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Sample records for atrophy patterns based

  1. Landmark based shape analysis for cerebellar ataxia classification and cerebellar atrophy pattern visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Abulnaga, S. Mazdak; Carass, Aaron; Kansal, Kalyani; Jedynak, Bruno M.; Onyike, Chiadi; Ying, Sarah H.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-03-01

    Cerebellar dysfunction can lead to a wide range of movement disorders. Studying the cerebellar atrophy pattern associated with different cerebellar disease types can potentially help in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. In this paper, we present a landmark based shape analysis pipeline to classify healthy control and different ataxia types and to visualize the characteristic cerebellar atrophy patterns associated with different types. A highly informative feature representation of the cerebellar structure is constructed by extracting dense homologous landmarks on the boundary surfaces of cerebellar sub-structures. A diagnosis group classifier based on this representation is built using partial least square dimension reduction and regularized linear discriminant analysis. The characteristic atrophy pattern for an ataxia type is visualized by sampling along the discriminant direction between healthy controls and the ataxia type. Experimental results show that the proposed method can successfully classify healthy controls and different ataxia types. The visualized cerebellar atrophy patterns were consistent with the regional volume decreases observed in previous studies, but the proposed method provides intuitive and detailed understanding about changes of overall size and shape of the cerebellum, as well as that of individual lobules.

  2. Ataxia-telangiectasia: the pattern of cerebellar atrophy on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe MRI of the brain in 19 patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) and correlate the appearances with the degree of neurologic deficit. We examined 10 male and nine female patients; 17 were aged between 2 and 12 years (mean 8 years) but a woman and her brother were 35 and 38 years old, and had a variant of AT. Ataxia was the first recognized sign of the disease in every patient. We detected the following patterns of cerebellar atrophy: in the youngest patient, aged 2 years, the study was normal; in the five next youngest patients 3-7 years of age, the lateral cerebellum and superior vermis showed the earliest changes of atrophy; and all but one of the other patients had moderate to marked diffuse atrophy of vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. There were 12 patients aged 9 years and above; one, who was normal, was 9 years old. The five patients who at the time of examination were unable to walk all had diffuse atrophy involving both vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. (orig.)

  3. Ataxia-telangiectasia: the pattern of cerebellar atrophy on MRI

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    Tavani, F. [Department of Radiology, University of Modena (Italy); Zimmerman, R.A.; Gatti, R.; Bingham, P. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Berry, G.T. [Department of Endocrinology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Sullivan, K. [Department of Immunology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States)

    2003-05-01

    We describe MRI of the brain in 19 patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) and correlate the appearances with the degree of neurologic deficit. We examined 10 male and nine female patients; 17 were aged between 2 and 12 years (mean 8 years) but a woman and her brother were 35 and 38 years old, and had a variant of AT. Ataxia was the first recognized sign of the disease in every patient. We detected the following patterns of cerebellar atrophy: in the youngest patient, aged 2 years, the study was normal; in the five next youngest patients 3-7 years of age, the lateral cerebellum and superior vermis showed the earliest changes of atrophy; and all but one of the other patients had moderate to marked diffuse atrophy of vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. There were 12 patients aged 9 years and above; one, who was normal, was 9 years old. The five patients who at the time of examination were unable to walk all had diffuse atrophy involving both vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. (orig.)

  4. Patterns of regional cerebellar atrophy in genetic frontotemporal dementia

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    Martina Bocchetta

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There appears to be a differential pattern of cerebellar atrophy in the major genetic forms of FTD, being relatively spared in GRN, localized to the lobule VIIa-Crus I in the superior-posterior region of the cerebellum in C9orf72, the area connected via the thalamus to the prefrontal cortex and involved in cognitive function, and localized to the vermis in MAPT, the ‘limbic cerebellum’ involved in emotional processing.

  5. Patients with Poor Response to Antipsychotics Have a More Severe Pattern of Frontal Atrophy: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of Treatment Resistance in Schizophrenia

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    Mario Quarantelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of schizophrenia patients do not respond adequately to the therapy. Previous MRI studies have suggested that drug treatment resistance is associated with brain morphological abnormalities, although region-of-interest analysis of MR studies from nonresponder and responder patients failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference between these two schizophrenia subgroups. We have used a voxel-based analysis of segmented MR studies to assess structural cerebral differences in 20 nonresponder and 15 responder patients and 16 age-matched normal volunteers. Differences between the three groups emerged bilaterally mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri, primarily due to reduced grey matter volumes in nonresponders, as compared to both normal volunteers and responder patients. Post hoc direct comparison between the two schizophrenia subgroups demonstrated significantly reduced grey matter volumes in middle frontal gyrus bilaterally, in the dorsolateral aspects of left superior frontal gyrus extending into postcentral gyrus and in the right medial temporal cortex. Our results extend and integrate previous findings suggesting a more severe atrophy in nonresponder schizophrenia patients, compared to responder patients, mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri. Longitudinal studies in drug-naïve patients are needed to assess the role of these associations.

  6. Pattern Differences of Small Hand Muscle Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Mimic Disorders

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    Jia Fang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The different patterns of small hand muscle atrophy between the ALS patients and the patients with mimic disorders presumably reflect distinct pathophysiological mechanisms underlying different disorders, and may aid in distinguishing between ALS and mimic disorders.

  7. Calpain 3 Expression Pattern during Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy and Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

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    Ronghua Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Calpain 3 (CAPN3, also known as p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family that is involved in muscular dystrophy; however, the roles of CAPN3 in muscular atrophy and regeneration are yet to be understood. In the present study, we attempted to explain the effect of CAPN3 in muscle atrophy by evaluating CAPN3 expression in rat gastrocnemius muscle following reversible sciatic nerve injury. After nerve injury, the wet weight ratio and cross sectional area (CSA of gastrocnemius muscle were decreased gradually from 1–14 days and then recovery from 14–28 days. The active form of CAPN3 (~62 kDa protein decreased slightly on day 3 and then increased from day 7 to 14 before a decrease from day 14 to 28. The result of linear correlation analysis showed that expression of the active CAPN3 protein level was negatively correlated with muscle wet weight ratio. CAPN3 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA injection improved muscle recovery on days 7 and 14 after injury as compared to that observed with control siRNA treatment. Depletion of CAPN3 gene expression could promote myoblast differentiation in L6 cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that the expression pattern of the active CAPN3 protein is linked to muscle atrophy and regeneration following denervation: its upregulation during early stages may promote satellite cell renewal by inhibiting differentiation, whereas in later stages, CAPN3 expression may be downregulated to stimulate myogenic differentiation and enhance recovery. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the role of CAPN3 protein in muscle regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

  8. Longitudinal patterns of leukoaraiosis and brain atrophy in symptomatic small vessel disease.

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    Lambert, Christian; Benjamin, Philip; Zeestraten, Eva; Lawrence, Andrew J; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is a common condition associated with lacunar stroke, cognitive impairment and significant functional morbidity. White matter hyperintensities and brain atrophy, seen on magnetic resonance imaging, are correlated with increasing disease severity. However, how the two are related remains an open question. To better define the relationship between white matter hyperintensity growth and brain atrophy, we applied a semi-automated magnetic resonance imaging segmentation analysis pipeline to a 3-year longitudinal cohort of 99 subjects with symptomatic small vessel disease, who were followed-up for ≥1 years. Using a novel two-stage warping pipeline with tissue repair step, voxel-by-voxel rate of change maps were calculated for each tissue class (grey matter, white matter, white matter hyperintensities and lacunes) for each individual. These maps capture both the distribution of disease and spatial information showing local rates of growth and atrophy. These were analysed to answer three primary questions: first, is there a relationship between whole brain atrophy and magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease (white matter hyperintensities or lacune volume)? Second, is there regional variation within the cerebral white matter in the rate of white matter hyperintensity progression? Finally, are there regionally specific relationships between the rates of white matter hyperintensity progression and cortical grey matter atrophy? We demonstrate that the rates of white matter hyperintensity expansion and grey matter atrophy are strongly correlated (Pearson's R = -0.69,P< 1 × 10(-7)), and significant grey matter loss and whole brain atrophy occurs annually (P< 0.05). Additionally, the rate of white matter hyperintensity growth was heterogeneous, occurring more rapidly within long association fasciculi. Using voxel-based quantification (family-wise error correctedP< 0.05), we show the rate of white matter hyperintensity

  9. White Matter Atrophy in Patients with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Voxel-Based Morphometry Analysis of T1- and T2-Weighted MR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Braga; Yasuda, Clarissa L.; Fernando Cendes

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis is highly refractory to clinical treatment. MRI voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of T1-weighted images has revealed a widespread pattern of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy in MTLE. Few studies have investigated the role of T2-weighted images in revealing WM atrophy using VBM. Objectives. To compare the results of WM atrophy between T1- and T2-weighted images through VBM. Methods. We selected 2...

  10. The atrophy pattern in the subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer disease by structural MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the patterns of cortical atrophy of the two subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA). And to compare them with that of Alzheimer disease (AD) to provide an objective basis for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Methods: A total of 83 patients were enrolled in this study and there were 30 patients with cognitively normal controls (CN), 30 with AD and 23 with FTLD (10 with bvFTD, 13 with PPA). Philips 3.0 T TX scanner and 8 channel head coil was employed. Three dimensional turbo fast echo (3D-TFE) T1WI sequence with high resolution was used to collect the volume data of gray matter. 3D-TFE T1WI images were normalized and segmented into gray matter map for statistical analysis by SPM 8 and VBM 8. The false discovery rate (FDR) was adopted in P value adjustment, P<0.001, and the cluster size was set at 5. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) was set at 4 mm for the smoothing. Paired t test was used for statistics. Results: In bvFTD, PPA and AD groups,there were diffuse regions with reduced volume in cerebral cortex and subcortical structures (such as the hippocampus, the amygdala, the caudate nuclei, et al). The most obvious atrophic region in bvFTD and PPA group was found in the frontotemporal. Compared with AD, gray matter atrophy in bvFTD was found in brain regions including bilateral temporal lobes, bilateral superior temporal pole gyri, bilateral middle temporal pole gyri, right fusiform gyrus and bilateral frontal lobes. Among them, temporal and frontal lobes atrophy had obvious right partial lateralizing, with 14 301 voxels in right temporal lobe and 5105 in left (t=-5.03, P<0.05). The number of atrophy voxels in right and left frontal lobe were 1344 and 125 (t=3.45, P<0.05). The left temporooccipital lobe atrophy was more obvious than the right in PPA,with 15 637 voxels in left and 10 723 in right (t=-2.65, P<0.05). Conclusions

  11. Relationship between plasma analytes and SPARE-AD defined brain atrophy patterns in ADNI.

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    Jon B Toledo

    Full Text Available Different inflammatory and metabolic pathways have been associated with Alzheimeŕs disease (AD. However, only recently multi-analyte panels to study a large number of molecules in well characterized cohorts have been made available. These panels could help identify molecules that point to the affected pathways. We studied the relationship between a panel of plasma biomarkers (Human DiscoveryMAP and presence of AD-like brain atrophy patterns defined by a previously published index (SPARE-AD at baseline in subjects of the ADNI cohort. 818 subjects had MRI-derived SPARE-AD scores, of these subjects 69% had plasma biomarkers and 51% had CSF tau and Aβ measurements. Significant analyte-SPARE-AD and analytes correlations were studied in adjusted models. Plasma cortisol and chromogranin A showed a significant association that did not remain significant in the CSF signature adjusted model. Plasma macrophage inhibitory protein-1α and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 showed a significant association with brain atrophy in the adjusted model. Cortisol levels showed an inverse association with tests measuring processing speed. Our results indicate that stress and insulin responses and cytokines associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells in MCI-AD are associated with its characteristic AD-like brain atrophy pattern and correlate with clinical changes or CSF biomarkers.

  12. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-01-01

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20-90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (Ppatterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD. PMID:27045845

  13. Pattern Differences of Small Hand Muscle Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Mimic Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Fang; Ming-Sheng Liu; Yu-Zhou Guan; Hua Du; Ben-Hong Li; Bo Cui; Qing-Yun Ding

    2016-01-01

    Background:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and some mimic disorders,such as distal-type cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA),Hirayama disease (HD),and spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) may present with intrinsic hand muscle atrophy.This study aimed to investigate different patterns of small hand muscle involvement in ALS and some mimic disorders.Methods:We compared the abductor digiti minimi/abductor pollicis brevis (ADM/APB) compound muscle action potential (CMAP) ratios between 200 ALS patients,95 patients with distal-type CSA,88 HD patients,43 SBMA patients,and 150 normal controls.Results:The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly higher in the ALS patients (P < 0.001) than that in the normal controls.The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly reduced in the patients with distal-type CSA (P < 0.001) and the HD patients (P < 0.001) compared with that in the normal controls.The patients with distal-type CSA had significantly lower APB CMAP amplitude than the HD patients (P =0.004).The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly lower in the HD patients (P < 0.001) than that in the patients with distal-type CSA.The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio of the SBMA patients was similar to that of the normal controls (P =0.862).An absent APB CMAP and an abnormally high ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio (>4.5) were observed exclusively in the ALS patients.Conclusions:The different patterns of small hand muscle atrophy between the ALS patients and the patients with mimic disorders presumably reflect distinct pathophysiological mechanisms underlying different disorders,and may aid in distinguishing between ALS and mimic disorders.

  14. Deformation-Based Atrophy Estimation for Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) - the most common form of dementia, is a term used for accelerated memory loss and cognitive abilities enough to severely hamper day-to-day activities. One of the most globally accepted markers for AD is atrophy, in mainly the brain parenchyma. The goal of the PhD project...... model and a new way to estimate atrophy from a deformation field. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed solution but applying it on the publicly available Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging data (ADNI) initiative and compare to existing state-of-art atrophy estimation methods....

  15. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-01-01

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20–90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (P<0.05), anti-hypertensive (P<0.05), anti-diabetic drug use (men P<0.05, women P=0.06) and waist circumference for the male cohort (P<0.05), after adjusting for age. Subjects with ABA had spatially extensive gray matter loss in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes (false-discovery-rate-corrected q<0.001). ABA patterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD. PMID:27045845

  16. Are frontal cognitive and atrophy patterns different in PSP and bvFTD? A comparative neuropsychological and VBM study.

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    Julien Lagarde

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTD are two clinicohistological entities that share a severe prefrontal syndrome. To what extent do the cognitive syndrome and the location of the underlying brain atrophy unify or segregate these entities? Here, we examined the clinical and radiological patterns of frontal involvement and the neural bases of the cognitive dysfunctions observed in the Richardson form of PSP and the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD. The cognitive profile and grey and white matter volume of PSP (n = 19 and bvFTD (n = 16 patients and control participants (n = 18 were compared using a standard battery of neuropsychological tests and voxel-based morphometry (VBM, respectively. Analyses of correlations between neuropsychological and morphometric data were additionally performed. The severity and qualitative pattern of cognitive dysfunction was globally similar between the two patient groups. Grey matter volume was decreased in widespread frontal areas and in the temporal uncus in bvFTD, while it was decreased in the frontal and temporal lobes as well as in the thalamus in PSP. We also found an unexpected involvement of the frontal rectal gyrus in PSP patients compared to controls. Correlation analyses yielded different results in the two groups, with no area showing significant correlations in PSP patients, while several frontal and some temporal areas did so in bvFTD patients. In spite of minor neuropsychological and morphological differences, this study shows that the patterns of cognitive dysfunction and atrophy are very similar in PSP and bvFTD. However, executive dysfunction in these diseases may stem from partially divergent cortical and subcortical neural circuits.

  17. White Matter Atrophy in Patients with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Voxel-Based Morphometry Analysis of T1- and T2-Weighted MR Images

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    Barbara Braga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE associated with hippocampal sclerosis is highly refractory to clinical treatment. MRI voxel-based morphometry (VBM of T1-weighted images has revealed a widespread pattern of gray matter (GM and white matter (WM atrophy in MTLE. Few studies have investigated the role of T2-weighted images in revealing WM atrophy using VBM. Objectives. To compare the results of WM atrophy between T1- and T2-weighted images through VBM. Methods. We selected 28 patients with left and 27 with right MTLE and 60 normal controls. We analyzed T1- and T2- weighted images with SPM8, using VBM/DARTEL algorithm to extract maps of GM and WM. The second level of SPM was used to investigate areas of WM atrophy among groups. Results. Both acquisitions showed bilateral widespread WM atrophy. T1-weighted images showed higher sensibility to detect areas of WM atrophy in both groups of MTLE. T2-weighted images also showed areas of WM atrophy in a more restricted pattern, but still bilateral and with a large area of superposition with T1-weighted images. Conclusions. In MTLE, T1-weighted images are more sensitive to detect subtle WM abnormalities using VBM, compared to T2 images, although both present a good superposition of statistical maps.

  18. Brain atrophy and neuropsychological outcome after treatment of ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, Paula; Koskenkorva, Paeivi; Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Koivisto, Timo; Aeikiae, Marja [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurosurgery, Kuopio (Finland); Niskanen, Eini [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Physics, Kuopio (Finland); Koenoenen, Mervi [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); Haenninen, Tuomo [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Cognitive impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is frequently detected. Here, we describe the pattern of cerebral (gray matter) atrophy and its clinical relevance after treatment of aSAH caused by a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. Thirty-seven aSAH patients with ACA aneurysm (17 surgical, 20 endovascular treatment) and a good or moderate clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale V or IV) and 30 controls underwent brain MRI. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the patients and controls. Patients also underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment. The comparisons between controls and either all patients (n=37) or the subgroup of surgically treated patients (n=17) revealed bilateral cortical atrophy in the frontal lobes, mainly in the basal areas. The brainstem, bilateral thalamic and hypothalamic areas, and ipsilateral caudate nucleus were also involved. Small areas of atrophy were detected in temporal lobes. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed atrophy ipsilateral to the surgical approach. In the subgroup of endovascularly treated patients (n = 15), small areas of atrophy were detected in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the thalamic region. Twenty patients (54%) showed cognitive deficits in neuropsychological assessment. Group analysis after aSAH and treatment of the ruptured ACA aneurysm revealed gray matter atrophy, principally involving the frontobasal cortical areas and hippocampus ipsilateral to the surgical approach. Areas of reduced gray matter were more pronounced after surgical than endovascular treatment. Together with possible focal cortical infarctions and brain retraction deficits in individual patients, this finding may explain the neuropsychological disturbances commonly detected after treatment of ruptured ACA aneurysms. (orig.)

  19. Brain atrophy and neuropsychological outcome after treatment of ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: a voxel-based morphometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognitive impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is frequently detected. Here, we describe the pattern of cerebral (gray matter) atrophy and its clinical relevance after treatment of aSAH caused by a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. Thirty-seven aSAH patients with ACA aneurysm (17 surgical, 20 endovascular treatment) and a good or moderate clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale V or IV) and 30 controls underwent brain MRI. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the patients and controls. Patients also underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment. The comparisons between controls and either all patients (n=37) or the subgroup of surgically treated patients (n=17) revealed bilateral cortical atrophy in the frontal lobes, mainly in the basal areas. The brainstem, bilateral thalamic and hypothalamic areas, and ipsilateral caudate nucleus were also involved. Small areas of atrophy were detected in temporal lobes. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed atrophy ipsilateral to the surgical approach. In the subgroup of endovascularly treated patients (n = 15), small areas of atrophy were detected in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the thalamic region. Twenty patients (54%) showed cognitive deficits in neuropsychological assessment. Group analysis after aSAH and treatment of the ruptured ACA aneurysm revealed gray matter atrophy, principally involving the frontobasal cortical areas and hippocampus ipsilateral to the surgical approach. Areas of reduced gray matter were more pronounced after surgical than endovascular treatment. Together with possible focal cortical infarctions and brain retraction deficits in individual patients, this finding may explain the neuropsychological disturbances commonly detected after treatment of ruptured ACA aneurysms. (orig.)

  20. Voxel-based morphometry in the parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess patterns of the gray and white matter atrophy in patients with multiple system atrophy-P (MSA-P) variant of whole brain compared with normal controls. Methods: Three dimensional fast spoiled gradient echo (3D-FSPGR) T1WI of whole brain were obtained from 13 patients with probable MSA-P and 14 age-matched normal controls. The volume of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of MSA-P patients and normal controls was analyzed with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 8. Results: Compared with the controls, the MSA-P patients showed decreased gray matter and white matter in broad areas. Gray matter loss mainly symmetrically distributed in bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (DPCC), medial frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, cerebellum cortex, eta Unilateral involvement of cortices mainly located in right primary motor cortex, somatosensory association cortex (SAC), and left ventral anterior cingulate cortex (VACC). There was white matter loss in bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral precuneus, bilateral sub-gyrus of frontal lobe, left superior temporal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, right orbitofrontal area, right sub- gyrus of temporal lobe, etc. Conclusion: VBM method is an automatic and comprehensive volumetry method and can objectively detect the difference of the whole brain structure in patients with probable MSA- P comparing with normal controls. (authors)

  1. Potential hippocampal region atrophy in diabetes mellitus type 2. A voxel-based morphometry VSRAD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients, the frequency of cognitive dysfunction is higher and the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is approximately twice that of nondiabetics. Cognitive impairment symptoms of AD are induced by limbic system dysfunction, and an early-stage AD brain without dementia has the potential for atrophy in the hippocampal region. In this study, we estimated potential hippocampal region atrophy in DM2 and pursued the association between DM2 and cognitive impairment/AD. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed in 28 diabetics (14 men, 14 women; ages 59-79 years, mean 70.7 years) and 28 sex- and age- matched (±1 year) nondiabetics. Severity of gray matter loss in the hippocampal region and whole brain were investigated. Group analysis was performed using two-tailed unpaired t-test; significance was assumed with less than 1% (P<0.01) of the critical rate. There was a significant difference between diabetics and nondiabetics regarding the severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy. Only diabetics showed a positive correlation for severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy (rs=0.69, P<0.0001). Aged DM2 patients have the potential for hippocampal region atrophy, and its dysfunction can be related to the expression of a cognitive impairment that resembles AD. (author)

  2. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy occurs from a lack of physical activity. In most people, muscle atrophy is caused by not using the ...

  3. Clinical Study White Matter Atrophy in Patients with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Voxel-Based Morphometry Analysis of T1- and T2-Weighted MR Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis is highly refractory to clinical treatment. MRI voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of T1-weighted images has revealed a widespread pattern of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy in MTLE. Few studies have investigated the role of T2-weighted images in revealing WM atrophy using VBM. Objectives. To compare the results of WM atrophy between T1- and T2-weighted images through VBM. Methods. We selected 28 patients with left and 27 with right MTLE and 60 normal controls. We analyzed T1- and T2- weighted images with SPM8, using VBM/DARTEL algorithm to extract maps of GM and WM. The second level of SPM was used to investigate areas of WM atrophy among groups. Results. Both acquisitions showed bilateral widespread WM atrophy. T1-weighted images showed higher sensibility to detect areas of WM atrophy in both groups of MTLE. T2-weighted images also showed areas of WM atrophy in a more restricted pattern, but still bilateral and with a large area of superposition with T1-weighted images. Conclusions. In MTLE, T1-weighted images are more sensitive to detect subtle WM abnormalities using VBM, compared to T2 images, although both present a good superposition of statistical maps. 1. Introduction The mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is highly refractory to pharmacological treatment [1], and it is the main group of epilepsy referred to the tertiary care hospitals for surgical treatment [2]. MTLE shows a good surgical prognosis, with satisfactory seizures control in 60-80% of the patients [3]. In approximately 65%

  4. Macular sensitivity and fixation patterns in patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to test macular sensitivity, fixation stability and fixation location using microperimetry in patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) and mutation-free relatives. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 43 patients with...... exon 28 (2826 delT) mutation in OPA1 (age 11.7-71.5 years, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 20/24-20/13). The patients and 49 mutation-free first-degree relatives (BCVA 20/25-20/10) underwent ophthalmic examination including macular microperimetry out to 12° eccentricity with registration of...

  5. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mascalchi

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2 is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM and cortical gray matter (GM in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  6. Is radiological evaluation as good as computer-based volumetry to assess hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutet, Claire; Drier, Aurelie; Dormont, Didier; Lehericy, Stephane [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Department of Neuroradiology, AP-HP, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, UMR-S975, Paris (France); Inserm, Paris (France); CNRS, Paris (France); ICM-Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, Paris (France); Chupin, Marie; Colliot, Olivier [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, UMR-S975, Paris (France); Inserm, Paris (France); CNRS, Paris (France); ICM-Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, Paris (France); Equipe Cogimage-CRICM, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Sarazin, Marie [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Centre de Recherche de l' Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, UMR-S975, Paris (France); Inserm, Paris (France); CNRS, Paris (France); ICM-Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, Paris (France); Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Department of Neurology, Institut de la Memoire et de la Maladie d' Alzheimer-IM2A, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Mutlu, Gurkan [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Urgences Cerebro-Vasculaires, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Hopital Saint-Louis, Inserm, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, Paris (France); Pellot, Audrey [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Department of Neuroradiology, AP-HP, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Collaboration: And the Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2012-12-15

    Hippocampus volumetry is a useful surrogate marker for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our purpose was to compare visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy made by radiologists with automatic hippocampal volume and to compare their performances for the classification of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively normal (CN). We studied 30 CN, 30 MCI and 30 AD subjects. Six radiologists with two levels of expertise performed two readings of medial temporal lobe atrophy. Medial temporal lobe atrophy was evaluated on coronal three-dimensional T1-weighted images using Scheltens scale and compared with hippocampal volume obtained using a fully automatic segmentation method (Spearman's rank coefficient). Visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy was correlated with hippocampal volume (p < 0.01). Classification performances between MCI converter and CN was better using volumetry than visual assessment of non-expert readers whereas classification of AD and CN did not differ between visual assessment and volumetry except for the first reading of one non-expert (p = 0.03). Visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy by radiologists was well correlated with hippocampal volume. Radiological assessment is as good as computer-based volumetry for the classification of AD, MCI non-converter and CN and less good for the classification of MCI converter versus CN. Use of Scheltens scale for assessing hippocampal atrophy in AD seems thus justified in clinical routine. (orig.)

  7. Is radiological evaluation as good as computer-based volumetry to assess hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippocampus volumetry is a useful surrogate marker for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our purpose was to compare visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy made by radiologists with automatic hippocampal volume and to compare their performances for the classification of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively normal (CN). We studied 30 CN, 30 MCI and 30 AD subjects. Six radiologists with two levels of expertise performed two readings of medial temporal lobe atrophy. Medial temporal lobe atrophy was evaluated on coronal three-dimensional T1-weighted images using Scheltens scale and compared with hippocampal volume obtained using a fully automatic segmentation method (Spearman's rank coefficient). Visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy was correlated with hippocampal volume (p < 0.01). Classification performances between MCI converter and CN was better using volumetry than visual assessment of non-expert readers whereas classification of AD and CN did not differ between visual assessment and volumetry except for the first reading of one non-expert (p = 0.03). Visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy by radiologists was well correlated with hippocampal volume. Radiological assessment is as good as computer-based volumetry for the classification of AD, MCI non-converter and CN and less good for the classification of MCI converter versus CN. Use of Scheltens scale for assessing hippocampal atrophy in AD seems thus justified in clinical routine. (orig.)

  8. Prevalence and pattern of gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy in older individuals using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Andrew S. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Long, Suzanne S.; Zoga, Adam C.; Read, Paul J.; Deely, Diane M.; Parker, Laurence; Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy in older individuals using MRI. A retrospective MRI study of 185 individuals was performed. The inclusion criterion was age ≥50. Exclusion criteria were hip surgery, fracture, infection, tumor, or inadequate image quality. Greater trochanteric bursitis was graded none, mild, moderate, or severe. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and iliopsoas tendinopathy was graded normal, tendinosis, low-grade partial tear, high-grade partial tear, or full thickness tear. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia lata, and iliopsoas muscle atrophy was scored using a standard scale. Insertion site of tendinopathy and location of muscle atrophy were assessed. Descriptive and statistical analysis was performed. There was increasing greater trochanteric bursitis and gluteus medius and minimus tendinopathy and atrophy with advancing age with moderate to strong positive associations (p < 0.0001) for age and tendinopathy, age and atrophy, bursitis and tendinopathy, and tendinopathy and atrophy for the gluteus medius and minimus. There is a weak positive association (p < 0.0001) for age and tensor fascia lata atrophy, and no statistically significant association between age and tendinopathy or between age and atrophy for the iliopsoas. Fisher's exact tests were statistically significant (p < 0.0001) for insertion site of tendon pathology and location of muscle atrophy for the gluteus medius. Gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy increase with advancing age with progression of tendinosis to low-grade tendon tears to high-grade tendon tears. There is an associated progression in atrophy of these muscles, which may be important in fall-related hip fractures. (orig.)

  9. Prevalence and pattern of gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy in older individuals using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy in older individuals using MRI. A retrospective MRI study of 185 individuals was performed. The inclusion criterion was age ≥50. Exclusion criteria were hip surgery, fracture, infection, tumor, or inadequate image quality. Greater trochanteric bursitis was graded none, mild, moderate, or severe. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and iliopsoas tendinopathy was graded normal, tendinosis, low-grade partial tear, high-grade partial tear, or full thickness tear. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia lata, and iliopsoas muscle atrophy was scored using a standard scale. Insertion site of tendinopathy and location of muscle atrophy were assessed. Descriptive and statistical analysis was performed. There was increasing greater trochanteric bursitis and gluteus medius and minimus tendinopathy and atrophy with advancing age with moderate to strong positive associations (p < 0.0001) for age and tendinopathy, age and atrophy, bursitis and tendinopathy, and tendinopathy and atrophy for the gluteus medius and minimus. There is a weak positive association (p < 0.0001) for age and tensor fascia lata atrophy, and no statistically significant association between age and tendinopathy or between age and atrophy for the iliopsoas. Fisher's exact tests were statistically significant (p < 0.0001) for insertion site of tendon pathology and location of muscle atrophy for the gluteus medius. Gluteus medius and minimus tendon pathology and muscle atrophy increase with advancing age with progression of tendinosis to low-grade tendon tears to high-grade tendon tears. There is an associated progression in atrophy of these muscles, which may be important in fall-related hip fractures. (orig.)

  10. Cerebral Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer’s disease, Pick’s disease, and fronto-temporal dementia cerebral palsy , in which lesions (damaged areas) may impair motor ... lead to cerebral atrophy. NIH Patient Recruitment for Cerebral Atrophy Clinical Trials ... by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  11. Signs of cerebral atrophy on single-photon emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C O; Meyerrose, G E; Sostre, S

    1994-05-01

    Cerebral atrophy often coexists with other brain disorders and by itself may alter the pattern of cerebral perfusion. If unrecognized, it may confound diagnoses based on brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET). In this retrospective study, we describe and evaluate criteria for the diagnosis of cerebral atrophy on technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain SPET studies. The SPET scans of 11 patients with cerebral atrophy and ten controls were evaluated for the presence of a prominent interhemispheric fissure, presence of prominent cerebral sulci, separation of thalamic nuclei, and pronounced separation of caudate nuclei. The SPET studies were interpreted by two independent observers blind to the findings of magnetic resonance imaging, which provided the final diagnosis of cerebral atrophy. The combination of the four scintigraphic signs was accurate in the diagnosis of cerebral atrophy in 95% of the cases and had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 100%. PMID:8062851

  12. Multiple System Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  13. Comparison of grey matter atrophy between patients with neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Previous studies have established regional grey matter (GM) loss in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, whether there is any regional GM atrophy in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and the difference between NMO and MS is unclear. The present study addresses this issue by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T1-weighted three-dimensional MRI were obtained from 26 NMO patients, 26 relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) patients, and 26 normal controls. An analysis of covariance model assessed with cluster size inference was used to compare GM volume among three groups. The correlations of GM volume changes with disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and brain T2 lesion volume (LV) were analyzed. Results: GM atrophy was found in NMO patients in several regions of frontal, temporal, parietal lobes and insula (uncorrected, p < 0.001). While extensive GM atrophy was found in RRMS patients, including most cortical regions and the deep grey matter (corrected for multiple comparisons, p < 0.01). Compared with NMO, those with RRMS had significant GM loss in bilateral thalami, caudate, left parahippocampal gyrus, right hippocampus and insula (corrected, p < 0.01). In RRMS group, regional GM loss in right caudate and bilateral thalami were strongly correlated with brain T2LV. Conclusions: Our study found the difference of GM atrophy between NMO and RRMS patients mainly in deep grey matter. The correlational results suggested axonal degeneration from lesions on T2WI may be a key pathogenesis of atrophy in deep grey matter in RRMS.

  14. Differing patterns of striatal 18F-dopa uptake in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using positron emission tomography (PET), we studied regional striatal 18F-dopa uptake in 16 patients with L-dopa-responsive Parkinson's disease (PD), 18 patients with multiple system atrophy, and 10 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy. Results were compared with those of 30 age-matched normal volunteers. The patients with PD showed significantly reduced mean uptake of 18F-dopa in the caudate and putamen compared to controls, but while function in the posterior part of the putamen was severely impaired (45% of normal), function in the anterior part of the putamen and in the caudate was relatively spared (62% and 84% of normal). Mean 18F-dopa uptake in the posterior putamen was depressed to similar levels in all patients. Unlike patients with PD, the patients with progressive supranuclear palsy showed equally severe impairment of mean 18F-dopa uptake in the anterior and posterior putamen. Caudate 18F-dopa uptake was also significantly lower in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy than in patients with PD, being depressed to the same level as that in the putamen. Mean 18F-dopa uptake values in the anterior putamen and caudate in patients with multiple system atrophy lay between PD and progressive supranuclear palsy levels. Locomotor disability of individual patients with PD or multiple system atrophy correlated with decline in striatal 18F-dopa uptake, but this was not the case for the patients with progressive supranuclear palsy. We conclude that patients with PD have selective nigral pathological features with relative preservation of the dopaminergic function in the anterior putamen and caudate, whereas there is progressively more extensive nigral involvement in multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy

  15. Multimodal Discrimination of Alzheimer's Disease Based on Regional Cortical Atrophy and Hypometabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk Jin Yun

    Full Text Available Structural MR image (MRI and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET have been widely employed in diagnosis of both Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI pathology, which has led to the development of methods to distinguish AD and MCI from normal controls (NC. Synaptic dysfunction leads to a reduction in the rate of metabolism of glucose in the brain and is thought to represent AD progression. FDG-PET has the unique ability to estimate glucose metabolism, providing information on the distribution of hypometabolism. In addition, patients with AD exhibit significant neuronal loss in cerebral regions, and previous AD research has shown that structural MRI can be used to sensitively measure cortical atrophy. In this paper, we introduced a new method to discriminate AD from NC based on complementary information obtained by FDG and MRI. For accurate classification, surface-based features were employed and 12 predefined regions were selected from previous studies based on both MRI and FDG-PET. Partial least square linear discriminant analysis was employed for making diagnoses. We obtained 93.6% classification accuracy, 90.1% sensitivity, and 96.5% specificity in discriminating AD from NC. The classification scheme had an accuracy of 76.5% and sensitivity and specificity of 46.5% and 89.6%, respectively, for discriminating MCI from AD. Our method exhibited a superior classification performance compared with single modal approaches and yielded parallel accuracy to previous multimodal classification studies using MRI and FDG-PET.

  16. Sudeck atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, H

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the contribution of Sudeck to the understanding of the condition commonly referred to as 'Sudeck's atrophy' and which is commonly used as a synonym for a condition variously called reflex sympathetic dystrophy, causalgia, algodystrophy and others. Sudeck came to show in his later papers that the so-called atrophy was, in the majority of cases, a normal inflammatory process of bone change in the course of healing after an inflammatory/infective or traumatic insult. Contrary to the views of much current literature, the vast majority of such cases had a good prognosis. In those cases which became pathological and had a correspondingly poorer prognosis, the characteristic clinical picture becomes associated with radiological and pathological changes, which, uniquely, are described by Sudeck. A knowledge of such radiological and pathological substrate for clinical symptomatology is important in the analysis of pain following trauma. PMID:17274178

  17. Spinal muscular atrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, Basil T

    2015-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are hereditary degenerative disorders of lower motor neurons associated with progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Proximal 5q SMA is caused by decreased levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein and is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. Its inheritance pattern is autosomal recessive, resulting from mutations involving the SMN1 gene on chromosome 5q13. Unlike other autosomal recessive diseases, the SMN gene has a unique structure (an inverted duplication) that presents potential therapeutic targets. Although there is currently no effective treatment of SMA, the field of translational research in this disorder is active and clinical trials are ongoing. Advances in the multidisciplinary supportive care of children with SMA also offer hope for improved life expectancy and quality of life. PMID:26022173

  18. Computed tomographic myelography characteristics of spinal cord atrophy in juvenile muscular atrophy of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although atrophy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic cord in juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity has been reported, the atrophic patterns of the cord, especially in the transverse section, have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study is to clarify the atrophic patterns of the cord by CT myelography (CTM) and to discuss the pathogenesis of cord atrophy. Sixteen patients with juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity were examined by CTM. Atrophy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic cord, consistent with the segmental weakness, was seen in all patients. Flattening of the ventral convexity was a characteristic atrophic pattern of the cord. Bilateral cord atrophy was commonly observed; 8/12 patients with unilateral clinical form and all 4 patients with bilateral form showed bilateral cord atrophy with dominance on the clinical side. There was no correlation between the degree of cord atrophy and duration of symptoms. Flattening of the ventral convexity, associated with purely motor disturbances, reflects selective atrophy of the anterior horns in the cord, which is attributable to chronic ischemia. Cord atrophy proved to precede clinical manifestations. The characteristic atrophy of the cord provides useful information to confirm the diagnosis without long-term observation. (author). 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Pattern Based Graph Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Shuai, Hong-Han; Yu, Philip S; Shen, Chih-Ya; Chen, Ming-Syan

    2013-01-01

    The importance of graph mining has been widely recognized thanks to a large variety of applications in many areas, while real datasets always play important roles to examine the solution quality and efficiency of a graph mining algorithm. Nevertheless, the size of a real dataset is usually fixed and constrained according to the available resources, such as the efforts to crawl an on-line social network. In this case, employing a synthetic graph generator is a possible way to generate a massive graph (e.g., billions nodes) for evaluating the scalability of an algorithm, and current popular statistical graph generators are properly designed to maintain statistical metrics such as total node degree, degree distribution, diameter, and clustering coefficient of the original social graphs. Nevertheless, in addition to the above metrics, recent studies on graph mining point out that graph frequent patterns are also important to provide useful implications for the corresponding social networking applications, but thi...

