked hypotension. Isoproterenol 0.02 mg reverted the atrioventricular block to sinus rhythm. Cardiac enzymes and ECG ruled out acute myocardial ischaemia. The surgical procedure and the recovery from anaesthesia were uneventful. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the fifth postoperative day. For the treatment of bradycardia atropine sulfate should be adjusted at least to lean body weight in order to avoid paradoxical heart rate response in patients with obesity.
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Dhote, Franck, E-mail: franck.dhote@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Peinnequin, André [Département Effets biologiques des rayonnements, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie [Département de Toxicologie et risques chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des armées – Centre de recherches du Service de santé des armées IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des Maquis du Grésivaudan, B.P. 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France); and others
2012-03-01
Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is
Soklakov, Andrei N.
2013-01-01
Quantitative Structuring is a rigorous framework for the design of financial products. We show how it incorporates traditional investment ideas while supporting a more accurate expression of clients' views on the market. We briefly touch upon adjacent topics regarding the safety of financial derivatives and the role of pricing models in product design.
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Fábio A. Bogaz
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Relatamos caso de mulher de 45 anos de idade, com antecedentes de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e tabagismo, submetida a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina para investigação de doença arterial coronariana. No pico do estresse, a paciente apresentou dor precordial súbita e de forte intensidade. O eletrocardiograma de doze derivações revelou elevação do segmento ST nas derivações DII, DIII, aVF, V5 e V6 e depressão do segmento ST nas derivações DI, aVL, V2 e V3. Pela monitoração das imagens ecocardiográficas foi observado aparecimento de discinesia do septo inferior e acinesia da parede inferior do ventrículo esquerdo. O exame foi interrompido imediatamente, a paciente foi medicada e evoluiu com melhora da dor precordial e das alterações de motilidade segmentar. A angiografia coronariana revelou lesões coronarianas irregulares com menos de 50% de obstrução do diâmetro luminal. Trata-se de um caso de vasoespasmo coronariano induzido por estimulação alfa-adrenérgica durante a ecocardiografia sob estresse pela dobutamina-atropina.This is the report on a 45-year-old female, with a history of systemic arterial hypertension and cigarette smoking, submitted to dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography for the investigation of coronary artery disease. At stress peak, the patient reported sudden, highly intense precordial pain. The 12-lead electrocardiogram showed ST segment elevation in DII, DIII, aVF, V5 and V6, and depression in DI, aVL, V2 and V3. Echocardiographic imaging monitoring showed dyskinesia of inferior septum and akinesia of inferior wall. The test was interrupted immediately. The patient was medicated and improved her precordial pain condition as well as wall motion abnormalities. Coronary angiography showed irregular coronary lesions with <50% luminal diameter obstruction. It is a case of coronary spasm induced by alpha-adrenergic stimulation during dobutamine-atropine stress
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J. THIBAUT
2002-01-01
anestesia; en el grupo 1 tremores musculares (3 casos y opistótono (1 caso, en el grupo 2 apnea transitoria (2 casos. Se concluye que propofol premedicado con atropina - xilacina reduce el período de latencia, aumenta el tiempo de anestesia y recuperación sin alterar significativamente las variables fisiológicasTwenty mongrel dogs, both sexes, of 1 to 6 years were divided into two groups of ten animals each. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg of acepromazine was administered to the first group (A.A.P of 16.2±1,63 kg body weight. The second group (X.A.P of 11.9±1.7.1 kg. body weight, received a 3 mg/kg i.m. dose of xylazine. Both groups received atropine 0.1 mg/kg s.c. ten minutes before the administration of propofol 5 mg/kg i.v. The effects of Propofol on latency period, surgical anesthesia duration, recovery period, respiratory rate, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and body temperature were evaluated. Adverse reactions to propofol were registered. The results of the anesthesiological variable significantly differed between the two groups: induction of anesthesia was 0.45 + 0.03 min in the first and 0.26 + 0.03 in the second group. Surgical anesthesia period was 12.3 + 1.89 min in the first and 25.2 + 1.78 min in the second group, and recovery period was 4.5 + 0.63 min and 10.1 + 0.98 min in group 1 and 2, respectively. The physiological variables in both groups were maintained without significant modification during the surgical anesthesia period; respiratory rate had an initial average of 14.3 + 2.45 and 13.0 + 1.54 breaths/min in group 1 and 2 respectively. The heart rate was 175 + 11.81 beats/min in the first and 148.,4 + 9.04 beats/min in the second group; the average arterial blood pressure was 102.6 + 5.69 and 111.8 + 10.43 mm Hg for the first and second group, respectively. Body temperature in the first group was 38.5 + 0.17 and 38.7 + 0.2 ºC for the second group. Adverse reactions were muscle twitching (3 cases and opisthotonus (1 case in group 1; transitory apnea (2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parvin Sajedi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The current study aimed to determine preventive effect of 2 percent topical xylocaine on oculocardiac reflex in ophthalmological surgeries except strabismus, including retinal detachment and vitrectomy with scleral buckling under general anesthesia. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 150 patients aged 18-90 years undergoing ophthalmological surgeries under general anesthesia. Samples randomly divided into the experimental group (received four drops of 2 percent topical xylocaine instilled in desired eye and control group (received 0.5 mg atropine sulfate injection. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure of patients and baseline heart rate were recorded. They were compared regarding the incidence of bradycardia, heart rate less than 60 beats/minute, hypotension and blood pressure less than 90 mm/Hg. Data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20 using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results: The difference between two groups was not statistically significant regarding demographic and basic variables. The incidence of bradycardia in both groups was respectively (90.7 percent vs. 17.3 percent, heart rate less than 60 beats/minute (40 percent vs. 13.3 percent, hypotension (76 percent vs. 32 percent and blood pressure less than 90 mmHg was (28 percent vs. 8 percent. Accordingly, the differences between both groups were statistically significant (P > 0.001. Conclusions: The preventive impact of topical xylocaine upon oculocardiac reflex in ophthalmological surgeries such as retinal detachment and vitrectomy with scleral buckling under general anesthesia was less effective than that of atropine injection. Therefore, to avoid this reflex in high-risk patients, injecting atropine would be safer.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K;
2014-01-01
The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system....... The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD50 of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD50), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD50 of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD50 soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after soman, blocked seizures.
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Miller, Steven L., E-mail: stevenmiller17@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki, E-mail: vanderjaska@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Figueiredo, Taiza H., E-mail: taiza.figueiredo.ctr@usuhs.edu [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Prager, Eric M., E-mail: eric.prager683@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Almeida-Suhett, Camila P., E-mail: camilapalmeida@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Apland, James P., E-mail: james.p.apland.civ@mail.mil [Neurotoxicology Branch, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); and others
2015-04-15
Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD{sub 50} of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD{sub 50}), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD{sub 50} soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after
阿托品压抑疗法对儿童弱视的康复作用%Rehabilitation effect of atropine depre ssed therapy on amblyopia in children
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐艳丽
2003-01-01
@@ BACKGROUND:The process of treating amblyopia is to create good development condictions for eyes of amblyopia so as to eyes of amblyopia and dominant eyes can grow successively. OBJECTIVE:To explore rehabilitation effect of Atropine depressed therapy on amblyopia of children.
Yajima, Masako; Kimura, Shunsuke; Karaki, Shinichiro; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Yajima, Takaji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko
2016-04-01
Intestinal epithelial cells sense short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh). However, the roles of luminalSCFAs and epithelialACh under normal and pathological conditions remain unknown. We examined ileal contractile responses toSCFAs at different ages and their mucosal cholinergic alterations under inflammatory conditions. Ileal contractile responses toSCFAs in 1-day-old pups to 7-week-old mice were compared using an isotonic transducer, and responses to an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in 7-week-old mice. ThemRNAexpression levels of aSCFAactivate free fatty acid receptor, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (Chat), and choline transporter-like protein 4 (CTL4) were measured using real-time quantitativeRT-PCRAChE was analyzed by histochemical and optical enzymatic assays. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs occurred in all 1-day-old pups, but were frequently desensitized after the weaning period. These contractile responses were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and did not appear when the mucosal layer had been scraped off. Contractile desensitization in 7-week-old mice was abolished in the presence of theAChE inhibitor, eserine, which was consistent with increasedAChE activity after weaning. Ileal contractions toSCFAs in adult mice were restored byLPS, which significantly increased the epithelialmRNAexpression of Chat andCTL4. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs constitutively occur in the newborn period, and are desensitized during developmental stages following the up-regulated expression ofAChE in the villous mucosa, but are restored under inflammatory conditions possibly via the release of epithelialACh. PMID:27053293
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭育旋
2015-01-01
Objective:To explore the reasonable application of atropine in the treatment of acute organic phosphorus poisoning. Methods:37 patients with acute organic phosphorus poisoning were selected.After emetic,gastric lavage and other routine therapy, they were given atropine treatment.We analyzed the recovery of the patients.Results:In 37 patients,the recovery of 36 cases(97.3%) was good after the use of atropine treatment.1 case(2.7%) died because of atropine poisoning.Conclusion:In the treatment process of patients with organic phosphorus poisoning,the reasonable application of atropine was the important factor for affecting the therapeutic effects.%目的：探讨阿托品在抢救急性有机磷农药中毒患者时的合理应用。方法：收治急性有机磷中毒患者37例，通过催吐、洗胃等常规治疗，再使用阿托品治疗，分析患者恢复情况。结果：37例患者中，使用阿托品治疗后恢复情况良好36例(97.3%)，死于阿托品中毒1例(2.7%)。结论：在有机磷中毒患者救治过程中，合理应用阿托品是救治成功的重要因素。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄新桥; 谭琪敏; 钟房友; 钟丽娴
2013-01-01
Objective To explore the effects of different atropine medications in remedy of severely acute organophosphorus pesticide. Methods A retrospective study were performed.This study was carried out in 75 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. The patients were divided into three groups according atropine medications: Group A(25 cases), were treated with intravenous injection of atropine and artificial; Group B(25 cases)directly with micro pump delivery, Group C(25 cases)achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration patients are atropine artificial intravenous injection, the patient achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration; Compared the efficacy and complications among the three groups. Results There is significant difference between minim continuous pump after atropine administration and interval injecting or minim continuous pump. As a result, the patients in Group C were more effective and fewer complications than that in Group A and C. Conclusion Using micro-pump after atropine administration artificial intravenous injection of atropine was the better effect, it has proved to be a fine medication.%目的：分析基层医院救治有机磷中毒患者时，阿托品不同给药方式的疗效差异，为探索其最佳给药方法提供依据。方法回顾分析75例急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料，25例进行人工间歇静脉推注阿托品法（A 组），25例采用微量泵持续静脉输注阿托品法（B 组，25例先间歇静脉推注阿托品，达阿托品化后再用微量泵泵入阿托品（C 组），分析比较三组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、疗效以及不良反应和并发症。结果 C 组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、阿托品过量、不足中毒、用量、尿潴留和多器官功能损害等明显降低而治愈率显著提高（P ＜0.05）。结论采用阿托品人工静脉推注,待患者阿托品化再予以微量泵给药，不仅起效
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘莹
2011-01-01
目的:探讨阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果.方法:60例有机磷中毒患者随机均分为两组,每组各30例,A组采用阿托品联合血液灌流进行治疗,B组单纯采用阿托品进行治疗,后将两组患者的综合治疗效果进行比较.结果:A组的各项治疗效果评价项目均优于B组,P<0.05,差异均有统计学意义.结论:阿托品联合血液灌流在有机磷中毒中的效果较佳,值得临床推广应用.%Objective: To study the effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning. Methods: 60 patients with organophosphorus poisoning were randomly divided into two groups with 30 patients in each group, and the group A were treated with atropine combined with hemoperfusion, the group B were treated with atropine, then the comprehensive effect of the two groups were compared. Results: The various evaluation items of group A were all better than those of group B, all ρ＜0.05, there were significant differences. Conclusion: The effect of atropine combined with hemoperfusion in the patients with organophosphorus poisoning is better, and it is worthy of popularization and application.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R Pulgar
2009-01-01
Full Text Available En el presente estudio se determinó el efecto de las asociaciones anestésicas atropina IM (0,05 mg/kg-tiletamina/zolazepam EV (4 mg/kg total y atropina IM (0,05 mg/kg-ketamina EV (5 mg/kg total/diazepam (0,5 mg/kg sobre la respuesta fisiológica, anestésica y bioquímica de emúes adultos. Los ejemplares (n = 7 por grupo fueron asignados al azar a dos tratamientos anestésicos. La frecuencia cardiaca y la temperatura corporal de los emúes mostraron un incremento al inicio del tratamiento experimental (entre 5-10 min, P = 0,001. Sin embargo, la frecuencia respiratoria y pulso disminuyeron (entre 5-15 min, P = 0,003. Estos patrones fueron detectados para ambas asociaciones anestésicas. Por otra parte, la inducción anestésica y el tiempo de recuperación anestésica no fueron afectados por los tratamientos (P = 0,12 y P = 0,13 respectivamente. Los emúes tratados con tiletamina mostraron un mayor tiempo de anestesia quirúrgica, comparados con los emúes tratados con ketamina (P = 0,012. En el caso de A.S.T. y glucosa, ambas variables presentaron un incremento a las 24 h de la aplicación del tratamiento anestésico, resultando los niveles de glucosa más altos en emúes tratados con ketamina (P = 0,006 y P = 0,008 respectivamente. Finalmente, la hemoglobina, proteínas totales y ácido úrico no presentaron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (P = 0,99, P = 0,97 y P = 0,81 respectivamente. En conclusión, los dos protocolos anestésicos resultaron seguros y eficientes para la manipulación de los animales; sin embargo, el mayor tiempo de anestesia observado en animales tratados con tiletamina podría determinar la preferencia por esta asociación anestésica.In this study, the effects of the anaesthetic associations atropine IM (0.05 mg/kg-tiletamine/zolazepam IV (4 mg/kg total and atropine IM (0.05 mg/kg-ketamine IV (5 mg/kg total/diazepam (0.5 mg/kg on physiological, anaesthetic and biochemical responses were determined on adult
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘玉峰
2015-01-01
目的：探讨评判性思维在阿托品化动态观察与护理干预中的应用效果。方法：将我院2013年1~12月期间收治的重度有机磷中毒患者60例作为观察组，将我院2012年1~12月期间收治的重度有机磷中毒患者60例作为对照组。对照组采用常规方式进行业务培训，对阿托品化进行常规观察与护理，观察组应用评判性思维模式进行业务培训，对阿托品化进行动态观察与干预。观察对比两组患者阿托品化误判率、并发中间综合征例数及平均住院时间。结果：观察组患者阿托品化误判率、并发中间综合征、平均住院时间均少于对照组，差异均有统计学意义（P ﹤0．05）。结论：在阿托品化观察过程中，护士应用评判性思维模式，对阿托品化进行动态观察与干预，可降低阿托品化误判率，减少并发症的发生，并可缩短患者住院时间。%Objective:To investigate the application of critical thinking in atropine dynamic observation and nursing intervention. Methods:From January to December 2013 in our hospital severe organophosphate poisoning patients admitted as the observation group 60 cases,and the severe organophosphate poison-ing patients admitted to our hospital from January to December 2012 period 60 cases as the control group. Control group with conventional ways for project training,atropine routine observation and care,while the observation group of critical thinking for project training,atropine dynamic observation and interven-tion. Compared the two groups with observed atropine false positive rate,the number of cases and average length of stay in the middle of concurrent syn-drome. Results:The atropine false positive rate,concurrent intermediate syndrome,average hospital stay of observation group were less than the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion:In atropine observation process,the nurse applied critical
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shivani MHrRA; Sharda Shah PESHIN; Shyam Bala LALL
2001-01-01
AIM: To investigate the cholinesterase inhibition and effect of atropine and pralidoxime (PAM) treatment on the survival time in the rat model of aluminium phosphide (ALP) poisoning. METHODS: The rats were treated with AlP (10 mg/kg; 5.55×LD50; ig) and the survival time was noted. The effect of atropine (1 mg/kg, ip) and PAM (5 mg/kg, ip) was noted on the above. Atropine and PAM were administered 5 min after AlP. Plasma cholinesterase levels were measured spectrophotometrically in the control and AlP treated rats 30 min after administration. RESULTS: Treaanent with atropine and PAM increased the survival time by 2.5 fold (1.4 h ±0.3 h vs 3.4 h±2.5 h, P＜0.01) in9 out of 15 animals and resulted in total survival of the 6 remaining animals. Plasma cholinesterase levels were inhibited by 47％, (438±74) U/L in AlP treated rats as compared tocontrol (840±90) U/L (P＜0.01). CONCLUSION: This preliminary study concludes that AlP poisoning causes cholinesterase inhibition and responds to treatment with atropine and PAM.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
滕光寿; 秦明; 毛峰峰; 张琰; 刘兴友; 贺建荣; 杨鹏; 刘曼玲
2011-01-01
目的 观察小茴香精油及水提物(去油)对阿托品致胃肠动力障碍小鼠胃肠运动的影响.方法 选择昆明种小鼠随机分为空白对照组、阿托品模型组、小茴香水提物组、小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组.空白对照组、阿托品模型组均给予0.2 ml/10 g生理盐水灌胃;小茴香水提物组给予去油小茴香水提物(含小茴香75 mg/ml)0.2 ml/10 g灌胃;小茴香精油组以300 mg/kg精油灌胃,莫沙必利组给莫沙必利混悬液(含莫沙必利15 mg/ml)灌胃.连续3 d,禁食18 h后,于第4天空白对照组腹腔注射生理盐水,其他组腹腔注射硫酸阿托品注射液,以葡聚糖蓝(BD)2000为标记物,观察胃排空率和肠推进率.结果 小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组、小茴香水提物组处理后小鼠的胃排空率分别为(91.97±4.42)%、(90.26±5.81)%、(80.01±6.27)%、(72.88±9.13)%;肠推进率分别为(53.32±7.49)%、(53.02±9.13)%、(44.16±7.68)%、(37.52±6.19)%.小茴香精油组、莫沙必利组、小茴香水提物组对阿托品所致胃肠动力障碍小鼠的胃排空(P值分别为0.004、0.001、0.004)和肠推进(P值分别0.003、0.025、0.015)均有拮抗作用;小茴香精油组促进胃排空作用(P值分别为0.000、0.002)、肠推进作用优于小茴香水提物组(P值分别为0.001、0.001).结论 小茴香提取物可拮抗小鼠的胃肠动力障碍,小茴香精油是主要活性成分.%Objective To observe the effects of fennel essential oil and water extracts (distilled oil is not included) on gastrointestinal motility disorder caused by atropine in mice.Methods Kunming mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model group atropine, water extracts group, fennel essential oil group, mosapride group. Blank control group and model group atropine were orally administered with normal saline of 0.2 ml/10 g. Water extracts group was orally administered with Water extracts (75 mg/ml) of 0.2 ml/10 g. Fennel essential oil group was orally
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜霖; 韩凤东; 赵英男
2012-01-01
目的 观察平痛新联合阿托品对肾绞痛镇痛的效果.方法 对临床确诊的257例由泌尿系结石所引起急性肾绞痛患者随机分组,131例为观察组,应用平痛新联合阿托品肌注；126例为对照组,应用哌替啶联合阿托品肌注.对比观察两组止痛效果及副作用.结果 观察组总有效率为90.9％,对照组总有效率为92.9％,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P＞0.05).而观察组复发率低,副作用小.结论 平痛新联合阿托品对泌尿系结石所致肾绞痛镇痛效果与哌替啶联合阿托品的镇痛效果无明显差别,且复发率低,副作用少,无成瘾性.%Objective To observe the analgesic effect of combined using of nefopam and atropine on renal colic. Methods 257 confirmed patients who suffered renal colic caused by urinary stone were divided into two groups; 131 for observation group who were jointly used nefopam and atropine and 126 for control group who were jointly used pethidine and atropine. The effect of relieving pain and side effect were observed and compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of the observation group is 90. 9% and the control group is 92. 9% . The difference between two groups showed no statistical significance( P > 0. 05 ) . However the recurrence rate and side effete of the observation group are lower than the control group. Conclusion It is no significant difference between the observation group and the control group to treat renal colic caused by urinary stone and it is worthy of using for clinic patients because of its lower recurrence rate and addiction.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许江涛
2012-01-01
For a long time,atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China,while internationally,cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic.In recent years,1％ cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country.This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedoophthalmiaters.According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs,the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children.However,the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So,for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old,all esotropia children,Am children,and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry.In this article,we also discuss the medication dosage,medication method,possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.%阿托品眼膏长期以来都是中国儿童验光主流使用的睫状肌麻痹剂,而国际上则普遍使用环戊通滴眼液作为一线的睫状肌麻痹药物.近年来,国内引了进1％盐酸环戊通眼液,这种快速强效的睫状肌麻痹剂已被国内小儿眼科医师所关注.一系列国内外自身对照药物疗效研究证实,环戊通的睫状肌麻痹效果接近于阿托品,能广泛应用于中国儿童验光前的睫状肌麻痹.尽管如此,其药物疗效仍略逊于阿托品,故对于7岁以内的远视儿童、所有内斜视儿童、混合性散光儿童及短期内视力下降需要排除调节性近视的儿童,验光前仍应常规使用阿托品眼膏行睫状肌麻痹.本文同时对环戊通眼液的用药剂量、用药方法、可
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑志刚; 刘博; 方燕; 华雪莲; 廖慧芳
2013-01-01
Objective To assess the efficacy of intermittent administration of 1% atropine combined with grey pho-tochromic and progressive multifocal lenses for juvenile myopia. Methods A total of 134 children and adolescents with slight to moderate myopia were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A (67 cases, 134 eyes) was treated by 1% atropine discontinuously combined with grey photochromic and progressive multifocal lenses and accommodation training during atropine discontinuance;group B (67cases,134 eyes) was treated by single focal lenses. The visual acuity, lens, retina, macular lutea, intraocular pressure, myopic diopters, corneal curvature and the axial length were examined every 3 month and the fol ow-up time was 1 year. Results After 1 year, the progression of myopia in group A and group B was (0.38±0.15)D and (1.08±0.35)D respectively; the extension of the axial length in group A and group B was(0.13±0.09)mm and(0.39±0.28)mm, respectively(both P0.05). There were no other complications, except two patients had photophobia in group A. Conclusion The progression of myopia and the exten-sion of the axial length can be control ed effectively with intermittent administration of 1% atropine combined with grey pho-tochromic and progressive multifocal lenses for juvenile myopia.% 目的观察间断使用1%阿托品眼用凝胶联合灰变渐进片治疗青少年低、中度近视的临床疗效.方法选择青少年低、中度近视患者134例(268只眼),按就诊先后分为 A、B 两组各67例(134只眼),A 组予以间断使用1%阿托品眼用凝胶联合灰变渐进片治疗,停用阿托品期间予以晶体操训练,B 组予以单光近视眼镜治疗.随访1年,每3个月复查视力、裂隙灯检查晶体、视网膜、黄斑等情况,测量眼压、屈光度、角膜曲率和眼轴长度.结果1年后,A 组的近视增长度数和眼轴增长分别为(0.38±0.15)D 和(0.13±0.09)mm ；B 组的近视增长度数和眼轴增长分别为(1.08±0.35)D
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘真; 陈玮; 刘玉岭; 赵梅
2010-01-01
Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of low level laser combined with atropine in treatment of ametropic amblyopia. Methods One hundred and twenty children (240 eyes with ametropic amblyopia) were grouped randomly, and the improvement of visual acuity and visual function between the two methods were compared. Results The differences in binocularvision improvement and stereopsis visual acuity of the two methods were significant(t=2.24,P<0.05).Conclusions Low level laser combined with atropine therapy seems to be superio to traditional treatment in binocularvision improvement and recovery.%目的 观察弱激光联合阿托品疗法对屈光不正性弱视的疗效.方法 120例(240只弱视眼)患儿随机分为治疗组(弱激光联合阿托品疗法)和对照组(传统治疗),比较两种方法对视力的提升效果及双眼视功能的改善情况.结果 弱激光联合阿托品疗法使弱视眼视力进步有效率及立体视锐度与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.24,P<0.05).结论 弱激光联合阿托品疗法更有利于患儿视力提升、双眼视力恢复.
Evaluation of cycloplegic effectiveness of cyclopentolate and atropine%环戊通与阿托品睫状肌麻痹效果的差异性评价
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘新婷; 张芳; 吕帆
2012-01-01
Background Cycloplegia is well accepted for the first refraction estimate in childhood.Yet no good evidence is offered in terms of which cyclopegia is preferable for the different ages and refractive status in children. Objective This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of cycloplegia between 1％ cyclopentolate and 1％ atropine sulphate before optometry in ametropia children. Methods This was a prospective clinical trail.The self matched-pairs control randomly observation was designed.One hundred and sixty eyes of 80 children of 4-9 years old with refractive error were recruited in this study.1％ cyclopentolate eye drops were topically administered once per 5 minutes for 3 times and 1％ optometry was performed 45 minutes after eye dropping.Three days after that,1％ atropine then was used 3 times per day for consecutive 3 days and again the refractive diopter was obtained.The differences of the results in autorefraction,retinoscope and residual accommodation were compared between 1％ cyclopentolate and 1％ atropine eye drops.This trail was approved by the Ethic Committee and written informed consent was obtained from each custodian. Results The autorefraction values were ( 0.55 ±3.52 ) D and ( 2.22 ±3.52) D before and after the administration of 1％ atropine with the difference value( 1.66± 1.62) D (t =13.02,P =0.00 ).The autorefraction value was( 1.74±3.46 ) D after dropping of 1％ cyclopentolate and the difference value from that of 1％ atropine was (0.48 ± 0.46) D ( t =13.08,P =0.00 ).The cy(e)lplegic autorefractions of atropine and cyclopentolate have strong correlation ( R2 =0.98,P =0.000 ).The residual accommodation values were ( 0.32± 0.44 )D and(0.05±0.41 ) D after dropping of 1％ cyclopentolate and 1％ atropine with the difference( 0.27±0.55 ) D ( t =4.56,P =0.00 ).The difference value of refractive diopter was (0.31 ± 0.37 )D in myopic group,(0.56±0.48 )D in moderate hypermetropic group and(0.59±0.50)D in high myopic group
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘芳; 冯艺; 乔青; 杨拔贤
2012-01-01
Objective To investigate the effect of sublingual atropine as premedication of sevoflurane anesthesia in premature infants undergoing fundus examination of eyes. Methods Forty-premature infants undergoing examination of fundus of eyes were enrolled in this study. Their gestational age (from the first day of last menstruation period to birth) + after birth age (from birth to the day when examination was performed) = (46 ± 5) weeks. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A and group C. Infants in group A were given atropine solution 0. 02 mg/kg sublingually 15 min before anesthesia, while those in group C received the same dose of normal saline. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with 6% and 3% sevoflurane. At before atropine administration(T0) ,5 min(T1), 10 min(T2), 15 min(T3 )after atropine administration HR, SpO2, T, RR, PEtCO2 SEV-e and the incidence of oculocardiac reflex (OCR), the lowest HR during OCR period and the salivary secretion were recorded, and adverse events were evaluated. Results HR and T were significantly increased at T1-T3 in group A than that at T0. Compared with those in group C, HR was significantly increased at T4 -T6, the lowest HR during OCR period was significantly increased, and the salivary secretion significantly decreased in group A. Conclusion Sublingual atropine as premedication can decreas the secretion of salivary and stabalize HR during OCR It is an effective, safe, and easy premedication method in premature infants undergoing fundus examination.%目的 观察术前舌下给予阿托品用于早产儿吸入七氟醚全麻下行眼底检查术对眼心反射和唾液分泌量的影响.方法 选择矫正胎龄(46±5)周拟行眼底检查术的早产儿40例,随机均分为两组:A组和C组.检查前15 min A组舌下给予阿托品0.02 mg/kg,C组舌下给予等容量生理盐水,记录给药前即刻(T0)、给药后5 min(T1)、10 min(T2)、15 min(T3)患儿HR、SpO2、体表体温(T)；吸入6
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José Sebastião de Abreu
2005-09-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a exeqüibilidade e segurança do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina e atropina (EED em octogenários. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 5.467 EED, distribuídos entre grupo dos octogenários (GI=203 e grupo controle (GII=5.264. A idade média no GI=83±3 (80-95 e no GII=59±11 (17-79 anos. Os parâmetros resultantes do EED, coletados prospectivamente, foram comparados e analisados. RESULTADOS: O percentual de pacientes que atingiram freqüência cardíaca máxima foi em GI=63,5% e GII=41% (GI vs. GII; pOBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and safety of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE in octogenarians. METHODS: We evaluated 5,467 DASE which were distributed in two groups: group I (GI with 203 DASE performed in octogenarians, and group II (GII, the control group, with 5,264 DASE. The mean age of GI and GII was 83±3 (80-95 and 59±11 (17-79 years, respectively. DASE parameters that were prospectively collected, were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The percentage of patients that achieved maximum heart rate was 63.5% in GI and 41% in GII (p<0.001, and GI patients required less atropine compared to GII (GI=47%, GII=78%, p<0.001.The presence of chest pain (GI=13%, GII=15.6%, p=0.429 and DASE positive for myocardial ischemia (GI=20.7%, GII=16.9%, p=0.296 were not statistically different between the two groups. However, concomitant positive DASE and absence of chest pain (GI=17%, GII=11%, p=0.029 was higher in GI. The incidence of premature beats in GI was higher than in GII (GI=47.8%, GII=27.6%, p<0.001, and there were more supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (ST in GI than in GII (GI=5.9%, GII=1.9%, p=0.001. Out of 11 ST that happened in GI, 9 reverted spontaneously. There weren't either deaths or acute myocardial infarction. Ventricular fibrillation only happened in GII (2 cases, 0.03%. CONCLUSION: In the present study, octogenarians achieved maximum heart rate more frequently despite the lesser amount of atropine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wigan, Duncan
2013-01-01
Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconﬁguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While ﬁscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren......Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconﬁguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While ﬁscal systems are nationally bounded...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李战梅; 黄海; 周李
2013-01-01
Objective:To compare the effect of tropicamide and atropine ophthalmic solution in mydriatic refractometry for children.Methods:Totally 260 cases (520 eyes) of ametropia children from 4 to 14 years without other eye disease were received optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops and 1%atropine sulfate,The results of optometry were compared by paired T-test.Results:There existed statistically significant difference between the hyperopia and myopia in 4 to 7 years old group,hyperopia in 8 to 11 years old group.But there were no significant difference between the myopia in 8 to 11 years old group,myopia and hyperopia in 12 to 14 years old group.Conclusion:Aged 8 years and older children with myopia and hyperopia in aged 12 years and above children could receive optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops.% 目的：对比托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对儿童散瞳验光的效果。方法：用托吡卡胺眼液和1%硫酸阿托品眼膏先后分别对4~14岁260例(520只眼)，无其它眼疾，眼位正常的屈光不正儿童散瞳后进行电脑验光，采用自身配对t检验对两种药物验光结果进行比较。结果：4~7岁组远视、近视和8~11岁组远视两种药物散瞳验光所得结果差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论：托吡卡胺散瞳验光方法适用于眼位正常的8岁及以上近视儿童和12岁及以上远视儿童。
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Torben Juul
""In Global Derivatives: A Strategic Risk Management Perspective", Torben Juul Andersen has succeeded to gather in one book a complete and thorough summary and an easy-to-read explanation of all types of derivative instruments and their background, and their use in modern management of risk...... approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...
