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Sample records for atrophy precede prostate

  1. Inflammation and Atrophy Precede Prostate Neoplasia in PhIP Induced Rat Model

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    Borowsky, A D; Dingley, K; Ubick, E; Turteltaub, K; Cardiff, R D; DeVere-White, R

    2006-06-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) has been implicated as a major mutagenic heterocyclic amine in the human diet and is carcinogenic in the rat prostate. In order to validate PhIP induced rat prostate neoplasia as a model of human prostate cancer progression, we sought to study the earliest histologic and morphologic changes in the prostate and to follow the progressive changes over time. We fed 67 male Fischer F344 5 week old rats with PhIP (400 PPM) or control diets for 20 weeks, and then sacrificed animals for histomorphologic examination at age 25 weeks, 45 weeks, and 65 weeks. Animals treated with PhIP showed significantly more inflammation (P=.002 (25wk), >.001(45wk), .016(65wk)) and atrophy (P=.003(25wk), >.001(45wk), .006 (65wk)) in their prostate glands relative to controls. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) occurred only in PhIP treated rats. PIN lesions arose in areas of glandular atrophy, most often in the ventral prostate. Atypical cells in areas of atrophy show loss of glutathione S-transferase pi immunostaining preceding development of PIN. None of the animals in this study developed invasive carcinomas differing from previous reports. Overall, these findings suggest that the pathogenesis of prostatic neoplasia in the PhIP treated rat prostate proceeds from inflammation to post-inflammatory proliferative atrophy to PIN.

  2. Inflammation and Atrophy Precede Prostatic Neoplasia in a PhIP-Induced Rat Model

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    Alexander D. Borowsky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-bpyridine (PhIP has been implicated as a major mutagenic heterocyclicamine in the human diet and is carcinogenic in the rat prostate. To validate PhIP-induced rat prostatic neoplasia as a model of human prostate cancer progression, we sought to study the earliest histologic and morphologic changes in the prostate and to follow progressive changes over time. We fed sixty-seven 5-week-old male Fischer F344 rats with PhIP (400 ppm or control diets for 20 weeks, and then sacrificed animals for histomorphologic examination at the ages of 25, 45, and 65 weeks. Animals treated with PhIP showed significantly more inflammation (P = .002, > .001, and .016 for 25, 45, and 65 weeks, respectively and atrophy (P = .003, > .001, and .006 for 25, 45, and 65 weeks, respectively in their prostate glands relative to controls. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN occurred only in PhIP-treated rats. PIN lesions arose in areas of glandular atrophy, most often in the ventral prostate. Atypical cells in areas of atrophy show loss of glutathione S-transferase π immunostaining preceding the development of PIN.None of the animals in this study developed invasive carcinomas, differing from those in previous reports. Overall, these findings suggest that the pathogenesis of prostatic neoplasia in the PhIP-treated rat prostate proceeds from inflammation to postinflammatory proliferative atrophy to PIN.

  3. Atrophy in prostate needle biopsy cores and its relationship to prostate cancer incidence in screened men.

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    Postma, R; Schröder, F H; van der Kwast, T H

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate whether the incidence of atrophy reported on sextant biopsies is associated with subsequent prostate cancer detection and to obtain a more thorough analysis of the different categories and extent of atrophy, we performed a review of benign biopsy cores. In the Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer, 4117 and 1840 men underwent sextant biopsy in the first and second screening round (4-year interval), respectively. Sextant biopsy was prompted by elevated prostate-specific antigen levels. For review, randomly taken benign sextant biopsies (n = 202) with a follow-up of at least 8 years were chosen. Before review, atrophy was reported in the biopsies of 11.4% and 8.7% of the first and second round, respectively. The prostate cancer incidence during 8 years of follow-up after an initial diagnosis of atrophy was 10.4%, which was not significantly different than the 12.3% of cancers detected after a benign diagnosis without reference to atrophy. After review, the incidence of simple atrophy, post-atrophic hyperplasia, and sclerotic atrophy in sextant biopsies was 91%, 47%, and 9%, respectively. Extensive atrophy was observed in 5% of biopsies. Only 2 men (4.7%) in the reviewed group had a subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer in the 8 years of follow-up. Additionally, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia was diagnosed in 3 men (7.0%) in the second screening round. Atrophy, especially its simple form, is a very common lesion in prostate biopsy cores (94%). Atrophy in an asymptomatic population undergoing screening was not associated with a greater prostate cancer or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia incidence during subsequent screening rounds.

  4. Baseline Prostate Atrophy is Associated with Reduced Risk of Prostate Cancer in Men Undergoing Repeat Prostate Biopsy.

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    Moreira, Daniel M; Bostwick, David G; Andriole, Gerald L; Peterson, Bercedis L; Cohen, Harvey J; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated whether the presence and severity of baseline prostate atrophy in men with initial biopsy negative for prostate cancer was associated the risk of subsequent prostate cancer detection in a clinical trial with scheduled study mandated biopsies. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 3,084 men 50 to 75 years old with prostate specific antigen between 2.5 and 10 ng/ml, and a prior negative biopsy in the placebo arm of the REDUCE (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) study who completed at least 1 per-protocol biopsy. Prostate cancer (defined as present or absent) and prostate atrophy (graded as absent, mild or moderate/marked) was assessed by central pathology review. The association of baseline atrophy with positive 2 and 4-year repeat biopsies was evaluated with logistic regression, controlling for baseline covariates. Baseline prostate atrophy was detected in 2,143 men (70%) and graded as mild and moderate/marked in 1,843 (60%) and 300 (10%) baseline biopsies, respectively. Patients with atrophy were older and had a larger prostate, and more acute and chronic prostate inflammation. At 2-year biopsy the prostate cancer incidence was 17% (508 cases). Baseline atrophy was significantly associated with lower prostate cancer risk (univariable and multivariable OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.50-0.74 and OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.83, p biopsy. These results were similar at the 4-year biopsy (univariable and multivariable OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.93 and OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.97, p = 0.03, respectively). Relative to no atrophy the prostate cancer risk at the 2-year repeat biopsy was lower for mild atrophy (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86) and moderate/marked atrophy (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34-0.76, each p biopsy negative for prostate cancer was independently associated with subsequent lower prostate cancer detection. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical significance of proliferative inflammatory atrophy in prostate biopsy.

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    Celma, A; Servián, P; Planas, J; Placer, J; Quilez, M T; Arbós, M A; de Torres, I; Morote, J

    2014-03-01

    Proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) is a frequently observed lesion in prostate biopsies and some authors have postulated its involvement in prostate carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms that would permit its neoplastic transformation and the clinical significance of its finding in a prostate biopsy is currently not well known. To analyze the characteristics of the PIA lesion, its possible role in prostate carcinogenesis and its relation with the tumor aggressiveness. A systematic review was made of the literature in PubMed with the terms «proliferative inflammatory atrophy» or «PIA» and «prostate.» The most important findings are summarized in accordance with the study objective. PIA seems to be involved in prostate carcinogenesis. This hypothesis is based on its frequent association to cancer lesions (CaP) and on some genetic alterations that are common to the high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and to the CaP, fundamentally deficit in GSTP1 expression and overexpression of AGR2. Currently, there are no epidemiological studies that evaluate the incidence of PIA or its association with HGPIN and CaP. Only one study, carried out by our group, has determined the global incidence of PIA in 30% of the prostate biopsies, a lower association to CaP than the HGPIN lesion and an association between PIA and tumors of lower and insignificant grade. PIA shares genetic alterations with HGPIN and CaP. Currently, there is no epidemiologic evidence to consider that the PIA is associated to a greater incidence of CaP and the genetic and epidemiological data available suggest its association to not very aggressive tumors. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammatory atrophy on prostate needle biopsies: is there topographic relationship to cancer?

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    Athanase Billis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammation of longstanding duration has been linked to the development of carcinoma in several organ systems. It is controversial whether there is any relationship of inflammatory atrophy to prostate cancer. It has been suggested that the proliferative epithelium in inflammatory atrophy may progress to high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and/or adenocarcinoma. The objective of our study is to compare on needle prostate biopsies of patients showing cancer the topographical relation of inflammatory atrophy and atrophy with no inflammation to adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The frequency and extent of the lesions were studied on 172 needle biopsies of patients with prostate cancer. In cores showing both lesions, the foci of atrophy were counted. Clinicopathological features were compared according to presence or absence of inflammation. RESULTS: Considering only cores showing adenocarcinoma, atrophy was seen in 116/172 (67.44% biopsies; 70/116 (60.34% biopsies showed atrophy and no inflammation and 46/116 (39.66% biopsies showed inflammatory atrophy. From a total of 481 cores in 72 biopsies with inflammatory atrophy 184/481 (38.25% cores showed no atrophy; 166/481 (34.51% cores showed atrophy and no inflammation; 111/481 (23.08% cores showed both lesions; and 20/481 (4.16% showed only inflammatory atrophy. There was no statistically significant difference for the clinicopathological features studied. CONCLUSION: The result of our study seems not to favor the model of prostatic carcinogenesis in which there is a topographical relation of inflammatory atrophy to adenocarcinoma.

  7. White matter alterations in Parkinson's disease with normal cognition precede grey matter atrophy.

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    Ivan Rektor

    Full Text Available While progressive MRI brain changes characterize advanced Parkinson's disease (PD, little has been discovered about structural alterations in the earliest phase of the disease, i.e. in patients with motor symptoms and with normal cognition. Our study aimed to detect grey matter (GM and white matter (WM changes in PD patients without cognitive impairment.Twenty PD patients and twenty-one healthy controls (HC were tested for attention, executive function, working memory, and visuospatial and language domains. High-resolution T1-weighted and 60 directional diffusion-weighted 3T MRI images were acquired. The cortical, deep GM and WM volumes and density, as well as the diffusion properties of WM, were calculated. Analyses were repeated on data flipped to the side of the disease origin.PD patients did not show any significant differences from HC in cognitive functioning or in brain volumes. Decreased GM intensity was found in the left superior parietal lobe in the right (p<0.02 and left (p<0.01 flipped data. The analysis of original, un-flipped data demonstrated elevated axial diffusivity (p<0.01 in the superior and anterior corona radiata, internal capsule, and external capsule in the left hemisphere of PD relative to HC, while higher mean and radial diffusivity were discovered in the right (p<0.02 and p<0.03, respectively and left (p<0.02 and p<0.02, respectively in the fronto-temporal WM utilizing flipped data.PD patients without cognitive impairment and GM atrophy demonstrated widespread alterations of WM microstructure. Thus, WM impairment in PD might be a sensitive sign preceding the neuronal loss in associated GM regions.

  8. White matter alterations in Parkinson's disease with normal cognition precede grey matter atrophy.

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    Rektor, Ivan; Svátková, Alena; Vojtíšek, Lubomir; Zikmundová, Iva; Vaníček, Jirí; Király, András; Szabó, Nikoletta

    2018-01-01

    While progressive MRI brain changes characterize advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), little has been discovered about structural alterations in the earliest phase of the disease, i.e. in patients with motor symptoms and with normal cognition. Our study aimed to detect grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in PD patients without cognitive impairment. Twenty PD patients and twenty-one healthy controls (HC) were tested for attention, executive function, working memory, and visuospatial and language domains. High-resolution T1-weighted and 60 directional diffusion-weighted 3T MRI images were acquired. The cortical, deep GM and WM volumes and density, as well as the diffusion properties of WM, were calculated. Analyses were repeated on data flipped to the side of the disease origin. PD patients did not show any significant differences from HC in cognitive functioning or in brain volumes. Decreased GM intensity was found in the left superior parietal lobe in the right (palterations of WM microstructure. Thus, WM impairment in PD might be a sensitive sign preceding the neuronal loss in associated GM regions.

  9. Isoform-Specific Na,K-ATPase Alterations Precede Disuse-Induced Atrophy of Rat Soleus Muscle

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    Violetta V. Kravtsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the isoform-specific effects of short-term hindlimb suspension (HS on the Na,K-ATPase in rat soleus muscle. Rats were exposed to 24–72 h of HS and we analyzed the consequences on soleus muscle mass and contractile parameters; excitability and the resting membrane potential (RMP of muscle fibers; the electrogenic activity, protein, and mRNA content of the α1 and α2 Na,K-ATPase; the functional activity and plasma membrane localization of the α2 Na,K-ATPase. Our results indicate that 24–72 h of HS specifically decreases the electrogenic activity of the Na,K-ATPase α2 isozyme and the RMP of soleus muscle fibers. This decrease occurs prior to muscle atrophy or any change in contractile parameters. The α2 mRNA and protein content increased after 24 h of HS and returned to initial levels at 72 h; however, even the increased content was not able to restore α2 enzyme activity in the disused soleus muscle. There was no change in the membrane localization of α2 Na,K-ATPase. The α1 Na,K-ATPase electrogenic activity, protein and mRNA content did not change. Our findings suggest that skeletal muscle use is absolutely required for α2 Na,K-ATPase transport activity and provide the first evidence that Na,K-ATPase alterations precede HS-induced muscle atrophy.

  10. Mitochondrial degeneration precedes the development of muscle atrophy in progression of cancer cachexia in tumour‐bearing mice

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    Brown, Jacob L.; Rosa‐Caldwell, Megan E.; Lee, David E.; Blackwell, Thomas A.; Brown, Lemuel A.; Perry, Richard A.; Haynie, Wesley S.; Hardee, Justin P.; Carson, James A.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Washington, Tyrone A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Cancer cachexia is largely irreversible, at least via nutritional means, and responsible for 20–40% of cancer‐related deaths. Therefore, preventive measures are of primary importance; however, little is known about muscle perturbations prior to onset of cachexia. Cancer cachexia is associated with mitochondrial degeneration; yet, it remains to be determined if mitochondrial degeneration precedes muscle wasting in cancer cachexia. Therefore, our purpose was to determine if mitochondrial degeneration precedes cancer‐induced muscle wasting in tumour‐bearing mice. Methods First, weight‐stable (MinStable) and cachectic (MinCC) Apc Min/+ mice were compared with C57Bl6/J controls for mRNA contents of mitochondrial quality regulators in quadriceps muscle. Next, Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells or PBS (control) were injected into the hind flank of C57Bl6/J mice at 8 week age, and tumour allowed to develop for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks to examine time course of cachectic development. Succinate dehydrogenase stain was used to measure oxidative phenotype in tibialis anterior muscle. Mitochondrial quality and function were assessed using the reporter MitoTimer by transfection to flexor digitorum brevis and mitochondrial function/ROS emission in permeabilized adult myofibres from plantaris. RT‐qPCR and immunoblot measured the expression of mitochondrial quality control and antioxidant proteins. Data were analysed by one‐way ANOVA with Student–Newman–Kuels post hoc test. Results MinStable mice displayed ~50% lower Pgc‐1α, Pparα, and Mfn2 compared with C57Bl6/J controls, whereas MinCC exhibited 10‐fold greater Bnip3 content compared with C57Bl6/J controls. In LLC, cachectic muscle loss was evident only at 4 weeks post‐tumour implantation. Oxidative capacity and mitochondrial content decreased by ~40% 4 weeks post‐tumour implantation. Mitochondrial function decreased by ~25% by 3 weeks after tumour implantation. Mitochondrial

  11. TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion Causing ERG Overexpression Precedes Chromosome Copy Number Changes in Prostate Carcinomas, Paired HGPIN Lesions

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    Nuno Cerveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available TMPRSS2-ETS gene fusions have been found recurrently in prostate carcinomas, but not in the presumed precursor lesion, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN. However, HGPIN lesions may share chromosomal changes with prostate cancer. To determine the relative order of genetic events in prostate carcinogenesis, we have analyzed 34 prostate carcinomas, 19 paired HGPIN lesions, 14 benign prostate hyperplasias, 11 morphologically normal prostatic tissues for TMPRSS2-ERG, TMPRSS2-ETV1 rearrangements, genomic imbalances. TMPRSS2 exon 1 was fused in-frame with ERG exon 4 in 17 of 34 (50% prostate carcinomas, in 4 of 19 (21% HGPIN lesions, but in none of controls. The findings were further validated by sequencing analysis, by the real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript, the ERG exons 5/6:exons 1/2 expression ratio. Chromosome copy number changes were detected by comparative genomic hybridization in 42% of clinically confined carcinomas, in none of the 16 HGPIN lesions analyzed. We demonstrate for the first time that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene can be detected in a proportion of HGPIN lesions, that this molecular rearrangement is an early event that may precede chromosome-level alterations in prostate carcinogenesis.

  12. Skeletal muscle DNA damage precedes spinal motor neuron DNA damage in a mouse model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA.

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    Saniya Fayzullina

    Full Text Available Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA is a hereditary childhood disease that causes paralysis by progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and spinal motor neurons. SMA is associated with reduced levels of full-length Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN protein, due to mutations in the Survival of Motor Neuron 1 gene. The mechanisms by which lack of SMN causes SMA pathology are not known, making it very difficult to develop effective therapies. We investigated whether DNA damage is a perinatal pathological event in SMA, and whether DNA damage and cell death first occur in skeletal muscle or spinal cord of SMA mice. We used a mouse model of severe SMA to ascertain the extent of cell death and DNA damage throughout the body of prenatal and newborn mice. SMA mice at birth (postnatal day 0 exhibited internucleosomal fragmentation in genomic DNA from hindlimb skeletal muscle, but not in genomic DNA from spinal cord. SMA mice at postnatal day 5, compared with littermate controls, exhibited increased apoptotic cell death profiles in skeletal muscle, by hematoxylin and eosin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, and electron microscopy. SMA mice had no increased cell death, no loss of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT-positive motor neurons, and no overt pathology in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. At embryonic days 13 and 15.5, SMA mice did not exhibit statistically significant increases in cell death profiles in spinal cord or skeletal muscle. Motor neuron numbers in the ventral horn, as identified by ChAT immunoreactivity, were comparable in SMA mice and control littermates at embryonic day 15.5 and postnatal day 5. These observations demonstrate that in SMA, disease in skeletal muscle emerges before pathology in spinal cord, including loss of motor neurons. Overall, this work identifies DNA damage and cell death in skeletal muscle as therapeutic targets for SMA.

  13. Changes in the miRNA-mRNA Regulatory Network Precede Motor Symptoms in a Mouse Model of Multiple System Atrophy: Clinical Implications.

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    Simon Schafferer

    Full Text Available Multiple system atrophy (MSA is a fatal rapidly progressive α-synucleinopathy, characterized by α-synuclein accumulation in oligodendrocytes. It is accepted that the pathological α-synuclein accumulation in the brain of MSA patients plays a leading role in the disease process, but little is known about the events in the early stages of the disease. In this study we aimed to define potential roles of the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network in the early pre-motor stages of the disease, i.e., downstream of α-synuclein accumulation in oligodendroglia, as assessed in a transgenic mouse model of MSA. We investigated the expression patterns of miRNAs and their mRNA targets in substantia nigra (SN and striatum, two brain regions that undergo neurodegeneration at a later stage in the MSA model, by microarray and RNA-seq analysis, respectively. Analysis was performed at a time point when α-synuclein accumulation was already present in oligodendrocytes at neuropathological examination, but no neuronal loss nor deficits of motor function had yet occurred. Our data provide a first evidence for the leading role of gene dysregulation associated with deficits in immune and inflammatory responses in the very early, non-symptomatic disease stages of MSA. While dysfunctional homeostasis and oxidative stress were prominent in SN in the early stages of MSA, in striatum differential gene expression in the non-symptomatic phase was linked to oligodendroglial dysfunction, disturbed protein handling, lipid metabolism, transmembrane transport and altered cell death control, respectively. A large number of putative miRNA-mRNAs interaction partners were identified in relation to the control of these processes in the MSA model. Our results support the role of early changes in the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network in the pathogenesis of MSA preceding the clinical onset of the disease. The findings thus contribute to understanding the disease process and are likely to pave the way

  14. Pure small cell carcinoma of the prostate preceded by acute zonal occult outer retinopathy: A case report.

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    Ching, Daniel; Brown, Matthew; Forrest, Cindy; Hayne, Dickon

    2016-01-01

    Pure small cell prostate cancer (SCPC) cases are very rare. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) has been described as a non-neoplastic retinopathy. We report the first case of pure SCPC preceded by AZOOR in the literature. A 59year old gentleman presented with an obstructed infected urinary system. He had a diagnosis of AZOOR 6 months ago that was investigated with full body imaging without any suspicious findings. However, the most recent CT findings demonstrated extensive disease dissemination. The patient underwent rigid cystoscopy and resection that confirmed a diagnosis of pure SCPC. AZOOR is a clinical syndrome of photopsia and rapid zonal field loss. The exact aetiology remains unknown and its association with malignancy remains contentious. Paraneoplastic manifestations of unexplained visual loss in SCPC are rare with only 2 cases reported in the literature. There are no cases demonstrating an association between AZOOR and SCPC. Pure SCPC is an aggressive malignancy with most cases presenting with extensive disease dissemination on diagnosis. Early detection has a role in improving prognosis but is challenging. Further research is required to establish a standard treatment protocol. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Intermediate cells in human prostate epithelium are enriched in proliferative inflammatory atrophy.

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    Leenders, G.J.L.H. van; Gage, W.R.; Hicks, J.L.; Balken, B. van; Aalders, T.W.; Schalken, J.A.; Marzo, A.M. De

    2003-01-01

    Within the human prostate epithelium four cell populations can be discriminated based on their expression of keratins (K). Basal cells express high levels of K5 and K14, as well as p63, whereas they have very low levels of androgen receptor, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), K8, and K18. Luminal

  16. Muscle atrophy

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    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic. Disuse atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough . This type of atrophy can often be ...

  17. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

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    Daniel P. Venâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and 21-day sleep restriction (SR on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR.

  18. Multiple System Atrophy

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    ... Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Multiple System Atrophy Fact Sheet What is multiple system atrophy? ... can I get more information? What is multiple system atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  19. Prospective Evaluation of Intraprostatic Inflammation and Focal Atrophy as a Predictor of Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer and Recurrence after Prostatectomy

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    2016-09-01

    Chief results from Aim 3: Here we report on the exciting finding for mast cells, a component of the innate immune system. We quantified mast cells...findings for prognosis were more nuanced: mast cells (a type of tissue resident immune cell) within the tumor at the time of prostatectomy appeared to...cancer, risk, incidence, recurrence, inflammation, focal atrophy, mast cells, immune cells, tissue microarray, biopsy, image analysis, odds ratio. 3

  20. Prospective Evaluation of Intraprostatic Inflammation and Focal Atrophy as a Predictor of Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer and Recurrence after Prostatectomy

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    2014-07-01

    attained education (SELECT), race/ethnicity (SELECT), family history of prostate cancer (SELECT), body mass index (SELECT), waist circumference (PCPT...not collected in SELECT), physical activity (PCPT [not collected in SELECT), cigarette smoking status at randomization (SELECT), use of aspirin ...NSAIDs at randomization (SELECT), use of statin 2 drugs at randomization (SELECT), history at randomization (SELECT) of cancer (at during SELECT

  1. Neuronal involvement in muscular atrophy

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    Bruno Alejandro Cisterna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The innervation of skeletal myofibers exerts a crucial influence on the maintenance of muscle tone and normal operation. Consequently, denervated myofibers manifest atrophy, which is preceded by an increase in sarcolemma permeability. Recently, de novo expression of hemichannels formed by connexins and other none selective channels, including P2X7 receptors, TRPV2 channels were demonstrated in denervated fast skeletal muscles. The denervation-induced atrophy was drastically prevented in denervated muscles deficient in connexins 43 and 45. Nonetheless, the transduction mechanism by which the nerve represses the expression of the above mentioned none selective channels remains unknown. The paracrine action of extracellular signaling molecules including ATP, neurotrophic factors (i.e., BDNF, agrin/Lrp4/MuSK and acetylcholine are among the possible perpetrators of repression for connexin expression. This review discusses the possible role of relevant factors in maintaining the normal functioning of fast skeletal muscles and suppression of connexin hemichannel expression.

  2. Optic nerve atrophy

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    Optic atrophy; Optic neuropathy ... There are many causes of optic atrophy. The most common is poor blood flow. This is called ischemic optic neuropathy. The problem most often affects older adults. ...

  3. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)

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    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) Overview Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, degenerative neurological disorder affecting your body's involuntary (autonomic) functions, including blood pressure, breathing, bladder function and muscle ...

  4. Optic Nerve Atrophy

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    ... cord (hydrocephalus) may prevent further optic nerve damage. Spectacles may be prescribed to correct refractive error. When optic atrophy is unilateral protection of the good eye is essential and wearing of protective lenses should ...

  5. Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

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    ... of the Prostate Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) What is benign prostatic ... associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. What is the prostate? The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... the prostate is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any ... size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- ...

  7. Dominant optic atrophy

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    Lenaers, Guy; Hamel, Christian; Delettre, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC......) and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain....

  8. [Muscle fiber atrophy].

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    Nonaka, Ikuya

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fibers have been classified into two major forms of red (slow twitch) and white (fast twitch) muscles. The red muscle utilizes lipid as energy source through mitochondrial metabolism and function to sustain the position against gravity (sometimes called as antigravity muscle). Under microgravity the red muscle is selectively involved. In our unloading study by hindlimb suspension experiment on rats, the one of the representative red muscle of soleus muscle underwent rapid atrophy; they reduced their weights about 50% after 2 week-unloading. In addition, myofibrils were occasionally markedly disorganized with selective thin filament loss. Mitochondria in the degenerated area were decreased in number. The white muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had mostly transformed to the red ones. It took about 1 month to recover morphologically. The satellite cell playing a major role in muscle regeneration was not activated. There still remained unsolved what are the mechanosensors to keep muscle function under normal gravity. Dr Nikawa's group proposed that one of ubiquitin ligases, Cbl-b is activated under microgravity and induces muscle fiber degeneration. There might be many factors to induce muscle atrophy and degeneration under microgravity. Further study is necessary to explore the pathomechanism of muscle atrophy in disused and under immobility conditions.

  9. Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony

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    T Ashwini Kini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.

  10. Case report of optic atrophy in Dentatorubropallidoluysian Atrophy (DRPLA).

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    Silver, Michael R; Sethi, Kapil D; Mehta, Shyamal H; Nichols, Fenwick T; Morgan, John C

    2015-12-18

    Dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease that is associated with numerous movement disorders. Ocular problems also occur with DRPLA with reports of corneal endothelial degeneration in some patients living with the disease. We report a new visual problem associated with DRPLA, optic atrophy. A 47 year-old man presented complaining of progressive visual loss associated with optic atrophy on ophthalmological evaluation. He gradually developed a progressive ataxia with dystonia. Brain MRI revealed a diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Genetic analysis revealed 62 CAG repeats in one allele of the DRPLA gene and he was diagnosed with DRPLA. Optic atrophy should be included in the clinical spectrum of DRPLA.

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate ... physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ...

  12. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of particular linguistic units by representatives of a linguacultural community as the most preferable verbal actions is not necessary to be a case of verbal operations with some culturally specific knowledge. The analysis of a psychosocial mechanism used for generation and verbalization of such a knowledge allows to define the nature of precedence as a characteristic of meaning that is being effected in a speech act. The development of precedent meaning indispensably assumes not only generation of the definition component, but also entry into a structure of a culturological component meaning. The culturological component reflects a relationship between a subject-concept component of the meaning and the other elements of a speech situation – the relationship, which is notional for a person. Importance of the relationship consists in fact that definition of its content represents to a person their social identity. Until a person understands the content of relationship, which is represented by the culturological component, the use of corresponding linguistic units to nominate new objects of reality is a supraliminal appeal to the precedent knowledge, a speech act. But for new acts of usage the main thing is definitely quality of relationship as a characteristic of the cultural group stability, and the linguistic unit usage derives a new function. When the culturological component of the meaning is not included into generalization, since it is irrelevant one, and the core of meaning is composed of new and more relevant for the usage features, you can no more realize the inner form of the precedent meaning. The outer form is still relevant, since it is kept in mind by the representatives of linguaculture as the one which is preferable for usage. In this case the linguistic unit is just a tool not related to verbal representation of socially significant attitude, and its usage is a speech operation, a way to perform different speech acts

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves ... the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as detailed as with the transrectal probe. An MRI of the pelvis may be obtained as an ... Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate ...

  15. Dominant optic atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaers Guy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. Clinical description DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Aetiology Two genes (OPA1, OPA3 encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8 are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7 are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Diagnosis Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of

  16. Dominant optic atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaers, Guy; Hamel, Christian; Delettre, Cécile; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Procaccio, Vincent; Bonneau, Dominique; Reynier, Pascal; Milea, Dan

    2012-07-09

    DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Two genes (OPA1, OPA3) encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8) are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7) are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of bilateral, mild, otherwise unexplained visual loss related to optic discs

  17. Precedent Phenomena in Quebecois Linguistic World View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ксения Эдуардовна Болотина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the linguocultural analysis of precedent phenomena as parts of Quebecois’ cognitive base. Precedent phenomena being cultural facts are one of the key issues in modern linguistic and cognitive studies. By precedent phenomena we mean, according to Y.E. Prohorov, such entities when verbalized in discourse that refer to a certain cultural fact behind them. In the article the precedent phenomena such as precedent text, precedent situation, precedent utterance, and precedent name are analyzed. The main theses of the precedence theory given in the article (Y.N. Karaulov, Y.E. Prohorov, V.V. Krasnyh, D.B. Gudkov are at the heart of precedence studies on the basis of different languages. However, a complex analysis of precedent phenomena in the Quebec national variant of French is new to Russian linguistics. The study of precedent phenomena enables us to elicit features of their functioning in ethnospecific discourse and determine cultural dominants existing in Quebecois’ linguistic world view. Given the fact that the size of the article is limited, we undertooke the analysis of eight phenomena precedent of the bearers of Quebec linguoculture. The choice of phenomena is determined by the frequency of their use in discourse. The facts analyzed are of national character, i.e. known to all members of the linguocultural community. A certain cultural fact is at the very core of each precedent phenomenon given in the article. To get the whole picture we analysed historic, political, and cultural context connected to the precedent phenomena in question. The study enables us to elicit distinctive features that are at the core of each phenomenon. The results are backed with the supportive material drawn from analysis of different types of discourse. The analysis of precedent phenomena undertaken in this article allows us to reconstruct, to a certain extent, Quebec cultural space and is a stepping stone to the reconstruction of the

  18. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prostate cancer aetiology, with a specific focus on recent advances regarding the following: (i) potential stimuli for prostatic inflammation; (ii) prostate cancer immunobiology; (iii) inflammatory pathways and cytokines in prostate cancer risk and development; (iv) proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) as a risk factor lesion to prostate cancer development; and (v) the role of nutritional or other antiinflammatory compounds in reducing prostate cancer risk. PMID:22212087

  19. Spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Amico Adele

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord, resulting in progressive proximal muscle weakness and paralysis. Estimated incidence is 1 in 6,000 to 1 in 10,000 live births and carrier frequency of 1/40-1/60. This disease is characterized by generalized muscle weakness and atrophy predominating in proximal limb muscles, and phenotype is classified into four grades of severity (SMA I, SMAII, SMAIII, SMA IV based on age of onset and motor function achieved. This disease is caused by homozygous mutations of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1 gene, and the diagnostic test demonstrates in most patients the homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene, generally showing the absence of SMN1 exon 7. The test achieves up to 95% sensitivity and nearly 100% specificity. Differential diagnosis should be considered with other neuromuscular disorders which are not associated with increased CK manifesting as infantile hypotonia or as limb girdle weakness starting later in life. Considering the high carrier frequency, carrier testing is requested by siblings of patients or of parents of SMA children and are aimed at gaining information that may help with reproductive planning. Individuals at risk should be tested first and, in case of testing positive, the partner should be then analyzed. It is recommended that in case of a request on carrier testing on siblings of an affected SMA infant, a detailed neurological examination should be done and consideration given doing the direct test to exclude SMA. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered to couples who have previously had a child affected with SMA (recurrence risk 25%. The role of follow-up coordination has to be managed by an expert in neuromuscular disorders and in SMA who is able to plan a multidisciplinary intervention that includes pulmonary, gastroenterology/nutrition, and orthopedic care. Prognosis

  20. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  1. Muscular atrophy in diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Gadeberg, P C; Brock, B

    1997-01-01

    Diabetic patients with polyneuropathy develop motor dysfunction. To establish whether motor dysfunction is associated with muscular atrophy the ankle dorsal and plantar flexors of the non-dominant leg were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging in 8 patients with symptomatic neuropathy, in 8 non......-neuropathic patients and in 16 individually matched control subjects. In the neuropathic patients the muscle strength of the ankle dorsal and plantar flexors was reduced by 41 % as compared to the non-neuropathic patients (p ... confirmed that the atrophy predominated distally. We conclude that muscular atrophy underlies motor weakness at the ankle in diabetic patients with polyneuropathy and that the atrophy is most pronounced in distal muscles of the lower leg indicating that a length dependent neuropathic process explains...

  2. Multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeraully, Tasneem

    2014-04-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare adult-onset synucleinopathy associated with dysautonomia and the variable presence of poorly levodopa-responsive parkinsonism and/or cerebellar ataxia. Other clinical symptoms that can be associated with MSA include hyperreflexia, stridor, sleep apnea, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Mean survival from time of diagnosis ranges between 6 to 10 years, and definitive diagnosis is made on autopsy with demonstration of oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions consisting of fibrillar α-synuclein. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be positive for cruciform T2 hyperintensity within the pons (the "hot cross bun sign"), volume loss in the pons and cerebellum, and T2 signal loss in the dorsolateral putamen with hyperintense rim on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequencing. Although most cases are sporadic, genetic polymorphisms have been identified both in familial and sporadic cases of MSA, and influence observed phenotypes. Treatment is symptomatic, with both pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies. There are currently no consensus guidelines on management. Current and future research is aimed at identifying biomarkers and developing disease-modifying therapies. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakzanis, K K; Boulos, M I

    2001-11-01

    The term posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) was introduced in 1988 to describe five patients with fairly homogeneous, but otherwise unclassified, symptoms. These patients showed signs of a slowly progressive dementia bearing behavioral and physiologic similarities to Alzheimer's disease, but with notable distinctions. Specifically, PCA is characterized by an early onset of visual agnosia, followed by some or all components of Balint's syndrome, Gerstmann's syndrome, and transcortical sensory aphasia. In this review, the history, epidemiology, pathophysiology, neurobehavioral aspects, assessment (including neurologic and neuropsychologic), differential diagnosis, and treatment recommendations for this disorder are reviewed. As originally defined, PCA appears to be a clinically homogeneous syndrome. The cluster of symptoms that are common to virtually all examined cases evidences this. Although the behavioral and cognitive properties of the disorder are well established, many aspects of PCA remain unclear. Specifically, available research and understanding of PCA epidemiology and treatment are highly inadequate. In fact, the majority of such information regarding PCA is derived from studies of Alzheimer's disease. To a lesser extent, Pick's disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease research have also provided insight into the underpinnings of PCA. Until PCA is categorically defined as a variant or subgroup of these other neurodegenerative disorders, however, such derivations are merely speculations.

  4. [Macular atrophy in Terson's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vicente, J L; Frau-Aguilera, L; Sánchez-Vicente, P; Herrador-Montiel, A; Rueda-Rueda, T; Castilla-Lázpita, A; Romera-Piñero, A; Medina-Tapia, A

    2015-01-01

    The case is presented on a 63-year-old patient with Terson's syndrome who complained of loss of visual acuity. The optical coherence tomography showed macular atrophy. The patient developed macular atrophy probably secondary to macular hemorrhage caused by the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer This booklet is about prostate cancer. Learning about medical care for your cancer ... ePub This booklet covers: The anatomy of the prostate and basics about prostate cancer Treatments for prostate ...

  6. JUDICIAL PRECEDENT, A LAW SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The role awarded to judge varies from one legal system to another. In the Anglo-Saxon legal systems, there is not a self-standing legislative body, so the judge is the one who creates the law; his mission consists in solving a specific case, given the existing judicial precedents; if he cannot find an appropriate rule of law, he has to develop one and to apply it. In the continental system, creation of law is the mission of the legislature, so the creative role of jurisprudence still raises controversy. Evolving under the influence of Roman law, the continental law systems differ from the Anglo-Saxon by: the continuous receiving of Corpus iuris civilis; the tendency to abstraction, leading to the creation of a rational law; the rule of law, with the consequence of blurring the role of jurisprudence. Underlining the creative force of jurisprudence, Vladimir Hanga wrote: "The law remains in its essence abstract, but the appreciation of the jurisprudence makes it alive, as the judge, understanding the law, taking into account the interests of parties and taking inspiration from equity, ensures the ultimate purpose of the law: suum cuique tribuere”.

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to ... Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  8. Prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... place the seeds that deliver radiation into your prostate. The seeds are placed with needles or special ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help ... Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is ... of page How is the procedure performed? In men, the prostate gland is located directly in front ...

  14. Optimal Solutions for the Temporal Precedence Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Makris, Christos; Sioutas, Spyros

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we refer to the Temporal Precedence Problem on Pure Pointer Machines . This problem asks for the design of a data structure, maintaining a set of stored elements and supporting the following two operations: insert and precedes . The operation insert (a) introduces a new element a in...

  15. Syntactic Idioms and Precedent Phenomena: Intersection Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sytar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: One examined mainly structural and semantic features of syntactic idioms so far. The pragmatic dimension of these original units that are on the verge of syntax and phraseology, has not been highlighted properly in the scientific literature, so it needs theoretical understanding. The combination of syntactic idiom and phraseological phenomenon refers to the communication techniques impacting on message recipient. Purpose: to analyze the intersection zones of syntactic idioms and precedent phenomena. Results: Analysis of the collected factual material allows to distinguish two areas of interpenetration of syntactic idioms and precedent units: 1 construction of expression according to the phraseologized model, within which the position of variable component is filled by the precedent name or precedent expression; 2 the model of sentence itself is precedent, and lexical content does not comply with generally known one that does not affect on understanding of model content by recipient. With a combination of syntactic idiom and precedent phenomena speakers provide drawing of recipients’ attention, carry out a hidden influence on them, express their own attitude to the realities, so that perform phatic, manipulative and expressive-evaluative functions. The modifications and transformations of precedent expressions and names appeared to be regular in such interpenetrations. Discussion: The obtained results reflect the general trend towards transform (transformation, modification, variation, etc. of precedent, as well as phraseological units, and can be used for the analysis of patterns of their formation and modifications. Further research phase implies tracing patterns of syntactic idioms combination with other means of expressive syntax.

  16. Precede-and-command revisited revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Basing his argumentation on an analysis of condition C effects, Bruening (2014) proposes to replace the familiar notion of c-command underlying dependency relations with a precede-and-command condition, which defines dependency relations as precedence relations within a local domain (phase). In this

  17. [Nocturnal stridor in multiple system atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, M.; Pelleboer, R.H.; Broek, G.B. van den; Post, B.; Pevernagie, D.A.; Overeem, S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder with parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and autonomic dysfunction. The occurrence of nocturnal stridor in patients with multiple system atrophy is associated with a decreased life expectancy. This is what makes adequate treatment so

  18. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  19. Prostate Cancer Detected by Screening in a Semi Urban Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-26

    Jan 26, 2016 ... Prostate cancer (PCa) incidence has been reported ... Screen detected prostate cancer in Southeast Nigeria: Correlations and asociations ... exercise for PCa. This was preceded by enlightenment talks on PCa on the local community radio station (Lion. FM). Information leaflets and posters were circulated.

  20. Computer-extracted Features Can Distinguish Noncancerous Confounding Disease from Prostatic Adenocarcinoma at Multiparametric MR Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Litjens, Geert J. S.; Elliott, Robin; Shih, Natalie NC; Feldman, Michael D.; Kobus, Thiele; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Henkjan J. Huisman; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-01-01

    For each class of benign disease, we identified a unique set of computer-extracted MR imaging–derived features, such as a high b value for benign prostatic hyperplasia and focal appearance on dynamic contrast-enhanced images for atrophy, that could help improve the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  1. Lobar atrophy without Pick bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulette, C M; Crain, B J

    1992-01-01

    Four patients from the Kathleen Price Bryan Brain Bank with clinical Pick's syndrome are presented. Thorough neurological evaluation revealed no evidence of a movement disorder. The brains showed marked knife-blade type atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes with relative sparing of the superior temporal gyrus and parietal and occipital lobes. There was marked caudate atrophy in all four. Histologically there was severe neuronal loss and gemistocytic astrocytosis in the involved areas with marked myelin pallor in the deep white matter and subcortical gliosis. There was sometimes marked spongiform change in cortical layer 2. There was severe neuronal loss and gliosis of the caudate nucleus. The gross and microscopic features were characteristic of Pick's disease except that careful search failed to uncover either Pick's bodies or Pick's cells. Review of the literature revealed that fronto-temporal cortical and caudate atrophy with clinical features of Pick's disease has received many different names including Pick's disease type C, Pick's disease type II, progressive subcortical gliosis, presenile glial dystrophy, long duration Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, frontal lobe degeneration, dysphasic dementia, and dementia lacking distinctive histologic features. Nevertheless, the morphologic findings in the present cases so closely resemble Pick's disease that they may well represent endstage Pick's disease. In our experience, such cases account for a significant proportion of non-Alzheimer disease dementia.