  20. Deformation-based atrophy computation by surface propagation and its application to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Akshay; Sporring, Jon; Darkner, Sune; Dam, Erik B; Lillholm, Martin; Jørgensen, Dan; Oh, Joonmi; Chen, Gennan; Suhy, Joyce; Sørensen, Lauge; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining regional volume changes from a deformation field is more precise when using simplex counting (SC) compared with Jacobian integration (JI) due to the numerics involved in the latter. Although SC has been proposed before, numerical properties underpinning the method and a thorough evaluation of the method against JI is missing in the literature. The contributions of this paper are: (a) we propose surface propagation (SP)-a simplification to SC that significantly reduces its computational complexity; (b) we will derive the orders of approximation of SP which can also be extended to SC. In the experiments, we will begin by empirically showing that SP is indeed nearly identical to SC, and that both methods are more stable than JI in presence of moderate to large deformation noise. Since SC and SP are identical, we consider SP as a representative of both the methods for a practical evaluation against JI. In a real application on Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative data, we show the following: (a) SP produces whole brain and medial temporal lobe atrophy numbers that are significantly better than JI at separating between normal controls and Alzheimer's disease patients; (b) SP produces disease group atrophy differences comparable to or better than those obtained using FreeSurfer, demonstrating the validity of the obtained clinical results. Finally, in a reproducibility study, we show that the voxel-wise application of SP yields significantly lower variance when compared to JI. PMID:27014717

  1. Regionally selective atrophy of subcortical structures in prodromal HD as revealed by statistical shape analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Younes, L.; Ratnanather, JT; Brown, T.; Aylward, E; Nopoulos, P.; Johnson, H.; Magnotta, VA; Paulsen, JS; Margolis, RL; Albin, RL; Miller, MI; Ross, CA; Wassink, T; Cross, S.; Kimble, M

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that involves preferential atrophy in the striatal complex and related subcortical nuclei. In this article, which is based on a dataset extracted from the PREDICT-HD study, we use statistical shape analysis with deformation markers obtained through "Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping" of cortical surfaces to highlight specific atrophy patterns in the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus, at different prodromal stages of the ...

  2. Imaging-based differential diagnosis between multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Wataru; Abe, Takashi; Murakami, Nagahisa; Miyazaki, Yoshimichi; Izumi, Yuishin; Harada, Masafumi; Kaji, Ryuji

    2016-09-15

    There are many tools for differentiating between multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonian features (MSA-P) and Parkinson's disease (PD). These include middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) width, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the putamen and cerebellum, and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy images. We aimed to directly compare the above-mentioned methods, and to determine the optimal tool for differential diagnosis. Eleven patients with MSA-P and 36 patients with PD were enrolled. Of these, 7 patients with MSA-P and 14 patients with PD were chosen as background-matched subjects. We measured MCP width, ADC value of the putamen and cerebellum, and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy images. Area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was assessed to compare the above-mentioned methods. MCP width and ADC value of the putamen may be helpful for differentiating between MSA-P and PD relative to other methods in background-matched patients (MCP, AUC=0.95; putamen ADC, AUC=0.88; cerebellar ADC, AUC=0.70; MIBG, AUC=0.78). Similar AUCs were seen in all patients with different backgrounds. Our findings suggested that MCP width and ADC value of the putamen could be superior to ADC value of the cerebellum and MIBG uptake for differentiating between MSA-P and PD. PMID:27538610

  3. Pattern recognition of quantum information based on pattern-distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Daoyi; Chen Zonghai; Jiang Shengxiang

    2005-01-01

    Looking upon every encoding state of quantum information systems as a quantum information pattern, A kind of pattern-distance between different patterns as a measurement of comparability of quantum information patterns is defined, and two kinds of recognition algorithms based on pattern-distance for quantum information are proposed. They can respectively recognize quantum information with known objective pattern and unknown objective pattern. In the two algorithms, the phases and occurrence probabilities of different eigenpatterns of quantum information are sufficiently considered. Two examples demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the two recognition methods. These algorithms point out a new and important path for applications of quantum information and pattern recognition.

  4. Optic nerve atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optic atrophy; Optic neuropathy ... There are many causes of optic atrophy. The most common is poor blood flow. This is called ischemic optic neuropathy. The problem most often affects older adults. ...

  5. Brain atrophy during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34-35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34-35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multi-infarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34-35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extent of brain atrophy (20 - 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was the decrease in the cerebral blood flow. We have classified brain atrophy into sulcal and cisternal enlargement type (type I), ventricular enlargement type (type II) and mixed type (type III) according to the clinical study using NMR-CT. Brain atrophy of type I progresses significantly in almost all of the geriatric disorders. This type of brain atrophy progresses significantly in heavy smokers and drinkers. Therefore this type of brain atrophy might be caused by the decline in the blood flow in anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Brain atrophy of type II was caused by the disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid bleeding. Brain atrophy of type III was seen in vascular dementia or multi-infarct dementia which was caused by loss of brain matter after multiple infarction, and was seen also in dementia of Alzheimer type in which degeneration of nerve cells results in brain atrophy. NMR-CT can easily detect small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. (J.P.N.)

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of a DJ-1 Based Peptide in a Toxin Induced Mouse Model of Multiple System Atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Johanna Glat

    Full Text Available Multiple System Atrophy (MSA is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and dysautonomia, in various combinations. In MSA with parkinsonism (MSA-P, the degeneration is mainly restricted to the substantia nigra pars compacta and putamen. Studies have identified alterations in DJ-1 (PARK7, a key component of the anti-oxidative stress response, in Parkinson's disease (PD and MSA patients. Previously we have shown that a short DJ-1-based peptide named ND-13, protected cultured cells against neurotoxic insults and improved behavioral outcome in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD. In this study, we used the 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP-induced mouse model of MSA and treated the animals with ND-13 in order to evaluate its therapeutic effects. Our results show that ND-13 protects cultured cells against oxidative stress generated by the mitochondrial inhibitor, 3-NP. Moreover, we show that ND-13 attenuates nigrostriatal degeneration and improves performance in motor-related behavioral tasks in 3-NP-treated mice. Our findings suggest a rationale for using ND-13 as a promising therapeutic approach for treatment of MSA.

  7. Neuroprotective Effect of a DJ-1 Based Peptide in a Toxin Induced Mouse Model of Multiple System Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glat, Micaela Johanna; Ben-Zur, Tali; Barhum, Yael; Offen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and dysautonomia, in various combinations. In MSA with parkinsonism (MSA-P), the degeneration is mainly restricted to the substantia nigra pars compacta and putamen. Studies have identified alterations in DJ-1 (PARK7), a key component of the anti-oxidative stress response, in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and MSA patients. Previously we have shown that a short DJ-1-based peptide named ND-13, protected cultured cells against neurotoxic insults and improved behavioral outcome in animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this study, we used the 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced mouse model of MSA and treated the animals with ND-13 in order to evaluate its therapeutic effects. Our results show that ND-13 protects cultured cells against oxidative stress generated by the mitochondrial inhibitor, 3-NP. Moreover, we show that ND-13 attenuates nigrostriatal degeneration and improves performance in motor-related behavioral tasks in 3-NP-treated mice. Our findings suggest a rationale for using ND-13 as a promising therapeutic approach for treatment of MSA. PMID:26901405

  8. Gastric atrophy, diagnosing and staging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hala MT El-Zimaity

    2006-01-01

    H pylori is now accepted as the cause of gastritis and gastritis-associated diseases, such as duodenal ulcer,gastric ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and gastric MALT lymphoma. The natural history of H pylori gastritis includes inflammation progressing from the antrum into the adjacent corpus resulting in an atrophic front of advancing injury leading to a reduction in acid secretion and eventual loss of parietal cells and development of atrophy. Sub-typing intestinal metaplasia has no clinical value to the patient, the pathologist, or the endoscopist.The pattern, extent, and severity of atrophy, with or without intestinal metaplasia, is a far more important predictor than is intestinal metaplasia subtype. The challenge remains to identify a reliable marker that relates to pre-malignant potential.

  9. [Multiple system atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon-Perrière, Nathalie; Tison, François; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2010-09-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. It is the most frequent disorder among atypical parkinsonism with an estimated prevalence of 2 to 5 per 100 000 inhabitants. The clinical symptoms are rapidly progressing with a mean survival ranging between 6 to 9 years. The diagnosis is based on consensus criteria that have been revised in 2008. The diagnostic criteria allow defining "possible", "probable" and "definite" MSA. The latter requires post mortem confirmation of striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar degeneration with alpha-synuclein containing glial cytoplasmic inclusions. The diagnosis of "possible" and "probable" MSA is based on the variable presence and severity of parkinsonism, cerebellar dysfunction, autonomic failure and pyramidal signs. According to the revised criteria, atrophy of putamen, pons, middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) or cerebellum on brain magnetic resonance imaging are considered to be additional features for the diagnosis of "possible" MSA. T2-weighted brain imaging may further reveal a putaminal hypointensity, a hyperintense lateral putaminal rim, the so called "hot cross bun sign" and MCP hyperintensities. Cardiovascular examination, urodynamic testing and anal sphincter electromyography may be helpful for the diagnosis of autonomic failure. Some patients may respond to levodopa, but usually to a lesser extent than those suffering from Parkinson's disease, and high doses are already required in early disease stages. No specific therapy is available for cerebellar dysfunction, while effective treatments exist for urinary and cardiovascular autonomic failure. Physical therapy may help to improve the difficulties of gait and stance, and to prevent their complications. In later disease stages, speech therapy becomes necessary for the treatment of dysarthria and dysphagia. Percutaneous gastrostomy is sometimes necessary in patients with severe dysphagia. Beyond these strategies, psychological

  10. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  11. Aggregation Operator Based Fuzzy Pattern Classifier Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mönks, Uwe; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Lohweg, Volker

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modular fuzzy pattern classifier design framework for intelligent automation systems, developed on the base of the established Modified Fuzzy Pattern Classifier (MFPC) and allows designing novel classifier models which are hardware-efficiently implementable. The...

  12. A Perturbed MicroRNA Expression Pattern Characterizes Embryonic Neural Stem Cells Derived from a Severe Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Luchetti; Silvia Anna Ciafrè; Michela Murdocca; Arianna Malgieri; Andrea Masotti; Massimo Sanchez; Maria Giulia Farace; Giuseppe Novelli; Federica Sangiuolo

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder and the leading genetic cause of death in infants. Despite the disease-causing gene, survival motor neuron (SMN1), encodes a ubiquitous protein, SMN1 deficiency preferentially affects spinal motor neurons (MNs), leaving the basis of this selective cell damage still unexplained. As neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent self-renewing cells that can differentiate into neurons, they represent an in vitro model for elucidatin...

  13. Brain Atrophy in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Chris; Phan, Thanh G.; Chen, Jian; Blizzard, Leigh; Beare, Richard; Venn, Alison; Münch, Gerald; Wood, Amanda G.; Forbes, Josephine; Greenaway, Timothy M.; Pearson, Susan; Srikanth, Velandai

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with brain atrophy and cerebrovascular disease. We aimed to define the regional distribution of brain atrophy in T2DM and to examine whether atrophy or cerebrovascular lesions are feasible links between T2DM and cognitive function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This cross-sectional study used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and cognitive tests in 350 participants with T2DM and 363 participants without T2DM. With voxel-based morphometry, we s...

  14. Pattern Based Term Extraction Using ACABIT System

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Koichi; Koyama, Teruo; Daille, Béatrice; Romary, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pattern-based term extraction approach for Japanese, applying ACABIT system originally developed for French. The proposed approach evaluates termhood using morphological patterns of basic terms and term variants. After extracting term candidates, ACABIT system filters out non-terms from the candidates based on log-likelihood. This approach is suitable for Japanese term extraction because most of Japanese terms are compound nouns or simple phrasal patterns.

  15. Relations between VSRAD-based parahippocampal atrophy and results of neuropsychological tests in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in those with mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to clarify the utility of VSRAD (Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease) for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) or AD-related studies, correlations between VSRAD-based parahippocampal atrophy and results of neuropsychological tests were investigated. Subjects comprised 18 and 12 patients with probable AD and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to a cerebral degeneration near AD, respectively. Neuropsychological tests consisted of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS)-J cog., Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised (HDS-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale-Revised or -IIIrd (WAIS-R/-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). Subjects received these tests within one month before or after cranial MRI scans, and correlations between Z-scores of VSRAD reflecting the parahippocampal atrophy and results of these neuropsychological tests were statistically examined. The Z-scores had a significant positive correlation with scores of ADAS (p=.0129) and an inverse correlation with scores of ''Information'' as a subtest of WAIS-R/-III (p=.0294). Further, the Z-scores showed a tendency to weak, inverse correlations with the scores of HDS-R, ''Similarity'' as a subtest of WAIS-R/-III and ''Visual Reproduction II'' as a subtest of WMS-R (p=.0532, .0635, and .0609, respectively). Usefulness of VSRAD for the diagnosis of AD was indicated by the significant correlations hoted with ADAS and HDS-R, and it was further suggested that parahippocampal atrophy was related to semantic and visual memory impairments of AD, judging from the correlations with subtests of WAIS-R/-III and WMS-R. (author)

  16. 基于VBM-DARTEL的AD脑萎缩特征检测方法%Detection of brain atrophy in AD based on VBM-DARTEL method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓芝政; 苑桂红; 李海云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the brain grey matter atrophy in Alzheimer disease (AD)and mild cognitive impairment (MCI ), and provide a detective method for exploring the evolution mechanism of AD.Methods By combining voxel based morphometry (VBM) and diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL),we firstly register and segment three T1 structural MRI datasets of 58 normal control (NC),40 AD patients,72 MCI patients including 26 progressive MCI (PMCI)patients and 46 stable MCI (SMCI ) patients.Then a specific template is built by using DARTEL method.Through deformation fields,the grey matter images are registered to MNI space with preserving the total amount of voxels by applying modulation method.Finally,statistical analysis is made on the processed datasets with two sample t test (P≤0.005,uncorrected).Results Compared to NC,the atrophy regions in AD mainly locate in the bilateral temporal lobe, the bilateral hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus,the bilateral amygdala,the bilateral insula,the left middle occipital gyrus,the left precuneus,the left posterior cingulate gyrus.The atrophy regions in MCI locate in the bilateral putamen,the left amygdale and the left hippocampus.The atrophy regions in PMCI locate in the left putamen,the left amygdala and the left hippocampus.There is no atrophy region found in SMCI. Compared to MCI,the atrophy regions in AD are the bilateral temporal lobe,the bilateral hippocampus,the bilateral precuneus,the bilateral middle frontal gyrus,the left cingulate gyrus,the left insula,the right amygdala,the right parahippocampal gyrus,the right superior parietal gyrus.There is no atrophy region in MCI compared to AD. Compared to SMCI, the atrophy region in PMCI is in left inferior temporal gyrus,yet there is no atrophy region found in SMCI compared to PMCI. Conclusions VBM-DARTEL based method can achieve a more accurate registration of MRI images and detect subtle volume changes of cerebral grey matter

  17. Multiple System Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order Brochures News From NINDS Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS Disorders Get Web page suited for printing Email this to a friend ...

  18. Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order Brochures News From NINDS Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Spinal Muscular Atrophy Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS Disorders Get Web page suited for printing Email this to a friend ...

  19. A Perturbed MicroRNA Expression Pattern Characterizes Embryonic Neural Stem Cells Derived from a Severe Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Andrea; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Murdocca, Michela; Malgieri, Arianna; Masotti, Andrea; Sanchez, Massimo; Farace, Maria Giulia; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder and the leading genetic cause of death in infants. Despite the disease-causing gene, survival motor neuron (SMN1), encodes a ubiquitous protein, SMN1 deficiency preferentially affects spinal motor neurons (MNs), leaving the basis of this selective cell damage still unexplained. As neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent self-renewing cells that can differentiate into neurons, they represent an in vitro model for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases such as SMA. Here we characterize for the first time neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from embryonic spinal cords of a severe SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. SMNΔ7 NSCs behave as their wild type (WT) counterparts, when we consider neurosphere formation ability and the expression levels of specific regional and self-renewal markers. However, they show a perturbed cell cycle phase distribution and an increased proliferation rate compared to wild type cells. Moreover, SMNΔ7 NSCs are characterized by the differential expression of a limited number of miRNAs, among which miR-335-5p and miR-100-5p, reduced in SMNΔ7 NSCs compared to WT cells. We suggest that such miRNAs may be related to the proliferation differences characterizing SMNΔ7 NSCs, and may be potentially involved in the molecular mechanisms of SMA. PMID:26258776

  20. A Perturbed MicroRNA Expression Pattern Characterizes Embryonic Neural Stem Cells Derived from a Severe Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Andrea; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Murdocca, Michela; Malgieri, Arianna; Masotti, Andrea; Sanchez, Massimo; Farace, Maria Giulia; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder and the leading genetic cause of death in infants. Despite the disease-causing gene, survival motor neuron (SMN1), encodes a ubiquitous protein, SMN1 deficiency preferentially affects spinal motor neurons (MNs), leaving the basis of this selective cell damage still unexplained. As neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent self-renewing cells that can differentiate into neurons, they represent an in vitro model for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases such as SMA. Here we characterize for the first time neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from embryonic spinal cords of a severe SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. SMNΔ7 NSCs behave as their wild type (WT) counterparts, when we consider neurosphere formation ability and the expression levels of specific regional and self-renewal markers. However, they show a perturbed cell cycle phase distribution and an increased proliferation rate compared to wild type cells. Moreover, SMNΔ7 NSCs are characterized by the differential expression of a limited number of miRNAs, among which miR-335-5p and miR-100-5p, reduced in SMNΔ7 NSCs compared to WT cells. We suggest that such miRNAs may be related to the proliferation differences characterizing SMNΔ7 NSCs, and may be potentially involved in the molecular mechanisms of SMA. PMID:26258776

  1. A Perturbed MicroRNA Expression Pattern Characterizes Embryonic Neural Stem Cells Derived from a Severe Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Luchetti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an inherited neuromuscular disorder and the leading genetic cause of death in infants. Despite the disease-causing gene, survival motor neuron (SMN1, encodes a ubiquitous protein, SMN1 deficiency preferentially affects spinal motor neurons (MNs, leaving the basis of this selective cell damage still unexplained. As neural stem cells (NSCs are multipotent self-renewing cells that can differentiate into neurons, they represent an in vitro model for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases such as SMA. Here we characterize for the first time neural stem cells (NSCs derived from embryonic spinal cords of a severe SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. SMNΔ7 NSCs behave as their wild type (WT counterparts, when we consider neurosphere formation ability and the expression levels of specific regional and self-renewal markers. However, they show a perturbed cell cycle phase distribution and an increased proliferation rate compared to wild type cells. Moreover, SMNΔ7 NSCs are characterized by the differential expression of a limited number of miRNAs, among which miR-335-5p and miR-100-5p, reduced in SMNΔ7 NSCs compared to WT cells. We suggest that such miRNAs may be related to the proliferation differences characterizing SMNΔ7 NSCs, and may be potentially involved in the molecular mechanisms of SMA.

  2. The value of structural MRI measurements of cerebral atrophy in predicting the rate of cognitive decline in the non-demented elderly: a GEE analysis based on data from the Vienna transdanube aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was the assessment of various structural measurements of cerebral atrophy at baseline and the evaluation of their potential value in predicting future cognitive decline in a longitudinal study design. Data were drawn from the Vienna Transdanube Aging (VITA) study. Magnetic resonance images of 532 subjects aged 75-76 years at baseline were analyzed to assess 8 different cerebral atrophy markers. A population averaged model with the corresponding analytical technique of generalized estimating equations (GEE) were applied to the birth-cohort to assess associations between the MRI-based atrophy markers and 6 cognitive test scores at baseline and two follow-up investigations. Cognitive tests were comprised of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME), Verbal Fluency (VF) and the Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA, TMTB). Vascular risk factors and several other covariates that were available in the VITA database were included as additional predictors in the longitudinal data analysis. Severity of right hippocampal head atrophy predicted the rate of cognitive decline in all 6 test scores. (MMSE: β =-0.507; p = 0.002, BNT: β = -1.090; p = 0.004, FOME: β = -0.291; p = 0.003, VF: β = 0.718; p = 0.025, TMTA: Exp(β) = 0.123; p < 0.001, TMTB: Exp(β) = 0.238; p = 0.036); severity of left hippocampal head atrophy followed closely, predicting similar decline in 5 test scores. The degree of ventricular atrophy assessed using the nucleus caudatus index predicted cognitive decline in MMSE scores (β = -0.372; p < 0.001), FOME scores (β = -0.689; p = 0.002) and VF scores (β = 0.449; p = 0.003); the cella media index predicted the rate of cognitive decline in MMSE scores (β = -0.523; p < 0.001), FOME scores (β = -0.686; p = 0.010), VF scores (β = 0.511; p = 0.010) and TMTB scores (Exp(β) = 0.120; p = 0.004).The degree of hippocampal head atrophy is the strongest predictor of

  3. Application patterns for ontology based applications

    OpenAIRE

    Albertsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Software patterns have been proven as a valuable way to storing a repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software design. A pattern is not a finished design that can be directly formed into program code; instead it is a description how to solve a problem that may occur in many situations. In the ontology community very little research have been made in producing high-level patterns where the solution shows how an architecture of an ontology based software might look like. In t...

  4. Dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenaers, Guy; Hamel, Christian; Delettre, Cécile;

    2012-01-01

    DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and...... their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain....

  5. A COMBINTORIAL TREE BASED FREQUENT PATTERN MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yamuna Devi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent pattern mining is a process of extracting frequently occurring itemset patterns from very large data storages. These frequent patterns are used to generate association rules which define the relationship among items. The strength of the relationship can be measured using two different units namely support value and confidence level. Any relationship that satisfies minimum threshold of support value is known as frequent pattern. There are several methods and algorithms suggested to mine frequent patterns from large databases. Most of the methods can be assessed for its complexity based on the number of processing levels and number of candidate sets with subsets that are generated in each level. In this study, the combinatorial approach which generates minimal number of combinations using a tree structure and automatically filters infrequent itemsets and mine frequent patterns is suggested. It scans input database once and carries out minimized intersections to count the support value. The complexity is based on the number of transactions and the maximum length of transactions. The new approach purely depends on the size of input transaction database. The combinatorial approach does not depend on the unknown number of processing levels and there is nocandidate sets and subsets generation. The proposed method makes minimal number of combinations when compared to number of candidate sets and subsets in other methods. The method is compared with number of existing legendary methods for its performance.

  6. [Muscle fiber atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Ikuya

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fibers have been classified into two major forms of red (slow twitch) and white (fast twitch) muscles. The red muscle utilizes lipid as energy source through mitochondrial metabolism and function to sustain the position against gravity (sometimes called as antigravity muscle). Under microgravity the red muscle is selectively involved. In our unloading study by hindlimb suspension experiment on rats, the one of the representative red muscle of soleus muscle underwent rapid atrophy; they reduced their weights about 50% after 2 week-unloading. In addition, myofibrils were occasionally markedly disorganized with selective thin filament loss. Mitochondria in the degenerated area were decreased in number. The white muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had mostly transformed to the red ones. It took about 1 month to recover morphologically. The satellite cell playing a major role in muscle regeneration was not activated. There still remained unsolved what are the mechanosensors to keep muscle function under normal gravity. Dr Nikawa's group proposed that one of ubiquitin ligases, Cbl-b is activated under microgravity and induces muscle fiber degeneration. There might be many factors to induce muscle atrophy and degeneration under microgravity. Further study is necessary to explore the pathomechanism of muscle atrophy in disused and under immobility conditions. PMID:23196603

  7. Alzheimer Disease and Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: Automatic Classification Based on Cortical Atrophy for Single-Subject Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Christiane; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Versteeg, Adriaan; Tijms, Betty; de Munck, Jan C; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Swieten, John; Dopper, Elise; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of an image-based classifier to distinguish between Alzheimer disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in individual patients by using gray matter (GM) density maps computed from standard T1-weighted structural images obtained with multiple imagers and with independent training and prediction data. Materials and Methods The local institutional review board approved the study. Eighty-four patients with AD, 51 patients with bvFTD, and 94 control subjects were divided into independent training (n = 115) and prediction (n = 114) sets with identical diagnosis and imager type distributions. Training of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier used diagnostic status and GM density maps and produced voxelwise discrimination maps. Discriminant function analysis was used to estimate suitability of the extracted weights for single-subject classification in the prediction set. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated for image-based classifiers and neuropsychological z scores. Results Training accuracy of the SVM was 85% for patients with AD versus control subjects, 72% for patients with bvFTD versus control subjects, and 79% for patients with AD versus patients with bvFTD (P ≤ .029). Single-subject diagnosis in the prediction set when using the discrimination maps yielded accuracies of 88% for patients with AD versus control subjects, 85% for patients with bvFTD versus control subjects, and 82% for patients with AD versus patients with bvFTD, with a good to excellent AUC (range, 0.81-0.95; P ≤ .001). Machine learning-based categorization of AD versus bvFTD based on GM density maps outperforms classification based on neuropsychological test results. Conclusion The SVM can be used in single-subject discrimination and can help the clinician arrive at a diagnosis. The SVM can be used to distinguish disease-specific GM patterns in patients with AD

  8. Does gastric atrophy exist in children?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georges Dimitrov; Frédéric Gottrand

    2006-01-01

    Several clinical reports confirmed that gastric atrophy is a pathology not only limited to adult patients. In pediatrics, it is most often described in association with a Hpylori infection but this bacteria does not seem to be the only etiological factor of this preneoplastic state in children. The frequency of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in children are unknown because they are not systematically sought during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The lack of specific histological classification of children's gastropathies makes their diagnosis difficult for pathologists. Based on our knowledge to date, we think that it is necessary to describe, in detail, the natural course of this lesion during childhood. A close and prolonged clinical and endoscopic follow-up is important for children with gastric atrophy.

  9. Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashwini Kini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.

  10. Auxiliary pattern for cell-based OPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Park, Chul-Hong

    2006-10-01

    The runtime of model-based optical proximity correction (OPC) tools has grown unacceptably with each successive technology generation, and has emerged as one of the major bottlenecks for turnaround time (TAT) of IC data preparation and manufacturing. The cell-based OPC approach improves runtime by performing OPC once per cell definition as opposed to once per cell instantiation in the layout. However, cell-based OPC does not comprehend inter-cell optical interactions that affect feature printability in a layout context. In this work, we propose auxiliary pattern-enabled cell-based OPC which can minimize the CD differences between cell-based OPC and model-based OPC. To enable effective insertion of auxiliary pattern (AP) in the design, we also propose a post-placement optimization of a standard cell block with respect to detailed placement. By dynamic programming-based placement perturbation, we achieve 100% AP applicability in designs with placement utilizations of cell-based OPC with AP can match gate edge placement error (EPE) count of model-based OPC within 4%. This is an improvement of 90%, on average, over cell-based OPC without APs. The AP-based OPC approach can reduce OPC runtimes versus model-based OPC by up to 40X in our benchmark designs. We can also achieve reduction of GDSII file size and ORC runtimes due to hierarchy maintenance of cell-based OPC.

  11. Visualizing stages of cortical atrophy in progressive MCI from the ADNI cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Fonov, Vladimir; Coupé, Pierrick;

    conversion, atrophy is present over all the cortex except the occipital lobe and the sensory-motor areas. Six months later and at conversion this pattern persists, but with more severe atrophy. Focal atrophy can be observed in patients with MCI three years before they are diagnosed with clinically definite...... AD. The atrophy accelerates during the MCI stage and affects the entire cortex except the occipital and sensory-motor cortex at the time of diagnosis - not unlike the progressive patterns of amyloid deposition described by Braak[7]. These patterns may be used to assess the disease progression in...

  12. Recent developments in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Wendy K. M.; Kang, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric neuromuscular disorders comprise a large variety of disorders that can be classified based on their neuroanatomical localization, patterns of weakness, and laboratory test results. Over the last decade, the field of translational research has been active with many ongoing clinical trials. This is particularly so in two common pediatric neuromuscular disorders: Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy. Although no definitive therapy has yet been found, numerous active ...

  13. Quantitative evaluation of tongue atrophy on midsagittal magnetic resonance images (MRIs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken mainly to establish the quantitative parameter to evaluate the tongue atrophy on midsagittal MRIs and to show the clinical usefulness of such quantitative evaluation. Midsagittal MRIs of the tongue of consecutive 103 patients were analyzed. They were classified into 67 patients showing normal size (group without atrophy), 11 patients showing atrophy (group with atrophy) and 25 patients showing unsatifactory MRIs with artifacts based on the routine evaluation. The patients in the group without atrophy did not show any pathologic processes to produce tongue atrophy on clinical findings. The area and perimeter of tongue and oral cavity, and the ratio of tongue area to oral cavity area and the ratio of tongue perimeter to oral cavity perimeter on midsagittal MRIs were obtained in each patient of groups with and without atrophy by using quantitative image analysis system. In the group without atrophy, regression analysis of the data on age was made and the 95% confidence interval of the data for age was obtained. No evidence that the tongue becomes atrophic with aging was obtained in the group without atrophy. Patients in the group with atrophy were best separated from those in the group without atrophy statistically when the ratio of tongue area to oral cavity area was regressed on age. Among 11 patients in the group with atrophy, 6 patients were not regarded as having tongue atrophy on clinical neurological examinations. Therefore, the evaluation of midsagittal MRIs is clinically useful. (author)

  14. Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Hiroshi Matsuda,3 Makoto Motomura,4 Akihiko Uechi5 1Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 3Integrative Brain Imaging Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira City, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami County, Okinawa, Japan; 5Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan Objective: We objectively evaluated the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC and the subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (scACC, using new voxel-based morphometry (VBM software employing Statistical Parametric Mapping software v8 and diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra. We prepared a database covering young-mature adulthood and investigated the clinical usefulness of the evaluation. Subjects and methods: One hundred seven patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, 74 patients with bipolar disorder (BD, and 240 healthy control subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using new VBM software and databases covering young-mature adults and the elderly, target volumes of interest were set in the sgACC and scACC, four indicators (severity, extent, ratio, and whole-brain extent were determined, and the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC was evaluated on the basis of the indicators. In addition, the relationships between the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC and performance of diagnosing MDD and BD and therapeutic drugs were investigated. Results: It was clarified that the disease is likely to be MDD when atrophy is detected in the sgACC, and likely to be BD when no atrophy is detected in the sgACC but is detected in the scACC. Regarding the relationship with therapeutic drugs, it was clarified that, when

  15. Groundwork for True XML-based Security Pattern Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAWFIQ S.M.Barhoom; ZHANG Shen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    A pattern is used to describe best practices and principles. Patterns have been used successfully in architecture and in software design. We propose to apply the pattern method to XML-based security engineering. Organized collections of interrelated patterns (called pattern languages) can embody whole bodies of knowledge on specific topics. We will discuss patterns and security pattern, pattern languages and the requirements of the pattern languages proposing its essential requirement (the template), and lays the groundwork for our future development of a true XML-based security pattern language.

  16. Model-based multiple patterning layout decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daifeng; Tian, Haitong; Du, Yuelin; Wong, Martin D. F.

    2015-10-01

    As one of the most promising next generation lithography technologies, multiple patterning lithography (MPL) plays an important role in the attempts to keep in pace with 10 nm technology node and beyond. With feature size keeps shrinking, it has become impossible to print dense layouts within one single exposure. As a result, MPL such as double patterning lithography (DPL) and triple patterning lithography (TPL) has been widely adopted. There is a large volume of literature on DPL/TPL layout decomposition, and the current approach is to formulate the problem as a classical graph-coloring problem: Layout features (polygons) are represented by vertices in a graph G and there is an edge between two vertices if and only if the distance between the two corresponding features are less than a minimum distance threshold value dmin. The problem is to color the vertices of G using k colors (k = 2 for DPL, k = 3 for TPL) such that no two vertices connected by an edge are given the same color. This is a rule-based approach, which impose a geometric distance as a minimum constraint to simply decompose polygons within the distance into different masks. It is not desired in practice because this criteria cannot completely capture the behavior of the optics. For example, it lacks of sufficient information such as the optical source characteristics and the effects between the polygons outside the minimum distance. To remedy the deficiency, a model-based layout decomposition approach to make the decomposition criteria base on simulation results was first introduced at SPIE 2013.1 However, the algorithm1 is based on simplified assumption on the optical simulation model and therefore its usage on real layouts is limited. Recently AMSL2 also proposed a model-based approach to layout decomposition by iteratively simulating the layout, which requires excessive computational resource and may lead to sub-optimal solutions. The approach2 also potentially generates too many stiches. In this

  17. Skeletal muscle atrophy: disease-induced mechanisms may mask disuse atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavaki, C J; Sakkas, G K; Mitrou, G I; Kalyva, A; Stefanidis, I; Myburgh, K H; Karatzaferi, C

    2015-12-01

    Disuse atrophy is the loss of skeletal muscle mass due to inactivity or lower than 'normal' use. It is not only a furtive component of the 'modern' sedentary lifestyle but also a part of numerous pathologies, where muscle loss is linked to disease specific and/or other toxicity factors, eventually leading to wasting (cachexia). Whether disuse-or-disease induced, muscle loss leads to weakness and metabolic comorbidities with a high societal and financial cost. This review discusses the intricate network of interacting signalling pathways including Atrogin-1/MAFbx, IGF1-Akt, myostatin, glucocorticoids, NF-kB, MAPKs and caspases that seem to regulate disuse atrophy but also share common activation patterns in other states of muscle loss such as sarcopenia or cachexia. Reactive oxygen species are also important regulators of cell signalling pathways that can accelerate proteolysis and depress protein synthesis. Exercise is an effective countermeasure and antioxidants may show some benefit. We discuss how the experimental model used can crucially affect the outcome and hence our understanding of atrophy. Timing of sampling is crucial as some signalling mechanisms reach their peak early during the atrophy process to rapidly decline thereafter, while other present high levels even weeks and months after study initiation. The importance of such differences lays in future consideration of appropriate treatment targets. Apart from attempting to correct defective genes or negate their effects, technological advances in new rational ways should aim to regulate specific gene expression at precise time points for the treatment of muscle atrophy in therapeutic protocols depending on the origin of atrophy induction. PMID:26728748

  18. Similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Pelillo, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This accessible text/reference presents a coherent overview of the emerging field of non-Euclidean similarity learning. The book presents a broad range of perspectives on similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition methods, from purely theoretical challenges to practical, real-world applications. The coverage includes both supervised and unsupervised learning paradigms, as well as generative and discriminative models. Topics and features: explores the origination and causes of non-Euclidean (dis)similarity measures, and how they influence the performance of traditional classification alg

  19. Iris Recognition Based On Its Texture Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ezhilarasan,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A biometric system uniquely identifies and authenticates humans based on their physical or behavioural features. Iris recognition is one of the most reliable methods of biometric authentication that recognizes a person by pattern of the iris. No two irises are alike -not between identical twins, or even between the left eye and the right eye of the same person. The existing works on iris segmentation have been done considering the entire region of the iris. But the level of Iristexture detail typically degrades as one move away from the pupil. Hence considering the inner multi bands of iris will increase the accuracy level and also saves time.

  20. Pattern-based ontology transformation service

    OpenAIRE

    Sváb-Zamazal, Ondrej; Svátek, Vojtech; Scharffe, François

    2009-01-01

    Many use cases for semantic technologies (eg. reasoning, modularisation, matching) could benefit from an ontology transformation service. This service is supported with ontology transformation patterns consisting of corresponding ontology patterns capturing alternative modelling choices, and an alignment between them. In this paper we present the transformation process together with its two constituents: a pattern detection and an ontology transformation process. The pattern detection process...

  1. Enhancing SAT-Based Test Pattern Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; XIONG You-lun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents modeling tools based on Boolean satisfiability (SAT) to solve problems of test generation for combinational circuits. It exploits an added layer to maintain circuit-related information and value justification relations to a generic SAT algorithm. It dovetails binary decision graphs (BDD) and SAT techniques to improve the efficiency of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG). More specifically, it first exploits inexpensive reconvergent fanout analysis of circuit to gather information on the local signal correlation by using BDD learning, then uses the above learned information to restrict and focus the overall search space of SAT-based ATPG. Its learning technique is effective and lightweight. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  2. Precuneus atrophy in early-onset Alzheimer's disease: a morphometric structural MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) usually first presents in elderly patients, but may also develop at an earlier age. Patients with an early age at onset tend to present with complaints other than memory impairment, such as visuospatial problems or apraxia, which may reflect a different distribution of cortical involvement. In this study we set out to investigate whether age at onset in patients with AD determines the pattern of atrophy on cerebral MRI scans. We examined 55 patients with AD over a wide age range and analyzed their 3-D T1-weighted structural MRI scans in standard space using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Regression analysis was performed to estimate loss of grey matter as a function of age, corrected for mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores and sex. The VBM analyses identified multiple areas (including the temporal and parietal lobes), showing more atrophy with advancing age. By contrast, a younger age at onset was found to be associated with lower grey matter density in the precuneus. Regionalized volumetric analysis of this region confirmed the existence of disproportionate atrophy in the precuneus in patients with early-onset AD. Application of a multivariate model with precuneus grey matter density as input, showed that precuneal and hippocampal atrophy are independent from each other. Additionally, we found that a smaller precuneus is associated with impaired visuospatial functioning. Our findings support the notion that age at onset modulates the distribution of cortical involvement, and that disproportionate precuneus atrophy is more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. (orig.)

  3. Muscular atrophy in diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Gadeberg, P C; Brock, B;

    1997-01-01

    Diabetic patients with polyneuropathy develop motor dysfunction. To establish whether motor dysfunction is associated with muscular atrophy the ankle dorsal and plantar flexors of the non-dominant leg were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging in 8 patients with symptomatic neuropathy, in 8 non......-neuropathic patients and in 16 individually matched control subjects. In the neuropathic patients the muscle strength of the ankle dorsal and plantar flexors was reduced by 41 % as compared to the non-neuropathic patients (p < 0.005). Volume of the ankle dorsal and plantar flexors was estimated with stereological...... confirmed that the atrophy predominated distally. We conclude that muscular atrophy underlies motor weakness at the ankle in diabetic patients with polyneuropathy and that the atrophy is most pronounced in distal muscles of the lower leg indicating that a length dependent neuropathic process explains the...