Simon Gray and Joanna Place
2006-01-01
Derivatives, ranging from relatively simple forward contracts to complicated options products, are an increasingly important feature of financial markets worldwide. They are already being used in many emerging markets, and as the financial sector becomes deeper and more stable, their use is certain to grow. This Handbook provides a basic guide to the different types of derivatives traded, including the pricing and valuation of the products, and accounting and statistical treatment. Also, it a...
Aïd, René
2015-01-01
Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.
托吡卡胺和阿托品用于儿童散瞳验光的对比%Tropicamide and atropine for comparison of children with refraction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈玉洁; 门大伟; 陈娟
2015-01-01
目的：对比在儿童散瞳验光中采用托吡卡胺和阿托品的应用效果。方法：选取我院在2014年5月至2015年5月期间门诊收治的视力异常患儿168例，根据患儿的年龄将其分为3组，A组为4-8岁，B组为9-11岁，C组为12-14岁，每组有患儿56例，分2天给予托吡卡胺及阿托品进行散瞳验光。将其验光结果进行记录和对比。结果：A组与B组远视和近视结果对比具有统计学意义（P＜0.05）；B组与C组患儿近视和远视对比无明显的差异性，无统计学意义（P＞0.05）。结论：在儿童验光中应用托吡卡胺对于9岁以上儿童近视及12岁以上儿童远视应用效果较好。%objective: to contrast in children’s specialized order pyrazole card amine and the application effects of atropine. Selection methods: our hospital in May 2014 to May 2015 outpatient treated 168 cases of abnormal vision, it can to the patient’s age, A group of 4 to 8 years, group B for 9 to 11 years of age, group C for 12-14 years old, each group had 56 cases. The optometry results recorded and compared. Results: in group A and group B hyperopia and myopia results compared statistically significant (P 0.05). Conclusion: applied in the children’s eyes pyrazole card amine for 9 years of age or older children myopia and 12 years of age or older children hyperopia application effect is good.
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Mohammad Hossein Sattari
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this article, the notion of $n-$derivation is introduced for all integers $ngeq 2$. Although all derivations are $n-$derivations, in general these notions are not equivalent. Some properties of ordinary derivations are investigated for $n-$derivations. Also, we show that under certain mild condition $n-$derivations are derivations.
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Fabíola Niederauer Flôres
2008-08-01
, at least 7 days apart, in randomized blinded manner. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in mechanical ventilation. After instrumentation, the end-tidal isoflurane was maintained at 1,3%V throughout the study. After a 30 minutes stabilization period (M -15, baseline hemodynamic parameters and arterial blood gases were recorded and atropine (atropine group or 0.9% NaCl (saline group were administered. Fifteen minutes later, data were recorded again (M0 and a chlorpromazine- dexmedetomidine (Chlor-Dex combination was administered. Variables were measured for an additional 65 minutes after Chlor-Dex. A one-way ANOVA-Student-Newman-Keuls was used for comparisons within groups, while a paired t test was used for comparisons between groups (P£0,05. Heart rate was higher in atropine group after Chlor-Dex administration. Cardiac index (CI was reduced from baseline after Chlor-Dex in both treatments. Although mean CI values tended to be higher in atropine group, CI did not differ between groups. Chlor-Dex administration caused increased arterial blood pressure in dogs treated with atropine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP was significantly higher in the atropine group from 5 to 65 min after Chlor-Dex. The systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI increased from baseline in both groups after Chlor-Dex administration. No significant differences were observed for arterial blood gases. Atropine administration prior to Chlor-Dex resulted in increased arterial blood pressure. Bradycardia induced by the administration of these drugs was prevented by the anticholinergic given, however decrease in cardiac output was not prevented.
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Luiz Gonzaga Pompermayer
1998-03-01
Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o emprego da atropina e da levomepromazina como medicações pré-anestésicas para a anestesia pela associação tiletamina/zolazepam. Foram empregados 30 cães, distribuídos em três grupos iguais. O grupo 1 (controle foi tratado com 0,2 ml/kg de solução fisiológica (placebo por via intravenosa; o grupo 2 com 0,044mg/kg de sulfato de atropina por via subcutânea e o grupo 3 com 1mg/kg de cloridrato de levomepromazina por via intravenosa. Quinze minutos após, todos os grupos receberam a associação tiletamina/zolazepam na dose de 10mg/kg por via intramuscular. Antes da medicação pré-anestésica, 15 minutos após a mesma e aos 15, 30, 60 e 105 minutos após a administração da associação tiletamina/zolazepam foram registrados: ECG, temperatura, freqüência respiratória, volume corrente, volume minuto, freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial, valores hemogasométricos arteriais, graus de analgesia e miorrelaxamento e reflexos protetores. Outros dados como: secreção salivar, período de latência, período anestésico hábil e período de recuperação foram igualmente mensurados para efeito comparativo. De acordo com os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o sulfato de atropina não deve ser administrado como medicação pré-anestésica, por potencializar a taquicardia induzida pela associação tiletamina/zolazepam. A levomepromazina, além de inibir a sialorréia, mantém a estabilidade cardiorrespiratória e apresenta ação potencializadora dos efeitos anestésicos da associação.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of levomepromazine and atropine sulfate as a premedication to the dissociative anesthesia produced by a tiletamine/zolazepam combination. Ten dogs were randomly assigned to each of the three groups: control, atropine and levomepromazine. Fifteen minutes before tiletamine/zolazepam, the dogs were treated either with atropine sulfate (0.044mg/kg, subcutaneously
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svenstrup, Mikkel
This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....
Synthetic Bioluminescent Coelenterazine Derivatives.
Nishihara, Ryo; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji
2016-01-01
The development of coelenterazine (CTZ) derivatives resulting in superior optical characteristics is an efficient method to extend the range of its possible applications. Here, we describe the synthesis of three C-6 substituted CTZ derivatives retaining the recognition by Renilla luciferase (RLuc) and its derivatives. The novel derivatives are useful as bright blue-shifted CTZ derivatives, which can be used as an alternative to hitherto reported compound DeepBlueC™. PMID:27424892
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Leandro Guimarães Franco
2009-02-01
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assessment of the aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase isoenzyme fraction MB (CK-MB serum activity in female dogs anesthetized with ketamine S (+, atropine and xylazine in several associations. METHODS: Twenty three healthy female dogs randomly distributed in four groups named as GI (n=6, GII (n=6, GIII (n=6 and GIV (n=5 were treated respectively with atropine and ketamine S(+ (0.04mg/kg; 10 mg/kg; ketamine S(+ (10 mg/kg; atropine, xylazine and ketamine S(+ (0.04mg/kg; 1.1 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg and xylazine and ketamine S(+ (1.1 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg. AST, CK and CK-MB serum activity measurement before pre-medication (M0 and one, two, three, six, 12, 24, 36 hours after. RESULTS: There was no significant change in AST, CK e CK-MB serum activity among groups. However, CK serum activity in relation to moments within the groups was increased in all groups over the time in spite of treatment, except GI. In relation to CK-MB activity, in the moments within the group, it was observed an increase compared to baseline in all groups. CONCLUSION: Creatine kinase and creatine kinase fraction MB isoenzyme showed changes in their mean values remained higher than baseline for a longer time in GIII and GIV.OBJETIVO: Determinar a atividade sérica de AST, CK e CK-MB em cadelas anestesiadas com cetamina S (+, atropina e xilazina em diferentes associações. MÉTODOS: Vinte e três cadelas saudáveis foram distribuídas ao acaso em quarto grupos denominados GI (n=6, GII (n=6, GIII (n=6 e GIV (n=5 tratados respectivamente com atropina e cetamina S (+ (0,04mg/kg; 10 mg/kg; cetamina S (+ (10 mg/kg; atropina, xilazina e cetamina S (+ (0,04mg/kg; 1,1 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg exilazina e cetamina S (+ (1,1 mg/kg; 10 mg/kg. A atividade sérica de AST, CK e CK-MB foi determinada antes da pré-medicação (M0 e uma, duas, três seis, 12, 24 e 36 horas após M0. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas mudanças significativas na atividade sérica de
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Juliana Tabarelli Brondani
2003-10-01
Full Text Available A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA, a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1, butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1 e atropina (0,044mg kg-1, via intramuscular. Trinta minutos após MPA, a indução foi realizada com propofol (5,0mg kg-1 por via intravenosa. A manutenção anestésica foi obtida com halotano e oxigênio 100% sob ventilação artificial manual. Os gatos foram submetidos à toracotomia intercostal para implante de um segmento autólogo de pericárdio no diafragma. As variáveis avaliadas foram: freqüência cardíaca (bpm, saturação de oxigênio da hemoglobina (%, pressão arterial sistólica (mmHg e vaporização de halotano (%. As variáveis foram mensuradas 20 minutos após a MPA (TMPA, 10 minutos após indução e a cada 10 minutos até o final do procedimento cirúrgico (T10 a T100.Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através de ANOVA e teste de Bonferroni (pIntercostal thoracotomy is a very painful procedure that deserves proper prevention and treatment. In this study we aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effect of the association of tramadol, butorphanol and atropine in the premedication of cats anesthetised with propofol and halothane. Twelve cats of mixed breed, female and male, with mean body weight of 2.7 ± 0.62kg were premedicated with 2.0mg kg-1 tramadol and 0.4mg kg-1 butorphanol and 0.044mg kg-1 atropine combined in the same syringe intramuscularly administered. After 30 minutes of premedication, anesthetic induction was obtained with 5.0mg kg-1 propofol intravenously. Anesthetic maintenance was done with halothane and 100% oxygen with manual artificial
2013-05-29
... derivatives transactions independently. \\9\\ 77 FR 5416 (Feb. 3, 2012). Question One. The Board asked if NCUA.... Conduct: Collateral Accounting reporting......... management. Counterparty exposure Transaction management... permitted under applicable state law to engage in derivatives transactions. It requires any credit...
Ji-Huan He
2011-01-01
A new fractal derive is defined, which is very easy for engineering applications to discontinuous problems, two simple examples are given to elucidate to establish governing equations with fractal derive and how to solve such equations, respectively.
Dixon, R. M. W.
2008-01-01
Phonological and semantic principles which underlie the derivation of verbs from nouns and adjectives in English are examined. There is intricate phonological conditioning for suffix "-ize" and for suffix "-(i)fy"; a third major process is zero derivation. These derivational processes cover more than a score of semantic relations (some with…
Generalized \\delta-Derivations
Kaygorodov, Ivan
2011-01-01
We defined generalized \\delta-derivations of algebra A as linear mapping \\chi associated with usual \\delta-derivation \\phi by the rule \\chi(xy)=\\delta(\\chi(x)y+x\\phi(y))=\\delta(\\phi(x)y+x\\chi(y)) for any x,y \\in A. We described generalized \\delta-derivations of prime alternative algebras, prime Lie algebras and superalgebras, unital algebras, and semisimple finite-dimensional Jordan superalgebras. In this cases we proved that generalized \\delta-derivation is a generalized derivation or \\delta...
Direct Density Derivative Estimation.
Sasaki, Hiroaki; Noh, Yung-Kyun; Niu, Gang; Sugiyama, Masashi
2016-06-01
Estimating the derivatives of probability density functions is an essential step in statistical data analysis. A naive approach to estimate the derivatives is to first perform density estimation and then compute its derivatives. However, this approach can be unreliable because a good density estimator does not necessarily mean a good density derivative estimator. To cope with this problem, in this letter, we propose a novel method that directly estimates density derivatives without going through density estimation. The proposed method provides computationally efficient estimation for the derivatives of any order on multidimensional data with a hyperparameter tuning method and achieves the optimal parametric convergence rate. We further discuss an extension of the proposed method by applying regularized multitask learning and a general framework for density derivative estimation based on Bregman divergences. Applications of the proposed method to nonparametric Kullback-Leibler divergence approximation and bandwidth matrix selection in kernel density estimation are also explored. PMID:27140943
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈降; 周磊; 冯海江; 周宏健
2011-01-01
Objective To study the clinical therapeutic effect of 1% atropine combined with progressive multifocal lenses on myopic children. Design Clinical case control study. Participants 90 cases (180 eyes) myopic children aged from 8 to 13 years old with diopters from -0.50 D to -2.00 D. Methods 90 cases (180 eyes) myopic children were enrolled for the study, divided into 3 groups randomly, in which group A (30 cases, 60 eyes) was untreated, group B (30 cases, 60 eyes) was treated by progressive multifocal lenses and group C (30 cases, 60 eyes) was treated by 1% atropine every evening combined with progressive multifocal lenses. The visual acuity, the status of refraction and the axial length were examined every month, and the follow-up time was 12 months. Main Outcome Measures Changes of myopic diopters and axial length. Results After 12 months, the progression of myopia in group C, was significantly lower than group A and group B (F=55.636, P=0.000), and the extension of the axial length in group C was also significantly less than group A and group B (F=46.624, P=0.000). There was no other complaints and complications such as photophobia in children treated with 1% atropine every evening. Conclusions The progression of myopia can be controlled safely and effectively with 1% atropine combined with progressive multifocal lenses for most of myopic children. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2011, 20: 326-328)%目的 观察1%阿托品眼膏联合渐变多焦点镜治疗青少年低中度近视的临床疗效.设计临床病例对照研究.研究对象 选择2009年9月至2010年2月在宁波市眼科医院视光门诊诊治的90例(180眼)8～13岁青少年低中度近视患者,屈光度在-0.50～-2.00 D.方法采用随机数字表法随机将患者分为A、B、C三组,每组30例60眼,A组不予任何治疗,B组予以验配渐变多焦点镜,C组予以每晚睡前点1%阿托品眼膏联合验配渐变多焦点镜.随访12个月,每个月复查并比较裸眼视力、最佳矫正视力
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA01 Atropine D07477 Atropine oxide (INN) USP drug clas...DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES,
Fractional Derivative and Integral
Aygören, Aysel
2014-01-01
ABSTRACT: In this thesis we studied fractional order derivative and integral. In Chapter1, a brief history on the foundation of fractional derivative and integration has been given. In the second chapter, some definitions and theorems have been provided. Also some needed special functions such as Gamma, Beta, Mittag-Leffler and Wright function have taken place in this chapter. Properties of fractional derivative and integral are discussed in Chapter 3. We started to this chapter by the dis...
Developing a derivatives generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mircea Petic
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article intends to highlight the particularities of the derivational morphology mechanisms that will help in lexical resources extension. Some computing approaches for derivational morphology are given for several languages, inclusively for Romanian. This paper deals with some preprocessing particularities, that are needed in the process of automatic generation. Then, generative mechanisms are presented in the form of derivational formal rules separately for prefixation and suffixation. The article ends with several approaches in automatic new generated words validation.
Blumenstyk, Goldie
1994-01-01
Heavy investment in derivatives, whose value derives from the price movement of some underlying security, has meant heavy losses for some colleges and universities despite the fact that institutional investors are required to assure that they understand the risks of such investment. (MSE)
Financial Derivatives in China
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum;
2016-01-01
Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives...
Numerical Integration with Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Cheng
2006-01-01
A new formula with derivatives for numerical integration was presented. Based on this formula and the Richardson extrapolation process, a numerical integration method was established. It can converge faster than the Romberg's. With the same accuracy, the computation of the new numerical integration with derivatives is only half of that of Romberg's numerical integration.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyppel, Katja Joo
2013-01-01
in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with.......The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
侯媛媛; 李若洁; 彭佳敏; 王利强
2010-01-01
华山参滴丸是含有托烷类生物碱的中药制剂,主要用于治疗哮喘,具有很好的临床疗效,但缺乏较有效的定量方法控制其质量.建立了一种快速、简单、准确的HPLC-MS/MS法同时测定华山参滴丸中阿托品、山莨菪碱和东莨菪碱的含量.首先采用超声的方法对滴丸进行提取来制备样品溶液,然后采用C18色谱柱对样品进行分离.流动相为20 mmol/L醋酸铵水溶液:甲醇(70:30);流速为0.3 mL/min.质谱检测器采用电喷雾正离子模式的多重反应监测方式进行测定,整个分析时间仅耗时1.5 rain.阿托品和山莨菪碱在250～4 000 ng/mL范围内、东莨菪碱在62.5～1 000 ng/mL范围内均呈良好的线性关系(r2＞0.999).三种成分的日内和日间精密度均小于3.0;平均回收率均大于98%.此方法快速、可靠、重现性好,适用于华山参滴丸的日常质量控制.%Huashanshen dripping pill,traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)preparation containing tropane alkaloids,is used for the anti-asthmatic treatment and has good clinical efficacy.But there is not an effective quantification method to assess the quality of Huashanshen dripping pill.In this study,a rapid,simple and accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of atropine,anisodamine and scopolamine in Huashanshen dripping pill.After a simple extraction with sonication used for sample preparation,chromatographic separation was performed on a short C18 column with mobile phase of a mixture of 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate in water and methanol(70:30)at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min.The mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source(ESI)was operated in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring(MRM).The whole analytical run time was only 1.5 min and the calibration graphs exhibited a linear concentration range of 250～4 000 ng/mL for atropine and anisodamine and 62.5～1 000 ng/mL for scopolamine with correlation coefficients of
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
余小平; 王彬
2000-01-01
目的:探讨阿托品(Atropine,ATR)、荷包牡丹碱(Bicuculline,BIC)对家鸽顶盖Ⅱa-f亚层与Ⅲ层神经元间突触传递的影响.方法:在孵育离体顶盖脑片标本上,采用脉冲方波电刺激Ⅱa-f亚层,利用玻璃微电极胞外记录技术记录Ⅲ层神经元放电频率.结果:Ⅲ层神经元对电刺激Ⅱa-f亚层有反应的28个单位中,13个单位(占46.4%)表现为增频,15个单位(占53.6%)表现为减频.表现为增频的13个Ⅲ层神经元中10个单位(占76.9%)的增频效应可被ATR部分或完全逆转,另3个单位的阻断效果不明显;15个被Ⅱa-f亚层刺激传入减频的Ⅲ层神经元,其中11个单位(占73.3%)的减频作用可被BIC阻断,另4个单位则不产生阻遏作用.上述药物的作用具有可逆性和重复性.结论:乙酰胆碱(Acetylcholine,ACh)可能参与了家鸽顶盖Ⅱa-f亚层与Ⅲ层神经元间兴奋性突触传递,而γ-氨基丁酸(Gamma-aminobutyric,GABA)则参与其抑制性突触传递.
Brain derived neurotrophic factor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene
2014-01-01
Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are...
Brain derived neurotrophic factor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene
2014-01-01
Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...
American derivatives : a review
Aase, Knut K.
1997-01-01
The paper gives an overview over the theory of pricing and hedging financial derivatives that can be exercised at any time during a fixed time interval [0, T]. The analysis makes use of the theory of optimal stopping, and as such it constitutes an interesting application of probability theory to the theory of financial economics. In this paper we concentrate on the main principles involved only, which means, for example, that we abstract from derivatives where the underlying asset pays ou...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
盛红宇; 李志军; 王其琼; 许明; 艾斯娅; 班新全; 李惠荣
2015-01-01
Objective To evaluate the clinical application value of transesophageal atrial pacing (TEAP) combined with atropine load experiment in the diagnosis of the lesions of sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node.Methods One hundred and forty-four cases selected from the outpatient and hospitalized patients in the People's Hospital of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture from September 2009 to December 2012,who with dizziness, syncope and other clinical symptoms and electrocardiogram showe.TEAP combined with atropine load experiment were given to these patients.Results (1) The authors detected in all patients,83 cases (57.6％) were positive, among which, 48 cases (57.8％) male, 35 cases (42.2％) female.(2) The authors detected 57 cases(39.6％) non-increased vagus nerve tension cases in 83 positive cases,among which 33 cases (57.9％) male, 24 cases (42.1％) female;Among which 29 cases (20.1％) were sinoatrial node hypofunction, and 16 cases(55.2％) male;8 cases(5.6％) were atrioventricular node hypofunction,and 4 cases(50％) male;14 cases(9.7％) were double node hypofunction, and 10 cases (71.4％) male;6 cases (4.2％) were tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome, and 3 cases (50％) male;among which, a long interval of greater than 3 seconds appeared when we stimulate one 84 years old man with S1S1 stimulate way, immediately pressed protective pacemaker until his own sinus rhythm was restored, as a safety precaution, stoped further examination and classified him as sick sinus group.Conclusion Detect the common causes of slow sinus and atrioventricular block,such as the sinoatrial node dysfunction, atrioventricular node dysfunction, double node dysfunction and increased vagus nerve tension through TEAP combined with atropine load experiment.Consider that this methods have the best diagnostic value in decreasing its rate of false positivity,and should be used as a necessary check before implantation of pacemaker in such patients, suitable used in clinical, especially
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张旭辉; 马珍珍; 刘艳; 郝少君
2012-01-01
Objective To explore the effect of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian on the enterokinesia of mice with depressed gastrointestinal peristalsis induced by atropine. Methods Seventy mice were randomly divided into seven groups:large,medium and small doges of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian groups, domperidone group, Baohewan group and model group, ten mice in each group. Among the groups, the mice in six groups were made as the model of depressed gastrointestinal peristalsis induced by 0. 1 mg ·kg-1 atropine through intraperitoneal injection,while in another group as blank control group. Then, the mice in the large,medium and small doses of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian groups were respectively given with large( 180 g · L-1), medium (90 g ·L-1 ) and small (45 g · L-1 ) doses of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian suspension by intragastric administration; the mice in domperidone group were given with domperidone suspension; the mice in Baohewan group were given with Baohewan suspension; the mice in model group and blank control group were given with the same volume of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. All rats were given with carbon powder suspl by intraperitoneal injection after one hour. The rates carbon powder impelling of all groups were calculated,and the incubation period of carbon appeared in feces and the number of feces containing carbon after six hours. Results Compared with the blank control group,the incubation period of carbon appeared in feces in model group was were significantly prolonged (P < 0.01), the number of feces containing carbon decreased obviously after six hours (P < 0. 01). Compared with the model group, the incubation period of carbon appeared in feces in the large and medium doses of Jianpi Xiaozhang Pian groups,domperidone group and Baohewan group was significantly shorter(P <0. 01 ). Compared with the blank control group, the rate of carbon powder impelling in model group were significantly lower( P < 0.01). Compared with the model group,the rates of carbon powder impelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Henrik Granau
2004-01-01
Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(;) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(;) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective an...... injective modules are replaced by Gorenstein projective and Gorenstein injective ones, respectively. Furthermore, we derive the tensor product R using Gorenstein at modules.......Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(;) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(;) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective and...
Deriving diffeomorphism symmetry
Kleppe, Astri
2014-01-01
In an earlier article, we have "derived" space, as a part of the Random Dynamics project. In order to get locality we need to obtain reparametrization symmetry, or equivalently, diffeomorphism symmetry. There we sketched a procedure for how to get locality by first obtaining reparametrization symmetry, or equivalently, diffeomorphism symmetry. This is the object of the present article.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosley, Cara A; Acker, Timothy M; Hansen, Kasper Bø;
2010-01-01
We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives ...
Ferroelectricity in corundum derivatives
Ye, Meng; Vanderbilt, David
2016-04-01
The search for new ferroelectric (FE) materials holds promise for broadening our understanding of FE mechanisms and extending the range of application of FE materials. Here we investigate a class of A B O3 and A2B B'O6 materials that can be derived from the X2O3 corundum structure by mixing two or three ordered cations on the X site. Most such corundum derivatives have a polar structure, but it is unclear whether the polarization is reversible, which is a requirement for a FE material. In this paper, we propose a method to study the FE reversal path of materials in the corundum derivative family. We first categorize the corundum derivatives into four classes and show that only two of these allow for the possibility of FE reversal. We then calculate the energy profile and energy barrier of the FE reversal path using first-principles density functional methods with a structural constraint. Furthermore, we identify several empirical measures that can provide a rule of thumb for estimating the energy barriers. Finally, the conditions under which the magnetic ordering is compatible with ferroelectricity are determined. These results lead us to predict several potentially new FE materials.
Metal derivatives of tetrazoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaponik, Pavel N; Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Ivashkevich, Oleg A [Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems of the Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)
2006-06-30
Published data on the synthesis, structure, properties and applications of metal derivatives of tetrazoles are generalised and described systematically. Compounds based on the anionic and neutral tetrazole forms, C- and N-mono- and C,N-disubstituted tetrazoles are considered.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.
2007-01-01
to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees `proxy-entrepreneurs', and ask how the firm's organizational structure - its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating agreements, means of evaluating performance and so on - can...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kokholm, Thomas
financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...
Learning, investments and derivatives
Soklakov, Andrei N.
2011-01-01
The recent crisis and the following flight to simplicity put most derivative businesses around the world under considerable pressure. We argue that the traditional modeling techniques must be extended to include product design. We propose a quantitative framework for creating products which meet the challenge of being optimal from the investors point of view while remaining relatively simple and transparent.
O. Emre Ergungor
2007-01-01
Until recently, homeowners had no way to protect the value of their homes against losses that could result from housing market downturns. With the derivatives contracts introduced by the CME last year, homeowners now have some means of protection, and new and better products are more likely to follow from them.
Biotechnology and derived products
Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...
Approximate *-derivations and approximate quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Park Choonkil
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the stability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on Banach *-algebras. We moreover prove the superstability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 39B52; 47B47; 46L05; 39B72.
Pushing schedule derivation method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henriquez, B. [Compania Siderurgica Huachipato S.A., Talcahuano (Chile)
1996-12-31
The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.
Systems of integrable derivations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vittoria Bonanzinga
1994-05-01
Full Text Available Let A be a commutative k-algebra, with k a subring of A. We give the definition of n-dimensional differentiation of A over k which formally extends the known one of unidimensional differentiation and we study the group of all n-dimensional differentiation of A over k. In the second part of the work we give some theorems of strong integrability for systems of derivations in terms of n-dimensional differentiation.
Endostatin derivative angiogenesis inhibitors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Meng-jie
2009-01-01
Objective To throw light on the superiority of the anti-angiogenesis activity of endostatin (ES) derivatives by reviewing the recent progress in the field of ES molecular structure modification.Data sources The data used in this article were mainly from PubMed with relevant English articles published from 1971 to May 2008.The search terms were "endostatin" and "angiothesis".Study selection Articles involved in the ES molecular structure modification and the original milestone articles were selected.Results A number of ES derivatives were designed and studied to improve its clinical relevance.The modified ES with polyethylene glycol (PEG),low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and IgG Fc domain extended the circulation half-life.Meanwhile the recombinant ESs showed more potent anti-tumor activity than native ES in mouse xenografts.Mutated ES also changed its anti-angiogenesis activity.Conclusions The anti-angiogenesis treatment remains a promising tumor therapeutic strategy.New ES derivatives would be a good choice to meet the future challenge on clinical application of ES.
Credit derivatives and risk management
Michael S. Gibson
2007-01-01
The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.
may delegate a wide range of decision rights to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees "proxy-entrepreneurs," and ask how the firm's or-ganizational structure — its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating...... develop a framework for analyzing the tradeoff between productive and de-structive proxy-entrepreneurship. We link this analysis to the employment relation and ownership structure, providing new insights into these and related issues in the eco-nomic theory of the firm.Keywords: Judgment, entrepreneur...
Food derived carcinogenic amnoimidazoazaarenes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Henrik
Carcinogenic aminoimidazoazaarenes are formed during cooking of meat and fish. Important factors for the formation of these compounds are meat type, cooking temperature and time. The compounds are genotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. In animal feeding studies the compounds tested so far we...... of the exocyclic amino group. Estimations of human cancer risk have indicated that ingestion of food containing aminoimidazoazaarenes are of importance....... found to be multiple organ carcinogens. The aminoimidazoazaarenes are metabolically activated by hydroxylation of the exocyclic aminogroup to the N-hydroxyamino derivative. The resultant proximate mutagens often need further activation by phase II transferases for formation of reactive species that form...
Mungan, Carl E.
2016-05-01
At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.
Generalized Derivations and Bilocal Jordan Derivations of Nest Algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dangui Yan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Let H be a complex Hilbert space and B(H the collection of all linear bounded operators, A is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an H, then A is a nest, accordingly alg A={T∈B(H:TN⊆N, ∀N∈A} is a nest algebra. It will be shown that of nest algebra, generalized derivations are generalized inner derivations, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)
2015-03-31
One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.
Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine
Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.
2015-12-01
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.