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of ... Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using ...

  6. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the prostate gland which is situated right in front of the rectum. top of page What are ... men, the prostate gland is located directly in front of the rectum, so the ultrasound exam is ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is ... in front of the rectum. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) ...

  12. Prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the prostate through the scope. Perineal - through perineum (the skin between the anus and the scrotum). ... pain. A small cut is made in the perineum. A needle is inserted to collect prostate tissue. ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How is the procedure performed? In men, the prostate gland is located directly in front ... What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? Men who have had the tail end of their ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... of the prostate gland is performed to: detect disorders within the prostate. determine whether the prostate is ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood, may be administered to determine if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ... patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related ...

  16. Prostate Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from ... and out of the body. A young man's prostate is about the size of a walnut. It ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate ...

  18. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF PROSTATIC SECRETION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Charles; Clark, Philip Johnson

    1940-01-01

    Cystic hyperplasia of the prostate occurs spontaneously in senile dogs only when they possess physiologically effective amounts of androgenic hormone. The cysts are closely grouped and radially arranged in a conical manner with the base of the cone at the periphery of the gland. Flattened and columnar epithelium, varying from about 5 to 25µ are seen in each cyst. The cysts communicate with the urethra by way of ducts. Both normal and cystic prostates undergo marked atrophy when the testes are removed, the chief difference 3 months after orchiectomy being the persistence of slightly dilated clefts and spaces at the site of the former cysts in the senile state. In the castrate dog whose prostate gland is being reconstructed as result of the influence of daily injections of androgen, certain doses of estrogen prevent increase of secretion and still larger doses greatly depress the output of the gland. In dogs so treated by daily injections of testosterone propionate, 10 mg., the amount of secretion is maintained from day to day at a level by daily injections of stilbestrol, 0.4 to 0.6 mg. and greatly depressed by doses of 1 to 1.5 mg. When the larger amounts of estrogen are used, together with androgen, squamous metaplasia occurs in the posterior lobe of the prostate while the epithelium of the acini decreases in height to cuboidal or low columnar form; these histological signs of activity of both androgen and estrogen on the prostate show that inhibition of the male hormone by stilbestrol is incomplete at these ratios. In dogs with either normal or cystic prostate glands, the prostate decreases in size when estrogen is injected in amounts to depress prostatic secretion profoundly. The gland is maintained in an atrophic state and overdosage avoided by controlled periodic injections of stilbestrol until secretion is reduced to the minimum, followed by free intervals, the estrogen being again administered when secretion measurably increases. The shrinkage is related to

  19. Microvillous inclusion disease (microvillous atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goulet Olivier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microvillous inclusion disease (MVID or microvillous atrophy is a congenital disorder of the intestinal epithelial cells that presents with persistent life-threatening watery diarrhea and is characterized by morphological enterocyte abnormalities. MVID manifests either in the first days of life (early-onset form or in the first two months (late-onset form of life. MVID is a very rare disorder of unknown origin, probably transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. To date, no prevalence data are available. Ultrastructural analyses reveal: 1 a partial to total atrophy of microvilli on mature enterocytes with apical accumulation of numerous secretory granules in immature enterocytes; 2 the highly characteristic inclusion bodies containing rudimentary or fully differentiated microvilli in mature enterocytes. Light microscopy shows accumulation of PAS-positive granules at the apical pole of immature enterocytes, together with atrophic band indicating microvillus atrophy and, in parallel, an intracellular PAS or CD10 positive line (marking the microvillous inclusion bodies seen on electron microscopy. Intestinal failure secondary to diarrhea is definitive. To date, no curative therapy exists and children with MVID are totally dependent on parenteral nutrition. Long-term outcome is generally poor, due to metabolic decompensation, repeated states of dehydration, infectious and liver complications related to the parenteral nutrition. As MVID is a very rare disorder, which is extremely difficult to diagnose and manage, children with MVID should be transferred to specialized pediatric gastro-intestinal centers, if possible, a center equipped to perform small bowel transplantation. Early small bowel transplantation resulting in intestinal autonomy gives new hope for disease management and outcome.

  20. Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... castrate-resistant prostate cancer or CRPC) Metastatic prostate cancer Prostate cancer is metastatic if it has spread to: • ... first diagnosis, but it does happen. Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is when ...

  1. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  2. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  3. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  4. Widespread EEG changes precede focal seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Perucca

    Full Text Available The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal, and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline. Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples. At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development, but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures.

  5. Widespread EEG Changes Precede Focal Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucca, Piero; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal), and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline). Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma) and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples). At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development), but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures. PMID:24260523

  6. Carrier testing for spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Jonathan M.; Fischbeck, Kenneth; Crawford, Thomas O.; Cwik, Valerie; Fleischman, Alan; Gonye, Karla; Heine, Deborah; Hobby, Kenneth; Kaufmann, Petra; Keiles, Steven; MacKenzie, Alex; Musci, Thomas; Prior, Thomas; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele; Sugarman, Elaine A.; Terry, Sharon F.; Urv, Tiina; Wang, Ching; Watson, Michael; Yaron, Yuval; Frosst, Phyllis; Howell, R. Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is the most common fatal hereditary disease among newborns and infants. There is as yet no effective treatment. Although a carrier test is available, currently there is disagreement among professional medical societies who proffer standards of care as to whether or not carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy should be offered as part of routine reproductive care. This leaves health care providers without clear guidance. In fall 2009, a meeting was held by National Institutes of Health to examine the scientific basis for spinal muscular atrophy carrier screening and to consider the issues that accompany such screening. In this article, the meeting participants summarize the discussions and conclude that pan-ethnic carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy is technically feasible and that the specific study of implementing a spinal muscular atrophy carrier screening program raises broader issues about determining the scope and specifics of carrier screening in general. PMID:20808230

  7. Seronegative Intestinal Villous Atrophy: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is the most important cause of intestinal villous atrophy. Seronegative intestinal villous atrophy, including those that are nonresponsive to a gluten-free diet, is a diagnostic challenge. In these cases, before establishing the diagnosis of seronegative celiac disease, alternative etiologies of atrophic enteropathy should be considered. Recently, a new clinical entity responsible for seronegative villous atrophy was described—olmesartan-induced sprue-like enteropathy. Herein, we report two uncommon cases of atrophic enteropathy in patients with arterial hypertension under olmesartan, who presented with severe chronic diarrhea and significant involuntary weight loss. Further investigation revealed intestinal villous atrophy and intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Celiac disease and other causes of villous atrophy were ruled out. Drug-induced enteropathy was suspected and clinical improvement and histologic recovery were verified after olmesartan withdrawal. These cases highlight the importance for clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for olmesartan as a precipitant of sprue-like enteropathy.

  8. Continuation Passing Combinators for Parsing Precedence Grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Steve

    1994-01-01

    We describe a scheme for constructing parsers for precedence grammars based on the combinators described by Hutton. The new combinators provide a robust method for building parsers and help avoid the possibility of a non-terminating parser. Efficiency is improved via an optimisation to the grammar. A number of approaches to the problem are described - the most elegant and efficient method is based on continuation passing. A parser for the expression part of the C programming language is prese...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...

  10. The comparative evaluation of apoptosis produced by leuprolide or orchiectomy on rat prostate tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakiroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organisms are constantly in a balance meaning that while new cells are produced, some of the older ones die which takes place in 2 ways: necrosis or apoptosis. Apoptosis is the programmed cellular death triggered by intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli. In this study we have evaluated the apoptosis of prostate tissue generated by surgical or medical orchiectomy. Material and Method: In this experimental study, we used 36 adult male rats that were evaluated in 3 groups. The first group (Group 1 consisted of 12 rats that had bilateral orchiectomy; the second group (Group 2 included 12 rats that were given leuprolide acetate and the third group (Group 3 consisted of 12 control rats. Immunohistochemical staining of the prostate of all rats was performed and the presence of glandular atrophy and apoptosis were evaluated in the three groups. The statistical differences between the two groups were evaluated by the Fisher exact test. Results: Glandular atrophy was not determined in any rat of the control group, and the apoptotic staining was in the normal limits in all the control rats. In Leuprolide group, glandular atrophy was mild in 7 cases, and moderate in 3 rats. In 2 rats of the Leuprolide group, atrophy was not demonstrated. In surgical orchiectomy group, glandular atrophy was present in all cases. Atrophy was observed as cystic atrophy. Statistical analysis with the Fisher exact test revealed that glandular atrophy was statistically significantly more common in surgical orchiectomy group compared with Leuprolide group (p = 0,012. Conclusion: If the aim of treatment in androgen dependent prostatic adenocarcinoma or benign prostate hypertrophy is the construction of a robust apoptosis, bilateral orchiectomy generates a more powerful apoptosis compared with Leuprolide.

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is typically used to help diagnose symptoms such as: a nodule felt by a physician ...

  12. Oral lichen planus preceding concomitant lichen planopilaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoopler, Eric T; Alfaris, Sausan; Alomar, Dalal; Alawi, Faizan

    2016-09-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorder with a wide array of clinical presentations. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is characterized clinically by striae, desquamation, and/or ulceration. Lichen planopilaris (LPP), a variant of LP, affects the scalp, resulting in perifollicular erythema and scarring of cutaneous surfaces accompanied by hair loss. The association between OLP and LPP has been reported previously with scant information on concomitant or sequential disease presentation. We describe a patient with concomitant OLP and LPP, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on OLP preceding the onset of LPP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis preceding measles exanthema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Tezzon, Frediano; Zuccoli, Giulio

    2011-12-01

    We report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis preceding measles virus infection. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed signal intensity abnormalities in the basal ganglia and cortex consistent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Fever and the first Koplik spots appeared 8 and 10 days later, respectively. This case supports the hypothesis that the immune-mediated demyelinating process may occur before the symptomatic phase of a viral infection. Therefore, children without history of infectious disorders should also have acute disseminated encephalomyelitis included in the differential considerations.

  14. Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Short Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ashrafzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a genetic disorder which affect nervous system and is characterized with progressive distal motor neuron weakness. The survival motor neuron (SMN protein level reduces in patients with SMA. Two different genes code survival motor neuron protein in human genome. Skeletal and intercostal muscles denervation lead to weakness, hypotony, hyporeflexia, respiratory failure, symmetric muscle atrophy and paralysis in patients with SMA. Manifestations are prominent in proximal muscle of lower extremities. There is no curative treatment for spinal muscular atrophy, and supportive treatment should be considered to improve patients’ quality of life and independency. New treatment strategies focus on gene therapy or invent method to increase survival motor neuron protein level. The aim of this study is to review Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA clinical and molecular manifestations.

  15. Chronic prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, G Richard D; Doble, Andrew; Batstone, D

    2003-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the classification, epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis (NIH classification types II, IIIa/IIIb and IV prostatitis) in the period of review (2001-2002). Recent studies highlight some of the problems with the 1995 NIH classification. Epidemiological studies have confirmed that "prostatitis" is common, with a prevalence of 10-15%. Associations of prostatitis include benign prostatic hyperplasia, sexually transmitted disease, lower urinary tract symptoms, stress, and reduced sunlight exposure. Elevated levels of cytokines in the seminal plasma and prostatic secretions have been detected in men with chronic prostatitis compared with normal individuals, suggesting an active inflammatory process in the male genital tract. This inflammatory reaction may be mediated by an adaptive immune response directed against a genital tract antigen(s) (autoimmunity). Increased levels of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA in the prostates of men with chronic prostatitis compared with controls are compatible with the notion that a bacterial inflammatory event initiates an auto-immune process; however, the role of bacteria in the continuation of symptoms is unknown. The aetiology of chronic pelvic pain syndrome is still not certain, although an auto-immune process is favoured. Further research is required to determine the putative auto-antigen, the immune responses of patients, the role of bacteria in the inflammatory process, and the patients' pain response to genitourinary insults. As yet no diagnostic tests (other than to eliminate other pathology) and few treatments for chronic prostatitis can be recommended on the basis of scientific evidence.

  16. [Spinal muscular atrophies in the adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, W

    2004-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophies are heterogeneous group. The diagnostic process should be careful to uncover the main differential diagnoses and to identify familial cases. Clinical phenotype is highly variable. In familial ALS cases with SOD1 mutation, the clinical scene may mimic spinal muscular atrophy. A careful questionning and a complete electroneuromyographic exam are warranted to allow the neurologist to choose among more invasive investigations for differential and positive diagnosis such as MRI, nerve or muscle biopsy, genetic analysis.

  17. MRI of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Prostate Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate ... limitations of MRI of the Prostate? What is MRI of the Prostate? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  18. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery-prostate cancer; Cryoablation-prostate cancer ... Prostate Cancer. American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-treating-cryosurgery. Accessed August 31, 2015. Horwich ...

  19. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is a cancer that occurs in the ... in front of the rectum. Screening for Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  20. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedures with your doctor. How common is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  1. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate cancer overview? What are my treatment options? What ... any new developments in treating my disease? Prostate cancer overview Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  2. Preceding movement effects on sequential aiming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Darian T; De Grosbois, John; Smirl, Jonathan; Heath, Matthew; Binsted, Gordon

    2011-11-01

    In this study, two experiments were devised to examine the control strategy used by individuals when performing sequential aiming movements. Of particular interest was the aiming behavior displayed when task difficulty was changed midway through a sequence of movements. In Experiment 1, target size was manipulated, as the targets were made either larger or smaller, between the 8th and 12th movement of the sequence. In Experiment 2, the amplitude between the two targets was similarly changed while the target size remained constant. Results revealed that in Experiment 1, individuals took two movements following the perturbation to target size, to re-tune their movement times in order to correspond with the new task difficulty. Conversely for Experiment 2, movement time changed immediately and in correspondence with the new target amplitude. These findings demonstrate that participants can use information from the preceding movement to prepare and guide subsequent movements--but only when target size is changed. When response amplitude changes mid-sequence, it seems individuals rely more on immediate, target-derived information. Therefore, counter to some current accounts of visual movement control, it appears that memory representations of the preceding movement can guide subsequent movements; however, this information appears selectively accessed in a context-dependent fashion.

  3. The diet as a cause of human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William G; Demarzo, Angelo M; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Asymptomatic prostate inflammation and prostate cancer have reached epidemic proportions among men in the developed world. Animal model studies implicate dietary carcinogens, such as the heterocyclic amines from over-cooked meats and sex steroid hormones, particularly estrogens, as candidate etiologies for prostate cancer. Each acts by causing epithelial cell damage, triggering an inflammatory response that can evolve into a chronic or recurrent condition. This milieu appears to spawn proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) lesions, a type of focal atrophy that represents the earliest of prostate cancer precursor lesions. Rare PIA lesions contain cells which exhibit high c-Myc expression, shortened telomere segments, and epigenetic silencing of genes such as GSTP1, encoding the π-class glutathione S-transferase, all characteristic of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer. Subsequent genetic changes, such as the gene translocations/deletions that generate fusion transcripts between androgen-regulated genes (such as TMPRSS2) and genes encoding ETS family transcription factors (such as ERG1), arise in PIN lesions and may promote invasiveness characteristic of prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Lethal prostate cancers contain markedly corrupted genomes and epigenomes. Epigenetic silencing, which seems to arise in response to the inflamed microenvironment generated by dietary carcinogens and/or estrogens as part of an epigenetic "catastrophe" affecting hundreds of genes, persists to drive clonal evolution through metastatic dissemination. The cause of the initial epigenetic "catastrophe" has not been determined but likely involves defective chromatin structure maintenance by over-exuberant DNA methylation or histone modification. With dietary carcinogens and estrogens driving pro-carcinogenic inflammation in the developed world, it is tempting to speculate that dietary components associated with decreased prostate cancer risk, such as intake of

  4. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... following organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- ...

  5. [Wide QRS tachycardia preceded by pacemaker spikes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M; Aranda, A; Gómez, F J; Jurado, A

    2014-04-01

    The differential diagnosis and therapeutic management of wide QRS tachycardia preceded by pacemaker spike is presented. The pacemaker-mediated tachycardia, tachycardia fibrillo-flutter in patients with pacemakers, and runaway pacemakers, have a similar surface electrocardiogram, but respond to different therapeutic measures. The tachycardia response to the application of a magnet over the pacemaker could help in the differential diagnosis, and in some cases will be therapeutic, as in the case of a tachycardia-mediated pacemaker. Although these conditions are diagnosed and treated in hospitals with catheterization laboratories using the application programmer over the pacemaker, patients presenting in primary care clinic and emergency forced us to make a diagnosis and treat the haemodynamically unstable patient prior to referral. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Noyola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of ... show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. top of page How should I prepare? ... by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... less than 20 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound ... in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. Rarely, a small ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave ... examination, an ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This procedure involves advancing a needle into the prostate ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide ...

  14. Prostatitis - nonbacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urinary tract Parasites Pelvic floor muscle problem Sexual abuse Viruses Life stresses and emotional factors may play ... to treat the condition. These include: Long-term antibiotics to make sure that the prostatitis is not ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. top of page How should I prepare? ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. ... to remove all clothing and jewelry in the area to be examined. You may be asked to ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an ... you should be able to resume your normal activities immediately. top of page Who interprets the results ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ... for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on March 17, 2016 Send us your ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to investigate a nodule found during a rectal exam, detect abnormalities, and determine whether the gland is ... a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically requires insertion of an ultrasound probe into ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biopsy is planned, you may be told to avoid aspirin and other blood thinners for seven to ... abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... rectum into the prostate gland which is situated right in front of the rectum. top of page ... at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: ... Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... vessels or to detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prostate gland while the radiologist watches the needle placement with ultrasound. A small amount of tissue is ... on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as is ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are obtained from different angles to get the best view of the prostate gland. If a suspicious ... over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or ...

  9. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... semen Discomfort in the pelvic area Bone pain Erectile dysfunction When to see a doctor Make an appointment ... Treatment options may include medications, catheters and surgery. Erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction can result from prostate cancer or ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the prostate gland because ...

  12. Shared decision making: Prostate cancer patients' appraisal of treatment alternatives and oncologists' eliciting and responding behavior, an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Arwen H.; Henselmans, Inge; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Geijsen, Elisabeth D.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess clinicians' use of shared decision making (SDM) skills, enabling patient treatment evaluations (appraisals); and varieties of patient appraisals and clinicians' preceding and following utterances. Methods: Two coders rated videotaped initial visits of 25 early-stage prostate

  13. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  14. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms before diagnosing prostatitis. Personal and Family Medical History Taking a personal and family medical history is ... anti-inflammatory drugs—also called NSAIDs—such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen sodium glycosaminogly cans such as ...

  15. Dengue Preceding Diabetic Ketoacidosis Dear Editor;

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA is an important hyperglycemic complication of diabetes mellitus. Infection is confirmed as an important underlying etiology of DKA. Here, the author presents an interesting case of dengue preceding DKA. The case is a 61-year-old female presenting to the physician with the complaint of high fever without relief by self-prescription of acetaminophen. She had an underlying disease, diabetes mellitus (DM. Her body temperature was 39.4 degrees Celsius and her complete blood count showed an important finding: thrombocytopenia (platelet count = 85.000. The serological test was done and the diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever was finally confirmed. This case was treated by standard fluid replacement therapy (normal saline regimen. On day 3, the patient developed new symptoms, frequent urination (more than 3 times in an hour, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and rapid breathing. Complete blood count was done but platelet count was within normal limit at this time. However, the urinalysis showed many positive findings, sugar 4+ and ketone 3+. Her additional blood chemistry results showed a blood glucose level of 454 mg/dL and positive serum ketone. The patient was finally diagnosed to have DKA and endocrinologists were consulted for the management. Of interest, this is a simple case of DKA but the interesting issue is the underlying condition leading to DKA in this patient. Although there are many reports confirming that infection can induce DKA, this is the first reported case of dengue preceding DKA. Indeed, there is a previous report from Thailand on a female patient presented to the physician with concurrent DKA and dengue infection (1. However, DM had not previously been diagnosed in the present case. The dengue infection is common in the tropical world and DM is also the important emerging health problem in this area. Some reports note that DM can be an aggravating factor in the development of dengue shock (2,3. There is

  16. Extension of the preceding birth technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A

    1994-01-01

    The Brass-inspired Preceding Birth Technique (PBT), is an indirect estimation technique with low costs of administration. PBT involves asking women at a time close to delivery about the survival of the preceding births. The proportion dead is close to the probability of dying between the birth and the second birthday or an index of early childhood mortality (II or Q). Brass and Macrae have determined that II is an estimate of mortality between birth and an age lower than the birth interval or around 4/5 of the birth interval. Hospital and clinic data are likely to include a concentration of women with lower risks of disease because of higher educational levels and socioeconomic status. A simulation of PBT data from the World Fertility Survey for Mexico and Peru found that the proportions of previously dead children were 0.156 in Peru and 0.092 in Mexican home deliveries. Maternity clinic proportions were 0.088 in Peru and 0.066 in Mexico. Use of clinic and hospital data collection underestimated mortality by 32% in Peru and 15% in Mexico. Another alternative was proposed: interviewing women at some other time than delivery. If the interview was during a child/infant intervention after delivery, the subsample would still be subject to a bias, but this problem could be overcome by computing the weighted average of the actual probability of the older child being dead and the conditional probability of the younger child being dead or both younger and older children being dead. Correction factors could be applied using the general standard of the logit life table system of Brass. Calculation of a simple average of the ages of the younger children could provide enough information to help decide which tables to use. Five surveys were selected for testing the factors of dependence between probabilities of death of successive siblings: Bangladesh, Lesotho, Kenya, Ghana, and Guyana. Higher mortality was related to lower dependency factors between the probabilities of death

  17. Geographic atrophy phenotype identification by cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monés, Jordi; Biarnés, Marc

    2017-07-20

    To identify ocular phenotypes in patients with geographic atrophy secondary to age-related macular degeneration (GA) using a data-driven cluster analysis. This was a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective, natural history study of patients with GA who were followed for ≥6 months. Cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups within the population based on the presence of several phenotypic features: soft drusen, reticular pseudodrusen (RPD), primary foveal atrophy, increased fundus autofluorescence (FAF), greyish FAF appearance and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT). A comparison of features between the subgroups was conducted, and a qualitative description of the new phenotypes was proposed. The atrophy growth rate between phenotypes was then compared. Data were analysed from 77 eyes of 77 patients with GA. Cluster analysis identified three groups: phenotype 1 was characterised by high soft drusen load, foveal atrophy and slow growth; phenotype 3 showed high RPD load, extrafoveal and greyish FAF appearance and thin SFCT; the characteristics of phenotype 2 were midway between phenotypes 1 and 3. Phenotypes differed in all measured features (p≤0.013), with decreases in the presence of soft drusen, foveal atrophy and SFCT seen from phenotypes 1 to 3 and corresponding increases in high RPD load, high FAF and greyish FAF appearance. Atrophy growth rate differed between phenotypes 1, 2 and 3 (0.63, 1.91 and 1.73 mm(2)/year, respectively, p=0.0005). Cluster analysis identified three distinct phenotypes in GA. One of them showed a particularly slow growth pattern. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Studies of a novel photosensitizer palladium-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad) for the treatment of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-06-01

    In this study, photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a novel, second generation photosensitizer Tookad (palladium-bacteriopheophorbide, WST09, STEBA Biotech, France), is investigated as an alternative modality in the treatment of prostate cancer. In vivo normal canine prostate and spontaneous advanced prostate cancer are used as the animal model. PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm, 150 mW/cm) to activate the i.v. infused photosensitizer. The effects of drug concentration, drug-light interval, and light fluence rate on the PDT efficacy were studied. The prostates and adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were harvested and subjected to histopathological examination. During the one-week to 3-month period post PDT treatment, the dogs recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Prostatic urethra and prostate adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were well preserved. Light irradiation delivered during drug infusion or within 15 min post drug infusion induced the similar extend of damages. PDT induced prostate lesions in both normal and cancerous prostate were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis and atrophy. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single 1-cm interstitial treatment, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating cancerous prostatic tissue. In conclusion, the second generation photosensitizer Tookad mediated PDT may provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  19. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy have been reported previously. We are reporting a teenage girl suffering from progressive hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy with demonstrable mirror movements in hand.

  20. CT features of olivopontocerebellar atrophy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.D. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Radiology; Chand, R.P. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Medicine (Neurology); Gururaj, A.K. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Child Health; Jeans, W.D. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Radiology

    1995-11-01

    Between 1990 and 1992, 14 children were seen in whom a clinical diagnosis of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) had been made. The majority of patients presented with cerebellar ataxia and hypotonia. Five children had a family history of a similar illness in first-degree relatives. All cases had undergone clinical and neurologic examinations, routine laboratory tests and cranial CT. CT features were graded to quantitative the degree of atrophy in each cerebellar hemisphere, vermis and brain stem. All patients had varying degrees of atrophic changes of cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum. These CT features appear to be distinctive enough to enable the diagnosis of OPCA to be made. (orig.).

  1. Liver Atrophy Associated With Monolobar Caroli's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, L. N.; Kilpadi, A. B.; D'Cunha, S.

    1991-01-01

    The association of the atrophy-hypertrophy complex in monolobar Caroli’s disease (Type I) is reported in a 30 year old male who presented with recurrent cholangitis. Ultrasound and CT scan showed localised, right sided, saccular biliary dilatation in a normal sized liver. Severe right lobar atrophy was detected at operation and the resected right lobe weighed only 140 gms. Distortion of the hilar vascular anatomy and posterior displacement of the right hepatic duct orifice were problems encountered at surgery. PMID:1931788

  2. Weight change, obesity and risk of prostate cancer progression among men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, Barbra A; Ahearn, Thomas U; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J; Nguyen, Paul L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Wilson, Kathryn M

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. We aimed to elucidate the importance and relevant timing of obesity and weight change for prostate cancer progression. We identified 5,158 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (clinical stage T1/T2) from 1986 to 2012 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men were followed for biochemical recurrence and lethal prostate cancer (development of distant metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality) until 2012. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for body mass index (BMI) at age 21, BMI at diagnosis, "long-term" weight change from age 21 to diagnosis and "short-term" weight change over spans of 4 and 8 years preceding diagnosis. Because weight, weight change and mortality are strongly associated with smoking, we repeated analyses among never smokers only (N = 2,559). Among all patients, neither weight change nor BMI (at age 21 or at diagnosis) was associated with lethal prostate cancer. Among never smokers, long-term weight gain was associated with an increased risk of lethal disease (HR for gaining >30 pounds vs. stable weight [±10 pounds] 1.59, 95% CI, 1.01-2.50, p-trend = 0.06). Associations between weight change, BMI and lethal prostate cancer were stronger for men with BMI ≥ 25 at age 21 compared to those with BMI obesity were not associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence. Our findings among never smoker men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer suggest a positive association between long-term weight gain and risk of lethal prostate cancer. Metabolic changes associated with weight gain may promote prostate cancer progression. © 2017 UICC.

  3. Amyloid plaque formation precedes dendritic spine loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Tobias; Burgold, Steffen; Dorostkar, Mario M; Fuhrmann, Martin; Wegenast-Braun, Bettina M; Schmidt, Boris; Kretzschmar, Hans; Herms, Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Amyloid-beta plaque deposition represents a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. While numerous studies have described dendritic spine loss in proximity to plaques, much less is known about the kinetics of these processes. In particular, the question as to whether synapse loss precedes or follows plaque formation remains unanswered. To address this question, and to learn more about the underlying kinetics, we simultaneously imaged amyloid plaque deposition and dendritic spine loss by applying two-photon in vivo microscopy through a cranial window in double transgenic APPPS1 mice. As a result, we first observed that the rate of dendritic spine loss in proximity to plaques is the same in both young and aged animals. However, plaque size only increased significantly in the young cohort, indicating that spine loss persists even many months after initial plaque appearance. Tracking the fate of individual spines revealed that net spine loss is caused by increased spine elimination, with the rate of spine formation remaining constant. Imaging of dendritic spines before and during plaque formation demonstrated that spine loss around plaques commences at least 4 weeks after initial plaque formation. In conclusion, spine loss occurs, shortly but with a significant time delay, after the birth of new plaques, and persists in the vicinity of amyloid plaques over many months. These findings hence give further hope to the possibility that there is a therapeutic window between initial amyloid plaque deposition and the onset of structural damage at spines.

  4. Obligate progression precedes lung adenocarcinoma dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Deborah R; Chuang, Chen-Hua; Yang, Dian; Chiou, Shin-Heng; Cheemalavagu, Shashank; Kim-Kiselak, Caroline; Connolly, Andrew; Winslow, Monte M

    2014-07-01

    Despite its clinical importance, very little is known about the natural history and molecular underpinnings of lung cancer dissemination and metastasis. Here, we used a genetically engineered mouse model of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma in which cancer cells are fluorescently marked to determine whether dissemination is an inherent ability or a major acquired phenotype during lung adenocarcinoma metastasis. We find very little evidence for dissemination from oncogenic KRAS-driven hyperplasias or most adenocarcinomas. p53 loss is insufficient to drive dissemination but rather enables rare cancer cells in a small fraction of primary adenocarcinomas to gain alterations that drive dissemination. Molecular characterization of disseminated tumor cells indicates that downregulation of the transcription factor Nkx2-1 precedes dissemination. Finally, we show that metastatic primary tumors possess a highly proliferative subpopulation of cells with characteristics matching those of disseminating cells. We propose that dissemination is a major hurdle during the natural course of lung adenocarcinoma metastasis. Because of its aggressively metastatic nature, lung cancer is the top cancer killer of both men and women in the United States. We show that, unlike in other cancer types, lung cancer dissemination is a major initial barrier to metastasis. Our findings provide insight into the effect of p53 deficiency and downregulation of Nkx2-1 during lung adenocarcinoma progression. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Retinal ganglion cell dendritic atrophy in DBA/2J glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete A Williams

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a complex disease affecting an estimated 70 million people worldwide, characterised by the progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and accompanying visual field loss. The common site of damage to retinal ganglion cells is thought to be at the optic nerve head, however evidence from other optic neuropathies and neurodegenerative disorders suggests that dendritic structures undergo a prolonged period of atrophy that may accompany or even precede soma loss and neuronal cell death. Using the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma this investigation aims to elucidate the impact of increasing intraocular pressure on retinal ganglion cell dendrites using DBA/2J mice that express YFP throughout the retinal ganglion cells driven by Thy1 (DBA/2J.Thy1(YFP and DiOlistically labelled retinal ganglion cells in DBA/2J mice. Here we show retinal ganglion cell dendritic degeneration in DiOlistically labelled DBA/2J retinal ganglion cells but not in the DBA/2J.Thy1(YFP retinal ganglion cells suggesting that a potential downregulation of Thy1 allows only 'healthy' retinal ganglion cells to express YFP. These data may highlight alternative pathways to retinal ganglion cell loss in DBA/2J glaucoma.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myoclonic epilepsy Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... boxes. Description Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes ...

  7. Multifocal motor neuropathy and progressive atrophy : Pathophysiological similarities and differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlam, L.

    2015-01-01

    Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) share many clinical similarities. They are both characterized by progressive asymmetric muscle weakness with atrophy and fasciculations. Tendon reflexes are normally low or absent, although in some patients with MMN normal

  8. Respiratory infections precede adult-onset asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of asthma (n = 521 during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls (n = 932 in a geographically defined area in South Finland. Information on respiratory infections was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of asthma was based on symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction in lung function measurements. The risk of asthma onset was strongly increased in subjects who had experienced in the preceding 12 months lower respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio (OR 7.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.16-9.99, or upper respiratory tract infections (including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.72-2.97. Individuals with personal atopy and/or parental atopy were more susceptible to the effects of respiratory infections on asthma onset than non-atopic persons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that recently experienced respiratory infections are a strong determinant for adult-onset asthma. Reducing such infections might prevent onset of asthma in adulthood, especially in individuals with atopy or hereditary propensity to it.

  9. Cube propagation for focal brain atrophy estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Sørensen, Lauge; Darkner, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Precise and robust whole brain, ventricle, and hippocampal atrophy measurements are important as they serve as biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease. They are used as secondary outcomes in drug trials, and they correlate with the cognitive scores. When two successive scans are non-linearly aligned...

  10. Corpus callosum atrophy in Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Young-Min; Na, Duk L; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Manho

    2005-10-01

    Neuropathologic changes in Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) involve variable brain structures. Corpus callosum involvement in WE, however, is largely unknown. The authors investigated the degree and the pattern of corpus callosum changes in WE according to the etiologies. Nineteen patients with WE (between 34 and 81 years) and 19 age- and sex-matched control participants were included. The total cross-sectional callosal area and 5 callosal subregions (C1-C5) were measured by tracing outer margins in the midsagittal sections. Subregions were determined by placing radial dividers with 10 rays. The pixel numbers for corpus callosums were calculated, and the values obtained were adjusted for head size variations. The causes of WE were alcoholism (10), intestinal surgery (5), anorexia (3), and hyperemesis gravidarum (1). The mean size of the total corpus callosum was significantly reduced in alcoholic WE (P< .001; 527.8 +/- 70.8 mm2 for alcoholic WE; 664.6 +/- 58.1 mm2 for the corresponding controls), but not in nonalcoholic WE. In subregion analysis, prefrontal callosum (C2) atrophy was the most prominent in alcoholic WE. In contrast, only splenium (C5) was atrophied in nonalcoholic WE. The degree of atrophy did not change throughout the follow-up period (mean 5.3 weeks). This study suggests that the extent and location of corpus callosum atrophy differs between alcoholic WE and nonalcoholic WE, implying separate contribution of alcohol neurotoxicity and nutritional deficiency.

  11. Hippocampal atrophy in subcortical vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, L.A.; Gertz, H.J.; Scheltens, P.; Wolf, H

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: New research criteria for subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) have been suggested to define a more homogeneous subgroup of vascular dementia. Hippocampal (Hc) atrophy is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also occurs in other dementia disorders including vascular

  12. Sensorimotor gating deficits in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Biernat, Heidi Bryde; Nikolic, Miki

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory blink reflex is a measure of sensorimotor gating, which reflects an organism's ability to filter out irrelevant sensory information. PPI has never been studied in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), although sensorimotor deficits are frequently...

  13. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreesen, JCFM; Bras, M; de Die-Smulders, C; Dumoulin, JCM; Cobben, JM; Evers, JLH; Smeets, HJM; Geraedts, JPM

    After Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common severe neuromuscular disease in childhood. Since 1995, homozygous deletions in exon 7 of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene have been described in >90-95% of SMA patients. However, the presence of a highly

  14. Rapid reduction in blood flow to the rat ventral prostate gland after castration: preliminary evidence that androgens influence prostate size by regulating blood flow to the prostate gland and prostatic endothelial cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabsigh, A; Chang, D T; Heitjan, D F; Kiss, A; Olsson, C A; Puchner, P J; Buttyan, R

    1998-08-01

    Androgenic steroids regulate the development and size of the mammalian prostate gland. The mechanism(s) for this growth control might involve a direct effect on prostate cell proliferation and survival as well as more complex effects on the tissue environment supporting nourishment and oxygenation. In this study, we evaluated an animal model of androgen action on the prostate, the rat ventral prostate gland, to determine whether acute androgen withdrawal, by means of castration, might alter the primary blood flow to the prostate gland and for the effects of castration on prostatic endothelial cell viability. Groups of rats studied included intact control males, males that had been surgically castrated, or males that received a sham-surgical castration. Relative blood flow (RBF) to the rat ventral prostate glands and rat bladders were measured at 18 and 24 hr after castration or sham castration using a fluorescent microsphere infusion technique. Thin sections from fixed and embedded rat ventral prostate glands obtained from unoperated or 12-hr castrated rats were analyzed by the TUNEL immunostaining technique to microscopically identify and quantify apoptotic epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells. RBF to the rat ventral prostate was reduced by 38%, at 18 hr after castration when compared with intact or sham-operated rats and by 45% at 24 hr after castration (P=0.038 unoperated/0.025 sham operated). In contrast, RBF to the bladder was not significantly different between any of the groups in the 24-hr castrate experiment. TUNEL staining analysis of ventral prostate tissues obtained from 12-hr castrated rats showed only rare TUNEL-positive epithelial cells similar to the control tissue but significantly increased TUNEL labeling for endothelial and other ventral prostate stromal cells. Castration resulted in a rapid and significant reduction of blood flow to the mature rat ventral prostate gland that was not seen in the bladder. This reduction precedes the

  15. Prostatic leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csata, S; Orosz, Z; Iványi, A; Répássy, D

    1998-02-15

    The histopathological findings from the third prostate operation of a 63-year-old patient proved that his leiomysarcoma was malignant. Leiomyosarcoma is a disease of low incidence. Of 1000 cases of a carcinoma of prostate one proves to be this disease. Its clinical distinction from benign prostate disease meets difficulties. A survey of literature has shown that even multiple aggressive therapy fails when the process has overpassed the limits of the organ. Early diagnosis followed be radical pre- and postoperative X-irradiation may lead to long-term survival. Neither cytostatic nor hormonal therapy is successful. The course of the illness of our patients merits interest because of the rarity of the disease and the diagnostic difficulties.

  16. An unusual cause of optic atrophy in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old child presenting with gross visual impairment was diagnosed as a case of optic atrophy. However, radiological investigations revealed osteopetrosis, which, though rare, can result in optic atrophy. The aim of this case report is to highlight this possibility while evaluating cases of optic atrophy in young patients.

  17. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics About the ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  18. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  19. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics About ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early ...

  20. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when men who are being treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) see their PSA levels begin to... ... fight against prostate cancer today. Donate Terms of use Privacy Policy © Prostate Cancer Foundation, 2018 Understanding Prostate ...

  1. Prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen testing in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David P; Supramaniam, Rajah; Marshall, Villis R; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2008-09-15

    To describe trends in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, prostate cancer incidence and mortality in New South Wales. Descriptive analysis using routinely collected data of observed trends in PSA testing from 1989 to 2006, and prostate cancer cases and deaths from 1972 to 2005 in NSW. Age-standardised and age-specific rates and joinpoint regression to identify changes in trends; projected trends observed before the introduction of PSA testing to quantify its impact on incidence and mortality rates. The number of PSA tests per year more than doubled between 1994 and 2006. Age-standardised incidence of prostate cancer peaked in 1994, fell by 10.0% per year to 1998 and then increased by 4.9% per year from 2001 to 2005. An estimated 19 602 (43%) more men than expected from preceding trends were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1989 and 2005 after PSA testing was introduced. The incidence of recorded advanced prostate cancer at diagnosis fell from 13.0 per 100,000 men in 1987-1991 to 7.0 per 100,000 men in 2002-2005. The age-standardised mortality from prostate cancer increased by 3.6% per year between 1984 and 1990 and then fell by 2.0% per year to 2005. There was a sustained increase in prostate cancer incidence in NSW after PSA testing was introduced. While falls in the incidence of advanced disease at diagnosis and mortality from prostate cancer after 1993 are consistent with a benefit from PSA testing, other explanations cannot be excluded.

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. top of page How should I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for your ultrasound exam. You may need to remove all clothing and jewelry in the area to be ...

  3. Prostatitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostatitis at home : Urinate often and completely. Take warm baths to relieve pain. Take stool softeners to make bowel movements more comfortable. Avoid substances that irritate your bladder, such as alcohol, caffeinated foods and drinks, citrus juices, and hot or spicy foods. Drink more fluid (64 to ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? Men who have ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? Men who have had the tail end of their bowel ( ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the pelvis may be obtained as an alternative imaging test, because it may be obtained with an external (phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  9. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  10. Page JUDICIAL PRECEDENT IN THE NIGERIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Abstract. Judicial precedent is an age-long feature of municipal judicial systems of the common law including. Nigeria. The review of the practice in Nigeria reveals that its serves the cause of justice and makes predictability of the outcome of legal suits possible. Three models of judicial precedent have been identified and ...