  4. Patterns in rational base number systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenbesser, Johannes F; Thuswaldner, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Number systems with a rational number $a/b > 1$ as base have gained interest in recent years. In particular, relations to Mahler's 3/2-problem as well as the Josephus problem have been established. In the present paper we show that the patterns of digits in the representations of positive integers in such a number system are uniformly distributed. We study the sum-of-digits function of number systems with rational base $a/b$ and use representations w.r.t. this base to construct normal numbers in base $a$ in the spirit of Champernowne. The main challenge in our proofs comes from the fact that the language of the representations of integers in these number systems is not context-free. The intricacy of this language makes it impossible to prove our results along classical lines. In particular, we use self-affine tiles that are defined in certain subrings of the ad\\'ele ring $\\mathbb{A}_\\mathbb{Q}$ and Fourier analysis in $\\mathbb{A}_\\mathbb{Q}$. With help of these tools we are able to reformulate our results as ...

  5. Inflammatory pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, K; Hara, S; Tanifuji, Y.; Tamai, M.

    1989-01-01

    A 47-year-old Japanese man had a progressive degeneration of the retina and choroid along the retinal veins associated with uveitis of two years' duration. The lesion was characteristic of paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy: a contiguous atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid of one-half to one disc diameter in size was present along most of the veins from the posterior pole to the far periphery. Fluorescein angiography showed a window defect in the retinal pigment epithelium, ...

  6. Large-Scale Constraint-Based Pattern Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feida

    2009-01-01

    We studied the problem of constraint-based pattern mining for three different data formats, item-set, sequence and graph, and focused on mining patterns of large sizes. Colossal patterns in each data formats are studied to discover pruning properties that are useful for direct mining of these patterns. For item-set data, we observed robustness of…

  7. Pattern Specialization Based on Partial Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Design pattern enables software architecture generality and reusability, but which depresses the high performance. The pattern specialization was built on partial evaluation technology to reduce the overheads of design pattern. The design patterns were classified to extract the common features, and the corresponding pattern specializations were constructed. In the pattern specialization, the optimization opportunities were identified, and the specialization methods and conditions were described. The syntax of binding time analysis was defined, and the semantic depicted the invariant of usage context. The virtual invocation and dispatch were eliminated, which enhances the running efficiency. This pattern specialization is a high-level specialization for improving the performance of software aimed at design level that is orthogonal with the low-level code optimization.

  8. Discriminative Pattern Identification using Rule Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Mahajan*1

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination is bias behavior of people in society; particularly discrimination is based on race, sex, age and cast. Discrimination observed in many areas like labour market, education credit, mortgage and medical. Most of scientist found it in many subject like social sciences economics and law. Discrimination system relies on historical data for making decisions in socially sensitive actions. The technique of Discrimination identification uses information systems based on data mining technology for decision making. Decision making systems and data mining techniques such as association rule mining have been designed and are now used for making automated decisions, like loan granting or denial. Discrimination situations found in dataset in direct and indirect ways. Rules are formed from the dataset using Apriori algorithm and certain parameters such as number of rules, minimum support and confidence. Power of discrimination within rules are calculated by an elift and glift on a classification rule using Alpha and strong Alpha protection. In direct discrimination, the rules are directly extracted from dataset and searched for discriminatory pattern. In indirect discrimination, system needs some background knowledge as a further input and it is used to find unfair treatments. Inference model required for integration of classification rules with background rules. Inference model is a mathematic model. Direct and Indirect Discrimination tested over German credit dataset.

  9. Pattern Based Adaptive Architecture for Internet Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Meiappane, A.; Venkatesan, V. Prasanna; Jegatheeswari, V.; B.Kalpana; Sarumathy, U.

    2013-01-01

    Pattern plays a vital role in software architecture and it is a general reusable solution to commonly occurring problem. Software architecture of a system is the set of structures needed to reason about the system, which comprise software elements, relations among them, and properties of both. Patterns can be implemented at run-time; they identify key resource constraints and best practices. Architecture Pattern expresses a fundamental structural organization or schema for software systems. P...

  10. Towards a pattern language for aspect-based design

    OpenAIRE

    Bynens, Maarten; Joosen, Wouter

    2009-01-01

    With the maturation and widespread adoption of AOSD comes the need for patterns and best practices to solve recurring problems. Such patterns have been documented in different publications. Besides a conclusive catalog, a system to relate the patterns and drive the process of pattern selection would bear significant benefits. In this position paper, we designate the road towards a pattern language for aspect-based design and describe the initial steps.

  11. 基于体素的形态测量学在震颤麻痹型多系统萎缩中的应用%Voxel-based morphometry in the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦萍; 王含; 李琢; 冯逢

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价震颤麻痹型多系统萎缩(MSA-P型)患者全脑灰、白质体积减少区域及分布特征.方法 选取13例临床拟诊为MSA-P型可能性大的患者及14名年龄匹配的正常对照者行全脑三维快速扰相梯度回波(3D fast spoiled gradient echo,3D-FSPGR)序列扫描,采用基于体素的形态测量学(voxel-based morphometry,VBM)分析方法的统计参数图软件(statistical parametric mapping,SPM)8,对MSA-P型患者及正常对照者的灰、白质体素进行分析.结果 与正常对照者相比,MSA-P患者的脑灰、白质体积均减少;脑灰质减少区多数区域呈双侧对称分布:包括双侧辅助运动区、背侧后扣带皮层、额叶内侧回、颞上回、小脑半球皮层等;少数区域仅累及单侧,如右侧初级运动皮层、体感联合皮层及左侧下前扣带皮层等.脑白质区主要累及双侧额上回、楔前叶、额叶下,左侧颞上回、扣带回及右侧额眶回、颞叶下等.结论 VBM方法具有自动、全面的特点,能客观地反映MSA-P患者组全脑结构的差异.%Objective To assess patterns of the gray and white matter atrophy in patients with multiple system atrophy-P(MSA-P)variant of whole brain compared with normal controls.Methods Three dimensional fast spoiled gradient echo(3D-FSPGR)T1WI of whole brain were obtained from 13 patients with probable MSA-P and 14 age-matched normal controls.The volume of gray matter(GM)and white matter (WM)of MSA-P patients and normal controls was analyzed with voxel-based morphometry(VBM) using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)8.Results Compared with the controls,the MSA-P patients showed decreased gray matter and white matter in bread areas. Gray matter loss mainly symmetrically distributed in bilateral supplementary motor area(SMA),dorsal posterior cingulate cortex(DPCC),medial frontal gyrus,superior temporal gyrus,cerebellum cortex,etc.Unilateral involvement of cortices mainly located in right primary motor cortex

  12. Cortical volumes and atrophy rates in FTD-3 CHMP2B mutation carriers and related non-carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon F; Østergaard, Lasse R; Rodell, Anders B; Østergaard, Leif; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Isaacs, Adrian M; Johannsen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    a mean interval of 16 months and surface based cortical segmentation we measured cortical thickness and volume, and quantified atrophy rates. Cortical thickness and atrophy rates were averaged within major lobes and focal effects were determined by parametric statistical maps. The volumetric atrophy...

  13. Speech recognition based on pattern recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiner, Lawrence R.

    1990-05-01

    Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. The use of pattern recognition techniques were applied to the problems of isolated word (or discrete utterance) recognition, connected word recognition, and continuous speech recognition. It is shown that understanding (and consequently the resulting recognizer performance) is best to the simplest recognition tasks and is considerably less well developed for large scale recognition systems.

  14. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume measures in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Worker

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The objective of the current study was to use surface-based analysis techniques to assess cortical thickness, surface area and grey matter volume to identify unique morphological patterns of cortical atrophy in PD, MSA and PSP and to relate these patterns of change to disease duration and clinical features.High resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI volumes were acquired from 14 PD patients, 18 MSA, 14 PSP and 19 healthy control participants. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume analyses were carried out using the automated surface-based analysis package FreeSurfer (version 5.1.0. Measures of disease severity and duration were assessed for correlation with cortical morphometric changes in each clinical group.Results show that in PSP, widespread cortical thinning and volume loss occurs within the frontal lobe, particularly the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, PSP patients also displayed increased surface area in the pericalcarine. In comparison, PD and MSA did not display significant changes in cortical morphology.These results demonstrate that patients with clinically established PSP exhibit distinct patterns of cortical atrophy, particularly affecting the frontal lobe. These results could be used in the future to develop a useful clinical application of MRI to distinguish PSP patients from PD and MSA patients.

  15. Scenario Based Worm Trace Pattern Identification Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Rahayu, S Siti; Shahrin, S; Zaki, Mohd M; Irda, R; Faizal, M A

    2010-01-01

    The number of malware variants is growing tremendously and the study of malware attacks on the Internet is still a demanding research domain. In this research, various logs from different OSI layer are explore to identify the traces leave on the attacker and victim logs, and the attack worm trace pattern are establish in order to reveal true attacker or victim. For the purpose of this paper, it will only concentrate on cybercrime that caused by malware network intrusion and used the traditional worm namely blaster worm variants. This research creates the concept of trace pattern by fusing the attackers and victims perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose on attackers, victims and multistep, attacker or victim, trace patterns by combining both perspectives. These three proposed worm trace patterns can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  16. Framework of Pattern Recognition Model Based on the Cognitive Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the fundamental theory of visual cognition mechanism and cognitive psychology,the visual pattern recognition model is introduced briefly.Three pattern recognition models,i.e.template-based matching model,prototype-based matching model and feature-based matching model are built and discussed separately.In addition,the influence of object background information and visual focus point to the result of pattern recognition is also discussed with the example of recognition for fuzzy letters and figures.

  17. Beautiful math--aesthetic patterns based on logarithmic spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinchang Wang; Peichang Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    A simple, fast method generates various visually appealing spiral patterns. The method is based on the concept that spiral patterns comprise a symmetry group of tilings. It employs invariant mappings and a dynamical system to create seamless colored patterns. PMID:24808127

  18. Hemifacial atrophy treated with autologous fat transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old male developed right hemifacial atrophy following marphea profunda. Facial asymmetry due to residual atrophy was treated with autologous fat harvested from buttocks with marked cosmetic improvement.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: multiple system atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atrophy , known as MSA-C, is characterized by cerebellar ataxia , which causes problems with coordination and balance. This ... System Disorders Health Topic: Balance Problems Health Topic: Degenerative Nerve ... type MalaCards: multiple system atrophy, parkinsonian type Merck ...

  20. Different atrophy-hypertrophy transcription pathways in muscles affected by severe and mild spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millino Caterina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with mutations of the survival motor neuron gene SMN and is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy caused by degeneration of spinal motor neurons. SMN has a role in neurons but its deficiency may have a direct effect on muscle tissue. Methods We applied microarray and quantitative real-time PCR to study at transcriptional level the effects of a defective SMN gene in skeletal muscles affected by the two forms of SMA: the most severe type I and the mild type III. Results The two forms of SMA generated distinct expression signatures: the SMA III muscle transcriptome is close to that found under normal conditions, whereas in SMA I there is strong alteration of gene expression. Genes implicated in signal transduction were up-regulated in SMA III whereas those of energy metabolism and muscle contraction were consistently down-regulated in SMA I. The expression pattern of gene networks involved in atrophy signaling was completed by qRT-PCR, showing that specific pathways are involved, namely IGF/PI3K/Akt, TNF-α/p38 MAPK and Ras/ERK pathways. Conclusion Our study suggests a different picture of atrophy pathways in each of the two forms of SMA. In particular, p38 may be the regulator of protein synthesis in SMA I. The SMA III profile appears as the result of the concurrent presence of atrophic and hypertrophic fibers. This more favorable condition might be due to the over-expression of MTOR that, given its role in the activation of protein synthesis, could lead to compensatory hypertrophy in SMA III muscle fibers.

  1. Mining Patterns for Web-based Emergency Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Montells, Laura; Montero, Susana; Díaz Pérez, Paloma; Aedo, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Design patterns describe problems that occur recurrently, and specify the core of the solution in such a way that we can (re)use it in different contexts and applications. Although, web-based Emergency Management Systems domain is still in its nascent stages, there are design principles, real systems and design patterns from other related areas that can be a valuable source of knowledge to mine design patterns. From these sources we have created a patterns catalogue to assist novice designers...

  2. Effects of muscle atrophy on motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    As a biological tissue, muscle adapts to the demands of usage. One traditional way of assessing the extent of this adaptation has been to examine the effects of an altered-activity protocol on the physiological properties of muscles. However, in order to accurately interpret the changes associated with an activity pattern, it is necessary to employ an appropriate control model. A substantial literature exists which reports altered-use effects by comparing experimental observations with those from animals raised in small laboratory cages. Some evidence suggests that small-cage-reared animals actually represent a model of reduced use. For example, laboratory animals subjected to limited physical activity have shown resistance to insulin-induced glucose uptake which can be altered by exercise training. This project concerned itself with the basic mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy. Specifically, the project addressed the issue of the appropriateness of rats raised in conventional-sized cages as experimental models to examine this phenomenon. The project hypothesis was that rats raised in small cages are inappropriate models for the study of muscle atrophy. The experimental protocol involved: 1) raising two populations of rats, one group in conventional (small)-sized cages and the other group in a much larger (133x) cage, from weanling age (21 days) through to young adulthood (125 days); 2) comparison of size- and force-related characteristics of selected test muscles in an acute terminal paradigm.

  3. A review of contrast pattern based data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shiwei; Ju, Meilong; Yu, Junfeng; Cai, Binlei; Wang, Aiping

    2015-07-01

    Contrast pattern based data mining is concerned with the mining of patterns and models that contrast two or more datasets. Contrast patterns can describe similarities or differences between the datasets. They represent strong contrast knowledge and have been shown to be very successful for constructing accurate and robust clusters and classifiers. The increasing use of contrast pattern data mining has initiated a great deal of research and development attempts in the field of data mining. A comprehensive revision on the existing contrast pattern based data mining research is given in this paper. They are generally categorized into background and representation, definitions and mining algorithms, contrast pattern based classification, clustering, and other applications, the research trends in future. The primary of this paper is to server as a glossary for interested researchers to have an overall picture on the current contrast based data mining development and identify their potential research direction to future investigation.

  4. Generating IDS Attack Pattern Automatically Based on Attack Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向尕; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    Generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is studied. The extending definition of attack tree is proposed. And the algorithm of generating attack tree is presented. The method of generating attack pattern automatically based on attack tree is shown, which is tested by concrete attack instances. The results show that the algorithm is effective and efficient. In doing so, the efficiency of generating attack pattern is improved and the attack trees can be reused.

  5. Earthquake networks based on similar activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel N; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-10-01

    Earthquakes are a complex spatiotemporal phenomenon, the underlying mechanism for which is still not fully understood despite decades of research and analysis. We propose and develop a network approach to earthquake events. In this network, a node represents a spatial location while a link between two nodes represents similar activity patterns in the two different locations. The strength of a link is proportional to the strength of the cross correlation in activities of two nodes joined by the link. We apply our network approach to a Japanese earthquake catalog spanning the 14-year period 1985-1998. We find strong links representing large correlations between patterns in locations separated by more than 1000 kilometers, corroborating prior observations that earthquake interactions have no characteristic length scale. We find network characteristics not attributable to chance alone, including a large number of network links, high node assortativity, and strong stability over time. PMID:23214652

  6. Knowledge-based antenna pattern extrapolation

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We describe a theoretically-motivated algorithm for extrapolation of antenna radiation patterns from a small number of measurements. This algorithm exploits constraints on the antenna's underlying design to avoid ambiguities, but is sufficiently general to address many different antenna types. A theoretical basis for the robustness of this algorithm is developed, and its performance is verified in simulation using a number of popular antenna designs.

  7. One-Dimensional Vector Based Pattern Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M.Fouda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Template matching is a basic method in image analysis to extract useful information from images. In this paper, we suggest a new method for pattern matching. Our method transform the template image from two dimensional image into one dimensional vector. Also all sub - windows (same size of template in the reference image will transform into one dimensional vectors. The three similarity measures SAD, SSD, and Euclidean are used to c ompute the likeness between template and all sub - windows in the reference image to find the best match. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed metho d over the conventional methods on various template of different sizes

  8. Encoding through patterns: regression tree-based neuronal population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, Robert; Pipa, Gordon; Lewis, Laura D; Nikolić, Danko; Williams, Ziv; Brown, Emery

    2013-08-01

    Although the existence of correlated spiking between neurons in a population is well known, the role such correlations play in encoding stimuli is not. We address this question by constructing pattern-based encoding models that describe how time-varying stimulus drive modulates the expression probabilities of population-wide spike patterns. The challenge is that large populations may express an astronomical number of unique patterns, and so fitting a unique encoding model for each individual pattern is not feasible. We avoid this combinatorial problem using a dimensionality-reduction approach based on regression trees. Using the insight that some patterns may, from the perspective of encoding, be statistically indistinguishable, the tree divisively clusters the observed patterns into groups whose member patterns possess similar encoding properties. These groups, corresponding to the leaves of the tree, are much smaller in number than the original patterns, and the tree itself constitutes a tractable encoding model for each pattern. Our formalism can detect an extremely weak stimulus-driven pattern structure and is based on maximizing the data likelihood, not making a priori assumptions as to how patterns should be grouped. Most important, by comparing pattern encodings with independent neuron encodings, one can determine if neurons in the population are driven independently or collectively. We demonstrate this method using multiple unit recordings from area 17 of anesthetized cat in response to a sinusoidal grating and show that pattern-based encodings are superior to those of independent neuron models. The agnostic nature of our clustering approach allows us to investigate encoding by the collective statistics that are actually present rather than those (such as pairwise) that might be presumed. PMID:23607564

  9. Movement Pattern Analysis Based on Sequence Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Chavoshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased affordability and deployment of advanced tracking technologies have led researchers from various domains to analyze the resulting spatio-temporal movement data sets for the purpose of knowledge discovery. Two different approaches can be considered in the analysis of moving objects: quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. This research focuses on the latter and uses the qualitative trajectory calculus (QTC, a type of calculus that represents qualitative data on moving point objects (MPOs, and establishes a framework to analyze the relative movement of multiple MPOs. A visualization technique called sequence signature (SESI is used, which enables to map QTC patterns in a 2D indexed rasterized space in order to evaluate the similarity of relative movement patterns of multiple MPOs. The applicability of the proposed methodology is illustrated by means of two practical examples of interacting MPOs: cars on a highway and body parts of a samba dancer. The results show that the proposed method can be effectively used to analyze interactions of multiple MPOs in different domains.

  10. Organization of pattern information in the pattern based software development: A POMSDP model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yong; LIU Ri-guang; WANG Yan

    2008-01-01

    Focused on the lack of proper organization for patterns in the development of pattern based software, a POMSDP model with layered tree structure for organizing patterns during the process of development was put forward. The model and its interrelated concepts were strictly defined and introduced by applying the theory of set, symbolic logic and pattern, which ensures the correctness, maturity and expansibility of the model. The expansibility of the model was discussed mainly. The basic realization and the application in the automatic que-ry system were presented. Based on the existing software development methods, the POMSDP model resolves the problem of chaos in the application of patterns, strengthens the controllability of the system, and facilitates the improvement, maintenance, expansion, and especially the reengineering of the software system.

  11. Concept of a data base for signal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The many requirements made on the storage, administration and handling of signal patterns of stationary random signal patterns and multi-channel transient signal patterns are discussed. For the field of loose part detection, the concept of a data base is presented for structure-borne noise burst patterns. Chapter 2 describes the measuring principle of structure-borne noise monitoring. Chapter 3 gives a summary of the requirements made on the automation of measured data recording; chapter 4 compiles requirements made on the data base. Chapter 5 describes the concept developed for a burst pattern data base; chapter 6 shows the organization of the data base, and chapter 7 reflects the present state of application. (orig./HP)

  12. Neuronal involvement in muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Alejandro Cisterna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The innervation of skeletal myofibers exerts a crucial influence on the maintenance of muscle tone and normal operation. Consequently, denervated myofibers manifest atrophy, which is preceded by an increase in sarcolemma permeability. Recently, de novo expression of hemichannels formed by connexins and other none selective channels, including P2X7 receptors, TRPV2 channels were demonstrated in denervated fast skeletal muscles. The denervation-induced atrophy was drastically prevented in denervated muscles deficient in connexins 43 and 45. Nonetheless, the transduction mechanism by which the nerve represses the expression of the above mentioned none selective channels remains unknown. The paracrine action of extracellular signaling molecules including ATP, neurotrophic factors (i.e., BDNF, agrin/Lrp4/MuSK and acetylcholine are among the possible perpetrators of repression for connexin expression. This review discusses the possible role of relevant factors in maintaining the normal functioning of fast skeletal muscles and suppression of connexin hemichannel expression.

  13. Progressive hemifacial atrophy: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Tolkachjov, Stanislav N; Patel, Nirav G; Tollefson, Megha M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Progressive Hemifacial Atrophy (PHA) is an acquired, typically unilateral, facial distortion with unknown etiology. The true incidence of this disorder has not been reported, but it is often regarded as a subtype of localized scleroderma. Historically, a debate existed whether PHA is a form of linear scleroderma, called morphea en coup de sabre (ECDS), or whether these conditions are inherently different processes or appear on a spectrum (; Adv Exp Med Biol 455:101–4, 1999; J Eur A...

  14. The Impact of Lesion In-Painting and Registration Methods on Voxel-Based Morphometry in Detecting Regional Cerebral Gray Matter Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, A.; Jackson, J.S.; Tauhid, S.; Arora, A.; Gorky, J.; Dell’Oglio, E.; Bakshi, A.; Chitnis, T.; Khoury, S.J.; Weiner, H.L.; Guttmann, C.R.G.; Bakshi, R.; Neema, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE VBM has been widely used to study GM atrophy in MS. MS lesions lead to segmentation and registration errors that may affect the reliability of VBM results. Improved segmentation and registration have been demonstrated by WM LI before segmentation. DARTEL appears to improve registration versus the USM. Our aim was to compare the performance of VBM-DARTEL versus VBM-USM and the effect of LI in the regional analysis of GM atrophy in MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3T T1 MR imaging scans were acquired from 26 patients with RRMS and 28 age-matched NC. LI replaced WM lesions with normal-appearing WM intensities before image segmentation. VBM analysis was performed in SPM8 by using DARTEL and USM with and without LI, allowing the comparison of 4 VBM methods (DARTEL + LI, DARTEL − LI, USM + LI, and USM − LI). Accuracy of VBM was assessed by using NMI, CC, and a simulation analysis. RESULTS Overall, DARTEL + LI yielded the most accurate GM maps among the 4 methods (highest NMI and CC, P < .001). DARTEL + LI showed significant GM loss in the bilateral thalami and caudate nuclei in patients with RRMS versus NC. The other 3 methods overestimated the number of regions of GM loss in RRMS versus NC. LI improved the accuracy of both VBM methods. Simulated data suggested the accuracy of the results provided from patient MR imaging analysis. CONCLUSIONS We introduce a pipeline that shows promise in limiting segmentation and registration errors in VBM analysis in MS. PMID:22460341

  15. Approach Based Patterns for System-of-Systems Reconfiguration

    OpenAIRE

    Petitdemange, Franck; Borne, Isabelle; Buisson, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    International audience Systems-of-systems (SoS) are a particular class of systems that recruit dynamically their constituents to achieve a global goal. To accomodate this approach, the architecture of SoS is usually described by architectural patterns to be instantiated at runtime. Based on the study of an example, we introduce reconfiguration patterns to help reasoning on reconfiguration and maintaining the architectural patterns of the SoS.

  16. THE ADMINISTRATOR OBJECT PATTERN FOR ROLE-BASED ACCESS CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    S. R. KODITUWAKKU

    2010-01-01

    The Object-Oriented paradigm approaches the software development by representing real world entities into classes of software objects. Object oriented design patterns facilitate small scale and large scale design reuse. This paper presents an object oriented design pattern, Administrator Object, to address the User-Role assignment problem in Role Based Access Control (RBAC). Two alternative solutions are proposed. The pattern is presented according to the Gang of Four template.

  17. THE ADMINISTRATOR OBJECT PATTERN FOR ROLE-BASED ACCESS CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. KODITUWAKKU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Object-Oriented paradigm approaches the software development by representing real world entities into classes of software objects. Object oriented design patterns facilitate small scale and large scale design reuse. This paper presents an object oriented design pattern, Administrator Object, to address the User-Role assignment problem in Role Based Access Control (RBAC. Two alternative solutions are proposed. The pattern is presented according to the Gang of Four template.

  18. A Single Pattern Matching Algorithm Based on Character Frequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the study of single pattern matching, MBF algorithm is proposed by imitating the string searching procedure of human. The algorithm preprocesses the pattern by using the idea of Quick Search algorithm and the already-matched pattern psefix and suffix information. In searching phase, the algorithm makes use of the!character using frequency and the continue-skip idea. The experiment shows that MBF algorithm is more efficient than other algorithms.

  19. Discriminative Pattern Identification using Rule Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bhushan Mahajan; S. S. Nandgaonkar

    2014-01-01

    Discrimination is bias behavior of people in society; particularly discrimination is based on race, sex, age and cast. Discrimination observed in many areas like labour market, education credit, mortgage and medical. Most of scientist found it in many subject like social sciences economics and law. Discrimination system relies on historical data for making decisions in socially sensitive actions. The technique of Discrimination identification uses information systems based on ...

  20. Classification and Target Group Selection Based Upon Frequent Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); R. Potharst (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this technical report , two new algorithms based upon frequent patterns are proposed. One algorithm is a classification method. The other one is an algorithm for target group selection. In both algorithms, first of all, the collection of frequent patterns in the training set is constr

  1. Knowledge-based methodology in pattern recognition and understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Haton, Jean-Paul

    1987-01-01

    The interpretation and understanding of complex patterns (e.g. speech, images or other kinds of mono- or multi-dimensional signals) is related both to pattern recognition and artificial intelligence since it necessitates numerical processing as well as symbolic knoledge-based reasoning techniques. This paper presents a state-of-the-art in the field, including basic concepts and practical applications.

  2. Familial bulbospinal neuronopathy with optic atrophy: a distinct entity.

    OpenAIRE

    Paradiso, G; Micheli, F.; Taratuto, A L; Parera, I C

    1996-01-01

    A 61 year old woman and her 58 year old brother presented with the clinical picture of late onset progressive bulbar and spinal muscular atrophy with family history of involvement in successive generations. The sister also had optic neuropathy and the brother developed diabetes mellitus and sex hormone abnormalities. Neurophysiological and histopathological studies showed a pattern of motor and sensory neuronopathy. There was no abnormal expansion of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene....

  3. EFFICIENT APPROACH TO DISCOVER INTERVAL-BASED SEQUENTIAL PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sadasivam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In most of the sequential pattern mining methodology they have concentrated only on time point base event data. But some research efforts have detailed the mining patterns from time interval based event data. In many application most of the events are occurred at time interval based event not a point based interval for example patient affected by the certain time period. Our goal is to mine the frequently occurred sequential patterns in the database. In this study we have introduced a new algorithm namely KPrefixspan by modifying the TPrefixspan algorithm to overcome the demerits of that algorithm. Here new approach called refined database can reduce the scanning time extremely since the unsupported events are removed at each projection also result of the sequential pattern is extremely precise. Experiments constructed for synthetic datasets. From the experimental results we reduced the running time almost 60% and also reduce the memory usage almost 25% when compared to the existing TPrefixspan algorithm.

  4. Graph based Approach and Clustering of Patterns (GACP) for Sequential Pattern Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Patel ,; Amisha Patel

    2011-01-01

    The sequential pattern mining generates the sequential patterns. It can be used as the input of another program for retrieving the information from the large collection of data. It requires a largeamount of memory as well as numerous I/O operations. Multistage operations reduce the efficiency of the algorithm. The given GACP is based on graph representation and avoids recursively reconstructingintermediate trees during the mining process. The algorithm also eliminates the need of repeatedly s...

  5. Answer Card Identification Method Based on Pattern Recognition Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Jing; Zhang Kun Fang

    2016-01-01

    The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader), most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recogniti...

  6. Patterns in SNMP-Based Management

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Flatin, Jean-Philippe; Sevinç, Paul E.; Guerraoui, Rachid

    2000-01-01

    A lot of activity is currently going on to replace the SNMP management architecture with a solution better suited to managing modern IP networks and systems. New candidates include Management by delegation, active networks, and Web-based management. In this exercise, the management community runs the risk of throwing the baby out with the bath water by focusing too much on a few well-known problems exhibited by SNMP (e.g., its poor scalability) and neglecting most of its other characteristics...

  7. Patterns in SNMP-Based Management

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Flatin, Jean-Philippe

    2000-01-01

    A lot of activity is currently going on to replace the SNMP management architecture with a solution better suited to managing modern IP networks and systems. New candidates include Management by Delegation, active networks, and Web-based management. In this exercise, the management community runs the risk of throwing the baby out with the bath water by focusing too much on a few well-known problems exhibited by SNMP (e.g., its poor scalability) and neglecting most of its other characteristics...

  8. Effect of age at onset on cortical thickness and cognition in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-González, Aida; Lehmann, Manja; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Paterson, Ross W; Slattery, Catherine F; Foulkes, Alexander J M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Gil-Néciga, Eulogio; Roldán-Lora, Florinda; Schott, Jonathan M; Fox, Nick C; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2016-08-01

    Age at onset (AAO) has been shown to influence the phenotype of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but how it affects atypical presentations of AD remains unknown. Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is the most common form of atypical AD. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of AAO on cortical thickness and cognitive function in 98 PCA patients. We used Freesurfer (v5.3.0) to compare cortical thickness with AAO both as a continuous variable, and by dichotomizing the groups based on median age (58 years). In both the continuous and dichotomized analyses, we found a pattern suggestive of thinner cortex in precuneus and parietal areas in earlier-onset PCA, and lower cortical thickness in anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex in later-onset PCA. These cortical thickness differences between PCA subgroups were consistent with earlier-onset PCA patients performing worse on cognitive tests involving parietal functions. Our results provide a suggestion that AAO may not only affect the clinico-anatomical characteristics in AD but may also affect atrophy patterns and cognition within atypical AD phenotypes. PMID:27318138

  9. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to SPECT. After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99mTc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99mTc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  10. Study on Base Management Pattern of Food Producing Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weibin

    When the food producing enterprises often comply with food safety regulations and industry management system passively, we need to consider can they transform their production and business pattern in order to avoid the food safety incidents completely? The answer is yes. The food producing enterprises can develop to the two directions of material planting and products in circulation through base management pattern substituting for the original operation pattern of in-plant processing and outside sales. The food producing enterprises should establish coordination and safe supervision mechanisms in order to achieve the management objectives of unified production, controllable risks and scale magnitude.

  11. Pattern Recognition-Based Analysis of COPD in CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs

    will in particular use the pattern recognition concepts of supervised learning, multiple instance learning, and dissimilarity representation-based classification. The proposed texture-based measures are applied to CT data from two different sources, one comprising low dose CT slices from subjects with...... patterns. Commonly employed CT-based quantitative measures in the clinical literature are rather simplistic and do not take the texture appearance of the lung tissue into account. This includes measures such as the relative area (RA), also called emphysema index, that applies a fixed threshold to each...... individual lung voxel in the CT image and counts the number of voxels below the threshold relative to the total amount of lung voxels. This thesis presents several methods for texture-based quantification of emphysema and/or COPD in CT images of the lungs. The methods rely on image processing and pattern...

  12. Nationwide and population-based prescription patterns in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe prescription patterns and changes in these patterns over the last decade for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in mental healthcare, using population-based and nationwide data, and to relate the findings to recommendations from...... international guidelines. METHODS: A population-based, nationwide study was carried out. It included register-based longitudinal data on all patients with a first-ever contact with mental healthcare with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from the entire Danish population, and all prescription data for this...

  13. Pattern-based Ontology Matching and Ontology Alignment Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Zamazal, Ondřej

    2006-01-01

    Ontology Matching is one of the hottest topic within the Semantic Web of recent years. There is still ample of space for improvement in terms of performance. Furthermore, current ontology matchers mostly concentrate on simple entity to entity matching. However, matching of whole structures could bring some additional complex relationships. These structures of ontologies can be captured as ontology patterns. The main theme of this thesis is an examination of pattern-based ontology matching enh...

  14. MOVING TARGETS PATTERN RECOGNITION BASED ON THE WAVELET NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Guangying; Chen Lili; Xu Jianjian

    2005-01-01

    Based on pattern recognition theory and neural network technology, moving objects automatic detection and classification method integrating advanced wavelet analysis are discussed in detail. An algorithm of moving targets pattern recognition on the combination of inter-frame difference and wavelet neural network is presented. The experimental results indicate that the designed BP wavelet network using this algorithm can recognize and classify moving targets rapidly and effectively.

  15. Write Pattern Format Algorithm for Reliable NAND-Based SSDs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Q.; Chen, T.; Hu, Y.; P. Gong

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents and evaluates a pre-coding algorithm to reduce power consumption and improve data retention in NAND-based solid-state drives. Compared to the state-of-the-art asymmetric coding and stripe pattern elimination algorithm, the proposed write pattern format algorithm (WPFA) achieves better data retention while consuming less power. The hardware for WPFA is simpler and requires less circuitry. The performance of WPFA is evaluated by both computer simulations and field-programmab...

  16. Constraint-based pattern mining in multi-relational databases

    OpenAIRE

    Nijssen, Siegfried; Jimenez, Aida; Guns, Tias

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new framework for constraint-based pattern mining in multi-relational databases. Distinguishing features of the framework are that (1) it allows finding patterns not only under anti-monotonic constraints, but also under monotonic constraints and closedness constraints, among others, expressed over complex aggregates over multiple relations; (2) it builds on a declarative graphical representation of constraints that links closely to data models of multi-relational databases and co...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: optic atrophy type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... optic atrophy type 1 frequently have problems with color vision that make it difficult or impossible to distinguish ... and Prevention: Vision Loss Fact Sheet Cleveland Clinic: Color Blindness Cleveland Clinic: Coping with Vision Loss Cleveland Clinic: Optic Atrophy Disease InfoSearch: Optic ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... accumulate and impair the normal function of motor neurons. Other types of spinal muscular atrophy that primarily affect the lower legs and feet and the lower arms and hands are caused by the dysfunction of neurons in the spinal cord. When spinal muscular atrophy ...

  19. Detection of brain atrophy due to ACTH or corticosteroid therapy with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, I.; Takei, T. (National Sagamihara Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan)); Oota, H.; Maekawa, K.

    1981-07-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids seemed to cause brain atrophy in infants. We studied the atrophy which was caused by these drugs with computed tomography (CT). 1) Nine cases of infantile spasms examined before, during and after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy on CT was observed immediately after the completion of ACTH therapy. The brain atrophy receded slightly after several months. It was more marked in younger patients, in cases treated by high doses of ACTH and in cases where brain atrophy had already been observed before ACTH therapy. 2) Twenty cases of infantile spasms or Lennox Gastaut syndrome were examined after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy was observed in twelve cases. Main features of brain atrophy were the enlargement of sylvian fissure and the widening of subarachnoid space at the frontal or temporal region. Mental retardation was observed in eighteen cases. 3) Two cases of nephrotic syndrome were treated with pulse therapy of prednisolone. CT was carried out before and after treatment. Atrophy of cerebrum was observed in these cases. 4) A case of infantile spasms treated with anticonvulsants without ACTH was studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and CT. The abnormal pattern of EEG was markedly corrected, while brain atrophy on CT was not observed after the therapy. Because of these observations the use of ACTH has to be reconsidered. ACTH should be the drug of second choice for the therapy of infantile spasms and should be used in case other anticonvulsants have no effect. ACTH should be used at lower dosages and for shorter periods of time.

  20. Is Intracranial Atherosclerosis an Independent Risk Factor for Cerebral Atrophy? A Retrospective Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Kelly H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to study the association between the intracranial atherosclerosis as measured by cavernous carotid artery calcification (ICAC observed on head CT and atrophic changes of supra-tentorial brain demonstrated by MRI. Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study incorporating 65 consecutive patients presenting acutely who had both head CT and MRI. Arterial calcifications of the intracranial cavernous carotids (ICAC were assigned a number (1 to 4 in the bone window images from CT scans. These 4 groups were then combined into high (grades 3 and 4 and low calcium (grades 1 and 2 subgroups. Brain MRI was independently evaluated to identify cortical and central atrophy. Demographics and cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated in subjects with high and low ICAC. Relationship between CT demonstrated ICAC and brain atrophy patterns were evaluated both without and with adjustment for cerebral ischemic scores and cardiovascular risk factors. Results Forty-six of the 65 (71% patients had high ICAC on head CT. Subjects with high ICAC were older, and had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease (CAD, atrial fibrillation and history of previous stroke (CVA compared to those with low ICAC. Age demonstrated strong correlation with both supratentorial atrophy patterns. There was no correlation between ICAC and cortical atrophy. There was correlation however between central atrophy and ICAC. This persisted even after adjustment for age. Conclusion Age is the most important determinant of atrophic cerebral changes. However, high ICAC demonstrated age independent association with central atrophy.

  1. Atrophy of the left hepatic lobe caused by a biliary tract disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Buyng Hee; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, Kwang Soo [Hangyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    To study the CT patterns of left lobar atrophy, including pathologic and hemodynamic features, in cases of primary biliary disease. CT findings of left hepatic lobar and segmental atrophy in 26 patients with histologically or radiologically-proven underlying bile-duct disease were reviewed. Seventeen cases were oriental choloangiohepatitis (OCH) with left intrahepatic stones and nine were cholnagiocarcinoma involving the hilar or left hepatic bile duct. The distribution and appearance of atrophy and adjacent lobar hypertrophy were studied. CT scans were examined for the presence of stenosis or obstruction of the left portal vein, and the enhancing pattern of lobar atrophy was analysed. In patients who had undergone left lobectomy, the mechanism of lobar atrophy was correlated with radiographic and pathologic features. Lobar or segmental left hepatic lobe atrophy is seen in bile duct disease caused by OCH or cholangiocarcinoma. This finding suggests that the disease process is advanced, and that there is obstruction or narrowing of the left vein, associated with peripheral fibrosis and inflammation. (author). 19 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Automatic classification of thermal patterns in diabetic foot based on morphological pattern spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Ramirez-Cortes, J.; Renero-Carrillo, F.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to characterize and identify patterns of temperature in thermographic images of the human foot plant in support of early diagnosis and follow-up of diabetic patients. Composed feature vectors based on 3D morphological pattern spectrum (pecstrum) and relative position, allow the system to quantitatively characterize and discriminate non-diabetic (control) and diabetic (DM) groups. Non-linear classification using neural networks is used for that purpose. A classification rate of 94.33% in average was obtained with the composed feature extraction process proposed in this paper. Performance evaluation and obtained results are presented.