R.J. Stroeker (Roel)
2002-01-01
textabstractA Q-derived polynomial is a univariate polynomial, defined over the rationals, with the property that its zeros, and those of all its derivatives are rational numbers. There is a conjecture that says that Q-derived polynomials of degree 4 with distinct roots for themselves and all their
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro Antonio Muniz Ferreira
2007-01-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a exeqüibilidade, a segurança e a acurácia diagnóstica do ecocardiograma sob estresse (EEDA com dobutamina/atropina em candidatos a transplante renal. MÉTODOS: Pacientes candidatos a transplante renal com e sem nefropatia diabética realizaram EEDA e cineangiocoronariografia. Consideraram-se dois pontos de corte para doença arterial coronariana (DAC: > 50% e > 70% de obstrução de uma artéria epicárdica. RESULTADOS: Cento e quarenta e oito pacientes realizaram o EEDA e a angiografia coronariana. A média de idade foi de 52±9 anos, 69% eram do sexo masculino, 27% tinham nefropatia diabética, e 73%, HVE; 63% estavam assintomáticos, 36% e 22% apresentaram obstruções coronarianas > 50% e > 70%, respectivamente. A exeqüibilidade foi de 91% e houve 2,7% de complicações maiores. Obtiveram-se as seguintes médias de sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia, considerando obstrução coronariana > 50%: 53% (IC:45-61, 87% (IC:81-93, e 75% (IC:63-83, respectivamente. Para obstrução >70%, 71% (IC:64-92, 85% (IC:79-91 e 81% (IC:75-87. A sensibilidade para diagnosticar doença uniarterial foi 41% (IC:19-63 e doença multiarterial, 78% (IC:64-92. CONCLUSÃO: O EEDA foi exeqüível e seguro; entretanto, foi ineficiente para rastreamento de DAC, considerando obstruções > 50%, mas pode ser útil para detecção de DAC em pacientes com obstruções > 70% e doença multiarterial.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and accuracy of dobutamine/atropine stress echocardiography (DASE for the detection of coronary artery desease (CAD in renal transplant candidates. METHODS: Patients candidates to renal transplant were submitted consecutively to DASE and coronary angiography. The adopted angiographic criteria for CAD were an obstructive lesion of > 50% and > 70%. RESULTS: 148 patients underwent the DASE and the coronary angiography. Mean age was 52 ± 9 years, 69% of the patients were males; 27% had diabetic nephropathy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Kadam
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Malicious software is a major issue in today’s computer world. Such software can silently reside in user’s computer and can easily interact with computing resources. It is necessary to improve the honesty of host and its system data. For improvement in security and honesty of host, this work is introduced. This mechanism ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents utilization of host resources by malware. Using this mechanism the source where a piece of data is generated can be identified. A cryptographic origin approach ensures system properties and system- data integrity at kernel level. A frame work is used for restricting outbound malware traffic. This frame work identifies network activities of malware. This frame work can be used as powerful personal firewall for investigating outgoing traffic of a host. Specifically, our derivation verification scheme requires outgoing network packets to flow through a checkpoint on a host, to obtain proper origin proofs for later verification.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Kadam
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Malicious software is a major issue in today’s computer world. Such software can silently reside in user’s computer and can easily interact with computing resources. It is necessary to improve the honesty of host and its system data. For improvement in security and honesty of host, this work is introduced. This mechanism ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents utilization of host resources by malware. Using this mechanism the source where a piece of data is generated can be identified. A cryptographic origin approach ensures system properties and system- data integrity at kernel level. A frame work is used for restricting outbound malware traffic. This frame work identifies network activities of malware. This frame work can be used as powerful personal firewall for investigating outgoing traffic of a host. Specifically, our derivation verification scheme requires outgoing network packets to flow through a checkpoint on a host, to obtain proper origin proofs for later verification.
Piroxicam derivatives THz classification
Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Grzelczak, Michal P.; Nowak, Kacper; Szlachetko, Bogusław; Plinska, Stanislawa; Szczesniak-Siega, Berenika; Malinka, Wieslaw; Plinski, Edward F.
2016-02-01
In this paper we report a new approach to linking the terahertz spectral shapes of drug candidates having a similar molecular structure to their chemical and physical parameters. We examined 27 newly-synthesized derivatives of a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis and chemoprevention of colon cancer. The testing was carried out by means of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Using chemometric techniques we evaluated their spectral similarity in the terahertz range and attempted to link the position on the principal component analysis (PCA) score map to the similarity of molecular descriptors. A simplified spectral model preserved 75% and 85.1% of the variance in 2 and 3 dimensions respectively, compared to the input 1137. We have found that in 85% of the investigated samples a similarity of the physical and chemical parameters corresponds to a similarity in the terahertz spectra. The effects of data preprocessing on the generated maps are also discussed. The technique presented can support the choice of the most promising drug candidates for clinical trials in pharmacological research.
Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine
Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A; Weber, Eric
2014-01-01
Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering and mathematics. Our interviews made use of the Partial Derivative Machine (PDM), which is a mechanical system featuring four observable and controllable properties, of which any two are independent. Using the PDM, we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context in which there is not a known functional form. Through these three interviews, we found that the mathematicians exhibited a striking difference in their underst...
Derivations, Products of Derivations, and Commutativity in Near-rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Howard E. Bell; Nurcan Argac
2001-01-01
For a zero-symmetric 3-prime near-ring N, we study three kinds of conditions: (a) conditions involving two derivations d1, d2 which imply that d1 = 0 or d2 = 0; (b) conditions involving derivations which force (N, +) to be abelian or N to be a commutative ring; (c) the condition that dn (S) is multiplicatively central for some derivation d and subset S of N.
Glycerin derivatives with thiocyanic group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Present article is devoted to glycerin derivatives with thiocyanic group. The results of studies of the nucleophilic substitution reaction of chlorine atom in linear and cyclic glycerin derivatives on thiocyanic group were considered. The composition, structure and purity of synthesized substances was defined by means of element analysis, molecular refraction, infrared spectroscopy, and thin-layer chromatography methods.
Derivations of generalized Weyl algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SU; Yucai(苏育才)
2003-01-01
A class of the associative and Lie algebras A[D] = A × F[D] of Weyl type are studied, where Ais a commutative associative algebra with an identity element over a field F of characteristic zero, and F[D] isthe polynomial algebra of a finite dimensional commutative subalgebra of locally finite derivations of A suchthat A is D-simple. The derivations of these associative and Lie algebras are precisely determined.
Unethical dilemmas in derivatives practice
Alqatawni, Tahsen
2013-01-01
The current global economic crisis and its aftermath resulted of unethical practices of the companies' leaders and their financial management by improper usage of financial derivative, which turned the financial derivatives into a source of gambling, and spread to extremely large volume. Although, the unethical practices from a financial institution observing lack of ethics is made due to self interest that maximizes immediate profit putting shareholder wealth and small investor at risk rat...
Synthesis of new xanthene derivatives
Kotaskova, Michaela
2012-01-01
Xanthene dyes, including fluorescein, are a well-known class of fluorescent dyes, which have widespread applications in natural sciences. The synthesis of xanthene derivatives via acid catalyzed condensation of substituted phenols with phthalic anhydride, to afford the asymmetric derivatives, is well established. The high temperature, harsh reaction conditions and often low yields make this method less convenient. The synthesis of xanthene dyes by direct modification of the fluorophore moiety...
Derivatives Trading and Negative Voting
Spamann, Holger
2012-01-01
This paper exposits a model of parallel trading of corporate securities (shares, bonds) and derivatives in which a large trader can sometimes profitably acquire securities with their corporate control rights for the sole purpose of reducing the corporations value and gaining on a net short position created through off-setting derivatives. At other times, the large trader profitably takes a net long position. The large trader requires no private information beyond its own trades. The problem i...
Variational Approach and Deformed Derivatives
Weberszpil, José
2015-01-01
Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Nether current, are worked out.
Variational approach and deformed derivatives
Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.
2016-05-01
Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Noether current is worked out.
Fractional Derivatives in Dengue Epidemics
Pooseh, Shakoor; Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F. M.
2011-09-01
We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.
Fractional derivatives in Dengue epidemics
Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M
2011-01-01
We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.
Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.
MCR Synthesis of Praziquantel Derivatives
Liu, Haixia; William, Samia; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Botros, Sanaa; Domling, Alexander
2012-01-01
Schistosomiasis, a high volume neglected tropical disease affecting more than 200 million people worldwide, can only be effectively treated by the tetrahydroisoquinoline drug praziquantel (PZQ). Herein, we describe an efficient approach to access PZQ derivatives by the Ugi 4-component reaction follo
Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.
2009-01-01
This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing...
Derived Categories of BHK Mirrors
Favero, David
2016-01-01
We prove a derived analogue to the results of Borisov, Clarke, Kelly, and Shoemaker on the birationality of Berglund-Hubsch-Krawitz mirrors. Heavily bootstrapping off work of Seidel and Sheridan, we obtain Homological Mirror Symmetry for Berglund-Hubsch-Krawitz mirror pencils to hypersurfaces in projective space.
Monocyte-derived dendritic cells
Kuhn, Sabine; Ronchese, Franca
2013-01-01
The elicitation of efficient antitumor immune responses requires the optimal activation of tumor-associated dendritic cells (DCs). Our comparison of the effect of various immunostimulatory treatments on DCs revealed that the best predictor of the success of immunotherapy is not the activation of existing DC populations, but the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived DC in tumor-draining lymph nodes.
Derivations of certain operator algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiankui Li
2000-01-01
conditions under which any derivation δ from into L(H must be inner. The conditions include (1 H−≠H, (2 0+≠0, (3 there is a nontrivial projection in which is in , and (4 δ is norm continuous. We also give some pplications.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grønbæk, Niels
2008-01-01
Let A be a Banach algebra and let X be a Banach A-bimodule. In studying H¹(A,X) it is often useful to extend a given derivation D: A->X to a Banach algebra B containing A as an ideal, thereby exploiting (or establishing) hereditary properties. This is usually done using (bounded/unbounded) approx...
Derivative couplings in massive bigravity
Gao, Xian
2016-01-01
In this work we study the cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity in the presence of non-minimal derivative couplings. For this purpose we consider a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions that live on the unique composite effective metric. For the viability of the model both metrics have to be dynamical. Nevertheless, the number of allowed kinetic terms is crucial. We adapt to the restriction of having one single kinetic term. After deriving the full set of equations of motion for flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background, we study linear perturbations on top of it. We show explicitly that only four tensor, two vector and two scalar degrees of freedom propagate, one of which being the Horndeski scalar, while the Boulware-Deser ghost can be integrated out.
Derivatives in energy project finance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed
Berberine derivatives as antileishmanial drugs.
Vennerstrom, J L; Lovelace, J K; Waits, V B; Hanson, W L; Klayman, D L
1990-01-01
Berberine, a quaternary alkaloid, and several of its derivatives were tested for efficacy against Leishmania donovani and Leishmania braziliensis panamensis in golden hamsters. Tetrahydroberberine was less toxic and more potent than berberine against L. donovani but was not as potent as meglumine antimonate (Glucantime), a standard drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Only berberine and 8-cyanodihydroberberine showed significant activity (greater than 50% suppression of lesion size) again...
Noether theorems and higher derivatives
Townsend, Paul K.
2016-01-01
A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time, the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of...
Functional linear regression with derivatives
Mas, André; Pumo, Besnik
2006-01-01
International audience We introduce a new model of linear regression for random functional inputs taking into account the first order derivative of the data. We propose an estimation method which comes down to solving a special linear inverse problem. Our procedure tackles the problem through a double and synchronized penalization. An asymptotic expansion of the mean square prevision error is given. The model and the method are applied to a benchmark dataset of spectrometric curves and com...
Derivatives of Parsing Expression Grammars
Moss, Aaron
2014-01-01
This paper introduces a new memoized derivative parsing algorithm for recognition of parsing expression grammars. The algorithm runs in worst case quartic time and cubic space. However, existing research suggests that due to the limited amount of backtracking and recursion in real-world grammars and input, practical performance may be closer to linear time and constant space; experimental validation of this conjecture is in progress.
Unified derivation of evolution equations
Li, Hsiang-nan
1998-01-01
We derive the evolution equations of parton distribution functions appropriate in different kinematic regions in a unified and simple way using the resummation technique. They include the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation for large momentum transfer $Q$, the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov equation for a small Bjorken variable $x$, and the Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini equation which embodies the above two equations. The relation among these equations is explored, and p...
On Derivations Of Genetic Algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A genetic algebra is a (possibly non-associative) algebra used to model inheritance in genetics. In application of genetics this algebra often has a basis corresponding to genetically different gametes, and the structure constant of the algebra encode the probabilities of producing offspring of various types. In this paper, we find the connection between the genetic algebras and evolution algebras. Moreover, we prove the existence of nontrivial derivations of genetic algebras in dimension two
Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives
Anna Kwiecień; Zbigniew Ciunik
2015-01-01
Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constitut...
Holographic QSAR of estradiol derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
Holographic QSAR model is constructed to predict relative binding affinities of estradiol derivatives with lamb uterine estrogen receptor. The method does not require the generation of three-dimensional structure of the compounds. The factors that influence the quality of QSAR model are discussed. The result indicates that the model has good predictability and yields a high q2LOO value of 0.897. Compared to other QSAR methods, the HQSAR technique is suitable for use in screening large database of chemicals.
Generalized derivations and general relativity
Heller, M; Pysiak, L; Sasin, W
2013-01-01
We construct differential geometry (connection, curvature, etc.) based on generalized derivations of an algebra A. Such a derivation, introduced by Bresar in 1991, is given by a linear mapping u: A -> A such that there exists a usual derivation d of A satisfying the generalized Leibniz rule u(a b) = u(a) b + a d(b) for all a,b in A. The generalized geometry "is tested" in the case of the algebra of smooth functions on a manifold. We then apply this machinery to study the generalized general relativity. We define the Einstein-Hilbert action and deduce from it Einstein's field equations. We show that for a special class of metrics containing, besides the usual metric components, only one non-zero term, the action reduces to O'Hanlon action that is a Brans-Dicke action with potential and with the parameter \\omega equal to zero. We also show that the generalized Einstein equations (with zero energy-stress tensor) are equivalent to those of the Kaluza-Klein theory satisfying a "modified cylinder condition" and hav...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Niels Grønbæk
2008-05-01
Let $\\mathfrak{A}$ be a Banach algebra and let be a Banach $\\mathfrak{A}$-bimodule. In studying $\\mathcal{H}^1(\\mathfrak{A},X)$ it is often useful to extend a given derivation $D:\\mathfrak{A}→ X$ to a Banach algebra $\\mathfrak{B}$ containing $\\mathfrak{A}$ as an ideal, thereby exploiting (or establishing) hereditary properties. This is usually done using (bounded/unbounded) approximate identities to obtain the extension as a limit of operators $b\\mapsto D(ba)-b.D(a), a\\in\\mathfrak{A}$ in an appropriate operator topology, the main point in the proof being to show that the limit map is in fact a derivation. In this paper we make clear which part of this approach is analytic and which algebraic by presenting an algebraic scheme that gives derivations in all situations at the cost of enlarging the module. We use our construction to give improvements and shorter proofs of some results from the literature and to give a necessary and sufficient condition that biprojectivity and biflatness is inherited to ideals.
Whither the common law derivative action
Yap, JL
2009-01-01
The common law derivative action was developed as a result of decades of case law in common law jurisdictions. Hong Kong and Singapore continue to retain the common law derivative action within their respective legal frameworks, despite both having enacted statutory derivative actions. This paper considers the situations in which the common law derivative action continues to have practical application in each of these jurisdictions. It then considers whether the common law derivative acti...
SALAMCI, Emine; BAYRAM, Beyhan
2006-01-01
To achieve the synthesis of azasugar derivatives with the utilization of singlet oxygen, pyridine was used as the starting material. The reduction of pyridine followed by a singlet oxygen reaction afforded cyclic aza-endoperoxides (14 and 16). However, many attempts were made to convert the aza-endoperoxides to the corresponding di- and triacetates without success. However, the base-catalyzed rearrangement of 14 gave unprecedented rearrangement products 23 and 24.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan;
2015-01-01
Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...
Deriving bases for Abelian functions
England, Matthew
2011-01-01
We present a new method to explicitly define Abelian functions on algebraic curves, for the purpose of finding bases for the relevant vector spaces of such functions. We demonstrate the procedure with the functions associated to a trigonal curve of genus four. The main motivation for the construction of such bases is that it allows systematic methods for the derivation of the addition formulae and differential equations satis?ed by the functions. We present a new 3-term 2-variable addition formulae and a complete set of differential equations to generalise the classic Weierstrass identities for the case of the trigonal curve of genus four.
Noether theorems and higher derivatives
Townsend, Paul K
2016-01-01
A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time; the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of $\\ddot \\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. While $Q=0$ implies a restricted gauge invariance, an unrestricted gauge invariance requires zero Noetherian charges too. Some illustrative examples are considered.
Synthesis of oleanolic disaccharide derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shu Chen Pei; Jian Bo Wu; Fan Lei; Shan Qian; Li Hai; Yong Wu
2012-01-01
Oleanolic acid 1 exists widely in food,medicinal herbs and other plants and possesses many attractive biological activities.Recently,some oleanolic derivatives were reported to have interesting anti-tumor activities.Herein,using association principle of drug design,OA disaccharide 17 was designed and synthesized by coupling α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl disaccharide moiety,which has proved to be a unique sugar sequence with strongly antitumor activity,and modified OA with a nitrile at C-17.
Derivatives Pricing in Incomplete Markets
Lappo, P.; Zuev, N.
2010-01-01
In the paper the one-period (B, S) - market model with two securities is considered. In the introduction a replicating portfolio for the derivative security is obtained when the securities are primitive. In the second part we consider the situation where the stock price could have more than two values. We build an approximation of such a market using a fictive (B, S*) - market where the stock price could take only two values. In the third part the numerical illustration of the approximation i...
Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Kwiecień
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.
Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives.
Kwiecień, Anna; Ciunik, Zbigniew
2015-01-01
Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure. PMID:26258772
Fourth order spatial derivative gravity
Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.
2011-10-01
In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton’s potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.
Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations
Knuth, Kevin H.
2004-01-01
The effect of Richard T. Cox's contribution to probability theory was to generalize Boolean implication among logical statements to degrees of implication, which are manipulated using rules derived from consistency with Boolean algebra. These rules are known as the sum rule, the product rule and Bayes Theorem, and the measure resulting from this generalization is probability. In this paper, I will describe how Cox s technique can be further generalized to include other algebras and hence other problems in science and mathematics. The result is a methodology that can be used to generalize an algebra to a calculus by relying on consistency with order theory to derive the laws of the calculus. My goals are to clear up the mysteries as to why the same basic structure found in probability theory appears in other contexts, to better understand the foundations of probability theory, and to extend these ideas to other areas by developing new mathematics and new physics. The relevance of this methodology will be demonstrated using examples from probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and quantum mechanics.
Relative Derived Equivalences and Relative Homological Dimensions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sheng Yong PAN
2016-01-01
Let A be a small abelian category. For a closed subbifunctor F of Ext1A (−,−), Buan has generalized the construction of Verdier’s quotient category to get a relative derived category, where he localized with respect to F-acyclic complexes. In this paper, the homological properties of relative derived categories are discussed, and the relation with derived categories is given. For Artin algebras, using relative derived categories, we give a relative version on derived equivalences induced by F-tilting complexes. We discuss the relationships between relative homological dimensions and relative derived equivalences.
Synthesis of novel bioactive doxycycline derivatives
Usai, Igor
2008-01-01
Novel doxycycline derivatives were synthesized taking advantage of modern synthetic methods for diverse biological experiments. Neuartige Doxycyclin-Derivate wurden unter Zuhilfenahme moderner Synthesemethoden für verschiedene biologische Tests hergestellt.
Higgs Potential from Derivative Interactions
Quadri, A
2016-01-01
A formulation of the linear $\\sigma$ model with derivative interactions is studied. The theory is on-shell equivalent to the model with a quartic Higgs potential. The mass of the scalar mode only appears in the quadratic part and not in the interaction vertices, unlike in the ordinary formulation of the theory. Renormalization of the model is discussed. A natural non power-counting renormalizable extension of the theory is presented. The model is physically equivalent to the inclusion of a dimension six effective operator $\\partial_\\mu (\\Phi^\\dagger \\Phi) \\partial^\\mu (\\Phi^\\dagger \\Phi)$. The resulting UV divergences are arranged in a perturbation series around the power-counting renormalizable theory. UV completion of the non-power-counting renormalizable model through a symmetric deformation of the propagator of the massive physical scalar is addressed.
Nielsen, H B
2014-01-01
This attempt to "derive" space is part of the Random Dynamics project. The Random Dynamics philosophy is that what we observe at our low energy level can be interpreted as some Taylor tail of the physics taking place at a higher energy level, and all the concepts like numbers, space, symmetry, as well as the known physical laws, emerge from a "fundamental world machinery" being a most general, random mathematical structure. Here we concentrate on obtaining spacetime in such a Random Dynamics way. Because of quantum mechanics, we get space identified with about half the dimension of the phase space of a very extended wave packet, which we call "the Snake". In the last section we also explain locality from diffeomorphism symmetry.
Iron and iron derived radicals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.
1987-04-01
We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María E. Hidalgo
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.
Topological Derivatives in Shape Optimization
Novotny, Antonio André
2013-01-01
The topological derivative is defined as the first term (correction) of the asymptotic expansion of a given shape functional with respect to a small parameter that measures the size of singular domain perturbations, such as holes, inclusions, defects, source-terms and cracks. Over the last decade, topological asymptotic analysis has become a broad, rich and fascinating research area from both theoretical and numerical standpoints. It has applications in many different fields such as shape and topology optimization, inverse problems, imaging processing and mechanical modeling including synthesis and/or optimal design of microstructures, sensitivity analysis in fracture mechanics and damage evolution modeling. Since there is no monograph on the subject at present, the authors provide here the first account of the theory which combines classical sensitivity analysis in shape optimization with asymptotic analysis by means of compound asymptotic expansions for elliptic boundary value problems. This book is intende...
Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives
Kunikazu Moribe; Waree Limwikrant; Kenjirou Higashi; Keiji Yamamoto
2011-01-01
Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs...
Financial Derivatives (Based on Two Supports Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiberiu Socaciu
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we build a PDE like Black-Scholes equation in hypothesis of a financial derivative that is dependent on two supports (usual is dependent only on one support, like am
option based on gold, when national currency has a great float.
Keywords: Financial derivatives, derivatives evaluation, derivatives based on two supports, extended Itō like lemma.
Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed M. Elissawy
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.
40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...
6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.
2010-01-01
... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...
32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively on the basis of source documents or classification guides shall bear all markings prescribed...
Derivations and identities for Kravchuk polynomials
Bedratyuk, Leonid
2012-01-01
We introduce the notion of Kravchuk derivations of the polynomial algebra. We prove that any element of the kernel of the derivation gives a polynomial identity satisfied by the Kravchuk polynomials. Also, we prove that any kernel element of the basic Weitzenb\\"ok derivations yields a polynomial identity satisfied by the Kravchuk polynomials. We describe the corresponding intertwining maps.
The irony in the derivatives discounting
Henrard, Marc
2007-01-01
A simple and fundamental question in derivatives pricing is the way (contingent) cash-flows should be discounted. As cash can not be invested at Libor the curve is probably not the right discounting curve, even for Libor derivatives. The impact on derivative pricing of changing the discounting curve is discussed. The pricing formulas for vanilla products are revisited in the funding framework described.
CPHD filter derivation for extended targets
Orguner, Umut
2010-01-01
This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.
Boermans, PAMM; Go, HS; Wessels, AMA; Uges, DRA
2006-01-01
An unexpectedly high number of initially suspected cocaine-intoxicated patients was presented to a general hospital in Lelystad, The Netherlands. Based on the unusual toxidram rate of not fitting cocaine intoxication, the suspicion of co-presence of an anticholinergic agent was raised. A newly devel
Shock wave dynamics derivatives and related topics
Emanuel, George
2012-01-01
Working knowledge of the relations of various quantities and their derivatives across a shock wave is useful for any advanced research involving shock waves. Although these relations can be derived in principle by any diligent student of the subject, the derivations are often not trivial, and once derived, neither the approach nor the result can be confidently verified. Comprehensive and analytical, Shock Wave Dynamics: Derivatives and Related Topics includes not only the final results but also the methods, which are of great practical value as examples of mathematical procedure in this field.
Jordan Higher Derivable Mappings on Rings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Ashraf
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Let R be a ring. We say that a family of maps D={dn}n∈N is a Jordan higher derivable map (without assumption of additivity on R if d0=IR (the identity map on R and dn(ab+ba=∑p+q=ndp(adq(b+∑p+q=ndp(bdq(a hold for all a,b∈R and for each n∈N. In this paper, we show that every Jordan higher derivable map on a ring under certain assumptions becomes a higher derivation. As its application, we get that every Jordan higher derivable map on Banach algebra is an additive higher derivation.
Vasoactive and radioprotective properties of isothiourea derivatives having NOS-inhibitory activity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Filimonova, Marina V.; Shevchenko, Ludmila I.; Ulyanenko, Stepan E.; Makarchuk, Victorya M.; Kuznetsova, Mary N.; Shevchuk, Aza S.; Lushnikova, Galina A.; Chesnakova, Ekaterina A. [Medical Radiological Research Center Health Ministry of Russia, 4, Korolev street, Obninsk, 249036, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)
2014-07-01
We studied vasoactive and radioprotective properties of new original N-acyl, S-alkyl isothiourea derivatives which are potent inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (preferably eNOS and iNOS). These compounds have a moderate toxicity (LD50 - 400-550 mg/kg), and are stable in aqueous solutions. In hemodynamic studies, these compounds exhibited high vasotropic activity. The use of these compounds in doses of 5-15 mg/kg (0,01-0,03 LD{sub 50}) in the experimental animals in a state of the severe hemorrhagic or endo-toxic shock causes a potent vasopressor effect, accompanied by a significant and continuous rise in blood pressure. The increasing of vascular tone developed over 2-5 min after injection and persisted for at least 60-90 minutes, excelling at least 3-5 times the duration of α1-adreno-mimetic vasopressor action. The rapid increase in vascular tone under the influence of these compounds in normo-tonic animals caused protective baroreflex to prevent high blood pressure. At doses of 10-15 mg/kg the reflex reaction was mild, but at higher doses (30-40 mg/kg) the reaction was fierce and prolonged, and was accompanied by severe bradycardia, decreasing of the cardiac output and a significant weakening of the peripheral blood flow. In all cases, the hemodynamic response was reflexive and easily eliminated by atropine. The ability of these compounds to induce circulatory hypoxia was the basis for the study of their radioprotective properties. The study of radioprotective effect on the survival of animals exposed to lethal doses of γ-radiation (10 Gy) and on the survival of hematopoietic clonogenic cells showed that these compounds in doses of 80-150 mg/kg (0,2-0,3 LD50) have considerable radioprotective action, which is comparable with the protective effect of the maximum tolerated dose of cystamine. The factor of change in dose for γ-radiation, estimated by the LD{sub 50}, was 1,42-1,58. We also investigated the ability of the test compounds, due to their hypoxic
Vasoactive and radioprotective properties of isothiourea derivatives having NOS-inhibitory activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We studied vasoactive and radioprotective properties of new original N-acyl, S-alkyl isothiourea derivatives which are potent inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (preferably eNOS and iNOS). These compounds have a moderate toxicity (LD50 - 400-550 mg/kg), and are stable in aqueous solutions. In hemodynamic studies, these compounds exhibited high vasotropic activity. The use of these compounds in doses of 5-15 mg/kg (0,01-0,03 LD50) in the experimental animals in a state of the severe hemorrhagic or endo-toxic shock causes a potent vasopressor effect, accompanied by a significant and continuous rise in blood pressure. The increasing of vascular tone developed over 2-5 min after injection and persisted for at least 60-90 minutes, excelling at least 3-5 times the duration of α1-adreno-mimetic vasopressor action. The rapid increase in vascular tone under the influence of these compounds in normo-tonic animals caused protective baroreflex to prevent high blood pressure. At doses of 10-15 mg/kg the reflex reaction was mild, but at higher doses (30-40 mg/kg) the reaction was fierce and prolonged, and was accompanied by severe bradycardia, decreasing of the cardiac output and a significant weakening of the peripheral blood flow. In all cases, the hemodynamic response was reflexive and easily eliminated by atropine. The ability of these compounds to induce circulatory hypoxia was the basis for the study of their radioprotective properties. The study of radioprotective effect on the survival of animals exposed to lethal doses of γ-radiation (10 Gy) and on the survival of hematopoietic clonogenic cells showed that these compounds in doses of 80-150 mg/kg (0,2-0,3 LD50) have considerable radioprotective action, which is comparable with the protective effect of the maximum tolerated dose of cystamine. The factor of change in dose for γ-radiation, estimated by the LD50, was 1,42-1,58. We also investigated the ability of the test compounds, due to their hypoxic mechanism of
Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Pavlátka
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.
Time derivative of earthquake acceleration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mai Tong; Guo-Quan Wang; George C.Lee
2005-01-01
Unlike acceleration, velocity, and displacement, the time derivative of acceleration (TDoA) of ground motion has not been extensively studied. In this paper, the basic characteristics of TDoA are evaluated based on records from the 1999Chi-Chi, earthquake (Mw 7.6) and one of its aftershocks (Mw 6.2). It is found that the maximum TDoA at a free-field station was over 31,200 crm/s3 (31.8 g/s); and the duration of "strong" TDoA, between the first and the last time points exceeding 2,000 cm/s3 (2 g/s), was almost one minute near the epicenter area. Since ground TDoA sensors are not commonly available,the time series are calculated by direct numerical differentiation of acceleration time series. Relative error analysis shows that the error is non-transitive and total error is within 4%. The density function of TDoA amplitude, frequency content and spatial distribution of peak ground jerk (PGJ) are evaluated. The study also includes examination of some TDoA responses from a seven-story building and comparison of ground TDoA with the limit TDoA used in the transportation industry for ride comfort. Some potential impacts of TDoA on humans have also been reviewed.