  11. Altered bone marrow lymphopoiesis and interleukin-6-dependent inhibition of thymocyte differentiation contribute to thymic atrophy during Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajosa, Sofía; Gea, Susana; Chillón-Marinas, Carlos; Poveda, Cristina; Del Carmen Maza, María; Fresno, Manuel; Gironès, Núria

    2017-03-14

    Thymic atrophy occurs during infection being associated with apoptosis of double positive (DP) and premature exit of DP and double negative (DN) thymocytes. We observed for the first time that a significant bone marrow aplasia and a decrease in common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) preceded thymic alterations in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. In addition, depletion of the DN2 stage was previous to the DN1, indicating an alteration in the differentiation from DN1 to DN2 thymocytes. Interestingly, infected mice deficient in IL-6 expression showed higher numbers of DP and CD4+ thymocytes than wild type infected mice, while presenting similar percentages of DN1 thymocytes. Moreover, the drop in late differentiation stages of DN thymocytes was partially abrogated in comparison with wild type littermates. Thus, our results suggest that thymic atrophy involves a drop in CLPs production in bone marrow and IL-6-dependent and independent mechanisms that inhibits the differentiation of DN thymocytes.

  12. White matter lesions and temporal lobe atrophy related to incidence of both dementia and major depression in 70-year-olds followed over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, P; Olesen, P J; Simoni, M; Pantoni, L; Östling, S; Kern, S; Guo, X; Skoog, I

    2015-05-01

    A number of studies have suggested associations between dementia and depression in older adults. One reason could be that these disorders share structural correlates, such as white matter lesions (WMLs) and cortical atrophy. No study has examined whether these lesions precede both dementia and depression independently of each other in the general population. Whether WMLs and cortical atrophy on computed tomography predict dementia and depression was investigated in a population-based sample of 70-year-olds (n = 380) followed over 10 years. Exclusion criteria were dementia, major depression, history of stroke and a Mini-Mental State Examination score below 26 at baseline in 2000-2001. Dementia was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised, and depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Primary outcomes included dementia and major depression at 10-year follow-up. Adjusted logistic regression models, including both WMLs and temporal lobe atrophy, showed that moderate to severe WMLs [odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-12.76] and temporal lobe atrophy (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.13-7.60) predicted dementia during a 10-year follow-up independently of major depression. Similarly, both moderate to severe WMLs (OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.25-11.76) and temporal lobe atrophy (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.06-5.96) predicted depression even after controlling for incident dementia. White matter lesions and temporal lobe atrophy preceded 10-year incidence of both dementia and depression in 70-year-olds. Shared structural correlates could explain the reported associations between dementia and depression. These brain changes may represent independent and complementary pathways to dementia and depression. Strategies to slow progression of vascular pathology and neurodegeneration could indirectly prevent both dementia and depression in older adults. © 2015 EAN.

  13. Oxyntic atrophy, metaplasia and gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenring, James R.; Nam, Ki Taek

    2015-01-01

    The process of gastric carcinogenesis involves the loss of parietal cells (oxyntic atrophy) and subsequent replacement of the normal gastric lineages with metaplastic lineages. In humans, two metaplastic lineages develop as sequelae of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection: intestinal metaplasia and Spasmolytic Polypeptide-expressing Metaplasia (SPEM). Mouse models of both chronic Helicobacter infection and acute pharmacological oxyntic atrophy have led to the recognition that SPEM arises from transdifferentiation of mature chief cells. The presence of inflammation promotes the expansion of SPEM in mice. Furthermore, studies in Mongolian gerbils as well as increasing evidence from human studies indicates that SPEM likely represents a precursor for development of intestinal metaplasia. These findings indicate that loss of parietal cells, augmented by chronic inflammation, leads to a cascade of metaplastic events. Identification of specific biomarkers for SPEM and intestinal metaplasia hold promise for providing both early detection of pre-neoplasia as well as information on prognostic outcome following curative resection. PMID:21075342

  14. [Posterior cortical atrophy with progressive visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarranz, J J; Lasa, A; Fernández, M; Lezcano, E; Pérez Bas, M; Varona, L; Ruiz, J; Beristain, X

    1995-03-01

    Interest in progressive focal cerebral syndromes associated with classical degenerative diseases has increased in recent years. Descriptions of posterior cortical atrophy with progressive visual agnosia are relatively rare. We present 5 patients (2 women) ranging in age between 57 and 72 years old. In all cases symptoms began and progressed with no known etiology. All cases were sporadic. The main clinical signs are difficulty in recognizing objects, colors, persons or places; topographical disorientation and visual memory alterations; alexia, simultagnosia, loss of ocular fixing and optic ataxia. Some patients presented other disturbances of praxis or memory and 2 progressed to global dementia. Language function was preserved and behavioral disturbances did not develop. The amplitude of the P100 visual evoked potential was low but latency was normal in 4 patients and prolonged in 1. Brain images showed atrophy and hypoperfusion in the parieto-occipital area. The neuropathology status of these patients is unknown.

  15. [Posterior cortical atrophy. Report of five cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado D, Carolina; Donoso S, Archibaldo

    2009-11-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome, usually due to Alzheimer's disease. The first symptoms are progressive impairment of visuo spatial (Balint's and Gertsmann's syndromes) or visuo perceptive (visual agnosia, alexia) function. Episodic memory and executive function are spared until later stages. We report two males aged 51 and 55years and three females aged 50, 54 and 56 years, with posterior cortical atrophy. Ophthalmologic study was normal in all. Presenting signs and symptoms were visual ataxia, simultagnosia, agraphia, acalculia, spatial disorientation and unilateral neglect (Balint's and Gerstmann's syndromes). Apperceptive visual agnosia, aphasia, apraxia and alexia were also observed. One female had cortical blindness. Structural images were inconclusive, but PET scan and SPECT disclosed functional impairments in occipitotemporal or occipitoparietal areas.

  16. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  17. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  18. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonaldo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic organ that is maintained by multiple pathways regulating cell and protein turnover. During muscle atrophy, proteolytic systems are activated, and contractile proteins and organelles are removed, resulting in the shrinkage of muscle fibers. Excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with poor prognosis in several diseases, including myopathies and muscular dystrophies, as well as in systemic disorders such as cancer, diabetes, sepsis and heart failure. Muscle loss also occurs during aging. In this paper, we review the key mechanisms that regulate the turnover of contractile proteins and organelles in muscle tissue, and discuss how impairments in these mechanisms can contribute to muscle atrophy. We also discuss how protein synthesis and degradation are coordinately regulated by signaling pathways that are influenced by mechanical stress, physical activity, and the availability of nutrients and growth factors. Understanding how these pathways regulate muscle mass will provide new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy in metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on March 17, 2016 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? ... questions or for a referral to a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search ...

  20. Prostate Mass as a First Manifestation of Myeloid Sarcoma in a Patient With an Occult Acute Myeloid Leukemia-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Natally; Sergio Brito Panizza, Pedro; Perego Costa, Frederico; Cesar Cavalcanti Viana, Publio

    2017-09-01

    Myeloid sarcoma (MS) with either primary or secondary prostate involvement is extremely rare. Its diagnostic is particularly challenging when prostate lesion precedes the systemic manifestation of a myeloproliferative disorder. We report such a case in a 44-year-old man with a prostate mass as a first manifestation of myeloid sarcoma associated with acute myeloid leukemia. The diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorder was suspected in the prostate magnetic resonance imaging, and myeloid sarcoma was confirmed after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate core biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transurethral resection of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    TURP; Prostate resection - transurethral ... used to remove the inside part of your prostate gland using electricity. ... if you have benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH ). The prostate gland often grows larger as men get older. ...

  2. Medical Tests for Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... male urinary tract What are some common prostate problems? The most common prostate problem in men younger ... than BPH. What are the symptoms of prostate problems? The symptoms of prostate problems may include urinary ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  4. Finasteride treatment alters tissue specific androgen receptor expression in prostate tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Tyler M; Sehgal, Priyanka D; Johnson, Karen A; Pier, Thomas; Bruskewitz, Reginald C; Ricke, William A; Huang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Normal and pathologic growth of the prostate is dependent on the synthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from testosterone by 5α-reductase. Finasteride is a selective inhibitor of 5α-reductase 2, one isozyme of 5α-reductase found in abundance in the human prostate. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of finasteride on androgen receptor expression and tissue morphology in human benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens. Patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate and either treated or not treated with finasteride between 2004 and 2010 at the University of Wisconsin-Hospital were retrospectively identified using an institutional database. Prostate specimens from each patient were triple-stained for androgen receptor, prostate-specific antigen, and basal marker cytokeratin 5. Morphometric analysis was performed using the multispectral imaging, and results were compared between groups of finasteride treated and non-treated patients. Epithelial androgen receptor but not stromal androgen receptor expression was significantly lower in patients treated with finasteride than in non-treated patients. Androgen receptor-regulated prostate-specific antigen was not significantly decreased in finasteride-treated patients. Significant luminal epithelial atrophy and basal cell hyperplasia were prevalent in finasteride treated patients. Epithelial androgen receptor expression was highly correlated to the level of luminal epithelial atrophy. In this study, finasteride decreased the expression of epithelial androgen receptor in a tissue specific manner. The correlation between epithelial androgen receptor and the extent of luminal epithelial atrophy suggests that epithelial androgen receptor may be directly regulating the atrophic effects observed with finasteride treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Histopathological insights into hair loss in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome: diffuse anagen-telogen conversion precedes clinical hair loss progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe-Okada, Emiko; Inazumi, Toyoko; Matsukawa, Hidehiko; Ohyama, Manabu

    2014-05-01

    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare disorder characterised by gastrointestinal polyposis and ectodermal changes, represented by extensive alopecia. Detailed histopathological investigations of alopecic lesions in two female CCS patients with severe hair loss revealed a marked increase in telogen hair follicles with no sign of loss or of the minaturisation or atrophy of hair follicle structures and the absence of inflammatory change, despite severe inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggested that hair regrowth can be expected without systemic corticosteroids, if they are not necessary for treatment of the gastrointestinal tract, and that anagen-telogen transition is an early event preceding clinical hair loss in CCS. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  6. Toxigenic Helicobacter pylori infection precedes gastric hypochlorhydria in cancer relatives, and H. pylori virulence evolves in these families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Richard H; Thomas, Rachael J; Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Letley, Darren P; Limb, Marie C; El-Omar, Emad M; Atherton, John C

    2008-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection by virulent strains is associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. We aimed to determine whether infection with virulent H. pylori preceded precancerous gastric hypochlorhydria and atrophy in gastric cancer relatives and quantify the extent of virulence factor evolution. H. pylori strains from 51 Scottish gastric cancer relatives were characterized by genetic fingerprinting and typing the vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA), the cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA), and housekeeping genes. We phenotyped strains by coculture with gastric epithelial cells and assessing vacuolation (microscopy), CagA tyrosine phosphorylation (immunoblot), and interleukin-8 secretion (ELISA). Toxigenic (vacA type s1/m1) H. pylori was associated with precancerous gastric hypochlorhydria (Phypochlorhydria, suggesting that virulent H. pylori increases cancer risk by causing this condition. Microevolution of virulence genes is common within families of gastric cancer patients and changes H. pylori virulence.

  7. Ocular features of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria D; Pulido, Jose S; Coon, Elizabeth A; Chen, John J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to gain better understanding of the ocular manifestations of multiple system atrophy (MSA), a neurodegenerative disorder rarely studied in terms of its ophthalmologic features. We performed a retrospective case series (1/1/05-12/31/14) to search for patients seen at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, who had mention of MSA in the medical record and an eye examination, which yielded 285 cases. Of the 285, we identified 39 cases of true MSA. Each of these 39 patients was further reviewed for ocular abnormalities potentially related to MSA. Ocular findings potentially attributable to MSA were found in 64% of patients. Most common were dry eye (N = 14), conjugate eye movement abnormalities (N = 13), and ocular misalignment (N = 7). One patient had dry eye and monocular diplopia from trichiasis due to cicatricial pemphigoid, one had bilateral optic atrophy, and one had Adie's tonic pupil. Conjugate eye movement abnormalities (33%) and ocular misalignment (18%) were more common in patients with MSA-C. Patients with ocular findings, excluding dry eye, had a significantly shorter lifespan from time of initial neurologic symptoms to death. Our study confirms conjugate eye movement abnormalities and misalignment are common ocular findings in patients with MSA. Bilateral optic atrophy and cicatricial pemphigoid are possibly attributable to the disease. Ocular manifestations in MSA predict a poor prognosis as these patients have a significantly shorter lifespan. Therefore, we recommend patients with MSA have a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic exam at time of diagnosis, and thereafter, to screen for eye findings that may indicate a shorter lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Homonymous hemianopia and posterior cortical atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaglio, M; Krolak-Salmon, P; Tilikete, C; Bernard, M; Croisile, B; Vighetto, A

    2009-03-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a clinically and radiologically defined syndrome, in which predominant symptoms focus on higher visual dysfunction with progressive course and association with cortical atrophy or hypometabolism that predominates in the posterior part of the hemispheres. Homonymous hemianopia (HH) has rarely been described in this syndrome. We report on six patients (four females, two males, aged 63 to 80) referred for visual disorder which led to demonstration of HH using perimetry testing. These patients were followed for 1 to 5 years after discovery of HH. Brain imaging with MRI or CT scan was obtained in the six cases and a SPECT scan was performed in four cases. HH was left-sided in four cases and right-sided in two cases. Associated symptoms related to higher visual dysfunction were simultagnosia, alone or as part of a full Balint's syndrome, alexia, constructional apraxia, dressing apraxia, visual form agnosia, prosopagnosia and hemispatial neglect. These symptoms were mild at onset but invariably worsened with disease progression. Dementia eventually developed in all cases. The clinical diagnosis was probable Alzheimer's disease in five cases and corticobasal degeneration in one case. Radiology showed posterior cortex atrophy in all cases as well as reduced cerebral blood flow in the same region, with an asymmetrical pattern compatible with the side of HH. Elementary cortical lesions in PCA can develop mainly in the associative visual areas and even in the primary visual area, resulting in HH. HH has rarely been documented in PCA, but its prevalence would probably be higher if systematic search was conducted. Apparently isolated HH of insidious onset should suggest PCA and lead to neuropsychological testing and search for discrete atrophic changes of the posterior cortex on MRI as well as for metabolic alterations with SPECT or PET.

  9. Urinary engrailed-2 (EN2) levels predict tumour volume in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandha, Hardev; Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2012-01-01

    AND METHODS: Archived patient samples from the Aarhus Prostate Cancer Project, Denmark, were assessed. Pre-treatment mid-stream urines, without preceding prostatic massage, were collected and stored at -80 °C. Urinary EN2 levels were measured by a recently published enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS...... associated with increasing tumour stage and closely reflected the volume of cancer in RP specimens. Given the ease of collection (no prostatic massage required) and the simplicity, low cost and robustness of the assay, EN2 may become a useful biomarker in not only identifying which patients have prostate...

  10. Skin lightening cream induced dermatitis and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Matthew; Gardner, James; Driscoll, Marcia

    2011-03-15

    We present the case of a Malian woman who had been using skin-lightening creams for an excess of 5 years. On presentation to our clinic she had multiple areas of atrophy and striae with erythema. She had been using a topical estrogen cream over all effected areas for two weeks. We present this case to draw attention to the serious problem of widespread and unregulated use of skin lightening creams in Africa. Herein we include a review of the literature on the prevalence of the problem as well as associated side effects of commonly implicated medications.

  11. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-29

    Jun 29, 2010 ... associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatic cancer.[1] Primary prostatic urethral calculi are ... Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, ... Prostatic calculi associated with hypertrophy of the gland. Group III. Prostatic calculi that ...

  12. Abnormal pain perception in patients with Multiple System Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory-Magne, F; Pellaprat, J; Harroch, E; Galitzsky, M; Rousseau, V; Pavy-Le Traon, A; Rascol, O; Gerdelat, A; Brefel-Courbon, C

    2018-03-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease or Multiple System Atrophy frequently experience painful sensations. The few studies investigating pain mechanisms in Multiple System Atrophy patients have reported contradictory results. In our study, we compared pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls and evaluated the effect of l-DOPA on pain thresholds. We assessed subjective and objective pain thresholds (using a thermotest and RIII reflex), and pain tolerance in OFF and ON conditions, clinical pain, motor and psychological evaluation. Pain was reported in 78.6% of Multiple System Atrophy patients and in 37.5% of Parkinson's disease patients. In the OFF condition, subjective and objective pain thresholds were significantly lower in Multiple System Atrophy patients than in healthy controls (43.8 °C ± 1.3 vs 45.7 °C ± 0.8; p = 0.0005 and 7.4 mA ± 3.8 vs 13.7 mA ± 2.8; p = 0.002, respectively). They were also significantly reduced in Multiple System Atrophy compared to Parkinson's disease patients. No significant difference was found in pain tolerance for the 3 groups and in the effect of l-DOPA on pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients. In the ON condition, pain tolerance tended to be reduced in Multiple System Atrophy versus Parkinson's disease patients (p = 0.05). Multiple System Atrophy patients had an increase in pain perception compared to Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls. The l-DOPA effect was similar for pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients, but tended to worsen pain tolerance in Multiple System Atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of muscle atrophy on motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    As a biological tissue, muscle adapts to the demands of usage. One traditional way of assessing the extent of this adaptation has been to examine the effects of an altered-activity protocol on the physiological properties of muscles. However, in order to accurately interpret the changes associated with an activity pattern, it is necessary to employ an appropriate control model. A substantial literature exists which reports altered-use effects by comparing experimental observations with those from animals raised in small laboratory cages. Some evidence suggests that small-cage-reared animals actually represent a model of reduced use. For example, laboratory animals subjected to limited physical activity have shown resistance to insulin-induced glucose uptake which can be altered by exercise training. This project concerned itself with the basic mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy. Specifically, the project addressed the issue of the appropriateness of rats raised in conventional-sized cages as experimental models to examine this phenomenon. The project hypothesis was that rats raised in small cages are inappropriate models for the study of muscle atrophy. The experimental protocol involved: 1) raising two populations of rats, one group in conventional (small)-sized cages and the other group in a much larger (133x) cage, from weanling age (21 days) through to young adulthood (125 days); 2) comparison of size- and force-related characteristics of selected test muscles in an acute terminal paradigm.

  14. Bringing CLARITY to Gray Matter Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Rory D.; Kurth, Florian; Itoh, Noriko; Mongerson, Chandler R.L.; Wailes, Shannon H.; Peng, Mavis S.; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan J.

    2015-01-01

    Gray matter atrophy has been shown to be a strong correlate to clinical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its most commonly used animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the relationship between gray mater atrophy and the spinal cord pathology often observed in EAE has never been established. Here EAE was induced in Thy1.1-YFP mice and their brains imaged using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The brains and spinal cords were subsequently optically cleared using Clear Lipid-exchanged Acrylamide-hybridized Rigid Imaging-compatible Tissue-hYdrogel (CLARITY). Axons were followed 5 mm longitudinally in three dimensions in intact spinal cords revealing that 61% of the axons exhibited a mean of 22 axonal ovoids and 8% of the axons terminating in axonal end bulbs. In the cerebral cortex, we observed a decrease in the mean number of layer V pyramidal neurons and a decrease in the mean length of the apical dendrites of the remaining neurons, compared to healthy controls. MRI analysis demonstrated decreased cortical volumes in EAE. Cross-modality correlations revealed a direct relationship between cortical volume loss and axonal end bulb number in the spinal cord, but not ovoid number. This is the first report of the use of CLARITY in an animal model of disease and the first report of the use of both CLARITY and MRI. PMID:25038439

  15. Oats induced villous atrophy in coeliac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, K E A; Nilsen, E M; Scott, H G; Løberg, E M; Gjøen, A; Bratlie, J; Skar, V; Mendez, E; Løvik, A; Kett, K

    2003-01-01

    The current trend is to allow coeliac disease (CD) patients to introduce oats to their gluten free diet. We sought further data from the clinical setting with regards to oats consumption by coeliac patients. Several oat products were tested for wheat contamination using a commercial enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) kit, and six samples were examined by an ELISA using a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies, mass spectrometry, and western blot analysis. Nineteen adult CD patients on a gluten free diet were challenged with 50 g of oats per day for 12 weeks. Serological testing and gastroduodenoscopy was performed before and after the challenge. Biopsies were scored histologically and levels of mRNA specific for interferon γ were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Oats were well tolerated by most patients but several reported initial abdominal discomfort and bloating. One of the patients developed partial villous atrophy and a rash during the first oats challenge. She subsequently improved on an oats free diet but developed subtotal villous atrophy and dramatic dermatitis during a second challenge. Five of the patients showed positive levels of interferon γ mRNA after challenge. Some concerns therefore remain with respect to the safety of oats for coeliacs. PMID:14570737

  16. Study on radiation therapy for prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T. (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-10-01

    In an attempt to clarify the effects of radiation therapy for prostatic cancer, the author studied 71 prostatic cancer patients with megavoltage radiation therapy at the Cancer Institute Hospital for the past 17 years between 1964 and 1980. Fifty nine out of 71 cases received combined treatment with hormone. Of 71, 28 patients were examined for remaining foci by transperineal needle biopsy at various times after irradiation. The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 100% for stage A, 92% for stage B, 60.2% for stage C and 25.2% for stage D, respectively. Local control rates by digital rectal examination were 92.3% for stage B and 65.5% for stage C, whereas local atrophy rates were 61.5% for stage B and 31% for stage C cases. The positive rate of biopsy was 75%, negative rate was 20.8% and false negative rate was 4.2% within 1 year. The positive rate decreased to 63.6%, while negative rate increased to 31.8% and false positive rate was 4.6% after 1 year. Some cases, in whom the size of the prostate had decreased, showed good prognosis despite the presence of viable cells in biopsy specimens, therefore the waiting policy seemed indicated by frequent local palpation in future follow up to examine any regrowth in size of the lesion.

  17. Conspecific sperm precedence in two species of tropical sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Laura B; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Conspecific sperm precedence occurs when females are exposed to sperm from males of multiple species, but preferentially use sperm of a conspecific. Conspecific sperm precedence and its mechanisms have been documented widely in terrestrial species, in which complex female behaviors or reproductive tract morphologies can allow many opportunities for female choice and sperm competition, however, the opportunity for conspecific sperm precedence in free spawning marine invertebrates has been largely ignored. Two sea urchin species, Echinometra oblonga and E. sp. C, have high levels of interspecific fertilization in no-choice lab crosses, but no natural hybrids have been found. We performed competitive fertilization assays to test for conspecific sperm precedence and found that eggs of both species showed a marked preference for conspecific sperm when fertilized with heterospecific sperm mixtures. Strong rejection of heterospecific sperm would not have been predicted from no-choice assays and helps explain the lack of natural hybrids. We also found significant variation in hybridization success among crosses. Conspecific sperm precedence in free spawning invertebrates shows that the simple surfaces of eggs and sperm provide ample opportunity for egg choice and sperm competition even in the absence of intricate behavior or complex reproductive morphologies.

  18. Consensus Definition for Atrophy Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration on OCT: Classification of Atrophy Report 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadda, Srinivas R; Guymer, Robyn; Holz, Frank G; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Curcio, Christine A; Bird, Alan C; Blodi, Barbara A; Bottoni, Ferdinando; Chakravarthy, Usha; Chew, Emily Y; Csaky, Karl; Danis, Ronald P; Fleckenstein, Monika; Freund, K Bailey; Grunwald, Juan; Hoyng, Carel B; Jaffe, Glenn J; Liakopoulos, Sandra; Monés, Jordi M; Pauleikhoff, Daniel; Rosenfeld, Philip J; Sarraf, David; Spaide, Richard F; Tadayoni, Ramin; Tufail, Adnan; Wolf, Sebastian; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2017-11-02

    To develop consensus terminology and criteria for defining atrophy based on OCT findings in the setting of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Consensus meeting. Panel of retina specialists, image reading center experts, retinal histologists, and optics engineers. As part of the Classification of Atrophy Meetings (CAM) program, an international group of experts surveyed the existing literature, performed a masked analysis of longitudinal multimodal imaging for a series of eyes with AMD, and reviewed the results of this analysis to define areas of agreement and disagreement. Through consensus discussions at 3 meetings over 12 months, a classification system based on OCT was proposed for atrophy secondary to AMD. Specific criteria were defined to establish the presence of atrophy. A consensus classification system for atrophy and OCT-based criteria to identify atrophy. OCT was proposed as the reference standard or base imaging method to diagnose and stage atrophy. Other methods, including fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance, and color imaging, provided complementary and confirmatory information. Recognizing that photoreceptor atrophy can occur without retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy and that atrophy can undergo an evolution of different stages, 4 terms and histologic candidates were proposed: complete RPE and outer retinal atrophy (cRORA), incomplete RPE and outer retinal atrophy, complete outer retinal atrophy, and incomplete outer retinal atrophy. Specific OCT criteria to diagnose cRORA were proposed: (1) a region of hypertransmission of at least 250 μm in diameter, (2) a zone of attenuation or disruption of the RPE of at least 250 μm in diameter, (3) evidence of overlying photoreceptor degeneration, and (4) absence of scrolled RPE or other signs of an RPE tear. A classification system and criteria for OCT-defined atrophy in the setting of AMD has been proposed based on an international consensus. This classification is a more complete

  19. Corpus callosum atrophy in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether callosal atrophy is already present in the early stages of AD, and to what extent it may be associated with other structural changes in the brain, such as ...

  20. Carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy in Italian population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by motor neuron degeneration in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and brain stem, resulting in progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. The responsible survival motor neuron gene (SMN1; HGNC: 11117) is localized in ...

  1. A case of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 mimicking olivopontocerebellar atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, N.; Katayama, T.; Makita, Y.; Kuroda, K.; Aizawa, H.; Kikuchi, K. [First Dept. of Internal Medicine, Asahikawa Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is an autosomal dominant, slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia without multisystem involvement. We report a 57-year-old woman with genetically confirmed SCA6 who showed clinical features of olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Conventional T2-weighted and FLAIR MRI demonstrated high signal in the middle cerebellar peduncles, in addition to mild atrophy of the pons and cerebellum. (orig.)

  2. [Benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, Loïc; Doumerc, Nicolas; Gaudin, Clément; Gérard, Stéphane; Balardy, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic diseases are extremely common, especially in older men. Amongst them, benign prostatic hypertrophy may affect significantly the quality of life of patients by the symptoms it causes. It requires appropriate care. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men after lung cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It affects preferentially older men. An oncogeriatric approach is required for personalised care.

  3. Quantitative assessment of gastric atrophy using the syntactic structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitoun, A M; al Mardini, H; Record, C O

    1998-12-01

    To assess the topographical relation between gastric glands, using the minimum spanning tree (MST), to derive both a model of neighbourhood and quantitative representation of the tissue's architecture, to assess the characteristic features of gastric atrophy, and to assess the grades of gastric atrophy. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections from corporal and antral biopsy specimens (n = 139) from normal patients and from patients with nonatrophic gastritis and atrophic gastritis of grades 1, 2, and 3 (Sydney system) were assessed by image analysis system (Prodit 5.2) and 11 syntactic structure features were derived. These included both line and connectivity features. Syntactic structure analysis was correlated with the semiquantitative grading system of gastric atrophy. The study showed significant reductions in the number of points and the length of MST in both body and antrum. The standard deviation of the length of MST was significantly increased in all grades of atrophy. The connectivity to two glands was the highest and most affected by the increased grade of atrophy. The reciprocal values of the Wiener, Randic, and Balaban indices showed significant changes in the volume of gland, abnormality in the shape of glands, and changes in irregularity and branching of the glands in both types of gastric mucosa. There was a complete separation in the MST, connectivity, and index values between low grade and high grade gastric atrophy. (1) Gastric atrophy was characterised by loss of the gland, variation in the volume, reduction in the neighbourhood, irregularity in spacing, and abnormality in the shape of the glands. (2) Syntactic structure analysis significantly differentiated minor changes in gastric gland (low grade atrophy) from high grade atrophy of clinical significance. (3) Syntactic structure analysis is a simple, fast, and highly reproducible technique and appears a promising method for quantitative assessment of atrophy.

  4. Teres minor innervation in the context of isolated muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Jikol; Francis, Sarah; McCulloch, Jane; Ecker, Jeff; Breidahl, William; McMenamin, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Teres minor atrophy occurs either in isolation, associated with other rotator cuff muscle pathologies or in quadrilateral space syndrome. In the latter condition, compression of the axillary nerve is the likely cause; however, the anatomy of the nerve to teres minor and how this may relate to isolated teres minor atrophy have not been extensively investigated. In light of the significance of teres minor atrophy in shoulder pathology, we performed a combined radiological and anatomical study of teres minor and its nerve supply. Cadaveric dissection of nine shoulder specimens from eight cadavers was performed to investigate the anatomical variability in course, length and branching pattern of both the teres minor nerve and the axillary nerve. Radiological imaging and reports were analysed on all shoulder magnetic resonance images performed over a 1-week period at four radiology clinic locations in an attempt to identify the incidence of isolated teres minor atrophy and review teres minor atrophy in association with other shoulder pathology. Finally, we studied a case of isolated teres minor atrophy identified during a routine undergraduate dissection class. Considerable anatomical variation was noticed in cadaver dissections in the nerve(s) supplying teres minor muscle revealing several various points where it may be vulnerable to impingement or injury at along its course. Analysis of 61 shoulder MR images revealed two patients with shoulder complaints that had isolated teres minor atrophy. Case-based study of these two male patients revealed other associated shoulder injury but the presentation was markedly different and clinically distinct from quadrilateral space syndrome. Isolated teres minor atrophy is a relatively common shoulder pathology which appears to be clinically distinct from other syndromes with rotator cuff muscle atrophy including quadrilateral space syndrome. The exact aetiology is unknown but cadaveric dissection in this study suggests the

  5. Preceding trauma in childhood hematogenous bone and joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pääkkönen, Markus; Kallio, Markku J T; Lankinen, Petteri; Peltola, Heikki; Kallio, Pentti E

    2014-03-01

    Preceding trauma may play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of hematogenous bone and joint infections. Among 345 children with an acute hematogenous bone and/or joint infection, 20% reported trauma during a 2-week period leading to infection. Blunt impact, bruises, or excoriations were commonly reported. The rate was similar to that in the general pediatric population obtained from the literature. In the study group, patients with and without trauma were similar in age, serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, length of hospitalization, and late sequelae. Preceding minor trauma did not prove to be significant as an etiological or as a prognostic factor.

  6. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  7. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  8. Enlarged prostate - after care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000398.htm Enlarged prostate - after care To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that ...

  9. PROSTATE REGULATION: MODELING ENDOGENOUS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALTERATIONS IN PROSTATE WEIGHT AND HISTOPATHOLOGY ARE OBSERVED FOLLOWING IN UTERO, PUBERTAL AND ADULT EXPOSURES TO ANTIANDROGENS. ALTERATIONS IN PROSTATE WEIGHT AND HISTOPATHOLOGY ARE OBSERVED FOLLOWING IN UTERO, PUBERTAL AND ADULT EXPOSURES TO ANTIANDROGENS.

  10. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  11. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as heart disease and use of beta blockers, might increase the risk of BPH. Lifestyle. Obesity ... believed to increase your risk of developing prostate cancer. By Mayo Clinic Staff Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) ...

  12. Posterior cerebral atrophy in the absence of medial temporal lobe atrophy in pathologically-confirmed Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, M.; Koedam, E.L.G.E.; Barnes, J.; Bartlett, J.W.; Ryan, N.S.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Barkhof, F.; Wattjes, M.P.; Scheltens, P.; Fox, N.C.

    2012-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is a recognized marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, it can be prominent in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). There is an increasing awareness that posterior atrophy (PA) is important in AD and may aid the differentiation of AD from FTLD. Visual

  13. Muscle Atrophy Reversed by Growth Factor Activation of Satellite Cells in a Mouse Muscle Atrophy Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerslev, Simon; Vissing, John; Krag, Thomas O

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies comprise a large group of inherited disorders that lead to progressive muscle wasting. We wanted to investigate if targeting satellite cells can enhance muscle regeneration and thus increase muscle mass. We treated mice with hepatocyte growth factor and leukemia inhibitory...... factor under three conditions: normoxia, hypoxia and during myostatin deficiency. We found that hepatocyte growth factor treatment led to activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K protein synthesis pathway, up-regulation of the myognic transcription factors MyoD and myogenin, and subsequently the negative growth...... control factor, myostatin and atrophy markers MAFbx and MuRF1. Hypoxia-induced atrophy was partially restored by hepatocyte growth factor combined with leukemia inhibitory factor treatment. Dividing satellite cells were three-fold increased in the treatment group compared to control. Finally, we...

  14. Fluid biomarkers in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurens, Brice; Constantinescu, Radu; Freeman, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing research efforts, no reliable biomarker currently exists for the diagnosis and prognosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Such biomarkers are urgently needed to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic guidance and also to serve as efficacy measures or surrogates of target...... engagement for future clinical trials. We here review candidate fluid biomarkers for MSA and provide considerations for further developments and harmonization of standard operating procedures. A PubMed search was performed until April 24, 2015 to review the literature with regard to candidate blood...... and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for MSA. Abstracts of 1760 studies were retrieved and screened for eligibility. The final list included 60 studies assessing fluid biomarkers in patients with MSA. Most studies have focused on alpha-synuclein, markers of axonal degeneration or catecholamines. Their results...

  15. Visual Dysfunction in Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia da Silva, Mari N.; Millington, Rebecca S.; Bridge, Holly; James-Galton, Merle; Plant, Gordon T.

    2017-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterized by progressive impairment of higher (cortical) visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally. Most cases will prove to have Alzheimer pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the concept of this disorder since it was first introduced. A critical discussion of the evolving diagnostic criteria is presented and the differential diagnosis with regard to the underlying pathology is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the visual dysfunction that defines the disorder, and the classical deficits, such as simultanagnosia and visual agnosia, as well as the more recently recognized visual field defects, are reviewed, along with the evidence on their neural correlates. The latest developments on the imaging of PCA are summarized, with special attention to its role on the differential diagnosis with related conditions. PMID:28861031

  16. New therapeutic approaches to spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelt, Aga; Newcomb, Tara M; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2012-02-01

    Bench to bedside progress has been widely anticipated for a growing number of neurodegenerative disorders. Of these, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is perhaps the best poised to capitalize on advances in targeted therapeutics development over the next few years. Several laboratories have achieved compelling success in SMA animal models using sophisticated methods for targeted delivery, repair, or increased expression of the survival motor neuron protein, SMN. The clinical community is actively collaborating to identify, develop, and validate outcome measures and biomarkers in parallel with laboratory efforts. Innovative trial design and synergistic approaches to maximize proactive care in conjunction with treatment with one or more of the promising pharmacologic and biologic therapies currently in the pipeline will maximize our chances to achieve meaningful outcomes for patients. This review highlights recent promising scientific and clinical advances bringing us ever closer to effective treatment(s) for our patients with SMA.

  17. Visual Dysfunction in Posterior Cortical Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia da Silva, Mari N; Millington, Rebecca S; Bridge, Holly; James-Galton, Merle; Plant, Gordon T

    2017-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterized by progressive impairment of higher (cortical) visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally. Most cases will prove to have Alzheimer pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the concept of this disorder since it was first introduced. A critical discussion of the evolving diagnostic criteria is presented and the differential diagnosis with regard to the underlying pathology is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the visual dysfunction that defines the disorder, and the classical deficits, such as simultanagnosia and visual agnosia, as well as the more recently recognized visual field defects, are reviewed, along with the evidence on their neural correlates. The latest developments on the imaging of PCA are summarized, with special attention to its role on the differential diagnosis with related conditions.

  18. Visual Dysfunction in Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari N. Maia da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterized by progressive impairment of higher (cortical visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally. Most cases will prove to have Alzheimer pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the concept of this disorder since it was first introduced. A critical discussion of the evolving diagnostic criteria is presented and the differential diagnosis with regard to the underlying pathology is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the visual dysfunction that defines the disorder, and the classical deficits, such as simultanagnosia and visual agnosia, as well as the more recently recognized visual field defects, are reviewed, along with the evidence on their neural correlates. The latest developments on the imaging of PCA are summarized, with special attention to its role on the differential diagnosis with related conditions.

  19. Valproate and spinal muscular atrophy (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Gemma; Brandom, Kevin G; Young, Elizabeth C; Young, Philip J

    2008-01-01

    Childhood spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene. The severity of the disease is dictated by the copy number of a second copy of the gene, known as SMN2, with higher copy numbers associated with milder forms of SMA. This is because the level of SMN protein produced by patients dictates the severity of the disease. As all patients retain at least one copy of the SMN2 gene, therapeutic strategies are geared towards increasing full-length SMN protein expression from SMN2. One of the identified therapeutic compounds is valproic acid, or valproate (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) that has been used since the 1970s as an anti-convulsant. Here, we discuss VPA's modes of action and potential side effects in the treatment of SMA.

  20. Gene expression profiling of prostate tissue identifies chromatin regulation as a potential link between obesity and lethal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebot, Ericka M; Gerke, Travis; Labbé, David P; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Zadra, Giorgia; Rider, Jennifer R; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Wilson, Kathryn M; Kelly, Rachel S; Shui, Irene M; Loda, Massimo; Kantoff, Philip W; Finn, Stephen; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Brown, Myles; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2017-11-01

    Obese men are at higher risk of advanced prostate cancer and cancer-specific mortality; however, the biology underlying this association remains unclear. This study examined gene expression profiles of prostate tissue to identify biological processes differentially expressed by obesity status and lethal prostate cancer. Gene expression profiling was performed on tumor (n = 402) and adjacent normal (n = 200) prostate tissue from participants in 2 prospective cohorts who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1982 to 2005. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the questionnaire immediately preceding cancer diagnosis. Men were followed for metastases or prostate cancer-specific death (lethal disease) through 2011. Gene Ontology biological processes differentially expressed by BMI were identified using gene set enrichment analysis. Pathway scores were computed by averaging the signal intensities of member genes. Odds ratios (ORs) for lethal prostate cancer were estimated with logistic regression. Among 402 men, 48% were healthy weight, 31% were overweight, and 21% were very overweight/obese. Fifteen gene sets were enriched in tumor tissue, but not normal tissue, of very overweight/obese men versus healthy-weight men; 5 of these were related to chromatin modification and remodeling (false-discovery rate 7, 41% vs 17%; P = 2 × 10 -4 ) and an increased risk of lethal disease that was independent of grade and stage (OR, 5.26; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-12.25). This study improves our understanding of the biology of aggressive prostate cancer and identifies a potential mechanistic link between obesity and prostate cancer death that warrants further study. Cancer 2017;123:4130-4138. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  1. Different atrophy-hypertrophy transcription pathways in muscles affected by severe and mild spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millino Caterina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with mutations of the survival motor neuron gene SMN and is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy caused by degeneration of spinal motor neurons. SMN has a role in neurons but its deficiency may have a direct effect on muscle tissue. Methods We applied microarray and quantitative real-time PCR to study at transcriptional level the effects of a defective SMN gene in skeletal muscles affected by the two forms of SMA: the most severe type I and the mild type III. Results The two forms of SMA generated distinct expression signatures: the SMA III muscle transcriptome is close to that found under normal conditions, whereas in SMA I there is strong alteration of gene expression. Genes implicated in signal transduction were up-regulated in SMA III whereas those of energy metabolism and muscle contraction were consistently down-regulated in SMA I. The expression pattern of gene networks involved in atrophy signaling was completed by qRT-PCR, showing that specific pathways are involved, namely IGF/PI3K/Akt, TNF-α/p38 MAPK and Ras/ERK pathways. Conclusion Our study suggests a different picture of atrophy pathways in each of the two forms of SMA. In particular, p38 may be the regulator of protein synthesis in SMA I. The SMA III profile appears as the result of the concurrent presence of atrophic and hypertrophic fibers. This more favorable condition might be due to the over-expression of MTOR that, given its role in the activation of protein synthesis, could lead to compensatory hypertrophy in SMA III muscle fibers.

  2. Enlarged Prostate (BPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine out of the body. As men age, their prostate grows bigger. If it gets too large, it ...