  3. Beam pattern evaluation for cyclotron operations based on neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beam pattern evaluation method using neural network has been developed to assist non-expert cyclotron operators. While an expert operator can easily tell beam accelerating conditions by the beam pattern measured by a scanned beam probe, it is not easy for non-expert operators to evaluate the pattern. The followings are the summarized procedure of the proposed method. First, the features of the beam patterns, which correspond to the view points of the experts, are extracted using Gabor expansion. A neural network algorithm is applied to calculate the Gabor expansion. Next, the number of the extracted features is reduced by averaging the features of high frequency ranges in five partial zones. The idea of this process is based on the fact that the operators do not pay attention to the details of the high frequency components of the patterns. Finally, the pattern evaluation process by the expert operators is learned by the back-propagation algorithm on a multi-layered feed forward neural network. Parallel processing architecture of the feature extraction network, and the learning capability of the non-linear clustering network are very useful for the evaluation model of beam patterns. (author)

  4. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang

    2014-11-25

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  5. A network diagnostics method based on pattern recognition algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Olizarovich, E. V.; Rodchenko, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    This report deals with the problem of designing and building of a computer network diagnostic system. Diagnostic content problems are reviewed, as well as ways of their solution based on mathematical and computer modelling methods. A traffic analysis-based diagnostic method is suggested for process statuses in a computer network. The method is based on algorithms of the mathematical pattern recognition theory. To build a diagnostic system, a multi-level model building and verification arrange...

  6. Multimedia Content Based Image Retrieval Iii: Local Tetra Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja G S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Content Based Image Retrieval methods face several challenges while presentation of results and precision levels due to various specific applications. To improve the performance and address these problems a novel algorithm Local Tetra Pattern (LTrP is proposed which is coded in four direction instead of two direction used in Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Derivative Pattern (LDP andLocal Ternary Pattern(LTP.To retrieve the images the surrounding neighbor pixel value is calculated by gray level difference, which gives the relation between various multisorting algorithms using LBP, LDP, LTP and LTrP for sorting the images. This method mainly uses low level features such as color, texture and shape layout for image retrieval.

  7. Progression of dopamine transporter decline in patients with the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy: a voxel-based analysis of [123I]β-CIT SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We characterized the progression of dopamine transporter (DAT) decline in the striatum and extrastriatal regions including the midbrain and pons of patients with the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) and compared longitudinally collected SPECT results with those in a cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Eight patients with MSA-P (age 60.4 ± 7.7 years, disease duration 2.4 ± 1 years, UPDRS-III motor score 39.7 ± 4.7), and 11 patients with PD (age 61.2 ± 6.4 years, disease duration 2.4 ± 1.1 years, UPDRS-III motor score 18.9 ± 7.6) underwent a baseline and follow-up [123I]β-CIT SPECT investigation within a time period of 1.3 years. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and a repetitive ANOVA design were used to objectively localize the decline in DAT availability without having to make an a priori hypothesis as to its location. SPM localized significant reductions in [123I]β-CIT uptake in the dorsal brainstem of MSA-P patients compared to PD patients (p < 0.001) at baseline. Additional reductions in the DAT signal were localized in the caudate and anterior putamen of patients with MSA-P patients compared to PD patients at the follow-up examination (p < 0.001). Relative decline in tracer binding was evident in the caudate and anterior putamen of MSA-P patients compared to PD patients in the longitudinal analysis (p < 0.05), whereas no significant relative signal alteration was observed in the brainstem. In contrast to PD, the relatively higher rate of signal reduction in the caudate and anterior putamen is consistent with the faster disease progression reported in MSA-P. At baseline, the tracer uptake in the brainstem was already at very low levels in the MSA-P patients compared to that in healthy control subjects and did not progress any further, suggesting that the degeneration of monoaminergic neurons is almost complete early in the disease course. (orig.)

  8. Progression of dopamine transporter decline in patients with the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy: a voxel-based analysis of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocker, Michael; Seppi, Klaus; Wenning, Gregor K.; Poewe, Werner; Scherfler, Christoph [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Donnemiller, Eveline; Virgolini, Irene [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    We characterized the progression of dopamine transporter (DAT) decline in the striatum and extrastriatal regions including the midbrain and pons of patients with the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) and compared longitudinally collected SPECT results with those in a cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Eight patients with MSA-P (age 60.4 {+-} 7.7 years, disease duration 2.4 {+-} 1 years, UPDRS-III motor score 39.7 {+-} 4.7), and 11 patients with PD (age 61.2 {+-} 6.4 years, disease duration 2.4 {+-} 1.1 years, UPDRS-III motor score 18.9 {+-} 7.6) underwent a baseline and follow-up [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT investigation within a time period of 1.3 years. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and a repetitive ANOVA design were used to objectively localize the decline in DAT availability without having to make an a priori hypothesis as to its location. SPM localized significant reductions in [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT uptake in the dorsal brainstem of MSA-P patients compared to PD patients (p < 0.001) at baseline. Additional reductions in the DAT signal were localized in the caudate and anterior putamen of patients with MSA-P patients compared to PD patients at the follow-up examination (p < 0.001). Relative decline in tracer binding was evident in the caudate and anterior putamen of MSA-P patients compared to PD patients in the longitudinal analysis (p < 0.05), whereas no significant relative signal alteration was observed in the brainstem. In contrast to PD, the relatively higher rate of signal reduction in the caudate and anterior putamen is consistent with the faster disease progression reported in MSA-P. At baseline, the tracer uptake in the brainstem was already at very low levels in the MSA-P patients compared to that in healthy control subjects and did not progress any further, suggesting that the degeneration of monoaminergic neurons is almost complete early in the disease course. (orig.)

  9. Mining Tree Based Frequent Pattern from Human Interaction in Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja R. Kose*1

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life, interactions between human beings are frequently occurring in meetings, where topics are discussed and new decisions are made. To understand and interpret how people interact in a meeting discussion study of semantic knowledge is important. It becomes possible to extract frequent patterns of human interaction based on the captured content of face-to-face meetings by using mining method. Human interactions are categorized as proposing an idea, giving comments, expressing a positive opinion, acknowledgement; indicate the intention of user towards a topic or role in a discussion.Tree is used for representing a human interaction flow in a discussion session. Tree-based interaction mining algorithms are studied to analyze the structures of the trees and to extract interaction flow patterns. It can successfully extract several interesting patterns which is useful for the interpretation of human behavior in meeting discussions, such as determining frequent interactions, typical interaction flows, and relationships between different types of interactions.

  10. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    modelling, and relying on empirical data from fieldwork and observations for parameterization of variables, the level of clustering in agricultural fields observed around a study village is reproduced. Agents in the model act to maximize labour productivity, which is based on potential yield and labour......Shifting cultivation in the Nghe An Province of Vietnam's Northern Mountain Region produces a characteristic land-cover pattern of small and larger fields. The pattern is the result of farmers cultivating either individually or in spatially clustered groups. Using spatially explicit agent-based...... costs associated with fencing of fields, and are faced with physical constraints. The simulation results are compared with land-cover data obtained from remote sensing. Comparisons are made on patterns as detected visually and using the mean nearest-neighbour ratio. Baseline simulation outputs show high...

  11. Automatic SIMD parallelization of embedded applications based on pattern recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniesing, R.; Karkowski, I.P.; Corporaal, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential for automatic mapping of typical embedded applications to architectures with multimedia instruction set extensions. For this purpose a (pattern matching based) code transformation engine is used, which involves a three-step process of matching, condition checkin

  12. Multiple system atrophy: pathogenic mechanisms and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A; Wenning, Gregor K

    2016-06-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a unique proteinopathy that differs from other α-synucleinopathies since the pathological process resulting from accumulation of aberrant α-synuclein (αSyn) involves the oligodendroglia rather than neurons, although both pathologies affect multiple parts of the brain, spinal cord, autonomic and peripheral nervous system. Both the etiology and pathogenesis of MSA are unknown, although animal models have provided insight into the basic molecular changes of this disorder. Accumulation of aberrant αSyn in oligodendroglial cells and preceded by relocation of p25α protein from myelin to oligodendroglia results in the formation of insoluble glial cytoplasmic inclusions that cause cell dysfunction and demise. These changes are associated with proteasomal, mitochondrial and lipid transport dysfunction, oxidative stress, reduced trophic transport, neuroinflammation and other noxious factors. Their complex interaction induces dysfunction of the oligodendroglial-myelin-axon-neuron complex, resulting in the system-specific pattern of neurodegeneration characterizing MSA as a synucleinopathy with oligodendroglio-neuronopathy. Propagation of modified toxic αSyn species from neurons to oligodendroglia by "prion-like" transfer and its spreading associated with neuronal pathways result in a multi-system involvement. No reliable biomarkers are currently available for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of MSA. Multidisciplinary research to elucidate the genetic and molecular background of the deleterious cycle of noxious processes, to develop reliable diagnostic biomarkers and to deliver targets for effective treatment of this hitherto incurable disorder is urgently needed. PMID:27098666

  13. Adaptive Human aware Navigation based on Motion Pattern Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Søren; Svenstrup, Mikael; Andersen, Hans Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    are based on run-time motion pattern analysis compared to stored experience in a database. Using a potential field centered around the person, the robot positions itself at the most appropriate place relative to the person and the interaction status. The system is validated through qualitative tests...... in a real world setting. The results demonstrate that the system is able to learn to navigate based on past interaction experiences, and to adapt to different behaviors over time....

  14. A Pattern for Web-based WSN Monitoring (Invited Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Fulvio Frati; Eduardo Fernandez; Ionut Cardei; Mihaela Cardei; Anthony Marcus; Ernesto Damiani

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a pattern for the architecture of web-based wireless sensor network monitoring. Sensor nodes are used to measure characteristics of the physical environment and sensed data is stored on the Internet using web-based technologies. Users can access data remotely as long as they have Internet connectivity. Many wireless sensor network applications developed today use smartphones as a gateway between the sensor network or the user, and the Internet. This allows the sensor netw...

  15. Star pattern recognition method based on neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunyan; LI Ke; ZHANG Longyun; JIN Shengzhen; ZU Jifeng

    2003-01-01

    Star sensor is an avionics instrument used to provide the absolute 3-axis attitude of a spacecraft by utilizing star observations. The key function is to recognize the observed stars by comparing them with the reference catalogue. Autonomous star pattern recognition requires that similar patterns can be distinguished from each other with a small training set. Therefore, a new method based on neural network technology is proposed and a recognition system containing parallel backpropagation (BP) multi-subnets is designed. The simulation results show that the method performs much better than traditional algorithms and the proposed system can achieve both higher recognition accuracy and faster recognition speed.

  16. Laser-based printing and patterning for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sones, C. L.; Katis, I.N.; He, P.; Mills, B.; A. Mosayyebi; Butement, J.; Feinäugle, M.; Eason, R. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the use of pulsed lasers as patterning and printing tools for the end applications of micro-contact printing and paper-based fluidics. A fs-laser was used with a digital multi-mirror device (DMD) to structure a mould via ablation or photo-polymerisation. The patterns in this mould were then cast into polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS)-mould which was used for micro-contact printing. With the end-goal of producing a microfluidic diagnostic sensor on paper, a ns-laser was used for laser-ind...

  17. Clonal Selection Based Artificial Immune System for Generalized Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades has seen a rapid increase in the application of AIS (Artificial Immune Systems) modeled after the human immune system to a wide range of areas including network intrusion detection, job shop scheduling, classification, pattern recognition, and robot control. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has developed an integrated pattern recognition/classification system called AISLE (Artificial Immune System for Learning and Exploration) based on biologically inspired models of B-cell dynamics in the immune system. When used for unsupervised or supervised classification, the method scales linearly with the number of dimensions, has performance that is relatively independent of the total size of the dataset, and has been shown to perform as well as traditional clustering methods. When used for pattern recognition, the method efficiently isolates the appropriate matches in the data set. The paper presents the underlying structure of AISLE and the results from a number of experimental studies.

  18. Patterns-Based IS Change Management in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makna, Janis; Kirikova, Marite

    The majority of information systems change management guidelines and standards are either too abstract or too bureaucratic to be easily applicable in small enterprises. This chapter proposes the approach, the method, and the prototype that are designed especially for information systems change management in small and medium enterprises. The approach is based on proven patterns of changes in the set of information systems elements. The set of elements was obtained by theoretical analysis of information systems and business process definitions and enterprise architectures. The patterns were evolved from a number of information systems theories and tested in 48 information systems change management projects. The prototype presents and helps to handle three basic change patterns, which help to anticipate the overall scope of changes related to particular elementary changes in an enterprise information system. The use of prototype requires just basic knowledge in organizational business process and information management.

  19. Atrophy of muscles surrounding the shoulder in hemiplegia. Analysis with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decrease of range of motion and subluxation of shoulders are common secondary dysfunctions after the stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the atrophy of muscles surrounding shoulders in hemiplegic patients and to delineate the correlations between those atrophies and shoulder functions. MRI studies were done on bilateral shoulders in 13 hemiplegic patients with shoulder pain. The cross sectional areas of muscles surrounding shoulder, i.e., subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and deltoid muscle were measured on those images obtained. The degree of atrophies were evaluated by dividing cross-sectional area of the muscle on affected shoulder by that of non-affected shoulder, that is muscle atrophy ratio [MAR], for each muscle in every case. Also, the range of movements [ROM], the degree of subluxation and muscle strength of shoulder flexion were evaluated. All muscle cross-sectional areas on the affected side were significantly smaller than those of muscles on the unaffected side (p<0.01). The means of MARs were 0.68, 0.69, 0.86, 0.72 and 0.69 for subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and deltoid muscle. The pattern of muscle atrophies, however, varies from case to case. Both correlations of ROM versus supraspinatus MAR and degree of shoulder subluxation versus deltoid MAR were statistically significant (p<0.05). These results indicate the contribution of muscle atrophy to the shoulder dysfunction in hemiplegic patients. (author)

  20. Existence problem of optical correlation based pattern recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Yanxin(张延炘); LI; Sumei(李素梅)

    2003-01-01

    The existence problem of optical correlation based pattern recognition, namely its range of validity and its limitation, is discussed in this paper conjointly with the function approximation theory of neural networks. The conclusion is that only if the sets to be recognized are linearly separable (which is rare) or the subsets, in which a segmental sample of the targets is involved,are linearly separable, can the classical 4f optical correlation system carry out the task of recognition inerrably. The recognition principle of a joint transform correlator is the same as that of a 4f system, and so is its range of validities. Based on the demonstration of the existence problem of optical correlation based pattern recognition an evaluation on some important problems that were studied in this field over the past 40 years is presented explicitly.

  1. A knowledge based method for nuclear plant loading pattern determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the design of a knowledge based system for solving an industrial problem which occurs in nuclear fuel management. The problem lies in determining satisfactory loading patterns for nuclear plants. Its primary feature consists in the huge search space involved. Conventional resolution processes are formally defined and analyzed: there is no general algorithm which guarantees to always provide a reasonable solution in each situation. We propose a new approach to solve this constrained search problem using domain-specific knowledge and general constraint-based heuristics. During a preprocessing step, a problem dependent search algorithm is designed. This procedure is then automatically implemented in FORTRAN. The generated routines have proved to be very efficient finding solutions which could not have been provided using logic programming. A prototype expert system has already been applied to actual reload pattern searches. While combining efficiency and flexibility, this knowledge based system enables human experts to rapidly match new constraints and requirements

  2. Pattern recognition for electroencephalographic signals based on continuous neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Ponce, M; Argüelles, A; Chairez, I

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the design and implementation of a pattern recognition algorithm to classify electroencephalographic (EEG) signals based on artificial neural networks (NN) described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The training method for this kind of continuous NN (CNN) was developed according to the Lyapunov theory stability analysis. A parallel structure with fixed weights was proposed to perform the classification stage. The pattern recognition efficiency was validated by two methods, a generalization-regularization and a k-fold cross validation (k=5). The classifier was applied on two different databases. The first one was made up by signals collected from patients suffering of epilepsy and it is divided in five different classes. The second database was made up by 90 single EEG trials, divided in three classes. Each class corresponds to a different visual evoked potential. The pattern recognition algorithm achieved a maximum correct classification percentage of 97.2% using the information of the entire database. This value was similar to some results previously reported when this database was used for testing pattern classification. However, these results were obtained when only two classes were considered for the testing. The result reported in this study used the whole set of signals (five different classes). In comparison with similar pattern recognition methods that even considered less number of classes, the proposed CNN proved to achieve the same or even better correct classification results. PMID:27131469

  3. On the estimation and correction of bias in local atrophy estimations using example atrophy simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swati; Rousseau, François; Heitz, Fabrice; Rumbach, Lucien; Armspach, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Brain atrophy is considered an important marker of disease progression in many chronic neuro-degenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). A great deal of attention is being paid toward developing tools that manipulate magnetic resonance (MR) images for obtaining an accurate estimate of atrophy. Nevertheless, artifacts in MR images, inaccuracies of intermediate steps and inadequacies of the mathematical model representing the physical brain volume change, make it rather difficult to obtain a precise and unbiased estimate. This work revolves around the nature and magnitude of bias in atrophy estimations as well as a potential way of correcting them. First, we demonstrate that for different atrophy estimation methods, bias estimates exhibit varying relations to the expected atrophy and these bias estimates are of the order of the expected atrophies for standard algorithms, stressing the need for bias correction procedures. Next, a framework for estimating uncertainty in longitudinal brain atrophy by means of constructing confidence intervals is developed. Errors arising from MRI artifacts and bias in estimations are learned from example atrophy simulations and anatomies. Results are discussed for three popular non-rigid registration approaches with the help of simulated localized brain atrophy in real MR images. PMID:23988649

  4. 额颞叶变性亚型与阿尔茨海默病的脑灰质萎缩模式的结构MRI研究%The atrophy pattern in the subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer disease by structural MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰; 朱斌; 张鑫; 李茗; 陈飞; 徐俊; 王慧婷; 钱来; 赵辉; 徐运

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the patterns of cortical atrophy of the two subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD ),behavioural-vsriant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD ) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA).And to compare them with that of Alzheimer disease (AD) to provide an objective basis for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis.Methods A total of 83 patients were enrolled in this study and there were 30 patients with cognitively normal controls (CN),30 with AD and 23 with FTLD (10 with bvFTD,13 with PPA).Philips 3.0 T TX scanner and 8 channel head coil was employed.Three dimensional turbo fast echo(3D-TFE)T1WI sequence with high resolution was used to collect the volume data of gray matter.3D-TFE T1 WI images were normalized and segmented into gray matter map for statistical analysis by SPM 8 and VBM 8.The false discovery rate (FDR) was adopted in P value adjustment,P < 0.001,and the cluster size was set at 5.The full width at half maximum (FWHM ) was set at 4 mm for the smoothing.Paired t test was used for statistics.Results In bvFTD,PPA and AD groups,there were diffuse regions with reduced volume in cerebral cortex and subcortical structures (such as the hippocampus,the amygdala,the caudate nuclei,et al).The most obvious atrophic region in bvFTD and PPA group was found in the frontotemporal.Compared with AD,gray matter atrophy in bvFTD was found in brain regions including bilateral temporal lobes,bilateral superior temporal pole gyri,bilateral middle temporal pole gyri,right fusiform gyrus and bilateral frontal lobes.Among them,temporal and frontal lobes atrophy had obvious right partial lateralizing,with 14 301 voxels in right temporal lobe and 5105 in left (t =-5.03,P<0.05).The number of atrophy voxels in right and left frontal lobe were 1344 and 125 (t =3.45,P <0.05).The left temporooccipital lobe atrophy was more obvious than the right in PPA,with 15 637 voxels in left and 10 723 in right ( t =- 2.65,P < 0.05 ).Conclusions There are

  5. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  6. Abdominal integument atrophy after operative procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Lubiński, Jan; Bojko, Stefania; Gałdyńska, Maria; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze clinical material concerning postoperative atrophy of abdominal integument. Material and methods The evaluated group consisted of 29 patients with sonographically revealed atrophy of the abdominal wall. Those changes were observed after various surgical procedures: mainly after long, anterolateral laparotomies or several classical operations. Ultrasound examinations up to the year 2000 were performed with analog apparatus, in the latter years only with digi...

  7. Liver Atrophy Associated With Monolobar Caroli's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, L. N.; P. G. Thomas; Kilpadi, A. B.; S. D'Cunha

    1991-01-01

    The association of the atrophy-hypertrophy complex in monolobar Caroli’s disease (Type I) is reported in a 30 year old male who presented with recurrent cholangitis. Ultrasound and CT scan showed localised, right sided, saccular biliary dilatation in a normal sized liver. Severe right lobar atrophy was detected at operation and the resected right lobe weighed only 140 gms. Distortion of the hilar vascular anatomy and posterior displacement of the right hepatic duct orifice were problems encou...

  8. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    White matter hyperintensities are associated with increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline. The current study investigates the relationship between white matter hyperintensities burden and patterns of brain atrophy associated with brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease in a large populatison-based sample (n = 2367) encompassing a wide age range (20-90 years), from the Study of Health in Pomerania. We quantified white matter hyperintensities using automated segmentation and summarized atrophy patterns using machine learning methods resulting in two indices: the SPARE-BA index (capturing age-related brain atrophy), and the SPARE-AD index (previously developed to capture patterns of atrophy found in patients with Alzheimer's disease). A characteristic pattern of age-related accumulation of white matter hyperintensities in both periventricular and deep white matter areas was found. Individuals with high white matter hyperintensities burden showed significantly (P brain regions typically affected by ageing and Alzheimer's disease dementia. To investigate a possibly causal role of white matter hyperintensities, structural equation modelling was used to quantify the effect of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score and white matter hyperintensities burden on SPARE-BA, revealing a statistically significant (P learning memory test. No significant association was present with the APOE genotype. These results support the hypothesis that white matter hyperintensities contribute to patterns of brain atrophy found in beyond-normal brain ageing in the general population. White matter hyperintensities also contribute to brain atrophy patterns in regions related to Alzheimer's disease dementia, in agreement with their known additive role to the likelihood of dementia. Preventive strategies reducing the odds to develop cardiovascular disease and white matter hyperintensities could decrease the incidence or delay the onset of dementia. PMID:26912649

  9. A Wavelet-Based Approach to Pattern Discovery in Melodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velarde, Gissel; Meredith, David; Weyde, Tillman

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational method for pattern discovery based on the application of the wavelet transform to symbolic representations of melodies or monophonic voices. We model the importance of a discovered pattern in terms of the compression ratio that can be achieved by using it to describe that...... part of the melody covered by its occurrences. The proposed method resembles that of paradigmatic analysis developed by Ruwet (1966) and Nattiez (1975). In our approach, melodies are represented either as ‘raw’ 1-dimensional pitch signals or as these signals filtered with the continuous wavelet...... transform (CWT) at a single scale using the Haar wavelet. These representations are segmented using various approaches and the segments are then concatenated based on their similarity. The concatenated segments are compared, clustered and ranked. The method was evaluated on two musicological tasks...

  10. Regional Gray Matter Atrophy in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Baseline Analysis of Multi-Center Data

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Sushmita; Staewen, Terrell D.; Cofield, Stacy S.; Cutter, Gary R.; Lublin, Fred D; Wolinsky, Jerry S.; Narayana, Ponnada A.; ,

    2015-01-01

    Regional gray matter (GM) atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) at disease onset and its temporal variation can provide objective information regarding disease evolution. An automated pipeline for estimating atrophy of various GM structures was developed using tensor based morphometry (TBM) and implemented on a multi-center sub-cohort of 1008 relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients enrolled in a Phase 3 clinical trial. Four hundred age and gender matched healthy controls were used for comparison....

  11. Pattern-Based Context-Free Grammars for Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, K

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of ``pattern-based'' context-free grammars as a basis for building machine translation (MT) systems, which are now being adopted as personal tools by a broad range of users in the cyberspace society. We discuss major requirements for such tools, including easy customization for diverse domains, the efficiency of the translation algorithm, and scalability (incremental improvement in translation quality through user interaction), and describe how our approach meets these requirements.

  12. Knowledge IT-based Cycle and Territorial Digital Patterns Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago, Maria Teresa Borges; Tiago, Flávio Borges

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management, competitive intelligence, data mining are all buzzwords in a more digital and complex world. Nowadays, digital information and IT-based knowledge creation and application are present in most successful business initiatives. Unveil the surrounding factors of these successes is critical and therefore, this article discusses the relationship of digital patterns to knowledge management creation and application. It argues that some of the enablers and inhibitors come from fir...

  13. MRI patterns of grey matter atrophy in amnestic Mild cognitive impairment%遗忘型轻度认知损害的全脑灰质基于体素的MRI形态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志莲; 韩璎; 卢洁; 贾秀琴; 李坤成; 张苗; 戎冬冬; 贾建平

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare the patterns of grey matter loss between subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal health eldly. Methods: We studied 20 patients with aMCI and 18 age-and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D data aets. The data were collected on a 3 T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate grey matter volume maps. Results: VBM revealed diffusively reduccd grey matter in aMCI prominently including the right uncus, the bilateral inferior, superior and midial frontal gyrus, the bilatcral medial temporal gyrus , the left inferior temporal gyrus, the left superior temporal gyrus, the right superior parietal gyrus ,and the left middle occipital gyrus ( P <0. 001). Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automatic approach providing a full brain assessment of aMCI grey morphology. It is important for diagnosing aMCI.%目的:利用优化基于体素的MRI形态分析(voxel-based morphometry,VBM),研究遗忘型轻度认知损害(amnestic mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)和正常老年人的脑灰质体积变化.方法:选取aMCl患者20例和正常老年对照18例,MRI排除脑内其他病变,然后行高分辨率三维T1 WI扫描.应用优化VBM方法处理数据,将脑组织分割成灰质、白质和脑脊液,最后应用两样本t检验比较两组被试灰质体积改变.结果:VBM结果显示与正常老年对照组比较,aMCI患者组双侧额颞叶出现广泛的灰质体积减少,具体脑区为右侧海马钩回、双侧额下回、双侧额中回、右侧额上回、双颞叶额中回、左侧颞下回、左侧颞上回,右侧顶上小叶、左侧枕中回等结构灰质体积小于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论:VBM方法可显示aMCI患者全脑灰质萎缩情况,对临床早期诊断aMCl患者有重要价值,具有广阔的临床应用前景.

  14. Detection of Calendar-Based Periodicities of Interval-Based Temporal Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mahanta, Anjana K

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique to identify calendar-based (annual, monthly and daily) periodicities of an interval-based temporal pattern. An interval-based temporal pattern is a pattern that occurs across a time-interval, then disappears for some time, again recurs across another time-interval and so on and so forth. Given the sequence of time-intervals in which an interval-based temporal pattern has occurred, we propose a method for identifying the extent to which the pattern is periodic with respect to a calendar cycle. In comparison to previous work, our method is asymptotically faster. We also show an interesting relationship between periodicities across different levels of any hierarchical timestamp (year/month/day, hour/minute/second etc.).

  15. Ontology Based Navigation Pattern Mining For Efficient Web Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothi Venkateswaran C.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Users of the web have their own areas of interest. Given the tremendous growth of the web, it is very difficult to redirect the users to their page of interest. Web usage mining techniques can be applied to study the users navigational behaviours based on their previous visit data. These user navigational patterns can be extracted and used for web personalization or web site reorganization recommendations. Web usage mining techniques do not use the semantic knowledge of the web site for such navigational pattern discovery. But, if ontology is applied along with web usage techniques, it can improve the quality of the detected patterns. This research work aims to design a framework that integrates semantic knowledge with web usage mining process that generates the refined website ontology that recommends personalization of web. As the web pages are seen as ontology individuals, the user navigational behaviours over a certain period are considered as the user expected ontology refinement. The user profiles and the web site ontology are compared and the variation between the two is proposed as the new refined web site ontology. The web site ontology has been semi-automatically built and evolves through the adaptation procedure. The result of implementation of this recommendation system indicates that integrating semantic information and page access patterns yield more accurate recommendations.

  16. Agent Assignment for Process Management: Pattern Based Agent Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Stefan; Talib, Ramzan

    In almost all workflow management system the role concept is determined once at the introduction of workflow application and is not reevaluated to observe how successfully certain processes are performed by the authorized agents. This paper describes an approach which evaluates how agents are working successfully and feed this information back for future agent assignment to achieve maximum business benefit for the enterprise. The approach is called Pattern based Agent Performance Evaluation (PAPE) and is based on machine learning technique combined with post processing technique. We report on the result of our experiments and discuss issues and improvement of our approach.

  17. Pattern recognition with TiOx-based memristive devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Zahari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of TiOx-based memristive devices for bio-inspired neuromorphic systems. In particular, capacitor like structures of Al/AlOx/TiOx/Al with, respectively 20 nm and 50 nm thick TiOx-layers were fabricated and analyzed in terms of their use in neural network circuits. Therefore, an equivalent circuit model is presented which mimics the observed device properties on a qualitative level and relies on mobile oxygen ions by taking electronic transport through local conducting filaments and hopping between TiOx defect states into account. The model also comprises back diffusion of oxygen ions and allows for a realistic description of the experimental recorded device characteristics. The in Refs. [1-3] reported computing paradigms for pattern recognition have been used as guidelines for a device performance investigation at the network level. In particular, simulations of a spiking neural network are presented which allows for pattern recognition. As input patterns hand written digits taken from the MNIST Data base have been used. Within the network the memristive devices are arranged in a cross-bar array connected by 196 input neurons and ten output neurons. While, each input neuron corresponds to a specific pixel of the image of the input pattern, the output neurons were implemented as spiking neurons. In addition, the output neurons were inhibitory linked within an winner-take-it-all network and consist of a homeostasis-like behavior for their spiking thresholds. Based on the network simulation essential requirements for the development of optimal memristive device for neuromorphic circuits are discussed.

  18. The diagnosis of thymoma and thymic atrophy in patients with myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have compared clinical, immunological and radiological data in 20 patients with myasthenia gravis and thymoma and in 21 patients with myasthenia gravis and thymic atrophy. The median age at onset was 54 years in the thymoma group and 63 years in the thymic atrophy group. The severity of the disease was similar in the two groups, and there was no significant difference in the concentration of acetylcholine receptor antibodies. CA antibodies were demonstrated in 17/20 thymoma patients and in 6/21 with thymic atrophy, while 19/20 thymoma patients had antibodies to titin, compared with 9/21 among those with thymic atrophy. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis is based upon an evaluation of clinical, immunological and radiological data. 28 refs., 2 tabs

  19. CHF Enhancement by Surface Patterning based on Hydrodynamic Instability Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the power density of a device exceeds the CHF point, bubbles and vapor films will be covered on the whole heater surface. Because vapor films have much lower heat transfer capabilities compared to the liquid layer, the temperature of the heater surface will increase rapidly, and the device could be damaged due to the heater burnout. Therefore, the prediction and the enhancement of the CHF are essential to maximizing the efficient heat removal region. Numerous studies have been conducted to describe the CHF phenomenon, such as hydrodynamic instability theory, macrolayer dryout theory, hot/dry spot theory, and bubble interaction theory. The hydrodynamic instability model, proposed by Zuber, is the predominant CHF model that Helmholtz instability attributed to the CHF. Zuber assumed that the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability wavelength is related to the Helmholtz wavelength. Lienhard and Dhir proposed a CHF model that Helmholtz instability wavelength is equal to the most dangerous RT wavelength. In addition, they showed the heater size effect using various heater surfaces. Lu et al. proposed a modified hydrodynamic theory that the Helmholtz instability was assumed to be the heater size and the area of the vapor column was used as a fitting factor. The modified hydrodynamic theories were based on the change of Helmholtz wavelength related to the RT instability wavelength. In the present study, the change of the RT instability wavelength, based on the heater surface modification, was conducted to show the CHF enhancement based on the heater surface patterning in a plate pool boiling. Sapphire glass was used as a base heater substrate, and the Pt film was used as a heating source. The patterning surface was based on the change of RT instability wavelength. In the present work the study of the CHF was conducted using bare Pt and patterned heating surfaces

  20. CHF Enhancement by Surface Patterning based on Hydrodynamic Instability Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    If the power density of a device exceeds the CHF point, bubbles and vapor films will be covered on the whole heater surface. Because vapor films have much lower heat transfer capabilities compared to the liquid layer, the temperature of the heater surface will increase rapidly, and the device could be damaged due to the heater burnout. Therefore, the prediction and the enhancement of the CHF are essential to maximizing the efficient heat removal region. Numerous studies have been conducted to describe the CHF phenomenon, such as hydrodynamic instability theory, macrolayer dryout theory, hot/dry spot theory, and bubble interaction theory. The hydrodynamic instability model, proposed by Zuber, is the predominant CHF model that Helmholtz instability attributed to the CHF. Zuber assumed that the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability wavelength is related to the Helmholtz wavelength. Lienhard and Dhir proposed a CHF model that Helmholtz instability wavelength is equal to the most dangerous RT wavelength. In addition, they showed the heater size effect using various heater surfaces. Lu et al. proposed a modified hydrodynamic theory that the Helmholtz instability was assumed to be the heater size and the area of the vapor column was used as a fitting factor. The modified hydrodynamic theories were based on the change of Helmholtz wavelength related to the RT instability wavelength. In the present study, the change of the RT instability wavelength, based on the heater surface modification, was conducted to show the CHF enhancement based on the heater surface patterning in a plate pool boiling. Sapphire glass was used as a base heater substrate, and the Pt film was used as a heating source. The patterning surface was based on the change of RT instability wavelength. In the present work the study of the CHF was conducted using bare Pt and patterned heating surfaces.

  1. Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of “muscle fatigue” induced by anti-cancer drugs are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the muscle-atrophic effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, in mice. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5, hindlimb and quadriceps muscles were isolated from mice. The loss of body weight and food intake under the administration of cisplatin was the same as those in a dietary restriction (DR) group. Under the present conditions, the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased not only the muscle mass of the hindlimb and quadriceps but also the myofiber diameter, compared to those in the DR group. The mRNA expression levels of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) were significantly and further increased by cisplatin treated group, compared to DR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of myostatin and p21 were significantly upregulated by the administration of cisplatin, compared to DR. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, which leads to the blockade of the upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx, was significantly and dramatically decreased by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the administration of cisplatin increases atrophic gene expression, and may lead to an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation pathways, which would lead to muscle atrophy. This phenomenon could, at least in part, explain the mechanism of cisplatin-induced muscle fatigue. - Highlights: • Cisplatin decreased mass and myofiber diameter in quadriceps muscle. • The mRNA of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3 were increased by the cisplatin. • The mRNA of myostatin and p21 were upregulated by cisplatin. • The phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a was decreased by cisplatin

  2. Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu, E-mail: sakai@hoshi.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Sagara, Atsunobu; Arakawa, Kazuhiko; Sugiyama, Ryoto; Hirosaki, Akiko; Takase, Kazuhide; Jo, Ara [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Sato, Ken [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Chiba, Yoshihiko [Department of Biology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Yamazaki, Mitsuaki [Department of Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama-shi, Toyama 9300194 (Japan); Matoba, Motohiro [Department of Palliative Medicine and Psychooncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 1040045 (Japan); Narita, Minoru, E-mail: narita@hoshi.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of “muscle fatigue” induced by anti-cancer drugs are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the muscle-atrophic effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, in mice. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5, hindlimb and quadriceps muscles were isolated from mice. The loss of body weight and food intake under the administration of cisplatin was the same as those in a dietary restriction (DR) group. Under the present conditions, the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased not only the muscle mass of the hindlimb and quadriceps but also the myofiber diameter, compared to those in the DR group. The mRNA expression levels of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) were significantly and further increased by cisplatin treated group, compared to DR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of myostatin and p21 were significantly upregulated by the administration of cisplatin, compared to DR. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, which leads to the blockade of the upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx, was significantly and dramatically decreased by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the administration of cisplatin increases atrophic gene expression, and may lead to an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation pathways, which would lead to muscle atrophy. This phenomenon could, at least in part, explain the mechanism of cisplatin-induced muscle fatigue. - Highlights: • Cisplatin decreased mass and myofiber diameter in quadriceps muscle. • The mRNA of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3 were increased by the cisplatin. • The mRNA of myostatin and p21 were upregulated by cisplatin. • The phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a was decreased by cisplatin.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied 18 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) by high field strength MRI: 6 striatonigral degeneration (SND), 4 Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS), and 8 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA). We also studied 30 Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 age-matched controls. The diagnosis of SND, SDS, and OPCA were based on criteria after Hirayama et al (1985). Bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor were assessed with the summed scores of the signs used as the extrapyramidal scores. The mean extrapyramidal scores were not significantly different in patients with SND, SDS, OPCA, and PD. MRI studies were performed on 1.5 tesla MRI unit, using a T2-weighted spin echo pulse sequence (TR2500 ms/TE40 ms). The width of the pars compacta signal in all subjects was measured by the method of Duguid et al (1986). Intensity profiles were made on a straight line perpendicular to the pars compacta through the center of the red nucleus on an image of the midbrain. We measured the width of the valley at half-height between the peaks of an index of the width of the pars compacta signal. The mean widths of the pars compacta signal were: 2.8±0.4 mm (SND), 2.8±0.7 mm (SDS), 3.6±0.6 mm (OPCA), 2.7±0.3 mm (PD), and 4.3±0.6 mm (control). The mean widths of the pars compacta signal in PD, SND, and SDS were significantly narrower than that in the control group (p<0.05), while the OPCA group was not significantly narrower. The results may indicate that the time course of nigral involvement is milder in OPCA than in SND and SDS. The extrapyramidal signs in OPCA may be attributed mainly to the degeneration of the putamen rather than to that of the substantia nigra. Abnormal hypointensity in the posterolateral putamen was found in only one SND patient and in two OPCA patients, even though this finding has been frequently observed in MSA. Since no PD patients exhibited this finding, it may of some value in differentiating MSA from PD. (author)

  4. A geometric reasoning based algorithm for point pattern matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文立; 张立华

    2001-01-01

    Point pattern matching (PPM) is an important topic in computer vision and pattern recognition. It can be widely used in many areas such as image registration, object recognition, motion detection, target tracking, autonomous navigation, and pose estimation. This paper discusses the incomplete matching problem of two point sets under Euclidean transformation. According to geometric reasoning, some definitions for matching clique, support point pair, support index set, and support index matrix, etc. are given. Based on the properties and theorems of them, a novel reasoning algorithm is presented, which searches for the optimal sOlLtion from top to bottom and could find out as many consistent corresponding point pairs as possible. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the new algorithm is very effective, and could be, under some conditions, applied to the PPM problem under other kind of transformations.