Satellite-Derived Management Zones
Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent
2005-01-01
The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else
Die derivation der slowenischen substantive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
]ože Toporišič
1975-11-01
Full Text Available Von der traditionellen slowenischen Wortbildungslehre von Substantiven mit den Suffixen (s. g. Derivation wird die betreffende Problematik so dargestellt, dass man - nach Miklošič's Vorbild - von Suffixen mit einem charakteristischen Konsonanten (oder mit eine charakteristischen Konsonantengruppe aus gehend bei verschiedenen Wortartbasen (Zeitwort, Adjektiv, Substantiv die semantischen kategorien von Wortbildungen mit »demselben« Suffix aufzählt. Aber schon bei A. Bajec (Besedotvorje slovenskega jezika, 1950 findet man auch das Kapitel »Die Suffixe nach ihren Bedeutungen, worin Suffixe für 24 Bedeutungsgruppen festgehalten sind. In der Slovenska slovnica (1956 gibt es 16, im Slovenski knjižni jezik 2 (1966 aber 13 solcher Gruppen von Suffixen. Der vorliegende Ausatz geht ebenfalls von den semantischen Kategorien aus, versucht aber die Zahl der Bedeutungskategorien, die aus verhalen, adjekvsehen oder substantiviseher Basen mit Hilfe von Suffixen gebildet werden, auf 6 grosse Gruppen zu reduzieren. Diese 6 Gruppen sind: 1. die Namen der Agenten, des Eigenschaftstragers und der Verbundenheit; 2. die Namen der Werkzeuge, 3. die Namen der Handlung, der Eigenschaft und des Zustandes, 4. die Namen der vergegenständlichten Tat oder Eigenschaft, 5. die Namen der Lokalisierung und 6. Verschiedene. Nur bei den Wortbildungen aus einer substantivischen Basis gibt es noch eine besondere, die s. g. Modifikationsbedeutungsgruppe (Feminativa und Maskulinativa, Kollektiva, Gradativa, Iuvenalia, Diminutiva, Diminutivhipokoristika, Diminutivpeirotiva und Peiorativa. - Dabei wird keine Riick sicht darauf genommen, ob diese Suffixe genain slowenisch oder aus anderen Sprachen übernommen sind. Die Berechtigung dafiir gibt uns nicht nur die produktive Wortbildung mit den entlehnten (nichtautochtonen Suffixen im gegenwärtigen Slowenisch, sondern (was noch wichtiger ist auch das richtige Verständnisvermögen der Sprecher für solche Wortbildungen im
Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr Binkowski
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.
Speeding up Derivative Configuration from Product Platforms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruben Heradio
2014-06-01
Full Text Available To compete in the global marketplace, manufacturers try to differentiate their products by focusing on individual customer needs. Fulfilling this goal requires that companies shift from mass production to mass customization. Under this approach, a generic architecture, named product platform, is designed to support the derivation of customized products through a configuration process that determines which components the product comprises. When a customer configures a derivative, typically not every combination of available components is valid. To guarantee that all dependencies and incompatibilities among the derivative constituent components are satisfied, automated configurators are used. Flexible product platforms provide a big number of interrelated components, and so, the configuration of all, but trivial, derivatives involves considerable effort to select which components the derivative should include. Our approach alleviates that effort by speeding up the derivative configuration using a heuristic based on the information theory concept of entropy.
Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kunikazu Moribe
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate.
Derivatives Effect on Monetary Policy Transmission
Coenraad Vrolijk
1997-01-01
This paper examines changes in the monetary policy transmission mechanism in the presence of derivatives markets. The effect of adding derivatives markets is analyzed independently for each of the main channels of monetary policy transmission: interest rates, credit, and exchange rates. Theoretically, derivatives trading speeds up transmission to financial asset prices, but changes in the transmission to the real economy are ambiguous. Using the structural vector autoregression methodology, a...
Credit Derivatives, Disintermediation, and Investment Decisions
Alan Morrison
2005-01-01
The credit derivatives market provides a liquid but opaque forum for secondary market trading of banking assets. I show that when entrepreneurs rely upon the certification value of bank debts to obtain cheap bond market insurance, the existance of a credit derivatives market may cause them to issue sub-investment grade bonds instead, and to engage in second-best behaviour. Credit derivatives can therefore cause disintermediation and thus reduce welfare. I argue that this effect can be most ef...
Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand
2009-07-01
New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.
Generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative action
Dong, Xi; Miao, Rong-Xin
2015-12-01
We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.
Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Total Derivative Action
Dong, Xi
2015-01-01
We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.
Anisotropic higher derivative gravity and inflationary universe
Kao, W F
2006-01-01
Stability analysis of the Kantowski-Sachs type universe in pure higher derivative gravity theory is studied in details. The non-redundant generalized Friedmann equation of the system is derived by introducing a reduced one dimensional generalized KS type action. This method greatly reduces the labor in deriving field equations of any complicate models. Existence and stability of inflationary solution in the presence of higher derivative terms are also studied in details. Implications to the choice of physical theories are discussed in details in this paper.
Tilt/Integral/Derivative Compensators For Controllers
Lurie, Boris J.
1995-01-01
Tilt/integral/derivative (TID) compensators for tunable feedback control systems offer advantages over proportional/integral/derivative compensators. Designed and adjusted more easily, and made to reject disturbances more strongly and less sensitive to variations in parameters of controlled system.
Green's Theorem for Generalized Fractional Derivatives
Odzijewicz, Tatiana; Malinowska, Agnieszka B.; Delfim F. M. Torres
2012-01-01
We study three types of generalized partial fractional operators. An extension of Green's theorem, by considering partial fractional derivatives with more general kernels, is proved. New results are obtained, even in the particular case when the generalized operators are reduced to the standard partial fractional derivatives and fractional integrals in the sense of Riemann-Liouville or Caputo.
Nickel Complexes of Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives of Lawsone
Sanjay Gaikwad
2013-01-01
Thiosemicarbazone derivative at 1 position of the Lawsone ( 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione ) i.e. 1-TSCND is an important derivative, Which possesses a powerful chelating ability, appreciable analytical utility and significant biological activity[1]. Its Nickel (II) complex is newly reported here
Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils
Venderbosch, R. H.; Ardiyanti, A. R.; Wildschut, J.; Oasmaa, A.; Heeres, H. J.
2010-01-01
BACKGROUND: Biomass is the only renewable feedstock containing carbon, and therefore the only alternative to fossil-derived crude oil derivatives. However, the main problems concerning the application of biomass for biofuels and bio-based chemicals are related to transport and handling, the limited
17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.
2010-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...
5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...
45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...
12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of...
28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.
2010-07-01
..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...
22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.
2010-04-01
... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...
Nickel Complexes of Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives of Lawsone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanjay Gaikwad
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Thiosemicarbazone derivative at 1 position of the Lawsone ( 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione i.e. 1-TSCND is an important derivative, Which possesses a powerful chelating ability, appreciable analytical utility and significant biological activity[1]. Its Nickel (II complex is newly reported here
Biology-Derived Algorithms in Engineering Optimization
Yang, Xin-She
2010-01-01
Biology-derived algorithms are an important part of computational sciences, which are essential to many scientific disciplines and engineering applications. Many computational methods are derived from or based on the analogy to natural evolution and biological activities, and these biologically inspired computations include genetic algorithms, neural networks, cellular automata, and other algorithms.
An All-Orders Derivative Expansion
Dunne, Gerald(Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269, U.S.A.)
1996-01-01
We evaluate the exact $QED_{2+1}$ effective action for fermions in the presence of a family of static but spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field profiles. This exact result yields an all-orders derivative expansion of the effective action, and indicates that the derivative expansion is an asymptotic, rather than a convergent, expansion.
Derivation in the Advanced Course of Italian.
Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana
1985-01-01
Suggests that one method to help advanced language students acquire new vocabulary is to study word formation and derivation. Suggests ways in which this can be done in the teaching of Italian. Discusses the process of derivation from three perspectives: (1) contrastive analysis, (2) lexical fields, and (3) etymology. (SED)
The Option Value in Timing Derivative Trades
Drost, Feico; van der Heijden, T.G.E.; Werker, Bas
2015-01-01
Risk-neutral traders executing derivative trades on behalf of portfolio managers maximize their expected profit compared to trading at pre-determined times by timing trades, using the quickly changing risk exposures of derivative baskets. The optimal order submission strategy is a sequence of stop o
Derived Picard groups of selfinjective Nakayama algebras
Volkov, Yury; Zvonareva, Alexandra
2015-01-01
In our proceeding paper a generating set of the derived Picard group of a selfinjective Nakayama algebra was constructed combining some previous results for Brauer tree algebras and the technique of orbit categories developed there. In this paper we finish the computation of the derived Picard group of a selfinjective Nakayama algebra.
Microbial Degradation of Indole and Its Derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj Kumar Arora
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Indole and its derivatives, including 3-methylindole and 4-chloroindole, are environmental pollutants that are present worldwide. Microbial degradation of indole and its derivatives can occur in several aerobic and anaerobic pathways; these pathways involve different known and characterized genes. In this minireview, we summarize and explain the microbial degradation of indole, indole-3-acetic acid, 4-chloroindole, and methylindole.
Adsorption and desorption of cellulose derivatives.
Hoogendam, C.W.
1998-01-01
Cellulose derivatives, in particular carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are used in many (industrial) applications. The aim of this work is to obtain insight into the adsorption mechanism of cellulose derivatives on solid-liquid interfaces.In chapter 1 of this thesis we discuss some appl
Eulerian Derivation of the Coriolis Force
Kageyama, A; Kageyama, Akira; Hyodo, Mamoru
2006-01-01
In textbooks of geophysical fluid dynamics, the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force in a rotating fluid system are derived by making use of the fluid parcel concept. In contrast to this intuitive derivation to the apparent forces, more rigorous derivation would be useful not only for the pedagogical purpose, but also for the applications to other kinds of rotating geophysical systems rather than the fluid. The purpose of this paper is to show a general procedure to derive the transformed equations in the rotating frame of reference based on the local Galilean transformation and rotational coordinate transformation of field quantities. The generality and usefulness of this Eulerian approach is demonstrated in the derivation of apparent forces in rotating fluids as well as the transformed electromagnetic field equation in the rotating system.
Eulerian derivation of the Coriolis force
Kageyama, Akira; Hyodo, Mamoru
2006-02-01
In textbooks of geophysical fluid dynamics, the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force in a rotating fluid system are derived by making use of the fluid parcel concept. In contrast to this intuitive derivation to the apparent forces, more rigorous derivation would be useful not only for the pedagogical purpose but also for the applications to other kinds of rotating geophysical systems rather than the fluid. The purpose of this paper is to show a general procedure to derive the transformed equations in the rotating frame of reference based on the local Galilean transformation and rotational coordinate transformation of field quantities. The generality and usefulness of this Eulerian approach is demonstrated in the derivation of apparent forces in rotating fluids as well as the transformed electromagnetic field equation in the rotating system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Rui; Deng Xianming; Zheng Juncheng; Shen Qi; Sun Xiuli; Tang Yong
2011-01-01
1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid derivatives are synthesized from readily available dehydroamino acid de-rivatives via sulfur ylide. A range of different ylides are employed and the corresponding aminocyclopropanes are afforded with reasonable diastereoselection in good yields.
21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).
2010-04-01
... is secreted by cells into fermentation broth and converted to chymosin by acid treatment. All... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet...
Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance
Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath
2013-04-01
Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.
Anticarcinogenic and antioxidant activity of diindolylmethane derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sakina Hayat BENABADJI; Ren WEN; Jian-bin ZHENG; Xiao-chun DONG; Shen-gang YUAN
2004-01-01
AIM: To investigate the synthesis methods and the bioactivity of diindolylmethane (DIM) derivatives. METHODS:1) A 3D-Quantitative Structure-Active Relationships (QSAR) Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) study of 14 DIM derivatives was investigated to predict their anticarcinogenic activity. 2) Based on CoMFA model, a series of new derivatives of DIM were designed and synthesized. 3) Their free radical scavenging and antioxidant potentials were tested using in-vitro DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene antioxidant models. 4) The anticarcinogenic activities of some compounds were tested by using microculture tetrazolium assay (MTT) and sulforhodamine B (SRB) proteochromosomic assays. RESULTS: 1) The CoMFA model derived from DIM analogues proved a good predictive ability with q2 value of 0.827. 2) New designed compounds 3c and 4c exhibited 3-fold more potent radical scavenging activity than reference substance Vitamin E in DPPH model expressed by IC50 values. 3) The primary antitumor screening essay showed that some DIM derivatives designed exhibited the inhibitory activities to some tumor cell growth at relatively high concentration, and DIM was the most effective among them. CONCLUSION: DIM's 3D-QSAR model is reliable. According to it, eleven DIM derivatives were synthesized, and two derivatives of them possess potent radical scavenging activities and some showed the inhibitory activities in primary anticancer assay in vitro.
Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny
2015-06-01
This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.
Test Derivation Through Critical Path Transitions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李卫东; 魏道政
1992-01-01
In this paper, a new technique called test derivation is presented,aiming at the promotion of the random testing efficiency for combinational circuits,Combined with a fault simulator based on critical path tracing method,we introduce the concept of seed test derivation and attempt to generate a group of new tests from the seed test by means of critical path transition.The neccessary conditions and efficient algorithms are proposed to guarantee the usefulness of the newly derived tests and the correctness of the critical path transitions.Also,examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.
[Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury].
Yan, Feifei; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Jie
2015-09-20
Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug's toxicity such as the cisplatin's nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury. PMID:26383983
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TITANOCENE POLYMER DERIVATIVES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zhuting; SUN Shumen
1988-01-01
Titanocene polymer derivatives with potential antitumor properties were synthesized by interfacial condensation. The preformed polymers used are PAA (polyacrylic acid), CPSMA (1:1 alternating copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride) and DVEMA (1:2 copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride). The ratio of practical and theoretical titanium content is 73.6%, 92.2% and 86.2% for PAA, CPSMA and DVEMA polymer derivatives respectively. The IR spectra of the polymer derivatives possess the characteristic absorptions of titanocene. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) of O1s and Ti2p3/2 supports the existence of Ti-O bonding.
Catalytic Synthesis Methods for Triazolopyrimidine Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
A new method for catalyzed synthesis of triazolopyrimidine derivatives is reported. Aikylamine reaction with dialkyl cyanodithioiminocarbonate was catalyzed by quaternary ammonium salts at room temperature to yield 3-alkylamine-5-amino-1,2,4-triazole in good quality and high yields. After imidization and reaction with an α,β-unsaturated acid derivative, the reaction intermediate was hydrolyzed in the presence of a Lewis acid to obtain the target product. This novel catalytic method for triazolopyrimidine derivatives can be carried out under inexpen-sive and mild conditions, and is safe and environmentally friendly. IH NMR results for all intermediates are re-ported.
Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feifei YAN
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug’s toxicity such as the cisplatin’s nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury.
Phytol-derived novel isoprenoid immunostimulants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roshni Roy Chowdhury
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This review describes the adjuvanticity of novel diterpenoids (synthetic phytol derivatives compared to some commercially available adjuvants. The efficacy of the phytol-derived immunostimulants was evaluated in terms of their ability to activate innate immunity, amplify various antigen-specific immune responses and engender immunological memory with no discernible adverse effects in both competent and immune-deficient mice. The profile that emerges out of these studies reveals that the phytol derivatives are excellent immunostimulants, superior in many respects to a number of commercial adjuvants.
Entanglement entropy in higher derivative holography
Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Kaviraj, Apratim; Sinha, Aninda
2013-08-01
We consider holographic entanglement entropy in higher derivative gravity theories. Recently Lewkowycz and Maldacena [1] have provided a method to derive the equations for the entangling surface from first principles. We use this method to compute the entangling surface in four derivative gravity. Certain interesting differences compared to the two derivative case are pointed out. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we show that in the regime where this method is applicable, the resulting equations coincide with proposals in the literature as well as with what follows from considerations of the stress tensor on the entangling surface. Finally we demonstrate that the area functional in Gauss-Bonnet holography arises as a counterterm needed to make the Euclidean action free of power law divergences.
Sums and Differences vs. Integrals and Derivatives.
Strang, Gilbert
1990-01-01
Offers an approach to the understanding and to the teaching of the fundamental theorem of calculus. Stresses teaching the relation between a function and its derivative and the functions themselves. (YP)
Frequency analysis of photoplethysmogram and its derivatives.
Elgendi, Mohamed; Fletcher, Richard R; Norton, Ian; Brearley, Matt; Abbott, Derek; Lovell, Nigel H; Schuurmans, Dale
2015-12-01
There are a limited number of studies on heat stress dynamics during exercise using the photoplethysmogram (PPG). We investigate the PPG signal and its derivatives for heat stress assessment using Welch (non-parametric) and autoregressive (parametric) spectral estimation methods. The preliminary results of this study indicate that applying the first and second derivatives to PPG waveforms is useful for determining heat stress level using 20-s recordings. Interestingly, Welch's and Yule-Walker's methods in agreement that the second derivative is an improved detector for heat stress. In fact, both spectral estimation methods showed a clear separation in the frequency domain between measurements before and after simulated heat-stress induction when the second derivative is applied. Moreover, the results demonstrate superior performance of the Welch's method over the Yule-Walker's method in separating before and after the three simulated heat-stress inductions. PMID:26498064
Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells
An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.
MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS
Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...
Prediction on amphiphilicity of hypocrellin derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢杰; 马江华; 赵井泉
2002-01-01
Hypocrellins are most suitable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the diseases occurring in the superficial layer, such as microvascular diseases, because of their special absorption spectral properties. However, hypocrellins and most of their derivatives are basically lipophilic, while the hydrophilic derivatives lose the PDT activity in vivo. Therefore, the key problem for practical application of PDT of microvascular diseases focuses on finding the derivatives which possess optimized amphiphilicity. Herein, we developed a theoretical method to estimate the amphi-philicity of a molecule by the calculated average polarity. Compared with the experimentally measured results, the method is proved to be applicable. Based on the computation and available experimental results, it can be concluded that the derivative must have the polarities around C.22 for optimized amphiphilicity.
Prediction on amphiphilicity of hypocrellin derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢杰; 马江华; 赵井泉
2002-01-01
Hypocrellins are most suitable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the diseases occurring in the superficial layer, such as microvascular diseases, because of their special absorption spectral properties. However, hypocrellins and most of their derivatives are basically lipophilic, while the hydrophilic derivatives lose the PDT activity in vivo. Therefore, the key problem for practical application of PDT of microvascular diseases focuses on finding the derivatives which possess optimized amphiphilicity. Herein, we developed a theoretical method to estimate the amphiphilicity of a molecule by the calculated average polarity. Compared with the experimentally measured results, the method is proved to be applicable. Based on the computation and available experimental results, it can be concluded that the derivative must have the polarities around 0.22 for optimized amphiphilicity.
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF FURAN DERIVATIVES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verma Anupam
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Furan derivative are an important class of heterocyclic compound that possess important biological properties. From last few decades a considerable amount of attention has been focussed on synthesis of Furan derivatives and screening them for different pharmacological activities.The furan ring system is the basic skeleton of numerous compounds possessing cardiovascular activities. An iodinated lipophilic furan derivative is widely used in the treatment of ventricular and atrial fibrillation. These moieties are widely employed as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antitumor, Antihyperglycemic, Analgesic, Anticonvulsant etc. Slight change in substitution pattern in furan nucleus causes distinguishable difference in their biological activities. In this review we are discussing about synthesis and various biological activities of newly synthesized furan derivatives.
Synthesis of Nucleoside Derivatives Containing Benzophenoxazinone Moiety
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu GAO; Wu Xin ZOU; Ling WU; Jin Shui LI; Ji Tao WANG; Ji Ben MENG
2004-01-01
Two new nucleoside derivatives containing benzophenoxazinone moiety were synthesized. Their luminescence spectra show that they have strong near infrared fluorescence. Our study provides a new method for direct introduction of near infrared fluorescent probe to bioactive molecules.
A New Synthetic Approach to Coumestan Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GONG, Deng-Huang; LI, Chao-Zhong; YUAN, Cheng-Ye
2001-01-01
A new method for the preparation of coumestan derivatives was described involving an intramolecular palladium-catalyzed ring closure reaction of coumarins obtained from condensation of substituted o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and o-hydroxybenzaldehyde.
Higher Derivative Corrections To Extended Supersymmetric Theories
Braun, G A
2004-01-01
We investigate higher-derivative terms in N = 2 supersymmetric effective actions. We systematically construct such terms in harmonic superspace despite the infinite redundancy in their description due to the infinite number of auxiliary fields. We write all 3- and 4-derivative terms on Higgs, Coulomb, and mixed branches, modulo the existence of superspace Chern-Simons-like terms. Among these terms are several with only holomorphic dependence on fields, and at least one satisfies a non-renormalization theorem. We then search for superspace Chern-Simons-like terms, which are those gauge-invariant terms which cannot be written solely in terms of field strength superfields and covariant derivatives, but in which gauge potential superfield appears explicitly. We find a class of four- derivative terms with N = 2 supersymmetry which, though locally on the Coulomb branch can be written solely in terms of field strengths, globally on the Coulomb branch are superspace Chern- Simons-like.
Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...
Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Graphene Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Søren Vermehren
The work presented in this PhD thesis can be divided into two main categories: 1) Syn-thesis and Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of graphene derivatives and 2) Application and characterization of graphene derivatives as an interface material in molecular electron-ics. While the first category could...... be divided further, the synthesis and Langmuir-Blodgett results are intertwined in such a way that it would be more confusing to pre-sent them separately. The Langmuir-Blodgett deposition also played a crucial, but more isolated, part in the investigation of graphene derivatives as interface material....... Solution processable graphene in the form of chemically derived graphene has been synthesized through the modified Hummers method with subsequent reduction into reduced graphene oxide with hydrazine. The completeness of oxidation, the effect of the refinement steps and the reduction of the graphene oxide...
Synthesis of furan from allenic sulfide derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic sulfides. By the reaction with NaH, β-Hydroxyl allenic sulfides were found to generate furan products in excellent yields with the removal of phenylthio group. β-Aldehyde allenic sulfides were found to give similar furan products with one more substituent when treated with additional nucleophilic reagents. β-ketone allenic sulfides can also cyclize to give furan derivatives with the promotion of P2O5.
Hilfer-Prabhakar Derivatives and Some Applications
Garra, Roberto; Gorenflo, Rudolf; Polito, Federico; Tomovski, Zivorad
2014-01-01
We present a generalization of Hilfer derivatives in which Riemann--Liouville integrals are replaced by more general Prabhakar integrals. We analyze and discuss its properties. Further, we show some applications of these generalized Hilfer-Prabhakar derivatives in classical equations of mathematical physics, like the heat and the free electron laser equations, and in difference-differential equations governing the dynamics of generalized renewal stochastic processes.
Estimating derivatives and integrals with Kriging
Vazquez, Emmanuel; Walter, Eric
2005-01-01
International audience This paper formalizes a methodology based on Kriging, a technique developped by geostatisticians, for estimating derivatives and integrals of signals that are only known via possibly irregularly spaced and noisy observations. This finds direct applications, e.g., in system identification when differential algebra is used to express parameters as nonlinear functions of the inputs and outputs and their derivatives. The procedure is quite simple to implement, and allows...
Derivation of Crustal Magnetic Anomalies from MAGSAT
YANAGISAWA, Masahisa
1984-01-01
This paper describes various characteristics of the magnetospheric field, induction field, and ionospheric field observed by MAGSAT (Magnetic Field Satellite) and the derivation of crustal magnetic anomalies free from disturbance fields. After eliminating the effect of the disturbance field, anomaly maps were derived for the Japanese area and for the Shatsky Rise area. The magnetic field observed by satellites consists of a core field, induction field, crustal field, ionospheric field, and ma...
Financial derivatives in power marketing: The basics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With the ongoing changes in the power industry worldwide, electricity is beginning to be traded like other commodities. The use of financial derivative instruments in power markets is on the rise. The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of these derivatives in risk management which is vital for survival in the increasingly competitive industry. Starting with the familiar cash markets, the paper discusses the basics of futures, options, and swap markets as applied to electric energy trading
Growth Optimal Investment and Pricing of Derivatives
Erik Aurell; Roberto Baviera; Ola Hammarlid; Maurizio Serva; Angelo Vulpiani
1999-01-01
We introduce a criterion how to price derivatives in incomplete markets, based on the theory of growth optimal strategy in repeated multiplicative games. We present reasons why these growth-optimal strategies should be particularly relevant to the problem of pricing derivatives. We compare our result with other alternative pricing procedures in the literature, and discuss the limits of validity of the lognormal approximation. We also generalize the pricing method to a market with correlated s...
Synthesis of furan from allenic sulfide derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENG LingLing; ZHANG Xiu; MA Jie; ZHONG ZhenZhen; ZHANG Zhe; ZHANG Yan; WANG JianBo
2009-01-01
In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic sulfides. By the reaction with NaH.,β-Hydroxyl allenic sulfides were found to generate furan products in excellent yields with the removal of phenylthio group.β-Aldehyde allenic sulfides were found to give similar furan products with one more substituent when treated with additional nucleophilic reagents. β-ketone allenic sulfides can also cyclize to give furan derivatives with the promotion of P2O5.
Deriving modified rankin scores from medical records
Quinn, T J; Ray, G.; Atula, S.; Walters, M.R.; Dawson, J.; Lees, K R
2008-01-01
Background and Purpose: Modified Rankin score (mRS) is traditionally graded using a face-to-face or telephone interview. Certain stroke assessment scales can be derived from a review of a patient’s case-record alone. We hypothesized that mRS could be successfully derived from the narrative within patient case-records. Methods: Sequential patients attending our cerebrovascular outpatient clinic were included. Two independent, blinded clinicians, trained in mRS, assessed case-records to der...
Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application
Piotr Binkowski
2008-01-01
The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europ...
DERIVATIONS AND EXTENSIONS OF LIE COLOR ALGEBRA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Qingcheng; Zhang Yongzheng
2008-01-01
In this article, the authors obtain some results concerning derivations of fi-nitely generated Lie color algebras and discuss the relation between skew derivation space SkDer(L) and central extension H2(L, F) on some Lie color algebras. Meanwhile, they generalize the notion of double extension to quadratic Lie color algebras, a sufficient con-dition for a quadratic Lie color algebra to be a double extension and further properties are given.
Generalized entropy and higher derivative Gravity
Camps, Joan
2013-01-01
We derive an extension of the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription for generic theories of gravity in the bulk. This results in a new entangling functional, that contains a correction to Wald's entropy. The new term is quadratic in the extrinsic curvature. The coefficient of this correction is a second derivative of the lagrangian with respect to the Riemann tensor. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, the new functional reduces to Jacobson-Myers'.
Photochemistry of hypocrellin derivatives under aerobic conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Hypocrellins are a novel type of photosensitizers. A series of new hypocrellin B (HB) derivatives have been synthesized to overcome their limitations, I.e. To improve their red absorption and amphiphilicity. The generation of reactive oxygen species (including superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen) is investigated in the presence of oxygen. The chemical structures of HB derivatives affect not only the generation efficiencies of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, but also quantum yields of singlet oxygen.
Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury
Yan, Feifei; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Jie
2015-01-01
Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug’s toxicity such as the cisplatin’s nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. Th...
Risk Management and Financial Derivatives: An Overview
Hammoudeh, Shawkat; McAleer, Michael
2012-01-01
textabstractRisk management is crucial for optimal portfolio management. One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance is the expansion of financial derivatives. The purpose of this special issue on “Risk Management and Financial Derivatives” is to highlight some areas in which novel econometric, financial econometric and empirical finance methods have contributed significantly to the analysis of risk management, with an emphasis on financial derivatives, specifically conditional corr...
Entropic-gravity derivation of MOND
Klinkhamer, F. R.
2012-01-01
A heuristic entropic-gravity derivation has previously been given of the gravitational two-body force of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). Here, it is shown that also another characteristic of MOND can be recovered, namely, the external field effect (implying a violation of the Strong Equivalence Principle). In fact, the derivation gives precisely the modified Poisson equation which Bekenstein and Milgrom proposed as a consistent nonrelativistic theory of MOND.
Intercepting Bacterial Indole Signaling with Flustramine Derivatives
Bunders, Cynthia A.; Minvielle, Marine J.; Worthington, Roberta J.; Ortiz, Minoshka; Cavanagh, John; Melander, Christian
2011-01-01
Indole signaling is one of the putative universal signaling networks in bacteria. We have investigated the use of desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) derivatives for the inhibition of biofilm formation through modulation of the indole-signaling network in E. coli and S. aureus. We have found dFBr derivatives that are 10-1000 times more active than indole itself, demonstrating that the flustramine family of indolic natural products represent a privileged scaffold for the design of molecules to cont...
Machian derivation of the Friedmann equation
Telkamp, Herman
2016-01-01
Despite all fundamental objections against Newtonian concepts in cosmology, the Friedmann equation derives from these in an astoundingly simple way, invoking both the shell theorem and conservation of energy in an infinite universe. However, in the presence of a gravitational horizon the application of the shell theorem fails. We derive the Friedmann equation in the presence of a gravitational horizon using Machian arguments and without using the shell theorem.
The period functions' higher order derivatives
Sabatini, Marco
2012-01-01
We prove a formula for the $n$-th derivative of the period function $T$ in a period annulus of a planar differential system. For $n = 1$, we obtain Freire, Gasull and Guillamon formula for the period's first derivative \\cite{FGG}. We apply such a result to hamiltonian systems with separable variables and other systems. We give some sufficient conditions for the period function of conservative second order O.D.E.'s to be convex.
Functional Determinants in Higher Derivative Lagrangian Theories
Di Criscienzo, Roberto
2009-01-01
Motivated by the considerable success of alternative theories of gravity, we consider the toy model of a higher derivative Lagrangian theory, namely the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator studied in a recent paper by Hawking-Hertog. Its Euclidean Path Integral is studied with a certain detail and a pedagogical derivation of the propagator, which makes use of a Theorem due to Forman, is consequently proposed
Three essays on credit derivatives and liquidity
Arakelyan, Armen
2012-01-01
This thesis consists of three empirical essays on pricing credit derivatives and the impact of liquidity on the prices of credit derivatives. In essay one, I investigate empirically the pricing of Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDO) within the framework of copula models. In essay two I analyze the impact of illiquidity on Credit Default Swap (CDS) spreads on an individual level. In essay three I analyze the effect of market wide illiquidity on portfolio CDS spreads on an aggrega...
Complexes of salicylic acid and its derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A generalization and systematization have been made of literature data on complexing of various elements, including beryllium, cadmium, boron, indium, rare-earth elements, actinides, and transition elements with salicylic acid and it derivatives (amino-, nitro- and halosalicylic acids). The effect of the position and nature of the substitute, in the case of salicylic acid derivatives, on the complexing process is discussed. Certain physicochemical properties of the complexes under consideration are described along with data indicative of their stability
On computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives.
Gerasimov, I. A.; Vinnikov, E. L.