  3. Acute inflammation promotes early cellular stimulation of the epithelial and stromal compartments of the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintar, Amado A; Doll, Andreas; Leimgruber, Carolina; Palmeri, Claudia M; Roth, Felix D; Maccioni, Mariana; Maldonado, Cristina A

    2010-08-01

    It has been proposed that prostatic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of benign hyperplasia and prostate cancer. However, little information is available about the prostatic reaction to bacterial compounds in vivo. Our aim was therefore to evaluate the early effects of bacterial infection on rat ventral prostate compartments. Using a rat model of acute bacterial prostatitis by Escherichia coli, we analyzed the histological and ultrastructural changes in the prostate at 24, 48, and 72 hr postinfection. Prostatic tissues were immunostained for prostatic binding protein (PBP), ACTA2, ErbB1, and ErbB2 receptors, TUNEL, and markers of cell proliferation. Dot and Western blots for PBP, ACTA2, ErbB1, ErbB2, and TGFbeta1 were also performed. The prostatic epithelium became hypertrophied, with increases in PBP and ErbB1 expression at 24 hr postinfection. Moreover, inflammation induced the expression of ErbB2, a receptor strongly involved in carcinogenesis. These alterations were more pronounced at 48 hr, but the epithelium also showed apoptosis and finally atrophy at 72 hr postinfection, with a decrease in PBP and ErbB receptors. Interestingly, the epithelial cells exhibited a high level of proliferation in response to the bacteria. The stromal reaction to acute inflammation was initially characterized by smooth muscle hypertrophy. Afterwards, muscle cells acquired a secretory phenotype, with a reduction in ACTA2 at 72 hr postinfection. Prostatic inflammation, even at the early stages, promotes atrophic and proliferative changes, and the upregulation of ErbB receptors together with dedifferentiation of smooth muscle cells. These data suggest that repetitive reinfections could lead to uncontrolled growth in the prostate gland. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The South African constitutional court's use of foreign precedent in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Court or whether it is a characteristic of a court which is confident enough that its independence will remain intact in spite of its looking elsewhere for answers. KEYWORDS: transjudicialism; foreign precedent, comparative judicialism, stare decisis; foreign case law; comparative constitutionalism; Constitutional Court.

  5. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners’ consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., ‘jury/gi’raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress, and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate on-line probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. PMID:25621583

  6. Cross-frequency interactions in the precedence effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, B G; Zurek, P M; Durlach, N I; Clifton, R K

    1995-07-01

    This paper concerns the extent to which the precedence effect is observed when leading and lagging sounds occupy different spectral regions. Subjects, listening under headphones, were asked to match the intracranial lateral position of an acoustic pointer to that of a test stimulus composed of two binaural noise bursts with asynchronous onsets, parametrically varied frequency content, and different interaural delays. The precedence effect was measured by the degree to which the interaural delay of the matching pointer was independent of the interaural delay of the lagging noise burst in the test stimulus. The results, like those of Blauert and Divenyi [Acustica 66, 267-274 (1988)], show an asymmetric frequency effect in which the lateralization influence of a lagging high-frequency burst is almost completely suppressed by a leading low-frequency burst, whereas a lagging low-frequency burst is weighted equally with a leading high-frequency burst. This asymmetry is shown to be the result of an inherent low-frequency dominance that is seen even with simultaneous bursts. When this dominance is removed (by attenuating the low-frequency burst) the precedence effect operates with roughly equal strength both upward and downward in frequency. Within the scope of the current study (with lateralization achieved through the use of interaural time differences alone, stimuli from only two frequency bands, and only three subjects performing in all experiments), these results suggest that the precedence effect arises from a fairly central processing stage in which information is combined across frequency.

  7. Independence Pending: Teacher Behaviors Preceding Learner Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to identify the teacher behaviors that preceded learners' active participation in solving musical and technical problems and describe learners' roles in the problem-solving process. I applied an original model of problem solving to describe the behaviors of teachers and students in 161 rehearsal frames…

  8. The Role of Sexual Precedence in Verbal Sexual Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Buddie, Amy M.; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Experiences of verbal sexual coercion are common and have potential for negative consequences, yet are not well understood. This study used qualitative and descriptive statistics to examine verbal sexual coercion experiences among a community sample of 114 women and explored the role of sexual precedence in these experiences. Analyses revealed…

  9. Original article The Relationship Between Prostate Volume, Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    117. 117-123. Original article The Relationship Between Prostate Volume, Prostate-. Specific Antigen and Age in Saudi Men with Benign. Prostatic Conditions. H. A. Mosli1 and ... Methods: Medical records of 447 Saudi men aged 20-89 years with benign prostatic conditions .... widely used to identify an enlarged prostate,.

  10. C-11-choline positron emission tomography for the evaluation after treatment of localized prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, IJ; Pruim, J; Elsinga, PH; Vaalburg, W; Mensink, HJA

    Rationale: The evaluation of the efficacy of the treatment of men with prostate cancer is largely based on post treatment levels of PSA. An increase in PSA or biochemical recurrence is the first sign of recurrent disease and precedes a clinically detectable recurrence by months to years. Digital

  11. Orbital hydrocephalus: a proven cause for optic atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, R.; Garcia-Revillo, J.; Fitz, C. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    A 4-year-old boy with bilateral optic sheath enlargement and progressive optic atrophy and blindness is presented. Computed tomography demonstrated hydrocephalus and enlargement of the optic nerve sheath complex. The child died during an attempted repair of hypoplastic atrioventricular valves. Autopsy demonstrated a patulous perioptic subarachnoid space and optic atrophy. This condition has been described in the literature but has not had radiologic-pathologic correlation. With the availability of magnetic resonance imaging, this diagnosis may be made prospectively, thus, it is important for the radiologist to be aware of this entity because optic atrophy and blindness may be prevented by early diagnosis and surgery. (orig.) With 3 figs., 10 refs.

  12. Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: therapeutic, cognitive and clinical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS was always considered as a white matter inflammatory disease. Today, there is an important body of evidence that supports the hypothesis that gray matter involvement and the neurodegenerative mechanism are at least partially independent from inflammation. Gray matter atrophy develops faster than white matter atrophy, and predominates in the initial stages of the disease. The neurodegenerative mechanism creates permanent damage and correlates with physical and cognitive disability. In this review we describe the current available evidence regarding brain atrophy and its consequence in MS patients.

  13. Deformation-Based Atrophy Estimation for Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) - the most common form of dementia, is a term used for accelerated memory loss and cognitive abilities enough to severely hamper day-to-day activities. One of the most globally accepted markers for AD is atrophy, in mainly the brain parenchyma. The goal of the PhD project...... and a new way to estimate atrophy from a deformation field. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed solution but applying it on the publicly available Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging data (ADNI) initiative and compare to existing state-of-art atrophy estimation methods....

  14. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate ... MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? What is Ultrasound- and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate ...

  15. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test On This Page What ... the PSA test for prostate cancer screening? Detecting prostate cancer early may not reduce the chance of ...

  16. Monosodium glutamate: Potentials at inducing prostate pathologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... either MSG or DW. Key words: Monosodium glutamate, total acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate cancer, prostatitis, benign prostate hyperplasia, infertility. INTRODUCTION. Elevated total acid phosphatase (TAP) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) activities are among the main.

  17. Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu, E-mail: sakai@hoshi.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Sagara, Atsunobu; Arakawa, Kazuhiko; Sugiyama, Ryoto; Hirosaki, Akiko; Takase, Kazuhide; Jo, Ara [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Sato, Ken [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Chiba, Yoshihiko [Department of Biology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Yamazaki, Mitsuaki [Department of Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama-shi, Toyama 9300194 (Japan); Matoba, Motohiro [Department of Palliative Medicine and Psychooncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 1040045 (Japan); Narita, Minoru, E-mail: narita@hoshi.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of “muscle fatigue” induced by anti-cancer drugs are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the muscle-atrophic effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, in mice. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5, hindlimb and quadriceps muscles were isolated from mice. The loss of body weight and food intake under the administration of cisplatin was the same as those in a dietary restriction (DR) group. Under the present conditions, the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased not only the muscle mass of the hindlimb and quadriceps but also the myofiber diameter, compared to those in the DR group. The mRNA expression levels of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) were significantly and further increased by cisplatin treated group, compared to DR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of myostatin and p21 were significantly upregulated by the administration of cisplatin, compared to DR. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, which leads to the blockade of the upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx, was significantly and dramatically decreased by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the administration of cisplatin increases atrophic gene expression, and may lead to an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation pathways, which would lead to muscle atrophy. This phenomenon could, at least in part, explain the mechanism of cisplatin-induced muscle fatigue. - Highlights: • Cisplatin decreased mass and myofiber diameter in quadriceps muscle. • The mRNA of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3 were increased by the cisplatin. • The mRNA of myostatin and p21 were upregulated by cisplatin. • The phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a was decreased by cisplatin.

  18. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  19. Mimic syndromes in sporadic cases of progressive spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; van den Berg-Vos, R. M.; Franssen, H.; van den Berg, L. H.; Vogels, O. J.; Wokke, J. H. J.; de Jong, J. M. B. V.; de Visser, M.

    2002-01-01

    Described are patients initially diagnosed with progressive spinal muscular atrophy (PSMA), in whom further evaluation established another diagnosis. The authors prospectively investigated incident and prevalent cases of PSMA. Seventeen of 89 patients, after initial registration, were later excluded

  20. Perspectives on Clinical Trials in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Kissel, John T.; Crawford, Thomas O.; Bromberg, Mark B.; Acsadi, Gyula; D'Anjou, Guy; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Reyna, Sandra P.; Schroth, Mary K.; Scott, Charles B.; Simard, Louise R.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is one of the most heterogeneous of the single-gene neuromuscular disorders. The broad spectrum of severity, with onset from the prenatal period to adulthood, presents unique challenges in the design and implementation of clinical trials. The clinical classification of subjects into severe (type 1), intermediate (type 2), and mild (type 3) subtypes has proved useful both in enhancing communication among clinicians internationally and in forging the collaborative development of outcome measures for clinical trials. Ideally, clinical trial design in spinal muscular atrophy must take into account the spinal muscular atrophy type, patient age, severity-of-affection status, nature of the therapeutic approach, timing of the proposed intervention relative to disease progression, and relative homogeneity of the cohort to be studied. Following is an overview of the challenges and opportunities, current and future therapeutic strategies, and progress to date in clinical trials in spinal muscular atrophy. PMID:17761650

  1. Redox homeostasis, oxidative stress and disuse muscle atrophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta; Desaphy, Jean‐François; Brocca, Lorenza; Pierno, Sabata; Camerino, Diana Conte; Bottinelli, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract  A pivotal role has been ascribed to oxidative stress in determining the imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation leading to muscle atrophy in many pathological conditions and in disuse...

  2. Acquired alopecia, mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly, and optic atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Renckens-Wennen, E. G.

    1990-01-01

    We report on a female patient who had acquired total alopecia, short stature, microcephaly, optic atrophy, severe myopia, and mental retardation. A survey of published reports failed to show an identical patient, despite various similar cases

  3. Mechanisms of muscle growth and atrophy in mammals and Drosophila

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piccirillo, Rosanna; Demontis, Fabio; Perrimon, Norbert; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2014-01-01

    .... Although the pathogenesis of this condition has been primarily studied in mammals, Drosophila is emerging as an attractive system to investigate some of the mechanisms involved in muscle growth and atrophy. Results...

  4. Biochemical adaptations of antigravity muscle fibers to disuse atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Studies are presented in four parts of this report. The four parts include; (1) studies to gain information on the molecular basis of atrophy by antigravity muscle; (2) studies on the work capacity of antigravity muscles during atrophy and during recovery from atrophy; (3) studies on recovery of degenerated antigravity fibers after removal of hind-limb casts; and (4) studies on the atrophy and recovery of bone. The philosophy of these studies was to identify the time sequence of events in the soleus muscle of the rat following immobilization of the hind limbs, so that the length of the soleus muscle within the fixed limb is less than its resting length. In two separate studies, no decline in the weight of the soleus muscle could be detected during the first 72 hours of limb immobilization.

  5. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, Scott K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Murphy, Kate T.; Reid, Michael B.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Numerous health problems including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal

  6. Extended precedence preservative crossover for job shop scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chung Sin; Moin, Noor Hasnah; Omar, Mohd

    2013-04-01

    Job shop scheduling problems (JSSP) is one of difficult combinatorial scheduling problems. A wide range of genetic algorithms based on the two parents crossover have been applied to solve the problem but multi parents (more than two parents) crossover in solving the JSSP is still lacking. This paper proposes the extended precedence preservative crossover (EPPX) which uses multi parents for recombination in the genetic algorithms. EPPX is a variation of the precedence preservative crossover (PPX) which is one of the crossovers that perform well to find the solutions for the JSSP. EPPX is based on a vector to determine the gene selected in recombination for the next generation. Legalization of children (offspring) can be eliminated due to the JSSP representation encoded by using permutation with repetition that guarantees the feasibility of chromosomes. The simulations are performed on a set of benchmarks from the literatures and the results are compared to ensure the sustainability of multi parents recombination in solving the JSSP.

  7. Cardiac tamponade preceding skin involvement in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bozzola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of pericardial involvement in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc is high on autoptic or echocardiographic studies, but the clinical recognition of pericarditis with or without effusion is rare. We describe a case of a 71-year-old female with no previous history of heart disease, who presented with a large pericardial effusion and tamponade that required pericardial drain. She had suffered from Raynaud’s phenomenon since 25 years. Six weeks after hospital discharge she complained of skin hardening on left leg. Pericardial tamponade is a very rare manifestation of SSc and occurs both early or late in the course of the disease, but in our case it preceded the recognition of scleroderma. We have only identified two other cases of pericardial effusion preceding cutaneous involvement in scleroderma.

  8. Quantitative study of the physiological cerebral atrophy with aging. A statistical analysis of the normal range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, K.; Basugi, N.; Fukushima, T.; Tango, T.; Suzuki, I.; Kaminuma, T.; Kurashina, S.

    1987-07-01

    A new method of discriminating pathological cerebral atrophy from physiological atrophy during aging is reported. The authors advocate a pixel counting method using a minicomputer for the quantitative measurement of cerebral atrophy. Five hundred cases were studied with this quantitative method and the normal range of the physiological atrophy was determined statistically. In order to estimate the degree of cerebral atrophy easily, the conventional linear measurement methods were compared with the pixel counting method using multivariant analysis, and a simple formula for the calculation of the degree of cerebral atrophy is proposed. Using this formula and the normal range, pathological cerebral atrophy is easily detectable.

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that makes ...

  10. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. Testosterone is one ...

  11. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF PROSTATE TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Brizhatyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate tuberculosis is difficult to be diagnosed, especially if lesions are limited only by this organ. The article analyses the experience of differential diagnostics of prostate tuberculosis based on the data of examination of 84 patients. 45 of them were diagnosed with prostate tuberculosis, and 39 patients were diagnosed with chronic bacterial prostatitis. Pathognomonic diagnostics criteria of prostate tuberculosis were the following: detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in the prostatic fluid or ejaculate, signs of granulomatous prostatitis with areas of cavernous necrosis in prostate biopsy samples, and prostate cavities visualized by X-ray or ultrasound examinations. Should the above criteria be absent, the disease can be diagnosed based on the combination of indirect signs: symptoms of prostate inflammation with active tuberculosis of the other localization; large prostate calcification, extensive hyperechoic area of the prostate, spermatocystic lesions, leucospermia and hemospermia, failure of the adequate non-specific anti-bacterial therapy.

  12. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Keir X X; Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Leff, Alexander P; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-28

    We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%-270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Forced oscillation technique in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Leanne M; Keeling, Lucy A; Shackleton, Claire E; Sly, Peter D

    2014-09-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) causes respiratory compromise that is difficult to assess in young children. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is commercially available for children as young as 2 years of age and is nonvolitional. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of FOT in young children with SMA. Children with SMA aged resistance at 8 Hz (Rrs8) (mean z score, +0.66; SD, 1.34; P = .12) were abnormal. Four children performed spirometry. Linear relationships to Xrs8 exist: FVC (R2, 0.54), unassisted PCF (R2, 0.33), assisted PCF (R2, 0.43), and AHI (R2, 0.32). Over 12 months, Xrs8z score worsened (rate of change of +1.08, P change +0.51, P .05) was found between clinical characteristics and FOT values. FOT is feasible in young children with SMA, with abnormal values of reactance and resistance on grouped data, worsening over 12 months. Xrs8 is related to respiratory tests used to monitor progress in SMA (FVC, PCF, AHI). Further research on the value of FOT in managing individuals is warranted.

  14. Pyoderma gangrenosum Preceding the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Mark A; Callen, Jeffrey P

    2005-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) often develop leg ulceration, particularly those with antiphospholipid antibodies or with vasculitis. Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an idiopathic ulcerative neutrophilic dermatosis that is commonly associated with inflammatory bowel disease or seronegative polyarthritis. Although PG-like lesions have been commonly described in patients with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, the occurrence of PG as a preceding manifestation of SLE has only rarely been reported. We present a patient who developed PG roughly 8 years prior to developing SLE.

  15. Efficient and Flexible Crowdsourcing of Specialized Tasks with Precedence Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Avhishek; Borokhovich, Michael; Varshney, Lav R.; Vishwanath, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    Many companies now use crowdsourcing to leverage external (as well as internal) crowds to perform specialized work, and so methods of improving efficiency are critical. Tasks in crowdsourcing systems with specialized work have multiple steps and each step requires multiple skills. Steps may have different flexibilities in terms of obtaining service from one or multiple agents, due to varying levels of dependency among parts of steps. Steps of a task may have precedence constraints among them....

  16. Bipolar disorder preceding the onset of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Marangoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common inflammatory demyelinating brain disease. The occurrence of psychiatric disorders, especially for major depression, in the course of MS is high. Reports concerning bipolar disorder (BD remain rather scarce although early descriptions were found in the old neurological literature. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the epidemiology, comorbidity, and treatment findings regarding BD preceding the onset of MS.

  17. Explicit Precedence Constraints in Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Noulard, Eric; Pagetti, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Safety-critical Java (SCJ) aims at making the amenities of Java available for the development of safety-critical applications. The multi-rate synchronous language Prelude facilitates the specification of the communication and timing requirements of complex real-time systems. This paper combines...... to provide explicit support for precedence constraints. We present the considerations behind the design of this extension and discuss our experiences with a first prototype implementation based on the SCJ implementation of the Java Optimized Processor....

  18. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess retinal morphology in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods: Three patients with a normal ophthalmoscopic fundus appearance, a history of photopsia, and visual field loss compatible with AZOOR were examined using optical coherence tomography, automated perimetry...... and multifocal electroretinography. Results: All three patients demonstrated partial or complete photoreceptor atrophy corresponding to partial or complete scotomata of retinal origin. Conclusion: Photoreceptor atrophy can be demonstrated early in the course of AZOOR, before ophthalmoscopically visible changes...

  19. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneja, Atul K. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Musculoskeletal Radiology Division, Imaging Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Musculoskeletal Imaging, Diagnostic Center, Hospital do Coracao (HCor) and Teleimagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Durval C.B. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Musculoskeletal Radiology Division, Imaging Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  20. Bereitschaftspotential preceding eyelid blinks in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Araújo Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Bereitschaftspotential (BP is a negative wave observed in EEG retrograde averaging, preceding a motor act. The objective was to study the BP preceding voluntary eyelid blinks in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients during off and on phases of levodopa. Methods Ten PD patients in stages 1 and 2 of the Hoehn & Yahr classification were compared to 18 healthy controls. Artifact-free EEG segments of two seconds preceding the onset of the blink potential were averaged and analyzed, and the statistical significance of the measured amplitudes were evaluated by analysis of variance models. Results The presence of a BP in the PD patients was demonstrated. The mean amplitudes at 0 ms were respectively 0.6 µV and 3.3 µV for the BP patients and the normal controls, respectively. Conclusions The BP amplitudes were significantly smaller in PD patients than normal participants. The amplitudes of the BP were not modified by levodopa.

  1. Planning school based sexuality programs utilizing the PRECEDE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinson, L; Baillie, L

    1981-04-01

    Both substantive and methodological issues in teenage sexuality were explored. Specific study purposes were the following: 1) to explore the effectiveness of a community needs assessment to reduce traditional negative parental input and facilitating the use of the schools as public health resources; 2) to identify substantive targets of intervention for curriculum development which would be accepted and supported by both parents and teenagers; and 3) to develop a methodology of assessment where the PRECEDE model would be tested for its utility in identifying educational targets in a complex and multidimensional area such as human sexuality and to quantify the model's categories to identify major differences in perceptions between parents and teenagers, and to explore underlying constructs in teenage sexuality. The PRECEDE model provides an assessment of social and epidemiological factors as well as an investigation of the behavioral causes of the outcomes as identified by the community. 50% of the population of 600 families living in a small midwestern community were surveyed: 204 parents and 210 teenagers responded to the survey. The following were among the major findings: 1) a community needs assessment using the PRECEDE model was effective in reducing negative political input and in facilitating the use of the schools as public health resources; 2) there were major needs, especially in the identification of important social problems; and 3) 24% of the teenagers reported they were sexually active while only 10% of the parents perceived their children as being sexually active.

  2. Prostatic Disease and Sexual Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sae Woong

    2011-01-01

    Prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common prostatic diseases. Furthermore, the incidence of prostate cancer has recently shown a rapid increase, even in Korea. Pain caused by prostatitis may induce sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disturbance. And BPH itself, or treatments for BPH, may affect sexual function. In addition, with increased detection of localized prostate cancer, surgical treatments and radiation therapy have also increased, a...

  3. FGFR1 inhibits skeletal muscle atrophy associated with hindlimb suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrard Dave

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal muscle atrophy can occur under many different conditions, including prolonged disuse or immobilization, cachexia, cushingoid conditions, secondary to surgery, or with advanced age. The mechanisms by which unloading of muscle is sensed and translated into signals controlling tissue reduction remains a major question in the field of musculoskeletal research. While the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs and their receptors are synthesized by, and intimately involved in, embryonic skeletal muscle growth and repair, their role maintaining adult muscle status has not been examined. Methods We examined the effects of ectopic expression of FGFR1 during disuse-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy, utilizing hindlimb suspension and DNA electroporation in mice. Results We found skeletal muscle FGF4 and FGFR1 mRNA expression to be modified by hind limb suspension,. In addition, we found FGFR1 protein localized in muscle fibers within atrophying mouse muscle which appeared to be resistant to atrophy. Electroporation and ectopic expression of FGFR1 significantly inhibited the decrease in muscle fiber area within skeletal muscles of mice undergoing suspension induced muscle atrophy. Ectopic FGFR1 expression in muscle also significantly stimulated protein synthesis in muscle fibers, and increased protein degradation in weight bearing muscle fibers. Conclusion These results support the theory that FGF signaling can play a role in regulation of postnatal skeletal muscle maintenance, and could offer potentially novel and efficient therapeutic options for attenuating muscle atrophy during aging, illness and spaceflight.

  4. Contribution of white matter hyperintensities, medial temporal lobe atrophy and cortical atrophy on outcome, seven to twelve years after ECT in severely depressed geriatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudega, M.L.; Dols, A.; Adelerhof, I.; Rozing, M.; Wattjes, M.P.; Comijs, H.C.; Barkhof, F.; Eikelenboom, P.; Stek, M.L.; van Exel, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression and cognitive decline are highly prevalent and often coexisting, however, the association between depression and dementia remains unclear. White matter hyperintensities (WMH), medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and global cortical atrophy (GCA) are associated with depression,

  5. Muscle atrophy reversed by growth factor activation of satellite cells in a mouse muscle atrophy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hauerslev

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies comprise a large group of inherited disorders that lead to progressive muscle wasting. We wanted to investigate if targeting satellite cells can enhance muscle regeneration and thus increase muscle mass. We treated mice with hepatocyte growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor under three conditions: normoxia, hypoxia and during myostatin deficiency. We found that hepatocyte growth factor treatment led to activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K protein synthesis pathway, up-regulation of the myognic transcription factors MyoD and myogenin, and subsequently the negative growth control factor, myostatin and atrophy markers MAFbx and MuRF1. Hypoxia-induced atrophy was partially restored by hepatocyte growth factor combined with leukemia inhibitory factor treatment. Dividing satellite cells were three-fold increased in the treatment group compared to control. Finally, we demonstrated that myostatin regulates satellite cell activation and myogenesis in vivo following treatment, consistent with previous findings in vitro. Our results suggest, not only a novel in vivo pharmacological treatment directed specifically at activating the satellite cells, but also a myostatin dependent mechanism that may contribute to the progressive muscle wasting seen in severely affected patients with muscular dystrophy and significant on-going regeneration. This treatment could potentially be applied to many conditions that feature muscle wasting to increase muscle bulk and strength.

  6. Prostate specific antigen in patients of benign prostate hypertrophy and carcinoma prostate

    OpenAIRE

    Malati, T.; Kumari, G. Rajani; Murthy, P. V. L. N.; Reddy, Ch.Ram; Prakash, B. Surya

    2006-01-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) has emerged as the most applicable and important tumor marker for carcinoma prostate. In the present study PSA was determined in serum of healthy subjects, patients of benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and Carcinoma Prostate (Ca−P) to evaluate its diagnostic efficiency in day to day management of prostate cancer patients and in differentiating patients of early prostate cancer from those with BPH. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) revealed 2 ng/ml a...

  7. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, J Thomas; Klemann, Nina; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of the prostate (TUR-Ps), and the remaining 22,028 (13.6%) specimens were derived from radical prostatectomies, bladder interventions, etc. A total of 48,078 (42.2%) males had histopathologically verified prostate cancer, and of these, 78.8% and 16.8% were diagnosed on prostate biopsies and TUR-Ps, respectively....... FUTURE PERSPECTIVES: A validated algorithm was successfully developed to convert complex prostate SNOMED codes into clinical useful data. A unique database, including males with both normal and cancerous histopathological data, was created to form the most comprehensive national prostate database to date......BACKGROUND: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes are computer-processable medical terms used to describe histopathological evaluations. SNOMED codes are not readily usable for analysis. We invented an algorithm that converts prostate SNOMED codes into an analyzable format. We...

  8. [Epigenetics of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and have achieved certain desirable results.

  9. Prostate carcinomas; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G

    2005-11-15

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  10. Spinal Muscular Atrophy and Its Molecular Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabriye Kocaturk Sel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is one of the most common autosomal recessive diseases, affecting aproximately 1 in 6,000 - 10,000 live births, and with a carrier frequency of aproximately 1 in 40- 60. The childhood SMAs can be classified clinically into three groups. Type I (Werdnig-Hoffmann is the most severe form, with onset at ‹ 6 months of age and with death typically at ‹2 years of age. Type II SMA patients display an intermediate severity, with onset at ‹18 months of age and with an inability to walk. Type III (Kugelberg –Walender individuals are able to walk independently and have a relatively mild phenotype, with onset at ›18 months of age. The gene involved in type I–III SMA has been mapped to 5q12-q13 by linkage analysis, and refined to a region of about 500 kb. The region contains a large inverted duplication consisting of at least four genes, which are present in a telomeric (t and a centromeric (c copy: survival motor neuron gene (SMN1 or SMNt and SMN2 or SMNc; neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene (NAIP; basal transcription factor subunit p44 (BTFp44t and BTFp44c; and a novel protein with unknown function H4F5. Although homozygous deletions encompassing all these genes are found in SMA patients, it is now well established that mutations or deletions of SMN1 (MIM#600354 cause the disease. SMN2 (MIM# 601627 gene, however, does not prevent the disease but attenuates disease severity. Therefore, upregulating functional SMN protein level via inducing gene expression and/or restoring splicing is an important therapeutic approach such as use of histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 1-26

  11. Biases in Recommendations for and Acceptance of Prostate Biopsy Significantly Affect Assessment of Prostate Cancer Risk Factors: Results From Two Large Randomized Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Phyllis J.; Till, Cathee; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Lucia, M. Scott; Thompson, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify factors related to who undergoes a prostate biopsy in a screened population and to estimate the impact of biopsy verification on risk factor–prostate cancer associations. Patients and Methods Men who were screened regularly from the placebo arms of two large prostate cancer prevention trials (Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial [SELECT]) were examined to define incident prostate cancer cohorts. Because PCPT had an end-of-study biopsy, prostate cancer cases were categorized by a preceding prostate-specific antigen/digital rectal examination prompt (yes/no) and noncases by biopsy-proven negative status (yes v no). We estimated the association of risk factors (age, ethnicity, family history, body mass index, medication use) with prostate cancer and quantified differences in risk associations across cohorts. Results Men 60 to 69 years of age, those with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and those with a family history of prostate cancer were more likely, and those with a higher body mass index (≥ 25), diabetes, or a smoking history were less likely, to undergo biopsy, adjusting for age and longitudinal prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination. Medication use, education, and marital status also influenced who underwent biopsy. Some risk factor estimates for prostate cancer varied substantially across cohorts. Black (v other ethnicities) had odds ratios (ORs) that varied from 1.20 for SELECT (community screening standards, epidemiologic-like cohort) to 1.83 for PCPT (end-of-study biopsy supplemented with imputed end points). Statin use in SELECT provided an OR of 0.65 and statin use in in PCPT provided an OR of 0.99, a relative difference of 34%. Conclusion Among screened men enrolled in prostate cancer prevention trials, differences in risk factor estimates for prostate cancer likely underestimate the magnitude of bias found in other cohorts with varying screening and biopsy

  12. Baseline activity predicts working memory load of preceding task condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Martin; Hahn, Tim; Heider, Dominik; Krug, Axel; Sommer, Jens; Kircher, Tilo; Jansen, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The conceptual notion of the so-called resting state of the brain has been recently challenged by studies indicating a continuing effect of cognitive processes on subsequent rest. In particular, activity in posterior parietal and medial prefrontal areas has been found to be modulated by preceding experimental conditions. In this study, we investigated which brain areas show working memory dependent patterns in subsequent baseline periods and how specific they are for the preceding experimental condition. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 94 subjects performed a letter-version of the n-back task with the conditions 0-back and 2-back followed by a low-level baseline in which subjects had to passively observe the letters appearing. In a univariate analysis, 2-back served as control condition while 0-back, baseline after 0-back and baseline after 2-back were modeled as regressors to test for activity changes between both baseline conditions. Additionally, we tested, using Gaussian process classifiers, the recognition of task condition from functional images acquired during baseline. Besides the expected activity changes in the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, we found differential activity in the thalamus, putamen, and postcentral gyrus that were affected by the preceding task. The multivariate analysis revealed that images of the subsequent baseline block contain task related patterns that yield a recognition rate of 70%. The results suggest that the influence of a cognitive task on subsequent baseline is strong and specific for some areas but not restricted to areas of the so-called default mode network. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Visual working memory deterioration preceding relapse in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, C L M; Li, Y K; Li, A W Y; Lee, E H M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lam, S Y; Thornton, A E; Sham, P; Honer, W G; Chen, E Y H

    2016-08-01

    Relapse is distressingly common after the first episode of psychosis, yet it is poorly understood and difficult to predict. Investigating changes in cognitive function preceding relapse may provide new insights into the underlying mechanism of relapse in psychosis. We hypothesized that relapse in fully remitted first-episode psychosis patients was preceded by working memory deterioration. Visual memory and verbal working memory were monitored prospectively in a 1-year randomized controlled trial of remitted first-episode psychosis patients assigned to medication continuation (quetiapine 400 mg/day) or discontinuation (placebo). Relapse (recurrence of positive symptoms of psychosis), visual (Visual Patterns Test) and verbal (Letter-Number span test) working memory and stressful life events were assessed monthly. Remitted first-episode patients (n = 102) participated in the study. Relapsers (n = 53) and non-relapsers (n = 49) had similar baseline demographic and clinical profiles. Logistic regression analyses indicated relapse was associated with visual working memory deterioration 2 months before relapse [odds ratio (OR) 3.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-7.92, P = 0.02], more stressful life events 1 month before relapse (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.20-3.72, P = 0.01) and medication discontinuation (OR 5.52, 95% CI 2.08-14.62, P = 0.001). Visual working memory deterioration beginning 2 months before relapse in remitted first-episode psychosis patients (not baseline predictor) may reflect early brain dysfunction that heralds a psychotic relapse. The deterioration was found to be unrelated to a worsening of psychotic symptoms preceding relapse. Testable predictors offer insight into the brain processes underlying relapse in psychosis.

  14. Pyropia yezoensis peptide PYP1-5 protects against dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy through the downregulation of atrogin1/MAFbx and MuRF1 in mouse C2C12 myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, In-Hye; Choi, Youn-Hee; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy refers to the decline in muscle mass and strength that occurs under various conditions, including aging, starvation, cancer and other cachectic diseases. Muscle atrophy caused by aging, known as sarcopenia, primarily occurs after 50 years of age. Muscle atrophy-related genes, including atrogin1/muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1), are expressed early in the muscle atrophy process, and their expression precedes the loss of muscle mass. The present study investigated the potential anti-atrophic effects of the Pyropia yezoensis peptide PYP1-5. The MTS assay did not detect cytotoxic effects of PYP1-5 on C2C12 mouse myoblast cells. Subsequently, the anti-atrophic effects of PYP1-5 on skeletal muscle cells was examined by treating C2C12 myotubes with 100 µM dexamethasone (DEX) and/or 500 ng/ml PYP1-5 for 24 h. Compared with the control, myotube diameter was reduced in DEX-treated cells, whereas PYP1-5 treatment protected against DEX-induced muscle atrophy. MAFbx and MuRF1 protein and mRNA expression levels were detected by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The results demonstrated that PYP1-5 significantly reduced the expression of atrogin1/MAFbx and MuRF1. Therefore, data from the present study suggest that PYP1-5 inhibits the expression of atrogin1/MAFbx and MuRF1 in C2C12 cells, and these characteristics may be of value in the development of anti-atrophy functional foods. PMID:28393223

  15. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  16. Prostate specific antigen: a useful but limited marker for prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    238 CME July 2012 Vol. 30 No. 7. Prostate specific antigen: a useful but limited marker for prostate cancer. Prostate specific antigen is widely used as a tumour marker for prostate cancer. K B Sedumedi, BSc, MB ChB, MMed (Chem Path). Senior Specialist/Lecturer, Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Limpopo, ...

  17. Conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma arising in a multilocular prostatic cystadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas K; Chuang, Shang-Tian; Netto, George J

    2010-05-01

    Multilocular prostatic cystadenoma is a rare benign neoplasm located between the bladder and the rectum. These are prostatic tissue and have been shown to harbor high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and likely susceptible to the same disease processes seen in the prostate gland. We report the first case of conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma involving a multilocular cystadenoma. Distinction from cystadenocarcinoma is also made.

  18. High Body Mass Index in Adolescent Girls Precedes Psoriasis Hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryld, L.E.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2010-01-01

    for being overweight in adulthood. The study cohort was based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, birth years 1930 to 1984 (309,152 schoolchildren). Cases were found through the Danish National Patient Register for the period 1977 to 2001. A total of 1074 (0.36%) of the schoolchildren were......Psoriasis is associated with being overweight, but the temporal relationship is not known. This historical cohort study tested whether severe psoriasis resulting in hospitalization in adulthood was preceded by excess increase in age-adjusted body mass index, a known risk factor in childhood...

  19. USING PRECEDENTS FOR REDUCTION OF DECISION TREE BY GRAPH SEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Bessmertny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of mutual payment organization between business entities by means of clearing that is solved by search of graph paths. To reduce the decision tree complexity a method of precedents is proposed that consists in saving the intermediate solution during the moving along decision tree. An algorithm and example are presented demonstrating solution complexity coming close to a linear one. The tests carried out in civil aviation settlement system demonstrate approximately 30 percent shortage of real money transfer. The proposed algorithm is planned to be implemented also in other clearing organizations of the Russian Federation.

  20. Vitiligo disease triggers: psychological stressors preceding the onset of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo is the loss of skin pigmentation caused by autoimmune destruction of melanocytes. Little is known about the impact of psychological stressors preceding vitiligo onset on symptoms associated with vitiligo and the extent of disease. We performed a questionnaire-based study of 1541 adults with vitiligo to evaluate the impact of psychological stressors in this patient population. Psychological stressors should be considered as potential disease triggers in vitiligo patients, and screening of vitiligo patients for psychological stressors and associated symptoms should be included in routine assessment.

  1. Design of a Secure RFID Authentication Scheme Preceding Market Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ling Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as RFID reader equipment is ever more widely deployed in handled devices, the importance of security problems among RFID reader, tags and server have obviously gained increased attention. However, there are still many security issues preceding transactions; these issues are well worth discussing. In this paper, we propose a novel authentication scheme, conforming EPC C1G2 standards, at a low implementation cost for market application. In order to achieve mutual authentication, the proposed scheme integrates fingerprint biometrics, related cryptology and a hash function mechanism to ensure the security of the transmitted messages. The proposed scheme also can resist known attacks.

  2. Electrical impedance myography in the assessment of disuse atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulli, Andrew W; Duggal, Naven; Esper, Gregory J; Garmirian, Lindsay P; Fogerson, Patricia M; Lin, Connie H; Rutkove, Seward B

    2009-10-01

    Tarulli AW, Duggal N, Esper GJ, Garmirian LP, Fogerson PM, Lin CH, Rutkove SB. Electrical impedance myography in the assessment of disuse atrophy. To quantify disuse atrophy using electrical impedance myography (EIM), a noninvasive technique that we have used successfully to study neurogenic and myopathic atrophy. We performed EIM of the tibialis anterior of subjects with disuse atrophy secondary to cast immobilization and in their contralateral normal leg. Subjects were studied shortly after cast removal and again several weeks to months after the cast was removed and normal mobility was restored. Outpatient neurology and orthopedic practices at a tertiary care medical center. Otherwise healthy subjects (N=10) with unilateral leg fracture. Not applicable. Resistance, reactance, and phase measured at 50kHz. The main EIM outcome parameter, phase at 50kHz, was lower in the immobilized leg in 9 of 10 cases. Additionally, when normal mobility was restored, the phase of the casted leg increased relative to its initial measurement in all 10 cases, while it increased inconsistently in the contralateral leg. EIM may be a powerful tool for the assessment of disuse atrophy.

  3. Infectious mononucleosis, other infections and prostate-specific antigen concentration as a marker of prostate involvement during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Nevin, Remington L; Pakpahan, Ratna; Elliott, Debra J; Langston, Marvin E; De Marzo, Angelo M; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Isaacs, William B; Nelson, William G; Sokoll, Lori J; Walsh, Patrick C; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Cersovsky, Steven B; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Although Epstein-Barr virus has been detected in prostate tissue, no associations have been observed with prostate cancer in the few studies conducted to date. One possible reason for these null findings may be use of cumulative exposure measures that do not inform the timing of infection, i.e., childhood versus adolescence/early adulthood when infection is more likely to manifest as infectious mononucleosis (IM). We sought to determine the influence of young adult-onset IM on the prostate by measuring prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a marker of prostate inflammation/damage among U.S. military members. We defined IM cases as men diagnosed with IM from 1998 to 2003 (n = 55) and controls as men without an IM diagnosis (n = 255). We selected two archived serum specimens for each participant, the first collected after diagnosis for cases and one randomly selected from 1998 to 2003 for controls (index), as well as the preceding specimen (preindex). PSA was measured in each specimen. To explore the specificity of our findings for prostate as opposed to systemic inflammation, we performed a post hoc comparison of other infectious disease cases without genitourinary involvement (n = 90) and controls (n = 220). We found that IM cases were more likely to have a large PSA rise than controls (≥ 20 ng/mL: 19.7% versus 8.8%, p = 0.027; ≥ 40% rise: 25.7% versus 9.4%, p = 0.0021), as were other infectious disease cases (25.7% versus 14.0%, p = 0.020; 27.7% versus 18.0%, p = 0.092). These findings suggest that, in addition to rising because of prostate infection, PSA may also rise because of systemic inflammation, which could have implications for PSA interpretation in older men. © 2015 UICC.

  4. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...

  5. Seismic quiescence preceding the 2016 central Italy earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, S.; Di Giovambattista, R.; Peresan, A.

    2017-11-01

    A complex multiple mainshocks sequence (24/08/2016, Mw 6.0; 26/10/2016, Mw 5.4 and 5.9; 30/10/2016, Mw 6.5) occurred in central Italy, causing the death of nearly 300 people and widespread destruction of entire villages. The Region-Time-Length (RTL) method is used to analyze the seismicity preceding the first Mw 6.0 Amatrice mainshock. This analysis is performed using the earthquake catalogue maintained by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) after a preprocessing, which includes the declustering of aftershocks. A well-evident quiescence that preceded the sequence was detected. The quiescence extended throughout a broad region north of the epicenter. The largest event of the sequence and the aftershocks covered most of the quiescence region, except for a small area to the west. The quiescence started from the beginning of September 2015 and lasted for approximately 1 year up to the Amatrice mainshock.

  6. Arterial stiffening precedes systolic hypertension in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Robert M; Shiang, Tina; Al Sayah, Leona; Fry, Jessica L; Bajpai, Saumendra; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A; Lob, Heinrich E; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Mitchell, Gary; Cohen, Richard A; Seta, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    Stiffening of conduit arteries is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Aortic wall stiffening increases pulsatile hemodynamic forces that are detrimental to the microcirculation in highly perfused organs, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Arterial stiffness is associated with hypertension but presumed to be due to an adaptive response to increased hemodynamic load. In contrast, a recent clinical study found that stiffness precedes and may contribute to the development of hypertension although the mechanisms underlying hypertension are unknown. Here, we report that in a diet-induced model of obesity, arterial stiffness, measured in vivo, develops within 1 month of the initiation of the diet and precedes the development of hypertension by 5 months. Diet-induced obese mice recapitulate the metabolic syndrome and are characterized by inflammation in visceral fat and aorta. Normalization of the metabolic state by weight loss resulted in return of arterial stiffness and blood pressure to normal. Our findings support the hypothesis that arterial stiffness is a cause rather than a consequence of hypertension.