  5. Counteracting Muscle Atrophy using Galvanic Stimulation of the Vestibular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; Polyakov, Igor

    1999-01-01

    The unloading of weight bearing from antigravity muscles during space flight produces significant muscle atrophy and is one of the most serious health problems facing the space program. Various exercise regimens have been developed and used either alone or in combination with pharmacological techniques to ameliorate this atrophy, but no effective countermeasure exists for this problem. The research in this project was conducted to evaluate the potential use of vestibular galvanic stimulation (VGS) to prevent muscle atrophy resulting from unloading of weight bearing from antigravity muscles. This approach was developed based on two concepts related to the process of maintaining the status of the anti-gravity neuromuscular system. These two premises are: (1) The "tone," or bias on spinal motorneurons is affected by vestibular projections that contribute importantly to maintaining muscle health and status. (2) VGS can be used to modify the excitability, or 'tone' of motorneuron of antigravity muscles. Thus, the strategy is to use VGS to modify the gain of vestibular projections to antigravity muscles and thereby change the general status of these muscles.

  6. Religious factors and hippocampal atrophy in late life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D Owen

    Full Text Available Despite a growing interest in the ways spiritual beliefs and practices are reflected in brain activity, there have been relatively few studies using neuroimaging data to assess potential relationships between religious factors and structural neuroanatomy. This study examined prospective relationships between religious factors and hippocampal volume change using high-resolution MRI data of a sample of 268 older adults. Religious factors assessed included life-changing religious experiences, spiritual practices, and religious group membership. Hippocampal volumes were analyzed using the GRID program, which is based on a manual point-counting method and allows for semi-automated determination of region of interest volumes. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was observed for participants reporting a life-changing religious experience. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was also observed from baseline to final assessment among born-again Protestants, Catholics, and those with no religious affiliation, compared with Protestants not identifying as born-again. These associations were not explained by psychosocial or demographic factors, or baseline cerebral volume. Hippocampal volume has been linked to clinical outcomes, such as depression, dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease. The findings of this study indicate that hippocampal atrophy in late life may be uniquely influenced by certain types of religious factors.

  7. Modelling spatial association in pattern based land use simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anputhas, Markandu; Janmaat, Johannus John A; Nichol, Craig F; Wei, Xiaohua Adam

    2016-10-01

    Pattern based land use models are widely used to forecast land use change. These models predict land use change using driving variables observed on the studied landscape. Many of these models have a limited capacity to account for interactions between neighbouring land parcels. Some modellers have used common spatial statistical measures to incorporate neighbour effects. However, these approaches were developed for continuous variables, while land use classifications are categorical. Neighbour interactions are also endogenous, changing as the land use patterns change. In this study we describe a single variable measure that captures aspects of neighbour interactions as reflected in the land use pattern. We use a stepwise updating process to demonstrate how dynamic updating of our measure impacts on model forecasts. We illustrate these results using the CLUE-S (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent) system to forecast land use change for the Deep Creek watershed in the northern Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, Canada. Results establish that our measure improves model calibration and that ignoring changing spatial influences biases land use change forecasts. PMID:27420169

  8. Graph Based New Approach for Frequent Pattern Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Choubey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Association rule mining is a function of data mining research domain and frequent pattern mining is anessential part of it. Most of the previous studies on mining frequent patterns based on an Apriori approach, which required more number of database scans and operations for counting pattern supports in the database. Since the size of each set of transaction may be massive that it makes difficult to perform traditional data mining tasks. This research intends to propose a graph structure that captures only those itemsets that needs to define a sufficiently immense dataset into a submatrix representing important weights and does not give any chance to outliers. We have devised a strategy that covers significant facts of data by drilling down the large data into a succinct form of an Adjacency Matrix at different stages of mining process. The graph structure is so designed that it can be easily maintained and the trade off in compressing the large data values is reduced. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our graphbased approach.

  9. PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we describe a stochastic search method for a maximum parsimony tree, implemented in a software package we named PTree. Our method is based on a new pattern-based technique that enables us to infer intermediate sequences efficiently where the incorporation of these sequences in the current tree topology yields a phylogenetic tree with a lower cost. Evaluation across multiple datasets showed that our method is comparable to the algorithms implemented in PAUP* or TNT, which are widely used by the bioinformatics community, in terms of topological accuracy and runtime. We show that our method can process large-scale datasets of 1,000–8,000 sequences. We believe that our novel pattern-based method enriches the current set of tools and methods for phylogenetic tree inference. The software is available under: http://algbio.cs.uni-duesseldorf.de/webapps/wa-download/.

  10. A Star Pattern Recognition Method Based on Decreasing Redundancy Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Xiao-xiang, Zhang; Rong-yu, Sun

    2016-04-01

    During the optical observation of space objects, it is difficult to enable the background stars to get matched when the telescope pointing error and tracking error are significant. Based on the idea of decreasing redundancy matching, an effective recognition method for background stars is proposed in this paper. The simulative images under different conditions and the observed images are used to verify the proposed method. The experimental results show that the proposed method has raised the rate of recognition and reduced the time consumption, it can be used to match star patterns accurately and rapidly.

  11. Infrared target recognition based on improved joint local ternary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junding; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, efficient, yet robust approach, named joint orthogonal combination of local ternary pattern, for automatic forward-looking infrared target recognition. It gives more advantages to describe the macroscopic textures and microscopic textures by fusing variety of scales than the traditional LBP-based methods. In addition, it can effectively reduce the feature dimensionality. Further, the rotation invariant and uniform scheme, the robust LTP, and soft concave-convex partition are introduced to enhance its discriminative power. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two. (paper)

  13. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral cortex is evidently involved in Parkinson's disease. 8) The rCBF decline in Parkinson's disease patients may be related with the diminished cortical metabolic rate due to a remote effect of striatal dysfunction and a disturbance of mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. (J.P.N.)

  14. Regional gray matter atrophy and neuropsychologcal problems in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiyu Lin; Fuyong Chen; Fang Liu; Zhiwen Li; Ying Liu; Shifang Lin; Xiaoyi Wang; Jiting Zhu

    2013-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis, gray matter atrophy is extensive, and cognitive deficits and mood disorders are frequently encountered. It has been conjectured that focal atrophy is associated with emotional de-cline. However, conventional MRI has revealed that the pathological characteristics cannot ful y account for the mood disorders. Moreover, there is no correlation between cognitive disorders and MRI results in clinical y isolated syndromes or in cases of definite multiple sclerosis. In this case-control study, voxel-based morphometric analysis was performed on 11 subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and the results show that these patients exhibit gray matter atrophy. Moreover, the gray matter atrophy in the superior and middle gyri of the right frontal lobe in patients with multiple sclerosis was correlated with scores from the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The scores obtained with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status were associated with gray matter atrophy in the middle gyrus of the left frontal lobe, the superior and middle gyrus of the right frontal lobe, the middle gyrus of the left cingulate, the superior and middle gyri of the left frontal lobe, and the triangular area of the left frontal lobe. However, there was no statistical significance. These findings suggest that the cingulate and frontal cortices of the nant hemisphere are the most severely atrophic regions of the brain, and this atrophy is correlated with cognitive decline and emotional abnormalities.

  15. Gray matter atrophy in patients with Parkinson’s disease and those with mild cognitive impairment: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yun-ting; Hu, Wei-dong; Li, Li; Liu, Guang-Yao; Bai, Yu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Mild cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson’s disease, but the underlying pathological mechanism has not been fully understood. To examine the gray matter changes in patients with Parkinson’s disease and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using voxel based Morphometry (VBM). Methods: Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 35 patients with PD and 20 age and sex-matched healthy control subjects. In the PD group, 14 subjects had no MCI and 21 had MCI. MRI 3D structura...

  16. Pattern recognition via multispectral, hyperspectral, and polarization-based imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saba, Aed; Alam, Mohammad S.; Sakla, Wesam A.

    2010-04-01

    Pattern recognition deals with the detection and identification of a specific target in an unknown input scene. Target features such as shape, color, surface dynamics, and material characteristics are common target attributes used for identification and detection purposes. Pattern recognition using multispectral (MS), hyperspectral (HS), and polarization-based spectral (PS) imaging can be effectively exploited to highlight one or more of these attributes for more efficient target identification and detection. In general, pattern recognition involves two steps: gathering target information from sensor data and identifying and detecting the desired target from sensor data in the presence of noise, clutter, and other artifacts. Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging (MSI/HSI) provide both spectral and spatial information about the target. As the reflection or emission spectral signatures depend on the elemental composition of objects residing within the scene, the polarization state of radiation is sensitive to the surface features such as relative smoothness or roughness, surface material, shapes and edges, etc. Therefore, polarization information imparted by surface reflections of the target yields unique and discriminatory signatures which could be used to augment spectral target detection techniques, through the fusion of sensor data. Sensor data fusion is currently being used to effectively recognize and detect one or more of the target attributes. However, variations between sensors and temporal changes within sensors can introduce noise in the measurements, contributing to additional target variability that hinders the detection process. This paper provides a quick overview of target identification and detection using MSI/HSI, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each. It then discusses the effectiveness of using polarization-based imaging in highlighting some of the target attributes at single and multiple spectral bands using polarization

  17. Wavelet-based moment invariants for pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangyi; Xie, Wenfang

    2011-07-01

    Moment invariants have received a lot of attention as features for identification and inspection of two-dimensional shapes. In this paper, two sets of novel moments are proposed by using the auto-correlation of wavelet functions and the dual-tree complex wavelet functions. It is well known that the wavelet transform lacks the property of shift invariance. A little shift in the input signal will cause very different output wavelet coefficients. The autocorrelation of wavelet functions and the dual-tree complex wavelet functions, on the other hand, are shift-invariant, which is very important in pattern recognition. Rotation invariance is the major concern in this paper, while translation invariance and scale invariance can be achieved by standard normalization techniques. The Gaussian white noise is added to the noise-free images and the noise levels vary with different signal-to-noise ratios. Experimental results conducted in this paper show that the proposed wavelet-based moments outperform Zernike's moments and the Fourier-wavelet descriptor for pattern recognition under different rotation angles and different noise levels. It can be seen that the proposed wavelet-based moments can do an excellent job even when the noise levels are very high.

  18. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy have been reported previously. We are reporting a teenage girl suffering from progressive hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy with demonstrable mirror movements in hand.

  19. Linkage analysis in dominant optic atrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Kivlin, J D; Lovrien, E W; Bishop, D. T.; Maumenee, I H

    1983-01-01

    A kindred of German descent was studied for dominant optic atrophy, type Kjer (McKusick catalog no. 16540). One hundred twenty-three family members were examined clinically, and 36 affected, 81 normal, and six uncertain members were ascertained. Twenty-seven markers were analyzed for 121 members. The maximum lod score obtained was 2.0 at theta = .18 for linkage between the Kidd locus and dominant optic atrophy. Twenty-eight offspring were informative with 2-generation data. There was insuffic...

  20. CT features of olivopontocerebellar atrophy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.D. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Radiology; Chand, R.P. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Medicine (Neurology); Gururaj, A.K. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Child Health; Jeans, W.D. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Radiology

    1995-11-01

    Between 1990 and 1992, 14 children were seen in whom a clinical diagnosis of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) had been made. The majority of patients presented with cerebellar ataxia and hypotonia. Five children had a family history of a similar illness in first-degree relatives. All cases had undergone clinical and neurologic examinations, routine laboratory tests and cranial CT. CT features were graded to quantitative the degree of atrophy in each cerebellar hemisphere, vermis and brain stem. All patients had varying degrees of atrophic changes of cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum. These CT features appear to be distinctive enough to enable the diagnosis of OPCA to be made. (orig.).

  1. A RELM earthquake forecast based on pattern informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Holliday, J R; Donnelan, A; Rundle, J B; Tiampo, K F; Turcotte, D L; Chen, Chien-chih; Donnelan, Andrea; Holliday, James R.; Rundle, John B.; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    We present a RELM forecast of future earthquakes in California that is primarily based on the pattern informatics (PI) method. This method identifies regions that have systematic fluctuations in seismicity, and it has been demonstrated to be successful. A PI forecast map originally published on 19 February 2002 for southern California successfully forecast the locations of sixteen of eighteen M>5 earthquakes during the past three years. The method has also been successfully applied to Japan and on a worldwide basis. An alternative approach to earthquake forecasting is the relative intensity (RI) method. The RI forecast map is based on recent levels of seismic activity of small earthquakes. Recent advances in the PI method show considerable improvement, particularly when compared with the RI method using relative operating characteristic (ROC) diagrams for binary forecasts. The RELM application requires a probability for each location for a number of magnitude bins over a five year period. We have therefore co...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myoclonic epilepsy spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Description Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes ...

  3. Physical Activity and Alzheimer's-Related Hippocampal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Physical activity and Alzheimer’s-related hippocampal atrophy August 4, 2014 Physical activity may help prevent atrophy of the hippocampus, a ...

  4. Neither retinal nor brain atrophy can be shown in patients with isolated unilateral optic neuritis at the time of presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Sander, Birgit; Tsakiri, Anna; Wanscher, Benedikte; Fuglø, Dan; Larsen, Michael; Larsson, Henrik; Frederiksen, Jette L

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) may be the earliest manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Atrophy has been shown to be a prominent feature of MS with great impact on disability. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate retinal and brain atrophy and...... were calculated based on MRI. Additionally, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded. RESULTS: Neither OCT measurements nor brain volume measures revealed signs of localized or generalized atrophy in patients compared with healthy volunteers. Stratification of patients into high risk based on the...

  5. The Generation system of Textile Pattern draft Based on Quasi-regular Pattern Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyi Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-regular patterns generated from hamiltonian has unique balanced symmetry. The patterns are quite suitable for the textile fabric. However the number of patterns just generated from hamiltonian are limited. Therefore in this paper a 110 of functions built by the methods of hamiltonian of superposition, nesting, combination and parameter variations, and it can increase the type and quantity. All of functions can generate fine patterns suited for textile fabric after computer graphics.The system of textile pattern draft is generated by Visual basics for the computer. The system allows individual selection of function and parameters to change the pattern and the color conditioning. In this way, it successfully achieves the purpose.

  6. Historical Feature Pattern Extraction Based Network Attack Situation Sensing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The situation sequence contains a series of complicated and multivariate random trends, which are very sudden, uncertain, and difficult to recognize and describe its principle by traditional algorithms. To solve the above questions, estimating parameters of super long situation sequence is essential, but very difficult, so this paper proposes a situation prediction method based on historical feature pattern extraction (HFPE. First, HFPE algorithm seeks similar indications from the history situation sequence recorded and weighs the link intensity between occurred indication and subsequent effect. Then it calculates the probability that a certain effect reappears according to the current indication and makes a prediction after weighting. Meanwhile, HFPE method gives an evolution algorithm to derive the prediction deviation from the views of pattern and accuracy. This algorithm can continuously promote the adaptability of HFPE through gradual fine-tuning. The method preserves the rules in sequence at its best, does not need data preprocessing, and can track and adapt to the variation of situation sequence continuously.

  7. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown. PMID:26912035

  8. Sensorimotor gating deficits in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Biernat, Heidi Bryde; Nikolic, Miki;

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory blink reflex is a measure of sensorimotor gating, which reflects an organism's ability to filter out irrelevant sensory information. PPI has never been studied in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), although sensorimotor deficits are frequently...

  9. Cube propagation for focal brain atrophy estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Sørensen, Lauge; Darkner, Sune;

    2013-01-01

    Precise and robust whole brain, ventricle, and hippocampal atrophy measurements are important as they serve as biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease. They are used as secondary outcomes in drug trials, and they correlate with the cognitive scores. When two successive scans are non-linearly aligned b...

  10. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Karban, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  11. Symbolic document image compression based on pattern matching techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Chwan-Yi; Yen, Yun-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a novel compression algorithm for Chinese document images is proposed. Initially, documents are segmented into readable components such as characters and punctuation marks. Similar patterns within the text are found by shape context matching and grouped to form a set of prototype symbols. Text redundancies can be removed by replacing repeated symbols by their corresponding prototype symbols. To keep the compression visually lossless, we use a multi-stage symbol clustering procedure to group similar symbols and to ensure that there is no visible error in the decompressed image. In the encoding phase, the resulting data streams are encoded by adaptive arithmetic coding. Our results show that the average compression ratio is better than the international standard JBIG2 and the compressed form of a document image is suitable for a content-based keyword searching operation.

  12. An unusual cause of optic atrophy in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old child presenting with gross visual impairment was diagnosed as a case of optic atrophy. However, radiological investigations revealed osteopetrosis, which, though rare, can result in optic atrophy. The aim of this case report is to highlight this possibility while evaluating cases of optic atrophy in young patients.

  13. Association between anti-endomysial antibody and total intestinal villous atrophy in children with coeliac disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgenc F

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence to suggest that detection of anti-gliadin antibody (AGA and anti-endomysial antibody (EmA can serve as sensitive markers of the degree of histological abnormalities in patients with coeliac disease. AIM: To evaluate the association between the presence of AGA and EmA and villous atrophy in intestinal biopsies of children with suspected coeliac disease. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Intestinal samples of 46 children with failure to thrive, chronic diarrhoea, malabsorption and short stature with either AGA and/or EmA positivity were evaluated, retrospectively. The diagnosis of coeliac disease was based on ESPGHAN criteria. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Patients with total villous atrophy who fulfilled the ESPGHAN criteria for the diagnosis of coeliac disease were diagnosed to have coeliac disease. Nine patients without villous atrophy were taken as negative controls for this study. AGA-IgA was measured both by immunoflourescence (IF and ELISA and EmA-IgA by IF while patients were on normal diet. Relationship between autoantibody positivity and intestinal total villous atrophy was evaluated. RESULTS: Overall positivity for AGA IgA was 85% (39/46 by IF+ELISA and EmA positivity was 85% (39/46 by IF within the study group. Histological examination revealed total villous atrophy with lymphocyte infiltration and crypt hyperplasia in 37 (80% patients. AGA IgA was positive in 14 (38% and 31 (84% of these children by ELISA and IF, respectively. EmA positivity was detected in 35/37 (95% cases with atrophy and 4/9 (44% without atrophy (p=0.002. Thirty out of 37 (81% patients with villous atrophy had both AGA IgA (IF and EmA positivity (p=0.186. All of the sixteen patients that had both positive AGA IgA (ELISA+IF and EmA had total villous atrophy (p=0.037. CONCLUSION: A significant association between total villous atrophy and EmA positivity has been documented in this study.

  14. Pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patinets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patients in a tertiary care health facility. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of pathology, Combined Military Hospital Kharian from January 2013 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients suffering from various diseases and presenting with exacerbation of their clinical conditions were studied. These patients were hospitalized and managed in acute care units of the hospital. Arterial blood gases were analysed to detect acid base status and their correlation with their clinical condition. Concomitant analysis of electrolytes was carried out. Tests related to concurrent illnesses e.g. renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes and plasma glucose were assayed by routine end point and kinetic methods. Standard reference materials were used to ensure internal quantify control of analyses. Results: Two hundred and fifteen patients out of 250 studied suffered from acid base disorders. Gender distribution showed a higher percentage of male patients and the mean age was 70.5 ± 17.4 years. Double acid base disorders were the commonest disorders (34%) followed by metabolic acidosis (30%). Anion gap was calculated to further stratify metabolic acidosis and cases of diabetic ketoacidosis were the commonest in this category (47%). Other simple acid base disorders were relatively less frequent. Delta bicarbonate was calculated to unmask the superimposition of respiratory alkalosis or acidosis with metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. Though triple acid base disorders were noted in a small percentage of cases (05%), but were found to be the most complicated and challenging. Mixed acid base disorders were associated with high mortality. Conclusion: A large number of critically ill patients manifested acid base abnormalities over the full spectrum of these disorders. Mixed acid base disorders were

  15. Correlation of volumetric and fractal measurements of brain atrophy with neuropsychological tests in patients with dementive disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain atrophy is one of the features of the dementive diseases, but also of other neurodegenerative disorders as well as physiological brain aging. The aim of the study was to define the relationship between the brain atrophy measurements and the degree of the severity of dementive process based on the neuropsychological tests (MMSE and Clock Drawing Test). In 68 patients with diagnosed impairment of cognitive functions due to dementia, neuropsychological tests (MMSE and Clock Drawing Test) and CT studies were performed. On the basis of CT images we evaluated cortical and subcortical atrophy with 3 methods; visual, semiautomatic (volumetric) and automatic method based on fractal geometry calculations; the latter was characterized by very short time of measurements. The correlation between neuropsychological tests and brain atrophy measurements has been assessed using Pearson's correlation test. No statistical correlation was found between the results of neuropsychological tests and measurements of the brain atrophy (both cortical and subcortical) using all three methods mentioned above. Single measurement of the generalized cortical and subcortical atrophy is not correlated with the results of neuropsychological tests. In our opinion, these measurements might be valuable in follow-up of the dementive process to compare progression of the atrophic changes with the changes of the neuropsychological tests results, especially using very quick automatic method, supplemented by local atrophy measurements. (authors)

  16. Visuoperceptive region atrophy independent of cognitive status in patients with Parkinson's disease with hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Dinh, Vy; Bernard, Bryan; Merkitch, Doug; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Goetz, Christopher G

    2014-03-01

    Visual hallucinations are frequent, disabling complications of advanced Parkinson's disease, but their neuroanatomical basis is incompletely understood. Previous structural brain magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest volume loss in the mesial temporal lobe and limbic regions in subjects with Parkinson's disease with visual hallucinations, relative to those without visual hallucinations. However, these studies have not always controlled for the presence of cognitive impairment or dementia, which are common co-morbidities of hallucinations in Parkinson's disease and whose neuroanatomical substrates may involve mesial temporal lobe and limbic regions. Therefore, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine grey matter atrophy patterns associated with visual hallucinations, comparing Parkinson's disease hallucinators to Parkinson's disease non-hallucinators of comparable cognitive function. We studied 50 subjects with Parkinson's disease: 25 classified as current and chronic visual hallucinators and 25 as non-hallucinators, who were matched for cognitive status (demented or non-demented) and age (± 3 years). Subjects underwent (i) clinical evaluations; and (ii) brain MRI scans analysed using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry techniques. Clinically, the Parkinson's disease hallucinators did not differ in their cognitive classification or performance in any of the five assessed cognitive domains, compared with the non-hallucinators. The Parkinson's disease groups also did not differ significantly in age, motor severity, medication use or duration of disease. On imaging analyses, the hallucinators, all of whom experienced visual hallucinations, exhibited grey matter atrophy with significant voxel-wise differences in the cuneus, lingual and fusiform gyri, middle occipital lobe, inferior parietal lobule, and also cingulate, paracentral, and precentral gyri, compared with the non-hallucinators. Grey matter atrophy in the hallucinators occurred

  17. Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum: case report Hipomielinização com atrofia dos núcleos da base e do cerebelo: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    André Palma da Cunha Matta; Márcia Cristina Antunes Ribas

    2007-01-01

    Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC) is a rare disease that has been recently described. It must be remembered as a possible etiology of leukoencephalopathies in children. We describe a typical case of H-ABC in a 11-month-old boy. He presents with global development delay, oral dyskinesia, and global dystonia and spasticity. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed typical features of H-ABC and clinical laboratory tests were all negative. A slow neurological de...

  18. Evidence of bone formation in the nasal floor around polished surface bi-cortical screw implants after indirect nasal lift in an atrophied maxilla: Cone beam computed tomography-based case report

    OpenAIRE

    Khairnar, Mayur; Gaur, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary jaw is restricted superiorly with maxillary sinus in the posterior region and nasal cavity in the anterior region. Augmentation of distal maxilla with recessed maxillary sinus has been documented since, last few decades. Sinus lifts the procedure either through crestal or lateral approach proves to be an effective way for augmenting bone for the placement of dental implants in atrophied posterior maxilla. However, when it comes to vertically deficient anterior maxilla, lifting of th...

  19. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA: a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eMenéndez-González

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS. This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meaning of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy (TA with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA. In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications.

  20. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA): a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Salas-Pacheco, José M; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meanings of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the "yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy" (yrRTA). In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications. PMID:25206331

  1. Patterns of change in family-based aggression prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanish, L D; Tolan, P H

    2001-04-01

    Patterns of change on three intervention targets were examined in 151 families that participated in a family intervention designed to reduce and prevent children's aggressive behavior. Measures of parents' alliance and parenting skills and children's aggressive behavior were obtained at five times during the intervention. Three cluster analyses were conducted to identify patterns of change on each target. Linear and nonlinear patterns of improvement as well as two distinct patterns of no change were obtained. The patterns were differentiated by net improvement, overall level of skill, and trajectory of change. Family characteristics also differentiated the patterns and relations were found among patterns across intervention targets. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11314554

  2. DIR-visible grey matter lesions and atrophy in multiple sclerosis: partners in crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pavert, Steven H P; Muhlert, Nils; Sethi, Varun; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Ron, Maria; Yousry, Tarek A; Thompson, Alan J; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Background The extent and clinical relevance of grey matter (GM) pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS) are increasingly recognised. GM pathology may present as focal lesions, which can be visualised using double inversion recovery (DIR) MRI, or as diffuse pathology, which can manifest as atrophy. It is, however, unclear whether the diffuse atrophy centres on focal lesions. This study aimed to determine if GM lesions and GM atrophy colocalise, and to assess their independent relationship with motor and cognitive deficits in MS. Methods Eighty people with MS and 30 healthy controls underwent brain volumetric T1-weighted and DIR MRI at 3 T, and had a comprehensive neurological and cognitive assessment. Probability mapping of GM lesions marked on the DIR scans and voxel- based morphometry (assessing GM atrophy) were carried out. The associations of GM lesion load and GM volume with clinical scores were tested. Results DIR-visible GM lesions were most commonly found in the right cerebellum and most apparent in patients with primary progressive MS. Deep GM structures appeared largely free from lesions, but showed considerable atrophy, particularly in the thalamus, caudate, pallidum and putamen, and this was most apparent in secondary progressive patients with MS. Very little co-localisation of GM atrophy and lesions was seen, and this was generally confined to the cerebellum and postcentral gyrus. In both regions, GM lesions and volume independently correlated with physical disability and cognitive performance. Conclusions DIR-detectable GM lesions and GM atrophy do not significantly overlap in the brain but, when they do, they independently contribute to clinical disability. PMID:25926483

  3. Polygon cluster pattern recognition based on new visual distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yun; Shuai, Haiyan; Ni, Lin

    2007-06-01

    The pattern recognition of polygon clusters is a most attention-getting problem in spatial data mining. The paper carries through a research on this problem, based on spatial cognition principle and visual recognition Gestalt principle combining with spatial clustering method, and creates two innovations: First, the paper carries through a great improvement to the concept---"visual distance". In the definition of this concept, not only are Euclid's Distance, orientation difference and dimension discrepancy comprehensively thought out, but also is "similarity degree of object shape" crucially considered. In the calculation of "visual distance", the distance calculation model is built using Delaunay Triangulation geometrical structure. Second, the research adopts spatial clustering analysis based on MST Tree. In the design of pruning algorithm, the study initiates data automatism delamination mechanism and introduces Simulated Annealing Optimization Algorithm. This study provides a new research thread for GIS development, namely, GIS is an intersection principle, whose research method should be open and diverse. Any mature technology of other relative principles can be introduced into the study of GIS, but, they need to be improved on technical measures according to the principles of GIS as "spatial cognition science". Only to do this, can GIS develop forward on a higher and stronger plane.

  4. Glaucoma detection based on local binary patterns in fundus photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsheh Ali, Maya; Hurtut, Thomas; Faucon, Timothée.; Cheriet, Farida

    2014-03-01

    Glaucoma, a group of diseases that lead to optic neuropathy, is one of the most common reasons for blindness worldwide. Glaucoma rarely causes symptoms until the later stages of the disease. Early detection of glaucoma is very important to prevent visual loss since optic nerve damages cannot be reversed. To detect glaucoma, purely data-driven techniques have advantages, especially when the disease characteristics are complex and when precise image-based measurements are difficult to obtain. In this paper, we present our preliminary study for glaucoma detection using an automatic method based on local texture features extracted from fundus photographs. It implements the completed modeling of Local Binary Patterns to capture representative texture features from the whole image. A local region is represented by three operators: its central pixel (LBPC) and its local differences as two complementary components, the sign (which is the classical LBP) and the magnitude (LBPM). An image texture is finally described by both the distribution of LBP and the joint-distribution of LBPM and LBPC. Our images are then classified using a nearest-neighbor method with a leave-one-out validation strategy. On a sample set of 41 fundus images (13 glaucomatous, 28 non-glaucomatous), our method achieves 95:1% success rate with a specificity of 92:3% and a sensitivity of 96:4%. This study proposes a reproducible glaucoma detection process that could be used in a low-priced medical screening, thus avoiding the inter-experts variability issue.

  5. Deficits in memory and visuospatial learning correlate with regional hippocampal atrophy in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Giulia; Rocca, Maria A; Pagani, Elisabetta; Riccitelli, Gianna C; Colombo, Bruno; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has a critical role in episodic memory and visuospatial learning and consolidation. We assessed the patterns of whole and regional hippocampal atrophy in a large group of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and their correlations with neuropsychological impairment. From 103 MS patients and 28 healthy controls (HC), brain dual-echo and high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired using a 3.0-Tesla scanner. All patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment of hippocampal-related cognitive functions, including Paired Associate Word Learning, Short Story, delayed recall of Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and Paced Auditory Serial Attention tests. The hippocampi were manually segmented and volumes derived. Regional atrophy distribution was assessed using a radial mapping analysis. Correlations between hippocampal atrophy and clinical, neuropsychological and MRI metrics were also evaluated. Hippocampal volume was reduced in MS patients vs HC (p < 0.001 for both right and hippocampus). In MS patients, radial atrophy affected CA1 subfield and subiculum of posterior hippocampus, bilaterally. The dentate hilus (DG:H) of the right hippocampal head was also affected. Regional hippocampal atrophy correlated with brain T2 and T1 lesion volumes, while no correlation was found with disability. Damage to the CA1 and subiculum was significantly correlated to the performances at hippocampal-targeted neuropsychological tests. These results show that hippocampal subregions have a different vulnerability to MS-related damage, with a relative sparing of the head of the left hippocampus. The assessment of regional hippocampal atrophy may help explain deficits of specific cognitive functions in MS patients, including memory and visuospatial abilities. PMID:24189776

  6. Edge direction matrixes-based local binar patterns descriptor for shape pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Talab, Mohammed A.; Abdullah, Siti Norul Huda Sheikh; Bataineh, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    Shapes and texture image recognition usage is an essential branch of pattern recognition. It is made up of techniques that aim at extracting information from images via human knowledge and works. Local Binary Pattern (LBP) ensures encoding global and local information and scaling invariance by introducing a look-up table to reflect the uniformity structure of an object. However, edge direction matrixes (EDMS) only apply global invariant descriptor which employs first and secondary order relat...

  7. Effect of Herbal Prescriptions in Accordance with Pattern Identification in Acute Cerebral Infarction Patients: Based on Fire-Heat Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, WooSang; Park, JungMi; Moon, SangKwan; Hyun, Sangho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to verify the necessity of corresponding prescription to the diagnosed pattern in acute cerebral infarction patients. Methods. We studied cerebral infarction patients hospitalized within 30 days after the ictus. Forty-four clinical indicators, Motricity Index (MI) score, Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) score, and herbal prescriptions were checked twice, two weeks apart. The probability of each pattern was calculated based on the clinical indicators. Changes in MI score, SSS score, and the probability of fire-heat pattern were compared between the pattern-prescription correspondence group and the noncorrespondence group. Results. Increments of MI score and SSS score in the correspondence group were significantly greater than those of the noncorrespondence group (p = 0.003, p = 0.001) while the baseline score of the two groups showed no significant difference. Probability of fire-heat pattern decreased significantly in the correspondence group (p = 0.013) while the noncorrespondence group showed no significant difference after the treatment. Conclusion. Acute cerebral infarction patients who are diagnosed as fire-heat pattern showed better improvement in dysfunctions caused by the disease when they took the pattern corresponding prescriptions. This study provides evidence for the necessity and usefulness of pattern identification in Traditional Korean Medicine. PMID:26523149

  8. Gyrate atrophy of choroid and retina with myopia, cataract and systemic proximal myopathy: A rare case report from rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Bangal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGyrate atrophy is a rare metabolic disease with autosomal recessive inheritance pattern characterised by hyperornithinemia and typical ocular findings. This report presents a 17-year-old intellectually challenged girl consulting for a progressive fall of visual acuity with night blindness. Fundus examination showed patches of chorioretinal atrophy with typical scalloped borders and peri vascular pigmentation in the equatorial region. Fundus fluroscein angiography revealed characteristic staining pattern. Other ocular associations included myopia and posterior sub capsular cataract. Progressive systemic proximal myopathy was one of the associated features. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B6 was advised.

  9. Efficient Algorithm for Frequent Pattern Mining Based On Apriori

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. D. N. Goswami; Dr. Anshu Chaturvedi; C. S. Raghuvanshi

    2010-01-01

    Frequent pattern mining is a heavily researched area in the field of data mining with wide range of applications. Mining frequent patterns from large scale databases has emerged as an important problemin data mining and knowledge discovery community. A number of algorithms has been proposed to determine frequent pattern. Apriori algorithm is the first algorithm proposed in this field. With the time a number of changes proposed in Apriori to enhance the performance in term of time and number o...

  10. Fabric Wrinkle Grade Assessment Based on Fuzzy Pattern Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-bo

    2006-01-01

    The basic principle of fuzzy pattern recognition is brief introduced firstly in this paper, which mainly includes fuzzy rules and fuzzy inference system. Then, the algorithm procedure of fuzzy pattern recognition is proposed. Finally,the application of Mamdani fuzzy model is introduced to evaluate fabric wrinkle grade in detail, and used the correlation coefficient between subject and object evaluation to verify the reliability of fuzzy pattern recognition. It shows the method of fuzzy pattern recognition needs not a large number of testing data and the accuracy of evaluation is up to 97.38%.

  11. An engineering process for security patterns application in component based models

    OpenAIRE

    Bouaziz, Rahma; Kallel, Slim; Coulette, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Security engineering with patterns is currently a very active area of research. Security patterns - an adaptation of Design Patterns to security - capture experts' experience in order to solve recurrent security problems in a structured and reusable way. In this paper, our objective is to describe an engineering process, called SCRIP (SeCurity patteRn Integration Process), which provides guidelines for integrating security patterns into component-based models. SCRIP defines activities and pro...

  12. [Posterior cortical atrophy with progressive visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarranz, J J; Lasa, A; Fernández, M; Lezcano, E; Pérez Bas, M; Varona, L; Ruiz, J; Beristain, X

    1995-03-01

    Interest in progressive focal cerebral syndromes associated with classical degenerative diseases has increased in recent years. Descriptions of posterior cortical atrophy with progressive visual agnosia are relatively rare. We present 5 patients (2 women) ranging in age between 57 and 72 years old. In all cases symptoms began and progressed with no known etiology. All cases were sporadic. The main clinical signs are difficulty in recognizing objects, colors, persons or places; topographical disorientation and visual memory alterations; alexia, simultagnosia, loss of ocular fixing and optic ataxia. Some patients presented other disturbances of praxis or memory and 2 progressed to global dementia. Language function was preserved and behavioral disturbances did not develop. The amplitude of the P100 visual evoked potential was low but latency was normal in 4 patients and prolonged in 1. Brain images showed atrophy and hypoperfusion in the parieto-occipital area. The neuropathology status of these patients is unknown. PMID:7756009

  13. The Diagnostic Dilemma of Progressive Muscular Atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive muscle atrophy is a rare subtype of motor neuron disease that affects only the lower motor neurons and presents as asymmetrical rapidly progressive muscle weakness, atrophy and normal sensations. The diagnostic electrophysiological findings are denervation potentials in three out of four body segments (bulbar, cervical, thoracic and lumbosacral). The disease is fatal and the management is supportive. We present the report of a 45-year-old female patient who presented with unilateral foot drop and rapidly progressed to profound weakness in muscles of all limbs, neck and back along with dysarthria and dysphagia. She had been operated twice for suspected cervical and lumbosacral intervertebral disc herniations and ultimately guided in right direction after muscle biopsy, nerve conduction studies and electromyography. (author)

  14. Reflective pattern-based approach to collaborative media space management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Wayne; Georganas, Nicolas D.

    1998-12-01

    The role of traditional multimedia systems has been to disseminate information. The advent of media spaces, however, offers an increased potential in terms of presentation as well as facilitating a natural and intuitive environment for interpersonal communication. Combined with Computer Supported Cooperative Work technologies, these shared, media-rich environments offer a natural basis for distributed collaboration through a seamless blend of presentational, conversational and interactive multimedia. The resulting notion underlies the definition of a collaborative media space in which users interact with each other through the experience and manipulation of shared media. The integration of such a diverse array of entities presents many challenges, ranging from the need to support a variety of media types to managing how objects in such a system interact. Indeed, a primary consideration with such system is the coordination (including both causal and temporal synchronization) of entities within the space. This work addresses how to facilitate media space design by employing a pattern-based meta-level architecture and management infrastructure in which reflection is used to isolate system-level issues such as behavioral coordination from low-level, media-specific computation. The architectural framework and its underlying topology are illustrated along with the model's application to a distance education system.

  15. Graphene patterned polyaniline-based biosensor for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh Nguyen, Hai; Chuc Nguyen, Van; Nguyen, Van Tu; Thanh Tam Ngo, Thi; Thinh Nguyen, Ngoc; Thu Huyen Dang, Thi; Tran, Dai Lam; Do, Phuc Quan; Nghia Nguyen, Xuan; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan; Khoi Phan, Hong; Phan, Ngoc Minh

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a glucose electrochemical biosensor, layer-by-layer fabricated from graphene and polyaniline films. Graphene sheets (0.5×0.5 cm2) with the thickness of 5 nm (15 layers) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure on copper tapes. Then they were transferred into integrated Fe3O4-doped polyaniline (PANi) based microelectrodes. The properties of the nanocomposite films were thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical methods, such as square wave voltametry (SWV) and chronoamperometry. The above graphene patterned sensor (denoted as Graphene/Fe3O4/PANi/GOx) shows much improved glucose sensitivity (as high as 47 μA mM‑1 cm‑2) compared to a non-graphene one (10–30 μA mM‑1 cm‑2, as previously reported in the literature). It can be expected that this proof-of-concept biosensor could be extended for other highly sensitive biodetection.