The algorithm of computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives is proposed with application of recurrent relations. The A.G.M.-method is used for the calculation of values L0(0), L0(1). The FORTRAN-program corresponding to the algorithm is given. The precision control was provided with numerical integrating by Simpsons method. The behavior of Laplace's coefficients and their third derivatives whith varying indices K, n for fixed values of the α-parameter is presented graphically.
Endogenous credit derivatives and bank behavior
Pausch, Thilo
2007-01-01
Instruments for credit risk transfer arise endogenously from and interact with optimizing behavior of their users. This is particularly true with credit derivatives which are usually OTC contracts between banks as buyers and sellers of credit risk. Recent literature, however, does not account for this fact when analyzing the effects of these instruments on banking. The present paper closes this gap by explicitly modelling the market for credit derivatives and its interaction with banks? loan ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cao, Yong-Xiao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; He, Jian-Yu;
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of atropine on peripheral vasodilation and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat mesenteric artery rings was recorded in vitro on a myograph. The results showed that atropine, at concentrations greater than 1 microM, relaxed...... the contraction derived from NA and CaCI2 in Ca(2+)-free medium, in a concentration dependent manner, indicating the vasodilatation was related to the inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ influx through the receptor-operated calcium channels and intracellular Ca2+ release from the Ca2+ store. Atropine had no effect...... on the caffeine-induced contraction in the artery segments, indicating the inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ release as a result of atropine most likely occurs via the IP3 pathway rather than the ryanodine receptors. Our results suggest that atropine-induced vasodilatation is mainly from artery smooth muscle cells...
Synthesis of Some New Condensed Pyrimidine Derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cyclodehydration of 6-amino-5-cyano pyrimidine derivative (2) afforded pyrimidoisoindole derivatives (3). Compound (3) reacted with carbethoxymethylene derivative to give pyridopyrimidine derivatives (5a,b). Compound (3) was also reacted with formamide to give the corresponding pyrimidopyrimdine derivatives (6) that condensed with benzaldehyde to give Schiff's base (7). Refluxing of compound (3) with triethyl orthoformate afforded compound (8) that cyclized with ammonium hydroxide giving the same compound (6). Compound (8) cyclized with hydrazine hydrate giving compound (9) which also cyclized with triethyl orthoformate affording compound (10). Diazotization of compound (3) led to the formation of triazinopyrimidine derivative (11). Cyclization of compound (11) upon treatment with hydrazine hydrate afforded compound (12). Compound (15) was prepared from reaction of compound (3) and ethylenediamine in presence of carbon disulfide. The behaviour of compound (15) toward benzoyl chloride, triethyl orthoformate, nitrous acid and/or carbon disulfide was also described. All proposed structures were supported by elemental analyses, spectroscopic data and some of the new products showed antimicrobial activity
Introduction of Credit Derivatives and Valuation of Credit Default Swap
Han,Lu
2006-01-01
The credit derivative market was established at the beginning of the 1990s since the emergence of credit derivatives fits the rapid development of the whole derivatives market. However, compare to other derivative market, this market is still small and incomplete. As with other derivatives, credit derivatives can be used to either take more risk or hedge it, hence various credit derivatives instruments are accepted and widely used by market participants such as banks, insurance companies, etc...
Additive Lie (ζ-Lie) Derivations and Generalized Lie (ζ-Lie)Derivations on Prime Algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao Fei QI; Jin Chuan HOU
2013-01-01
The additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivations on prime algebras are characterized.It is shown,under some suitable assumptions,that an additive map L is an additive generalized Lie derivation if and only if it is the sum of an additive generalized derivation and an additive map from the algebra into its center vanishing all commutators; is an additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivation with ζ ≠ 1 if and only if it is an additive (generalized) derivation satisfying L(ζA) =ζL(A) for all A.These results are then used to characterize additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivations on several operator algebras such as Banach space standard operator algebras and von Neumman algebras.
Ushirobira, Rosane; Korporal, Anja; PERRUQUETTI, Wilfrid
2014-01-01
International audience — In this communication, we discuss two estimation problems dealing with partial derivatives systems. Namely, estimating partial derivatives of a multivariate noisy signal and identifying parameters of partial differential equations. The multivariate noisy signal is expressed as a truncated Taylor expression in a small time interval. An algebraic method can be then used to estimate its partial derivatives in the opera-tional domain. The same approach applies for the ...
Structure Activity Relationship of Brevenal Hydrazide Derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allan Goodman
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Brevenal is a ladder frame polyether produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. This organism is also responsible for the production of the neurotoxic compounds known as brevetoxins. Ingestion or inhalation of the brevetoxins leads to adverse effects such as gastrointestinal maladies and bronchoconstriction. Brevenal shows antagonistic behavior to the brevetoxins and shows beneficial attributes when administered alone. For example, in an asthmatic sheep model, brevenal has been shown to increase tracheal mucosal velocity, an attribute which has led to its development as a potential treatment for Cystic Fibrosis. The mechanism of action of brevenal is poorly understood and the exact binding site has not been elucidated. In an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action of brevenal and potentially develop a second generation drug candidate, a series of brevenal derivatives were prepared through modification of the aldehyde moiety. These derivatives include aliphatic, aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrazide derivatives. The brevenal derivatives were tested using in vitro synaptosome binding assays to determine the ability of the compounds to displace brevetoxin and brevenal from their native receptors. A sheep inhalation model was used to determine if instillation of the brevenal derivatives resulted in bronchoconstriction. Only small modifications were tolerated, with larger moieties leading to loss of affinity for the brevenal receptor and bronchoconstriction in the sheep model.
Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of new tonantzitlolone-derived diterpene derivatives.
Busch, Torsten; Dräger, Gerald; Kunst, Eike; Benson, Hannah; Sasse, Florenz; Siems, Karsten; Kirschning, Andreas
2016-10-14
The synthesis of the diterpene (+)-tonantzitlolone A and a series of derivatives is reported. The study includes the determination of their antiproliferative activities against selected cancer cell lines.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teachers' College, Hubei 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Fang Jian' an [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun Wen [School of Mathematics and Information, Yangtze University, Hubei Jingzhou 434023 (China)
2010-04-05
This Letter investigates the synchronization of a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling. Based on LaSalle's invariance principle, adaptive synchronization criteria are obtained. Analytical result shows that under the designed adaptive controllers, a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling can asymptotically synchronize to a given trajectory, and several useful criteria for synchronization are given. What is more, the coupling matrix is not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. Finally, simulations results show the method is effective.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAKEER; HadeerMohammed
2003-01-01
The reaction of ethyl esters of 4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-l-benzo(naphtho) pyran.3-carboxylic acids (1) with aromatic aldehy-des in the presence of piperidine yielded 4-styryl-3-carboxami-dopiperidyl connmrin derivatives 4. The reaction of hydrazlne hydrate with 1 gave acetophenone hydrozone derivatives 5 and acetophenone azine derivatives 6. The reaction of 1 with prima-ry amines afforded compomlds 7—9. And the treatment of la with Grignard reagents afforded 3-aroyl-4-methyl coumarin derivatives 10.
Gateaux and Frechet Derivative in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Normed Linear spaces
Dinda, B.; Samanta, T. K.; Bera, U. K.
2010-01-01
Intuitionistic Fuzzy derivative, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Gateaux derivative, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Fr\\'{e}chet derivative are defined and a few of their properties are studied. The relation between Intuitionistic Fuzzy Gateaux derivative and Intuitionistic Fuzzy Fr\\'{e}chet derivative are emphasized.
Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Richard Little
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.
Deriving Trading Rules Using Gene Expression Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian VISOIU
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents how buy and sell trading rules are generated using gene expression programming with special setup. Market concepts are presented and market analysis is discussed with emphasis on technical analysis and quantitative methods. The use of genetic algorithms in deriving trading rules is presented. Gene expression programming is applied in a form where multiple types of operators and operands are used. This gives birth to multiple gene contexts and references between genes in order to keep the linear structure of the gene expression programming chromosome. The setup of multiple gene contexts is presented. The case study shows how to use the proposed gene setup to derive trading rules encoded by Boolean expressions, using a dataset with the reference exchange rates between the Euro and the Romanian leu. The conclusions highlight the positive results obtained in deriving useful trading rules.
Structure-activity relationships of bumetanide derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Kasper Lykke; Töllner, Kathrin; Römermann, Kerstin;
2015-01-01
of diuretics such as bumetanide. Bumetanide was discovered by screening ∼5000 3-amino-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid derivatives, long before NKCC2 was identified in the kidney. Therefore, structure-activity studies on effects of bumetanide derivatives on NKCC2 are not available. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In this study......, the effect of a series of diuretically active bumetanide derivatives was investigated on human NKCC2 variant A (hNKCC2A) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. KEY RESULTS: Bumetanide blocked hNKCC2A transport with an IC50 of 4 μM. There was good correlation between the diuretic potency of bumetanide and its...... of the structural requirements that determine relative potency of loop diuretics on human NKCC2 splice variants, and may lead to the discovery of novel high-ceiling diuretics....
Optimal hedging of Derivatives with transaction costs
Aurell, E; Aurell, Erik; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo
2005-01-01
We investigate the optimal strategy over a finite time horizon for a portfolio of stock and bond and a derivative in an multiplicative Markovian market model with transaction costs (friction). The optimization problem is solved by a Hamilton-Bellman-Jacobi equation, which by the verification theorem has well-behaved solutions if certain conditions on a potential are satisfied. In the case at hand, these conditions simply imply arbitrage-free ("Black-Scholes") pricing of the derivative. While pricing is hence not changed by friction allow a portfolio to fluctuate around a delta hedge. In the limit of weak friction, we determine the optimal control to essentially be of two parts: a strong control, which tries to bring the stock-and-derivative portfolio towards a Black-Scholes delta hedge; and a weak control, which moves the portfolio by adding or subtracting a Black-Scholes hedge. For simplicity we assume growth-optimal investment criteria and quadratic friction.
Derivatives on the isotropic tensor functions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DUI; Guansuo; WANG; Zhengdao; JIN; Ming
2006-01-01
The derivative of the isotropic tensor function plays an important part in continuum mechanics and computational mechanics, and also it is still an opening problem. By means of a scalar response function and solving a tensor equation, this problem is well studied. A compact explicit expression for the derivative of the isotropic tensor function is presented, which is valid for both distinct and repeated eigenvalue cases. Throughout the analysis, the formulation holds for general isotropic tensor functions without need to solve eigenvector problems or determine coefficients. On the theoretical side, a very simple solution of a tensor equation is obtained. As an application to continuum mechanics, a base-free expression for the Hill's strain rate is given, which is more compact than the existent results. Finally, with an example we compute the derivative of an exponent tensor function. And the efficiency of the present formulations is demonstrated.
Hydrodynamic Nambu Brackets derived by Geometric Constraints
Blender, Richard
2015-01-01
A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can b...
Photochemistry of hypocrellin derivatives under anaerobic conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
To improve the red absorption and solubility of hypocrellin, we have synthesized a series of hypocrellin B derivatives. The photochemistry of these new compounds in anaerobic media has been investigated by using electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and spectrophotometric methods. The semiquinone anion radicals can be produced by self-electron transfer on irradiation, with the formation efficiency and EPR hyperfine structures of the semiquinone anion radicals dependent on the structures of the derivatives. When an electron donor is present, the electron transfer from electron donor to hypocrellin B derivatives enhanced the production of the corresponding semiquinone anion radical; in addition, the semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone can be detected spectrophotometrically. Structural modifications exert little effect on the absorption position of semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone, but influence their formation efficiency significantly.
Horava gravity with mixed derivative terms
Colombo, Mattia; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2014-01-01
Horava gravity has been constructed so as to exhibit anisotropic scaling in the ultraviolet, as this renders the theory power-counting renormalizable. However, when coupled to matter, the theory has been shown to suffer from quadratic divergences. A way to cure these divergences is to add terms with both time and space derivatives. We consider this extended version of the theory in detail. We perform a perturbative analysis that includes all modes, determine the propagators and discuss how including mixed-derivative terms affects them. We also consider the Lifshitz scalar with mixed-derivative terms as a toy model for power counting arguments and discuss the influence of such terms on renormalizability.
Dielectric transition of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers
Li, Jiangling; Su, Shi; Zhou, Lei; Abbot, Andrew M.; Ye, Haitao
2014-09-01
The dielectric behavior of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers formed at different carbonization temperatures was investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The impedance data are presented in the form of Cole-Cole plots and four equivalent electrical circuits are derived. It is found that by increasing carbonization temperature from 500 to 800 °C, a strong capacitive element in the parallel equivalent circuit is transformed into an inductive element, while the contact resistance and parallel resistance are significantly decreased. Along with the morphological and chemical structural evolution, respectively witnessed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the dielectric transition deduced from the transformation of electrical circuits can be correlated to the proposed microstructural changes of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers and the interaction/interference among them.
Another derivation of generalized Langevin equations
Dengler, R
2015-01-01
The formal derivation of Langevin equations (and, equivalently Fokker-Planck equations) with projection operator techniques of Mori, Zwanzig, Kawasaki and others can well be called a pearl of theoretical physics. The derivation relies on classical mechanics, and encompasses everything an omnipotent engineer can construct from point particles and potentials: solids, liquids, liquid crystals, conductors, polymers, systems with spin-like degrees of freedom ... Einstein relations and Onsager reciprocity theorem come for free. It apparently not has widely found its way into textbooks, but has been reproduced dozens of times on the fly with many references to the literature and without adding much substantially new. Here we follow the tradition, but strive to produce a self-contained text. Furthermore, we address questions that naturally arise in the derivation. Among other things the meaning of the divergence of the Poisson brackets is explained, and the role of nonlinear damping coefficients is clarified.
Halogenated coumarin derivatives as novel seed protectants.
Brooker, N; Windorski, J; Bluml, E
2008-01-01
Development of new and improved antifungal compounds that are target-specific is backed by a strong Federal, public and commercial mandate. Many plant-derived chemicals have proven fungicidal properties, including the coumarins (1,2-Benzopyrone) found in a variety of plants such as clover, sweet woodruff and grasses. Preliminary research has shown the coumarins to be a highly active group of molecules with a wide range of antimicrobial activity against both fungi and bacteria. It is believed that these cyclic compounds behave as natural pesticidal defence molecules for plants and they represent a starting point for the exploration of new derivative compounds possessing a range of improved antifungal activity. Within this study, derivatives of coumarin that were modified with halogenated side groups were screened for their antifungal activity against a range of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi. Fungi included in this in vitro screen included Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot), Phytophthora spp. (damping off and seedling rot), Rhizoctonia spp. (damping off and root rot) and Pythium spp. (seedling blight), four phylogenetically diverse and economically important plant pathogens. Studies indicate that these halogenated coumarin derivatives work very effectively in vitro to inhibit fungal growth and some coumarin derivatives have higher antifungal activity and stability as compared to the original coumarin compound alone. The highly active coumarin derivatives are brominated, iodinated and chlorinated compounds and results suggest that besides being highly active, very small amounts can be used to achieve LD100 rates. In addition to the in vitro fungal inhibition assays, results of polymer seed coating compatibility and phytotoxicity testing using these compounds as seed treatments will also be reported. These results support additional research in this area of natural pesticide development. PMID:19226745
High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus
Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.
1983-01-01
Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).
Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat
Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gass, Leila
2008-01-01
This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.
Ethanolamine derivatives of dysprosium and holmium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The preparation and properties of dysprosium and holmium derivatives of mono-, di- and tri-ethanolamine derivatives are described. Compounds of general formulae: Ln(OPrsup(i))2(mea), Ln(OPrsup(i))(mea)2, Ln(mea)3, Ln(OPrsup(i))(dea), Ln2(dea)3, Ln(dea)(deaH) and Ln(tea) (where Ln = Dy or Ho and mea, dea and tea are the anions of respective ethanolamine) were obtained and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectra. (author)
A 'simple' hybrid model for power derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a method for valuing power derivatives using a supply-demand approach. Our method extends work in the field by incorporating randomness into the base load portion of the supply stack function and equating it with a noisy demand process. We obtain closed form solutions for European option prices written on average spot prices considering two different supply models: a mean-reverting model and a Markov chain model. The results are extensions of the classic Black-Scholes equation. The model provides a relatively simple approach to describe the complicated price behaviour observed in electricity spot markets and also allows for computationally efficient derivatives pricing. (author)
Access to new antimicrobial 4-methylumbelliferone derivatives
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Marwa Zayane; Anis Romdhane; Mejda Daami-Remadi; Hichem Ben Jannet
2015-09-01
Synthesis of some novel coumarin esters has been accomplished through iodine-catalyzed method using 4-methylumbelliferone as the starting material. Condensation of hydrazide, which was obtained in two steps from 4-methylumbelliferone, with some arylaldhydes provided hydrazone derivatives, while the reaction with phenylthioisocyanate leads to the thiosemicarbazide that evolved into two new compounds. Finally, condensation reaction of hydrazide with three diketones afforded new pyrrole and pyrazole derivatives. Structures of all synthesized compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ES-HRMS. They were finally tested for their antimicrobial activity and the structure-activity relationship was discussed.
Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salvio, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa (Italy); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Pisa (Italy)
2016-04-15
A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantization. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalizable wavefunctions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm. (orig.)
Generalized entropy and higher derivative gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive an extension of the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription for curvature squared theories of gravity in the bulk, and comment on a prescription for more general theories. This results in a new entangling functional, that contains a correction to Wald’s entropy. The new term is quadratic in the extrinsic curvature. The coefficient of this correction is a second derivative of the lagrangian with respect to the Riemann tensor. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, the new functional reduces to Jacobson-Myers’
Mesogenic benzothiazole derivatives with methoxy substituents
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A K Prajapati; N L Bonde
2006-03-01
Two new mesogenic homologous series containing 6-methoxybenzothiazole ring at the terminus of the molecule, viz. 2-(4'--alkoxyphenylazo)-6-methoxybenzothiazoles and 2-[4'-(4"--alkoxybenzoyloxy) phenylazo]-6-methoxybenzothiazoles were synthesized. In series I, -butyloxy to -tetradecyloxy derivatives exhibit nematic mesophase. Smectic A mesophase commences from the -dodecyloxy derivative as a monotropic phase and is retained up to the last member synthesized. All the members of series II exhibit enantiotropic nematic mesophase. The mesomorphic properties of the present series are compared with other structurally related series to evaluate the effect of the benzothiazole ring and the methoxy substituent on mesomorphism.
Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantization. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalizable wavefunctions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm. (orig.)
On Dirichlet's Derivation of the Ellipsoid Potential
Dittrich, W
2016-01-01
Newton's potential of a massive homogeneous ellipsoid is derived via Dirichlet's discontinuous factor. At first we review part of Dirichlet's work in an English translation of the original German, and then continue with an extension of his method into the complex plane. With this trick it becomes possible to first calculate the potential and thereafter the force components exerted on a test mass by the ellipsoid. This is remarkable in so far as all other famous researchers prior to Dirichlet merely calculated the attraction components. Unfortunately, Dirichlet's derivation is to a large extent mathematically unacceptable which, however, can be corrected by treating the problem in the complex plane.
Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble
Wang, Xian-Zhi
2016-02-01
Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.
Synthesis of isothiocyanate-derived mercapturic acids
Vermeulen, M.; Zwanenburg, B.; Chittenden, G.J.F.; Verhagen, H.
2003-01-01
Twelve mercapturic acids derived from saturated and unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic isothiocyanates were synthesised, by adding isothiocyanate to a solution of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and sodium bicarbonate, in a typical yield of 77%. Isothiocyanates were synthesised first by adding the corresponding
Measurements of brain-derived neurotrophic factor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trajkovska, Viktorija; Klein, Anders Bue; Vinberg, Maj;
2007-01-01
Although numerous studies have dealt with changes in blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), methodological issues about BDNF measurements have only been incompletely resolved. We validated BDNF ELISA with respect to accuracy, reproducibility and the effect of storage and repeated freezin...
Derivation of a poroelastic flexural shell model
Mikelic, Andro
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the limit behavior of the solution to quasi-static Biot's equations in thin poroelastic flexural shells as the thickness of the shell tends to zero and extend the results obtained for the poroelastic plate by Marciniak-Czochra and Mikeli\\'c. We choose Terzaghi's time corresponding to the shell thickness and obtain the strong convergence of the three-dimensional solid displacement, fluid pressure and total poroelastic stress to the solution of the new class of shell equations. The derived bending equation is coupled with the pressure equation and it contains the bending moment due to the variation in pore pressure across the shell thickness. The effective pressure equation is parabolic only in the normal direction. As additional terms it contains the time derivative of the middle-surface flexural strain. Derivation of the model presents an extension of the results on the derivation of classical linear elastic shells by Ciarlet and collaborators to the poroelastic shells case. The n...
Chemistry of Phosphorylated Formaldehyde Derivatives. Part I
Vasily P. Morgalyuk
2014-01-01
The underinvestigated derivatives of unstable phosphorylated formaldehyde acetals and some of the structurally related compounds, such as thioacetals, aminonitriles, aminomethylphosphinoyl compounds, are considered. Separately considered are halogen aminals of phosphorylated formaldehyde, acetals of phosphorylated formaldehyde of H-phosphinate-type and a phosphorylated gem-diol of formaldehyde. Synthetic methods, chemical properties and examples of practical applications are given.
Computing Airplane Stopping Distance: Applications of Derivatives.
Tylee, J. Louis
1997-01-01
Presents two real world applications that use derivatives and are related to computing the distance required to stop an airplane. Examines the curve-fitting techniques used to develop an equation for braking force and develops equations for the deceleration and speed. (DDR)
Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law
Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef
2007-01-01
Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…
46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.
2010-10-01
... markings prescribed by 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23 and shall otherwise conform to the requirements of 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23. ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...
5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section 1312.7 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION, DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification...
Bacterial degradation of chlorophenols and their derivatives
Arora, Pankaj Kumar; Bae, Hanhong
2014-01-01
Chlorophenols (CPs) and their derivatives are persistent environmental pollutants which are used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, pesticides and other industrial products. CPs, which include monochlorophenols, polychlorophenols, chloronitrophenols, chloroaminophenols and chloromethylphenols, are highly toxic to living beings due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and cytotoxic properties. Several physico-chemical and biological methods have been used for removal of CPs from the environment. B...
Unedoside derivatives in Nuxia and their biosynthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Ravnkilde, Lene; Schripsema, Jan
1998-01-01
An investigation of two species of Nuxia showed that this genus is characterized by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2 "-acetyl-3 "-cinnamoyl-nuxioside were isol...
Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)
1993-12-31
Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.
Efficient pricing algorithms for exotic derivatives
R. Lord (Roger)
2008-01-01
textabstractSince the Nobel-prize winning papers of Black and Scholes and Merton in 1973, the derivatives market has evolved into a multi-trillion dollar market. Structures which were once considered as exotic are now commonplace, appearing in retail products such as mortgages and investment notes.
Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.
Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P
2015-08-01
Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555
Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic.
Yoshida, S.(Department of Physics, Chiba University, 263-8522, Chiba, Japan); Kasuga, S; Hayashi, N; Ushiroguchi, T; Matsuura, H.; Nakagawa, S
1987-01-01
The antifungal activity of six fractions derived from garlic was investigated in an in vitro system. Ajoene had the strongest activity in these fractions. The growth of both Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was inhibited by ajoene at less than 20 micrograms/ml.
Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter
2001-01-01
The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters...
Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Sulfonylurea Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Guang-liang; LI Yao-xian; ZHANG Suo-qin; GAO Fei-fei
2005-01-01
On the basis of study on the mechanism of action of sulfonylurea herbicides, nine sulfonylurea derivatives of iso-xazolidinone were designed and synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by means of IR, MS, NMR and elemental analysis. The results of preliminary active tests indicate that the compounds have some herbicidal activity. The structure-activity relationship was also studied.
Supersymmetric higher derivative couplings and their applications
Lodato, I.
2014-01-01
After an elementary introduction on black hole physics, supersymmetry and effective theories, which motivates the importance of higher derivative couplings in supergravity, we give an exhaustive treatment of the covariant phase space formalism with many examples explicitly worked out. This sets the
Chemiluminescence of indole and its derivatives
Vasil'ev, Rostislav F.; Trofimov, A. V.; Tsaplev, Yuri B.
2010-02-01
The results of studies on chemiluminescence of indole and its derivatives are critically analyzed. It is shown that chemical transformations of indoles lead, depending on the structure and experimental conditions, to various electronically excited products and emission of light. Many reactions considered are used as a basis for highly sensitive methods for detection of indoles in biology, medicine, ecology and forensics.
Diclofenac derivatives with insulin-sensitizing activity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian Ta Wang; Ying Wang; Ji Quan Zhang; Xing Cui; Yi Zhang; Gao Feng Zhu; Lei Tang
2011-01-01
A series of diclofenac derivatives were synthesized. The insulin-sensitizing activity of 28 new compounds was evaluated in 3T3-L1 cells. The compounds 10a and 10f exhibited similar insulin-sensitizing activity with positive drag rosiglitazone.
Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides
Leijdekkers, M.
2015-01-01
Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering
Risk Management and Financial Derivatives: An Overview
S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
2012-01-01
textabstractRisk management is crucial for optimal portfolio management. One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance is the expansion of financial derivatives. The purpose of this special issue on “Risk Management and Financial Derivatives” is to highlight some areas in which novel econome
Orchard navigation using derivative free Kalman filtering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Søren; Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Jens Christian;
2011-01-01
This paper describes the use of derivative free filters for mobile robot localization and navigation in an orchard. The localization algorithm fuses odometry and gyro measurements with line features representing the surrounding fruit trees of the orchard. The line features are created on basis of...
Theoretical derivation of heliostat tracking errors distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badescu, Viorel [Candida Oancea Institute of Solar Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei 313, Bucharest 060042 (Romania)
2008-12-15
The tracking error probability distribution is derived on a pure theoretical basis. Methods of integral geometry and geometrical probabilities are used to this purpose. The distribution performs reasonably well when compared with measurements from a small database. The performance of the theoretical distribution is compared with that of other (empirical) probability distributions. The practical relevance of using the present approach is also explained. (author)
Fullerene derivatives with increased dielectric constants
Jahani, Fatemeh; Torabi, Solmaz; Chiechi, Ryan C; Koster, L Jan Anton; Hummelen, Jan C
2014-01-01
The invention of new organic materials with high dielectric constants is of extreme importance for the development of organic-based devices such as organic solar cells. We report on a synthetic way to increase the dielectric constant of fullerene derivatives. It is demonstrated that introducing trie
Generalized Voigt functions and their derivatives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sampoorna, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India) and Laboratoire Cassiopee (CNRS, UMR 6202), Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in; Nagendra, K.N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Laboratoire Cassiopee (CNRS, UMR 6202), Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Frisch, H. [Laboratoire Cassiopee (CNRS, UMR 6202), Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)
2007-03-15
This paper deals with a special class of functions called generalized Voigt functions H{sup (n)}(x,a) and G{sup (n)}(x,a) and their partial derivatives, which are useful in the theory of polarized spectral line formation in stochastic media. For n=0 they reduce to the usual Voigt and Faraday-Voigt functions H(x,a) and G(x,a). A detailed study is made of these new functions. Simple recurrence relations are established and employed for the calculation of the functions themselves and of their partial derivatives. Asymptotic expansions are given for large values of x and a. They are used to examine the range of applicability of the recurrence relations and to construct a numerical algorithm for the calculation of the generalized Voigt functions and of their derivatives valid in a large (x,a) domain. It is also shown that the partial derivatives of the usual H(x,a) and G(x,a) can be expressed in terms of H{sup (n)}(x,a) and G{sup (n)}(x,a)
Higher-Derivative Supergravity and Moduli Stabilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciupke, David; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Louis, Jan [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fachberich Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik
2015-05-15
We review the ghost-free four-derivative terms for chiral superfields in N=1 supersymmetry and supergravity. These terms induce cubic polynomial equations of motion for the chiral auxiliary fields and correct the scalar potential. We discuss the different solutions and argue that only one of them is consistent with the principles of effective field theory. Special attention is paid to the corrections along flat directions which can be stabilized or destabilized by the higher-derivative terms. We then compute these higher-derivative terms explicitly for the type IIB string compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold with fluxes via Kaluza-Klein reducing the (α'){sup 3}R{sup 4} corrections in ten dimensions for the respective N=1 Kaehler moduli sector. We prove that together with flux and the known (α'){sup 3}-corrections the higher-derivative term stabilizes all Calabi-Yau manifolds with positive Euler number, provided the sign of the new correction is negative.
Synthesis and application of epoxy starch derivatives
Huijbrechts, A.M.L.; Haar, ter R.; Schols, H.A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Boeriu, C.G.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.
2010-01-01
Epoxy starch derivatives were synthesized by epoxidation of allylated starch. The reaction was performed with low substituted 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl-waxy maize starch (AHP-WMS; degree of substitution (DS) of 0.23) using hydrogen peroxide and acetonitrile Via a two step spectrophotometric assay,
Polyprenylated benzophenone derivatives from Cuban propolis.
Hernández, Ingrid Márquez; Fernandez, Mercedes Campo; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Rastrelli, Luca
2005-06-01
Three new polyprenylated benzophenone derivatives, propolones B-D (5-7), together with garcinielliptone I (8) and hyperibone B (9), were isolated from Cuban propolis. All the structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and computer-generated molecular modeling. PMID:15974622
Stereoselective Synthesis of Butenolide and Butyrolactone Derivatives
SIRIT, Abdulkadir
2000-01-01
Optically active butenolide and g-butyrolactone derivatives were prepared by removing (R)-phenyl glycinol and (1R, 2R)-norpseudoephedrine used as chiral auxiliaries from butenolides and g-butyrolactones in two steps. The structures of these products were determined using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mass spect., IR and microanalysis.
Facile synthesis of acacetin and its derivatives.