  7. Hydroclimatic conditions preceding the March 2014 Oso landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Brian; Cao, Qian; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Mass, Clifford; Bower, J. Brent; St. Laurent, Michael; Mao, Yixin; Perica, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    The 22 March 2014 Oso landslide was one of the deadliest in U.S. history, resulting in 43 fatalities and the destruction of more than 40 structures. We examine synoptic conditions, precipitation records and soil moisture reconstructions in the days, months, and years preceding the landslide. Atmospheric reanalysis shows a period of enhanced moisture transport to the Pacific Northwest beginning on 11 February 2014. The 21- to 42-day periods prior to the landslide had anomalously high precipitation; we estimate that 300-400 mm of precipitation fell at Oso in the 21 days prior to the landslide. Relative only to historical periods ending on 22 March, the return periods of these precipitation accumulations are large (25-88 years). However, relative to the largest accumulations from any time of the year (annual maxima), return periods are more modest (2-6 years). In addition to the 21-42 days prior to the landslide, there is a secondary maximum in the precipitation return periods for the 4 years preceding the landslide. Reconstructed soil moisture was anomalously high prior to the landslide, with a return period that exceeded 40 years about a week before the event.

  8. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P dog, putting the face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Global Cerebral Atrophy Detected by Routine Imaging: Relationship with Age, Hippocampal Atrophy, and White Matter Hyperintensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Omar M; Panuganti, Pradeep; Abner, Erin L; Bahrani, Ahmed A; Murphy, Ronan; Bardach, Shoshana H; Caban-Holt, Allison; Nelson, Peter T; Gold, Brian T; Smith, Charles D; Wilcock, Donna M; Jicha, Gregory A

    2018-01-05

    Interpreting the clinical significance of moderate-to-severe global cerebral atrophy (GCA) is a conundrum for many clinicians, who visually interpret brain imaging studies in routine clinical practice. GCA may be attributed to normal aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), or cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Understanding the relationships of GCA with aging, AD, and CVD is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment decisions for cognitive complaints. To elucidate the relative associations of age, moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), and moderate-to-severe medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA), with moderate-to-severe GCA, we visually rated clinical brain imaging studies of 325 participants from a community based sample. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the relations of GCA with age, WMH, and MTA. The mean age was 76.2 (±9.6) years, 40.6% were male, and the mean educational attainment was 15.1 (±3.7) years. Logistic regression results demonstrated that while a 1-year increase in age was associated with GCA (OR = 1.04; P = .04), MTA (OR = 3.7; P < .001), and WMH (OR = 8.80; P < .001) were strongly associated with GCA in our study population. Partial correlation analysis showed that the variance of GCA explained by age is less than the variance attributed to MTA and WMH (r = .13, .21, and .43, respectively). Moderate-to-severe GCA is most likely to occur in the presence of AD or CVD and should not be solely attributed to age when evaluating clinical imaging findings in the workup of cognitive complaints. Developing optimal diagnostic and treatment strategies for cognitive decline in the setting of GCA requires an understanding of its risk factors in the aging population. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  10. The Prostate Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Frederico R.; Romero, Antonio W.; Filho, Thadeu Brenny; Kulysz, David; Oliveira, Fernando C., Jr.; Filho, Renato Tambara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To help students, residents, and general practitioners to improve the technique, skills, and reproducibility of their prostate examination. Methods: We developed a comprehensive guideline outlining prostate anatomy, indications, patient preparation, positioning, technique, findings, and limitations of this ancient art of urological…

  11. [Transrectal prostatic sonography (TPS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentzel-Beyme, B; Schwartz, J; Aurich, B

    1982-06-01

    A new imaging method of the prostate is described. After the introduction of a sonographic transducer into the rectum, the prostate, the urinary bladder and the seminal vesicles are scanned. Typical transverse sonograms of benign hypertrophy, abscess, calculous disease and carcinomas are presented. The value of this method and its indications are discussed.

  12. Can endurance exercise preconditioning prevention disuse muscle atrophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Wiggs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can provide a level of protection against disuse muscle atrophy. Endurance exercise training imposes oxidative, metabolic, and heat stress on skeletal muscle which activates a variety of cellular signaling pathways that ultimately leads to the increased expression of proteins that have been demonstrated to protect muscle from inactivity –induced atrophy. This review will highlight the effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on endogenous enzymatic antioxidant capacity (i.e., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, the role of oxidative and metabolic stress on PGC1-α, and finally highlight the effect heat stress and HSP70 induction. Finally, this review will discuss the supporting scientific evidence that these proteins can attenuate muscle atrophy through exercise preconditioning.

  13. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Lynch, Gordon S; Murphy, Kate T; Reid, Michael B; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-11-01

    Numerous health problems, including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders, often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal muscle weakness can increase the duration of hospitalization, result in exercise limitation, and contribute to a poor quality of life. Importantly, skeletal muscle atrophy is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality of patients. Therefore, improving our understanding of the mechanism(s) responsible for skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue in patients is a required first step to develop clinical protocols to prevent these skeletal muscle problems. This review will highlight the consequences and potential mechanisms responsible for skeletal muscle atrophy and fatigue in patients experiencing acute critical illness, cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, and neurological disorders.

  14. Small bowel villous atrophy: celiac disease and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Luca; Branchi, Federica; Sidhu, Reena; Guandalini, Stefano; Assiri, Asaad; Rinawi, Firas; Shamir, Raanan; Das, Prasenjit; Makharia, Govind K

    2017-02-01

    Small bowel villous atrophy can represent a diagnostic challenge for gastroenterologists and pathologists. In Western countries small bowel atrophy and mild non-atrophic alterations are frequently caused by celiac disease. However, other pathology can mimic celiac disease microscopically, widening the differential diagnosis. The several novelties on this topic and the introduction of the device-assisted enteroscopy in the diagnostic flowchart make an update of the literature necessary. Areas covered: In this review, a description of the different clinical scenarios when facing with small bowel mucosal damage, particularly small bowel atrophy, is described. The published literature on this subject has been summarized and reviewed. Expert commentary: When an intestinal mucosal alteration is histologically demonstrated, the pathology report forms part of a more complex workup including serological data, clinical presentation and clinical history. A multidisciplinary team, including pathologists and enteroscopy-devoted endoscopists, is frequently required to manage patients with small bowel alterations, especially in cases of severe malabsorption syndrome.

  15. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Murphy, Kate T.; Reid, Michael B.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Numerous health problems including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal muscle weakness can increase the duration of hospitalization, result in exercise limitation, and contribute to a poor quality of life. Importantly, skeletal muscle atrophy is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality of patients. Therefore, improving our understanding of the mechanism(s) responsible for skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue in patients is a required first step to develop clinical protocols to prevent these skeletal muscle problems. This review will highlight the consequences and potential mechanisms responsible for skeletal muscle atrophy and fatigue in patients suffering from acute critical illness, cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, and neurological disorders. PMID:27128663

  16. Associations with Meibomian Gland Atrophy in Daily Contact Lens Wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucker, Andrew D; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A; Li, Wing; Kwan, Justin T; Lin, Meng C; Sickenberger, Wolfgang; Marx, Sebastian; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Jones, Lyndon W

    2015-09-01

    To determine associations for contact lenses (CLs) and meibomian gland atrophy in a matched-pair study. Contact lens wearers (case) and age- and sex-matched non-contact lens (NCL) wearers with no history of CL use (control) were recruited for a multicenter study. All subjects were administered the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire and a comprehensive battery of clinical tests (e.g., tear breakup time, bulbar and limbal redness, meibography, etc.) were performed. Upper and lower eyelid meibomian gland atrophy were graded with both digital meibography (percent gland atrophy) and visual meiboscore methods. Conditional logistic regression analyses were then used to determine relationships among CL use, meibomian gland atrophy, and ocular surface signs and symptoms. A total of 70 matched pairs were analyzed. The mean (± SD) age of the CL group was 30.6 (± 12.4) years, and that of the NCL group was 30.1 (± 12.2) years. The subjects were 63% female. The association between CL wear and meiboscore was not significant univariately, but the best-fitting multivariate regression model showed that higher meiboscores were associated with being a CL wearer (odds ratio [OR], 2.45) in a model that included eyelid margin erythema (OR, 0.25) and lissamine green staining (OR, 1.25). Percent gland atrophy was not associated with CL wear in regression analysis (p = 0.31). This study determined inconclusive associations with CLs and meibomian gland atrophy. This study also provided a comprehensive assessment of differences between CL and NCL wearers.

  17. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A. [Section of Neuropsychology, Division of Disability Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, 980-8575 Sendai (Japan); Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J. [MR Unit, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France); Viader, F. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France)

    2000-06-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  18. Accelerating regional atrophy rates in the progression from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluimer, Jasper D. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Karas, Giorgos B.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schijndel, Ronald van [VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barnes, Josephine; Boyes, Richard G. [UCL, Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Cover, Keith S. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olabarriaga, Silvia D. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fox, Nick C. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UCL, Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Vrenken, Hugo [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    We investigated progression of atrophy in vivo, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We included 64 patients with AD, 44 with MCI and 34 controls with serial MRI examinations (interval 1.8 {+-} 0.7 years). A nonlinear registration algorithm (fluid) was used to calculate atrophy rates in six regions: frontal, medial temporal, temporal (extramedial), parietal, occipital lobes and insular cortex. In MCI, the highest atrophy rate was observed in the medial temporal lobe, comparable with AD. AD patients showed even higher atrophy rates in the extramedial temporal lobe. Additionally, atrophy rates in frontal, parietal and occipital lobes were increased. Cox proportional hazard models showed that all regional atrophy rates predicted conversion to AD. Hazard ratios varied between 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2) for occipital atrophy and 15.8 (95% CI = 3.5-71.8) for medial temporal lobe atrophy. In conclusion, atrophy spreads through the brain with development of AD. MCI is marked by temporal lobe atrophy. In AD, atrophy rate in the extramedial temporal lobe was even higher. Moreover, atrophy rates also accelerated in parietal, frontal, insular and occipital lobes. Finally, in nondemented elderly, medial temporal lobe atrophy was most predictive of progression to AD, demonstrating the involvement of this region in the development of AD. (orig.)

  19. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdee, D W; Panay, N; Ulrich, Lian

    2010-01-01

    for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) over recent years that has suggested an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke. But, regardless of whether these scares are justified, local treatment of vaginal atrophy is not associated with these possible risks of systemic HRT. Other reasons...... dryness can be helped by simple lubricants but the best and most logical treatment for urogenital atrophy is to use local estrogen. This is safe, effective and with few contraindications. It is hoped that these guidelines and recommendations, produced to coincide with World Menopause Day 2010, will help...

  20. Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome with crossed cerebellar atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M. Khaladkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome is a rare condition with classical, clinical and radiological changes – mental retardation, hemiparesis, facial asymmetry, seizures and cerebral hemiatrophy with calvarial changes. Contralateral cerebellar atrophy is rare and occurs if insult occurs after 1 month of age. We report a case of a 6-year-old female child presenting with right-sided hemiparesis, convulsions and left cerebral hemiatrophy with an old infarct in left middle cerebral artery (MCA territory, ipsilateral calvarial thickening and right (crossed cerebellar atrophy.

  1. [Anatomoclinical correlations of spinal muscular atrophy in infancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufo Campos, M; Chinchón Lara, I; Arias León, E; Martínez López, A; Gómez de Terreros, I

    1993-03-01

    Forty-three cases of infantile spinal muscular atrophy diagnosed in our department between 1977 to 1991 are presented. Following clinical-pathologic evaluation, 27 cases were included in type I, 7 in type II and 9 cases in type III. The most frequent pathologic finding was the presence of large groups of atrophic fibers and hypertrophy of isolated fibers in muscle biopsy. Enzyme study showed higher mean levels of CPK and aldolase in type I with respect to the other two. Likewise, a significant statistical difference was found in the age of onset of the different groups. Finally, the clinical classification of spinal muscular atrophies in infancy is discussed.

  2. Treatment Options by Stage (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  3. A Visual lexicon to Handle Semantic Similarity in Design precedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2007-01-01

    is useful, but not enough! This paper concludes proposing a strategy to solve this problem in future systems to handle design precedents. Humans have great ability to recognize if two things are related to each other. For instance, if one takes a vacuum cleaner, an iron and a toaster, it is easy to say......The adequate use of existing knowledge, and not only the creation of completely new solutions, is also an important part of creative thinking. When conceiving a solution, designers oftentimes report having a vague image of the form that will embody the final solution to the design task at hand...... of the image using adjectives, bringing along a series of difficulties: it is impractical for large collections; considers only the viewpoint of the editor; fixes descriptions in time and restricts attribution of meaning. As a solution to this problem, the author has proposed before an approach that uses image...

  4. Experimental Evidence for a Cochlear Source of the Precedence Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Verhulst, Sarah; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    to which peripheral versus central auditory processes contribute to this perceptual phenomenon has remained unclear. The present study investigated the contribution of peripheral processing to the PE through a comparison of physiological and psychoacoustical data in the same human listeners......The precedence effect (PE) refers to the dominance of directional information carried by a direct sound (lead) over the spatial information contained in its multiple reflections (lags) in sound localization. Although the processes underlying the PE have been largely investigated, the extent......–lag interactions at the level of the basilar membrane (BM) in the cochlea. The CEOAE-derived peripheral and monaural lag suppression was largest for ICIs of 1–4 ms. Auditory-evoked brainstem responses (ABRs) were used to investigate monaural and binaural lag suppression at the brainstem level. The responses...

  5. Activities preceding a decline in the paratuberculosis test prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    . A challenge in evaluation of activities in a national programme it is essentially a sample size of one without a control group. Therefore, the apparent effect of activities on programme level can only be descriptive. Our objective was to describe the decline in the test-prevalence along with the activities...... for a “continuous” flow of diagnostic test information four times annually in each herd. This information can be used for detection and management of infectious animals and for prevalence monitoring....... preceding this decline. The cohort of herds enrolled in 2006-2007 had an average estimated within-herd test-prevalence of 10% at start. By January 2014 this had declined to 2%. The test-prevalence in the cohort of herds enrolled in 2008-2010 started at approximately 6% and by January 2014 was reduced...

  6. Progression of disease preceding lower extremity amputation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Søe; Petersen, Janne; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with non-traumatic lower extremity amputation are characterised by high age, multi-morbidity and polypharmacy and long-term complications of atherosclerosis and diabetes. To ensure early identification of patients at risk of amputation, we need to gain knowledge about...... the progression of diseases related to lower extremity amputations during the years preceding the amputation. DESIGN: A retrospective population-based national registry study. SETTING: The study includes data on demographics, diagnoses, surgery, medications and healthcare services from five national registries....... Data were retrieved from 14 years before until 1 year after the amputation. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the progression of diseases and use of medication and healthcare services. PARTICIPANTS: An unselected cohort of patients (≥50 years; n=2883) subjected to a primary non...

  7. Testosterone levels in benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearini, Luigi; Costantini, Elisabetta; Zucchi, Alessandro; Mearini, Ettore; Bini, Vittorio; Cottini, Emanuele; Porena, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Although hormones play fundamental roles in prostate growth, their clinical significance is not completely clear. In the present study we assessed whether serum hormone levels are markers of prostate disease. In 128 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy or prostate cancer, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were correlated with disease. In patients with prostate cancer, the hormone levels were also correlated with prognostic factors. Predictive values were assessed for prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels only, using multiple logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves. The testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer than in those with benign prostatic hypertrophy and were also significantly lower in patients with advanced-stage disease than in patients with organ-confined disease. Testosterone appears to be an independent predictor of disease and enhances the predictive accuracy for benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer. This study supports experimental findings that prostate cancer is frequently associated with low testosterone concentrations. In the diagnostic workup for prostate cancer, associating prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels may improve the predictive accuracy of prostate disease tests.

  8. Sequential estrogen and radiation therapy for stage C prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Yuichi; Kawai, Tsuneo; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Yamauchi, Tamio; Aizawa, Taku (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1993-03-01

    Twenty of 34 stage C cases have been treated by sequential estrogen and radiation in our hospital between 1980 and 1989 and half of them had actually been done staging operation. An average age was 69.3. Tumor differentiations were distributed well in 5 cases, moderately in 5 and poorly in 9. The other unknown differentiation case was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Previously administered estrogens were diethylstilbestrol diphosphate in 15 cases and others in 5. Total doses of 70 Gy in 35 fractions were sequentially delivered to the prostate, involving if necessary the seminal vesicles over a seven-week period by bilateral 120deg pendel using linear accelerator. Radiation field was sized from 6 x 6 to 8 x 8 cm. Estrogens have been continuously administered following radiation in 11 cases. Therapeutic effects upon the prostate were evaluated by digital rectal palpation. Improvement rate and atrophy rate of the primary lesion were 94.4% and 50% respectively. Recurrences were observed in 4 cases and 3 of them recurred within 3 years after initiation of the treatment. Recurred sites were in primary lesion in 2 cases and in bone in two. Five year non-recurrence rate was 81% by Kaplan Meier's method. One of 3 who discontinued hormone administration during or immediately after radiotherapy had local recurrence after 65 months and the other 2 cases died of gastric cancer and unknown cause. Causes of 6 dead cases were one prostate cancer, one gastric cancer, one heart failure, one pneumonia and 2 unknown. The cancer death rate was 25% (1/4 cases). Five year cumulative survival rate by Kaplan-Meier's method was 59.0%. Our results support the view that the sequential estrogen and radiation therapy for the pathological stage C patients of the prostate cancer may be as preferable as radiation alone for the treatment of stage B prostate cancer. (J.P.N.).

  9. A Mouse Model Study for the Villous Atrophy of the Early Weaning Piglets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TSUKAHARA, Takamitsu; INOUE, Ryo; YAMADA, Kaori; YAJIMA, Takaji

    2010-01-01

    Early weaning induces villous atrophy in the small intestine of piglets. We evaluated an influence of early weaning at 16 days old in mice for the use of villous atrophy model observed in early-weaned piglets...

  10. Quantitative assessment of gastric antrum atrophy shows restitution to normal histology after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Kale, Ilse; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Lindeman, Jan; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Meuwissen, Stefan G. M.; Baak, Jan P. A.; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aims: Grading gastric mucosal atrophy in antrum biopsy specimens remains a controversial subject because of limitations in interobserver agreement. We previously described a reliable, quantitative method for grading atrophy of the corpus mucosa with excellent reproducibility and good

  11. Brain atrophy and lesion load predict long term disability in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popescu, Veronica; Agosta, Federica; Hulst, Hanneke E

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS).......To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS)....

  12. Prostate cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2012-06-01

    Stem cells have long been implicated in prostate gland formation. The prostate undergoes regression after androgen deprivation and regeneration after testosterone replacement. Regenerative studies suggest that these cells are found in the proximal ducts and basal layer of the prostate. Many characteristics of prostate cancer indicate that it originates from stem cells. For example, the putative androgen receptor-negative (AR(-)) status of prostate stem cells renders them inherently insensitive to androgen blockade therapy. The androgen-regulated gene fusion TMPRSS2-ERG could be used to clarify both the cells of origin and the evolution of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we show that the hypothesis that distinct subtypes of cancer result from abnormalities within specific cell types-the stem cell theory of cancer-may instigate a major paradigm shift in cancer research and therapy. Ultimately, the stem cell theory of cancers will affect how we practice clinical oncology: our diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy of prostate and other cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Causative mutations for progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in the dog

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Jaromír; Horák, Pavel; Bechyňová, Renata; Přibáňová, M.; Stratil, Antonín; Schröffelová, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2008), s. 55-58 ISSN 1803-4403. [Genetické dny /23./. České Budějovice, 10.09.2008-12.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : progressive retinal atrophy * dog Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. Frontal Cortical Atrophy as a Predictor of Poststroke Apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalov, Ján; Mikula, Peter; Budiš, Jaroslav; Valkovič, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify associations between the symptoms of poststroke apathy and sociodemographic, stroke-related (severity of stroke, degree of disability, and performance in activities of daily living), and radiological correlates. We determined the degree of cortical and subcortical brain atrophy, the severity of white matter and basal ganglia lesions on baseline computed tomography (CT) scans, and the localization of acute ischemia on control CT or magnetic resonance imaging scans in subacute stages of stroke. During follow-up examinations, in addition to the assessment of apathy symptoms using the Apathy Scale, we also evaluated symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The study included 47 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke. Correlates significantly associated with apathy, determined at baseline and during follow-up, were entered into the "predictive" and "associative" multiple regression models, respectively. Frontal cortical atrophy and symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with poststroke apathy symptoms. In order to model an interrelation between both cortical atrophy and white matter lesions and aging, we supplemented 2 additional "predictive" models using interaction variables, whereby we confirmed the role of frontal cortical atrophy as a predictor of poststroke apathy also as a function of the increasing age of patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Rapid quantitative assessment of gastric corpus atrophy in tissue sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grieken, N. C.; Weiss, M. M.; Meijer, G. A.; Bloemena, E.; Lindeman, J.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Meuwissen, S. G.; Baak, J. P.; Kuipers, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Grading of Helicobacter pylori induced atrophic gastritis using the updated Sydney system is severely limited by high interobserver variability. The aim of this study was to set up a quantitative test of gastric corpus mucosal atrophy in tissue sections and test its reproducibility and correlation

  16. Skeletal muscle training for spinal muscular atrophy type 3 (Protocol).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, B.; Montes, J.; Pol, W.L. van der; Groot, J.F. de

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by a genetic mutation in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene (5q11.2-q13.3) (Lefebvre 1995). With an incidence of one in 10,000 live births, it is the leading genetic cause of infant death (Lunn 2008;

  17. Atrophy of the parietal lobe in preclinical dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, H.I.L.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; Uylings, H.B.M.; Gronenschild, E.H.B.M.; Verhey, F.R.; Jolles, J.

    2011-01-01

    Cortical grey matter atrophy patterns have been reported in healthy ageing and Alzheimer disease (AD), but less consistently in the parietal regions of the brain. We investigated cortical grey matter volume patterns in parietal areas. The grey matter of the somatosensory cortex, superior and

  18. Progressive cerebellar atrophy: hereditary ataxias and disorders with spinocerebellar degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, N.I.; Koenig, M.; Dulac, O.L.M.; Sarnat, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    The hereditary ataxias with onset in childhood are a group of heterogeneous disorders, usually with autosomal recessive inheritance. In many of them, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows cerebellar atrophy. The most prominent exception to this is Friedreich's ataxia, where MRI shows normal

  19. Physical complaints in ageing persons with spinal muscular atrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, I.J.M. de; Witte, L.P de

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While life expectancy is improving for persons with spinal muscular atrophy, new physical complaints may arise. To investigate this, we studied persons with a long duration and severe course (high functional limitations) of the disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study.

  20. Anaesthetic management of a patient with multiple system atrophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. Symptoms vary from autonomic dysfunction to Parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, in any combination. MSA affects many organ systems with many possible complications and makes perioperative management of a patient with this condition ...

  1. Ataxia-telangiectasia: the pattern of cerebellar atrophy on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavani, F. [Department of Radiology, University of Modena (Italy); Zimmerman, R.A.; Gatti, R.; Bingham, P. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Berry, G.T. [Department of Endocrinology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Sullivan, K. [Department of Immunology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States)

    2003-05-01

    We describe MRI of the brain in 19 patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) and correlate the appearances with the degree of neurologic deficit. We examined 10 male and nine female patients; 17 were aged between 2 and 12 years (mean 8 years) but a woman and her brother were 35 and 38 years old, and had a variant of AT. Ataxia was the first recognized sign of the disease in every patient. We detected the following patterns of cerebellar atrophy: in the youngest patient, aged 2 years, the study was normal; in the five next youngest patients 3-7 years of age, the lateral cerebellum and superior vermis showed the earliest changes of atrophy; and all but one of the other patients had moderate to marked diffuse atrophy of vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. There were 12 patients aged 9 years and above; one, who was normal, was 9 years old. The five patients who at the time of examination were unable to walk all had diffuse atrophy involving both vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. (orig.)

  2. Clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of spinal muscular atrophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by progressive hypotonia and muscular weakness because of progressive degeneration of alpha motor neuron from anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. It is inherited by an autosomal recessive pattern. The precise frequency of SMA in Egypt has not been ...

  3. Clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of spinal muscular atrophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by progressive hypotonia and muscular weakness because of progressive degeneration of alpha motor neuron from anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. It is inherited by an autosomal recessive pattern. The precise frequency of SMA in Egypt has not been determined.

  4. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    To assess retinal morphology in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) without ophthalmoscopically visible fundus changes. Retrospective case series. Two consecutive patients with bilateral AZOOR with photopsia corresponding to areas of visual field loss and a normal fundus appearance were...... loss was more extensive than the area of photoreceptor loss. Photoreceptor atrophy can be demonstrated in AZOOR without ophthalmoscopically visible fundus lesions....

  5. Carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy in Italian population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy in Italian population. Francesco Calì Giuseppa Ruggeri Valeria Chiavetta Carmela Scuderi Sebastiano Bianca Chiara Barone Alda Ragalmuto Pietro Schinocca Girolamo Aurelio Vitello Valentino Romano Sebastiano Musumeci. Research Note Volume 93 Issue 1 April 2014 pp ...

  6. Cardiac pathology in spinal muscular atrophy : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarde, C A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413993779; Blank, A C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821578; Stam, M; Wadman, R I|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341753637; van den Berg, L H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288255216; van der Pol, W L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/203721721

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe neuromuscular disease of childhood caused by homozygous loss of function of the survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene. The presence of a second, nearly identical SMN gene (SMN2) in the human genome ensures production of residual

  7. Anaesthetic Management of Spinal Muscular Atrophy For Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. E. Argyra / Dr. C. Staikou / Dr. G. Polymeneas / Dr. C. M. Markatou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the anaesthetic management of a female patient with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA presented for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In order to avoid prolonged recovery; we chose to use total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA with propofol and remifentanil. No neuromuscular blocking agent was used.

  8. Epidural anaesthesia in a child with possible spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, A; Molenbuur, B; Richardson, FJ

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare lower motor neurone disease in which anaesthetic management is often difficult as a result of muscle weakness and hypersensitivity to neuromuscular blocking agents. Neuraxial anaesthesia is controversial in these patients; however, some cases have been

  9. Best practice guidelines for molecular analysis in spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, H; Cobben, JM; Matthijs, G; Wirth, B

    With a prevalence of approximately 1/10 000, and a carrier frequency of 1/40-1/60 the proximal spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are among the most frequent autosomal recessive hereditary disorders. Patients can be classified clinically into four groups: acute, intermediate, mild, and adult (SMA

  10. Pigmented paravenous chorioretinal atrophy with Coat′s like response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Tandon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented paravenous chorioretinal atrophy (PPCRA is an uncommon retinal disorder of unknown etiology that is neither well understood nor classified. We report an atypical case of PPCRA, associated with Coat′s like response (CLR in a 64-year-old man of Asian origin. Both the eyes were involved, though asymmetrically.

  11. Automated measurement of medial temporal lobe atrophy by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Masumi [Tokai Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kasugai-shi, Aichi (Japan); Koyama, Shuji; Kodera, Yoshie [Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, Higashi-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Kogure, Yosuke [Tokyo Metropolitan Koto Geriatric Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 3-3-20 Shinsuna, Koutou-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Ido, Yasushi; Asano, Hirofumi [Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Minokamo-shi, Gifu (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    Objects Evaluation of medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy is usually performed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In Japan, however, the availability of computed tomography (CT) is much higher than that of MRI. The evaluation of MTL atrophy using CT may be useful when MRI is unavailable. This project developed a technique to automatically measure MTL atrophy using axial CT imaging and assessed the sensitivity of this method for diagnosing dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT). Materials and methods Linear measurements were taken for the width of the temporal horn, the width of the MTL, and the interuncal distance and the area of the temporal horn were measured. The algorithm developed employs the gray level threshold and the snake technique to process axial CT images. The algorithm was evaluated on 85 patients. Results The efficacy of this automated method was verified by a quantitative comparison of computerdetermined and manually obtained MTL measures, and based on its sensitivity and specificity in differentiating patients with DAT from control subjects. Conclusions This fully automated method of measuring MTL atrophy using CT is feasible and effective in DAT diagnosis, and simple to perform clinically. This method may be a practical alternative for MRI in some settings. (orig.)

  12. Axonal loss occurs early in dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milea, Dan; Sander, Birgit; Wegener, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study set out to investigate retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in relation to age in healthy subjects and patients with OPA1 autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA). Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional investigation of RNFL...

  13. Benefits of Laser Therapy in Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brînzan, Daniela; Pǎiuşan, Lucian; Daşcǎu, Voicu; Furǎu, Gheorghe

    2011-08-01

    Maybe the worst aspect of menopause is the decline of the quality of the sexual life. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser therapy in comparison with topical application of estrogen preparations, for the treatment of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions induced by menopause. A total of 50 menopausal patients were examined during a one year period. The methods used for objectifying vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions were history taking, local clinical exam and PAP smear. From this group, 40 patients had vaginal atrophy with sexual dysfunctions. They have been treated differently, being included in four groups: patients treated with local estrogens, patients treated with intravaginal laser therapy, patients treated with both laser therapy and estrogens, patients treated with estrogens and placebo laser therapy. Therapeutic benefit, improvement of vaginal atrophy and quality of sexual life, were objectified by anamnesis (questionnaire), local and general clinical examination and PAP smear. The best results have been obtained, by far, in the 3rd group, followed by the women treated only with laser. In conclusion, we can say that laser therapy is the best way for solving the sexual inconveniences of menopause.

  14. Excessive daytime sleepiness in multiple system atrophy (SLEEMSA study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Lopez, C.; Santamaria, J.; Salamero, M.; Del Sorbo, F.; Albanese, A.; Pellecchia, M.T.; Barone, P.; Overeem, S.; Bloem, B.R.; Aarden, W.C.C.A.; Canesi, M.; Antonini, A.; Duerr, S.; Wenning, G.K.; Poewe, W.; Rubino, A.; Meco, G.; Schneider, S.A.; Bhatia, K.P.; Djaldetti, R.; Coelho, M.; Sampaio, C.; Cochen, V.; Hellriegel, H.; Deuschl, G.; Colosimo, C.; Marsili, L.; Gasser, T.; Tolosa, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders are common in multiple system atrophy (MSA), but the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and associations of EDS in MSA. DESIGN: Survey of EDS in consecutive patients with MSA and comparison with patients

  15. Acylated and unacylated ghrelin impair skeletal muscle atrophy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachexia is a wasting syndrome associated with cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, and several other disease states. It is characterized by weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite, and skeletal muscle atrophy and is associated with poor patient prognosis, making it an important treatment target. Ghreli...

  16. Brain atrophy at onset and physical disability in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS patients during the disease onset predicts long term disability. METHODS: MS patients with follow-up time of at least 7 years from disease onset and with baseline and second magnetic resonance 12 months later were included to measure brain atrophy. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS was categorized in three groups, EDSS=0, EDSS=1 and 2.5 and EDSS>2.5, and used as disability measure. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included. Mean atrophy during the first year in patients that reached an EDSS≥3 was -0.76±0.45 %, in patients with an EDSS between 1 and 2.5 was -0.59±0.56, while in patients with an EDSS of 0 it was -0.38±0.42 (p=0.003. DISCUSSION: Brain atrophy rates during the first year of disease were predictive of disease progression in our population.

  17. Spinal Cord Gray Matter Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, M-Ê; El Mendili, M M; Gros, C; Dupont, S M; Cohen-Adad, J; Pradat, P-F

    2018-01-01

    There is an emerging need for biomarkers to better categorize clinical phenotypes and predict progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to quantify cervical spinal gray matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and investigate its association with clinical disability at baseline and after 1 year. Twenty-nine patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 healthy controls were scanned with 3T MR imaging. Standard functional scale was recorded at the time of MR imaging and after 1 year. MR imaging data were processed automatically to measure the spinal cord, gray matter, and white matter cross-sectional areas. A statistical analysis assessed the difference in cross-sectional areas between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and controls, correlations between spinal cord and gray matter atrophy to clinical disability at baseline and at 1 year, and prediction of clinical disability at 1 year. Gray matter atrophy was more sensitive to discriminate patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls (P = .004) compared with spinal cord atrophy (P = .02). Gray matter and spinal cord cross-sectional areas showed good correlations with clinical scores at baseline (R = 0.56 for gray matter and R = 0.55 for spinal cord; P amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Characterization of disuse skeletal muscle atrophy and the efficacy of a novel muscle atrophy countermeasure during spaceflight and simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea Marie

    Humans are an integral part of the engineered systems that will enable return to the Moon and eventually travel to Mars. Major advancements in countermeasure development addressing deleterious effects of microgravity and reduced gravity on the musculoskeletal system need to be made to ensure mission safety and success. The primary objectives of this dissertation are to advance the knowledge and understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy, and support development of novel countermeasures for disuse atrophy to enable healthy long-duration human spaceflight. Models simulating microgravity and actual spaceflight were used to examine the musculoskeletal adaptations during periods of unloading. Myostatin inhibition, a novel anti-atrophy drug therapy, and exercise were examined as a means of preventing and recovering from disuse atrophy. A combination of assays was used to quantify adaptation responses to unloading and examine efficacy of the countermeasures. Body and muscle masses were collected to analyze systemic changes due to treatments. Hindlimb strength and individual muscle forces were measured to demonstrate functional adaptations to treatments. Muscle fiber morphology and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression was examined to identify adaptations at the cellular level. Protein synthesis signals insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), Akt, and p70s6 kinase; and the degradation signals Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 were examined to identify adaptations at the molecular level that ultimately lead to muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. A time course study provided a thorough characterization of the adaptation of skeletal muscle during unloading in C57BL/6 mice, and baseline data for comparison to and evaluation of subsequent studies. Time points defining the on-set and endpoints of disuse muscle atrophy were identified to enable characterization of rapid vs. long-term responses of skeletal muscle to hindlimb suspension. Unloading-induced atrophy primarily resulted from increased protein

  19. Methods for Prostate Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghafoori

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is currently the most prevalent form of cancer in men and the second leading cause of can-cer death in the United States, and the third most common cancer in men worldwide. Increasing mor-tality rates due to prostate carcinoma have been ob-served worldwide. This disease usually progresses im-perceptibly; thus, patients are unlikely to seek medi-cal help during the early stages. For these reasons, screening programs aimed at early detection have been developed. The prostate-spe...

  20. Increasing the Diagnostic Accuracy of Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, H. I. L.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; van der Elst, W.; Burgmans, S.; Smeets, F.; Gronenschild, E.H.B.M.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Uylings, H.B.M.; Jolles, J.

    2011-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy is considered to be one of the most important predictors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigates whether atrophy in parietal and prefrontal areas increases the predictive value of MTL atrophy in three groups of different cognitive status. Seventy-five

  1. [Liver Atrophy and Failure Associated with Paclitaxel and Bevacizumab Combination Therapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mari; Ikeda, Masahiko; Kubo, Shinichiro; Tsukioki, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Shougo

    2016-07-01

    We managed 6 cases of severe liver atrophy and failure associated with paclitaxel and bevacizumab combination therapy (PB therapy)for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. In this case-controlstudy, we examined the records of these 6 patients to investigate past treatment, medication history, and degree of atrophy, and compared their data with that of 67 patients without liver atrophy. The degree of the liver atrophy used SYNAPSE VINCENT®of the image analysis software. The results showed that patients with liver atrophy had a longer pretreatment period than those without liver atrophy(33.5 months vs 15.5 months), and they also experienced a longer median time to treatment failure with PB therapy than other patients(11 months vs 6 months). The ratio of individuals presenting with diffuse liver metastasis among patients with liver metastasis was 80% with liver atrophy, compared to 8% without liver atrophy. The degree of liver atrophy was an average of 67%in terms of volume ratio before/after PB therapy(57-82%). The individualwith the greatest extent of liver atrophy died of liver failure, not as a result of breast cancer progression. The direct causal link between bevacizumab and liver atrophy and failure is unclear, but the individuals in this study had a long previous history of treatment, and diffuse liver metastases may develop in patients undergoing long periods of PB therapy, which may also cause liver atrophy; therefore, the possibility of liver failure should be considered in such cases.

  2. Pyropia yezoensis peptide PYP1‑5 protects against dexamethasone‑induced muscle atrophy through the downregulation of atrogin1/MAFbx and MuRF1 in mouse C2C12 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, In-Hye; Choi, Youn-Hee; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2017-06-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy refers to the decline in muscle mass and strength that occurs under various conditions, including aging, starvation, cancer and other cachectic diseases. Muscle atrophy caused by aging, known as sarcopenia, primarily occurs after 50 years of age. Muscle atrophy‑related genes, including atrogin1/muscle atrophy F‑box (MAFbx) and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1), are expressed early in the muscle atrophy process, and their expression precedes the loss of muscle mass. The present study investigated the potential anti‑atrophic effects of the Pyropia yezoensis peptide PYP1‑5. The MTS assay did not detect cytotoxic effects of PYP1‑5 on C2C12 mouse myoblast cells. Subsequently, the anti‑atrophic effects of PYP1‑5 on skeletal muscle cells was examined by treating C2C12 myotubes with 100 µM dexamethasone (DEX) and/or 500 ng/ml PYP1‑5 for 24 h. Compared with the control, myotube diameter was reduced in DEX‑treated cells, whereas PYP1‑5 treatment protected against DEX‑induced muscle atrophy. MAFbx and MuRF1 protein and mRNA expression levels were detected by western blot analysis and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The results demonstrated that PYP1‑5 significantly reduced the expression of atrogin1/MAFbx and MuRF1. Therefore, data from the present study suggest that PYP1‑5 inhibits the expression of atrogin1/MAFbx and MuRF1 in C2C12 cells, and these characteristics may be of value in the development of anti‑atrophy functional foods.

  3. About the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Text: Please leave this field empty Normal Physiology The prostate is not essential for life, but is important for reproduction. It supplies substances that facilitate fertilization and sperm ...

  4. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantine Albany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  5. Learning about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov] There are companies that will soon be marketing and selling genetic tests that will predict a ... enzyme made by the prostate gland, and a digital rectal examination (DRE) are two tests that are ...

  6. Sarcoidosis of the prostate

    OpenAIRE

    Furusato, Bungo; Koff, Stacey; McLeod, David G; Sesterhenn, Isabell A

    2007-01-01

    A 55‐year‐old African‐American man with clinical stage T1c prostate cancer underwent prostatectomy. Non‐caseating, epithelioid granulomata adjacent to the anterior fibromuscular stroma were found incidentally. The granulomata included Langhans giant cells with rare conchoidal bodies. The distribution of the granulomata was not that of non‐specific granulomatous prostatitis centred around ducts and glands. By immunohistochemistry, the epithelioid cells were positive for angiotensin‐converting ...

  7. Promoter Methylation Precedes Chromosomal Alterations in Colorectal Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancers are characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations. This study aimed to explore the timing of promoter methylation and relationship with mutations and chromosomal alterations in colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: In a series of 47 nonprogressed adenomas, 41 progressed adenomas (malignant polyps, 38 colorectal carcinomas and 18 paired normal tissues, we evaluated promoter methylation status of hMLH1, O6MGMT, APC, p14ARF, p16INK4A, RASSF1A, GATA-4, GATA-5, and CHFR using methylation-specific PCR. Mutation status of TP53, APC and KRAS were studied by p53 immunohistochemistry and sequencing of the APC and KRAS mutation cluster regions. Chromosomal alterations were evaluated by comparative genomic hybridization. Results: Our data demonstrate that nonprogressed adenomas, progressed adenomas and carcinomas show similar frequencies of promoter methylation for the majority of the genes. Normal tissues showed significantly lower frequencies of promoter methylation of APC, p16INK4A, GATA-4, and GATA-5 (P-values: 0.02, 0.02, 1.1×10−5 and 0.008 respectively. P53 immunopositivity and chromosomal abnormalities occur predominantly in carcinomas (P values: 1.1×10−5 and 4.1×10−10. Conclusions: Since promoter methylation was already present in nonprogressed adenomas without chromosomal alterations, we conclude that promoter methylation can be regarded as an early event preceding TP53 mutation and chromosomal abnormalities in colorectal cancer development.