  16. Graphene patterned polyaniline-based biosensor for glucose detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a glucose electrochemical biosensor, layer-by-layer fabricated from graphene and polyaniline films. Graphene sheets (0.5×0.5 cm2) with the thickness of 5 nm (15 layers) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure on copper tapes. Then they were transferred into integrated Fe3O4-doped polyaniline (PANi) based microelectrodes. The properties of the nanocomposite films were thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical methods, such as square wave voltametry (SWV) and chronoamperometry. The above graphene patterned sensor (denoted as Graphene/Fe3O4/PANi/GOx) shows much improved glucose sensitivity (as high as 47 μA mM−1 cm−2) compared to a non-graphene one (10–30 μA mM−1 cm−2, as previously reported in the literature). It can be expected that this proof-of-concept biosensor could be extended for other highly sensitive biodetection

  17. Laser-based patterning for transfected cell microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial control over biomolecule- and cell-surface interactions is of great interest to a broad range of biomedical applications, including sensors, implantable devices and cell microarrays. Microarrays in particular require precise spatial control and the formation of patterns with microscale features. Here, we have developed an approach specifically designed for transfected cell microarray (TCM) applications that allows microscale spatial control over the location of both DNA and cells on highly doped p-type silicon substrates. This was achieved by surface modification, involving plasma polymerization of allylamine, grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) and subsequent excimer laser ablation. DNA could be delivered in a spatially defined manner using ink-jet printing. In addition, electroporation was investigated as an approach to transfect attached cells with adsorbed DNA and good transfection efficiencies of approximately 20% were observed. The ability of the microstructured surfaces to spatially direct both DNA adsorption and cell attachment was demonstrated in a functional TCM, making this system an exciting platform for chip-based functional genomics.

  18. Laser-based patterning for transfected cell microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Andrew L; Creasey, Rhiannon; Voelcker, Nicolas H [Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Bedford Park, SA 5042 (Australia); Hayes, Jason P [MiniFAB, 1 Dalmore Drive, Caribbean Park, Scoresby VIC 3179 (Australia); Thissen, Helmut, E-mail: Nico.Voelcker@flinders.edu.a [CSIRO Molecular and Health Technologies, Bayview Avenue, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia)

    2009-12-15

    The spatial control over biomolecule- and cell-surface interactions is of great interest to a broad range of biomedical applications, including sensors, implantable devices and cell microarrays. Microarrays in particular require precise spatial control and the formation of patterns with microscale features. Here, we have developed an approach specifically designed for transfected cell microarray (TCM) applications that allows microscale spatial control over the location of both DNA and cells on highly doped p-type silicon substrates. This was achieved by surface modification, involving plasma polymerization of allylamine, grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) and subsequent excimer laser ablation. DNA could be delivered in a spatially defined manner using ink-jet printing. In addition, electroporation was investigated as an approach to transfect attached cells with adsorbed DNA and good transfection efficiencies of approximately 20% were observed. The ability of the microstructured surfaces to spatially direct both DNA adsorption and cell attachment was demonstrated in a functional TCM, making this system an exciting platform for chip-based functional genomics.

  19. Growth patterns of the maxillary sinus based on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distance between two points in the bone and the angle of the bone wall were measured based on computed tomography imaging using Image Web Ver. 1.3 from Philips Electronics Japan, Ltd in order to investigate the growth patterns of the maxillary sinus. The results are as follows: Bone destruction and formation are simultaneously noted to occur in a forward direction in the normal anterior maxillary wall, with no thickening of the bone wall. The normal posterior maxillary wall grows in a forward longitudinal direction. The angle between the normal posterior and medial walls of the maxillary bone is 43 degrees, with no angle change is seen due to aging. The width of the alveolar process remains quite constant regardless of age, and the maxillary bone grows anteriorly, laterally, and inferiorly, terminating its growth at around 20 years of age. The balance between bone destruction and formation in the anterior maxillary wall can be disrupted due to inflammation, thus leading to bone thickening. Inflammation can also inhibit the longitudinal growth of the posterior maxillary wall, thus resulting in bone thickening. The balance between bone destruction and the formation in the posterior maxillary wall can be disrupted due to inflammation, thus leading to lateral thickening of the bone, and thereby resulting in an increase in the angular difference between the posterior and medial walls. (author)

  20. Neurosyphilis with dementia and bilateral hippocampal atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrabian Shima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article reports a rare case of active neurosyphilis in a man with mild to moderate dementia and marked hippocampal atrophy, mimicking early onset Alzheimer’s disease. Few cases have so far described bilateral hippocampal atrophy mimicking Alzheimer’s disease in neurosyphilis. Case presentation The patient presented here is a 33 year old Bulgarian male, whose clinical features include progressive cognitive decline and behavioral changes over the last 18 months. Neuropsychological examination revealed mild to moderate dementia (Mini Mental State Examination score was 16/30 with impaired memory and attention, and executive dysfunction. Pyramidal, and extrapyramidal signs, as well as dysarthria and impairment in coordination, were documented. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy with noticeable bilateral hippocampal atrophy. The diagnosis of active neurosyphilis was based on positive results of the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test/Treponema pallidum hemagglutination reactions in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and elevated protein levels. High-dose intravenous penicillin therapy was administered. At 6 month follow up, improvements were noted clinically, on neuropsychological examinations, and in cerebrospinal fluid samples. Conclusion This case underlines the importance of early diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The results suggest that neurosyphilis should be considered when magnetic resonance imaging results indicate mesiotemporal abnormalities and hippocampal atrophy. Neurosyphilis is a treatable condition which requires early aggressive antibiotic therapy.

  1. Neurosyphilis with dementia and bilateral hippocampal atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background: This article reports a rare case of active neurosyphilis in a 33-years-old man with mild to moderate dementia and marked hippocampal atrophy, mimicking early onset Alzheimer's disease. Few number of cases described bilateral hippocampal atrophy mimicking Alzheimer's disease in neurosyphilis. Case presentation: The clinical feature is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and behavioral changes for the last 18 months. Neuropsychological examination revealed mild to moderate dementia (MMSE=16) with impaired memory, attention and executive dysfunction. Pyramidal, extrapyramidal signs, dysarthria and impairment in coordination were documented. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy with marked bilateral hippocampal atrophy. The diagnosis of active neurosyphilis was based on positive results of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test - Treponema Pallidum. Hemagglutination reactions in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and elevated protein levels. High dose intravenous penicillin therapy was administered. During the follow up examination at 6 month, the clinical signs, and neuropsychological examinations, and cerebrospinal fluid samples showed improvement. Conclusion: This case underlines the importance of early diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The results suggest that neurosyphilis should be considered when magnetic resonance imaging results indicate mesiotemporal abnormalities and hippocampal atrophy. Neurosyphilis is a treatable condition and needs early aggressive antibiotic therapy

  2. Fluid biomarkers in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurens, Brice; Constantinescu, Radu; Freeman, Roy;

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing research efforts, no reliable biomarker currently exists for the diagnosis and prognosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Such biomarkers are urgently needed to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic guidance and also to serve as efficacy measures or surrogates of target engagem...... Parkinson's disease), metabolites of the catecholamine pathway and proteins such as α-synuclein, DJ-1 and total-tau. Beyond future efforts in biomarker discovery, the harmonization of standard operating procedures will be crucial for future success....

  3. Cerebellar and cerebral atrophy in trichothiodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Sargent, Michael A.; Poskitt, Kenneth J. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Prendiville, Julie S. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatric Dermatology, Department of Paediatrics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    Trichothiodystrophy is a rare neuroectodermal disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance that is characterized by brittle hair, nail dysplasia, ichthyosis, mental retardation, and gonadal failure. We describe a female patient whose cranial MRI revealed almost total lack of myelination in the supratentorial white matter, which is similar to the previously described cases. In addition, there was progressive cerebellar and cerebral atrophy, which has not been well documented in association with trichothiodystrophy. (orig.)

  4. A Network Based Methodology to Reveal Patterns in Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando López-Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper motivates, presents and demonstrates in use a methodology based in complex network analysis to support research aimed at identification of sources in the process of knowledge transfer at the interorganizational level. The importance of this methodology is that it states a unified model to reveal knowledge sharing patterns and to compare results from multiple researches on data from different periods of time and different sectors of the economy. This methodology does not address the underlying statistical processes. To do this, national statistics departments (NSD provide documents and tools at their websites. But this proposal provides a guide to model information inferences gathered from data processing revealing links between sources and recipients of knowledge being transferred and that the recipient detects as main source to new knowledge creation. Some national statistics departments set as objective for these surveys the characterization of innovation dynamics in firms and to analyze the use of public support instruments. From this characterization scholars conduct different researches. Measures of dimensions of the network composed by manufacturing firms and other organizations conform the base to inquiry the structure that emerges from taking ideas from other organizations to incept innovations. These two sets of data are actors of a two- mode-network. The link between two actors (network nodes, one acting as the source of the idea. The second one acting as the destination comes from organizations or events organized by organizations that “provide” ideas to other group of firms. The resulting demonstrated design satisfies the objective of being a methodological model to identify sources in knowledge transfer of knowledge effectively used in innovation.

  5. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonaldo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic organ that is maintained by multiple pathways regulating cell and protein turnover. During muscle atrophy, proteolytic systems are activated, and contractile proteins and organelles are removed, resulting in the shrinkage of muscle fibers. Excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with poor prognosis in several diseases, including myopathies and muscular dystrophies, as well as in systemic disorders such as cancer, diabetes, sepsis and heart failure. Muscle loss also occurs during aging. In this paper, we review the key mechanisms that regulate the turnover of contractile proteins and organelles in muscle tissue, and discuss how impairments in these mechanisms can contribute to muscle atrophy. We also discuss how protein synthesis and degradation are coordinately regulated by signaling pathways that are influenced by mechanical stress, physical activity, and the availability of nutrients and growth factors. Understanding how these pathways regulate muscle mass will provide new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy in metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.

  6. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  7. Investigation of patterning effect in ultrafast SOA-based optical switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Xinliang; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A lower bound of PRBS length is derived considering patterning effects in ultrafast SOA-based switches. An effective method for simulating patterning effects is proposed, validated and applied to characterize the switches in large parameter regions.......A lower bound of PRBS length is derived considering patterning effects in ultrafast SOA-based switches. An effective method for simulating patterning effects is proposed, validated and applied to characterize the switches in large parameter regions....

  8. Atrophy rates in asymptomatic amyloidosis: implications for Alzheimer prevention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abigail Andrews

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in designing therapeutic studies of individuals at risk of Alzheimer disease (AD to prevent the onset of symptoms. Cortical β-amyloid plaques, the first stage of AD pathology, can be detected in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET, and several studies have shown that ~1/3 of healthy elderly have significant β-amyloid deposition. Here we assessed whether asymptomatic amyloid-PET-positive controls have increased rates of brain atrophy, which could be harnessed as an outcome measure for AD prevention trials. We assessed 66 control subjects (age = 73.5±7.3 yrs; MMSE = 29±1.3 from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers & Lifestyle study who had a baseline Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB PET scan and two 3T MRI scans ~18-months apart. We calculated PET standard uptake value ratios (SUVR, and classified individuals as amyloid-positive/negative. Baseline and 18-month MRI scans were registered, and brain, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes and annualized volume changes calculated. Increasing baseline PiB-PET measures of β-amyloid load correlated with hippocampal atrophy rate independent of age (p = 0.014. Twenty-two (1/3 were PiB-positive (SUVR>1.40, the remaining 44 PiB-negative (SUVR≤1.31. Compared to PiB-negatives, PiB-positive individuals were older (76.8±7.5 vs. 71.7±7.5, p<0.05 and more were APOE4 positive (63.6% vs. 19.2%, p<0.01 but there were no differences in baseline brain, ventricle or hippocampal volumes, either with or without correction for total intracranial volume, once age and gender were accounted for. The PiB-positive group had greater total hippocampal loss (0.06±0.08 vs. 0.02±0.05 ml/yr, p = 0.02, independent of age and gender, with non-significantly higher rates of whole brain (7.1±9.4 vs. 4.7±5.5 ml/yr and ventricular (2.0±3.0 vs. 1.1±1.0 ml/yr change. Based on the observed effect size, recruiting 384 (95%CI 195-1080 amyloid-positive subjects/arm will provide 80% power to detect 25

  9. Phenomenological model of diffuse global and regional atrophy using finite-element methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Oscar; Schweiger, Martin; Scahill, Rachael I; Crum, William R; Sneller, Beatrix I; Schnabel, Julia A; Ridgway, Gerard R; Cash, David M; Hill, Derek L G; Fox, Nick C

    2006-11-01

    The main goal of this work is the generation of ground-truth data for the validation of atrophy measurement techniques, commonly used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia. Several techniques have been used to measure atrophy in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, but it is extremely difficult to compare their performance since they have been applied to different patient populations. Furthermore, assessment of performance based on phantom measurements or simple scaled images overestimates these techniques' ability to capture the complexity of neurodegeneration of the human brain. We propose a method for atrophy simulation in structural magnetic resonance (MR) images based on finite-element methods. The method produces cohorts of brain images with known change that is physically and clinically plausible, providing data for objective evaluation of atrophy measurement techniques. Atrophy is simulated in different tissue compartments or in different neuroanatomical structures with a phenomenological model. This model of diffuse global and regional atrophy is based on volumetric measurements such as the brain or the hippocampus, from patients with known disease and guided by clinical knowledge of the relative pathological involvement of regions and tissues. The consequent biomechanical readjustment of structures is modelled using conventional physics-based techniques based on biomechanical tissue properties and simulating plausible tissue deformations with finite-element methods. A thermoelastic model of tissue deformation is employed, controlling the rate of progression of atrophy by means of a set of thermal coefficients, each one corresponding to a different type of tissue. Tissue characterization is performed by means of the meshing of a labelled brain atlas, creating a reference volumetric mesh that will be introduced to a finite-element solver to create the simulated deformations. Preliminary work on the simulation of acquisition

  10. EMG Pattern Recognition based on Evidence Accumulation for Prosthesis Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.P. [Daewoo Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    We present a method of electromyography(EMG) pattern recognition to identify motion commands for the control of a prosthetic arm by evidence accumulation with multiple parameters. Integral absolute value, variance, autoregressive(AR) model coefficients, linear cepstrum coefficients, and adaptive cepstrum vector are extracted as feature parameters from several time segments of the EMG signals. Pattern recognition is carried out through the evidence accumulation procedure using the distances measured with reference parameters. A fuzzy mapping function is designed to transform the distances for the application of the evidence accumulation method. Results are presented to support the feasibility of the suggested approach for EMG pattern recognition. (author). 29 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Atrophy-specific MRI brain template for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonov, Vladimir; Coupe, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed;

    and MCI makes use of a single disease-specific template challenging. We propose a novel approach to generate a continuous four-dimensional template, where the 4th dimension is a surrogate measure of overall brain atrophy. Methods We used MRI scans obtained from the ADNI database (www......Background Rapid brain loss is characteristic for the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) [1]. Increase of the lateral ventricular volume is strongly correlated with the progression of the disease. High variability in the degree of atrophy for subjects with AD.......loni.ucla.edu/ADNI). Automated methods to estimate intracranial capacity (ICC) and lateral ventricles volume (LVV) [2] was applied to all available datasets at base line. The ratio between LVV and ICC (RLVV) was used as a surrogate measure of overall brain atrophy with mean(standard deviation) value of 2.46(0.87)%. Subsets from...

  12. The Concept of Data Model Pattern Based on Fully Communication Oriented Information Modeling (FCO-IM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazat Nur Azizah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Just as in many areas of software engineering, patterns have been used in data modeling to create high quality data models. We provide a concept of data model pattern based on Fully Communication Oriented Information Modeling (FCO-IM, a fact oriented data modeling method. A data model pattern is defined as the relation between context, problem, and solution. This definition is adopted from the concept of pattern by Christopher Alexander. We define the concept of Information Grammar for Pattern (IGP in the solution part of a pattern, which works as a template to create a data model. The IGP also shows how a pattern can relate to other patterns. The data model pattern concept is then used to describe 15 data model patterns, organized into 4 categories. A case study on geographical location is provided to show the use of the concept in a real case.

  13. Inhibition of IkappaB kinase alpha (IKKα) or IKKbeta (IKKβ) plus forkhead box O (Foxo) abolishes skeletal muscle atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Independent inhibition of Foxo, IKKα and IKKβ activities does not alter muscle fiber size in weight bearing muscles. → Inhibition of Foxo activity plus IKKα or IKKβ activities increases muscle fiber size. → Independent inhibition of Foxo and IKKβ activities attenuates cast immobilization-induced muscle fiber atrophy. → Disuse muscle fiber atrophy is abolished by inhibition of Foxo activity plus IKKα or IKKβ activities. -- Abstract: Two transcription factor families that are activated during multiple conditions of skeletal muscle wasting are nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and forkhead box O (Foxo). There is clear evidence that both NF-κB and Foxo activation are sufficient to cause muscle fiber atrophy and they are individually required for at least half of the fiber atrophy during muscle disuse, but there is no work determining the combined effect of inhibiting these factors during a physiological condition of muscle atrophy. Here, we determined whether inhibition of Foxo activation plus inhibition of NF-κB activation, the latter by blocking the upstream inhibitor of kappaB kinases (IKKα and IKKβ), would prevent muscle atrophy induced by 7 days of cast immobilization. Results were based on measurements of mean fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) from 72 muscles transfected with 5 different mutant expression plasmids or plasmid combinations. Immobilization caused a 47% decrease in fiber CSA in muscles injected with control plasmids. Fibers from immobilized muscles transfected with dominant negative (d.n.) IKKα-EGFP, d.n. IKKβ-EGFP or d.n. Foxo-DsRed showed a 22%, 57%, and 76% inhibition of atrophy, respectively. Co-expression of d.n. IKKα-EGFP and d.n. Foxo-DsRed significantly inhibited 89% of the immobilization-induced fiber atrophy. Similarly, co-expression of d.n. IKKβ-EGFP and d.n. Foxo-DsRed inhibited the immobilization-induced fiber atrophy by 95%. These findings demonstrate that the combined effects of inhibiting

  14. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, E S C; van Straaten, E C W; de Leeuw, F-E;

    2007-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white...... visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0-4), and meaned. RESULTS: Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95...

  15. Influence of exercise intensity on atrophied quadriceps muscle in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Shoji; Obatake, Taishi; Hoshino, Koichi; Nakagawa, Takao

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of resistance training on atrophied skeletal muscle in rats based on evidence derived from physical therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were forced to undergo squats as resistance training for 3 weeks after atrophying the rectus femoris muscle by hindlimb suspension for 2 weeks. The intensity of resistance training was adjusted to 50% and 70% of the maximum lifted weight, i.e., 50% of the one-repetition maximum and 70% of the one-re...

  16. Characterisation of taro (Colocasia esculenta based on morphological and isozymic patterns markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Trimanto, Sajidan, Sugiyarto. 2011. Characterization of taro (Colocasia esculenta based on morphological and isozymic patterns markers. Nusantara Bioscience: 7-14. The aims of this research were to find out: (i the variety of Colocasia esculenta based on the morphological characteristics; (ii the variety of C. esculenta based on the isozymic banding pattern; and (iii the correlation of genetic distance based on the morphological characteristics and isozymic banding pattern. Survey research conducted in the Karanganyar district, which include high, medium and low altitude. The sample was taken using random purposive sampling technique, including 9 sampling points. The morphological data was elaborated descriptively and then made dendogram. The data on isozymic banding pattern was analyzed quantitatively based on the presence or absence of bands appeared on the gel, and then made dendogram. The correlation based on the morphological characteristics and isozymic banding pattern were analyzed based on the product-moment correlation coefficient with goodness of fit criterion. The result showed : (i in Karanganyar was founded 10 variety of C. esculenta; (ii morphological characteristics are not affected by altitude; (iii isozymic banding pattern of peroxides forms 14 banding patterns, esterase forms 11 banding patterns and shikimic dehydrogenase forms 15 banding patterns; (iv the correlation of morphological data and the isozymic banding pattern of peroxidase has good correlation (0.893542288 while esterase and shikimic dehydrogenase isozymes have very good correlation (0.917557716 and 0.9121985446; (v isozymic banding pattern of data supports the morphological character data.

  17. CONTENT BASED INDEXING OF MUSIC OBJECTS USING APPROXIMATE SEQUENTIAL PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.M.Shashi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The music objects are classified into Monophonic and Polyphonic. In Monophonic there is only one track which is the main melody that leads the song. In Polyphonic objects, there are several tracks that accompany the main melody. Each track is a sequence of notes played simultaneously with other tracks. But, the main melody captures the essence of the music and plays vital role in MIR. The MIR involves representation of main melody as a sequence of notes played, extraction of repeating patterns from it and matching of query sequence with frequent repeating sequential patterns constituting the music object. Repeating patterns are subsequences of notes played time and again in a main melody with possible variations in the notes to a tolerable extent. Similarly, the query sequence meant for retrieving a music object may not contain the repeating patterns of the main melody in its exact form. Hence, extraction of approximate patterns is essential for a MIR system. This paper proposes a novel method of finding approximate repeating patterns for the purpose of MIR. The effectiveness of methodology is tested and found satisfactory on real world data namely ‘Raga Surabhi’ an Indian Carnatic Music portal.

  18. A Responsibility-Based Pattern Language forUsability-Supporting Architectural Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Pia; Bass, Len; John, Bonnie E.; Golden, Elspeth

    2009-01-01

    Usability-supporting architectural patterns (USAPs) were developed as a way to explicitly connect the needs of architecturally-sensitive usability concerns to the design of software architecture. In laboratory studies, the Cancellation USAP was shown to significantly improve the quality of architecture designs for supporting the ability to cancel a longrunning command, sparking interest from a large industrial organization to develop new USAPs and apply them to their product line architecture...

  19. Visuo-Spatial Imagery Impairment in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: A Cognitive and SPECT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Gardini; Letizia Concari; Salvatrice Pagliara; Caterina Ghetti; Annalena Venneri; Paolo Caffarra

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive profile and the cerebral perfusion pattern in a highly educated 70 year old gentleman with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). Visuo-perceptual abilities, spatial memory, spatial representation and navigation, visuo-spatial mental imagery, semantic and episodic-autobiographical memory were assessed. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was imaged with SPECT. Cognitive testing showed visual-perceptual impairment, apperceptive visual and landmark agnosia, topo...

  20. Marinesco-Sjogren Syndrome With Sensori Neural Deafness And Primary Optic Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem M A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome (MSS is a rare genetically determined disorder characterised by bilateral cataract, cerebellar ataxia and mental deficiency. The pattern of inheritance is autosomal recessive but it may be variable. In MSS association of hyperlactacidaemia and hypopyruvicaemia, a defective oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, is supposed. We are reporting three patients of MSS along with sensorineural deafness and optic atrophy from a single Indian family.

  1. Plasma biomarkers of brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Thambisetty

    Full Text Available Peripheral biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD reflecting early neuropathological change are critical to the development of treatments for this condition. The most widely used indicator of AD pathology in life at present is neuroimaging evidence of brain atrophy. We therefore performed a proteomic analysis of plasma to derive biomarkers associated with brain atrophy in AD. Using gel based proteomics we previously identified seven plasma proteins that were significantly associated with hippocampal volume in a combined cohort of subjects with AD (N = 27 and MCI (N = 17. In the current report, we validated this finding in a large independent cohort of AD (N = 79, MCI (N = 88 and control (N = 95 subjects using alternative complementary methods-quantitative immunoassays for protein concentrations and estimation of pathology by whole brain volume. We confirmed that plasma concentrations of five proteins, together with age and sex, explained more than 35% of variance in whole brain volume in AD patients. These proteins are complement components C3 and C3a, complement factor-I, γ-fibrinogen and alpha-1-microglobulin. Our findings suggest that these plasma proteins are strong predictors of in vivo AD pathology. Moreover, these proteins are involved in complement activation and coagulation, providing further evidence for an intrinsic role of these pathways in AD pathogenesis.

  2. Homomorphic partial differential equation filtering method for electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringes based on fringe density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Zhang; Wenyao Liu; Lin Xia; Jinjiang Wang; Yue Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Noise reduction is one of the most exciting problems in electronic speckle pattern interferometry. We present a homomorphic partial differential equation filtering method for interferometry fringe patterns. The diffusion speed of the equation is determined based on the fringe density. We test the new method on the computer-simulated fringe pattern and experimentally obtain the fringe pattern, and evaluate its filtering performance. The qualitative and quantitative analysis shows that this technique can filter off the additive and multiplicative noise of the fringe patterns effectively, and avoid blurring high-density fringe. It is more capable of improving the quality of fringe patterns than the classical filtering methods.

  3. Multi-field Pattern Matching based on Sparse Feature Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongjie; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Weinkauf, Tino

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to pattern matching in 3D multi-field scalar data. Existing pattern matching algorithms work on single scalar or vector fields only, yet many numerical simulations output multi-field data where only a joint analysis of multiple fields describes the underlying phenomenon fully. Our method takes this into account by bundling information from multiple fields into the description of a pattern. First, we extract a sparse set of features for each 3D scalar field using the 3D SIFT algorithm (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform). This allows for a memory-saving description of prominent features in the data with invariance to translation, rotation, and scaling. Second, the user defines a pattern as a set of SIFT features in multiple fields by e.g. brushing a region of interest. Third, we locate and rank matching patterns in the entire data set. Experiments show that our algorithm is efficient in terms of required memory and computational efforts. PMID:26390479

  4. Polarization Patterns Control Based on Photoinduced Anisotropy of Photochromic Fulgide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英利; 姚保利; 门克内木乐; 陈懿; 黎甜楷; 郑媛; 雷铭; 董卫斌; 樊美公; 陈国夫

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the photoinduced anisotropy of a photochromic material of pyrrylfulgide/PMMA films. It is proven that when the film is illuminated with a linear polarization light, an optical axis that has the same polarization as the excitation light could be induced in the film. A matrix of light spots with different polarizations is recorded on the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film. When reading out with non-polarization light, the matrix of light spots shows no information of patterns. However, when reading out with different linear polarization lights, different patterns could be observed. The experiment confirms that the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film could be used to record two different polarization patterns in a matrix of spots. This property may be applied in camouflage technology.

  5. gamma-Diketone neuropathy: axon atrophy and the role of cytoskeletal protein adduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPachin, Richard M; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2004-08-15

    Multifocal giant neurofilamentous axonal swellings and secondary distal degeneration have been historically considered the hallmark features of gamma-diketone neuropathy. Accordingly, research conducted over the past 25 years has been directed toward discerning mechanisms of axonal swelling. However, this neuropathological convention has been challenged by recent observations that swollen axons were an exclusive product of long-term 2.5-hexanedione (HD) intoxication at lower daily dose-rates (e.g., 175 mg/kg/day); that is, higher HD dose-rates (e.g., 400 mg/kg/day) produced neurological deficits in the absence of axonal swellings. The observation that neurological toxicity can be expressed without axonal swelling suggests that this lesion is not an important pathophysiological event. Instead, several research groups have now shown that axon atrophy is prevalent in nervous tissues of laboratory animals intoxicated over a wide range of HD dose-rates. The well-documented nerve conduction defects associated with axon atrophy, in conjunction with the temporal correspondence between this lesion and the onset of neurological deficits, strongly suggest that atrophy has pathophysiological significance. In this commentary, we present evidence that supports a pathognomonic role for axon atrophy in gamma-diketone neuropathy and suggests that the functional consequences of this lesion mediate the corresponding neurological toxicity. Previous research has demonstrated that HD interacts with proteins via formation of pyrrole adducts. We therefore discuss the possibility that this chemical process is essential to the mechanism of atrophy. Evidence presented in this review suggests that "distal axonopathy" is an inaccurate classification and future nosological schemes should be based on the apparent primacy of axon atrophy. PMID:15289087

  6. Capacitively Loaded Loop-Based Antennas with Reconfigurable Radiation Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Dakhli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of metamaterial-inspired antennas having reconfigurable radiation patterns is proposed. They consist of a driven monopole antenna with one- and two-capacitively loaded loop (CLL, near field resonant parasitic elements. Two configurations are studied by considering the state of these CLL elements as being either open or closed configurations. Simulation results explain the design features and demonstrate that the structure can change its beam direction simply by controlling the switched states. Two prototypes with one- and two-CLL elements were fabricated and tested. The measured impedance mismatch and radiation pattern results are presented and compared to the corresponding simulated values.

  7. PGG: An Online Pattern Based Approach for Stream Variation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-An Tang; Bin Cui; Hong-Yan Li; Gao-Shan Miao; Dong-Qing Yang; Xin-Biao Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Many database applications require efficient processing of data streams with value variations and fiuctuant sampling frequency. The variations typically imply fundamental features of the stream and important domain knowledge of underlying objects. In some data streams, successive events seem to recur in a certain time interval, but the data indeed evolves with tiny differences as time elapses. This feature, so called pseudo periodicity, poses a new challenge to stream variation management. This study focuses on the online management for variations over such streams. The idea can be applied to many scenarios such as patient vital signal monitoring in medical applications. This paper proposes a new method named Pattern Growth Graph (PGG) to detect and manage variations over evolving streams with following features: 1) adopts the wave-pattern to capture the major information of data evolution and represent them compactly;2) detects the variations in a single pass over the stream with the help of wave-pattern matching algorithm; 3) only stores different segments of the pattern for incoming stream, and hence substantially compresses the data without losing important information; 4) distinguishes meaningful data changes from noise and reconstructs the stream with acceptable accuracy.Extensive experiments on real datasets containing millions of data items, as well as a prototype system, are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  8. Video Pedestrian Detection Based on Orthogonal Scene Motion Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In fixed video scenes, scene motion patterns can be a very useful prior knowledge for pedestrian detection which is still a challenge at present. A new approach of cascade pedestrian detection using an orthogonal scene motion pattern model in a general density video is developed in this paper. To statistically model the pedestrian motion pattern, a probability grid overlaying the whole scene is set up to partition the scene into paths and holding areas. Features extracted from different pattern areas are classified by a group of specific strategies. Instead of using a unitary classifier, the employed classifier is composed of two directional subclassifiers trained, respectively, with different samples which are selected by two orthogonal directions. Considering that the negative images from the detection window scanning are much more than the positive ones, the cascade AdaBoost technique is adopted by the subclassifiers to reduce the negative image computations. The proposed approach is proved effectively by static classification experiments and surveillance video experiments.

  9. Frequent seizures are associated with a network of gray matter atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Coan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS have diffuse subtle gray matter (GM atrophy detectable by MRI quantification analyses. However, it is not clear whether the etiology and seizure frequency are associated with this atrophy. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of GM atrophy and the influence of seizure frequency in patients with TLE and either normal MRI (TLE-NL or MRI signs of HS (TLE-HS. METHODS: We evaluated a group of 172 consecutive patients with unilateral TLE-HS or TLE-NL as defined by hippocampal volumetry and signal quantification (122 TLE-HS and 50 TLE-NL plus a group of 82 healthy individuals. Voxel-based morphometry was performed with VBM8/SPM8 in 3T MRIs. Patients with up to three complex partial seizures and no generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the previous year were considered to have infrequent seizures. Those who did not fulfill these criteria were considered to have frequent seizures. RESULTS: Patients with TLE-HS had more pronounced GM atrophy, including the ipsilateral mesial temporal structures, temporal lobe, bilateral thalami and pre/post-central gyri. Patients with TLE-NL had more subtle GM atrophy, including the ipsilateral orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral thalami and pre/post-central gyri. Both TLE-HS and TLE-NL showed increased GM volume in the contralateral pons. TLE-HS patients with frequent seizures had more pronounced GM atrophy in extra-temporal regions than TLE-HS with infrequent seizures. Patients with TLE-NL and infrequent seizures had no detectable GM atrophy. In both TLE-HS and TLE-NL, the duration of epilepsy correlated with GM atrophy in extra-hippocampal regions. CONCLUSION: Although a diffuse network GM atrophy occurs in both TLE-HS and TLE-NL, this is strikingly more evident in TLE-HS and in patients with frequent seizures. These findings suggest that neocortical atrophy in TLE is related to the ongoing seizures and epilepsy duration, while thalamic

  10. Meta-model Based Model Organization and Transformation of Design Pattern Units in MDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-chun YANG; Zi-yi ZHAO; Jing Sun

    2010-01-01

    Tb achieve the purpose of applying design patterns which are various in kind and constant in changing in MDA from idea and application,one way is used to solve the problem of pattern disappearance which occurs at the process of pattern instantiation,to guarantee the independenceJpatterns,and at the same time,to apply this process to miltiple design patterns.Ib solve these two problems,the modeling method of design pattern units based on seta-models is adopted,I.e.,to divide the basic operations into atones in the metamodel tier and then combine the atones to complete design pattern units seta-models without business logic.After one process of conversion,the kxupose of making up various pattern units seta-model and dividing business logic and pattern logic is achieved.

  11. Lattice-based biclustering using Partition Pattern Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Codocedo, Victor; Napoli, Amedeo

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a novel technique for exhaustive bicluster enumeration using formal concept anal-ysis (FCA). Particularly, we use pattern structures (an ex-tension of FCA dealing with complex data) to mine similar row/column biclusters, a specialization of biclustering when attribute values have coherent variations. We show how bi-clustering can benefit from the FCA framework through its ro-bust theoretical description and efficient algorithms. Finally, we evaluate our bicluster minin...

  12. Beautiful math, part 2: aesthetic patterns based on fractal tilings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichang Ouyang; Fathauer, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    A fractal tiling (f-tiling) is a tiling whose boundary is fractal. This article presents two families of rare, infinitely many f-tilings. Each f-tiling is constructed by reducing tiles by a fixed scaling factor, using a single prototile, which is a segment of a regular polygon. The authors designed invariant mappings to automatically produce appealing seamless, colored patterns from such tilings. PMID:24808170

  13. A Pattern-Based Game Mechanics Design Assistant

    OpenAIRE

    Rozen, van, Riemer

    2015-01-01

    Video game designers iteratively improve player experience by play testing game software and adjusting its design. Deciding how to improve gameplay is difficult and time-consuming because designers lack an effective means for exploring decision alternatives and modifying a game’s mechanics. We aim to improve designer productivity and game quality by providing tools that speed-up the game design process. In particular, we wish to learn how patterns encoding common game design knowledge can hel...

  14. Evidence of bone formation in the nasal floor around polished surface bi-cortical screw implants after indirect nasal lift in an atrophied maxilla: Cone beam computed tomography-based case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Mayur; Gaur, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary jaw is restricted superiorly with maxillary sinus in the posterior region and nasal cavity in the anterior region. Augmentation of distal maxilla with recessed maxillary sinus has been documented since, last few decades. Sinus lifts the procedure either through crestal or lateral approach proves to be an effective way for augmenting bone for the placement of dental implants in atrophied posterior maxilla. However, when it comes to vertically deficient anterior maxilla, lifting of the nasal membrane is not considered. Perhaps, recent studies have shown greater success of dental implant placed after augmentation of the nasal floor. This report emphasizes on an observation of significant bone formation after indirect lifting of the nasal membrane with smooth polished surface bi-cortical implants. PMID:26015681

  15. Reduction of nonlinear patterning effects in SOA-based All-optical Switches using Optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Mørk, Jesper; Skaguchi, J.;

    2005-01-01

    We explain theoretically, and demonstrate and quantify experimentally, how appropriate filtering can reduce the dominant nonlinear patterning effect, which limits the performance of differential-mode SOA-based switches.......We explain theoretically, and demonstrate and quantify experimentally, how appropriate filtering can reduce the dominant nonlinear patterning effect, which limits the performance of differential-mode SOA-based switches....

  16. Patterns of Home- and Classroom-Based Toy Play of Preschoolers with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Children with and without intellectual disabilities were observed playing with toys during both home-based independent play and classroom-based freeplay situations. Categorical and sequential play was analysed for within- and between-group patterns. Within-group patterns during classroom freeplay were similar for both groups. There were no…

  17. In-depth motivic analysis based on multiparametric closed pattern and cyclic sequence mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a computational system for exhaustive but compact description of repeated motivic patterns in symbolic representations of music. The approach follows a method based on closed heterogeneous pattern mining in multiparametrical space with control of pattern cyclicity. This paper...... presents a much simpler description and justification of this general strategy, as well as significant simplifications of the model, in particular concerning the management of pattern cyclicity. A new method for automated bundling of patterns belonging to same motivic or thematic classes is also presented...

  18. SVM Based Navigation Patterns for Efficient Relevance Feedback in Content Based Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Meshram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Image retrieval based on image content has become a hot topic in the field of image processing and computer vision. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR is the basis of image retrieval systems. Unlike traditional database queries, content-based multimedia retrieval queries are imprecise in nature which makes it difficult for users to express their exact information need in the form of a precise right query. To be more profitable, relevance feedback techniques were incorporated into CBIR such that more precise results can be obtained by taking user’s feedbacks into account. However, existing relevance feedback based CBIR methods usually request a number of iterative feedbacks to produce refined search results, especially in a large-scale image database. This is impractical and inefficient in real applications. This paper studies about the research on ways to extend and improve query methods for image databases is widespread, we have developed the QBIC (Query by Image Content system to explore content-based retrieval methods. To achieve the high efficiency and effectiveness of CBIR we are using two type of methods for feature extraction like SVM (support vector machineand NPRF(navigation-pattern based relevance feedback. By using SVM classifier as a category predictor of query and database images, they are exploited at first to filter out irrelevant images by its different low-level, concept and key point-based features. Thus we may reduce the size of query search in the data base then we may apply NPRF algorithm and refinement strategies for further extraction. In terms of efficiency, the iterations of feedback are reduced by using the navigation patterns discovered from the user query log. In terms of effectiveness, the proposed search algorithm NPRF Search makes use of the discovered navigation patterns and three kinds of query refinement strategies, Query Point Movement (QPM, Query Reweighting (QR, and Query Expansion (QEX, to converge the

  19. A case of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 mimicking olivopontocerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is an autosomal dominant, slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia without multisystem involvement. We report a 57-year-old woman with genetically confirmed SCA6 who showed clinical features of olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Conventional T2-weighted and FLAIR MRI demonstrated high signal in the middle cerebellar peduncles, in addition to mild atrophy of the pons and cerebellum. (orig.)

  20. Corpus callosum atrophy in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold;

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether callosal atrophy is already present in the early stages of AD, and to what extent it may be associated with other structural changes in the brain, such as...

  1. A case of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 mimicking olivopontocerebellar atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, N.; Katayama, T.; Makita, Y.; Kuroda, K.; Aizawa, H.; Kikuchi, K. [First Dept. of Internal Medicine, Asahikawa Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is an autosomal dominant, slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia without multisystem involvement. We report a 57-year-old woman with genetically confirmed SCA6 who showed clinical features of olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Conventional T2-weighted and FLAIR MRI demonstrated high signal in the middle cerebellar peduncles, in addition to mild atrophy of the pons and cerebellum. (orig.)