Zhao, Yuan; Cai, Li; Sui, Qiang; Lin, Feng; Jiang, Wen; Chen, Jianli; Lu, Weigeng; Gao, Qi
2016-08-01
Acacetin, a O-methylated bioflavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Xuelianhua (Saussurea tridactyla), is a promising orally effective atrium-selective antiarrhythmic agent for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Here we describe an efficient two-component method for the synthesis of acacetin and its derivatives. PMID:27321812
Synthesis of [60]Fullerene-Podophyllotoxin Derivative
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO,Li-Wei(郭礼伟); GAO,Xiang(高翔); ZHANG,Dan-Wei(张丹维); WU,Shi-Hui(吴世晖); WU,Hou-Ming(吴厚铭)
2002-01-01
The [60]fullerene-podophyllotoxin derivative (3) was obtained by the phosphine promeoted[2 + 3]cycloaddition reaction ofpodophyllotoxin buta-2,3-dienoate (2) and [60]fullerene. The structures of starting mateerial (2) and product (3) were confirmed by UV-vis, IR, NMR and MS spectroscopies.
Current-induced forces: a simple derivation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Todorov, Tchavdar N.; Dundas, Daniel; Lü, Jing-Tao;
2014-01-01
We revisit the problem of forces on atoms under current in nanoscale conductors. We derive and discuss the five principal kinds of force under steady-state conditions from a simple standpoint that-with the help of background literature-should be accessible to physics undergraduates. The discussio...
Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties
In this poster presentation, we will discuss the synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose (1), amino-benzyl cellulose (2) and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose (3). All cellulose derivatives are synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide h...
Testing Expected Shortfall Models for Derivative Positions
Kerkhof, F.L.J.; Melenberg, B.; Schumacher, J.M.
2003-01-01
In this paper we test several risk management models for computing expected shortfall for one-period hedge errors of hedged derivatives positions.Contrary to value-at-risk, expected shortfall cannot be tested using the standard binomial test, since we need information of the distribution in the tail
Actuarial risk measures for financial derivative pricing
M.J. Goovaerts; R.J.A. Laeven
2008-01-01
We present an axiomatic characterization of price measures that are superadditive and comonotonic additive for normally distributed random variables. The price representation derived involves a probability measure transform that is closely related to the Esscher transform, and we call it the Esscher
Interest Rate Derivative Pricing with Stochastic Volatility
Chen, B.
2012-01-01
One purpose of exotic derivative pricing models is to enable financial institutions to quantify and manage their financial risk, arising from large books of portfolios. These portfolios consist of many non-standard exotic financial products. Risk is managed by means of the evaluation of sensitivity
Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors
Pavlovic, Dusko; Pepper, Peter; Smith, Douglas R.
2010-01-01
Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors have mainly been based on posit-and-prove verification or on the application of domain-specific templates and transformations. We show how to derive the up
The methods of synthesis of glycerin derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this chapter of book authors present some methods of synthesis of glycerin derivatives, in particular, synthesis of 3-met oxi-1.2-propandiol, 1.3-di-benzil-oxi-2-propanol, 1-ge xi-lox-3-chlorine-2-propanol and other
Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.
Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P
2015-08-01
Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis.
$\\Phi$-derivable approximations in gauge theories
Arrizabalaga, A
2003-01-01
We discuss the method of $\\Phi$-derivable approximations in gauge theories. There, two complications arise, namely the violation of Bose symmetry in correlation functions and the gauge dependence. For the latter we argue that the error introduced by the gauge dependent terms is controlled, therefore not invalidating the method.
Microscopic Derivation of Ginzburg-Landau Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frank, Rupert; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert;
2012-01-01
We give the first rigorous derivation of the celebrated Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, starting from the microscopic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model. Close to the critical temperature, GL arises as an effective theory on the macroscopic scale. The relevant scaling limit is semiclassical...
Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael
With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic...
Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael
Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...
Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives: An Overview
C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze. Th
Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives : An overview
C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze. Th
Synthesis of F-18 labeled raloxifene derivative
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, K. C.; Moon, B. S.; Jun, K. S. [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Ji, D. Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2005-07-01
Raloxifene, [6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) benzo [b] thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)phenyl] methanone, a tissue-selective estrogen mixed agonist/antagonist, classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, uterine dysfunction, and other disorders of the female reproductive system. Based on SAR studies of substituted raloxifenes, we synthesized 3 kinds of fluoroalkylated raloxifene derivatives. These compounds show high relative binding affinities (RBA) to the estrogen receptor in vitro (RBA of estradiol = 100%). The RBA values for compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 89, 60, and 45%, respectively, which are all higher than that of raloxifene itself (34%). Among these compounds, we selected to take the best RBA value one and F-18 labeled. Using 2 kinds of labeling method ; 1) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 10 min at 120 .deg. C. 2) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 15 min at 120 .deg. C in ionic liquid, [bmim][OTf]. Deprotection step added 1N HCl and reacted for 3 min at 120 .deg. C. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative obtained 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield by HPLC system (C18 xterra, 10 i, 34% Acetonitrile/0.1 M formate buffer, flow rate: 4 mL/1 min, collection time : 28-29 min) and total time was around 70 min. Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative has the best RBA value among the other synthesized derivatives and chose it for radiolabeling. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative prepared 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield. This preparation is on going for labeling optimizing and preparing of in vitro and in vivo test.
WEATHER INDEX- THE BASIS OF WEATHER DERIVATIVES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Botos Horia Mircea
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.
A New Grünwald-Letnikov Derivative Derived from a Second-Order Scheme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. A. Jacobs
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A novel derivation of a second-order accurate Grünwald-Letnikov-type approximation to the fractional derivative of a function is presented. This scheme is shown to be second-order accurate under certain modifications to account for poor accuracy in approximating the asymptotic behavior near the lower limit of differentiation. Some example functions are chosen and numerical results are presented to illustrate the efficacy of this new method over some other popular choices for discretizing fractional derivatives.
Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior
Feigel, Alexander; Engel, Assaf
2008-01-01
Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spiders, to predator inspection by sticklebacks and to territorial defense by lions, demonstrating animal behavior as a new type of game theoretical equilibrium. Games animals play may be derived unequivocally from their observable behavior, the reconstruction, however, can be subjected to fundamental limitations due to our inability to observe all information exchange mechanisms (communication).
Renminbi Derivatives: Recent Development and Issues
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wensheng Peng; Chang Shu; Raymond Yip
2007-01-01
This study reviews the developments in the onshore and offshore renminbi derivatives markets. The onshore market has seen a rapid build-up in the market infrastructure and price discovery mechanism in the past year, with empirical evidence suggesting that its pricing is increasingly determined by financial fundamentals, such as the covered interest rate parity. However, the growth of the market has been restrained by restrictions on the participant base, limited variations in the RMB/US$ exchange rate, market participants'lack of technical capacity and experience, and inadequate supporting financial market infrastructure. The non-deliverable forward (NDF) market, concentrated in Hong Kong and Singapore, is more developed, but has the drawback that its pricing is not tied to financial fundamentals. The comparison between onshore and offshore markets suggests that two issues are of particular importance for future derivatives market development in China: the balance between regulation and development, and the relationship between onshore and offshore markets.
Carbon gels derived from natural resources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Celzard
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Most carbon gels investigated so far and reportedin the literature were prepared from resorcinolcrosslinked with formaldehyde in water, and weregenerally dried with supercritical CO2 before beingpyrolysed. In the present paper, through someselected examples, we show how valuable carbongels can be derived from other phenolic resourceshaving a natural origin. Special emphasis is givento tannin and lignin, both derived from wood, aspotential precursors of carbon aero- and cryogels.However, natural compounds not obeying the usualconcepts of sol-gel chemistry may also be used forpreparing carbon gels, such as cellulose, and evenglucose. In the latter case, hydrothermal treatmentforces the phase separation to occur, and leads tomonoliths which can be advantageously convertedinto carbon aerogels by supercritical drying andsubsequent pyrolysis.
Electrochemical Behavior of Biologically Important Indole Derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cigdem Karaaslan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Voltammetric techniques are most suitable to investigate the redox properties of a new drug. Use of electrochemistry is an important approach in drug discovery and research as well as quality control, drug stability, and determination of physiological activity. The indole nucleus is an essential element of a number of natural and synthetic products with significant biological activity. Indole derivatives are the well-known electroactive compounds that are readily oxidized at carbon-based electrodes, and thus analytical procedures, such as electrochemical detection and voltammetry, have been developed for the determination of biologically important indoles. This paper explains some of the relevant and recent achievements in the electrochemistry processes and parameters mainly related to biologically important indole derivatives in view of drug discovery and analysis.
Fundamentals and advanced techniques in derivatives hedging
Bouchard, Bruno
2016-01-01
This book covers the theory of derivatives pricing and hedging as well as techniques used in mathematical finance. The authors use a top-down approach, starting with fundamentals before moving to applications, and present theoretical developments alongside various exercises, providing many examples of practical interest. A large spectrum of concepts and mathematical tools that are usually found in separate monographs are presented here. In addition to the no-arbitrage theory in full generality, this book also explores models and practical hedging and pricing issues. Fundamentals and Advanced Techniques in Derivatives Hedging further introduces advanced methods in probability and analysis, including Malliavin calculus and the theory of viscosity solutions, as well as the recent theory of stochastic targets and its use in risk management, making it the first textbook covering this topic. Graduate students in applied mathematics with an understanding of probability theory and stochastic calculus will find this b...
Renewable polyethylene mimics derived from castor oil.
Türünç, Oĝuz; Montero de Espinosa, Lucas; Meier, Michael A R
2011-09-01
An increasing number of reports on the syntheses of carbohydrate- and plant oil-based polymers has been published in ongoing efforts to produce plastic materials from renewable resources. Although many of these polymers are biodegradable and this is a desirable property for certain applications, in some cases non-degradable polymers are needed for long-term use purposes. Polyolefins are one of the most important classes of materials that have already taken their places in our daily life. On the other hand, their production relies on fossil resources. Therefore, within this contribution, we discuss synthetic routes toward a number of polyethylene mimics derived from fatty acids via thiol-ene and ADMET polymerization reactions in order to establish more sustainable routes toward this important class of polymers. Two different diene monomers were thus prepared from castor oil derived platform chemicals, their polymerization via the two mentioned routes was optimized and compared to each other, and their thermal properties were investigated.
Inequalities for a polynomial and its derivative
Chanam, Barchand; Dewan, K. K.
2007-12-01
Let , 1[less-than-or-equals, slant][mu][less-than-or-equals, slant]n, be a polynomial of degree n such that p(z)[not equal to]0 in z0, then for 0Yadav and Pukhta [K.K. Dewan, R.S. Yadav, M.S. Pukhta, Inequalities for a polynomial and its derivative, Math. Inequal. Appl. 2 (2) (1999) 203-205] proved Equality holds for the polynomial where n is a multiple of [mu]E In this paper, we obtain an improvement of the above inequality by involving some of the coefficients. As an application of our result, we further improve upon a result recently proved by Aziz and Shah [A. Aziz, W.M. Shah, Inequalities for a polynomial and its derivative, Math. Inequal. Appl. 7 (3) (2004) 379-391].
Arbitrage-free valuation of energy derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This chapter focuses on techniques available for valuing energy-contingent claims and develops an arbitrage-free framework to value energy derivatives. The relationship between the spot, forward and futures prices is explained. Option valuation with deterministic convenience yields is discussed using an extension of the Black (1976) framework, and details of the risk-neutral valuation of European options, and valuation of American and European-style options are given. Option valuations with stochastic convenience yields, the evolution of the term structure of convenience yield, and a tree approach to valuing American and other options are discussed. Applications and limitations of the models for pricing energy derivative products are considered. The stochastic differential equation for the futures prices when the convenience yields are stochastic is presented in an appendix
Photocatalytic Based Degradation Processes of Lignin Derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Colin Awungacha Lekelefac
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Photocatalysis, belonging to the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs, is a potential new transformation technology for lignin derivatives to value added products (e.g., phenol, benzene, toluene, and xylene. Moreover, lignin represents the only viable source to produce aromatic compounds as fossil fuel alternative. This review covers recent advancement made in the photochemical transformation of industrial lignins. It starts with the photochemical reaction principle followed by results obtained by varying process parameters. In this context, influences of photocatalysts, metal ions, additives, lignin concentration, and illumination intensity and the influence of pH are presented and discussed. Furthermore, an overview is given on several used process analytical methods describing the results obtained from the degradation of lignin derivatives. Finally, a promising concept by coupling photocatalysis with a consecutive biocatalytic process was briefly reviewed.
Synthesis of metronidazole derivatives as antigiardiasis agents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khabnadideh S.
2007-04-01
Full Text Available Metronidazole (MTZ and its derivatives have been extensively used to treat infections caused by protozoa and anaerobic bacteria. In this investigation several novel imidazole and nitroimidazol derivatives namely: 2-(1H-1-imidazolyl-1-phenyl-1-ethanol 1a, 2-(2-methyl-1H-1-imidazolyl-1-phenyl-1-ethanol 1b, 2-(2-methyl-4-nitro-1H-1-imidazolyl-1-phenyl-1-ethanol 1c, 2-(1H-1-imidazolyl-1-cyclohexanol 2d and 2-(2-methyl-4-nitro-1H-1-imidazolyl-1-cyclohexanol 2e were prepared by the reaction of the corresponding imidazoles with styrene oxide or cyclohexene oxide respectively and their biological activity against Giardia lamblia cyst in compareison with MTZ were determined by flotation technique based on Bingham method. These compounds were less active than metronidazole but showed significant antigiardiasis activity.
Feynman graph derivation of Einstein quadrupole formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The one graviton transition operator, and consequently, the classical energy loss formula for gravitational radiation are derived from the Feynman graphs of helicity +- 2 theories of gravitation. The calculations are done both for the case of electromagnetic and gravitational scattering. The departure of the in and out states from plane waves owing to the long range nature of gravitation is taken into account to improve the Born approximation calculations. This also includes a long range modification of the graviton wave function which is shown to be equivalent to the classical problem of the true light cones deviating logarithmically at large distances from the flat space light cones. The transition from the S-matrix elements calculated graphically to the graviton transition operator is done by using complimentarity of space-time and momentum descriptions. The energy loss formula derived originally by Einstein is shown to be correct. (Auth.)
Synthesis of β-Amino Acid Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Yonghua; Ma Zhihua; Jiang Nan; Wang Jianbo
2004-01-01
In recent years, β-amino acids and their derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their occurrence in biologically active natural products, such as dolastatins,cyclohexylnorstatine and Taxol. β-Amino acids also find application in the synthesis of β-lactams,piperidines, indolizidines. Moreover, the peptides consisting of β-amino acids, the so-called β-peptides, have been extensively studied recently. Consequently, considerable efforts have been directed to the synthesis of β-amino acids and their derivatives1. In particular, stereoselective synthesis of β-amino acids has been a challenging project, and there are only limited methods available. In this presentation, we report our efforts in this area.
Perturbative unitarity of Higgs derivative interactions
Kikuta, Yohei
2012-01-01
We study the perturbative unitarity bound given by dimension six derivative interactions consisting of Higgs doublets. These operators emerge from kinetic terms of composite Higgs models or integrating out heavy particles that interact with Higgs doublets. They lead to new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. One of characteristic contributions by derivative interactions appear in vector boson scattering processes. Longitudinal modes of massive vector bosons can be regarded as Nambu Goldstone bosons eaten by each vector field with the equivalence theorem. Since their effects become larger and larger as the collision energy of vector bosons increases, vector boson scattering processes become important in a high energy region around the TeV scale. On the other hand, in such a high energy region, we have to take the unitarity of amplitudes into account. We have obtained the unitarity condition in terms of the parameter included in the effective Lagrangian for one Higgs doublet models. Applying it to some of mode...
Modelling of lossy coils using fractional derivatives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Ingo [Federal Armed Forces Underwater Acoustics and Marine Geophysics Research Institute, D-24148 Kiel (Germany); Krueger, Klaus [Institute of Automation Technology, Helmut-Schmidt-University/University of the Armed Forces, 22043 Hamburg (Germany)
2008-02-21
Coils exposed to eddy current and hysteresis losses are conventionally described by an inductance with equivalent core-loss resistance connected in parallel. The value of the equivalent core-loss resistance depends on the working frequency and the external wiring. Thus the model is less than satisfactory. The authors propose to describe loss inductance using fractional derivatives containing both a loss term and a storage term. After introducing the theory of fractional derivatives, the operating mode of the fractional coil model is explained by the example of an RLC oscillating circuit. Subsequent measurements of a series resonant circuit with a lossy coil impressively confirm the theoretical model with regard to both the frequency and time domains.
Liquid crystalline cellulose derivatives for mirrorless lasing
Wenzlik, Daniel
2013-01-01
In this thesis cholesteric films made of liquid crystalline cellulose derivatives with improved optical properties were prepared. The choice of the solvent, hydrogen bond influencing additives, the synthetic realization of a very high degree of substitution on the cellulosic polymer and the use of mechanical stirring at the upper concentration limit of the liquid crystalline range were the basis for an improved alignment of the applied cellulose tricarbamates. In combination with a tuned subs...
FOREST AREA DERIVATION FROM SENTINEL-1 DATA
Dostálová, Alena; Hollaus, Markus; Milenković, Milutin; Wagner, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
The recently launched Sentinel-1A provides the high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data with very high temporal coverage over large parts of European continent. Short revisit time and dual polarization availability supports its usability for forestry applications. The following study presents an analysis of the potential of the multi-temporal dual-polarization Sentinel-1A data for the forest area derivation using the standard methods based on Otsu thresholding and K-means clusterin...
Information Asymmetry in Pricing of Credit Derivatives
Hillairet, Caroline; Jiao, Ying
2010-01-01
We study the pricing of credit derivatives with asymmetric information. The managers have complete information on the value process of the firm and on the default threshold, while the investors on the market have only partial observations, especially about the default threshold. Different information structures are distinguished using the framework of enlargement of filtrations. We specify risk neutral probabilities and we evaluate default sensitive contingent claims in these cases.
Solgel-derived photosensitive germanosilicate glass monoliths.
Heaney, A D; Erdogan, T
2000-12-15
We demonstrate volume gratings written in solgel-derived, Ge-doped silica monoliths. Glass was fabricated both with and without germanium oxygen deficient center (GODC) defects. The UV absorption and UV-induced index changes of these glasses, with and without hydrogen loading, are reported. The presence of GODC defects greatly enhances the photosensitivity of Ge-doped silica with and without the presence of hydrogen. PMID:18066337
A Facile Synthesis of Pyrrolidine Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Zhi-Hui; CHEN Jing-Bo; WANG Cheng-Ying; LIU Xiao-Long; REN Zhou-Yang; TU Yong-Qiang; ZHANG Hong-Bin
2003-01-01
@@ The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids have attracted considerable attention for their interesting biological activities. [1] Many of these tyrosine derived alkaloids[2] incorporate a hexahydroindole moiety in the structural skeletons. New approaches towards the synthesis of hexahydroindole core have been a topical interest for the synthetic community.Herein we report an experimentally very simple method for the synthesis of hexahydroindole by aminocylization. Four kinds of N-substituted have been demonstrate to be effective to this cyclization. The results were summarized in Figure 1.
On Butterfly effect in Higher Derivative Gravities
Alishahiha, Mohsen; Naseh, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid
2016-01-01
We study butterfly effect in $D$-dimensional gravitational theories containing terms quadratic in Ricci scalar and Ricci tensor. One observes that due to higher order derivatives in the corresponding equations of motion there are two butterfly velocities. The velocities are determined by the dimension of operators whose sources are provided by the metric. The three dimensional TMG model is also studied where we get two butterfly velocities at generic point of the moduli space of parameters. At critical point two velocities coincide.
Higher derivative super Yang-Mills theories
Bergshoeff, E.; Rakowski, M.; Sezgin, E.
1987-01-01
The most general higher derivative Yang-Mills actions of the type (F^2 + Î±^2F^4) which are globally supersymmetric up to order Î±^2 in six- and ten-dimensional spacetimes are given. The F^4-terms turn out to occur in the combination Î±^2[tr F^4 - Â¼(tr F^2)^2], where the trace is over the Lorentz i
Bioavailability of Plant-Derived Antioxidants
Abourashed, Ehab A.
2013-01-01
Natural products with antioxidant properties have been extensively utilized in the pharmaceutical and food industry and have also been very popular as health-promoting herbal products. This review provides a summary of the literature published around the first decade of the 21st century regarding the oral bioavailability of carotenoids, polyphenols and sulfur compounds as the three major classes of plant-derived antioxidants. The reviewed original research includes more than 40 compounds belo...
Supersymmetric higher derivative couplings and their applications
Lodato, I.
2014-01-01
After an elementary introduction on black hole physics, supersymmetry and effective theories, which motivates the importance of higher derivative couplings in supergravity, we give an exhaustive treatment of the covariant phase space formalism with many examples explicitly worked out. This sets the stage for the two distinct analyses that follow. The first analysis relies on the superconformal formalism of supergravity and its multiplet structure. We explicitly construct a new class of N=2 hi...
Antifungal activities of some indole derivatives.
Xu, Hui; Wang, Qin; Yang, Wen-Bin
2010-01-01
Nine indole derivatives were evaluated in vitro against Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria alternata, Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Pyricularia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumarinum, and Alternaria brassicae. Most of the compounds were found to possess antifungal activities. Especially compounds 2, 5, 8, and 9 exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activities against the above-mentioned seven phytopathogenic fungi, and showed more potent activities than hymexazole, a commercial agricultural fungicide. PMID:20737910
VARIOUS APPROACHES FOR SYNTHESIS OF OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES
Srivastav Sanchit; Pandeya S.N
2011-01-01
Oxadiazole, a five-membered heterocycle having two carbon atoms, two nitrogen atoms, one oxygen atom, and two double bonds, inclusive of inductive effect & having efficient anticancer, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-allergic activity etc... The presence of heterocyclic structures exerts various physiologic effects on the body. In the present study we have reviewed several newer approches of synthesizing the substituted oxadiazole derivatives via catalytic reaction & by the appl...
Derivative Spectrophotometric Estimation of Ondansetron and Paracetamol
Ravi Kumar, P.; M Murali Krishna; P. Bhanu Prakash; B. Anil Kumar; P. Madhusudhan
2006-01-01
A simple and reproducible spectrophotometric method, requiring no prior separation, has been developed for the estimation of ondansetron and paracetamol in combined dosage form. First order derivative spectroscopy method is adopted to eliminate spectral interference. The methods obey Beer’s Law in concentration ranges employed for evaluation. Ondansetron and paracetamol have λmax at 302 nm and 246 nm respectively in methanol. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and recov...
Recursively implementating the Gaussian and its derivatives
Deriche, Rachid
1993-01-01
Gaussian filtering is one of the most successfully operation in computer vision in order to reduce noise, calculating the gradient intensity change or performing Laplacian or the second directional derivative of an image. However, it is well known that in a multi-resolution context, where the need for large filters is required, this technique suffers from the fact it is a computationally expensive since the number of operations per point in convolving an image with a Gaussian filter is direct...
Service component derivation and composition in Arctis
Xu, Fei
2013-01-01
Collaboration based development has its main focus on service level composition. Services are considered as reusable units and modeled as collaborations among roles performed by possibly distributed components. The problem addressed in this thesis is how components can be derived from the service models and how such components can be composed together in order to make a composite component and eventually a system. The purpose is to gain benefits such as flexibility in composition, allow compo...
Particle production in higher derivative theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
G P Singh; A Beesham; R V Deshpande
2000-05-01
The effect of particle production on the evolution of the spatially ﬂat Friedmann–Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker cosmological model during the early stages of the universe is analysed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The universe has been considered as an open thermodynamic system where particle production gives rise to a supplementary negative creation pressure in addition to the thermodynamic pressure. The dynamical behaviour of both exponential as well as power law solutions have been discussed.
Pricing Credit Derivatives with Rating Transitions
Viral V. Acharya; Das, Sanjiv Ranjan; Rangarajan K. Sundaram
2002-01-01
We develop a model for pricing risky debt and valuing credit derivatives that is easily calibrated to existing variables. Our approach is based on expanding the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (1990) term-structure model and its extension, the Das-Sundaram (2000) model to allow for defaultable debt with rating transitions. The framework has two salient features, comprising extensions over the earlier work: (i) it employs a rating transition matrix as the driver for the default process, and (ii) the entir...
CREDIT DERIVATIVES PRICING WITH STOCHASTIC VOLATILITY MODELS
CARL CHIARELLA; SAMUEL CHEGE MAINA; CHRISTINA NIKITOPOULOS SKLIBOSIOS
2013-01-01
This paper proposes a model for pricing credit derivatives in a defaultable HJM framework. The model features hump-shaped, level dependent, and unspanned stochastic volatility, and accommodates a correlation structure between the stochastic volatility, the default-free interest rates, and the credit spreads. The model is finite-dimensional, and leads (a) to exponentially affine default-free and defaultable bond prices, and (b) to an approximation for pricing credit default swaps and swaptions...
Credit Derivative Pricing with Stochastic Volatility Models
Carl Chiarella; Samuel Chege Maina; Christina Nikitopoulos-Sklibosios
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a framework for pricing credit derivatives within the defaultable Markovian HJM framework featuring unspanned stochastic volatility. Motivated by empirical evidence, hump-shaped level dependent stochastic volatility specifications are proposed, such that the model admits finite dimensional Markovian structures. The model also accommodates a correlation structure between the stochastic volatility, default-free interest rates and credit spreads. Default free and defaultable ...
Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers
Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.
1991-06-01
The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.
Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles
In-Yup Jeon; Jong-Beom Baek
2010-01-01
Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organ...
Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior
Feigel, Alexander; Englander, Avraham; Engel, Assaf
2008-01-01
Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spi...
Aminopyrimidine derivatives as adenosine antagonists / Janke Kleynhans
Kleynhans, Janke
2013-01-01
Aims of this project - The aim of this study was to design and synthesise novel 2-aminopyrimidine derivatives as potential adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists. Background and rationale - Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder (after Alzheimer’s disease) and is characterised by the selective death of the dopaminergic neurons of the nigro-striatal pathway. Distinctive motor symptoms include bradykinesia, muscle rigidity and tremor, while non-m...
Use of sulphamide derivatives as neuroprotectors
Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez Pérez, Juan; Romero, Miguel; Fernández Espejo, Emilio; Goya, Pilar; Páez, Juan A.
2011-01-01
[EN] The present invention relates to the use of a group of sulphamide derivatives with neuroprotective capacity that are of use in the treatment and/or prevention of diseases associated with cell death, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease (sporadic fonns and hereditary fonns), cerebral ischaemia, lateral amyotrophic sclerosis, post encephalitic parkinsonism, and also other rare diseases involving neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease and spino-cerebellar ataxias.
Einstein solvmanifolds with a simple Einstein derivation
Nikolayevsky, Y.
2007-01-01
The structure of a solvable Lie groups admitting an Einstein left-invariant metric is, in a sense, completely determined by the nilradical of its Lie algebra. We give an easy-to-check necessary and sufficient condition for a nilpotent algebra to be an Einstein nilradical whose Einstein derivation has simple eigenvalues. As an application, we classify filiform Einstein nilradicals (modulo known classification results on filiform graded Lie algebras).
Literature Review of Polymer Derived Ceramics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterson, Reuben James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-05-25
Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs), also known as preceramic polymers, are valuable coating agents that are used to produce surface barriers on substrates such as stainless steel. These barriers protect against a multitude of environmental threats, and have been used since their research and development in 19772. This paper seeks to review and demonstrate the remarkable properties and versatility that PDCs have to offer, while also giving a brief overview of the processing techniques used today.
Synthesis and bioactivity of novel phthalimide derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tao Wang; Yi Hua Zhang; Hui Ji; Yan Ping Chen; Si Xun Peng
2008-01-01
Novel phthalimide derivatives (4a, 4b and 6a-6e) were designed as hybrids of thalidomide and NO-ASA, and their chemicalsynthesis and in vitro biological activities were presented. The preliminary results showed that compared to thalidomide 4a and 4bexhibited enhanced activities against ECV304 and HepG2 cells, whereas 6c was more potent against HepG2 cells.
Waste-Wood-Derived Fillers for Plastics
English, Brent; Clemons, Craig M.; Stark, Nicole; Schneider, James P.
1996-01-01
Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper fiber, are also effective as fillers. The goal of this project was to generate commercial interest in using waste-wood–paper-...
Photopolymerization induced by a benzophenone derivative photoinitiator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A benzophenone derivative photoinitiator, HBP-TDI-HQ-TDI-HBP (HTCTH), was synthesized based on 4-hydroxy benzophenone (HBP), toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroquinone (HQ). HTCTH was a more effective photoinitiator which had longer wavelength absorption in the UV-vis absorption spectra than the low molecular counterpart benzophenone (BP). It showed that both rate of polymerization (Rp) and final conversion (P) increased with increase of amine and HTCTH concentration in photopolymerization.
TD-DFT Study on Pyrazoline Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
The molecular structures of ground state and first single excited state for pyrazoline derivatives are optimized with DFT B3LYP method and ab initio "configuration interaction with single excitations"(CIS) method, respectively. The frontier molecular orbital characteristics have been analyzed systematically, and the electronic transition mechanism has been discussed. Electronic spectra are calculated by using TD-DFT method. These results are consistent with those from the experiment.
A new bibenzyl derivative from Pleione bulbocodioides
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xin Qiao Liu; Qiao Yu Yuan; Yuan Qiang Guo
2008-01-01
A new bibenzyl derivative 1, named 2-(4"-hydrixybenzyl)-3-(3'-hydroxyphenethyl)-5-methoxy-cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, and two known stilbenoids (2, 3) were isolated from the tubers of Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe. Their structureswere elucidated by spectroscopic methods.2008 Xin Qiao Liu. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.