  8. Interpretation in Social Anxiety: When Meaning Precedes Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Courtney; Amir, Nader

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive models of anxiety posit that negative beliefs influence socially anxious individuals' interpretation of ambiguous social cues. However, paradigms used to assess interpretation bias in social anxiety have not addressed such beliefs. Furthermore, studies have assessed interpretation with either self-report or reaction time paradigms, rather than using both methods. In the current study, socially anxious and non-anxious participants completed the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP). In the WSAP, participants decide whether or not a word (implying a threat or benign interpretation) is related to an ambiguous sentence. Threat or benign meanings preceded the ambiguity in order to examine the influence of positive and negative beliefs on interpretation of ambiguous information. The WSAP results in two types of interpretation indices: (1) response latency to make relatedness decisions for threat and benign interpretations, and (2) endorsement rates of the relatedness of threat and benign interpretations to ambiguous sentences. Results revealed a threat interpretation bias and a lack of a benign interpretation bias in both reaction time and self-report data. Threat and benign biases were not strongly correlated. These findings support the distinction between threat and benign interpretation biases.

  9. Non-auditory, electrophysiological potentials preceding dolphin biosonar click production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, James J; Mulsow, Jason; Jones, Ryan; Houser, Dorian S; Accomando, Alyssa W; Ridgway, Sam H

    2018-03-01

    The auditory brainstem response to a dolphin's own emitted biosonar click can be measured by averaging epochs of the instantaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) that are time-locked to the emitted click. In this study, averaged EEGs were measured using surface electrodes placed on the head in six different configurations while dolphins performed an echolocation task. Simultaneously, biosonar click emissions were measured using contact hydrophones on the melon and a hydrophone in the farfield. The averaged EEGs revealed an electrophysiological potential (the pre-auditory wave, PAW) that preceded the production of each biosonar click. The largest PAW amplitudes occurred with the non-inverting electrode just right of the midline-the apparent side of biosonar click generation-and posterior of the blowhole. Although the source of the PAW is unknown, the temporal and spatial properties rule out an auditory source. The PAW may be a neural or myogenic potential associated with click production; however, it is not known if muscles within the dolphin nasal system can be actuated at the high rates reported for dolphin click production, or if sufficiently coordinated and fast motor endplates of nasal muscles exist to produce a PAW detectable with surface electrodes.

  10. Visual object cognition precedes but also temporally overlaps mental rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendan, Haline E; Lucia, Lisa C

    2009-10-19

    Two-dimensional, mental rotation of alphanumeric characters and geometric figures is related to linear increases in parietal negativity between 400 and 800 ms as rotation increases, similar to linear increases with rotation in response times. This suggests that the frontoparietal networks implicated in mental rotation are engaged after 400 ms. However, the time course of three-dimensional object mental rotation using the classic Shepard-Metzler task has not been studied, even though this is one of the most commonly used versions in behavioral and neuroimaging work. Using this task, this study replicated a prior neuroimaging version using event-related potentials. Results confirmed linear mental rotation effects on performance and parietal negativity. In addition, a frontocentral N350 complex that indexes visual object cognition processes was more negative with mental rotation and showed linear trends at frontopolar sites from 200 to 700 ms and centrofrontal sites from 400 to 500 ms. The centrofrontal negativity has been implicated in object working memory processes in ventrolateral prefrontal and occipitotemporal areas. The frontopolar N350 has been implicated in processes that compute the spatial relations among parts of objects to resolve visual differences between object representations and enable an accurate cognitive decision involving a network of ventrocaudal intraparietal, ventral premotor, and inferotemporal cortices. Overall, the time course indicates that visual object cognition processes precede (200-500 ms) but also overlap the initial phase of mental rotation (500-700 ms) indexed by parietal negativity.

  11. Neurological Evidence Linguistic Processes Precede Perceptual Simulation in Conceptual Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eLouwerse

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence from response time experiments that language statistics and perceptual simulations both play a role in conceptual processing. In an EEG experiment we compared neural activity in cortical regions commonly associated with linguistic processing and visual perceptual processing to determine to what extent symbolic and embodied accounts of cognition applied. Participants were asked to determine the semantic relationship of word pairs (e.g., sky – ground or to determine their iconic relationship (i.e., if the presentation of the pair matched their expected physical relationship. A linguistic bias was found towards the semantic judgment task and a perceptual bias was found towards the iconicity judgment task. More importantly, conceptual processing involved activation in brain regions associated with both linguistic and perceptual processes. When comparing the relative activation of linguistic cortical regions with perceptual cortical regions, the effect sizes for linguistic cortical regions were larger than those for the perceptual cortical regions early in a trial with the reverse being true later in a trial. These results map upon findings from other experimental literature and provide further evidence that processing of concept words relies both on language statistics and on perceptual simulations, whereby linguistic processes precede perceptual simulation processes.

  12. The Kosovo Precedent in the Secession and Recognition of Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Elvina Jusufaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Crimea’s secession from Ukraine and its annexation to the Russian Federation invoked Kosovo precedent, in its declaration of independence, as an argument for secession. The territorial referendum in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, only five days after the declaration of independence, was an attempt to justify the secession based on the right to selfdetermination of the people of Crimea. It is overwhelmingly considered illegal and its outcome has not been accepted and recognized by states, regional and international organizations. The comparative elements of statehood and secession between Kosovo and Crimea are reflected through analyzing the declarations of independence, international recognition and Russia’s role as a third-state factor in external selfdetermination. Essential distinctions are highlighted. Kosovo is widely acknowledged and accepted a sui generis case. Its declaration of independence came as result of a long monitored comprehensive process; not to legitimize the right for self-determination but as the final option for stability and peace in the region. Crimea seceded in violation of international law through the use of force. While Kosovo is a democratic, multi-ethnic new state and recognized by 107 states, the secession of Crimea and its annexation to the Russian Federation is considered illegal and endangers the existing international order.

  13. Dynamic hydrolase activities precede hypersensitive tissue collapse in tomato seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueldo, Daniela; Ahmed, Ali; Misas-Villamil, Johana; Colby, Tom; Tameling, Wladimir; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2014-08-01

    Hydrolases such as subtilases, vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) and the proteasome play important roles during plant programmed cell death (PCD). We investigated hydrolase activities during PCD using activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), which displays the active proteome using probes that react covalently with the active site of proteins. We employed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings undergoing synchronized hypersensitive cell death by co-expressing the avirulence protein Avr4 from Cladosporium fulvum and the tomato resistance protein Cf-4. Cell death is blocked in seedlings grown at high temperature and humidity, and is synchronously induced by decreasing temperature and humidity. ABPP revealed that VPEs and the proteasome are not differentially active, but that activities of papain-like cysteine proteases and serine hydrolases, including Hsr203 and P69B, increase before hypersensitive tissue collapse, whereas the activity of a carboxypeptidase-like enzyme is reduced. Similar dynamics were observed for these enzymes in the apoplast of tomato challenged with C. fulvum. Unexpectedly, these challenged plants also displayed novel isoforms of secreted putative VPEs. In the absence of tissue collapse at high humidity, the hydrolase activity profile is already altered completely, demonstrating that changes in hydrolase activities precede hypersensitive tissue collapse. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Factors Associated with Changes in Brain Atrophy during a Three-Year Observation in Elderly Diabetic Patients: Effect of Renal Impairment on Hippocampal Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Kawamura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study concerning factors associated with changes in brain atrophy in elderly diabetic patients. Methods: We evaluated hippocampal and global brain atrophy using automatic voxel-based morphometry of structural magnetic resonance images, 4 cognitive function tests, and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD in 66 diabetic patients. Results: During the 3-year follow-up, hippocampal and global brain atrophy advanced, and cognitive functions worsened. For changes in hippocampal atrophy, changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, albuminuria, and being an ApoE ε4 carrier were independent factors; change in the number of silent brain infarctions was an independent factor for changes in global brain atrophy. A significant association of changes in eGFR and albuminuria with hippocampal atrophy remained after adjusting for confounders including SVD. Both types of brain atrophy at baseline were significantly correlated with cognitive impairment at baseline and especially associated with changes in delayed word recall during the follow-up after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion: Changes in eGFR and albuminuria during follow-up were independent risk factors for hippocampal atrophy, which was associated with decline in delayed word recall, suggesting that management of chronic kidney disease may prevent the progression of hippocampal atrophy.

  15. Injectables in the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemi, Arash M; Plante, Mark K

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia with associated symptoms and morbidity is increasingly common among aging men. Medical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms is the mainstay of therapy with progressive disease requiring more invasive intervention. Transurethral resection of the prostate remains a widely applied gold standard therapy. Numerous minimally invasive surgical therapy options have arisen and subsequently faded over recent years. Those remaining in use are largely positioned between pharmacological treatment and transurethral resection of the prostate. Intraprostatic injection therapy, the oldest minimally invasive surgical therapy, has been investigated for over 100 years with renewed interest recently. This review will provide some history of intraprostatic injection for benign prostatic hyperplasia including the most recent reports using transperineal, transrectal and transurethral routes with different injectables. For benign prostatic hyperplasia, transperineal and transurethral injection routes have received the most systematic evaluation. Intraprostatic injection of botulinum toxin type A has received much recent attention with regards to mechanism of action and efficacy. Anhydrous ethanol remains the most extensively studied injectable to date. Injection therapy remains a very promising minimally invasive surgical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia with increased attention from the urologic community in recent years. Further experience both with systematic laboratory and clinical trials investigation will be necessary before widespread clinical adoption.

  16. Histopathologic effects of hypofractionated robotic radiation therapy on malignant and benign prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suy, Simeng; Oermann, Eric; Hanscom, Heather; Lei, Sue; Vahdat, Saloomeh; Yu, Xia; Park, Hyeon U; Chen, Viola; Collins, Brian T; McGeagh, Kevin; Dawson, Nancy; Jha, Reena; Azumi, Norio; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John; Collins, Sean P

    2010-12-01

    We describe the first histopathologic analysis of prostatic tissue following hypofractionated robotic radiation therapy. A 66 year-old man presented with stage II, low risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate and underwent elective conformal hypofractionated radiation therapy. His pretreatment evaluation revealed T1c adenocarcinoma, Gleason's grade 3 + 3 = 6 and a prostate specific antigen (PSA) level of 4.87 ng/ml. Hypofractionated radiation therapy (37.5 Gy in five daily fractions of 7.5 Gy) was completed on an Internal Review Board approved protocol. One year later, he developed progressive urinary retention. Transurethral prostatic resection was performed to alleviate obstructive symptoms. Bilobar hypertrophy was observed without evidence of stricture. Histolopathologic analyses of resected prostate tissues revealed changes consistent with radiation treatment, including cellular changes, inflammation, glandular atrophy and hyperplasia. There was no evidence of residual cancer, fibrosis or necrosis. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful with post-treatment PSA of 0.5 ng/ml and residual grade 1 stress incontinence.

  17. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...

  18. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  19. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, James B

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years metastasis represents the major cause of frustration and failure in the successful treatment of prostate cancer patients. Hyaluronan (HA...

  20. Center for Prostate Disease Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Prostate Disease Research is the only free-standing prostate cancer research center in the U.S. This 20,000 square foot state-of-the-art basic science...

  1. Paracrine Regulation of Prostatic Carcinogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayward, Simon

    2003-01-01

    .... The objective of the proposed research is to establish immortalized stromal cell lines derived from normal human prostate and from human prostate cancer and to use these cells to investigate the role...

  2. Pharmacological Inhibitors of the Proteosome in Atrophying Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    It is now clear that the marked loss of muscle mass that occurs with disuse, denervation or in many systemic diseases (cancer cachexia, sepsis, acidosis, various endocrine disorders) is due primarily to accelerated degradation of muscle proteins, especially myofibrillar components. Recent work primarily in Dr. Goldberg's laboratory had suggested that in these diverse conditions, the enhancement of muscle proteolysis results mainly from activation of the Ub-proteasome degradative pathway. In various experimental models of atrophy, rat muscles show a common series of changes indicative of activation of this pathway, including increases in MRNA for Ub and proteasome subunits, content of ubiquitinated proteins, and sensitivity to inhibitors of the proteasome. In order to understand the muscle atrophy seen in weightlessness, Dr. Goldberg's laboratory is collaborating with Dr. Baldwin in studies to define the changes in these parameters upon hind-limb suspension. Related experiments will explore the effects on this degradative system of exercise regimens and also of glucocorticoids, which are known to rise in space personnel and to promote muscle, especially in inactive muscles. The main goals will be: (A) to define the enzymatic changes leading to enhanced activity of the Ub-proteasome pathway in inactive muscles upon hind-limb suspension, and the effects on this system of exposure to glucocorticoids or exercise; and (B) to learn whether inhibitors of the Ub-proteasome pathway may be useful in retarding the excessive proteolysis in atrophying muscles. Using muscle extracts, Dr. Goldberg's group hopes to define the rate-limiting, enzymatic changes that lead to the accelerated Ub-conjugation and protein degradation. They have recently developed cell-free preparations from atrophying rat muscles, in which Ub-conjugation to muscle proteins is increased above control levels. Because these new preparations seem to reproduce the changes occurring in vivo, they will analyze in

  3. A novel method of quantifying brain atrophy associated with age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jason Qian

    2017-01-01

    Audiometric evaluations and mini-mental state exams were obtained in 34 subjects over the age of 80 who have had brain MRIs in the past 6 years. CSF and parenchymal brain volumes (whole brain and by lobe were obtained through a novel, fully automated algorithm. Atrophy was calculated by taking the ratio of CSF to parenchyma. High frequency hearing loss was associated with disproportional temporal lobe atrophy relative to whole brain atrophy independent of age (r = 0.471, p = 0.005. Mental state was associated with frontoparietal atrophy but not to temporal lobe atrophy, which is consistent with known results. Our method demonstrates that hearing loss is associated with temporal lobe atrophy and generalized whole brain atrophy. Our algorithm is efficient, fully automated, and able to detect significant associations in a small cohort.

  4. Overdetection, overtreatment and costs in prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); A. der Kinderen (Arno); E.M. Wever (Elisabeth); G. Draisma (Gerrit); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has shown to reduce prostate cancer mortality in the European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial. Overdetection and overtreatment are substantial unfavourable side effects with

  5. Oral hygiene behaviors and caries experience in Northwest PRECEDENT patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Marilynn; Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Zhou, Lingmei; Mancl, Lloyd; Jones, Jackie S; Berg, Joel

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between oral hygiene behaviors (toothbrushing, water rinsing after brushing, interproximal cleaning, and adjunctive use of fluoride products) and recent caries (past 24 months) in a random sample of patients in Northwest PRECEDENT practices. Practitioner-members of Northwest PRECEDENT, a dental practice-based research network, conducted a longitudinal study on caries risk assessment. At baseline, patients completed a questionnaire on oral self-care, snacking, health, and socio-demographics. A dental examination recorded readily visible heavy plaque and decayed, missing, and filled teeth; chart review captured new caries and treatments in the previous 24 months. Bivariate and multiple generalized estimating equations (GEE) log-linear regression models stratified by age-groups were used to relate oral hygiene behaviors to the primary outcome of mean dental caries in the past 24 months on data from 1400 patients in 63 practices. The primary exposure of interest was fluoride toothbrushing frequency. Fluoride toothbrushing once per day or twice or more per day by patients 9-17 was significantly associated with a 50% lower mean caries rate compared with fluoride toothbrushing less than once per day, after adjustment for covariates [rate ratios (RR) = 0.5; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.3-0.8]. After adjustment, for patients 18-64, fluoride toothbrushing two or more times per day was significantly associated with a 40% lower recent mean caries rate (RR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4-0.9); in patients 65+, twice a day or more fluoride toothbrushing was not associated with lower caries rates (RR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7-1.8). Of the other oral hygiene variables, after adjustment, patients 18-64 who rinsed with water after brushing had a 40% lower mean caries rate compared with no rinsing (RR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4-0.9) and the presence of readily visible heavy plaque was significantly associated with an increase in the mean caries rate for

  6. Oral Hygiene Behaviors and Caries Experience in Northwest PRECEDENT Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Marilynn; Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Zhou, Lingmei; Mancl, Lloyd; Jones, Jackie S.; Berg, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between oral hygiene behaviors (toothbrushing, water rinsing after brushing, interproximal cleaning, and adjunctive use of fluoride products) and recent caries (past 24 months) in a random sample of patients in Northwest PRECEDENT practices. Methods Practitioner-members of Northwest PRECEDENT dental Practice-based Research Network (PBRN) conducted a longitudinal study on caries risk assessment. At baseline patients completed a questionnaire on oral self-care, snacking, health, and socio-demographics. A dental exam recorded readily-visible heavy plaque and DMFT; chart review captured new caries and treatments in the previous 24 months. Bivariate and multiple GEE log-linear regression models stratified by age groups were used to relate oral hygiene behaviors to the primary outcome of mean dental caries in the past 24 months on data from 1400 patients in 63 practices. The primary exposure of interest was fluoride toothbrushing frequency. Results Fluoride toothbrushing once per day or more by patients 9-17 was significantly associated with a 50% lower mean caries rate compared to fluoride toothbrushing less than once per day, after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, income, between-meal carbohydrate snacks, sugar-added beverages, alcohol consumption, smoking, BMI, exercise, stimulated salivary pH, number of teeth, and all other oral hygiene behaviors captured [Rate Ratio (RR)=0.5; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.3-0.8]. After adjustment, for patients 18-64 fluoride toothbrushing two or more times per day was significantly associated with a 40% lower recent mean caries rate (RR=0.6; 95%CI=0.4-0.9); in patients 65+, twice a day or more fluoride toothbrushing was not associated with lower caries rates (RR=1.1; 95%CI=0.7-1.8). Of the other oral hygiene variables, after adjustment, patients 18-64 who rinsed with water after brushing had a 40% lower mean caries rate compared to no rinsing (RR=0.6; 95%CI=0.4-0.9) and the

  7. Increased cerebral oxygenation precedes generalized tonic clonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Brian D; Britton, Jeffrey W; So, Elson

    2014-11-01

    Based on previous fMRI and SPECT studies, it has been suggested seizures may be preceded by increased cerebral blood flow. Recently, we demonstrated transcutaneous regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) sensors are feasible for use in patients undergoing video EEG monitoring. We reanalyzed our data to determine if seizures were consistently marked by increased cerebral oxygenation. Patients with histories of generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) were recruited into our study. All subjects were evaluated with continuous 30-channel scalp EEG and 2 rSO2 sensors placed on each side of the forehead. We calculated the mean rSO2 value for the 1h epochs in the non-ictal (2h prior to seizure onset) and pre-ictal (1h prior to onset) periods. Seven primary/secondarily GTCS from 5 patients were captured. The mean rSO2 value in the non-ictal period was 75.6 ± 5.7%. This increased to 76.0 ± 6% in the pre-ictal period (p=0.032). Four of the 7GTCS (57.1%) were marked by ≥ 3 sequential rSO2 values in the pre-ictal period that were ≥ 3 SDs greater than the mean non-ictal rSO2 value. Three GTCS (42.9%) were marked by sustained cerebral hyperemia for ≥ 15 consecutive readings. Our results suggest increased cerebral blood flow could be non-invasively used to predict seizure occurrence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Perceived control increases the reward positivity and stimulus preceding negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlberger, Christina; Angus, Douglas Jozef; Jonas, Eva; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2017-02-01

    The reward positivity (RewP) and the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN), two ERPs associated with reward delivery and reward anticipation, are modulated by motivational intensity. Motivational intensity is the effort organisms would make to exert behaviors, and it varies with the difficulty of exerting that behavior. If a task is perceived as impossible, which means that one does not have control over own outcomes, motivational intensity is low. In the current study, we tested the prediction that perceiving control over one's outcomes increases both the RewP to feedback and the SPN prior to feedback compared to perceiving no control. We also examined whether P300 and LPP amplitudes to reward and nonreward images were similarly modulated. Twenty-five female participants completed a gambling task in which correct choices were followed by pictures of attractive men and incorrect choices were followed by pictures of rocks. To manipulate perceived control, participants were told that, in one block of trials, they could learn a mouse-click rule in order to see only pictures of men (high perceived control condition), while in the other block, the pictures would appear randomly (low perceived control condition). However, in both conditions, feedback appeared randomly. Although the RewP was elicited in both blocks, the RewP and SPN were higher in the high perceived control condition (i.e., when participants thought that they could influence their outcomes). Perceived control did not modulate the P300 and LPP to pictures. The results suggest that approach motivation and its intensity modulate the processing of performance feedback. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing of Manned Spacecraft: Historical Precedent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Paul R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in nearly 30 years, NASA is developing a new manned space flight launch system. The Ares I will carry crew and cargo to not only the International Space Station, but onward for the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Ares I control system and structural designs use complex computer models for their development. An Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) will validate the efficacy of these computer models. The IVGVT will reduce the technical risk of unexpected conditions that could place the vehicle or crew in jeopardy. The Ares Project Office's Flight and Integrated Test Office commissioned a study to determine how historical programs, such as Saturn and Space Shuttle, validated the structural dynamics of an integrated flight vehicle. The study methodology was to examine the historical record and seek out members of the engineering community who recall the development of historic manned launch vehicles. These records and interviews provided insight into the best practices and lessons learned from these historic development programs. The information that was gathered allowed the creation of timelines of the historic development programs. The timelines trace the programs from the development of test articles through test preparation, test operations, and test data reduction efforts. These timelines also demonstrate how the historical tests fit within their overall vehicle development programs. Finally, the study was able to quantify approximate staffing levels during historic development programs. Using this study, the Flight and Integrated Test Office was able to evaluate the Ares I Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test schedule and workforce budgets in light of the historical precedents to determine if the test had schedule or cost risks associated with it.

  10. Podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis under experimental diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Ha; Moon, Sung Jin; Paeng, Jisun; Kang, Hye-Young; Nam, Bo Young; Kim, Seonghun; Kim, Chan Ho; Lee, Mi Jung; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-08-01

    Podocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis are two hallmarks of diabetic glomeruli, but the sequence in which these processes occur remains a matter of debate. Here we investigated the effects of inhibiting hypertrophy on apoptosis, and vice versa, in both podocytes and glomeruli, under diabetic conditions. Hypertrophy and apoptosis were inhibited using an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (PKI 166) and a pan-caspase inhibitor (zAsp-DCB), respectively. We observed significant increases in the protein expression of p27, p21, phospho-eukaryotic elongation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and phospho-p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase, in both cultured podocytes exposed to high-glucose (HG) medium, and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rat glomeruli. These increases were significantly inhibited by PKI 166, but not by zAsp-DCB. In addition, the amount of protein per cell, the relative cell size, and the glomerular volume were all significantly increased under diabetic conditions, and these changes were also blocked by treatment with PKI 166, but not zAsp-DCB. Increased protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, together with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, were also observed in HG-stimulated podocytes and DM glomeruli. Treatment with either zAsp-DCB or PKI 166 resulted in a significant attenuation of these effects. Both PKI 166 and zAsp-DCB also inhibited the increase in number of apoptotic cells, as assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining and TUNEL assay. Under diabetic conditions, inhibition of podocyte hypertrophy results in attenuated apoptosis, whereas blocking apoptosis has no effect on podocyte hypertrophy, suggesting that podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis.

  11. Pentobarbital anesthesia alters neural responses in the precedence effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Penglong; Wang, Ningyu; Wang, Hui; Xie, Yan; Jia, Jun; Li, Huijun

    2011-07-01

    The precedence effect (PE) is thought to be beneficial for proper localization and perception of sounds. The majority of recent physiological studies focus on the neural discharges correlated with PE in the inferior colliculus (IC). Pentobarbital anesthesia is widely used in physiological studies. However, little is known of the effect of pentobarbital on the discharge of neurons in PE. Neuronal responses in the IC from 23 male SD rats were recorded by standard extracellular recording techniques following presentation of 4 ms white noise bursts, presented from either or both of two loud speakers, at different interstimulus delays (ISDs). The neural responses were recorded for off-line analysis before or after intraperitoneal administration of pentobarbital at a loading or maintenance dose. Data were assessed by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons. When the ipsilateral stimuli were leading, pentobarbital at a loading dose significantly increased normalized response to lagging stimuli during recovery from anesthesia. However, it was not the case when the contralateral stimuli were leading. At a maintenance dose, the normalized response to lagging stimuli were significantly reduced, independent of whether contralateral or ipsilateral stimuli were leading. These data show that pentobarbital have no effect on the normalized response of leading stimuli but can prolong the recovery time of lagging stimuli to paired sources produced PE illusions, which was gradually attenuated during recovery from anesthesia. Thus, extracellular recording immediately after administration of pentobarbital should be avoided in physiological studies of neural correlates of PE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enteropathy precedes type 1 diabetes in the BB rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, S; Courtois, P; Malaisse, W J; Rozing, J; Scott, F W; Mowat, A Mc I

    2004-10-01

    There is increasing evidence implicating intestinal immune responses to dietary proteins in the pathogenesis of type 1 autoimmune diabetes (T1D). Here we investigated the association between intestinal pathology and dietary factors in T1D by examining the mucosal architecture in the BB rat model. BB control (BBc) and diabetes prone (BBdp) rats were fed either a diabetes retardant hydrolysed casein based diet or one of two cereal based diets that promote the development of diabetes. Intestinal architecture was assessed in the jejunum by microdissection, histology, and immunohistology, and by measuring peroxidase activity and brush border invertase levels. Enteropathy was present in BBdp rats soon after weaning, as assessed by increases in crypt length and in the proliferative activity of crypt epithelial cells in the jejunum, and this remained constant until 120 days of age. There was also a decrease in invertase activity, as well as increased numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes, increased levels of mucosal peroxidase activity, and infiltration of the mucosa by CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Equivalent enteropathy was present at all times in BBdp rats and was not influenced by the nature of the diet or by thymectomy at three weeks at age, procedures which prevent the development of diabetes. Enteropathy is a consistent feature in the diabetes prone BB rat but it precedes the onset of insulitis and appears to be due to mechanisms distinct from those which cause diabetes. The beneficial effects of the diabetes retardant hydrolysed casein diet on diabetes are not due to an effect on intestinal architecture per se but mucosal damage may be necessary for the development of autoreactivity in the pancreas.

  13. Impaired cortical mitochondrial function following TBI precedes behavioral changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Doster Watson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI pathophysiology can be attributed to either the immediate, primary physical injury or the delayed, secondary injury which begins minutes to hours after the initial injury and can persist for several months or longer. Because these secondary cascades are delayed and last for a significant time period post TBI, they are primary research targets for new therapeutics. To investigate changes in mitochondrial function after a brain injury, both the cortical impact site and ipsilateral hippocampus of adult male rats 7 and 17 days after a controlled cortical impact (CCI injury were examined. State 3, state 4 and uncoupler-stimulated rates of oxygen consumption, respiratory control ratios were measured and membrane potential quantified, and all were significantly decreased in 7 day post-TBI cortical mitochondria. By contrast, hippocampal mitochondria at 7 days showed only nonsignificant decreases in rates of oxygen consumption and membrane potential. NADH oxidase activities measured in disrupted mitochondria were normal in both injured cortex and hippocampus at 7 days post-CCI. Respiratory and phosphorylation capacities at 17 days post-CCI were comparable to naïve animals for both cortical and hippocampus mitochondria. However, unlike oxidative phosphorylation, membrane potential of mitochondria in the cortical lining of the impact site did not recover at 17 days, suggesting that while diminished cortical membrane potential at 17 days does not adversely affect mitochondrial capacity to synthesize ATP, it may negatively impact other membrane potential-sensitive mitochondrial functions. Memory status, as assessed by a passive avoidance paradim, was not significantly impaired until 17 days after injury. These results indicate pronounced disturbances in cortical mitochondrial function 7 days after CCI which precede the behavioral impairment observed at 17 days.

  14. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-29

    Jun 29, 2010 ... They are typically asymptomatic and may be associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatic cancer.[1] Primary prostatic urethral calculi are usually associated with urethral strictures, posterior urethral valve or diverticula. Acute urinary retention might result secondary to a large urethral calculus.

  15. A review of repeat prostate biopsies and the influence of technique on cancer detection: our experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, M R

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Follow-up of patients with an initial negative prostate biopsy, but surrounding whom a suspicion of prostate cancer persists, is difficult. In addition, debate exists as to the optimal technique for repeat prostate biopsy. AIMS: To assess the cancer detection rate on repeat prostate biopsy. METHODS: We reviewed patients who underwent prostate biopsy in our department in 2005 who had >or=1 previous biopsy within the preceding 5 years. Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy and the influence of the number of biopsy cores were recorded. RESULTS: Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy was 15.4%, with approximately 60% detected on the first repeat biopsy, but approximately 10% not confirmed until the fourth repeat biopsy. Gleason score was similar regardless of the time of diagnosis (6.1-6.5). Mean interval between first biopsy and cancer diagnosis (range 18-55 months) depended on the number of repeat procedures. There was an association between the number of biopsy cores and cancer detection. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the practice of increasing the number of cores taken on initial and first repeat biopsy to maximise prostate cancer detection and reduce the overall number of biopsies needed.

  16. Pure small cell carcinoma of the prostate preceded by acute zonal occult outer retinopathy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ching, MBBS, MSc

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Pure SCPC is an aggressive malignancy with most cases presenting with extensive disease dissemination on diagnosis. Early detection has a role in improving prognosis but is challenging. Further research is required to establish a standard treatment protocol.

  17. Retinal structure, function, and molecular pathologic features in gyrate atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I; Davidson, Alice E; Lenassi, Eva; Devery, Sophie R; Moore, Anthony T; Webster, Andrew R

    2012-03-01

    To describe phenotypic variability and to report novel mutational data in patients with gyrate atrophy. Retrospective case series. Seven unrelated patients (10 to 52 years of age) with clinical and biochemical evidence of gyrate atrophy. Detailed ophthalmologic examination, fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and microperimetry testing were performed. The coding region and intron-exon boundaries of ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) were analyzed. OAT mRNA was isolated from peripheral blood leucocytes of 1 patient and analyzed. OAT mutation status and resultant clinical, structural, and functional characteristics. Funduscopy revealed circular areas of chorioretinal atrophy, and FAF imaging showed sharply demarcated areas of increased or preserved signal in all 7 patients. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed multiple intraretinal cystic spaces and hyperreflective deposit in the ganglion cell layer of all study subjects. Round tubular, rosette-like structures located in the outer nuclear layer of the retinae of the 4 older patients were observed (termed outer retinal tubulation). Thickening was evident in the foveolae of younger patients, despite the posterior pole appearing relatively preserved. Macular function, assessed by microperimetry, was preserved over areas of normal or increased autofluorescence. However, sensitivity was reduced even in structurally intact parts of the retina. The molecular pathologic features were determined in all study subjects: 9 mutations, 4 novel, were detected in the OAT gene. OAT mRNA was isolated from blood leukocytes, and monoallelic expression of a mutated allele was demonstrated in 1 patient. Fundus autofluorescence imaging can reveal the extent of neurosensory dysfunction in gyrate atrophy patients. Macular edema is a uniform finding; the fovea is relatively thick in early stages of disease and retinal tubulation is present in advanced disease

  18. Olmesartan-Induced Enteropathy: An Unusual Cause of Villous Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Eusébio

    2016-03-01

    Olmesartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker commonly prescribed for the management of hypertension. Spruelike enteropathy associated with this drug is a recently described entity with few cases reported. It presents with chronic diarrhea and intestinal villous atrophy and should be included in its differential diagnosis. This case intends to alert clinicians for the possibility of this event in a patient on treatment with this drug.

  19. Masticatory muscles of mouse do not undergo atrophy in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippou, Anastassios; Minozzo, Fabio C.; Spinazzola, Janelle M.; Smith, Lucas R.; Lei, Hanqin; Rassier, Dilson E.; Barton, Elisabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle loading is important for maintaining muscle mass; when load is removed, atrophy is inevitable. However, in clinical situations such as critical care myopathy, masticatory muscles do not lose mass. Thus, their properties may be harnessed to preserve mass. We compared masticatory and appendicular muscles responses to microgravity, using mice aboard the space shuttle Space Transportation System-135. Age- and sex-matched controls remained on the ground. After 13 days of space flight, 1 masseter (MA) and tibialis anterior (TA) were frozen rapidly for biochemical and functional measurements, and the contralateral MA was processed for morphologic measurements. Flight TA muscles exhibited 20 ± 3% decreased muscle mass, 2-fold decreased phosphorylated (P)-Akt, and 4- to 12-fold increased atrogene expression. In contrast, MAs had no significant change in mass but a 3-fold increase in P-focal adhesion kinase, 1.5-fold increase in P-Akt, and 50–90% lower atrogene expression compared with limb muscles, which were unaltered in microgravity. Myofibril force measurements revealed that microgravity caused a 3-fold decrease in specific force and maximal shortening velocity in TA muscles. It is surprising that myofibril-specific force from both control and flight MAs were similar to flight TA muscles, yet power was compromised by 40% following flight. Continued loading in microgravity prevents atrophy, but masticatory muscles have a different set point that mimics disuse atrophy in the appendicular muscle.—Philippou, A., Minozzo, F. C., Spinazzola, J. M., Smith, L. R., Lei, H., Rassier, D. E., Barton, E. R. Masticatory muscles of mouse do not undergo atrophy in space. PMID:25795455

  20. Potential role of lampalizumab for treatment of geographic atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, William; Dickson, Drew; Do, Diana V

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the pathways underlying age-related macular degeneration and potential therapeutic targets, focusing on the complement pathway and the recent MAHALO Phase II trial of the investigational drug lampalizumab. This trial was the first to have shown positive results for the treatment of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. It has potential as a future treatment, and is currently undergoing a Phase III trial.

  1. Subretinal Glial Membranes in Eyes With Geographic Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Malia M; McLeod, D Scott; Bhutto, Imran A; Grebe, Rhonda; Duffy, Maeve; Lutty, Gerard A

    2017-03-01

    Müller cells create the external limiting membrane (ELM) by forming junctions with photoreceptor cells. This study evaluated the relationship between focal photoreceptors and RPE loss in geographic atrophy (GA) and Müller cell extension into the subretinal space. Human donor eyes with no retinal disease or geographic atrophy (GA) were fixed and the eye cups imaged. The retinal posterior pole was stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; astrocytes and activated Müller cells) and vimentin (Müller cells) while the submacular choroids were labeled with Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin lectin (blood vessels). Choroids and retinas were imaged using a Zeiss 710 confocal microscope. Additional eyes were cryopreserved or processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to better visualize the Müller cells. Vimentin staining of aged control retinas (n = 4) revealed a panretinal cobblestone-like ELM. While this pattern was also observed in the GA retinas (n = 7), each also had a distinct area in which vimentin+ and vimentin+/GFAP+ processes created a subretinal membrane. Subretinal glial membranes closely matched areas of RPE atrophy in the gross photos. Choroidal vascular loss was also evident in these atrophic areas. Smaller glial projections were noted, which correlated with drusen in gross photos. The presence of glia in the subretinal space was confirmed by TEM and cross cross-section immunohistochemistry. In eyes with GA, subretinal Müller cell membranes present in areas of RPE atrophy may be a Müller cell attempt to replace the ELM. These membranes could interfere with treatments such as stem cell therapy.

  2. Quantification of spinal cord atrophy in magnetic resonance images

    OpenAIRE

    Pezold, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the volume of the spinal cord is of vital interest for studying and understanding diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In this thesis, which is motivated by MS research, we propose methods for measuring the spinal cord cross-sectional area and volume in magnetic resonance (MR) images. These measurements are used for determining neural atrophy and for performing both longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons in clinical trials. We present th...

  3. Vascular perfusion abnormalities in infants with spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Alexandra prufer de Queiroz Campos; Araujo, Mario; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2009-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an important cause of death in children and SMA type I, also known as Werdnig-Hoffman disease, is the most severe form of this disease. We report 2 cases of infants with SMA I in whom a distal necrosis developed, a feature not previously reported. Poor perfusion, autonomic dysfunction, and position-dependent factors may all play a role in the development of this complication.

  4. Brain atrophy in clinically early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chard, D T; Griffin, C M; Parker, G J M; Kapoor, R; Thompson, A J; Miller, D H

    2002-02-01

    Brain atrophy measured by MRI is a potentially useful tool for monitoring disease progression in multiple sclerosis. The location, extent and mechanisms of brain atrophy in early disease are not well documented. Using quantitative MRI, this study investigated whole brain, grey and white matter atrophy in clinically early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and its relationship to lesion measures. Data came from 27 normal control subjects (14 females and 13 males, mean age 36.1 years) and 26 subjects with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (18 females and eight males, mean age 35.1 years, mean delay from first symptom to scan 1.8 years, median Expanded Disability Status Scale score 1.0). All had three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient recall (3D FSPGR), T(1)-weighted pre- and post-gadolinium-enhanced and T(2)-weighted scans. The 3D FSPGR images were automatically segmented into grey and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid using SPM99. 3D FSPGR hypo-intense, T(2) hyper-intense, T(1) hypo-intense and T(1) post-gadolinium-enhancing lesion volumes were determined by semi-automatic lesion segmentation. The SPM99 output was combined with the 3D FSPGR lesion segmentations to quantify tissue volumes as fractions of total intracranial volumes, producing values for the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), white matter fraction (WMF) and grey matter fraction (GMF). Comparing multiple sclerosis with control subjects, BPF, GMF and WMF were significantly reduced (P lesion volumes were inversely related to BPF (T(2) r = -0.78, P lesion volumes were not correlated with any fractional volumes. These results indicate that significant brain atrophy, affecting both grey and white matter, occurs early in the clinical course of multiple sclerosis. The lack of correlation between lesion load measures and WMF suggests that pathological changes in white matter may occur by mechanisms which are at least partly independent from overt lesion genesis in early multiple sclerosis.

  5. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess retinal morphology in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) without ophthalmoscopically visible fundus changes. METHODS: Retrospective case series. Two consecutive patients with bilateral AZOOR with photopsia corresponding to areas of visual field loss and a normal fundus...... dysfunction. The field loss was more extensive than the area of photoreceptor loss. CONCLUSION: Photoreceptor atrophy can be demonstrated in AZOOR without ophthalmoscopically visible fundus lesions Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  6. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornschein Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1, pepsinogen 2 (PG2 and gastrin 17 (G17 offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation, degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status. Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003. The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058. The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer.

  7. Clinical, FDG and amyloid PET imaging in posterior cortical atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Tarun D.; Josephs, Keith A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Drubach, Daniel A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Lowe, Val J.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and amyloid-PET findings in a large cohort of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) patients, to examine the neural correlates of the classic features of PCA, and to better understand the features associated with early PCA. We prospectively recruited 25 patients who presented to the Mayo Clinic between March 2013 and August 2014 and met diagnostic criteria for PCA. All patients u...

  8. [Posterior cortical atrophy with incomplete Bálint's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, O; Soma, Y; Otsuki, M; Endo, K; Tanno, Y; Tsuji, S

    1997-09-01

    We report a patient of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) with progressive memory disturbance and incomplete Bálint's syndrome consisting of optic ataxie (ataxie optique type) and visual inattention without psychic paralysis of fixation of gaze. The patients is a 58-year-old woman who noticed memory disturbance at 53 years old. Neurological deficit at 54 years old was detected only in the domain of memory, and mild diffuse brain atrophy was revealed on MRI. Memory disturbance progressed gradually, and at the age of 58 she was noticed to have visual disorder. Neuropsychological examination revealed severe memory disorder, incomplete Bálint's syndrome, transcortical sensory aphasia, mild ideational apraxia, and severe constructional apraxia. Visual inattention was too severe to evaluate visual acuity and visual field. MRI showed moderate dilatation of bilateral lateral ventricles, especially in their posterior horns, with atrophy of bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital lobes and hippocampus. IMP-SPECT revealed a diffuse decrease of cerebral blood flow in the bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital region, predominantly in the parietal regions. We believe that she is still in the early phase of PCA, and that psychic paralysis of fixation of gaze, visual agnosia will be noted in several years. Our patient represents an example of early stage PCA from neuropsychological and MRI findings.

  9. Preprosthetic and implantological surgery in patients with severe maxillary atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Raúl; Naval-Gías, Luís; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario Fernando; Sastre-Pérez, Jesús; Rodríguez-Campo, Francisco José; Gil-Díez-Usandizaga, José Luís

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the success of the osseointegration of dental implants in patients with severe maxillary atrophy after sinus lift augmentation and onlay graft surgery with autologous bone grafts. A descriptive and analytic study of 27 patients with severe maxillary atrophy and partial or total edentulism, after 4 years follow-up. All cases underwent to autologous bone graft sinus lift augmentation with or without onlay grafts in the anterior maxillae. After this, reconstruction with osseointegrated implants was performed. After the follow-up period, 89.1% of implants were osseointegrated and loaded. Anterior iliac crest bone graft provides good results with respect to implant osseointegration. The achievement of two surgical procedures for bone grafts surgery and implants surgery, separated 2 or more months, provides better results for osseointegration in comparison to a sole surgical procedure (p<0.01). Implants survival predictability is greater when a second surgical procedure is performed, once bone grafts have experimented an appropriate consolidation. The use of onlay graft and sinus lift augmentation techniques is useful in the resolution of complex problems such as the severe maxillary atrophy.