  2. Neocortical Neuronal Loss in Patients with Multiple System Atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Lisette; Winge, Kristian; Brudek, Tomasz;

    2016-01-01

    To determine the extent of neocortical involvement in multiple system atrophy (MSA), we used design-based stereological methods to estimate the total numbers of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortex of brains from 11 patients...... with MSA and 11 age- and gender-matched control subjects. The stereological data were supported by cell marker expression analyses in tissue samples from the prefrontal cortex. We found significantly fewer neurons in the frontal and parietal cortex of MSA brains compared with control brains....... Significantly more astrocytes and microglia were observed in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex of MSA brains, whereas no change in the total number of oligodendrocytes was seen in any of the neocortical regions. There were significantly fewer neurons in the frontal cortex of MSA patients with impaired...

  3. Changes in muscle protein composition induced by disuse atrophy - Analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S.; Giometti, C. S.; Riley, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Using 320 g rats, a two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of muscle proteins in the soleus and EDL muscles from hindlimbs maintained load-free for 10 days is performed. Statistical analysis of the two-dimensional patterns of control and suspended groups reveals more protein alteration in the soleus muscle, with 25 protein differences, than the EDL muscle, with 9 protein differences, as a result of atrophy. Most of the soleus differences reside in minor components. It is suggested that the EDL may also show alteration in its two-dimensional protein map, even though no significant atrophy occurred in muscle wet weight. It is cautioned that strict interpretation of data must take into account possible endocrine perturbations.

  4. An Analysis and Design of the Virtual Simulation Software Based on Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper makes a detailed analysis and design of the Vega application software based on Windows NT platform. It includes object-oriented software analysis and design, design patterns and Windows kernel mechanism. The paper brings forward a design pattern, a fence-pattern, and depends on this pattern. Windows NT memory mapped files adopted, the paper presents a Vega application solution based on the multi-process technique. Although the design solution is developing under a real-time simulation system, it is established at the clear analysis of the Vega system, therefore, the solution has extensive practicability and many uses.

  5. Classification of Asthma Based on Nonlinear Analysis of Breathing Pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Raoufy

    Full Text Available Normal human breathing exhibits complex variability in both respiratory rhythm and volume. Analyzing such nonlinear fluctuations may provide clinically relevant information in patients with complex illnesses such as asthma. We compared the cycle-by-cycle fluctuations of inter-breath interval (IBI and lung volume (LV among healthy volunteers and patients with various types of asthma. Continuous respiratory datasets were collected from forty age-matched men including 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with controlled atopic asthma, 10 patients with uncontrolled atopic asthma, and 10 patients with uncontrolled non-atopic asthma during 60 min spontaneous breathing. Complexity of breathing pattern was quantified by calculating detrended fluctuation analysis, largest Lyapunov exponents, sample entropy, and cross-sample entropy. The IBI as well as LV fluctuations showed decreased long-range correlation, increased regularity and reduced sensitivity to initial conditions in patients with asthma, particularly in uncontrolled state. Our results also showed a strong synchronization between the IBI and LV in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that nonlinear analysis of breathing pattern has a diagnostic value in asthma and can be used in differentiating uncontrolled from controlled and non-atopic from atopic asthma. We suggest that complexity analysis of breathing dynamics may represent a novel physiologic marker to facilitate diagnosis and management of patients with asthma. However, future studies are needed to increase the validity of the study and to improve these novel methods for better patient management.

  6. Cognitive Correlates of Basal Forebrain Atrophy and Associated Cortical Hypometabolism in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Michel J; Heinsen, Helmut; Amaro, Edson; Grinberg, Lea T; Teipel, Stefan J

    2016-06-01

    Degeneration of basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic nuclei is associated with cognitive decline, and this effect is believed to be mediated by neuronal dysfunction in the denervated cortical areas. MRI-based measurements of BF atrophy are increasingly being used as in vivo surrogate markers for cholinergic degeneration, but the functional implications of reductions in BF volume are not well understood. We used high-resolution MRI, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET), and neuropsychological test data of 132 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 177 cognitively normal controls to determine associations between BF atrophy, cortical hypometabolism, and cognitive deficits. BF atrophy in MCI correlated with both impaired memory function and attentional control deficits, whereas hippocampus volume was more specifically associated with memory deficits. BF atrophy was also associated with widespread cortical hypometabolism, and path analytic models indicated that hypometabolism in domain-specific cortical networks mediated the association between BF volume and cognitive dysfunction. The presence of cortical amyloid pathology, as assessed using AV45-PET, did not significantly interact with the observed associations. These data underline the potential of multimodal imaging markers to study structure-function-cognition relationships in the living human brain and provide important in vivo evidence for an involvement of the human BF in cortical activity and cognitive function. PMID:25840425

  7. A fast infrared detector based on patterned YBCO thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detectors for infrared radiation (λ = 0.85 μ m) were made of 50 nm thick YBa2Cu3O7-δ films on LaAlO3 and MgO or 60 nm thick films on NdGaO3. Parallel strips (1 μ m wide by 20 μ m long) were patterned in the films and formed the active device. These devices were designed to detect short infrared laser pulses by electron heating. The detectors were current biased into the resistive and the normal states. The response was studied in direct pulse measurements as well as by amplitude modulation of a laser. The pulse measurements showed a fast picosecond response followed by a slower decay related to phonon escape through the film-substrate interface and heat diffusion in the substrate. The frequency spectra up to 10 GHz showed two slopes with a knee corresponding to the phonon escape time. (author)

  8. Optimization of Orchestral Layouts Based on Instrument Directivity Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Nathan Paul

    The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.

  9. The neuropsychiatric profile of posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Villa, Giulia; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferri, Francesca; Appollonio, Ildebrando Marco; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    We analyzed scores obtained at the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) by 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and contrasted it with 20 patients having Alzheimer disease (AD). Patients with hallucinations and delusions were not included due to the high probability of a diagnosis of Lewy body disease. Prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) was 95% in the PCA group, the most frequent being apathy and anxiety. Cluster analysis on NPI subscales highlighted a behavioral subsyndrome characterized by agitated temper and irritability. Depression, anxiety, and apathy did not cluster with any other BPSD nor with each other. The PCA group showed a significantly higher proportion of anxious patients and worse anxiety score than patients with AD. No correlation was found between NPI data and demographic, clinical, or neuropsychological features nor were there significant differences for the same variables between anxious and nonanxious cases with PCA. In agreement with anecdotal reports, anxiety seems particularly relevant in PCA. PMID:25330926

  10. Asymptomatic cerebellar atrophy after acute enteroviral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaszil, Edina; Kamondi, Anita; Csillik, Anita; Velkey, Imre; Szirmai, Imre

    2005-07-01

    We report on a 13-year-old male who had acute enteroviral encephalitis causing cerebellar symptoms at the age of 10 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormalities. Clinically he appeared to be recovered completely after 6 months. Twenty-three months after the recovery, MRI was performed because he presented with slight lower-limb and truncal ataxia experienced as lack of foot coordination while playing football or riding a bicycle. MRI demonstrated severe cerebellar atrophy. Clinically he recovered completely in 10 days. Only sophisticated electrophysiological methods revealed cerebellar dysfunction. The case provides evidence for the plasticity of cerebellar regulatory structures involved in the coordination of fine movements. It seems that in childhood the slow, isolated disintegration of cerebellar systems can be compensated for by upper thalamic or telencephalic connections, in a similar way to a congenital deficit of the cerebellum. PMID:15991870

  11. Content Based Image Retrieval Approach Based on Top-Hat Transform And Modified Local Binary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saberi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a robust approach is proposed for content based image retrieval (CBIR using texture analysis techniques. The proposed approach includes three main steps. In the first one, shape detection is done based on Top-Hat transform to detect and crop object part of the image. Second step is included a texture feature representation algorithm using color local binary patterns (CLBP and local variance features. Finally, to retrieve mostly closing matching images to the query, log likelihood ratio is used. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated using Corel and Simplicity image sets and it compared by some of other well-known approaches in terms of precision and recall which shows the superiority of the proposed approach. Low noise sensitivity, rotation invariant, shift invariant, gray scale invariant and low computational complexity are some of other advantages.

  12. Pattern Formation in a Vibrated Granular Layer on an Inclined Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Dong; MIAO Guo-Qing

    2008-01-01

    We carry out the simulations of pattern formation in a two-dimensional vibrated granular layer on an inclined base by molecular dynamics.It is found that the maximum amplitude of the pattern is greater at the lower part than at the higher part of the base,and is proportional to the thickness of the layer.Meanwhile,the wavelength varies non-monotonically as the inclined angle of the base is increased.

  13. Pattern Formation in a Vibrated Granular Layer on an Inclined Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carry out the simulations of pattern formation in a two-dimensional vibrated granular layer on an inclined base by molecular dynamics. It is found that the maximum amplitude of the pattern is greater at the lower part than at the higher part of the base, and is proportional to the thickness of the layer. Meanwhile, the wavelength varies non-monotonically as the inclined angle of the base is increased. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  14. Validation of Parkinsonian Disease-Related Metabolic Brain Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, Laura K.; Renken, Remco J.; Mudali, Deborah; De Jong, Bauke M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to validate disease-related metabolic brain patterns for Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Methods: The study included 20 patients with Parkinson’s disease, 21 with multiple system atrophy, and 17 with progre

  15. Deep Gray Matter and Limbic Lobe Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis:a Voxel- based Morphometry Study%多发性硬化的深部灰质核团和边缘叶萎缩:基于体素的形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李郁欣; 张碧云; 汤伟军; 耿道颖

    2011-01-01

    目的:采用基于体素的形态学(VBM)方法探讨多发性硬化患者的脑灰质变化.方法:应用3.0T MRI,对25例复发缓解型多发性硬化(RRMS)患者和22例正常志愿者进行3D T1WI扫描,通过基于体素的形态学分析全脑灰质和区域灰质核团的变化.结果:与正常对照组比较,多发性硬化的全脑灰质明显萎缩( 679.40±52.68mlvs629.09±54.50ml,P=0.040),其中双侧丘脑、双侧壳核、双侧苍白球、左侧尾状核、左侧海马、左侧海马旁回、双侧扣带回前部、右侧颞上回、右侧颞中回、双侧岛叶体积明显缩小(P< 0.001).结论:多发性硬化存在脑灰质萎缩,主要累及深部灰质核团和边缘叶系统.%Purpose: To analyze the gray matter volume changes in multiple sclerosis patients by means of voxel - based morphometry. Methods: Three - dimensional Ti weighted images were obtained from 25 patients with relapsing - remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 22 matched healthy controls on a 3.0T MRI machine. Voxel - based morphometry was used to analyze the atrophy of the whole and regional gray matter changes. Results: When compared with controls, the patients with MS showed the presence of significant gray matter atrophy (679.40 ± 52.68ml vs 629.09 ± 54. 50ml, P = 0.040), and the volumes of bilateral thalami,bilateral putamen nuclei, bilateral globus pallidum, left caudate nuclei, left hippocampus, left parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus, right superior temporal gyms, right middle temporal gyrus and bilateral insula were significantly reduced(P< 0.001) .Conclusion: Gray matter atrophy is exist with multiple sclerosis, and mainly involves the deep gray nuclei and limbic system.

  16. A layered framework for pattern-based ontology evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Javed, Muhammad; M. Abgaz, Yalemisew; Pahl, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The challenge of ontology-driven modelling of information components is well known in both academia and industry. In this paper, we present a novel approach to deal with customisation and abstraction of ontology-based model evolution. As a result of an empirical study, we identify a layered change operator framework based on the granularity, domain-specificity and abstraction of changes. The implementation of the operator framework is supported through layered change logs. Layered change...

  17. Dominant Local Binary Pattern Based Face Feature Selection and Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha.T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Face Detection plays a major role in Biometrics.Feature selection is a problem of formidable complexity. Thispaper proposes a novel approach to extract face features forface detection. The LBP features can be extracted faster in asingle scan through the raw image and lie in a lower dimensional space, whilst still retaining facial information efficiently. The LBP features are robust to low-resolution images. The dominant local binary pattern (DLBP is used to extract features accurately. A number of trainable methods are emerging in the empirical practice due to their effectiveness. The proposed method is a trainable system for selecting face features from over-completes dictionaries of imagemeasurements. After the feature selection procedure is completed the SVM classifier is used for face detection. The main advantage of this proposal is that it is trained on a very small training set. The classifier is used to increase the selection accuracy. This is not only advantageous to facilitate the datagathering stage, but, more importantly, to limit the training time. CBCL frontal faces dataset is used for training and validation.

  18. Multiple sclerosis and corpus callosum atrophy: Relationship of MRI findings to clinical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 110 patients (45 men, 65 women), aged 15 to 66, with clinical and/or biological diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), severe to moderate corpus callosum (CC) atrophy was observed in 67 (60%) patients. Correlation between CC atrophy, brain atrophy, duration and severity of clinical symptoms, and high signal white matter areas, was carried out in 90 patients. Mean age was 46 years for patients with severe CC atrophy, and 33 years for those without atrophy. Mean duration of the disease was 14 years in patients with severe atrophy, and 5 years in patients without atrophy. Severity of clinical symptoms is more pronounced in patients with severe CC atrophy. Numerous or large white matter high signal areas are observed in patients with severe CC atrophy on T2-weighted images. CC atrophy appears earlier than brain atrophy in the course of MS. (orig.)

  19. Size-based predictions of food web patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Hartvig, Martin; Knudsen, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    of species are continuously distributed on a size-trait axis. It is, however, an open question whether such predictions are valid for a food web with a finite number of species embedded in a network structure. We address this question by comparing the size-based predictions to results from dynamic...... food web simulations with varying species richness. To this end, we develop a new size- and trait-based food web model that can be simplified into an analytically solvable size-based model. We confirm existing solutions for the size distribution and derive novel predictions for maximum trophic level...... and invasion resistance. Our results show that the predicted size-spectrum exponent is borne out in the simulated food webs even with few species, albeit with a systematic bias. The predicted maximum trophic level turns out to be an upper limit since simulated food webs may have a lower number of...

  20. Reviewing the options for local estrogen treatment of vaginal atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindahl SH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarah H Lindahl Sutter East Bay Medical Foundation, SEBMF – Diablo Division, Castro Valley, CA, USA Background: Vaginal atrophy is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, pain during sex, itching, irritation, burning, and discharge, as well as various urinary problems. Up to 45% of postmenopausal women may be affected, but it often remains underreported and undertreated. This article aims to review the current recommendations for treatment of vaginal atrophy, and current data on the effectiveness and safety of local vaginal estrogen therapies. Methods: Literature regarding vaginal atrophy (2007–2012 was retrieved from PubMed and summarized, with emphasis on data related to the treatment of vaginal atrophy with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Results: Published data support the effectiveness and endometrial safety of low-dose local estrogen therapies. These results further support the general recommendation by the North American Menopause Society that a progestogen is not needed for endometrial protection in patients using low-dose local vaginal estrogen. Benefits of long-term therapy for vaginal atrophy include sustained relief of symptoms as well as physiological improvements (eg, decreased vaginal pH and increased blood flow, epithelial thickness, secretions. Conclusion: Currently available local vaginal estrogen therapies are well tolerated and effective in relieving symptoms of vaginal atrophy. Recent data support the endometrial safety of low-dose regimens for up to 1 year. Keywords: menopause, estrogen, local estrogen therapy, vaginal atrophy

  1. Transcriptional profile of a myotube starvation model of atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Eric J.; Koncarevic, Alan; Giresi, Paul G.; Jackman, Robert W.; Kandarian, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a pervasive phenomenon that can result from a wide range of pathological conditions as well as from habitual muscular inactivity. The present work describes a cell-culture condition that induces significant atrophy in skeletal muscle C2C12 myotubes. The failure to replenish differentiation media in mature myotubes leads to rapid atrophy (53% in diameter), which is referred to here as starvation. Affymetrix microarrays were used to develop a transcriptional profile of control (fed) vs. atrophied (nonfed) myotubes. Myotube starvation was characterized by an upregulation of genes involved in translational inhibition, amino acid biosynthesis and transport, and cell cycle arrest/apoptosis, among others. Downregulated genes included several structural and regulatory elements of the extracellular matrix as well as several elements of Wnt/frizzled and TGF-beta signaling pathways. Interestingly, the characteristic transcriptional upregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, calpains, and cathepsins known to occur in multiple in vivo models of atrophy were not seen during myotube starvation. With the exception of the downregulation of extracellular matrix genes, serine protease inhibitor genes, and the upregulation of the translation initiation factor PHAS-I, this model of atrophy in cell culture has a transcriptional profile quite distinct from any study published to date with atrophy in whole muscle. These data show that, although the gross morphology of atrophied muscle fibers may be similar in whole muscle vs. myotube culture, the processes by which this phenotype is achieved differ markedly.

  2. Demographic pattern of male breast cancer: an institutional based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Male breast cancer incidence rises with age with peak in the sixth and seventh decade. It is one of the rare diseases and accounts for less than 1% of all malignancies worldwide. It is usually diagnosed in the late stage with poor prognosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to know the demographic pattern and tumour characteristic of breast cancer in men reported at Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar. Methods: Retrospective data was collected from the (IRNUM), Peshawar for a period of three years (2006-2008). The evaluation was done from the histopathological reports of mastectomy and biopsy specimens. All male patients in the age group 26 -86 year with breast cancer were included in the study. The age of the patients and tumour characteristics recorded were size, grade, type, skin involvement and stage. Results: Total number of male patients with breast cancer were 31 (2.1%) out of the total patients with breast malignancy during the study period with the mean age of 58.3 years. Tumour size ranged from 2 to 12 Cm. with average of 3.6 Cm. Invasive ductal carcinoma was found in 87% , papillary carcinoma in 6.5%, each of malignant fibrous histocytoma and sarcoma in 3.2% cases. Maximum number of patients was of grade II (41%). Patients in whom stage of the disease was know n were 22 cases with 45.5% had stage III disease and 32% had stage IV disease. Skin involvement was found positive in 8 (25.8%). Conclusion: Due to poor health care system breast cancer is diagnosed in a late stage of the disease and prognosis is poor. (author)

  3. Botulinum Toxin and Muscle Atrophy: A Wanted or Unwanted Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Paul D; Couto, Rafael A; Isakov, Raymond; Yoo, Donald B; Azizzadeh, Babak; Guyuron, Bahman; Zins, James E

    2016-04-01

    While the facial rejuvenating effect of botulinum toxin type A is well known and widespread, its use in body and facial contouring is less common. We first describe its use for deliberate muscle volume reduction, and then document instances of unanticipated and undesirable muscle atrophy. Finally, we investigate the potential long-term adverse effects of botulinum toxin-induced muscle atrophy. Although the use of botulinum toxin type A in the cosmetic patient has been extensively studied, there are several questions yet to be addressed. Does prolonged botulinum toxin treatment increase its duration of action? What is the mechanism of muscle atrophy and what is the cause of its reversibility once treatment has stopped? We proceed to examine how prolonged chemodenervation with botulinum toxin can increase its duration of effect and potentially contribute to muscle atrophy. Instances of inadvertent botulinum toxin-induced atrophy are also described. These include the "hourglass deformity" secondary to botulinum toxin type A treatment for migraine headaches, and a patient with atrophy of multiple facial muscles from injections for hemifacial spasm. Numerous reports demonstrate that muscle atrophy after botulinum toxin type A treatment occurs and is both reversible and temporary, with current literature supporting the notion that repeated chemodenervation with botulinum toxin likely responsible for both therapeutic and incidental temporary muscle atrophy. Furthermore, duration of response may be increased with subsequent treatments, thus minimizing frequency of reinjection. Practitioners should be aware of the temporary and reversible effect of botulinum toxin-induced muscle atrophy and be prepared to reassure patients on this matter. PMID:26780946

  4. Monitoring of Pinus massoniana spatial pattern changes based on RS and GIS techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; HUANG Hua-guo; ZHANG Xiao-li; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan

    2008-01-01

    Our research focused on Pinus massoniana information extracted from remote sensing images based on the knowledge detection and decision tree algorithm and established a spatial pattern model, combining quantitative theoretical ecology with remote sensing (RS) and geometric information system (GIS) techniques. Applying information extraction methods and a spatial pattern model, we studied P. massoniana spatial patterns changes before and after the invasion by pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in Fuyang and Zhoushan counties, Zhejiang Province, east China. The P. massoniana spatial patterns are clustering,whether the invasion happened or not. But the degree of clustering is different. Our results show good agreement with field data.Applying the results, we analyzed the relationship between spatial patterns and the invasion level. Then we drew the elementary conclusion that there are two kinds of patterns for pine wood nematode to spread: continuous and discontinuous diffusion. This approach can help monitor and evaluate the changes in ecological systems.

  5. Fabrication of ordered micro- and nano-scale patterns based on optical discs and nanoimprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-jing; Zhang, Xiao-liang; Li, Xiao-chun

    2016-07-01

    A simple method to fabricate one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) ordered micro- and nano-scale patterns is developed based on the original masters from optical discs, using nanoimprint technology and soft stamps. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to replicate the negative image of the 1-D grating pattern on the masters of CD-R, DVD-R and BD-R optical discs, respectively, and then the 1-D pattern on one of the PDMS stamps was transferred to a blank polycarbonate (PC) substrate by nanoimprint. The 2-D ordered patterns were fabricated by the second imprinting using another PDMS stamp. Different 2-D periodic patterns were obtained depending on the PDMS stamps and the angle between the two times of imprints. This method may provide a way for the fabrication of complex 2-D patterns using simple 1-D masters.

  6. The Use of Design Patterns in a Location-Based GPS Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gillibrand

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of location-based systems and applications presents a number of challenges - including those of designing and developing for a range of heterogeneous mobile device types, the associated spectrum of programming languages, and the incorporation of spatial concepts into applied software solutions. This paper addresses these challenges by presenting a harmonised approach to the construction of GPS location-based applications that is based on Design Patterns. The context of location-based systems is presented, followed by several design patterns - including the Observer and Bridge Design Patterns, which are described and applied to the application. Finally the benefits of using Design Patterns in this framework-oriented approach are discussed and future related work in the area of systems design for mobile applications is outlined.

  7. Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: therapeutic, cognitive and clinical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS was always considered as a white matter inflammatory disease. Today, there is an important body of evidence that supports the hypothesis that gray matter involvement and the neurodegenerative mechanism are at least partially independent from inflammation. Gray matter atrophy develops faster than white matter atrophy, and predominates in the initial stages of the disease. The neurodegenerative mechanism creates permanent damage and correlates with physical and cognitive disability. In this review we describe the current available evidence regarding brain atrophy and its consequence in MS patients.

  8. Pattern-Based Development and Management of Cloud Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jochen Rütschlin; David Schumm; Christoph Fehling; Frank Leymann

    2012-01-01

    Cloud-based applications require a high degree of automation regarding their IT resource management, for example, to handle scalability or resource failures. This automation is enabled by cloud providers offering management interfaces accessed by applications without human interaction. The properties of clouds, especially pay-per-use billing and low availability of individual resources, demand such a timely system management. We call the automated steps to perform one of these management task...

  9. A Neural Network-Based Interval Pattern Matcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles in the machine learning area is to classify, and neural networks are very important classifiers. However, traditional neural networks cannot identify intervals, let alone classify them. To improve their identification ability, we propose a neural network-based interval matcher in our paper. After summarizing the theoretical construction of the model, we take a simple and a practical weather forecasting experiment, which show that the recognizer accuracy reaches 100% and that is promising.

  10. A design pattern for skills based lecturer training programs

    OpenAIRE

    López Álvarez, David; Adam Salvatierra, Araceli; Delgado Garcia, María José; Mayol Sarroca, Enric; Alier Forment, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the paradigm of teaching and learning is changing. Among the changes we see a shift from content oriented teaching to a skills oriented teaching, student effort measuring credits and the stress on professional skills. But all these changes scarcely take place in lecturer training programs. This paper presents a research conducted in a technical university to conceive a lecturer training program based on the essential skills to have as a lecturer. Work began in 2011 and has bee...

  11. Type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Insabato

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Silent Corticotroph Adenoma (SCA is a pituitary adenoma variant characterized by the immunoreactivity for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and related peptides, without the clinical signs of Cushing's disease. SCA has been postulated to either secrete structurally abnormal ACTH that is inactive but detectable by immunohistochemistry or radioimmunoassay, or to secrete ACTH intermittently or at low levels continuously. Excess of ACTH has been associated to type II muscle atrophy. We describe a case of type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog. The dog showed moderate to severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness with normal levels of muscle-associated enzymes. In the limb muscle biopsies, type II fibers were uniformly smaller than type I fibers. In temporalis muscles, there were few atrophic fibers, and several irregular areas of loss of enzymatic activity observed in NADH, SDH and COX stains. The tumour showed a trabecular growth pattern and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for ACTH. The muscle atrophy was considered to be related to an excess of inactive ACTH. Studying spontaneous occurring rare diseases in animals could help to understand the mechanism of similar diseases in human has well.

  12. Staining pattern classification of antinuclear autoantibodies based on block segmentation in indirect immunofluorescence images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqian Li

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence based on HEp-2 cell substrate is the most commonly used staining method for antinuclear autoantibodies associated with different types of autoimmune pathologies. The aim of this paper is to design an automatic system to identify the staining patterns based on block segmentation compared to the cell segmentation most used in previous research. Various feature descriptors and classifiers are tested and compared in the classification of the staining pattern of blocks and it is found that the technique of the combination of the local binary pattern and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm achieve the best performance. Relying on the results of block pattern classification, experiments on the whole images show that classifier fusion rules are able to identify the staining patterns of the whole well (specimen image with a total accuracy of about 94.62%.

  13. Realization of spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns based on all-dielectric metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Yougang; He, Yongli; Zhou, Junxiao; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2015-01-01

    We report the realization of spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns based on all-dielectric metasurface. Compared to the plasmonic metasurfaces, the all-dielectric metasurface exhibit more high transmission e?ciency and conversion e?ciency, which make it is possible to achieve the spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns. Our findings suggest a way for generation and manipulation of spin photons, and thereby o?er the possibility of developing spin-based nanophotonic applications.

  14. Comparison of Irrigation Performance Based on the Basin, Crop Pattern, and Scheme Sizes Using External Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Merdun, Hasan

    2004-01-01

    A comparative assessment allows screening of irrigation systems based on the key issues relative to performance and indicates where improvements should be made, such as in type of management, infrastructure, crop pattern and intensity, and system size. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of 239 irrigation schemes (57 DSI-operated and 182 transferred to Irrigation Associations) based on the basin, crop pattern, and scheme sizes using 6 external indicators for 2001. The ba...

  15. A pattern recognition based esophageal speech enhancement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mantilla‐Caeiros

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A system for improving the intelligibility and quality of alaryngeal speech based on the replacement of voiced segments ofalaryngeal speech with the equivalent segments of normal speech is proposed. To this end, the system proposed identifies thevoiced segments of the alaryngeal speech signal by using isolate speech recognition methods, and replaces them by theirequivalent voiced segments of normal speech, keeping the silence and unvoiced segments without change. Evaluation resultsusing objective and subjective evaluation methods show that the proposed system proposed provides a fairly goodimprovement of the quality and intelligibility of alaryngeal speech signals.

  16. Hand Biometric Recognition Based on Fused Hand Geometry and Vascular Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Soowon Kim; GiTae Park

    2013-01-01

    A hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user’s hand geometry and vascular pattern is proposed. To acquire the hand geometry, the thickness of the side view of the hand, the K-curvature with a hand-shaped chain code, the lengths and angles of the finger valleys, and the lengths and profiles of the fingers were used, and for the vascular pattern, the direction-based vascular-pattern extraction method was used, and thus, a new multimodal biometric approach is proposed...

  17. Preliminary Analysis of Difficulty of Importing Pattern-Based Concepts into the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Geller, James

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of biomedical ontologies is difficult. We have developed a pattern-based method for dealing with the problem of identifying missing concepts in the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt). Specifically, we are mining patterns connecting NCIt concepts with concepts in other ontologies to identify candidate missing concepts. However, the final decision about a concept insertion is always up to a human ontology curator. In this paper, we are estimating the difficulty of this task for a domain expert by counting possible choices for a pattern-based insertion. We conclude that even with support of our mining algorithm, the insertion task is challenging. PMID:27577410

  18. Road Rage: Prevalence Pattern and Web Based Survey Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaily Mina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Incidents of road rage are on a rise in India, but the literature is lacking in the aspect. There is an increasing realization of possibility of effective web based interventions to deliver public health related messages. Objective. The aim was to quantitatively evaluate risk factors among motor vehicle drivers using an internet based survey. Methods. Facebook users were evaluated using Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R and Driving Anger Scale (DAS. Results. An adequate response rate of 65.9% and satisfactory reliability with sizable correlation were obtained for both scales. Age was found to be positively correlated to LOT-R scores (r=0.21; P=0.02 and negatively correlated to DAS scores (r=-0.19; P=0.03. Years of education were correlated to LOT-R scores (r=0.26; P=0.005 but not DAS scores (r=-0.14; P=0.11. LOT-R scores did not correlate to DAS scores. Conclusion. There is high prevalence of anger amongst drivers in India particularly among younger males. A short web survey formatted in easy to use question language can result in a feasible conduction of an online survey.

  19. Template-Cut: A Pattern-Based Segmentation Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Nimsky, Christopher; Kapur, Tina

    2012-01-01

    We present a scale-invariant, template-based segmentation paradigm that sets up a graph and performs a graph cut to separate an object from the background. Typically graph-based schemes distribute the nodes of the graph uniformly and equidistantly on the image, and use a regularizer to bias the cut towards a particular shape. The strategy of uniform and equidistant nodes does not allow the cut to prefer more complex structures, especially when areas of the object are indistinguishable from the background. We propose a solution by introducing the concept of a "template shape" of the target object in which the nodes are sampled non-uniformly and non-equidistantly on the image. We evaluate it on 2D-images where the object's textures and backgrounds are similar, and large areas of the object have the same gray level appearance as the background. We also evaluate it in 3D on 60 brain tumor datasets for neurosurgical planning purposes.

  20. Planar patterned stretchable electrode arrays based on flexible printed circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For stretchable electronics to achieve broad industrial application, they must be reliable to manufacture and must perform robustly while undergoing large deformations. We present a new strategy for creating planar stretchable electronics and demonstrate one such device, a stretchable microelectrode array based on flex circuit technology. Stretchability is achieved through novel, rationally designed perforations that provide islands of low strain and continuous low-strain pathways for conductive traces. This approach enables the device to maintain constant electrical properties and planarity while undergoing applied strains up to 15%. Materials selection is not limited to polyimide composite devices and can potentially be implemented with either soft or hard substrates and can incorporate standard metals or new nano-engineered conductors. By using standard flex circuit technology, our planar microelectrode device achieved constant resistances for strains up to 20% with less than a 4% resistance offset over 120 000 cycles at 10% strain. (paper)

  1. Evolving Chart Pattern Sensitive Neural Network Based Forex Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sher, Gene I

    2011-01-01

    Though machine learning has been applied to the foreign exchange market for quiet some time now, and neural networks have been shown to yield good results, in modern approaches neural network systems are optimized through the traditional methods, and their input signals are vectors containing prices and other indicator elements. The aim of this paper is twofold, the presentation and testing of the application of topology and weight evolving artificial neural network (TWEANN) systems to automated currency trading, and the use of chart images as input to a geometrical regularity aware indirectly encoded neural network systems. This paper presents the benchmark results of neural network based automated currency trading systems evolved using TWEANNs, and compares the generalization capabilities of these direct encoded neural networks which use the standard price vector inputs, and the indirect (substrate) encoded neural networks which use chart images as input. The TWEANN algorithm used to evolve these currency t...

  2. Investigation of patterning effects in ultrafast SOA-based optical switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Xinliang; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast optical switching employing semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based optical switches has been demonstrated at bitrates up to 640 Gbit/s. However, patterning effects caused by relatively slow recovery processes in semiconductor structures remain as an important deteriorating factor...... that limits the ultimate speed at which SOA-based switches can be operated. In this paper, we investigate the patterning effects of SOA-based switches using a systematic approach. A simple condition for the lower bound limit of the bit pattern length that should be adopted in the performance...... evaluations of the switches is derived. It is shown that the minimum bit pattern length scales linearly with the bitrate and the recovery time of the SOA. To overcome the excessive computation time needed for numerical analysis at long pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) lengths, an effective method, i...

  3. The State of the Art in Graph-Based Pattern Matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, B

    2006-03-30

    The task of searching for patterns in graph-structured data has applications in such diverse areas as computer vision, biology, electronics, computer aided design, social networks, and intelligence analysis. As such, work on graph-based pattern matching spans a wide range of research communities. Due to variations in graph characteristics and problem requirements, graph-based pattern matching is not a single problem, but a set of related problems. This paper presents a survey of existing work on graph-based pattern matching, describing variations among graph matching problems, general and specific solution approaches, evaluation techniques, and directions for further research. An emphasis is given to techniques that apply to general graphs with semantic characteristics. The survey also discusses techniques for graph mining, an extension of the graph matching problem.

  4. Soy Glycinin Contains a Functional Inhibitory Sequence against Muscle-Atrophy-Associated Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Unloading stress induces skeletal muscle atrophy. We have reported that Cbl-b ubiquitin ligase is a master regulator of unloading-associated muscle atrophy. The present study was designed to elucidate whether dietary soy glycinin protein prevents denervation-mediated muscle atrophy, based on the presence of inhibitory peptides against Cbl-b ubiquitin ligase in soy glycinin protein. Methods. Mice were fed either 20% casein diet, 20% soy protein isolate diet, 10% glycinin diet containing 10% casein, or 20% glycinin diet. One week later, the right sciatic nerve was cut. The wet weight, cross sectional area (CSA, IGF-1 signaling, and atrogene expression in hindlimb muscles were examined at 1, 3, 3.5, or 4 days after denervation. Results. 20% soy glycinin diet significantly prevented denervation-induced decreases in muscle wet weight and myofiber CSA. Furthermore, dietary soy protein inhibited denervation-induced ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 in tibialis anterior muscle. Dietary soy glycinin partially suppressed the denervation-mediated expression of atrogenes, such as MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, through the protection of IGF-1 signaling estimated by phosphorylation of Akt-1. Conclusions. Soy glycinin contains a functional inhibitory sequence against muscle-atrophy-associated ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b. Dietary soy glycinin protein significantly prevented muscle atrophy after denervation in mice.

  5. Biochemical adaptations of antigravity muscle fibers to disuse atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Studies are presented in four parts of this report. The four parts include; (1) studies to gain information on the molecular basis of atrophy by antigravity muscle; (2) studies on the work capacity of antigravity muscles during atrophy and during recovery from atrophy; (3) studies on recovery of degenerated antigravity fibers after removal of hind-limb casts; and (4) studies on the atrophy and recovery of bone. The philosophy of these studies was to identify the time sequence of events in the soleus muscle of the rat following immobilization of the hind limbs, so that the length of the soleus muscle within the fixed limb is less than its resting length. In two separate studies, no decline in the weight of the soleus muscle could be detected during the first 72 hours of limb immobilization.

  6. Signs of cerebral atrophy on single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this retrospective study, we describe and evaluate criteria for the diagnosis of cerebral atrophy on technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain SPET studies. The SPET scans of 11 patients with cerebral atrophy and ten controls were evaluated for the presence of a prominent interhemispheric fissure, presence of prominent cerebral sulci, separation of thalamic nuclei, and pronounced separation of caudate nuclei. The SPET studies were interpreted by two independent observers blind to the findings of magnetic resonance imaging, which provided the final diagnosis of cerebral atrophy. The combination of the four scintigraphic signs was accurate in the diagnosis of cerebral atrophy in 95% of the cases and had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 100%. (orig./MG)

  7. Signs of cerebral atrophy on single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.O. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Meyerrose, G.E. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Sostre, S. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1994-05-01

    In this retrospective study, we describe and evaluate criteria for the diagnosis of cerebral atrophy on technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain SPET studies. The SPET scans of 11 patients with cerebral atrophy and ten controls were evaluated for the presence of a prominent interhemispheric fissure, presence of prominent cerebral sulci, separation of thalamic nuclei, and pronounced separation of caudate nuclei. The SPET studies were interpreted by two independent observers blind to the findings of magnetic resonance imaging, which provided the final diagnosis of cerebral atrophy. The combination of the four scintigraphic signs was accurate in the diagnosis of cerebral atrophy in 95% of the cases and had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 100%. (orig./MG)

  8. BEST WEIGHT PATTERN EVALUATION BASED SECURITY CONSTRAINED POWER DISPATCH ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology which determines the allocation of power demand among the committed generating units while minimizes number of objectives as well as meets physical and technological system constraints. The procedure considers two decoupled problems based upon the dependency of their goals on either active power or reactive power generation. Both the problems have been solved sequentially to achieve optimal allocation of active and reactive power generation while minimizes operating cost, gaseous pollutants emission objectives and active power transmission loss with consideration of system operating constraints along with generators prohibited operating zones and transmission line flow limits. The active and reactive power line flows are obtained with the help of generalized generation shift distribution factors (GGDF) and generalized Z-bus distribution factors (GZBDF), respectively. First problem is solved in multi-objective framework in which the best weights assigned to objectives are determined while employing weighting method and in second problem,active power loss of the system is minimized subject to system constraints. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated on 30-bus IEEE power system.

  9. Measuring neuronal branching patterns using model-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Luczak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurons have complex branching systems which allow them to communicate with thousands of other neurons. Thus understanding neuronal geometry is clearly important for determining connectivity within the network and how this shapes neuronal function. One of the difficulties in uncovering relationships between neuronal shape and its function is the problem of quantifying complex neuronal geometry. Even by using multiple measures such as: dendritic length, topology, distribution of segments, direction of branches, etc, a description of three dimensional neuronal embedding remains incomplete. To help alleviate this problem, here we propose a new measure, a shape diffusiveness index (SDI, to quantify spatial relations between branches at the local and global scale. It was shown that growth of neuronal trees can be modeled by using Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA process. By measuring ‘how easy’ it is to reproduce the analyzed shape by using the DLA algorithm it can be measured how ‘diffusive’ is that shape. Intuitively, ‘diffusiveness’ measures how tree-like is a given shape. For example shapes like an oak tree will have high values of SDI. This measure is capturing an important feature of dendritic tree geometry, which is difficult to assess with other measures. This approach also presents a paradigm shift from well-defined deterministic measures to model-based measures, which estimate how well a model with specific properties can account for features of analyzed shape.