Generalised derived limits for radioisotopes of plutonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) are evaluated for plutonium isotopes in materials from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and for discharge to atmosphere. They are intended for use as convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared and atmospheric discharges assessed. GDLs are calculated using assumptions concerning the habits and location of the critical group of exposed individuals in the population. They are intended for use when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the GDL. If the level of environmental contamination or discharge to the atmosphere exceeds this percentage of the GDL it does not necessarily mean that the dose equivalents to members of the public are approaching the dose equivalent limit. It is rather an indication that it may be appropriate to obtain a more specific derived limit for the particular situation by reviewing the values of the parameters involved in the calculation. GDL values are specified for plutonium radionuclides in air, water, soil, sediments and various foodstuffs derived from the terrestrial and aquatic environments. GDLs are also given for plutonium radionuclides on terrestrial surfaces and for their discharge to atmosphere. (author)
Long-memory volatility in derivative hedging
Tan, Abby
2006-10-01
The aim of this work is to take into account the effects of long memory in volatility on derivative hedging. This idea is an extension of the work by Fedotov and Tan [Stochastic long memory process in option pricing, Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance 8 (2005) 381-392] where they incorporate long-memory stochastic volatility in option pricing and derive pricing bands for option values. The starting point is the stochastic Black-Scholes hedging strategy which involves volatility with a long-range dependence. The stochastic hedging strategy is the sum of its deterministic term that is classical Black-Scholes hedging strategy with a constant volatility and a random deviation term which describes the risk arising from the random volatility. Using the fact that stock price and volatility fluctuate on different time scales, we derive an asymptotic equation for this deviation in terms of the Green's function and the fractional Brownian motion. The solution to this equation allows us to find hedging confidence intervals.
Carbon nanomaterials: Biologically active fullerene derivatives.
Bogdanović, Gordana; Djordjević, Aleksandar
2016-01-01
Since their discovery, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene attract significant attention of researches in various scientific fields including biomedicine. Nano-scale size and a possibility for diverse surface modifications allow carbon nanoallotropes to become an indispensable nanostructured material in nanotechnologies, including nanomedicine. Manipulation of surface chemistry has created diverse populations of water-soluble derivatives of fullerenes, which exhibit different behaviors. Both non-derivatized and derivatized fullerenes show various biological activities. Cellular processes that underline their toxicity are oxidative, genotoxic, and cytotoxic responses.The antioxidant/cytoprotective properties of fullerenes and derivatives have been considered in the prevention of organ oxidative damage and treatment. The same unique physiochemical properties of nanomaterials may also be associated with potential health hazards. Non-biodegradability and toxicity of carbon nanoparticles still remain a great concern in the area of biomedical application. In this review, we report on basic physical and chemical properties of carbon nano-clusters--fullerenes, nanotubes, and grapheme--their specificities, activities, and potential application in biological systems. Special emphasis is given to our most important results obtained in vitro and in vivo using polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C₆₀(OH)₂₄. PMID:27483572
P-Splines Using Derivative Information
Calderon, Christopher P.
2010-01-01
Time series associated with single-molecule experiments and/or simulations contain a wealth of multiscale information about complex biomolecular systems. We demonstrate how a collection of Penalized-splines (P-splines) can be useful in quantitatively summarizing such data. In this work, functions estimated using P-splines are associated with stochastic differential equations (SDEs). It is shown how quantities estimated in a single SDE summarize fast-scale phenomena, whereas variation between curves associated with different SDEs partially reflects noise induced by motion evolving on a slower time scale. P-splines assist in "semiparametrically" estimating nonlinear SDEs in situations where a time-dependent external force is applied to a single-molecule system. The P-splines introduced simultaneously use function and derivative scatterplot information to refine curve estimates. We refer to the approach as the PuDI (P-splines using Derivative Information) method. It is shown how generalized least squares ideas fit seamlessly into the PuDI method. Applications demonstrating how utilizing uncertainty information/approximations along with generalized least squares techniques improve PuDI fits are presented. Although the primary application here is in estimating nonlinear SDEs, the PuDI method is applicable to situations where both unbiased function and derivative estimates are available.
Forest Area Derivation from SENTINEL-1 Data
Dostálová, Alena; Hollaus, Markus; Milenković, Milutin; Wagner, Wolfgang
2016-06-01
The recently launched Sentinel-1A provides the high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data with very high temporal coverage over large parts of European continent. Short revisit time and dual polarization availability supports its usability for forestry applications. The following study presents an analysis of the potential of the multi-temporal dual-polarization Sentinel-1A data for the forest area derivation using the standard methods based on Otsu thresholding and K-means clustering. Sentinel-1 data collected in winter season 2014-2015 over a test area in eastern Austria were used to derive forest area mask with spatial resolution of 10m and minimum mapping unit of 500 m2. The validation with reference forest mask derived from airborne full-waveform laser scanning data revealed overall accuracy of 92 % and kappa statistics of 0.81. Even better results can be achieved when using external mask for urban areas, which might be misclassified as forests when using the introduced approach based on SAR data only. The Sentinel-1 data and the described methods are well suited for forest change detection between consecutive years.
14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500... PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The application of derivative classification markings is a responsibility of those who incorporate, paraphrase, restate,...
On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ick-Soon Chang
2008-06-01
Full Text Available We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.
On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kang Sheon-Young
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.
The Synthesis of 6-Alkyl-5-Fluorouracil Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
6-alkyl-5-fluorouracil derivatives (5a～5f) were synthesized by facile alkylation of lithiation of 5-fluorouracil derivatives with mthyl iodide (MeI) or alkyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (ROTf) in yield of 42～58%. We found that the methylated product was ethyl-substituted derivatives, not methyl-substituted derivatives.
On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations
Kang Sheon-Young; Chang Ick-Soon; Kim Hark-Mahn
2008-01-01
Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation). Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation) mapping into the Jacobson radical.
Data on correlation between CT-derived and MRI-derived myocardial extracellular volume
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshie Kurita
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This article describes data related to a research article titled “Estimation of myocardial extracellular volume fraction with cardiac CT in subjects without clinical coronary artery disease: A feasibility study”, Kurita et al. (in press [1]. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV is an imaging biomarker that can elevate in various heart diseases. This article describes correlation between CT-derived and MRI-derived ECV in 24 myocardial segments in 8 patients. CT-derived ECV was obtained from pre-contrast and delayed-phase images acquired by using dual-source CT system. MRI-derived ECV was obtained by using modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence implemented on a 3 T MRI system.
Adipose-derived stem cells versus bone marrow-derived stem cells for vocal fold regeneration.
Hiwatashi, Nao; Hirano, Shigeru; Mizuta, Masanobu; Tateya, Ichiro; Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Ito, Juichi
2014-01-01
[Objectives/Hypothesis]Vocal fold scarring presents therapeutic challenges. Recently, cell therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells has become a promising approach. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) with bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) for vocal fold regeneration. [Study Design]Prospective animal experiments with controls. [Methods]The vocal folds of Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally injured. Two months after injury, rat...
Wen-Chang Chen; Chan-Chieh Lin; Veerababurao Kavala; Chun-Wei Kuo; Chia-Yu Huang; Ching-Fa Yao
2015-01-01
An easy and efficient procedure for the synthesis of 4-indolylquinoline derivatives is described. This process involves two steps, the first of which is the Michael addition of indole to nitrochalcones promoted by sulfamic acid under solvent free conditions and the second step is a reductive cyclization of the indolylnitrochalcone intermediates to 4-indolylquinoline derivatives by Fe/HCl in ethanol. In both steps, the reactions are clean and the yields of products are high.
MODERN TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DERIVATIVES MARKET
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Shelydko
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Article is devoted to analysis of structure and peculiarities of development of the international derivatives market. The history of formation of the international derivatives market is investigated. The nature, functions and advantages of use of derivatives, and also their role in the modern international securities market are defined. Classification of financial derivatives is considered. Product lines of financial derivatives are analyzed. The regional structure of the international derivatives market and dynamics of its development are investigated. The comparative characteristic of volumes and structure of exchange and over-the-counter segments of international derivatives market are carried out. Dynamics and structure of international markets of interest-bearing derivatives and currency derivatives are analyzed. The fundamental trends of development of the modern international derivatives market are defined.
ON THE DERIVATIVE OF SMOOTH MEANINGFUL FUNCTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanjo Zlobec
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The derivative of a function f in n variables at a point x* is one of the most important tools in mathematical modelling. If this object exists, it is represented by the row n-tuple f(x* = [∂f/∂xi(x*] called the gradient of f at x*, abbreviated: “the gradient”. The evaluation of f(x* is usually done in two stages, first by calculating the n partials and then their values at x = x*. In this talk we give an alternative approach. We show that one can characterize the gradient without differentiation! The idea is to fix an arbitrary row n-tuple G and answer the following question: What is a necessary and sufficient condition such that G is the gradient of a given f at a given x*? The answer is given after adjusting the quadratic envelope property introduced in [3]. We work with smooth, i.e., continuously differentiable, functions with a Lipschitz derivative on a compact convex set with a non-empty interior. Working with this class of functions is not a serious restriction. In fact, loosely speaking, “almost all” smooth meaningful functions used in modelling of real life situations are expected to have a bounded “acceleration” hence they belong to this class. In particular, the class contains all twice differentiable functions [1]. An important property of the functions from this class is that every f can be represented as the difference of some convex function and a convex quadratic function. This decomposition was used in [3] to characterize the zero derivative points. There we obtained reformulations and augmentations of some well known classic results on optimality such as Fermats extreme value theorem (known from high school and the Lagrange multiplier theorem from calculus [2, 3]. In this talk we extend the results on zero derivative points to characterize the relation G = f(x*, where G is an arbitrary n-tuple. Some special cases: If G = O, we recover the results on zero derivative points. For functions of a single
Higher Derivative Correction to the Hawking Flux via Trace Anomaly
Shirasaka, Akihide
2008-01-01
In this paper we derive Hawking radiation of black holes with higher derivative corrections by the method of trace anomaly. Firstly we derive Hawking radiation for general spherical black holes. We introduce a modified tortoise coordinate to it and find the analyticity of the coordinate. Secondly we apply its method to a black hole with a higher derivative correction and derive the Hawking radiation of it. We found that as an ordinary case the flux depends only on the surface gravity.
Black holes in higher derivative gravity.
Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S
2015-05-01
Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics.
Analytically Derived Wind Wave Growth Relations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
管长龙; 孙群
2002-01-01
By the use of the 3/2 power law presented by Toba combined with the significant wave energy balance equation forwind wave, wind wave growth at a limited fetch is analytically investigated. The new wind wave growth relations(WWGRs) are analytically derived with sheltering coefficient and wind drag coefficient as parameters. The geometricalaverage of observational values of sheltering coefficient and the arithmetic average of observational values of wind drag co-efficient are applied to determine the new WWGRs. Comparisons with existing empirical WWGRs are made.
Multiple operator integrals and higher operator derivatives
Peller, V. V.
2005-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of the existence of higher derivatives of the function $t\\mapsto\\f(A+tK)$, where $\\f$ is a function on the real line, $A$ is a self-adjoint operator, and $K$ is a bounded self-adjoint operator. We improve earlier results by Sten'kin. In order to do this, we give a new approach to multiple operator integrals. This approach improves the earlier approach given by Sten'kin. We also consider a similar problem for unitary operators.
N-Salicylideneamine Derivatives with TEMPO Substituents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ShinÃ¢Â€Â™ichi Nakatsuji
2004-08-01
Full Text Available Three N-salicylideneamine derivatives bearing TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetra- methyl-1-piperidinyloxy substituents were prepared in order to study their structure and property relationships and to investigate the possibilities of the existence of heat and/or light responsive magnetic properties. Curie-Weiss behavior with weak ferromagnetic intermolecular spin-spin interactions was observed in one of the radicals, while antiferromagnetic interactions were predominant for the other radicals and the structure-property relationships were investigated for the radical compounds from their crystal structures obtained by X-ray analyses. Preliminary results of the examination of their responses towards light and heat are also described.
Synthesis and antifungal activity of trichodermin derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jing Li Cheng; Yong Zhou; Jin Hao Zhao; Chu Long Zhang; Fu Cheng Lin
2010-01-01
A series of derivatives were synthesized from trichodermin(1)which was an antifungal metabolite produced by Trichoderma taxi sp.nov.Their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR,MS spectrum.Their antifungal activities were evaluated in vitro.The preliminary structure activity relationships(SAR)results indicated that the double bond,epoxide moiety and ester group were main pharmacophore elements,the stereochemistry of C4 position played a key role as well,and the compounds 1e-1g displayed stronger antifungal activity against Magnaporthe grisea than 1.
A New Bezoxepine Derivative from Senecio desfontainei
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syed Hamid Hussain
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Senecio desfontainei afforded one new benzoxepin derivative, Senecioside (1 along with eleven known compounds (2-12. Their structures were assigned from 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT and by 2D COSY, NOE, HSQC and HMBC experiments. All these compounds were tested for antioxidant activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Among them, compounds 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 showed significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals.
[A new eremophilane derivative from Senecio dianthus].
Han, He-Dong; Hu, Hai-Qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ling
2013-10-01
A new eremophilane derivative, 4,5,11-trimethyl-9( 10), 7 ( 11) -eremophiladien-8-keto-12-carboxylic acid-beta-D-glucopyranoside( which named dianthuside A) 1 and four known compounds, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavonone-3-0-beta-D-glucoside (2), quercetin-3-0-beta-D-glucoside(3) ,hyperin(4) and rutin(5) have been isolated from the aerial part of Senecio dianthus. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:24422395
Molecular Recognition Studies on Naphthyridine Derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Carlos Iglesias-Sánchez
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The association constants Kb of three hosts I–III designed to have both enhanced hydrogen bonding donor strength and conformational preorganization with biotin analogues 1–5 are reported. 1H-NMR titrations under two different concentration conditions have been employed to determine the association constants Kb. A statistical analysis using a presence absence matrix has been applied to calculate the different contributions. Hydrogen bond interactions make naphthyridine derivatives II and III potent binders and effective receptors for (+-biotin methyl ester (1, due to the complex stabilization by additional hydrogen bonds.
Residues in food derived from animals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs
Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crivello, J.V.
1992-10-01
The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.
Bioavailability of Plant-Derived Antioxidants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ehab A. Abourashed
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Natural products with antioxidant properties have been extensively utilized in the pharmaceutical and food industry and have also been very popular as health-promoting herbal products. This review provides a summary of the literature published around the first decade of the 21st century regarding the oral bioavailability of carotenoids, polyphenols and sulfur compounds as the three major classes of plant-derived antioxidants. The reviewed original research includes more than 40 compounds belonging to the above mentioned classes of natural antioxidants. In addition, related reviews published during the same period have been cited. A brief introduction to general bioavailability-related definitions, procedures and considerations is also included.
Portfolio Selection Model with Derivative Securities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王春峰; 杨建林; 蒋祥林
2003-01-01
Traditional portfolio theory assumes that the return rate of portfolio follows normality. However, this assumption is not true when derivative assets are incorporated. In this paper a portfolio selection model is developed based on utility function which can capture asymmetries in random variable distributions. Other realistic conditions are also considered, such as liabilities and integer decision variables. Since the resulting model is a complex mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, simulated annealing algorithm is applied for its solution. A numerical example is given and sensitivity analysis is conducted for the model.
Photoelectrochemical Properties of Graphene and Its Derivatives
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Alberto Adán-Más
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Graphene and its derivatives combine a numerous range of supreme properties that can be useful in many applications. The purpose of this review is to analyse the photoelectrochemical properties of pristine graphene, graphene oxide (GO and reduced graphene oxide (rGO and their impact on semiconductor catalysts/quantum dots. The mechanism that this group of materials follows to improve their performance will be cleared by explaining how those properties can be exploited in several applications such as photo-catalysts (degradation of pollutants and photovoltaics (solar cells.
Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells
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Risheng eMa
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO.Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.
Black holes in higher derivative gravity.
Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S
2015-05-01
Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics. PMID:25978224
ISOMORPHISMS AND DERIVATIONS IN C*-ALGEBRAS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lee Jung-Rye; Shin Dong-Yun
2011-01-01
In this article, we prove the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of the following Cauchy-Jensen functional inequality:||f(x) + f(y) + 2f(z) + 2f(w)|| ≤ ||2f (x +y /2+ z +w)|| (0.1)This is applied to investigate isomorphisms between C*-algebras, Lie C*-algebras and JC*-algebras, and derivations on C*-algebras, Lie C*-algebras and JC*-algebras, associated with the Cauchy-Jensen functional equation2f(x+y/2+z+w)=f(x)+f(y)+2f(z)+2f(w).(0.2)
Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.
Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori
2015-12-01
Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed. PMID:26568373
Derivational and Semantic Relations of Croatian Verbs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krešimir Šojat
2012-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with certain morphosemantic relations between Croatian verbs and discusses their inclusion in Croatian WordNet. The morphosemantic relations in question are the semantic relations between unprefixed infinitives and their prefixed derivatives. We introduce the criteria for the division of aspectual pairs and further discuss verb prefixation which results in combinations of prefixes and base forms that can vary in terms of meaning from compositional to completely idiosyncratic. The focus is on the regularities in semantic modifications of base forms modified by one prefix. The aim of this procedure is to establish a set of morphosemantic relations based on regular or reoccuring meaning alternations.
VARIOUS APPROACHES FOR SYNTHESIS OF IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bharti Ashish
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Imidazole, a five-membered heterocycle having three carbon atoms, two nitrogen atoms, and two double bonds, having efficient antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coil, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, anti-cancer, mutagenic activity against Salmonella typhimurium, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-allergic activity etc. The presence of heterocyclic structures exerts various physiologic effects on the body. In the present study we have reviewed several newer approches of synthesizing the substituted imidazole derivatives via catalytic reaction & by the application of various suitable reagents.
Efficient pricing algorithms for exotic derivatives
Lord, Roger
2008-01-01
textabstractSince the Nobel-prize winning papers of Black and Scholes and Merton in 1973, the derivatives market has evolved into a multi-trillion dollar market. Structures which were once considered as exotic are now commonplace, appearing in retail products such as mortgages and investment notes. At the same time, new and more complex structures are invented on a regular basis. To price and risk manage such products, a financial engineer will typically: (1) choose a model which is both econ...
Synthesis of novel fused quinazolinone derivatives.
Mahdavi, Mohammad; Lotfi, Vahid; Saeedi, Mina; Kianmehr, Ebrahim; Shafiee, Abbas
2016-08-01
A four-step synthetic route was developed for the synthesis of novel fused quinazolinones, quinazolino[3,4-a]quinazolinones, and isoinodolo[2,1-a]quinazolino[1,2-c]quinazolineones. Reaction of isatoic anhydride and different amines gave various 2-aminobenzamides. Then, reaction of 2-aminobenzamides with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde followed by the reduction of nitro group afforded 2-(2-aminophenyl)-3-aryl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives. Finally, reaction of the latter compounds with aromatic aldehydes or 2-formylbenzoic acid led to the formation of the corresponding products. PMID:27209476
[A new eremophilane derivative from Senecio dianthus].
Han, He-Dong; Hu, Hai-Qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ling
2013-10-01
A new eremophilane derivative, 4,5,11-trimethyl-9( 10), 7 ( 11) -eremophiladien-8-keto-12-carboxylic acid-beta-D-glucopyranoside( which named dianthuside A) 1 and four known compounds, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavonone-3-0-beta-D-glucoside (2), quercetin-3-0-beta-D-glucoside(3) ,hyperin(4) and rutin(5) have been isolated from the aerial part of Senecio dianthus. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time.
Nullification in scalar theories with derivative couplings
Argyres, E. N.; Papadopoulos, C. G.; Bruinsma, M.; Kleiss, R.
1996-01-01
We discuss the structure of scalar field theories having the property that all on-shell S-matrix elements vanish in tree approximation. It is shown that there exists a large class of such theories, with derivative couplings, which are all locally related to a free theory by a nonlinear transformation. It is also shown that a field-dependent wave-function renormalization provides all necessary counterterms so that all on-shell S-matrix elements vanish also at the one-loop level.
Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Diterpenylnaphthoquinone Derivatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann
2011-10-01
Full Text Available New diterpenylquinones, combining a diterpene diacid and a naphthoquinone, were prepared from junicedric acid and lapachol. The new derivatives were assessed as gastroprotective agents by the HCl-EtOH-induced gastric lesions model in mice as well as for basal cytotoxicity on the following human cell lines: Normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5, gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma (AGS, and hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2. Several of the new compounds were significantly active as antiulcer agents and showed selective cytotoxicity against AGS cells.
Deriving the unit hydrograph by root selection
Turner, J. E.; Dooge, J. C. I.; Bree, T.
1989-09-01
De Laine's method of deriving the unit hydrograph from the common roots of polynomials corresponding to different storms is used as a basis for proposing a new procedure in which the unit hydrograph roots can be selected from among the polynomial roots for the runoff of a single storm. The selection is made on the basis that the complex unit hydrograph roots form a characteristic "skew circle" pattern when plotted on an Argand diagram. The application of the procedure to field data is illustrated for both a single-peaked and a double-peaked event.
A Simplified Procedure for Safety Requirements Derivation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugen Ioan Gergely
2008-05-01
Full Text Available The paper develops a procedure for analysis of PLC-controlled system risk due to component failure and for derivation of safety integrity requirements for components, focusing on software requirements. The approach allows fully integrated treatment of random and systematic failure. It can be applied at different levels of design detail and at different stages of the system development lifecycle. The procedure does not address how to assess failure rates, but provides a foundation for integrating PLC software assessment into system riskassessment and for making trade-offs in design.
Adipose derived stem cells and nerve regeneration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Alessandro Faroni; Richard JP Smith; Adam J Reid
2014-01-01
Injuries to peripheral nerves are common and cause life-changing problems for patients along-side high social and health care costs for society. Current clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries predominantly relies on sacriifcing a section of nerve from elsewhere in the body to pro-vide a graft at the injury site. Much work has been done to develop a bioengineered nerve graft, precluding sacriifce of a functional nerve. Stem cells are prime candidates as accelerators of re-generation in these nerve grafts. This review examines the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to improve nerve repair assisted by bioengineered nerve grafts.
Stable Tricyclic Antitubercular Ozonides Derived from Artemisinin.
Chaudhary, Sandeep; Sharma, Vashundhra; Jaiswal, Pradeep K; Gaikwad, Anil N; Sinha, Sudhir K; Puri, Sunil K; Sharon, Ashoke; Maulik, Prakas R; Chaturvedi, Vinita
2015-10-16
New, highly stable tricyclic antitubercular ozonides 9 and 10 derived from artemisinin are reported in 39 and 9% yields, respectively. The ozonide groups of 9 and 10 were found to be stable under strong basic and acidic conditions. The absolute configuration of ozonides 9 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Ozonide 10 shows promising antitubercular activity against M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. tuberculosis H37Rv with MIC values of 0.39 and 3.12 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26430796
Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors
Pavlovic, Dusko; Smith, Douglas R
2010-01-01
Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors have mainly been based on posit-and-prove verification or on the application of domain-specific templates and transformations. We show how to derive the upper reaches of a family of concurrent garbage collectors by refinement from a formal specification, emphasizing the application of domain-independent design theories and transformations. A key contribution is an extension to the classical lattice-theoretic fixpoint theorems to account for the dynamics of concurrent mutation and collection.
Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
In-Yup Jeon
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles are expected to display synergistically improved properties. The potential applications of the resultant nanocomposites are various, e.g. automotive, aerospace, opto-electronics, etc. Here, we review recent progress in polymer-based inorganic nanoparticle composites.
Derivation of an applied nonlinear Schroedinger equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laine, Mark Richard [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schwarz, Jens [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rambo, Patrick K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-01-01
We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release
Black Holes in Higher-Derivative Gravity
Lu, H; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S
2015-01-01
Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this paper we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics.
Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.
Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori
2015-12-01
Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed.
Studies on some derivatives of oxamniquine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
el-Hamouly, W.; Pica-Mattoccia, L.; Cioli, D.; Schwartz, H.M.; Archer, S.
1988-08-01
On the basis of the remarkable biological similarities between hycanthone and oxamniquine and as a sequel to our finding that some esters of hycanthone are active against hycanthone-resistant schistosomes, we prepared oxamniquine acetate, oxamniquine N-methylcarbamate, and four substituted phenylsulfonohydrazones of oxamniquine aldehyde. These compounds were tested for their effect on survival of and on (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation into hycanthone-sensitive and -resistant Schistosoma mansoni. All of these derivatives were effective to a greater or lesser degree in killing worms and in inhibiting (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation in the sensitive strain, but none was effective in the resistant strain.
New naphthoquinone derivatives against glioma cells.
Redaelli, Marco; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Gennaro, Armando; Pezzani, Raffaele; Pasquale, Riccardo; Pavan, Valeria; Crisma, Marco; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Zagotto, Giuseppe
2015-01-01
This work was aimed to the development of a set of new naphtoquinone derivatives that can act against glioma. The compounds were tested in order to find out their ability to inhibit the growth of glioma cells, and the results of these assays were correlated with electrochemical analysis and NMR-based reoxidation kinetic studies, suggesting that a redox mechanism underlies and may explain the observed biological behavior. In addition to a full description of the synthetic pathways, electrochemistry, NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction data are provided. PMID:25916907
Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)
1997-10-01
It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
H Mohan; A Adhikary; V Jain; J P Mittal
2000-08-01
The pulse radiolysis technique has been employed to investigate the reaction of DNA-minor-groove ligand bisbenzimidazole Hoechst 33258 with pyrimidine and purine nucleotide-derived radicals. Formation of an N-centred Hoechst-33258 radical is observed. Bimolecular rate constants and the yields of Hoechst-33258 radical have been evaluated. While the rate constant for the reaction of pyrimidine-derived radicals with Hoechst-33258 remained the same (1-2) × 109 dm3 mol-1s-1, the yields of the Hoechst-33258 radical varied from 25% (5 -cytidine monophosphate) to 75% (5 -guanosine monophosphate) under anoxic conditions. The rate constant values for the reaction of purine-derived radicals with Hoechst-33258, under oxic and anoxic conditions, remained the same whereas with pyrimidine-derived radicals, the rate constant value under oxic conditions was about two orders of magnitude lower than under anoxic conditions. The difference in the yields of Hoechst-33258 radical with various nucleotide-derived radicals suggest the formation of different types of radicals and that the reaction mainly occurs by electron transfer from Hoechst-33258 to the nucleotide radicals.
Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.
1998-01-01
Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.
Scalar wormholes with nonminimal derivative coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider static spherically symmetric wormhole configurations in a gravitational theory of a scalar field with a potential V(Π) and nonminimal derivative coupling to the curvature described by the term (εgμν + κGμν)Π, μΠ, ν in the action. We show that the flare-out conditions providing the geometry of a wormhole throat could be fulfilled both ifΠμ = -1 (phantom scalar) and Πμ = +1 (ordinary scalar). Supposing additionally a traversability, we construct numerical solutions describing traversable wormholes in the model with arbitrary κ, Πμ = -1 and V(Π) 0 (no potential). The traversability assumes that the wormhole possesses two asymptotically flat regions with corresponding Schwarzschild masses. We find that asymptotical masses of a wormhole with nonminimal derivative coupling could be positive and/or negative depending on κ. In particular, both masses are positive only provided κ 1 ≤ 0; otherwise, one or both wormhole masses are negative. In conclusion, we give qualitative arguments that a wormhole configuration with positive masses could be stable. (paper)
Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.
1995-06-01
The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.
Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry
2000-07-01
Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.
Einstein's 1916 derivation of the Field Equations
Weinstein, Galina
2013-01-01
In his first November 4, 1915 paper Einstein wrote the Lagrangian form of his field equations. In the fourth November 25, 1915 paper, Einstein added a trace term of the energy-momentum tensor on the right-hand side of the generally covariant field equations. The main purpose of the present work is to show that in November 4, 1915, Einstein had already explored much of the main ingredients that were required for the formulation of the final form of the field equations of November 25, 1915. The present work suggests that the idea of adding the second-term on the right-hand side of the field equation might have originated in reconsideration of the November 4, 1915 field equations. In this regard, the final form of Einstein's field equations with the trace term may be linked with his work of November 4, 1915. The interesting history of the derivation of the final form of the field equations is inspired by the exchange of letters between Einstein and Paul Ehrenfest in winter 1916 and by Einstein's 1916 derivation ...
Tobin Tax: Arguments and Current Derivative Studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ozekicioglu Seda
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Tobin Tax and its derivative applications have started to be discussed again in many platforms as the issue regarding taxation of short-term capital movements has become an agenda among international communities such as European Union (EU and G20 since the beginning of 2000s. In this study, Tobin Tax, which is the first significant step towards taxation of foreign currency transactions, has been discussed theoretically and considering its possible effects on application. Also, in this context, the initiatives of countries such as USA, Belgium, France and Austria regarding international implementation of Tobin Tax and its derivatives are being evaluated. The intended use of the taxes, determination of transactions exempt from tax and international cooperation in the implementation of taxation are possible problems that can be faced regarding Tobin Tax. In this study the conclusion, which the effects of Tobin Tax in developing and developed countries will be different but imposing such tax regarding cyclic balance of the world economy will be a positive improvement, has been reached.
Very Massive Tracers and Higher Derivative Biases
Fujita, Tomohiro; Senatore, Leonardo; Vlah, Zvonimir; Angulo, Raul
2016-01-01
Most of the upcoming cosmological information will come from analyzing the clustering of the Large Scale Structures (LSS) of the universe through LSS or CMB observations. It is therefore essential to be able to understand their behavior with exquisite precision. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a consistent framework to make predictions for LSS observables in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper we focus on biased tracers. We argue that in calculations at a given order in the dark matter perturbations, highly biased tracers will underperform because of their larger higher derivative biases. A natural prediction of the EFTofLSS is therefore that by simply adding higher derivative biases, all tracers should perform comparably well. We implement this prediction for the halo-halo and the halo-matter power spectra at one loop, and the halo-halo-halo, halo-halo-matter, and halo-matter-matter bispectra at tree-level, and compare with simulations. We find good agreement ...
Chromoionophoric Recognition of Alkylamines by Nitro Derivative
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The molecular design of efficient and selective chromogenic and fluorogenic ionophore systems for the sensing of chemically and biologically important ionic guests has attracted much attention in the past decade. Many of the compounds are based on the well-known molecular framework of crown ethers, calixarenes, and other EDTA type efficient chelating compounds. Among them the calix[4]arenes are particularly attractive for their selective ionophoric properties toward many of interesting organic ammonium guests. Particularly, the calix[4]arene-crown ethers are known to have unique binding properties toward some of alkali, alkaline earth metal ions, and biogenic amines. Many of the chromogenic sensing materials are developed by conjugating molecular framework of calix[4]- arene-crown ethers with suitable signaling functions of azophenols, thiazoles, and indophenols. Quite unexpectedly, however, the ionophoric properties of simple nitro derivative of calix[4]arene-crown ethers were not reported, except for the closely related structure having ester-ether functions in crown moiety, in spite of their synthetically easy availability and expectedly efficient ionophoric properties toward organic amine guests. In this paper, we report the ionophoric properties of dinitro derivative of calix[4]arene-crown-5 ether 1 toward representative alkylammonium ions aiming for the development of efficient and selective chromogenic sensing material for the biologically important organic amine guests. The Ba2+-selective chromogenic behavior of 1 over the representative alkali and alkaline earth metal ions has been reported earlier.