  10. Counteracting Muscle Atrophy using Galvanic Stimulation of the Vestibular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; Polyakov, Igor

    1999-01-01

    The unloading of weight bearing from antigravity muscles during space flight produces significant muscle atrophy and is one of the most serious health problems facing the space program. Various exercise regimens have been developed and used either alone or in combination with pharmacological techniques to ameliorate this atrophy, but no effective countermeasure exists for this problem. The research in this project was conducted to evaluate the potential use of vestibular galvanic stimulation (VGS) to prevent muscle atrophy resulting from unloading of weight bearing from antigravity muscles. This approach was developed based on two concepts related to the process of maintaining the status of the anti-gravity neuromuscular system. These two premises are: (1) The "tone," or bias on spinal motorneurons is affected by vestibular projections that contribute importantly to maintaining muscle health and status. (2) VGS can be used to modify the excitability, or 'tone' of motorneuron of antigravity muscles. Thus, the strategy is to use VGS to modify the gain of vestibular projections to antigravity muscles and thereby change the general status of these muscles.

  11. Redox homeostasis, oxidative stress and disuse muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta; Desaphy, Jean-François; Brocca, Lorenza; Pierno, Sabata; Camerino, Diana Conte; Bottinelli, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A pivotal role has been ascribed to oxidative stress in determining the imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation leading to muscle atrophy in many pathological conditions and in disuse. However, a large variability in disuse-induced alteration of redox homeostasis through muscles, models and species emerges from the literature. Whereas the causal role of oxidative stress appears well established in the mechanical ventilation model, findings are less compelling in the hindlimb unloaded mice and very limited in humans. The mere coexistence of muscle atrophy, indirect indexes of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and impairment of antioxidant defence systems, in fact, does not unequivocally support a causal role of oxidative stress in the phenomenon. We hypothesise that in some muscles, models and species only, due to a large redox imbalance, the leading phenomena are activation of proteolysis and massive oxidation of proteins, which would become more susceptible to degradation. In other conditions, due to a lower extent and variable time course of ROS production, different ROS-dependent, but also -independent intracellular pathways might dominate determining the variable extent of atrophy and even dispensable protein oxidation. The ROS production and removal are complex and finely tuned phenomena. They are indeed important intracellular signals and redox balance maintains normal muscle homeostasis and can underlie either positive or negative adaptations to exercise. A precise approach to determine the levels of ROS in living cells in various conditions appears to be of paramount importance to define and support such hypotheses. PMID:21320887

  12. Clinical case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsube, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro; Shimada, Yasuo

    1987-06-01

    Dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA) has been described as an atypical type of spino-cerebellar degeneration by J.K. Smith (1958). Choreo-athetoid movement characterizes the DRPLA. We here report a case of DRPLA that was suspected from clinical symptoms and CT brain examinations. Case report: A 36-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of involuntary movements of the extremities in July, 1978. He had epileptic seizures since the age of 25. Since then, his intelligence had gradually been getting worse. At the same time, dysarthria (slow and slurred speech) also appeared. The neurological examination on admission revealed choreo-athetoid movements, with ataxia of the extremities, trancal ataxia, ataxic speech, moderate dementia, and a disturbance of the smooth-pursuit eye movements. He could not maintain his eye position in a steady gaze, but nystagmus was absent. A brain CT scan revealed a marked atrophy of the upper brain stem and cerebellar peduncle. The cerebral atrophy was mild, and caudate nuclei were spared. The electroencephalograph showed a slow, diffuse, high-voltage wave, with an associated spike and waves. The cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal. An electrophysiological examination revealed no myoclonus in the extremities. These clinical findings suggested that this case is a pseudo-Huntington form of DRPLA.

  13. The pathogenesis and treatment of cardiac atrophy in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kate T

    2016-02-15

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with significant functional impairment. In addition to a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, many patients with cancer cachexia also experience cardiac atrophy, remodeling, and dysfunction, which in the field of cancer cachexia is described as cardiac cachexia. The cardiac alterations may be due to underlying heart disease, the cancer itself, or problems initiated by the cancer treatment and, unfortunately, remains largely underappreciated by clinicians and basic scientists. Despite recent major advances in the treatment of cancer, little progress has been made in the treatment of cardiac cachexia in cancer, and much of this is due to lack of information regarding the mechanisms. This review focuses on the cardiac atrophy associated with cancer cachexia, describing some of the known mechanisms and discussing the current and future therapeutic strategies to treat this condition. Above all else, improved awareness of the condition and an increased focus on identification of mechanisms and therapeutic targets will facilitate the eventual development of an effective treatment for cardiac atrophy in cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Excessive fatty acid oxidation induces muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukawa, Tomoya; Yan-Jiang, Benjamin Chua; Min-Wen, Jason Chua; Jun-Hao, Elwin Tan; Huang, Dan; Qian, Chao-Nan; Ong, Pauline; Li, Zhimei; Chen, Shuwen; Mak, Shi Ya; Lim, Wan Jun; Kanayama, Hiro-Omi; Mohan, Rosmin Elsa; Wang, Ruiqi Rachel; Lai, Jiunn Herng; Chua, Clarinda; Ong, Hock Soo; Tan, Ker-Kan; Ho, Ying Swan; Tan, Iain Beehuat; Teh, Bin Tean; Shyh-Chang, Ng

    2016-06-01

    Cachexia is a devastating muscle-wasting syndrome that occurs in patients who have chronic diseases. It is most commonly observed in individuals with advanced cancer, presenting in 80% of these patients, and it is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality associated with cancer. Additionally, although many people with cachexia show hypermetabolism, the causative role of metabolism in muscle atrophy has been unclear. To understand the molecular basis of cachexia-associated muscle atrophy, it is necessary to develop accurate models of the condition. By using transcriptomics and cytokine profiling of human muscle stem cell-based models and human cancer-induced cachexia models in mice, we found that cachectic cancer cells secreted many inflammatory factors that rapidly led to high levels of fatty acid metabolism and to the activation of a p38 stress-response signature in skeletal muscles, before manifestation of cachectic muscle atrophy occurred. Metabolomics profiling revealed that factors secreted by cachectic cancer cells rapidly induce excessive fatty acid oxidation in human myotubes, which leads to oxidative stress, p38 activation and impaired muscle growth. Pharmacological blockade of fatty acid oxidation not only rescued human myotubes, but also improved muscle mass and body weight in cancer cachexia models in vivo. Therefore, fatty acid-induced oxidative stress could be targeted to prevent cancer-induced cachexia.

  15. Religious factors and hippocampal atrophy in late life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D Owen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing interest in the ways spiritual beliefs and practices are reflected in brain activity, there have been relatively few studies using neuroimaging data to assess potential relationships between religious factors and structural neuroanatomy. This study examined prospective relationships between religious factors and hippocampal volume change using high-resolution MRI data of a sample of 268 older adults. Religious factors assessed included life-changing religious experiences, spiritual practices, and religious group membership. Hippocampal volumes were analyzed using the GRID program, which is based on a manual point-counting method and allows for semi-automated determination of region of interest volumes. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was observed for participants reporting a life-changing religious experience. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was also observed from baseline to final assessment among born-again Protestants, Catholics, and those with no religious affiliation, compared with Protestants not identifying as born-again. These associations were not explained by psychosocial or demographic factors, or baseline cerebral volume. Hippocampal volume has been linked to clinical outcomes, such as depression, dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease. The findings of this study indicate that hippocampal atrophy in late life may be uniquely influenced by certain types of religious factors.

  16. Laser prostate enucleation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Lori B; Rajender, Archana

    2015-10-01

    Laser treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through enucleation techniques has become increasingly more utilized in the field of urology. Laser enucleation of the prostate (LEP) is a transurethral procedure that employs several different types of lasers to dissect the adenoma from the surgical capsule in a retrograde fashion. We review basic laser physics and current laser prostate enucleation techniques. Holmium-LEP (HoLEP), Thulium-LEP (ThuLEP), Greenlight-LEP (GreenLEP) and Diode-LEP (DiLEP) applications are discussed. We summarize the current literature with respect to functional outcomes and complications. Although each laser device used for prostate enucleation has the same goal of removal of the adenoma from the surgical capsule, each has unique characteristics (i.e. wavelength, absorption rates) that must be understood by the practicing surgeon. Mastery of one LEP technique does not necessarily translate into facile use of an alternative enucleation energy source and/or approach. The various LEP techniques have demonstrated similar, if not superior, postoperative results to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), the current gold standard in the treatment of BPH. This article outlines the current LEP techniques and should serve as a quick reference for the practicing urologist.

  17. [Sexuality and prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droupy, S; Al Said, B; Lechevallier, E; Colson, M-H; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    All treatments for prostate cancer have a negative impact on sexuality. The objective of this review is to highlight recent developments in the management of sexual dysfunction associated with prostate cancer. We performed a literature search in the Pubmed database to select relevant articles. There is a specific profile of changes in the fields of sexual, urinary, bowel and general quality of life, according to the treatment modalities chosen. Maintenance of a satisfying sex life is a major concern of a majority of men facing prostate cancer and its treatments. It is essential to assess the couple's sexuality before treating prostate cancer in order to deliver comprehensive information and consider early therapeutic solutions adapted to the couple's expectations. The results of randomized studies show that robotic radical prostatectomy allows a faster recovery of natural erections compared to classic laparoscopy. Active pharmacological erectile rehabilitation (intracavernous injections or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors [PDE5i] on demand, during the month following surgery) or passive (daily PDE5i after surgery) might improve the quality of erections especially in response to PDE5i. Unimpaired aspects of sexual response (orgasm) may, when the erection is not yet recovered, represent an alternative allowing the couple to preserve intimacy and complicity. Androgen blockade is a major barrier to maintain or return to a satisfying sex. After the treatment of prostate cancer, one specific support sometimes assisted by networking will optimize satisfying sex life recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Muscle Atrophy at Presentation of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: Demographics and Duration of Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew L; Hensley, Dana T; Chen, Wei C; Taylor, Kenneth F

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics and duration of symptoms of patients with cubital tunnel syndrome who present with muscle atrophy. Methods: We identified 146 patients who presented to the hand surgery clinic at a single institution over a 5-year period with an initial diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome based on history and physical examination. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to determine if there was a difference in demographic data, physical examination findings, and duration of symptoms in patients who presented with muscle atrophy from those with sensory complaints alone. Results: A total of 17/146 (11.6%) of patients presented with muscle atrophy, all of which were men. In all, 17.2% of men presented with atrophy. Age by itself was not a predictor of presentation with atrophy; however, younger patients with atrophy presented with significantly shorter duration of symptoms. Patients under the age of 29 years presenting with muscle atrophy on average had symptoms for 2.4 months compared with 16.2 months of symptoms for those over 55 years of age. Conclusions: Men with cubital tunnel syndrome are more likely to present with muscle atrophy than women. Age is not necessarily a predictor of presentation with atrophy. There is a subset population of younger patients who presents with extremely short duration of symptoms that rapidly develops muscle atrophy.

  19. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eConejo Bayón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi, 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA, yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of AD, FTLD and correlation with cognitive impairment in PD, formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: a series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65-85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT plus one experienced tracer (ET traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater ICC for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA.Conclusion: our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest.

  20. [Grape seed extract induces morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xue-Jun; Yin, Hong-Lin; Ge, Jing-Ping; Sun, Yi; Teng, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2008-12-01

    To observe the morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells induced by grape seed extract (GSE). PC-3 cells were incubated with different concentrations of GSE (100, 200 and 300 microg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 hours, and then observed for morphological changes by invert microscopy, HE staining and transmission electron microscopy. The incubated PC-3 cells appeared round, small, wrinkled and broken under the invert microscope and exhibited the classical morphological characteristics of cell death under the electron microscope, including cell atrophy, increased vacuoles, crumpled nuclear membrane, and chromosome aggregation. GSE can cause morphological changes and induce necrosis and apoptosis of PC-3 cells.

  1. Prostatic disease and sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae Woong

    2011-06-01

    Prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common prostatic diseases. Furthermore, the incidence of prostate cancer has recently shown a rapid increase, even in Korea. Pain caused by prostatitis may induce sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disturbance. And BPH itself, or treatments for BPH, may affect sexual function. In addition, with increased detection of localized prostate cancer, surgical treatments and radiation therapy have also increased, and the treatments may cause sexual dysfunction. Aging is also an important factor in the deterioration of the quality of life of men. Deterioration of quality of life caused by prostate diseases may be affected not only by the prostate diseases themselves but also by the sexual dysfunction caused by the prostate diseases secondarily. Thus, consideration of these points at the time of treatment of prostate disease is required. Therapies suitable to each condition should be selected with an understanding of the close association of prostate diseases and associated sexual dysfunction with the quality of life of males.

  2. Osteoporosis and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of osteoporosis and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures before androgen deprivation in Danish men. Treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer necessitate management of long-term consequences of androgen deprivation therapy...... (ADT), including accelerated bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Material and methods. Patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of ADT were consecutively included. Half of the patients had localized disease and were...... level was 30.5 g/l (1-5714 g/l). The average Gleason score was 7.8 (range 5-10, SD 1.1). Fifty patients had localized prostate cancer and the other 55 patients had disseminated disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10% and the prevalence of osteopenia was 58% before ADT. There was no significant...

  3. Network topology and functional connectivity disturbances precede the onset of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Deborah L; Rubinov, Mikail; Durgerian, Sally; Mourany, Lyla; Reece, Christine; Koenig, Katherine; Bullmore, Ed; Long, Jeffrey D; Paulsen, Jane S; Rao, Stephen M

    2015-08-01

    Cognitive, motor and psychiatric changes in prodromal Huntington's disease have nurtured the emergent need for early interventions. Preventive clinical trials for Huntington's disease, however, are limited by a shortage of suitable measures that could serve as surrogate outcomes. Measures of intrinsic functional connectivity from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging are of keen interest. Yet recent studies suggest circumscribed abnormalities in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity in prodromal Huntington's disease, despite the spectrum of behavioural changes preceding a manifest diagnosis. The present study used two complementary analytical approaches to examine whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity in prodromal Huntington's disease. Network topology was studied using graph theory and simple functional connectivity amongst brain regions was explored using the network-based statistic. Participants consisted of gene-negative controls (n = 16) and prodromal Huntington's disease individuals (n = 48) with various stages of disease progression to examine the influence of disease burden on intrinsic connectivity. Graph theory analyses showed that global network interconnectivity approximated a random network topology as proximity to diagnosis neared and this was associated with decreased connectivity amongst highly-connected rich-club network hubs, which integrate processing from diverse brain regions. However, functional segregation within the global network (average clustering) was preserved. Functional segregation was also largely maintained at the local level, except for the notable decrease in the diversity of anterior insula intermodular-interconnections (participation coefficient), irrespective of disease burden. In contrast, network-based statistic analyses revealed patterns of weakened frontostriatal connections and strengthened frontal-posterior connections that evolved as disease

  4. Network topology and functional connectivity disturbances precede the onset of Huntington’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Deborah L.; Rubinov, Mikail; Durgerian, Sally; Mourany, Lyla; Reece, Christine; Koenig, Katherine; Bullmore, Ed; Long, Jeffrey D.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive, motor and psychiatric changes in prodromal Huntington’s disease have nurtured the emergent need for early interventions. Preventive clinical trials for Huntington’s disease, however, are limited by a shortage of suitable measures that could serve as surrogate outcomes. Measures of intrinsic functional connectivity from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging are of keen interest. Yet recent studies suggest circumscribed abnormalities in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity in prodromal Huntington’s disease, despite the spectrum of behavioural changes preceding a manifest diagnosis. The present study used two complementary analytical approaches to examine whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity in prodromal Huntington’s disease. Network topology was studied using graph theory and simple functional connectivity amongst brain regions was explored using the network-based statistic. Participants consisted of gene-negative controls (n = 16) and prodromal Huntington’s disease individuals (n = 48) with various stages of disease progression to examine the influence of disease burden on intrinsic connectivity. Graph theory analyses showed that global network interconnectivity approximated a random network topology as proximity to diagnosis neared and this was associated with decreased connectivity amongst highly-connected rich-club network hubs, which integrate processing from diverse brain regions. However, functional segregation within the global network (average clustering) was preserved. Functional segregation was also largely maintained at the local level, except for the notable decrease in the diversity of anterior insula intermodular-interconnections (participation coefficient), irrespective of disease burden. In contrast, network-based statistic analyses revealed patterns of weakened frontostriatal connections and strengthened frontal-posterior connections that evolved

  5. Preventive effects of an intergenerational program on age-related hippocampal atrophy in older adults: The REPRINTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Ryota; Ishii, Kenji; Sakuma, Naoko; Yasunaga, Masashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Yoh; Nishi, Mariko; Uchida, Hayato; Shinkai, Shoji; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2017-08-31

    A growing body of literature indicates that social engagements, such as intergenerational programs, are effective strategies to improve a range of cognitive abilities. The present study examined whether the intergenerational program-REPRINTS-prevents age-related hippocampal atrophy. After comprehensive baseline assessment, participants were allowed to decide whether to participate in the REPRINTS intervention or in the control group, which required only completion of assessments. REPRINTS participants engaged in group activities that involved reading picture books to children at kindergarten and elementary schools, once every 1 to 2 weeks. A follow-up assessment was conducted after 6 years. Two MRI scans were performed, one immediately after baseline assessment and the other after 6 years. Volumes of the hippocampus, thalamus, and caudate nucleus were derived from automated segmentation. The analysis included 17 REPRINTS and 42 control-group participants. There was no significant difference in any variable of participants' characteristics at baseline between the REPRINTS and control groups. Hippocampal volume significantly declined in the control group but was maintained in the REPRINTS group. No significant differences between groups in thalamus or caudate nucleus volume were observed. Although cognitive function was unaffected by the program, greater decreases in hippocampal volume were significantly correlated with greater decreases in cognitive performance scores. Our results suggest that the REPRINTS intergenerational program has protective effects on age-related hippocampal atrophy in older adults. These changes precede improvements in cognitive performance, suggesting the validity of the concept of brain plasticity in later life following social engagement. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. 22 CFR 42.68 - Informal evaluation of family members if principal applicant precedes them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal evaluation of family members if... Visas § 42.68 Informal evaluation of family members if principal applicant precedes them. (a) Preliminary determination of visa eligibility. If a principal applicant proposes to precede the family to the...

  7. Cabazitaxel Plus Prednisone With Octreotide For Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) Previously Treated With Docetaxel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-21

    Diarrhea; Hormone-resistant Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  8. Prostate specific antigen in patients of benign prostate hypertrophy and carcinoma prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malati, T; Kumari, G Rajani; Murthy, P V L N; Reddy, Ch Ram; Prakash, B Surya

    2006-03-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) has emerged as the most applicable and important tumor marker for carcinoma prostate. In the present study PSA was determined in serum of healthy subjects, patients of benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and Carcinoma Prostate (Ca-P) to evaluate its diagnostic efficiency in day to day management of prostate cancer patients and in differentiating patients of early prostate cancer from those with BPH. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) revealed 2 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml cut off serum PSA level for BPH and untreated carcinoma prostate patients (Ca-P). An extremely significant increase (Pprostate patients when compared to healthy males. Clinical relevance of PSA was highlighted by a case study of cancer patient prior to any therapy till death.

  9. Cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy correlated by xenon contrast CT scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Meyer, J.S.; Tanahashi, N.; Rogers, R.L.; Tachibana, H.; Kandula, P.; Dowell, R.E.; Mortel, K.F.

    1985-11-01

    Correlations between cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured during stable xenon contrast CT scanning and standard CT indices of brain atrophy were investigated in the patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type, multi-infarct dementia and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Compared to age-matched normal volunteers, significant correlations were found in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease between cortical and subcortical gray matter blood flow and brain atrophy estimated by the ventricular body ratio, and mild to moderate brain atrophy were correlated with stepwise CBF reductions. However, in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia, brain atrophy was not associated with stepwise CBF reductions. Overall correlations between brain atrophy and reduced CBF were weak. Mild degrees of brain atrophy are not always associated with reduced CBF.

  10. BTG2 Antiproliferative Gene and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walden, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    .... During this study we showed that BTG2 protein expression is lost as an early event in prostate carcinogenesis and that prostate cancer cells degrade BTG2 at a greater rate than noncancerous prostate cells...

  11. BTG2 Antiproliferative Gene and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walden, Paul D

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the BTG2 tumor suppressor protein diminish during the transition of normal prostate epithelial cells into prostate cancer cells and restoration of BTG2 expression in prostate cancer cells...

  12. Toxigenic Helicobacter pylori Infection Precedes Gastric Hypochlorhydria in Cancer Relatives, and H. pylori Virulence Evolves in These Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard H. Argent; Rachael J. Thomas; Francisco Aviles-Jimenez; Darren P. Letley; Marie C. Limb; Emad M. El-Omar; John C. Atherton

    2008-01-01

    .... We aimed to determine whether infection with virulent H. pylori preceeded precancerous gastric hypochlorhydria and atrophy in gastric cancer relatives and quantify the extent of virulence factor evolution...

  13. Oleate Prevents Palmitate-Induced Atrophy via Modulation of Mitochondrial ROS Production in Skeletal Myotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hojun; Lim, Jae-Young; Choi, Seung-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of saturated fatty acids contributes to lipotoxicity-related insulin resistance and atrophy in skeletal muscle. Conversely, unsaturated fatty acids like docosahexaenoic acid were proven to preserve muscle mass. However, it is not known if the most common unsaturated oleate will protect skeletal myotubes against palmitate-mediated atrophy, and its specific mechanism remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of oleate on atrophy-related factors in palmitate-c...

  14. Progressive transcortical sensory aphasia and progressive ideational apraxia owing to temporoparietal cortical atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Funayama, Michitaka; NAKAJIMA, Asuka

    2015-01-01

    Background In contrast to frontotemporal lobar degeneration, atrophy of the focal posterior lateral cortex has not been thoroughly studied. Three clinical types of focal cortical atrophy have been described: 1) logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia, which presents with impaired repetition despite normal articulation; 2) posterior cortical atrophy, which presents with prominent visuospatial deficits; and 3) primary progressive apraxia. All three clinical types are characterized by s...

  15. Role of Ca2+ signaling in skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin’ichi

    2015-01-01

    .... Although intracellular signaling molecules and pathways underlying the regulation of protein synthesis/degradation and subsequent muscle hypertrophy/atrophy are well studied, upstream regulators are largely unknown...

  16. Fronto-striatal atrophy correlates of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in frontotemporal dementia (FTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Seok Yi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Behavioural disturbances in frontotemporal dementia (FTD are thought to reflect mainly atrophy of cortical regions. Recent studies suggest that subcortical brain regions, in particular the striatum, are also significantly affected and this pathology might play a role in the generation of behavioural symptoms. Objective: To investigate prefrontal cortical and striatal atrophy contributions to behavioural symptoms in FTD. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two participants (87 FTD patients, 39 AD patients and 56 controls were included. Behavioural profiles were established using the Cambridge Behavioural Inventory Revised (CBI-R and Frontal System Behaviour Scale (FrSBe. Atrophy in prefrontal (VMPFC, DLPFC and striatal (caudate, putamen regions was established via a 5-point visual rating scale of the MRI scans. Behavioural scores were correlated with atrophy rating scores. Results: Behavioural and atrophy ratings demonstrated that patients were significantly impaired compared to controls, with bvFTD being most severely affected. Behavioural-anatomical correlations revealed that VMPFC atrophy was closely related to abnormal behaviour and motivation disturbances. Stereotypical behaviours were associated with both VMPFC and striatal atrophy. By contrast, disturbance of eating was found to be related to striatal atrophy only. Conclusion: Frontal and striatal atrophy contributed to the behavioural disturbances seen in FTD, with some behaviours related to frontal, striatal or combined fronto-striatal pathology. Consideration of striatal contributions to the generation of behavioural disturbances should be taken into account when assessing patients with potential FTD.

  17. The effect of theophylline on the prevention of mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm atrophy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Nihal Bakirkalay; Teke, Turgut; Toy, Hatice; Uzun, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders and atrophy occur in the diaphragm, the most important muscle of respiration, because of mechanical ventilation (MV). In this animal model, we aimed to evaluate the effect of intravenous theophylline administration on the prevention of mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic atrophy. In our study, 30 healthy male Sprague-dawley rats were used. They were divided into 3 equal groups. Group 1: the control group (no MV); group 2: the placebo group that received MV; Group 3: the theophylline group composed of rats that received both MV and theophylline therapy. In all 3 groups, the diaphragmatic atrophy was evaluated histopathologically. In the histopathological examination, no macroscopic thickening and microscopic atrophy were observed in the diaphragm in the control group. In the placebo group (group 2), macroscopically definite thickening was observed in all rats, and microscopically, heavy (+++) atrophy was observed. In the theophylline group (group 3), there was no atrophy in one rat. In 8 rats, light (+), and in 1 rat medium (++) atrophy was observed. In our study, it was shown that atrophy occurred in the diaphragms of rats after MV, and the atrophy was decreased after theophylline administration.

  18. Abdominal rectus muscle atrophy and midline shift after colostomy creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Lucas; Deerenberg, Eva B; van Dijk, Sven M; Lamme, Bas; Koning, Anton H; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Jeekel, Johannes; Lange, Johan F

    2014-04-01

    Incisional hernia (IH) can be attributed to multiple factors. The presence of a parastomal hernia has shown to be a risk factor for IH after midline laparotomy. Our hypothesis is that this increased risk of IH may be caused by changes in biomechanical forces, such as midline shift to the contralateral side of the colostomy owing to decreased restraining forces at the site of the colostomy, and left abdominal rectus muscle (ARM) atrophy owing to intercostal nerve damage. Patients were selected if they underwent end-colostomy via open operation between 2004 and 2011. Patients were eligible if computed tomography (CT) had been performed postoperatively. If available, preoperative CTs were collected for case-control analyses. Midline shift was measured using V-scope application in the I-space, a CAVE-like virtual reality system. For the ARM atrophy hypothesis, measurements of ARM were performed at the level of colostomy, and 3 and 8 cm cranial and caudal of the colostomy. Postoperative CT were available for 77 patients; of these patients, 30 also had a preoperative CT. Median follow-up was 19 months. A mean shift to the right side was identified after preoperative and postoperative comparison; from -1.3 ± 4.6 to 2.1 ± 9.3 (P = .043). Furthermore, during rectus muscle measurements, a thinner left ARM was observed below the level of colostomy. Creation of a colostomy alters the abdominal wall. Atrophy of the left ARM was seen caudal to the level of the colostomy, and a midline shift to the right side was evident on CT. These changes may explain the increased rate of IH after colostomy creation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Proteoglycans in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Iris J

    2012-02-21

    The complexity and diversity of proteoglycan structure means that they have a range of functions that regulate cell behavior. Through multiple interactions of their core proteins and glycosaminoglycans with extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors and chemokines, proteoglycans affect cell signaling, motility, adhesion, growth and apoptosis. Progressive changes in proteoglycans occur in the tumor microenvironment, but neither the source nor consequences of those changes are well understood. Proteoglycans studied in prostate cancer include versican--a hyalectan regulator of cell adhesion and migration-and the small leucine-rich proteoglycans decorin, biglycan and lumican, which have roles in cell signaling and tissue organization. Studies support an inhibitory role in prostate cancer for decorin and lumican. Conversely, the basement membrane proteoglycan perlecan might be a tumor promoter through upregulation of sonic hedgehog signaling. Loss of the growth-inhibitory cell-surface proteoglycans syndecan-1 and betaglycan in early prostate cancer might facilitate progression, but syndecan-1 effects are pleiotropic and its renewed expression in advanced tumors might adversely affect outcome. Importantly, cellular changes and enzymatic activity in the developing tumor can alter proteoglycan composition and structure to modify their function. Emerging studies suggest that cancers, including those of the prostate, use these changes to promote their own survival, growth, and spread.

  20. Complications of prostate biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Zapała, Lukasz; Cordeiro, Ernesto; Antoniewicz, Artur; Dimitriadis, Georgios; de Reijke, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Biopsy of the prostate is a common procedure with minor complications that are usually self-limited. However, if one considers that millions of men undergo biopsy worldwide, one realizes that although complication rate is low, the number of patients suffering from biopsy complications should not be

  1. Standards for prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Taneja, Samir S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review A variety techniques have emerged for optimization of prostate biopsy. In this review, we summarize and critically discuss the most recent developments regarding the optimal systematic biopsy and sampling labeling along with multiparametric MRI and MR targeted biopsies. Recent findings The use of 10–12-core extended-sampling protocols increases cancer detection rates compared to traditional sextant sampling and reduces the likelihood that patients will require a repeat biopsy, ultimately allowing more accurate risk stratification without increasing the likelihood of detecting insignificant cancers. As the number of cores increases above 12 cores, the increase in diagnostic yield becomes marginal. However, limitations of this technique include undersampling, over-sampling, and the need for repetitive biopsy. MRI and MR-targeted biopsies have demonstrated superiority over systematic biopsies for the detection of clinically significant disease and representation of disease burden, while deploying fewer cores and may have applications in men undergoing initial or repeat biopsy and those with low risk cancer on or considering active surveillance. Summary A 12-core systematic biopsy that incorporates apical and far-lateral cores in the template distribution allows maximal cancer detection, avoidance of a repeat biopsy, while minimizing the detection of insignificant prostate cancers. MRI guided prostate biopsy has an evolving role in both initial and repeat prostate biopsy strategies, as well as active surveillance, potentially improving sampling efficiency, increasing detection of clinically significant cancers, and reducing detection of insignificant cancers. PMID:24451092

  2. Comparability of prostate trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suciu, S; Sylvester, R; Iversen, P

    1993-01-01

    The present overview of advanced prostate cancer required the identification of randomized clinical trials studying the question of maximal androgen blockade versus the classic castration therapy. The heterogeneity of the trials concerned the type of castration (surgical or chemical) and the type...

  3. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reducing enlarged prostate symptoms. But the safety and efficacy of these treatments hasn't been proved. If ... 27, 2014. Hanno PH, et al. Penn Clinical Manual of Urology. 2nd ed. ... and surgical therapies for lower urinary tract symptoms in the community ...

  4. The research progress of clinical diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ning

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a common autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease caused by degeneration of anterior horn cell in spinal cord. The clinical feature is characterized by progressive symmetrical myasthenia and amyotrophia. The disease is caused by mutation of survival motor neuron (SMN1 gene. Four clinical types are defined for SMA: type Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The diagnosis depends on clinical manifestation, inherited history, laboratory test and genetic analysis. To date, there is no effective treatment for SMA, so prenatal diagnosis and carrier screening are important for the prevention of this disease.

  5. Chorioretinal Atrophy after Spontaneous Resolution of Myopic Foveoschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Ben

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopic foveoschisis is one of the major complications of pathologic myopia, and it was most recently identified by new imaging modalities. During the natural evolution of this complication, anatomical and visual improvement without surgical intervention is an unusual course, and most of these eyes remain stable or progressively worsen. The authors report a case of a highly myopic eye that developed patchy chorioretinal atrophy after spontaneous resolution of myopic foveoschisis, which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported previously in the medical literature.

  6. Exercise Therapy in Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy and Other Neuromuscular Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia Rebecka; Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    There is no curative treatment for most neuromuscular disorders. Exercise, as a treatment for these diseases, has therefore received growing attention. When executed properly, exercise can maintain and improve health and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. In persons...... in patients with neuromuscular diseases associated with weakness and wasting. We review studies that have investigated different types of exercise in both myopathies and motor neuron diseases, with particular emphasis on training of persons affected by spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Finally, we provide...

  7. Atrophy rates in asymptomatic amyloidosis: implications for Alzheimer prevention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abigail Andrews

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in designing therapeutic studies of individuals at risk of Alzheimer disease (AD to prevent the onset of symptoms. Cortical β-amyloid plaques, the first stage of AD pathology, can be detected in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET, and several studies have shown that ~1/3 of healthy elderly have significant β-amyloid deposition. Here we assessed whether asymptomatic amyloid-PET-positive controls have increased rates of brain atrophy, which could be harnessed as an outcome measure for AD prevention trials. We assessed 66 control subjects (age = 73.5±7.3 yrs; MMSE = 29±1.3 from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers & Lifestyle study who had a baseline Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB PET scan and two 3T MRI scans ~18-months apart. We calculated PET standard uptake value ratios (SUVR, and classified individuals as amyloid-positive/negative. Baseline and 18-month MRI scans were registered, and brain, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes and annualized volume changes calculated. Increasing baseline PiB-PET measures of β-amyloid load correlated with hippocampal atrophy rate independent of age (p = 0.014. Twenty-two (1/3 were PiB-positive (SUVR>1.40, the remaining 44 PiB-negative (SUVR≤1.31. Compared to PiB-negatives, PiB-positive individuals were older (76.8±7.5 vs. 71.7±7.5, p<0.05 and more were APOE4 positive (63.6% vs. 19.2%, p<0.01 but there were no differences in baseline brain, ventricle or hippocampal volumes, either with or without correction for total intracranial volume, once age and gender were accounted for. The PiB-positive group had greater total hippocampal loss (0.06±0.08 vs. 0.02±0.05 ml/yr, p = 0.02, independent of age and gender, with non-significantly higher rates of whole brain (7.1±9.4 vs. 4.7±5.5 ml/yr and ventricular (2.0±3.0 vs. 1.1±1.0 ml/yr change. Based on the observed effect size, recruiting 384 (95%CI 195-1080 amyloid-positive subjects/arm will provide 80% power to detect 25

  8. Saposin C promotes survival and prevents apoptosis via PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tae-Jin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to androgens, growth factors are also implicated in the development and neoplastic growth of the prostate gland. Prosaposin is a potent neurotrophic molecule. Homozygous inactivation of prosaposin in mice has led to the development of a number of abnormalities in the male reproductive system, including atrophy of the prostate gland and inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and Akt in prostate epithelial cells. We have recently reported that prosaposin is expressed at a higher level by androgen-independent (AI prostate cancer cells as compared to androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells or normal prostate epithelial and stromal cells. In addition, we have demonstrated that a synthetic peptide (prosaptide TX14A, derived from the trophic sequence of the saposin C domain of prosaposin, stimulated cell proliferation, migration and invasion and activated the MAPK signaling pathway in prostate cancer cells. The biological significances of saposin C and prosaposin in prostate cancer are not known. Results Here, we report that saposin C, in a cell type-specific and dose-dependent manner, acts as a survival factor, activates the Akt-signaling pathway, down-modulates caspase-3, -7, and -9 expression and/or activity, and decreases the cleaved nuclear substrate of caspase-3 in prostate cancer cells under serum-starvation stress. In addition, prosaptide TX14A, saposin C, or prosaposin decreased the growth-inhibitory effect, caspase-3/7 activity, and apoptotic cell death induced by etoposide. We also discovered that saposin C activates the p42/44 MAP kinase pathway in a pertussis toxin-sensitive and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K /Akt-dependent manner in prostate cancer cells. Our data also show that the anti-apoptotic activity of saposin C is at least partially mediated via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion We postulate that as a mitogenic, survival, and anti-apoptotic factor for prostate cancer cells

  9. [Transient compensatory hypertrophy and limited regeneration of the surgically removed rat ventral prostate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrovarty, Sumana; Wadhwa, Shashi; Diwan, Manish; Malhotra, Ritu; Wadhwa, S N; Talwar, G P

    2003-09-01

    To confirm whether regeneration of prostate lobe indeed takes place on surgical lobectomy and if so, to what extent. Other issues studied are 1. whether the lobe regenerated is similar morphologically to that developing normally from neonatal origin to adulthood, and 2. the consequences of partial lobectomy on the contralateral lobe and the influence of sex steroid hormones on the regeneration process. The effect of surgical removal of one of the ventral prostate lobes on the size of the contralateral lobe has been studied at various time intervals after lobectomy. The surgically extirpated ventral prostate lobe in rats regenerates attaining plateau size at 8-16 weeks post lobectomy. The regenerated lobe, however, remains significantly smaller than the original size. In early phase of post lobectomy (at 2 weeks) the contralateral lobe was significantly hypertrophied. It reverts to normal size on regeneration of the extirpated lobe with time. Orchiectomy carried out at the time of lobectomy caused a drastic reduction in the size of the remaining lobe, which was prevented by exogenous treatment with androgens. In animals receiving treatment with estrogens, the remaining lobe was partially but not fully atrophied. However, estrogens did not support the regeneration of the surgically removed lobe, which requires androgens. These studies demonstrate that surgical removal of one of the ventral prostate lobe leads to a process of regeneration. However, the regenerated lobe does not attain the normal size.

  10. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of normal, benign and malignant conditions in the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visschere, Pieter J.L. de; Pattyn, Eva; Villeirs, Geert M. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Vral, Anne [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent (Belgium); Perletti, Gianpaolo [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent (Belgium); University of Insubria, Clinical Pharmacology, Medical and Surgical Sciences Section, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy); Praet, Marleen [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Ghent (Belgium); Magri, Vittorio [Instituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Urology Clinic, Milano (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    To identify the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) characteristics of normal, benign and malignant conditions in the prostate. Fifty-six histopathological whole-mount radical prostatectomy specimens from ten randomly selected patients with prostate cancer (PC) were matched with corresponding transverse mpMRI slices. The mpMRI was performed prior to biopsy and consisted of T2-weighted imaging (T2-WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). In each prostate specimen, a wide range of histopathological conditions were observed. They showed consistent but overlapping characteristics on mpMRI. Normal glands in the transition zone showed lower signal intensity (SI) on T2-WI, lower ADC values and lower citrate peaks on MRSI as compared to the peripheral zone (PZ) due to sparser glandular elements and more prominent collagenous fibres. In the PZ, normal glands were iso-intense on T2-WI, while high SI areas represented cystic atrophy. Mimickers of well-differentiated PC on mpMRI were inflammation, adenosis, HG-PIN and post-atrophic hyperplasia. Each prostate is a unique mix of normal, benign and/or malignant areas that vary in extent and distribution resulting in very heterogeneous characteristics on mpMRI. Understanding the main concepts of this mpMRI-histopathological correlation may increase the diagnostic confidence in reporting mpMRI. (orig.)

  11. Prostate ultrasound: back in business!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Nicolae; Andras, Iulia; Radu, Corina; Andras, David; Coman, Radu-Tudor; Tucan, Paul; Pisla, Doina; Crisan, Dana; Coman, Ioan

    2017-11-29

    The use of grey scale prostate ultrasound decreased after the implementation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis and evaluation of prostate cancer. The new developments, such as multiparametric ultrasound and MRI-ultrasound fusion technology, renewed the interest for this imaging method in the assessment of prostate cancer. The purpose of this paper was to review the current role of prostate ultrasound in the setting of these new applications. A thorough reevaluation of the selection criteria of the patients is required to assess which patients would benefit from multiparametric ultrasound, who wouldbenefit from multiparametric MRI or the combination of both to assist prostate biopsy in order to ensure the balance between overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of prostate cancer.

  12. Prostate cancer markers: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentyala, Srinivas; Whyard, Terry; Pentyala, Sahana; Muller, John; Pfail, John; Parmar, Sunjit; Helguero, Carlos G; Khan, Sardar

    2016-03-01

    As the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men, prostate cancer currently accounts for 29% of all diagnosed cancers, and ranks second as the cause of cancer fatality in American men. Prostatic cancer is rarely symptomatic early in its course and therefore disease presentation often implies local extension or even metastatic disease. Thus, it is extremely critical to detect and diagnose prostate cancer in its earliest stages, often prior to the presentation of symptoms. Three of the most common techniques used to detect prostate cancer are the digital rectal exam, the transrectal ultrasound, and the use of biomarkers. This review presents an update regarding the field of prostate cancer biomarkers and comments on future biomarkers. Although there is not a lack of research in the field of prostate cancer biomarkers, the discovery of a novel biomarker that may have the advantage of being more specific and effective warrants future scientific inquiry.

  13. High Spatiotemporal Resolution Prostate MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0341 TITLE: High Spatiotemporal Resolution Prostate MRI PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen J. Riederer, Ph.D...Resolution Prostate MRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0341 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stephen J. Riederer E-Mail...overall purpose of this project is to develop improved means using MRI for detecting prostate cancer with the potential for differentiating disease

  14. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Biorepository at the University of Washington joined the Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network (PCBN) September 30th 2014. The purpose of this...Cancer Biorepository at the University of Washington joined the Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network (PCBN) September 30th 2014. The UW Prostate...outcomes for the project include tissue acquisition, PDX development, and TMA construction , and specimen distribution are already discussed under

  15. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0062 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bettina F. Drake, MPH, PhD CONTRACTING...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2016 - 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate Cancer Biospecimen...14. ABSTRACT The goal of the study is development of a Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well

  16. Prostate cancer markers: An update

    OpenAIRE

    PENTYALA, SRINIVAS; WHYARD, TERRY; PENTYALA, SAHANA; MULLER, JOHN; PFAIL, JOHN; PARMAR, SUNJIT; HELGUERO, CARLOS G.; KHAN, SARDAR

    2016-01-01

    As the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men, prostate cancer currently accounts for 29% of all diagnosed cancers, and ranks second as the cause of cancer fatality in American men. Prostatic cancer is rarely symptomatic early in its course and therefore disease presentation often implies local extension or even metastatic disease. Thus, it is extremely critical to detect and diagnose prostate cancer in its earliest stages, often prior to the presentation of symptoms. Three of th...

  17. Hereditary aspects of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, D. L.; Norman, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current literature on the hereditary aspects of prostate cancer and to evaluate the importance of family history in history taking and screening for prostate cancer. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for articles in English or French published between Jan. 1, 1956, and Oct. 31, 1994, with the use of MeSH headings "prostatic neoplasms," "genetics" and "chromosomes." Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of articles found during the search. STUDY SELE...

  18. Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0056 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bruce J. Trock, Ph.D... Pathology Resource Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0056 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Bruce J. Trock, Ph.D. Betty...The Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network (which has since been renamed the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network or PCBN) is a collaboration

  19. An improved car-following model accounting for the preceding car's taillight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Shao-Wei

    2018-02-01

    During the deceleration process, the preceding car's taillight may have influences on its following car's driving behavior. In this paper, we propose an extended car-following model with consideration of the preceding car's taillight. Two typical situations are used to simulate each car's movement and study the effects of the preceding car's taillight on the driving behavior. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis of the model parameter is in detail discussed. The numerical results show that the proposed model can improve the stability of traffic flow and the traffic safety can be enhanced without a decrease of efficiency especially when cars pass through a signalized intersection.

  20. Picture agnosia as a characteristic of posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Midorikawa, Akira; Koyama, Shinichi; Futamura, Akinori; Hieda, Sotaro; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2012-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a degenerative disease characterized by progressive visual agnosia with posterior cerebral atrophy. We examine the role of the picture naming test and make a number of suggestions with regard to diagnosing PCA as atypical dementia. We investigated 3 cases of early-stage PCA with 7 control cases of Alzheimer disease (AD). The patients and controls underwent a naming test with real objects and colored photographs of familiar objects. We then compared rates of correct answers. Patients with early-stage PCA showed significant inability to recognize photographs compared to real objects (F = 196.284, p = 0.0000) as measured by analysis of variants. This difficulty was also significant to AD controls (F = 58.717, p = 0.0000). Picture agnosia is a characteristic symptom of early-stage PCA, and the picture naming test is useful for the diagnosis of PCA as atypical dementia at an early stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Inherited Paediatric Motor Neuron Disorders: Beyond Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Hugo; Mowat, David; Roscioli, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Paediatric motor neuron diseases encompass a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterised by the onset of muscle weakness and atrophy before the age of 18 years, attributable to motor neuron loss across various neuronal networks in the brain and spinal cord. While the genetic underpinnings are diverse, advances in next generation sequencing have transformed diagnostic paradigms. This has reinforced the clinical phenotyping and molecular genetic expertise required to navigate the complexities of such diagnoses. In turn, improved genetic technology and subsequent gene identification have enabled further insights into the mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration and how these diseases form part of a neurodegenerative disorder spectrum. Common pathophysiologies include abnormalities in axonal architecture and function, RNA processing, and protein quality control. This review incorporates an overview of the clinical manifestations, genetics, and pathophysiology of inherited paediatric motor neuron disorders beyond classic SMN1-related spinal muscular atrophy and describes recent advances in next generation sequencing and its clinical application. Specific disease-modifying treatment is becoming a clinical reality in some disorders of the motor neuron highlighting the importance of a timely and specific diagnosis. PMID:28634552

  2. How common is pelvic floor muscle atrophy after vaginal childbirth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, P; Shek, K L; Dietz, H P

    2014-01-01

    To determine if there is evidence of levator ani atrophy in primiparous women. This was a prospective observational cohort study of 202 primiparous women recruited between November 2006 and March 2008. Translabial ultrasound volumes were obtained at 36-38 weeks' gestation and at a mean of 4.5 months postpartum. Peripartum changes in bladder neck elevation and reduction of anteroposterior hiatal diameter on pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC) and changes in muscle thickness were analyzed. Of the 202 participants enrolled, 158 (78%) completed the study. There was a significant reduction in bladder neck elevation (P = 0.001) and change in anteroposterior hiatal diameter (P = 0.03) on PFMC when comparing antenatal and postnatal results, the latter being significantly associated with delivery mode (P = 0.013). No significant changes were detected in muscle thickness (P = 0.76). There is a reduction in sonographic measures of pelvic floor function after childbirth, but muscle atrophy is unlikely to be a significant factor. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy: study of the Wolfram syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Gómez, Bernardette; Reza-Albarrán, Alfredo Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WS), also known by the acronym DIDMOAD, is a rare and progresive hereditary disease of autosomal recessive inheritance which minimum ascertainment diagnostic criteria are the occurrence together of diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy before 15 years of age. To describe the clinical, biochemical and molecular profile of WS in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico. We reviewed patients records who fulfill the minimum ascertainment diagnostic criteria of WS presenting between January 1987 and May 2015 in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico. Five patients fulfill the inclusion criteria (three male and two female). Diabetes mellitus was the first manifestation of the syndrome in all of them, with a mean age at diagnosis of 5.8 ± 2.71 years, while the WS diagnosis was established at a mean age of 15.8 ± 8.37 years. All the patients had optic atrophy and two of them presented with the complete DIDMOAD spectrum. We found new associations with autoimmune hepatitis and testicular cancer. This study shows the variability of clinical presentation of WS, as well as two new associations.

  4. Adult-onset spinal muscular atrophy: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntas Morales, R; Pageot, N; Taieb, G; Camu, W

    2017-05-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) refers to a group of disorders affecting lower motor neurons. The age of onset of these disorders is variable, ranging from the neonatal period to adulthood. Over the last few years, there has been enormous progress in the description of new genes and phenotypes that throw new light on the molecular pathways involved in motor neuron degeneration. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of the most frequent forms, SMA linked to SMN1 gene mutations and Kennedy disease, has led to the development of therapeutic strategies currently being tested in clinical trials. This report provides a general overview of the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms in adult-onset genetic SMA disorders in which the causative gene has been identified (SMN1-related SMA, Kennedy disease, CHCHD10, TRPV4, DYNC1H1 and BICD2). Sporadic lower motor neuron disease, also known as progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), is also discussed. The finding of TDP-43 aggregates in immunohistochemical studies of PMA strongly supports the idea that it is a phenotypic variant of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Periorbital muscle atrophy associated with topical bimatoprost therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang PX

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Priscilla Xinhui Wang, Victor Teck Chang Koh, Jin Fong ChengDepartment of Ophthalmology, National University Health System, SingaporeAbstract: Topical Bimatoprost is a common and popular prostaglandin analog used as an ocular hypotensive agent in the treatment of glaucoma. Side effects include ocular hyperaemia, ocular pruritus, and periocular and iris pigmentary changes. Perioribital lipodystrophy is another well-documented outcome associated with chronic use of topical bimatoprost, which results in periorbital hallowing, upper eyelid sulcus deepening, eyelid retraction and enophthalmos. We report an unusual case of periocular muscle atrophy and weakness from unilateral topical bimatoprost use. Our patient had primary angle closure and experienced a right upper eyelid ptosis 2 months after she started to use topical bimatoprost in that eye. Clinical measurements of her eyelids clearly showed reduction in the function of her right levator muscle, suggesting that effects of topical bimatoprost may not be limited to periorbital fat. She was advised to stop topical bimatoprost and right ptosis correction surgery with levator muscle advancement was performed successfully. Ophthalmologists and patients should be aware of this potential rare side effect of topical bimatoprost, as it may be potentially disfiguring, especially with monocular use. However, its exact mechanism of action needs to be clarified further.Keywords: prostaglandin analog, levator, muscle atrophy, muscle weakness, ptosis, side effects

  6. Development and Translation of Therapies for Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah K. Shorrock

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterised by widespread loss of lower motor neurons from the spinal cord, leading to progressive weakness and muscle atrophy. SMA is largely caused by homozygous loss of the survival motor neuron (SMN 1 gene, resulting in reduced levels of full-length SMN protein. Although no approved treatment is currently available for SMA, several clinical trials investigating different approaches to increase SMN levels are showing promising early results. Trials investigating the use of therapies targeting muscle strength and neuroprotective pathways are also in progress, generating the possibility of delivering combination therapies utilising both SMN-dependent and SMN-independent targets. Due to an increased understanding of the cellular and molecular consequences of SMN depletion, a second wave of therapies targeted at pathways downstream of SMN are currently undergoing preclinical development. As these therapies move forward towards the clinic, new treatment options are likely to become available, raising the potential to generate an effective ‘cure’ for SMA.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease with a high incidence and is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is primarily characterized by degeneration of the spinal motor neurons that leads to skeletal muscle atrophy followed by symmetric limb paralysis, respiratory failure, and death. In humans, mutation of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1 gene shifts the load of expression of SMN protein to the SMN2 gene that produces low levels of full-length SMN protein because of alternative splicing, which are sufficient for embryonic development and survival but result in SMA. The molecular mechanisms of the (a regulation of SMN gene expression and (b degeneration of motor neurons caused by low levels of SMN are unclear. However, some progress has been made in recent years that have provided new insights into understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of SMA pathogenesis. In this review, we have briefly summarized recent advances toward understanding of the molecular mechanisms of regulation of SMN levels and signaling mechanisms that mediate neurodegeneration in SMA.

  8. Therapy Development for Spinal Muscular Atrophy in SMN Independent Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Kai Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, leading to progressive muscle weakness, atrophy, and sometimes premature death. SMA is caused by mutation or deletion of the survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1 gene. An effective treatment does not presently exist. Since the severity of the SMA phenotype is inversely correlated with expression levels of SMN, the SMN-encoded protein, SMN is the most important therapeutic target for development of an effective treatment for SMA. In recent years, numerous SMN independent targets and therapeutic strategies have been demonstrated to have potential roles in SMA treatment. For example, some neurotrophic, antiapoptotic, and myotrophic factors are able to promote survival of motor neurons or improve muscle strength shown in SMA mouse models or clinical trials. Plastin-3, cpg15, and a Rho-kinase inhibitor regulate axonal dynamics and might reduce the influences of SMN depletion in disarrangement of neuromuscular junction. Stem cell transplantation in SMA model mice resulted in improvement of motor behaviors and extension of survival, likely from trophic support. Although most therapies are still under investigation, these nonclassical treatments might provide an adjunctive method for future SMA therapy.

  9. No evidence of genetic heterogeneity in dominant optic atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, D; Souied, E; Gerber, S; Rozet, J M; D'Haens, E; Journel, H; Plessis, G; Weissenbach, J; Munnich, A; Kaplan, J

    1995-01-01

    Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPA, MIM 165500) is an eye disease causing a variable reduction of visual acuity with an insidious onset in the first six years of life. It is associated with a central scotoma and an acquired blue-yellow dyschromatopsia. A gene for dominant optic atrophy (OPA1) has recently been mapped to chromosome 3q in three large Danish pedigrees. Here, we confirm the mapping of OPA1 to chromosome 3q28-qter by showing close linkage of the disease locus to three recently reported microsatellite DNA markers in the interval defined by loci D3S1314 and D3S1265 in four French families (Zmax = 5.13 at theta = 0 for probe AFM 308yf1 at locus D3S1601). Multipoint analysis supports the mapping of the disease gene to the genetic interval defined by loci D3S1314 and D3S1265. The present study provides three new markers closely linked to the disease gene for future genetic studies in OPA. PMID:8825922

  10. Visual signs and symptoms of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2014-11-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare movement disorder and a member of the 'parkinsonian syndromes', which also include Parkinson's disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Multiple system atrophy is a complex syndrome, in which patients exhibit a variety of signs and symptoms, including parkinsonism, ataxia and autonomic dysfunction. It can be difficult to separate MSA from the other parkinsonian syndromes but if ocular signs and symptoms are present, they may aid differential diagnosis. Typical ocular features of MSA include blepharospasm, excessive square-wave jerks, mild to moderate hypometria of saccades, impaired vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR), nystagmus and impaired event-related evoked potentials. Less typical features include slowing of saccadic eye movements, the presence of vertical gaze palsy, visual hallucinations and an impaired electroretinogram (ERG). Aspects of primary vision such as visual acuity, colour vision or visual fields are usually unaffected. Management of the disease to deal with problems of walking, movement, daily tasks and speech problems is important in MSA. Optometrists can work in collaboration with the patient and health-care providers to identify and manage the patient's visual deficits. A more specific role for the optometrist is to correct vision to prevent falls and to monitor the anterior eye to prevent dry eye and control blepharospasm. © 2014 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  11. Current Status of Treatment of Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA is the first member identified among polyglutamine diseases characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy of the bulbar, facial, and limb muscles pathologically associated with motor neuron loss in the spinal cord and brainstem. Androgen receptor (AR, a disease-causing protein of SBMA, is a well-characterized ligand-activated transcription factor, and androgen binding induces nuclear translocation, conformational change and recruitment of coregulators for transactivation of AR target genes. Some therapeutic strategies for SBMA are based on these native functions of AR. Since ligand-induced nuclear translocation of mutant AR has been shown to be a critical step in motor neuron degeneration in SBMA, androgen deprivation therapies using leuprorelin and dutasteride have been developed and translated into clinical trials. Although the results of these trials are inconclusive, renewed clinical trials with more sophisticated design might prove the effectiveness of hormonal intervention in the near future. Furthermore, based on the normal function of AR, therapies targeted for conformational changes of AR including amino-terminal (N and carboxy-terminal (C (N/C interaction and transcriptional coregulators might be promising. Other treatments targeted for mitochondrial function, ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS, and autophagy could be applicable for all types of polyglutamine diseases.

  12. The evolution of alexia and simultanagnosia in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, M F; Cherrier, M M

    1998-04-01

    Early alexia and higher visual impairments characterize Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), a progressive dementing syndrome most often caused by Alzheimer disease. Posterior cortical atrophy is rare, and the nature of the visual impairments in PCA are unclear. The authors observed two patients who had an insidiously progressive reading difficulty characterized by letter-by-letter reading and otherwise intact cognitive functions. Over time, these patients developed "ventral simultanagnosia" with preserved detection of multiple stimuli but inability to interpret whole scenes. Subsequently, they progressed to Balint syndrome with "dorsal simultanagnosia," optic ataxia, and oculomotor apraxia. Structural imaging was normal, but functional imaging revealed posterior cortical dysfunction. On a letter reading task, both patients had a word superiority effect, and on a whole word reading task, they could not read most words with missing or crosshatched letters. An inability to assess whole scenes progressed to an inability to detect more than one stimulus in an array. These findings suggest an evolution of PCA with progressive difficulty in visual integration beginning with letters, progressing to whole scenes, and culminating in Balint syndrome. These changes may reflect an extension of the pathophysiology of PCA from the extrastriate visual cortex to its occipitotemporal and occipitoparietal connections.

  13. Center for Prostate Disease Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Dr. Albert Dobi, Associate Director, CPDR and Research Assistant Professor, Department of ... Autoantibodies against oncogenic ERG protein in prostate cancer: potential use in diagnosis and ...

  14. MRI derived brain atrophy in PSP and MSA-P. Determining sample size to detect treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paviour, Dominic C; Price, Shona L; Lees, Andrew J; Fox, Nick C

    2007-04-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system (MSA) atrophy are associated with progressive brain atrophy. Serial MRI can be applied in order to measure this change in brain volume and to calculate atrophy rates. We evaluated MRI derived whole brain and regional atrophy rates as potential markers of progression in PSP and the Parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P). 17 patients with PSP, 9 with MSA-P and 18 healthy controls underwent two MRI brain scans. MRI scans were registered, and brain and regional atrophy rates (midbrain, pons, cerebellum, third and lateral ventricles) measured. Sample sizes required to detect the effect of a proposed disease-modifying treatment were estimated. The effect of scan interval on the variance of the atrophy rates and sample size was assessed. Based on the calculated yearly rates of atrophy, for a drug effect equivalent to a 30% reduction in atrophy, fewer PSP subjects are required in each treatment arm when using midbrain rather than whole brain atrophy rates (183 cf. 499). Fewer MSA-P subjects are required, using pontine/cerebellar, rather than whole brain atrophy rates (164/129 cf. 794). A reduction in the variance of measured atrophy rates was observed with a longer scan interval. Regional rather than whole brain atrophy rates calculated from volumetric serial MRI brain scans in PSP and MSA-P provide a more practical and powerful means of monitoring disease progression in clinical trials.

  15. Precedency control and other semantic integrity issues in a workbench database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampney, C. N. G.

    1983-01-01

    Most database systems model the current state of a system of real world discrete and simple entities together with their relationships. By examining instead a database system that is a workbench and models more complicated entities, a fresh perspective is gained. Specifically, semantic integrity is analysed. Four aspects distinct from physical integrity are identified, namely - access, failure, concurrency and precedency. Access control is shown to be the consequence of semantic interdependency between data and its matching semantic routines. Failure, concurrency precedency controls are concerned with preventing processes interfering with each other. Precedency is a new concept in the database context. It expresses a constraint between processes that act on the database. As processes create, update and delete entities they in general obey a partial ordering imposed by the semantics of their actions. Precedency control ensures that data remains consistent with respect to this partial order.

  16. Exact and Heuristic Algorithms for Routing AGV on Path with Precedence Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new problem arises when an automated guided vehicle (AGV is dispatched to visit a set of customers, which are usually located along a fixed wire transmitting signal to navigate the AGV. An optimal visiting sequence is desired with the objective of minimizing the total travelling distance (or time. When precedence constraints are restricted on customers, the problem is referred to as traveling salesman problem on path with precedence constraints (TSPP-PC. Whether or not it is NP-complete has no answer in the literature. In this paper, we design dynamic programming for the TSPP-PC, which is the first polynomial-time exact algorithm when the number of precedence constraints is a constant. For the problem with number of precedence constraints, part of the input can be arbitrarily large, so we provide an efficient heuristic based on the exact algorithm.

  17. Brain Musics: History, Precedents, and Commentary on Whalley, Mavros and Furniss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miguel Ortiz; Mick Grierson; Atau Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    .... With our commentary, we contextualize the work within the field of Music Neuroscience. Specifically, we point at precedents in EEG-based musical practice as well as ongoing research in the field...

  18. A precedence-free approach to (de-palatalisation in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniya Nasukawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Japanese exhibits two patterns involving palatality: palatalisation, which causes two adjacent segments to share palatality, and de-palatalisation, which renders one of those two adjacent segments unable to sustain the shared palatal property. These patterns are traditionally analysed by referring to the notions of adjacency and/or precedence. By contrast, in the context of Precedence-free Phonology (Nasukawa 2014, 2015ab this paper re-analyses these phenomena by referring to the head-dependency relations that are necessary for building structure, rather than by appealing to precedence relations. In this model, precedence is merely a natural result of interpreting the dependency relations that hold between units in hierarchical phonological structure.

  19. Association between radiculopathy and lumbar multifidus atrophy in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ji Hye; Choi, Hyun Sook; Ihl Rhee, Won; Lee, Jong In

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated factors related to lumbar multifidus (MF) muscle atrophy. However, few studies have investigated radiculopathy and the MF muscle. In this study, the association between radiculopathy and lumbar MF muscle atrophy in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated. In total, 100 patients with low back pain or radiating leg pain were examined. Their lumbar MRIs were visually analyzed semi-quantitatively for signs of lumbar MF muscle atrophy. The severity and extent of MF atrophy were compared between non-radiculopathy (Non-rad) and radiculopathy (Rad) groups. Asymmetry of MF atrophy was also compared between unilateral radiculopathy (UniR) and bilateral radiculopathy (BiR) groups. Significantly more severe and extensive MF atrophy was observed in the Rad group than in the Non-rad group (p 0.05). More severe and extensive atrophy in the lumbar MF muscle was associated with radiculopathy. Thus, we might consider the presence of radiculopathy when severe and extensive multi-level involvement of MF atrophy is seen in MRI.

  20. Focal foveal atrophy of unknown etiology: Clinical pictures and possible underlying causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yun Kao

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: This is the first report of clinical presentations for patients with focal foveal atrophy of unknown etiology. OCT aided in the diagnosis and assessment of the degree of retinal structural abnormalities, but the real etiology of foveal atrophy remains unclear.

  1. Intellectual enrichment lessens the effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Wylie, Glenn R; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2010-06-15

    Learning and memory impairments are prevalent among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, such deficits are only weakly associated with MS disease severity (brain atrophy). The cognitive reserve hypothesis states that greater lifetime intellectual enrichment lessens the negative impact of brain disease on cognition, thereby helping to explain the incomplete relationship between brain disease and cognitive status in neurologic populations. The literature on cognitive reserve has focused mainly on Alzheimer disease. The current research examines whether greater intellectual enrichment lessens the negative effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in patients with MS. Forty-four persons with MS completed neuropsychological measures of verbal learning and memory, and a vocabulary-based estimate of lifetime intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy was estimated with third ventricle width measured from 3-T magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo MRIs. Hierarchical regression was used to predict learning and memory with brain atrophy, intellectual enrichment, and the interaction between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy predicted worse learning and memory, and intellectual enrichment predicted better learning; however, these effects were moderated by interactions between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Specifically, higher intellectual enrichment lessened the negative impact of brain atrophy on both learning and memory. These findings help to explain the incomplete relationship between multiple sclerosis disease severity and cognition, as the effect of disease on cognition is attenuated among patients with higher intellectual enrichment. As such, intellectual enrichment is supported as a protective factor against disease-related cognitive impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  2. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, E.S.; Straaten, E.C. van; Leeuw, F.E. de; Flier, W.M.; Barkhof, F.; Pantoni, L.; Basile, A.M.; Inzitari, D.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Wahlund, L.O.; Rostrup, E.; Schmidt, R.; Fazekas, F.; Scheltens, P.

    2007-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white

  3. Senile macular degeneration and geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willerson, D.; Aaberg, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    The case is reported of a man who had oval areas of atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium in paracentral areas which previously had heavy concentrations of drusen OU. This supports the suggestion by others that atrophy of the RPE in senile macular disease may in some cases occur in the absence of previous serous detachment of the RPE. Images PMID:687554

  4. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  5. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, T.; Skoog, I.; Oudkerk, M.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.W.I.M.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vis, J B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/39133378X; Zwanenburg, J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290473683; van der Kleij, L A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413752291; Spijkerman, J M; Biessels, G J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367; Hendrikse, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266590268; Petersen, E T

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were

  7. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose Vagifem 10 microg in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, L S G; Naessen, T; Elia, D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the endometrial safety of a 10 microg estradiol vaginal tablet in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.......The objective of the study was to evaluate the endometrial safety of a 10 microg estradiol vaginal tablet in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women....

  8. Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling in Ventilator-induced Diaphragm Atrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, W.J.M.; Hees, H.W.H. van; Vaneker, M.; Linkels, M.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Scheffer, G.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Heunks, L.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Mechanical ventilation induces diaphragm muscle atrophy, which plays a key role in difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation. The signaling pathways involved in ventilator-induced diaphragm atrophy are poorly understood. The current study investigated the role of Toll-like receptor

  9. Preservation of deep inferior epigastric artery at kidney transplantation prevents atrophy of lower rectus abdominis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Daiki; Harada, Hiroshi; Morita, Ken; Oba, Koji; Fukuzawa, Nobuyuki; Hotta, Kiyohiko; Sasaki, Hajime; Miyazaki, Chihoko; Nonomura, Katsuya

    2012-05-27

    The deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA), which feeds the lower rectus abdominis muscle (lower RAM), is usually transected in kidney transplantation. In this study, we investigated whether preservation of DIEA can prevent lower RAM atrophy. Two hundred and forty-five kidney transplant recipients (150 men and 95 women) were enrolled in the study (mean age 39.9 years) and were divided into two groups according to whether DIEA was transected (group A, n = 175) or preserved (group B, n = 70). The extent of lower RAM atrophy calculated in computed tomography (performed 1 year after transplantation) and incidence of lower RAM atrophy were compared between the two groups. The most predictive factors for lower RAM atrophy were assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model. The extent of lower RAM atrophy was significantly lower in group B (15.0 ± 18.5%) than that in group A (38.9 ± 25.4%, P = 0.003). The incidence of lower RAM atrophy was less prevalent in group B (20.0%) compared with that in group A (62.9%, P DIEA was the only independent predictive factor for lower RAM atrophy (P DIEA during kidney transplant can prevent lower RAM atrophy.

  10. Anterior temporal atrophy and posterior progression in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R.E.; van der Hoorn, Anouk; Meppelink, Anne Marthe; Teune, Laura K.; Koerts, Janneke; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by specific motor and nonmotor impairments. This suggests that PD is characterized by disease-specific regional cortical atrophy. Given the change of symptoms over time, a concurrent increase in regional atrophy may further be assumed to reflect

  11. EMBOLIZATION AND CHEMOEMBOLIZATION PROSTATIC ARTERIES OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA AND PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Tabynbaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of the use of embolization of prostatic arteries in benign prostatic hyperplasia in 3 patients, two of whom have been with suprapubic drainage of the bladder. The patient was 120 ml without suprapubic drainage of the bladder residual urine. The age of patients was 68 to 70 years. According TRUS, the average prostate volume was 86.0 ± 12.6 cm3 . 4 patients» superselective prostatic artery chemoembolization was performed in prostate cancer. Chemicals for carrying out this procedure served adriamycin at a dose of 50 mg. Two of the four patients with prostate cancer was hormone-resistant form. Three patients had PCa T3b N0M0 stage T2bN0M0 histologically verified number Gleason 7, 7, 8, 9. All four had difficulty urinating, the amount of residual urine was 54 to 98 ml. As a source of transportation used chemotherapy microspheres (gepasfery size of 300–500 microns. Treatment outcomes assessed at one month. The efficiency of the methods for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer in the form of return of spontaneous urination, decrease in residual urine, reducing the prostate-specific antigen. 

  12. Parapapillary atrophy and optic disc region assessment (PANDORA): retinal imaging tool for assessment of the optic disc and parapapillary atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Kai; Tang, Tong Boon; Laude, Augustinus; Dhillon, Baljean; Murray, Alan F

    2012-10-01

    We describe a computer-aided measuring tool, named parapapillary atrophy and optic disc region assessment (PANDORA), for automated detection and quantification of both the parapapillary atrophy (PPA) and the optic disc (OD) regions in two-dimensional color retinal fundus images. The OD region is segmented using a combination of edge detection and ellipse fitting methods. The PPA region is identified by the presence of bright pixels in the temporal zone of the OD, and it is segmented using a sequence of techniques, including a modified Chan-Vese approach, thresholding, scanning filter, and multiseed region growing. PANDORA has been tested with 133 color retinal images (82 with PPA; 51 without PPA) drawn randomly from the Lothian Birth Cohort (LBC) database, together with a "ground truth" estimate from an ophthalmologist. The PPA detection rate is 89.47% with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 1. The mean accuracy in defining the OD region is 81.31% (SD=10.45) when PPA is present and 95.32% (SD=4.36) when PPA is absent. The mean accuracy in defining the PPA region is 73.57% (SD=11.62). PANDORA demonstrates for the first time how to quantify the OD and PPA regions using two-dimensional fundus images, enabling ophthalmologists to study ocular diseases related to PPA using a standard fundus camera.

  13. New visual prostate symptom score versus international prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New visual prostate symptom score versus international prostate symptom score in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: A prospective comparision in Indian rural population. ... All the patients were requested to complete the IPSS and VPSS questionnaire, and they were correlated. The urodynamic study was performed ...

  14. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predict...

  15. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  16. Serum prostate specific antigen levels in men with benign prostatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the PSA test at the conventional cut-off value of 4 ng/ml. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Nairobi Hospital Laboratory, Nairobi. Data Source: Results of serum Prostate specific Antigen (PSA), estimation and prostate histology specimens at ...

  17. Original article The Relationship Between Prostate Volume, Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    ), prostate specific antigen. (PSA) and age in a cohort of Saudi men from the Urology Department, King Abdul Aziz University. Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Medical records of 447 Saudi men aged 20-89 years with benign prostatic ...

  18. Functional MR Imaging in prostate radiotherapy - relationship with prostate histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borren, A.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of prostate cancer with radiotherapy might be improved by either increasing the radiation dose on the most important tumor areas with focal boosting or by reducing the dose on healthy prostate tissue by means of focal therapy. In both scenarios, selection of the tumor areas is a

  19. Clinical features and autonomic testing predict survival in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Elizabeth A; Sletten, David M; Suarez, Mariana D; Mandrekar, Jay N; Ahlskog, J Eric; Bower, James H; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Silber, Michael H; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Fealey, Robert D; Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A; Singer, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Multiple system atrophy is characterized by autonomic failure along with motor symptoms of parkinsonism and/or cerebellar ataxia. There are differing reports on the influence of certain clinical features, including motor subtype (multiple system atrophy-parkinsonism versus multiple system atrophy-cerebellar ataxia), age of onset, gender, and early autonomic symptoms, on the survival in patients with multiple system atrophy. We sought to evaluate overall survival and predictors of survival in a large cohort of patients with multiple system atrophy seen at a single referral centre where objective autonomic testing is routinely performed for this indication. All cases of multiple system atrophy evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester and assessed with an autonomic reflex screen between January 1998 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 685 patients were identified; 594 met criteria for probable multiple system atrophy, and 91 for possible multiple system atrophy. Multiple system atrophy-parkinsonism was the predominant subtype in 430 patients (63%). Average age of onset was earlier in multiple system atrophy-cerebellar ataxia (58.4 years) compared to multiple system atrophy-parkinsonism (62.3 years; P system atrophy (P = 0.232). An initial motor symptom was most common (61%) followed by autonomic onset (28%) and combined motor and autonomic symptoms (11%). The initial onset of either motor or autonomic symptoms did not influence length of survival. However, a number of clinical and autonomic laboratory features predicted unfavourable survival in a univariate analysis. A multivariate model retained the following unfavourable predictors of survival: (i) falls within 3 years of onset (hazard ratio 2.31, P features can be used to predict survival in patients with multiple system atrophy. Autonomic testing adds an additional, independent predictor of survival, demonstrating its value not only in the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy but also as

  20. Effectiveness of the PRECEDE model in obese patients undergoing primary care nurses follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Maria Barrio Cantalejo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious problem in western modern countries. Primary care nurses has to follow up these patients but often with poor results. The PRECEDE model (Green L.W try to help patients to identify factors that predispose, make easier or reinforce their relationship with food and physical exercise. Objectives: To evaluate if PRECEDE makes easier the adherence of obese patients to a new style of feeding and exercise that reduces their BMI. Metodology: Experimental design, community randomised study. We analysed two samples of two different interventions: in one we applied the PRECEDE, in the other one the conventional advice about diet and exercise. Measures at 12 and 18 months. Both samples were homogeneous. The relationship between qualitative data has been studied through the Pearson x2 test and the comparison of quantitative data between two groups through the Student T test for independent samples. Results: a The PRECEDE intervention group lost more weigh than control at 12ª month, but this difference is almost null at 18º month. b The BMI difference has low clinical value because in both cases the final BMI is >30. Conclusions: a PRECEDE model shows a major capacity to reduce the BMI than the conventional model at short time. b To conclude that the PRECEDE weigh reduction is clinically effective we should have to extend our educational intervention longer time.

  1. Developing Targeted Health Service Interventions Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model: Two Australian Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jane L; Rolley, John X; Davidson, Patricia M

    2012-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. This paper provides an overview of the applicability of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to the development of targeted nursing led chronic illness interventions. Background. Changing health care practice is a complex and dynamic process that requires consideration of social, political, economic, and organisational factors. An understanding of the characteristics of the target population, health professionals, and organizations plus identification of the determinants for change are also required. Synthesizing this data to guide the development of an effective intervention is a challenging process. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model has been used in global health care settings to guide the identification, planning, implementation, and evaluation of various health improvement initiatives. Design. Using a reflective case study approach, this paper examines the applicability of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to the development of targeted chronic care improvement interventions for two distinct Australian populations: a rapidly expanding and aging rural population with unmet palliative care needs and a disadvantaged urban community at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Results. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model approach demonstrated utility across diverse health settings in a systematic planning process. In environments characterized by increasing health care needs, limited resources, and growing community expectations, adopting planning tools such as PRECEDE-PROCEED Model at a local level can facilitate the development of the most effective interventions. Relevance to Clinical Practice. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model is a strong theoretical model that guides the development of realistic nursing led interventions with the best chance of being successful in existing health care environments.

  2. Jogando com os precedentes: regras, analogias, princípios Playing with precedents: rules, analogies, principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Moreira Maués

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa decisões recentes do STF envolvendo a aplicação de súmulas vinculantes à luz de três concepções de precedentes, desenvolvidas por F. Schauer (precedentes como regras, C. Sunstein (precedentes como analogias e R. Dworkin (precedentes como princípios. Após a exposição dos principais aspectos de cada uma dessas teorias baseadas, respectivamente, nos conceitos de generalizações enraizadas, acordos teóricos incompletos e romance em cadeia, e discute os fundamentos que elas podem oferecer para o uso de precedentes no direito brasileiro.This article analyses the use of binding precedents by the Brazilian Supreme Court in the light of three conceptions of precedents, which are developed by F. Schauer (precedents as rules, C. Sunstein (precedents as analogies and R. Dworkin (precedents as principles. After the exposition of the main aspects of each theory, based respectively on the concepts of entrenched generalizations, incompletely theorized agreements and chain novel, the article debates the arguments that they can provide for the use of precedents in Brazilian law.

  3. Prostatic urethral lift vs transurethral resection of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gratzke, Christian; Barber, Neil; Speakman, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare prostatic urethral lift (PUL) with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with regard to symptoms, recovery experience, sexual function, continence, safety, quality of life, sleep and overall patient perception. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 80 patients with lowe...... in statistically significant improvement in sleep. CONCLUSION: PUL was compared to TURP in a randomised, controlled study which further characterized both modalities so that care providers and patients can better understand the net benefit when selecting a treatment option.......OBJECTIVES: To compare prostatic urethral lift (PUL) with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with regard to symptoms, recovery experience, sexual function, continence, safety, quality of life, sleep and overall patient perception. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 80 patients with lower...... function preservation, continence preservation and safety. Additional evaluations of patient perspective, quality of life and sleep were prospectively collected, analysed and presented for the first time. RESULTS: Significant improvements in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS quality of life...

  4. Characterising Castrate Tolerant Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    ASHLEE KATE CLARK

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent disease in aging males. This thesis explores prostate cancer cells that escape current therapy and give rise to end-stage disease. Using sophisticated experimental approaches, this important cancer cell population was identified and characterised in human prostate cancer tissues.  Our discoveries will eventually lead to improved cancer treatments for men with prostate cancer.

  5. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of prostate cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Campbell L. Prevalence of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen in rural Nigeria. Int J Urol. Jun 2003; 10(6):315-. 22. PubMed | Google Scholar. 17. Rabah DM, Arafa MA. Prostate cancer screening in a Saudi population: an explanatory trial study. Prostate Cancer. Prostatic Dis. Jun 2010; 13(2):191-4. PubMed | Google.

  7. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of prostate size and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The prostate volume has been measured by various methods including digital rectal examination, cystourethrography, urethroscopy, and urethral pressure flow ... We studied prostate dimensions and volume by transabdominal ... had enlarged prostates (range, 22.5–387 ml) with a mean.

  8. Quantify Prostate Cancer by Automated Histomorphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kuska, Jens-Peer; Löffler, Markus; Wernert, Nicolas

    A new method is presented to quantify malignant changes in histological sections of prostate tissue immunohistochemically stained for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by means of image processing. The morphological analysis of the prostate tissue uses the solidity of PSA-positive prostate tissue segments to compute a quantitative measure that turns out highly correlated with scores obtained from routine diagnosis (Gleason, Dhom).

  9. Monosodium glutamate: Potentials at inducing prostate pathologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health implication of the alteration could be compounded by the opposing response elicited by increasing the concentration of either MSG or DW. Key words: Monosodium glutamate, total acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate cancer, prostatitis, benign prostate hyperplasia, infertility. African Journal of ...

  10. Prostate specific antigen in a community-based sample of men without prostate cancer: Correlations with prostate volume, age, body mass index, and symptoms of prostatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); C.H. Bangma (Chris); W.J. Kirkels (Wim); F.H. Schröder (Fritz)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe correlation between both prostate specific antigen levels (PSA) and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) and age, prostate volume parameters, body mass index, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were studied in a community‐based population. A sample of 502 men

  11. Serenoa repens treatment modifies bax/bcl-2 index expression and caspase-3 activity in prostatic tissue from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela-Navarrete, Remigio; Escribano-Burgos, Marta; Farré, Antonio López; García-Cardoso, Juan; Manzarbeitia, Felix; Carrasco, Carolina

    2005-02-01

    Permixon is a lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (SR) widely used to treat men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We tested the effect of this drug on molecular mechanisms associated with apoptosis, such as the Bax-to-Bcl-2 expression ratio and caspase-3 activity, in prostatic tissue from men with symptomatic BPH treated for 3 months before surgery. An open, multicenter pilot study of 2 parallel groups of patients with BPH was done. They were randomized to be followed for 3 weeks without any treatment before surgery (control group) or to receive 160 mg SR orally twice daily for a 3-month period preceding the same surgery. Surgery was ultimately performed in 17 controls and 12 patients by transurethral prostate resection or retropubic adenomectomy. Bax and Bcl-2 expression, and caspase-3 activity were determined by Western blot in 15 controls and 10 patients, and reported in blinded fashion. The Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, which is used as an apoptotic index, was significantly increased in the prostatic tissue of treated patients. The level of the intact 116 kDa poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase form, an enzyme involved in the cell death apoptotic pathway, was also found to be decreased in prostatic tissue from SR treated patients, suggesting increased caspase 3 activity in the prostate. Permixon increased molecular markers involved in the apoptotic process, ie the Bax-to-Bcl-2 expression ratio and caspase-3 activity. This could have clinical relevance due to the improvement in symptoms produced by treatment with this drug.

  12. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...

  13. Genetic Analysis of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.J.G. van Alewijk (Dirk)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human prostate has the size of a chestnut and envelops the urethra as it exits the bladder, below the bladder neck. It is the largest of the male accessory sex glands, which also include the seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral gland. The prostate is composed of

  14. Focal therapy in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interesting developments took place in the treatment of prostate cancer including focal therapy for less aggressive organ-confined prostate cancer. Fortunately, curative treatment is often still an option for patients suffering from the lower staged tumors. In carefully selected patients, the

  15. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  16. FastStats: Prostate Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... prostate cancer: 27,682 Deaths per 100,000 males from prostate cancer: 17.8 Source: Deaths: Final ...

  17. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING IN GHANA -

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellnlar carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific anti- gen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  18. Indications for Prostatic Biopsy – which is more useful: the Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indications for Prostatic Biopsy – which is more useful: the Prostate Specific Antigen or the Digital Rectal Examination? – An Analysis of 431 Consecutive Prostatic Biopsies at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital.

  19. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition.

  20. Sphincter electromyography in diabetes mellitus and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Fan; Pan, Hua; Zhang, Zaiqiang; Lin, Jinxi; Chen, Na; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Qing; Wang, Han; Wang, Yongjun; Cui, Liying; Tang, Xiaofu

    2015-09-01

    Abnormalities of external anal sphincter electromyography (EAS-EMG) characterize multiple system atrophy (MSA) and focal cauda equina or conus medullaris lesions. This study is designed to determine whether and how diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) affects EAS as compared to the abnormalities seen in MSA. We conducted multi-motor unit potential (MUP) analysis of EAS in 22 healthy controls, 32 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients without neuropathy, 38 DPN patients, and 68 MSA patients. DPN patients had a significant (P < 0.01) increase in MUP mean duration, mean amplitude, percentage of long duration MUPs, and satellite rate, but to a lesser extent than MSA. Mean duration and satellite rate showed the least overlap among different groups in individual value distributions. Compared with MSA, DPN affects EAS to a lesser degree as judged by neurogenic MUP abnormalities in EMG. Mean duration and satellite rate may serve as the most discriminating aspects in MUP analysis of EAS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.