A One Line Derivation of EGARCH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael McAleer
2014-06-01
Full Text Available One of the most popular univariate asymmetric conditional volatility models is the exponential GARCH (or EGARCH specification. In addition to asymmetry, which captures the different effects on conditional volatility of positive and negative effects of equal magnitude, EGARCH can also accommodate leverage, which is the negative correlation between returns shocks and subsequent shocks to volatility. However, the statistical properties of the (quasi- maximum likelihood estimator of the EGARCH parameters are not available under general conditions, but rather only for special cases under highly restrictive and unverifiable conditions. It is often argued heuristically that the reason for the lack of general statistical properties arises from the presence in the model of an absolute value of a function of the parameters, which does not permit analytical derivatives, and hence does not permit (quasi- maximum likelihood estimation. It is shown in this paper for the non-leverage case that: (1 the EGARCH model can be derived from a random coefficient complex nonlinear moving average (RCCNMA process; and (2 the reason for the lack of statistical properties of the estimators of EGARCH under general conditions is that the stationarity and invertibility conditions for the RCCNMA process are not known.
Cinnoline derivatives as human neutrophil elastase inhibitors.
Giovannoni, Maria Paola; Schepetkin, Igor A; Crocetti, Letizia; Ciciani, Giovanna; Cilibrizzi, Agostino; Guerrini, Gabriella; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Quinn, Mark T; Vergelli, Claudia
2016-08-01
Compounds that can effectively inhibit the proteolytic activity of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) represent promising therapeutics for treatment of inflammatory diseases. We present here the synthesis, structure-activity relationship analysis, and biological evaluation of a new series of HNE inhibitors with a cinnoline scaffold. These compounds exhibited HNE inhibitory activity but had lower potency compared to N-benzoylindazoles previously reported by us. On the other hand, they exhibited increased stability in aqueous solution. The most potent compound, 18a, had a good balance between HNE inhibitory activity (IC50 value = 56 nM) and chemical stability (t1/2 = 114 min). Analysis of reaction kinetics revealed that these cinnoline derivatives were reversible competitive inhibitors of HNE. Furthermore, molecular docking studies of the active products into the HNE binding site revealed two types of HNE inhibitors: molecules with cinnolin-4(1H)-one scaffold, which were attacked by the HNE Ser195 hydroxyl group at the amido moiety, and cinnoline derivatives containing an ester function at C-4, which is the point of attack of Ser195. PMID:26194018
Atroposelective Synthesis of Axially Chiral Thiohydantoin Derivatives.
Sarigul, Sevgi; Dogan, Ilknur
2016-07-15
Nonracemic axially chiral thiohydantoins were synthesized atroposelectively by the reaction of o-aryl isothiocyanates with amino acid ester salts in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). The synthesis of the nonaxially chiral derivatives, however, gave thiohydantoins racemized at C-5 of the heterocyclic ring. The micropreparatively resolved enantiomers of the nonaxially chiral derivatives from the racemic products were found to be optically stable under neutral conditions. On formation of the 5-methyl-3-arylthiohydantoin ring, bulky o-aryl substituents at N3 were found to suppress the C-5 racemization and in this way enabled the transfer of chirality from the α-amino acid to the products. The corresponding 5-isopropylthiohydantoins turned out to be more prone to racemization at C-5 during the ring formation. The isomer compositions of the synthesized axially chiral thiohydantoins have been determined through HPLC analyses with chiral stationary phases. In most cases a high prevalence of the P isomers over the M isomers has been obtained. The barriers to rotation determined around the Nsp(2)-Caryl chiral axis were found to be dependent upon the size of the o-halo aryl substituents. PMID:27322739
Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area
Derivative Securities on Romanian Capital Market
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramona Maria GOGONCEA
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether the world wide agreed models of valuation of derivates may be properly applied to the Romanian capital market, obtaining reliable results for decision makers. The most common valuation models take into account market data such as, interest and exchange rates, volatilities and the price of the underlying instrument. The procedures for valuation must clearly define the nature of the market data to be taken into consideration (for example the zero-coupon curve for the valuation of swaps and the independent reference base to be used (Reuters at a given time, bid/offer or mid price, broker. In order to be able to obtain the results, I based my study on a self-developed software which can calculate the price and characteristics for different types of derivatives securities once the primary data are filled in. I compared the results obatined usig the valuation models with the actual prices on the Romanian capital market. I expected that the results obtained to be more accurate as the parameters used in the calculation models properly reflect market data as at that date being as widely as possible.. These assumptions were only supported for certain value orientations. In conclusion, explanations for these results are given and limitations for this study are discussed. Also, suggestions for future research are presented in the final part of the article.
Kalman-predictive-proportional-integral-derivative (KPPID)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With third generation synchrotron X-ray sources, it is possible to acquire detailed structural information about the system under study with time resolution orders of magnitude faster than was possible a few years ago. These advances have generated many new challenges for changing and controlling the state of the system on very short time scales, in a uniform and controlled manner. For our particular X-ray experiments on crystallization or order-disorder phase transitions in metallic alloys, we need to change the sample temperature by hundreds of degrees as fast as possible while avoiding over or under shooting. To achieve this, we designed and implemented a computer-controlled temperature tracking system which combines standard Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) feedback, thermal modeling and finite difference thermal calculations (feedforward), and Kalman filtering of the temperature readings in order to reduce the noise. The resulting Kalman-Predictive-Proportional-Integral-Derivative (KPPID) algorithm allows us to obtain accurate control, to minimize the response time and to avoid over/under shooting, even in systems with inherently noisy temperature readings and time delays. The KPPID temperature controller was successfully implemented at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories and was used to perform coherent and time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments.
New derivative of carnosine for nanoparticle assemblies.
Bellia, Francesco; Oliveri, Valentina; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Vecchio, Graziella
2013-01-01
Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) is an endogenous dipeptide, extensively studied owing to its multifunctional activity exhibited in tissues of several animal species. This natural compound may act as a physiological buffer, ion-chelating agent (especially for copper(II) and zinc(II)), antioxidant and antiglycating agent. The main limit for the therapeutical uses of carnosine is the rapid hydrolysis mostly in human plasma by carnosinase. The chemical derivatization of carnosine is a promising strategy to improve the bioavailability of the dipeptide and facilitating the site-specific transport to different tissues. On this basis, a new carnosine derivative with biotin was synthesized and structurally characterized by NMR and MS measurements, with aim of exploiting the avidin-biotin technology that offers a universal system for selective delivery of any biotinylated agent. The stability of the new carnosine derivative towards the hydrolytic action of serum carnosinase as well as the copper(II) binding ability of the carnosine-biotin conjugate were also assessed. The binding affinity of the new molecular entity to avidin and streptavidin, investigated by a spectrophotometric assay, was exploited to functionalize avidin- and streptavidin-gold nanoparticles with the carnosine-biotin conjugate. PMID:24158014
Formulation of benzoporphyrin derivatives in Pluronics.
Chowdhary, Rubinah K; Chansarkar, Namrata; Sharif, Isha; Hioka, Noboru; Dolphin, David
2003-03-01
This study investigates the potential of Pluronics for the formulation of tetrapyrrole-based photosensitizers, with a particular focus on B-ring benzoporphyrin derivatives. The B-ring derivatives have a high tendency to aggregate in aqueous solutions, and this poses a significant formulation problem. Pluronics are ABA-type triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic polypropylene oxide section with two hydrophilic polyethylene oxide sections of equal length at either end. Out of a range of different commercially available block copolymers studied, it was found that the longer the hydrophobic block, the better the stabilization of tetrapyrrolic drugs in monomeric form in aqueous suspensions. Of these the best performance was observed in the micelle-forming Pluronic P123. Micelle size determination by laser light scattering confirmed that particle size in stable Pluronic formulations was around 20 nm. Pluronics such as L122 formed emulsions spontaneously without the need for emulsion stabilizers; emulsions were highly stable at ambient temperatures over several days and also highly effective as potential drug delivery agents. PMID:12685658
Boson Stars in Higher Derivative Gravity
Baibhav, Vishal
2016-01-01
In this paper, we have constructed Boson star (BS) solutions in four dimensional scalar-Gauss-Bonnet (sGB) theory. In order to have non-trivial effect from Gauss-Bonnet term, we invoked non-minimal coupling between a complex scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term with a coupling parameter, $\\alpha$. We show that the scalar field can no longer take arbitrary value at the center of the star. Furthermore, boson-stars in our higher derivative theory turn out to be slightly massive but much more compact than those in the usual Einstein's gravity. Interestingly, we found that for $\\alpha0.8$, binding energy for all possible boson stars is always negative. This implies that these stars are intrinsically stable against the decay by dispersion. We also present the mass-radius and mass-frequency curves for boson-star and compare them with other compact objects in gravity models derived from Gauss-Bonnet term.
GENERALIZED DERIVATIONS ON PARABOLIC SUBALGEBRAS OF GENERAL LINEAR LIE ALGEBRAS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈正新
2014-01-01
Let P be a parabolic subalgebra of a general linear Lie algebra gl(n, F) over a field F, where n ≥ 3, F contains at least n different elements, and char(F) 6= 2. In this article, we prove that generalized derivations, quasiderivations, and product zero derivations of P coincide, and any generalized derivation of P is a sum of an inner derivation, a central quasiderivation, and a scalar multiplication map of P. We also show that any commuting automorphism of P is a central automorphism, and any commuting derivation of P is a central derivation.
Fractional derivatives. An introduction; Derivate frazionarie. Che cosa sono, a cosa servono
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Div. Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)
2001-07-01
In this item is presented a brief survey of fractional calculus and of the relevant applications. In the work are discussed different points of view of the operation of fractional derivative and present a unifying definition. The role played by fractional derivatives and integrals within the framework of integral transform is analyzed. [Italian] In questo articolo si traccia un profilo del cosidetto calcolo frazionario e delle relative applicazioni a problemi di matematica pura ed applicata. Si discutono varie definizioni dell'operazione di derivata frazionaria, non tutte coincidenti fra loro, e si mostra come sia possibile proporre una definizione univoca che inglobi tutte le altre. Si analizza infine il ruolo giocato dalle derivate e dagli integrali frazionari e, piu' in generale, quello degli operatori differenziali ad esponente frazionario, nell'ambito della teoria delle rappresentazioni integrali.
A new diketopiperazine derivative from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496.
Luo, Minghe; Tang, Guiling; Ju, Jianhua; Lu, Laichun; Huang, Hongbo
2016-01-01
A new diketopiperazine (DKP) derivative, (6R,3Z)-3-benzylidene-6-isobutyl-1-methyl piperazine-2,5-dione (1), as well as five known DKPs 2-6 was isolated from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496. The structure of 1 was elucidated using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS and chiral-phase HPLC techniques. Compounds 1-6 did not show cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 100 μM in bioactivity assay.
Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller
2011-12-31
Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TIAN Dongyan; JIN Ming; DUI Guansuo
2006-01-01
A new approach for the derivation of the principal invariants of the stretch tensor with respect to the right Cauchy Green tensor is presented in this paper. According to the definition of the derivation of tensor function, the three first-order derivatives for the principal invariants of the stretch tensor are obtained through derivation directly to the right Cauchy-Green tensor by incremental method. Then the three second-order derivatives are yielded by the derivation to the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor directly. Furthermore, an explicit expression of the tangent modulus of the general Varga material is given as an example.
Free radicals of benzo(a)pyrene and derivatives.
Sullivan, P D
1985-01-01
The evidence for biological involvement, the spectroscopic properties (especially EPR), and the reactions, of free radicals derived from benzo(a)pyrene and its methylated, hydroxylated, and fluorinated derivatives are reviewed.
Functional derivatives, Schr\\"{o}dinger equations, and Feynman integration
Dynin, Alexander
2007-01-01
Schr\\"{o}dinger equations in \\emph{functional derivatives} are solved via quantized Galerkin limit of antinormal functional Feynman integrals for Schr\\"{o}dinger equations in \\emph{partial derivatives
Prophage-Cured Derivatives of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris
Gasson, Michael J.; Davies, F. Lyndon
1980-01-01
Prophage curing was achieved in Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris, and the cured derivatives were shown to be indicators for their temperate bacteriophages. Relysogenization of these cured derivatives completed the first formal demonstration of the lysogenic state in lactic streptococci.
Derivations and Generating Degrees in the Ring of Arithmetical Functions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Alexandru Zaharescu; Mohammad Zaki
2007-05-01
In this paper we study a family of derivations in the ring of arithmetical functions of several variables over an integral domain, and compute the generating degrees of the ring of arithmetical functions over the kernel of these derivations.
Selenium- or tellurium- containing bile acids and derivatives thereof
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This invention relates to the preparation of selenium and tellurium derivatives, particularly γ-emitting radioactive derivatives of bile acids and bile salts. Such compounds are valuable in the examination of body function, especially small bowel function. (author)
STUDY OF ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF SOME HYDRAZONE PINOSTROBIN DERIVATIVES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. K. Mukusheva
2014-01-01
Full Text Available New derivatives on the basis of hydrazone pinostrobin molecule were synthesized. Significant antiviral activity of received samples of new hydrazone pinstrobin derivatives was identified.
Synthesis of Heterocylic Compounds of Biological Interest from Carbohydrate Derivatives
M. F. Martinez EsperÃƒÂ³n; Fascio, M. L.; N. B. DÃ¢Â€Â™Accorso
2000-01-01
The synthesis of some isoxazolic compounds from carbohydrate derivatives is described. These products are obtained by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction and their functionalization leads to derivatives with potential biological activities.
Synthesis and antitumor activity of derivatives of 23-hydroxybetulinic acid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A series of natural product 23-hydroxybetulinic acid derivatives were prepared. In the preparation of mono-O-benzoyl ester derivative, it was observed that benzoyl group migrated from 3-O- to 23-O-position during the detritylation.
Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Hydroxy Semicarbazone Derivatives
Hariri, Elham; Mahboubi, Arash; Rahmani, Parisa; Hajmohammadebrahimtehrani, K.; Babaeian, Mohammad; Mashayekhi, V.; Kobarfard, Farzad
2016-01-01
A series of hydroxysemicarbazone derivatives of substituted diaryl ketones and acetophenones were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by analytical and spectroscopic methods including elemental analysis, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The derivatives were prepared
On an Inequality Concerning the Polar Derivative of a Polynomial
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Aziz; N A Rather
2007-08-01
In this paper, we present a correct proof of an -inequality concerning the polar derivative of a polynomial with restricted zeros. We also extend Zygmund’s inequality to the polar derivative of a polynomial.
ALGEBROIDAL FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVED FUNCTION IN UNIT CIRCULAR DISC
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huo Yingying; Sun Daochun
2009-01-01
In this article, the authors define the derived function of an algeboidal function in the unit disc, prove it is an algabriodal function, and study the order of algebroidal function and that of its derived function in unit circular disc.
Generalized Holographic Superconductors with Higher Derivative Couplings
Dey, Anshuman; Sarkar, Tapobrata
2014-01-01
We introduce and study generalized holographic superconductors with higher derivative couplings between the field strength tensor and a complex scalar field, in four dimensional AdS black hole backgrounds. We study this theory in the probe limit, as well as with backreaction. There are multiple tuning parameters in the theory, and with two non-zero parameters, we show that the theory has a rich phase structure, and in particular, the transition from the normal to the superconducting phase can be tuned to be of first order or of second order within a window of one of these. This is established numerically as well as by computing the free energy of the boundary theory. We further present analytical results for the critical temperature of the model, and compare these with numerical analysis. Optical properties of this system are also studied numerically in the probe limit, and our results show evidence for negative refraction at low frequencies.
Minimizing shortfall risk for multiple assets derivatives
Barski, Michal
2011-01-01
The risk minimizing problem $\\mathbf{E}[l((H-X_T^{x,\\pi})^{+})]\\overset{\\pi}{\\longrightarrow}\\min$ in the Black-Scholes framework with correlation is studied. General formulas for the minimal risk function and the cost reduction function for the option $H$ depending on multiple underlying are derived. The case of a linear and a strictly convex loss function $l$ are examined. Explicit computation for $l(x)=x$ and $l(x)=x^p$, with $p>1$ for digital, quantos, outperformance and spread options are presented. The method is based on the quantile hedging approach presented in \\cite{FL1}, \\cite{FL2} and developed for the multidimensional options in \\cite{Barski}.
Commodity derivatives pricing with inventory effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bach, Christian; Dziubinski, Matt P.
We introduce tractable models for commodity derivatives pricing with inventory and volatility eects, and illustrate with applications to the oil market. We contribute to the existing literature in several respects. First, whereas the previous literature uses futures data for investigating...... the relationship between inventory and volatility, we use the information available in options traded on futures. Second, performance assessment in the previous literature has primarily evolved around explaining moments of data or forecasting prices of futures. Instead, we asses the performance of our model...... by considering both the ability of explaining prices in-sample and out-of-sample - assessing both the pricing-performance and the hedging-performance of the models. Third, we model the futures surface rather than the spot price process, and from the no-arbitrage relationship between spot and futures prices we...
Pyrolisis of municipal solid waste derived fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study of pyrolytic processes for refuse derived fuel from municipal solid wastes, the main process parameters affecting the yield and the physical-chemical characteristics of products (gases, liquids and solids) were identified and analyzed. From the experimental results, one can observe that the pyrolytic process reduces the volume of produced emissions with respect to the conventional incinerators and allows, at the same time, the recovery of a gas with a significant heat capacity (14,000-19,000 kj/nmc) according to the process temperature, two other fuels, a tar and a solid with low ash content. It seems also that the strong environmental impact associable to this process is due to the water fraction of the produced liquid, whose main pollutants were also identified
The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Personality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Montag
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The study of the biological basis of personality is a timely research endeavor, with the aim of deepening our understanding of human nature. In recent years, a growing body of research has investigated the role of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the context of individual differences across human beings, with a focus on personality traits. A large number of different approaches have been chosen to illuminate the role of BDNF for personality, ranging from the measurement of BDNF in the serum/plasma to molecular genetics to (genetic brain imaging. The present review provides the reader with an overview of the current state of affairs in the context of BDNF and personality.
New Thymol Derivate from Centipeda minima
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PU Shou-cheng; GUO Yuan-qiang; GAO Wen-yuan; ZHANG Tie-jun
2009-01-01
@@ 1 Introduction Centipeda minima(Compositae) is an annual herbaceous plant found in moist places throughout the plains mainly in the southern regions of the People's Republic of China, Eastern tropical Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islandst[1,2]. It is a commonly used Chinese folk medicine for colds, whooping cough, nasal allergy, malaria and asthma[2]. A number of sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids and triterpenes have previously been isolated from C. minima[2,3]. During our study on searching for biological active components from this plant, five compounds were isolated. Compound 1 was structurally elucidated as a new thymol derivate, and compounds 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from the plant for the first time.
Grafting of chitosan with fatty acyl derivatives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiandotti, Roberto S.; Rodrigues, Paula C.; Akcelrud, Leni, E-mail: leni@leniak.ne [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept de Quimica
2010-07-01
The internal plasticization of chitosan with covalently linked long aliphatic branches, typically 12C, was accomplished through the condensation of the amino groups of chitosan with acidic derivatives of lauric acid, as lauroyl anhydride or lauroyl chloride, that are more reactive than the fatty acid itself. The chemical pathway led to selective N-acylation. The degree of substitution was quantitatively determined by FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR and varied between 3 and 35%. The FTIR quantitative analysis was based in a calibration method with good accuracy. The modified chitosan products were soluble in neutral water and/or DMF according to the degree of substitution. The modified chitosan films were more flexible than the pristine, non-modified ones. (author)
Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael S. Roberts
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Intravital fluorescence microscopy enables the direct imaging of fluorophores in vivo and advanced techniques such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM enable the simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores. Consequently, it is now possible to record distribution and metabolism of a chemical in vivo and to optimise the delivery of fluorophores in vivo. Recent clinical applications with fluorescein and other intravital fluorescent stains have occurred in neurosurgery, dermatology [including photodynamic therapy (PDT] and endomicroscopy. Potential uses have been identified in periodontal disease, skin graft and cancer surgery. Animal studies have demonstrated that diseased tissue can be specifically stained with fluorophore conjugates. This review focuses on the fluorescein derived fluorophores in common clinical use and provides examples of novel applications from studies in tissue samples.
Synthesis of Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG Xiao-min; OU Yu-xiang; LUO Rui-bin; WANG Yong; LIAN Dan-jun; LI Xin
2008-01-01
Seven caged bicyclic phosphate compounds were synthesized by using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethy1-2,6,7-trioxa-1-pho-sphabicyclo[2.2.2] octane (PEPA) as starting material. Within them were three PEPA derivatives containing single caged bicyclic phosphate structure(1a,2a,3a), another three PEPA deviratives containing two caged bicyclic phosphate structures(1b,2b,3b) and one devirative(1c) containing three caged bicyclic phosphate structures. Structures of the products were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and TG analysis. The reaction conditions were also discussed. Thermal analysis showed they had high thermal stability and excellent char-forming ability. Besides, these compounds had pentaerythritol bone and flame retardant elements of phosphorus, bromine or nitrogen simultaneously in their molecules, endowed them with good fire retardancy, and made them can be used as intumescent flame retardant.
Brane Cosmology and Higher Derivative Theory
Naboulsi, R
2003-01-01
In this paper, we have considered a cosmological model with density perturbation and decreasing cosmological constant of the form Lambda = 3beta (frac{dot{R}^2}{R^2}) + delta (frac{ddot{R}}{R}), beta, gamma = const. Inspired from brane cosmology, we supposed the presence of exotic density related to the cosmological constant by the formula 2Lambda = 3m^2, where m is a constant having the dimension of Hubble constant. Their effects on the evolution of the spatially, flat FRW cosmoligical model of the Universe is analyzed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The Universe is found to be accelerating with time with no initial singularity for beta < frac{1}{3} and the cosmological constant is found to decrease as t^{-2} but smaller than 3H^2. The presence of interacting scalar field is also discussed.
Autocrine Effects of Tumor-Derived Complement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Soon Cho
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We describe a role for the complement system in enhancing cancer growth. Cancer cells secrete complement proteins that stimulate tumor growth upon activation. Complement promotes tumor growth via a direct autocrine effect that is partially independent of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells. Activated C5aR and C3aR signal through the PI3K/AKT pathway in cancer cells, and silencing the PI3K or AKT gene in cancer cells eliminates the progrowth effects of C5aR and C3aR stimulation. In patients with ovarian or lung cancer, higher tumoral C3 or C5aR mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival. These data identify a role for tumor-derived complement proteins in promoting tumor growth, and they therefore have substantial clinical and therapeutic implications.
Phenanthrene derivatives from the orchid Coelogyne cristata.
Majumder, P L; Sen, S; Majumder, S
2001-10-01
Coeloginanthridin, a 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivative, and coeloginanthrin, the corresponding phenanthrene analogue, were isolated from the orchid Coelogyne cristata which earlier afforded coelogin (1a) and coeloginin (1b). The structures of coeloginanthridin and coeloginanthrin were established as 3,5,7-trihydroxy-1,2-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (2a) and 3,5,7-trihydroxy-1,2-dimethoxyphenanthrene (2c), respectively, from spectral and chemical evidence including the conversion of coeloginanthridin triacetate (2b) to coeloginanthrin triacetate (2d) by dehydrogenation with DDQ. In the light of earlier reports on structurally similar compounds, 2a and 2c may have biological activities of phytoalexins and endogenous plant growth regulators. PMID:11576602
Phytoestrogens: Plant-derived Estrogenic Compounds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nevzat Konar
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Estrogen is a hormone, which is produced in ovary and testis; however, it has many biological effects besides the reproductive system. Phytoestrogens are the compounds, which have estrogen-like structure and activities, taking place in structure of various edible plants at different levels and in different compositions. These compounds attracted notice after the first quarter of 20th century upon they had been associated with infertility seen in some of animals fed with alfalfa, and these compounds have been identified in human-derived biological samples and its effects on health have been taken under study in the recent 30 years. These materials have especially antioxidant role in plants while they have activities in animals and humans as estrogen agonist and antagonists. Based on their chemical structure, they may be gathered under especially isoflavon and lignan groups while some of members of coumestan and stilbene groups are also identified as phytoestrogenic compound.
Ecotoxicology a derivative of encyclopedia of ecology
Fath, Brian D
2010-01-01
The compilation of the articles in this derivative emphasizes ecological components and fundamental paradigms of ecotoxicology. The alphabetical listing of toxic substances and chemicals in Part B and C serves as a quick reference for professionals. Additionally, the international focus of Ecotoxicology and the range of toxins it covers will make it an indispensable resource to scientists. The password protected companion website will contain Estimation of Ecotoxicological Parameters (EEP) software developed by the author. EEP allows users to get ecotoxicological properties of chemicals in data bases or they can estimate them (there are only a few percentages in the data base). There are very specific estimation methods that only estimate for instance the properties for halogenated aromatic compounds or there are very general estimation methods. EEP covers the very general methods and is fast to use but gives in general estimation of higher uncertainty than the very specific methods.
Synthesis and Fluorescent Property of Pyrazoline Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陆蓓琼; 章建民; 王明剑; 邹元海; 陈晓藿
2012-01-01
A series of fluorinated pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of fluorinated chalcone with hy- drazine ArNHNH2 （Ar=4-BrC6F4, 4-CIC6H4, C6Hs, 4-CH3C6H4 and 4-CH3OC6H4）, The structures of all these compounds were fully supported by their spectroscopic data and one of products was further confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The capability of fluorinated triaryl-2-pyrazolines to detect metal cations was in- vestigated, by monitoring changes in their fluorescence spectra in the presence of Cd^2＋, Co^2＋, Cu^2＋, Mn^2＋, Ni^2＋ and Zn^2＋.
[Synthesis and cytotoxicity of allobetulin derivatives].
Kazakova, O B; Smirnova, I E; Khusnutdinova, E F; Zhukova, O S; Fetisova, L V; Apryshko, G N; Medvedeva, N I; Iamansarov, E Iu; Baĭkova, I P; Nguen, Thanh Tra; Thu, Do Thi H
2014-01-01
The synthesis and screening of antitumor activity in vitro (cytotoxicity) of various oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and platinum-containing derivatives of allobetulin, including different arrangements of the double bonds in the A and B rings, penta- and hexacyclic ring A, 21-acetyl-20,28-epoxy-18α,19βH-ursane-isomeric cycle E, was carry out. (3R,5R)-19β,28-Epoxy-4,5-seco-18α-olean-3(5)-ozonide and 2,3-indolo-21β-acetyl-20β,28-epoxy-18α, H-19β-ursane showed significant cytotoxic activity against melanoma MeWo and Leukemia SR cells, appropriately. (3S,5S)-Diastereomer of the first compound showed no cytotoxicity. PMID:25895356
A topological derivative method for topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Norato, J.; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Haber, RB;
2007-01-01
resource constraint. A smooth and consistent projection of the region bounded by the level set onto the fictitious analysis domain simplifies the response analysis and enhances the convergence of the optimization algorithm. Moreover, the projection supports the reintroduction of solid material in void......We propose a fictitious domain method for topology optimization in which a level set of the topological derivative field for the cost function identifies the boundary of the optimal design. We describe a fixed-point iteration scheme that implements this optimality criterion subject to a volumetric...... regions, a critical requirement for robust topology optimization. We present several numerical examples that demonstrate compliance minimization of fixed-volume, linearly elastic structures....
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study of Coumarin Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAO Chun-feng; ZENG He-ping
2011-01-01
Five new coumarin amide derivatives were synthesized with coupling reagent,the structures of which were characterized by IR,1H NMR,13C NMR,MS and element analysis.Their spectral properties were studied in dichloromethane,in N,N-dimethylformamide(DMF) and in solid state.Solvent polarity has less influence on the UV-Vis maximum absorption at about 430 nm.The maximum emission wavelengths change from 464 nm to 474 nm in dichloromethane,from 476 nm to 482 nm in DMF and from 521 nm to 548 nm in solid state,respectively.The fluorescence intensities of compounds 8 and 9 were extremely strong in solvents or in solid state.Compounds 8 and 9 exhibited high fluorescenct quantumn yields in solution compared to compounds 4-7.The fluorescence lifetimes of all the compounds in solvents were measured.
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectra of Dipeptide Derivatives
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO, Zaigang; ZENG, Chengchu; YANG, Daoshan; HUANG, Yali; WANG, Fang; DU, Hongguang; HU, Liming
2009-01-01
Based on the structure of the HIV integrase core domain, dipeptide derivatives, as a type of HIV integrase in- hibitor, were synthesized, and their fragmentation pathways were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spec- trometry (ESI-MSN) in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In order to better understand the fragmentation pathways, the MS2 and MS3 spectra of the title compound were obtained. The main fragmentation pathways occur by the cleavage of the C-CO bonds between N-(benzothiazol-2-yl)aminocarbonyl and methylene, NH-CO bonds between the NH groups and carbonyl groups. Electrospray ionization was proven to be a good method for the structural characterization and identification of this kind of compound.
Isocorydine Derivatives and Their Anticancer Activities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mei Zhong
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the anticancer activity of isocorydine (ICD, ten isocorydine derivatives were prepared through chemical structure modifications, and their in vitro and in vivo activities were experimentally investigated. 8-Amino-isocorydine (8 and 6a,7-dihydrogen-isocorydione (10 could inhibit the growth of human lung (A549, gastric (SGC7901 and liver (HepG2 cancer cell lines in vitro. Isocorydione (2 could inhibit the tumor growth of murine sarcoma S180-bearing mice, and 8-acetamino-isocorydine (11, a pro-drug of 8-amino-isocorydine (8, which is instable in water solution at room temperature, had a good inhibitory effect on murine hepatoma H22-induced tumors. The results suggested that the isocorydine structural modifications at C-8 could significantly improve the biological activity of this alkaloid, indicating its suitability as a lead compound in the development of an effective anticancer agent.