  10. Measuring neuronal branching patterns using model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Neurons have complex branching systems which allow them to communicate with thousands of other neurons. Thus understanding neuronal geometry is clearly important for determining connectivity within the network and how this shapes neuronal function. One of the difficulties in uncovering relationships between neuronal shape and its function is the problem of quantifying complex neuronal geometry. Even by using multiple measures such as: dendritic length, distribution of segments, direction of branches, etc, a description of three dimensional neuronal embedding remains incomplete. To help alleviate this problem, here we propose a new measure, a shape diffusiveness index (SDI), to quantify spatial relations between branches at the local and global scale. It was shown that growth of neuronal trees can be modeled by using diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) process. By measuring "how easy" it is to reproduce the analyzed shape by using the DLA algorithm it can be measured how "diffusive" is that shape. Intuitively, "diffusiveness" measures how tree-like is a given shape. For example shapes like an oak tree will have high values of SDI. This measure is capturing an important feature of dendritic tree geometry, which is difficult to assess with other measures. This approach also presents a paradigm shift from well-defined deterministic measures to model-based measures, which estimate how well a model with specific properties can account for features of analyzed shape. PMID:21079752

  11. TiO{sub 2}-based superhydrophobic–superhydrophilic pattern with an extremely high wettability contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Shunsuke, E-mail: s-nishi@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Becchaku, Michiaki; Kameshima, Yoshikazu [Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Shirosaki, Yuki; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Osaka, Akiyoshi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Miyake, Michihiro [Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    Rough nanostructured anatase TiO{sub 2} surfaces containing many pores were prepared by the hydrothermal-based method. Surface modification with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octadecylphosphonic acid (ODP) resulted in the superhydrophobic surface with an extremely high static water contact angle (CA) of 173.6° ± 1.7°. This superhydrophobic surface could be converted into a superhydrophilic surface with a water CA of nearly 0° by irradiating it with ultraviolet (UV) light, which induced photocatalytic decomposition of the ODP SAM. A superhydrophobic–superhydrophilic pattern with an extremely high wettability contrast (a water CA difference of over 170°) could be fabricated on the ODP-modified TiO{sub 2} surface by area-selective UV irradiation through a photomask. This is the report of the TiO{sub 2}-based superhydrophobic–superhydrophilic pattern with a water CA difference of over 170°, and it may be possible to use such patterns for various applications. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}-based superhydrophobic–superhydrophilic patterns were fabricated. • A water contact angle difference of the pattern was over 170°. • A clear oil–water pattern was produced on the pattern.

  12. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X X; Paterson, Ross W; Slattery, Catherine F; Ryan, Natalie S; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-01

    The clinico-neuroradiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy is the cardinal 'visual dementia' and most common atypical Alzheimer's disease phenotype, offering insights into mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity, pathological propagation and basic visual phenomena (e.g. visual crowding). Given the extensive attention paid to patients' (higher order) perceptual function, it is surprising that there have been no systematic analyses of basic oculomotor function in this population. Here 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 17 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease and 22 healthy controls completed tests of fixation, saccade (including fixation/target gap and overlap conditions) and smooth pursuit eye movements using an infrared pupil-tracking system. Participants underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, with a proportion also undertaking brain imaging and analysis of molecular pathology. In contrast to informal clinical evaluations of oculomotor dysfunction frequency (previous studies: 38%, current clinical examination: 33%), detailed eyetracking investigations revealed eye movement abnormalities in 80% of patients with posterior cortical atrophy (compared to 17% typical Alzheimer's disease, 5% controls). The greatest differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease were seen in saccadic performance. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy made significantly shorter saccades especially for distant targets. They also exhibited a significant exacerbation of the normal gap/overlap effect, consistent with 'sticky fixation'. Time to reach saccadic targets was significantly associated with parietal and occipital cortical thickness measures. On fixation stability tasks, patients with typical Alzheimer's disease showed more square wave jerks whose frequency was associated with lower cerebellar grey matter volume, while patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed large saccadic intrusions

  13. Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Current Therapeutic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselyov, Alex S.; Gurney, Mark E.

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by death of motor neurons in the spinal cord. SMA is caused by deletion and/or mutation of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1) on chromosome 5q13. There are variable numbers of copies of a second, related gene named SMN2 located in the proximity to SMN1. Both genes encode the same protein (Smn). Loss of SMN1 and incorrect splicing of SMN2 affect cellular levels of Smn triggering death of motor neurons. The severity of SMA is directly related to the normal number of copies of SMN2 carried by the patient. A considerable effort has been dedicated to identifying modalities including both biological and small molecule agents that increase SMN2 promoter activity to upregulate gene transcription and produce increased quantities of full-length Smn protein. This review summarizes recent progress in the area and suggests potential target product profile for an SMA therapeutic.

  14. Volumetric MRI for evaluation of regional pattern and progression of neocortical degeneration in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volumetric analysis of the corpus callosum and hippocampus using MRI in Alzheimer's disease (AD) to evaluate the regional pattern and progression of neocortical neurodegeneration. In subsequent studies we investigated patients with AD and healthy controls. Volumetry was based on MRI-data from a sagittal 3D T1w-gradient echo sequence. The corpus callosum (CC) was measured in a midsagittal slice, and subdivided into 5 subregions. Volumetry of the hippocampus/amygdala-formation (HAF) was performed by segmentation in coronary reoriented slices. In AD patients we found a significant atrophy in the rostrum und splenium of CC. The atrophy was correlated with the severity of dementia, but no correlation was found with the load of white matter lesions. In comparison with 18FDG-PET, we found a significant correlation of regional CC-atrophy with the regional decline of cortical glucose metabolism. A ROC-analysis demonstrated no significant differences in the diagostic accuracy of HAF volumetry and regional CC volumetry of the splenium (region C5) even in mild stages of dementia. Regional atrophy of CC can be used as a marker of neocortical degeneration even in early stages of dementia in AD. (orig.)

  15. Charging stations location model based on spatiotemporal electromobility use patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagany, Raphaela; Marquardt, Anna; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges for mainstream adoption of electric vehicles is the provision of infrastructure for charging the batteries of the vehicles. The charging stations must not only be located dense enough to allow users to complete their journeys, but the electric energy must also be provided from renewable sources in order to truly offer a transportation with less CO2 emissions. The examination of potential locations for the charging of electric vehicles can facilitate the adaption of electromobility and the integration of electronic vehicles in everyday life. A geographic information system (GIS) based model for optimal location of charging stations in a small and regional scale is presented. This considers parameters such as the forecast of electric vehicle use penetration, the relevant weight of diverse point of interests and the distance between parking area and destination for different vehicle users. In addition to the spatial scale the temporal modelling of the energy demand at the different charging locations has to be considerate. Depending on different user profiles (commuters, short haul drivers etc.) the frequency of charging vary during the day, the week and the year. In consequence, the spatiotemporal variability is a challenge for a reliable energy supply inside a decentralized renewable energy system. The presented model delivers on the one side the most adequate identified locations for charging stations and on the other side the interaction between energy supply and demand for electromobility under the consideration of temporal aspects. Using ESRI ArcGIS Desktop, first results for the case study region of Lower Bavaria are generated. The aim of the concept is to keep the model transferable to other regions and also open to integrate further and more detailed user profiles, derived from social studies about i.e. the daily behavior and the perception of electromobility in a next step.

  16. Pregnancy in multiple system atrophy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Lirong; Cairns Nigel J; Tabbal Samer D; Racette Brad A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Multiple system atrophy is a late, adult-onset α-synucleinopathy with no data on the effect of pregnancy on the disease course. Early stage multiple system atrophy can be difficult to distinguish from Parkinson's disease. Case presentation We describe the case of an Irish woman with parkinsonism starting at age 31, initially diagnosed as having dopa-responsive, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, who successfully delivered a full-term child at age 35. Her pregnancy was compl...

  17. The Relationship between Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Soltani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveA 4-month-old female with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI type II was admitted in PICU of our center due to severe respiratory distress and fever with a diagnosis of severe pneumonia, and mechanical ventilation was initiated. Due to severe hypotonia, NCV and EMG were performed, and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA type I was diagnosed.Keywords: Osteogenesis imperfecta; spinal muscular atrophy; hypotonia

  18. The Relationship between Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Soltani; Abdollah Karimi; Alireza Fahimzad; Mahshid Talebian

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveA 4-month-old female with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II was admitted in PICU of our center due to severe respiratory distress and fever with a diagnosis of severe pneumonia, and mechanical ventilation was initiated. Due to severe hypotonia, NCV and EMG were performed, and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type I was diagnosed.Keywords: Osteogenesis imperfecta; spinal muscular atrophy; hypotonia

  19. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneja, Atul K. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Musculoskeletal Radiology Division, Imaging Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Musculoskeletal Imaging, Diagnostic Center, Hospital do Coracao (HCor) and Teleimagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Durval C.B. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Musculoskeletal Radiology Division, Imaging Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  20. MRI of the spinocerebellar degeneration (multiple system atrophy, Holmes type, and Menzel-Joseph type)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Eiichiro (National Hospital of Nagoya (Japan)); Makino, Naoki

    1991-06-01

    We have analyzed MRI in 33 patients with several forms of spinocerebellar degeneration; 17 with multiple system atrophy, 10 with Holmes type, and 6 with Menzel-Joseph type. The MRIs were obtained using a 1.5-T GEMR System. Patients with multiple system atrophy demonstrated: atrophy of the brain stem, particularly basis pontis; decreased signal intensity of the white matter of pons; atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum; atrophy and decreased signal intensity of the putamen, particularly along their lateral and posterior portions; and atrophy of the cerebrum. Patients with Holmes type showed: atrophy of the cerebellum; atrophy of the vermis more than hemispheres; and nuclei of the cerebellum with no decreased intensity on T{sub 2}-weighted sequences. Patients with Menzel-Joseph type demonstrated moderate atrophy of the brain stem and mild atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum. MRI is a useful diagnostic tool in the management of the spinocerebellar degeneration. (author).

  1. Insecure family bases and adolescent drug abuse: a new approach to family patterns of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Thomasius, Rainer; Sack, Peter-Michael; Gemeinhardt, Brigitte; Küstner, Udo

    2007-06-01

    A new approach to assessing family attachment patterns is presented, using a composite measure of individual attachment representations based on the Bartholomew Attachment Interview. A cluster analysis yielded three different patterns in a sample of N = 37 families with a drug dependent adolescent (age 14 - 25) and both biological parents. A "triangulated" pattern (mothers: preoccupied; fathers: dismissing; adolescents: fearful) was found in 65% of the sample. A total of 19% showed an "insecure" pattern (mothers, fathers, and adolescents: fearful) and 16% a "near-secure" pattern (mothers and adolescents: secure; fathers preoccupied). Preliminary comparisons between these groups indicate differences in comorbid psychiatric disorders, in individual and family functioning, but not in addiction severity. There is a trend towards differences in outcome of family therapy. Implications for treatment and further research are discussed. PMID:17508312

  2. Integration of Color and Local Derivative Pattern Features for Content-Based Image Indexing and Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipparthi, Santosh Kumar; Nagar, Shyam Krishna

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents two new feature descriptors for content based image retrieval (CBIR) application. The proposed two descriptors are named as color local derivative patterns (CLDP) and inter color local derivative pattern (ICLDP). In order to reduce the computational complexity the uniform patterns are applied to both CLDP and ICLDP. Further, uniform CLDP (CLDPu2) and uniform ICLDP (ICLDPu2) are generated respectively. The proposed descriptors are able to exploit individual (R, G and B) spectral channel information and co-relating pair (RG, GB, BR, etc.) of spectral channel information. The retrieval performances of the proposed descriptors (CLDP and ICLDP) are tested by conducting two experiments on Corel-5000 and Corel-10000 benchmark databases. The results after investigation show a significant improvement in terms of precision, average retrieval precision (ARP), recall and average retrieval rate (ARR) as compared to local binary patterns (LBP), local derivative patterns (LDP) and other state-of-the-art techniques for image retrieval.

  3. Brain atrophy and dementia from the aspect of CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major causes of dementia in the elderly are reported to be the degeneration of brain and cerebrovascular diseases. Recently, CT findings of cerebrovascular diseases and brain atrophy have been noticed, because they rather clearly show these changes. The authors examined the view of atrophy frequently observed on the dementia in the elderly. The results obtained are as follows: 1) In accordance with the increase of age the appearance of the view of atrophy increased in frequency and that of extreme brain atrophy also increased. 2) As the age increased, the average value of the width of the 3rd ventricle tended to increase. 3) In the cases accompanied with the view of cerebrovascular diseases remarkable ventricular dilatation was frequently observed, and in the very old dilatations of cerebral sulci, central fissure and Sylvian fissure were observed of all cases. 4) Of the group of severe dementia the view of extreme brain atrophy was observed in the major. However, there was no significant difference on the lesion of atrophy between the cases. The results mentioned above include some exceptional points respectively, so further investigation will be necessary from the qualitative and quantitative points of view. (author)

  4. Genome-based establishment of a high-yielding heterotic pattern for hybrid wheat breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Li, Zuo; Liu, Guozheng; Jiang, Yong; Maurer, Hans Peter; Würschum, Tobias; Mock, Hans-Peter; Matros, Andrea; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Schachschneider, Ralf; Kazman, Ebrahim; Schacht, Johannes; Gowda, Manje; Longin, C Friedrich H; Reif, Jochen C

    2015-12-22

    Hybrid breeding promises to boost yield and stability. The single most important element in implementing hybrid breeding is the recognition of a high-yielding heterotic pattern. We have developed a three-step strategy for identifying heterotic patterns for hybrid breeding comprising the following elements. First, the full hybrid performance matrix is compiled using genomic prediction. Second, a high-yielding heterotic pattern is searched based on a developed simulated annealing algorithm. Third, the long-term success of the identified heterotic pattern is assessed by estimating the usefulness, selection limit, and representativeness of the heterotic pattern with respect to a defined base population. This three-step approach was successfully implemented and evaluated using a phenotypic and genomic wheat dataset comprising 1,604 hybrids and their 135 parents. Integration of metabolomic-based prediction was not as powerful as genomic prediction. We show that hybrid wheat breeding based on the identified heterotic pattern can boost grain yield through the exploitation of heterosis and enhance recurrent selection gain. Our strategy represents a key step forward in hybrid breeding and is relevant for self-pollinating crops, which are currently shifting from pure-line to high-yielding and resilient hybrid varieties. PMID:26663911

  5. VERY SEVERE SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY (TYPE 0: A REPORT OF THREE CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARZEGAR mohammad MD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveWe describe three patients with very severe Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA presented with reduced fetal movement in utero, profound hypotonia, severe weakness and respiratory insufficiency at birth. In all infants, electrodiagnostic studies were compatible with a neurogenic pattern. In genetic studies, all cases had homozygous deletions of exons 7 and 8 of Survival Motor Neuron (SMN and exon 5 of Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein (NAIP gene. SMA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of reduced fetal movement and respiratory insufficiency at birth.

  6. Myogenin Regulates Denervation-Dependent Muscle Atrophy in Mouse Soleus Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Macpherson, Peter C. D.; Wang, Xun; Goldman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Muscle inactivity due to injury or disease results in muscle atrophy. The molecular mechanisms contributing to muscle atrophy are poorly understood. However, it is clear that expression of atrophy-related genes, like Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, are intimately tied to loss of muscle mass. When these atrophy-related genes are knocked out, inactive muscles retain mass. Muscle denervation stimulates muscle atrophy and Myogenin (Myog) is a muscle-specific transcription factor that is highly induced foll...

  7. Colloidal crystal based plasma polymer patterning to control Pseudomonas aeruginosa attachment to surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingle, Hitesh; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Thissen, Helmut; McArthur, Sally; Kingshott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation on medical implants and subsequent infections are a global problem. A great deal of effort has focused on developing chemical contrasts based on micro- and nanopatterning for studying and controlling cells and bacteria at surfaces. It has been known that micro- and nanopatterns on surfaces can influence biomolecule adsorption, and subsequent cell and bacterial adhesion. However, less focus has been on precisely controlling patterns to study the initial bacterial attachment mechanisms and subsequently how the patterning influences the role played by biomolecular adsorption on biofilm formation. In this work, the authors have used colloidal self-assembly in a confined area to pattern surfaces with colloidal crystals and used them as masks during allylamine plasma polymer (AAMpp) deposition to generate highly ordered patterns from the micro- to the nanoscale. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-aldehyde was grafted to the plasma regions via "cloud point" grafting to prevent the attachment of bacteria on the plasma patterned surface regions, thereby controlling the adhesive sites by choice of the colloidal crystal morphology. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was chosen to study the bacterial interactions with these chemically patterned surfaces. Scanning electron microscope, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy, and epifluorescence microscopy were used for pattern characterization, surface chemical analysis, and imaging of attached bacteria. The AAMpp influenced bacterial attachment because of the amine groups displaying a positive charge. XPS results confirm the successful grafting of PEG on the AAMpp surfaces. The results showed that PEG patterns can be used as a surface for bacterial patterning including investigating the role of biomolecular patterning on bacterial attachment. These types of patterns are easy to fabricate and could be useful in further applications in biomedical research. PMID:26634448

  8. Inhibition of IkappaB kinase alpha (IKK{alpha}) or IKKbeta (IKK{beta}) plus forkhead box O (Foxo) abolishes skeletal muscle atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.A. [Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, 101 S. Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Senf, S.M. [Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, 25 Stadium Road, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Cornwell, E.W.; Kandarian, S.C. [Department of Health Sciences, Boston University, 635 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Judge, A.R., E-mail: arjudge@phhp.ufl.edu [Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, 101 S. Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Independent inhibition of Foxo, IKK{alpha} and IKK{beta} activities does not alter muscle fiber size in weight bearing muscles. {yields} Inhibition of Foxo activity plus IKK{alpha} or IKK{beta} activities increases muscle fiber size. {yields} Independent inhibition of Foxo and IKK{beta} activities attenuates cast immobilization-induced muscle fiber atrophy. {yields} Disuse muscle fiber atrophy is abolished by inhibition of Foxo activity plus IKK{alpha} or IKK{beta} activities. -- Abstract: Two transcription factor families that are activated during multiple conditions of skeletal muscle wasting are nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and forkhead box O (Foxo). There is clear evidence that both NF-{kappa}B and Foxo activation are sufficient to cause muscle fiber atrophy and they are individually required for at least half of the fiber atrophy during muscle disuse, but there is no work determining the combined effect of inhibiting these factors during a physiological condition of muscle atrophy. Here, we determined whether inhibition of Foxo activation plus inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation, the latter by blocking the upstream inhibitor of kappaB kinases (IKK{alpha} and IKK{beta}), would prevent muscle atrophy induced by 7 days of cast immobilization. Results were based on measurements of mean fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) from 72 muscles transfected with 5 different mutant expression plasmids or plasmid combinations. Immobilization caused a 47% decrease in fiber CSA in muscles injected with control plasmids. Fibers from immobilized muscles transfected with dominant negative (d.n.) IKK{alpha}-EGFP, d.n. IKK{beta}-EGFP or d.n. Foxo-DsRed showed a 22%, 57%, and 76% inhibition of atrophy, respectively. Co-expression of d.n. IKK{alpha}-EGFP and d.n. Foxo-DsRed significantly inhibited 89% of the immobilization-induced fiber atrophy. Similarly, co-expression of d.n. IKK{beta}-EGFP and d.n. Foxo-DsRed inhibited the immobilization

  9. Pattern-based information portal for business plan co-creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Bontchev, Boyan; Ruskov, Petko

    2010-01-01

    in order to help them in development of effective and efficient business plans. It will facilitate entrepreneurs in co-experimenting and co-learning more frequently and faster. Moreover, the paper focuses on the software architecture of the pattern based portal and explains the functionality of its......Creation of business plans helps entrepreneurs in managing identification of business opportunities and committing necessary resources for process evolution. Applying patterns in business plan creation facilitates the identification of effective solutions that were adopted in the past and may...... provide a basis for adopting similar solutions in the future within given business context. The article presents the system design of an information portal for business plan cocreation based on patterns. The portal is going to provide start-up and entrepreneurs with ready-to-modify business plan patterns...

  10. Next Place Prediction Based on Spatiotemporal Pattern Mining of Mobile Device Logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungjun; Lim, Junseok; Park, Jonghun; Kim, Kwanho

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent explosive growth of location-aware services based on mobile devices, predicting the next places of a user is of increasing importance to enable proactive information services. In this paper, we introduce a data-driven framework that aims to predict the user's next places using his/her past visiting patterns analyzed from mobile device logs. Specifically, the notion of the spatiotemporal-periodic (STP) pattern is proposed to capture the visits with spatiotemporal periodicity by focusing on a detail level of location for each individual. Subsequently, we present algorithms that extract the STP patterns from a user's past visiting behaviors and predict the next places based on the patterns. The experiment results obtained by using a real-world dataset show that the proposed methods are more effective in predicting the user's next places than the previous approaches considered in most cases. PMID:26805850

  11. Application of a Pattern-based Classification System for Invasive Endocervical Adenocarcinoma in Cervical Biopsy, Cone and Loop Electrosurgical Excision (LEEP) Material: Pattern on Cone and LEEP is Predictive of Pattern in the Overall Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Bojana; Parra-Herran, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    A pattern-based classification system has been recently proposed for invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma, which is predictive of the risk of nodal metastases. Identifying cases at risk of nodal involvement is most relevant at the time of biopsy and loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) to allow for optimal surgical planning, and, most importantly, consideration of lymphadenectomy. This study aims to determine the topography of patterns of stromal invasion in invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma with emphasis on patterns in biopsy, cone, and LEEP. Invasive pattern was assessed following the pattern-based classification (Patterns A, B, and C) in 47 invasive endocervical adenocarcinomas treated with hysterectomy or trachelectomy and correlated with pattern of invasion at the tumor surface (2 mm of tumor depth) and on preoperative biopsy and cone/LEEP. Patterns A, B, and C were present in 21.3%, 36.2%, and 42.5% of cases, respectively. Most pattern A cases were Stage IA (90%), whereas most Pattern B and C cases were Stage IB (76.5% and 80%, respectively). Horizontal spread was on average larger in Pattern C (24.1 mm) than in Patterns A and B (7.7 and 12.3 mm, respectively). Pattern at the tumor surface correlated with the overall pattern in 95.7% of cases. Concordance between patterns at cone/LEEP and hysterectomy was 92.8%; the only discrepant case was upgraded from Pattern A on LEEP to C on final excision. Agreement between patterns in biopsy and the overall tumor, however, was only 37.5%. In all discrepant cases, biopsy failed to reveal destructive invasion, which was evident on excision. All discrepant biopsies with pattern A showed glandular complexity resembling exophytic papillary growth but did not meet criteria for destructive invasion. On excision, marked gland confluence with papillary architecture was evident. We conclude that the pattern of invasion on cone/LEEP is a good predictor of pattern of invasion on hysterectomy, particularly if there is

  12. LETTER: Self-organized pattern formation and noise-induced control based on particle computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Thimo; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2005-12-01

    We propose a new non-equilibrium model for spatial pattern formation based on local information transfer. Unlike most standard models of pattern formation it is not based on the Turing instability or initially laid down morphogen gradients. Information is transmitted through the system via particle-like excitations whose collective dynamics results in pattern formation and control. Here, a simple problem of domain formation is addressed by means of this model in an implementation as stochastic cellular automata, and then generalized to a system of coupled dynamical networks. One observes stable pattern formation, even in the presence of noise and cell flow. Noise contributes through the production of quasi-particles to de novo pattern formation as well as to robust control of the domain boundary position. Pattern proportions are scale independent as regards system size. The dynamics of pattern formation is stable over large parameter ranges, with a discontinuity at vanishing noise and a second-order phase transition at increased cell flow.

  13. Chemically based mathematical model for development of cerebral cortical folding patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Striegel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism for cortical folding pattern formation is not fully understood. Current models represent scenarios that describe pattern formation through local interactions, and one recent model is the intermediate progenitor model. The intermediate progenitor (IP model describes a local chemically driven scenario, where an increase in intermediate progenitor cells in the subventricular zone correlates to gyral formation. Here we present a mathematical model that uses features of the IP model and further captures global characteristics of cortical pattern formation. A prolate spheroidal surface is used to approximate the ventricular zone. Prolate spheroidal harmonics are applied to a Turing reaction-diffusion system, providing a chemically based framework for cortical folding. Our model reveals a direct correlation between pattern formation and the size and shape of the lateral ventricle. Additionally, placement and directionality of sulci and the relationship between domain scaling and cortical pattern elaboration are explained. The significance of this model is that it elucidates the consistency of cortical patterns among individuals within a species and addresses inter-species variability based on global characteristics and provides a critical piece to the puzzle of cortical pattern formation.

  14. Correlation of clinical course with MRI findings in olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy and late-cortical cerebellar atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Morishita, Shinji; Konagaya, Yoko; Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Satoru (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1989-09-01

    We quantitatively analyzed 1.5 T MRI in 36 cases of sporadic spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and 30 control cases without intracranial lesions, using graphic analyzer. SCD consisted of 21 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and 15 late cortical cerebellar atrophy (LCCA). There was negative correlation between vermian size and the duration of illness both in OPCA (r=0.8960, p<0.001) and LCCA (r=0.7756, p<0.01), but the progression rate in OPCA was three times greater than that in LCCA. LCCA was suggested the preclinical vermian atrophy by the statistical regression study. In OPCA, the duration of illness also revealed significant correlations with atrophy of ventral pons (r=0.8308, p<0.001) and also cerebellar hemisphere (medial hemiphere; r=0.7278, p<0.001. lateral hemisphere; r=0.6039, p<0.01). OPCA showed diffuse atrophy of cerebellar hemisphere, whereas LCCA showed medial dominant atrophy. OPCA demonstrated significant correlation between the fourth ventricle dilatation and the duration of illness (r=0.6005, p<0.01). A discriminant study significantly separated OPCA, LCCA and control each other by sizes of ventral pons and cerebellar vermis (p<0.001). In T2 weighted MRI, 10 cases out of 14 LCCA did not show hypointensity in dentate nucleus in spite of normal appearance in the other portions usually decreased intensity. The dentate nucleus of OPCA showed a significant atrophy. The insidence of putaminal hypointensity in OPCA was significantly greater than that of control group (ki-quare=6.476, p<0.05). There were no atrophies in red nucleus and tegmentum of midbrain, which indicated minimum involvement in cerebellar efferent system both in OPCA and LCCA. We concluded that the quantitative and qualitative analysis of high field MRI is useful in clinical discrimination between OPCA and LCCA. (author).

  15. Enhanced performance of VOx-based bolometer using patterned gold black absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Evan M.; Panjwani, Deep; Ginn, James; Warren, Andrew; Long, Christopher; Figuieredo, Pedro; Smith, Christian; Perlstein, Joshua; Walter, Nick; Hirschmugl, Carol; Peale, Robert E.; Shelton, David J.

    2015-06-01

    Patterned highly absorbing gold black film has been selectively deposited on the active surfaces of a vanadium-oxide-based infrared bolometer array. Patterning by metal lift-off relies on protection of the fragile gold black with an evaporated oxide, which preserves gold black's near unity absorption. This patterned gold black also survives the dry-etch removal of the sacrificial polyimide used to fabricate the air-bridge bolometers. Infrared responsivity is substantially improved by the gold black coating without significantly increasing noise. The increase in the time constant caused by the additional mass of gold black is a modest 14%.

  16. Muscle atrophy reversed by growth factor activation of satellite cells in a mouse muscle atrophy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hauerslev

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies comprise a large group of inherited disorders that lead to progressive muscle wasting. We wanted to investigate if targeting satellite cells can enhance muscle regeneration and thus increase muscle mass. We treated mice with hepatocyte growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor under three conditions: normoxia, hypoxia and during myostatin deficiency. We found that hepatocyte growth factor treatment led to activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K protein synthesis pathway, up-regulation of the myognic transcription factors MyoD and myogenin, and subsequently the negative growth control factor, myostatin and atrophy markers MAFbx and MuRF1. Hypoxia-induced atrophy was partially restored by hepatocyte growth factor combined with leukemia inhibitory factor treatment. Dividing satellite cells were three-fold increased in the treatment group compared to control. Finally, we demonstrated that myostatin regulates satellite cell activation and myogenesis in vivo following treatment, consistent with previous findings in vitro. Our results suggest, not only a novel in vivo pharmacological treatment directed specifically at activating the satellite cells, but also a myostatin dependent mechanism that may contribute to the progressive muscle wasting seen in severely affected patients with muscular dystrophy and significant on-going regeneration. This treatment could potentially be applied to many conditions that feature muscle wasting to increase muscle bulk and strength.

  17. Dentists’ practice patterns regarding caries prevention: results from a dental practice-based research network

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Kakudate, Naoki; Sumida, Futoshi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to (1) quantify dentists' practice patterns regarding caries prevention and (2) test the hypothesis that certain dentists' characteristics are associated with these practice patterns. Design The study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey. Participants The study queried dentists who worked in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan, which seeks to engage d...

  18. A pattern language for the evolution of component-based software architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Aakash; Jamshidi, Pooyan; Pahl, Claus; Khaliq, Fawad

    2014-01-01

    Architecture-centric software evolution enables change in a system’s structure and behaviour while maintaining a global view of the software to address evolution-centric trade-offs. The existing solutions for architectural maintenance and evolution fall short of exploiting generic and reusable expertise to address recurring evolution problems. We present a pattern language as a collection of interconnected change patterns that enable reuse-driven and consistent evolution of component-based so...

  19. Combining Biometric Fractal Pattern and Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Classifier for Fingerprint Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hung Lin; Jian-Liung Chen; Zwe-Lee Gaing

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes combining the biometric fractal pattern and particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based classifier for fingerprint recognition. Fingerprints have arch, loop, whorl, and accidental morphologies, and embed singular points, resulting in the establishment of fingerprint individuality. An automatic fingerprint identification system consists of two stages: digital image processing (DIP) and pattern recognition. DIP is used to convert to binary images, refine out noise, and locate th...

  20. Towards a Pattern-based Automatic Generation of Logical Specifications for Software Models

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Radoslaw

    2014-01-01

    The work relates to the automatic generation of logical specifications, considered as sets of temporal logic formulas, extracted directly from developed software models. The extraction process is based on the assumption that the whole developed model is structured using only predefined workflow patterns. A method of automatic transformation of workflow patterns to logical specifications is proposed. Applying the presented concepts enables bridging the gap between the benefits of deductive rea...

  1. Spray-coated nanoscale conductive patterns based on in situ sintered silver nanoparticle inks

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yifan; Li, Shuguang; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale patterns with high conductivity based on silver nanoparticle inks were fabricated using spray coating method. Through optimizing the solution content and spray operation, accurate nanoscale patterns consisting of silver nanoparticles with a square resistance lower than 1 Ω /cm2 were obtained. By incorporating in situ sintering to substitute the general post sintering process, the time consumption could be significantly reduced to one sixth, qualifying it for large-scale and cost-eff...

  2. Model-Driven Security based on A Unified System of Security Design Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Model-Driven Security (MDS) for secure systems development still has limitations to be more applicable in practice. A recent systematic review of MDS shows that current MDS approaches have not dealt with multiple security concerns system- atically. Besides, catalogs of security patterns which can address multiple security concerns have not been applied efficiently. This paper presents an MDS approach based on a unified System of Security design Patterns (SoSPa). In SoSPa, security design patt...

  3. Analysing humanly generated random number sequences: A pattern-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gravenor, M B; Schulz, M A; Schmalbach, B; Brugger, P; Witt, K.

    2012-01-01

    In a random number generation task, participants are asked to generate a random sequence of numbers, most typically the digits 1 to 9. Such number sequences are not mathematically random, and both extent and type of bias allow one to characterize the brain's “internal random number generator”. We assume that certain patterns and their variations will frequently occur in humanly generated random number sequences. Thus, we introduce a pattern-based analysis of random number sequences. Twenty he...

  4. Analysing Humanly Generated Random Number Sequences: A Pattern-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Marc-André; Schmalbach, Barbara; Brugger, Peter; Witt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    In a random number generation task, participants are asked to generate a random sequence of numbers, most typically the digits 1 to 9. Such number sequences are not mathematically random, and both extent and type of bias allow one to characterize the brain's “internal random number generator”. We assume that certain patterns and their variations will frequently occur in humanly generated random number sequences. Thus, we introduce a pattern-based analysis of random number sequences. Twenty he...

  5. Towards an Intelligent Workflow Designer based on the Reuse of Workflow Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Iochpe, C.; Chiao, C.; Hess, G; Nascimento, G.S.; Thom, L.H.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform process-aware information systems we need sophisticated methods and concepts for designing and modeling processes. Recently, research on workflow patterns has emerged in order to increase the reuse of recurring workflow structures. However, current workflow modeling tools do not provide functionalities that enable users to define, query, and reuse workflow patterns properly. In this paper we gather a suite for both process modeling and normalization based on workflow patte...

  6. Fabrication of graphene-based flexible devices utilizing a soft lithographic patterning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Wook; Myung, Sung; Kim, Ki Woong; Song, Wooseok; Jo, You-Young; Lee, Sun Suk; Lim, Jongsun; Park, Chong-Yun; An, Ki-Seok

    2014-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in soft lithographic patterning processing of large scale graphene sheets due to the low cost and simplicity of the patterning process along with the exceptional electrical or physical properties of graphene. These properties include an extremely high carrier mobility and excellent mechanical strength. Recently, a study has reported that single layer graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was patterned and transferred to a target surface by controlling the surface energy of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. However, applications are limited because of the challenge of CVD-graphene functionalization for devices such as chemical or bio-sensors. In addition, graphene-based layers patterned with a micron scale width on the surface of biocompatible silk fibroin thin films, which are not suitable for conventional CMOS processes such as the patterning or etching of substrates, have yet to be reported. Herein, we developed a soft lithographic patterning process via surface energy modification for advanced graphene-based flexible devices such as transistors or chemical sensors. Using this approach, the surface of a relief-patterned elastomeric stamp was functionalized with hydrophilic dimethylsulfoxide molecules to enhance the surface energy of the stamp and to remove the graphene-based layer from the initial substrate and transfer it to a target surface. As a proof of concept using this soft lithographic patterning technique, we demonstrated a simple and efficient chemical sensor consisting of reduced graphene oxide and a metallic nanoparticle composite. A flexible graphene-based device on a biocompatible silk fibroin substrate, which is attachable to an arbitrary target surface, was also successfully fabricated. Briefly, a soft lithographic patterning process via surface energy modification was developed for advanced graphene-based flexible devices such as transistors or chemical sensors and attachable devices on a

  7. Fabrication of graphene-based flexible devices utilizing a soft lithographic patterning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been considerable interest in soft lithographic patterning processing of large scale graphene sheets due to the low cost and simplicity of the patterning process along with the exceptional electrical or physical properties of graphene. These properties include an extremely high carrier mobility and excellent mechanical strength. Recently, a study has reported that single layer graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was patterned and transferred to a target surface by controlling the surface energy of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. However, applications are limited because of the challenge of CVD-graphene functionalization for devices such as chemical or bio-sensors. In addition, graphene-based layers patterned with a micron scale width on the surface of biocompatible silk fibroin thin films, which are not suitable for conventional CMOS processes such as the patterning or etching of substrates, have yet to be reported. Herein, we developed a soft lithographic patterning process via surface energy modification for advanced graphene-based flexible devices such as transistors or chemical sensors. Using this approach, the surface of a relief-patterned elastomeric stamp was functionalized with hydrophilic dimethylsulfoxide molecules to enhance the surface energy of the stamp and to remove the graphene-based layer from the initial substrate and transfer it to a target surface. As a proof of concept using this soft lithographic patterning technique, we demonstrated a simple and efficient chemical sensor consisting of reduced graphene oxide and a metallic nanoparticle composite. A flexible graphene-based device on a biocompatible silk fibroin substrate, which is attachable to an arbitrary target surface, was also successfully fabricated. Briefly, a soft lithographic patterning process via surface energy modification was developed for advanced graphene-based flexible devices such as transistors or chemical sensors and attachable devices on a

  8. Exploring Elementary-School Students' Engagement Patterns in a Game-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Lin, Yi-Chun; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2015-01-01

    Unlike most research, which has primarily examined the players' interest in or attitude toward game-based learning through questionnaires, the purpose of this empirical study is to explore students' engagement patterns by qualitative observation and sequential analysis to visualize and better understand their game-based learning process. We…

  9. Time-based user-movement pattern analysis from location-based social network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Huey Ling; Kulkumjon, Isaraporn; Dangi, Surbhi

    2013-01-01

    Virtual social interactions play an increasingly important role in the discovery of places with digital recommendations. Our hypothesis is that people define the character of a city by the type of places they frequent. With a brief description of our dataset, anomalies and observations about the data, this paper delves into three distinct approaches to visualize the dataset addressing our two goals of: 1. Arriving at a time-based region specific recommendation logic for different types of users classified by the places they frequent. 2. Analyzing the behaviors of users that check-in in groups of two or more people. The study revealed that distinct patterns exist for people that are residents of the city and for people who are short-term visitors to the city. The frequency of visits, however, is both dependent on the time of the day as well as the urban area itself (e.g. eateries, offices, local attractions). The observations can be extended for application in food and travel recommendation engines as well as for research in urban analytics, smart cities and town planning.

  10. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, E S C; van Straaten, E C W; de Leeuw, F-E;

    2007-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white...... matter hyperintensities. METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly (LADIS) study, we investigated the relationships between DM, hypertension, blood pressure and MTA in 582 subjects, stratified by white matter hyperintensity severity, using multinomial logistic regression. MTA was...... visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0-4), and meaned. RESULTS: Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95...

  11. Clinical significance of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy in computed tomography of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, O.; Agnoli, A.L.; Lippmann, R.; Schuetz, H.J.

    1981-02-01

    The diagnosis of atrophy of the brain based on the visual interpretation of CT findings appears questionable. In 56 patients there was no correlation between the CT findings of enlarged ventricles and sulci and clinical findings of psychoorganic syndromes. Only the group of 60 to 80 year old patients showed a statistically significant correlation between psychoorganic findings and the area of the lateral ventricles - measured planimetrically - and the diameter of the cella medica, but not the group of the 40 to 60 year old. There was no relationship between the number of cortical sulci and psychopathology. The morphological findings of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy in CT - even with exact measurements - do not allow any conclusions in regard to psychoorganic findings.

  12. The clinical significance of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy in computed tomography of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of atrophy of the brain based on the visual interpretation of CT findings appears questionable. In 56 patients there was no correlation between the CT findings of enlarged ventricles and sulci and clinical findings of psychoorganic syndromes. Only the group of 60 to 80 year old patients showed a statistically significant correlation between psychoorganic findings and the area of the lateral ventricles - measured planimetrically - and the diameter of the cella medica, but not the group of the 40 to 60 year old. There was no relationship between the number of cortical sulci and psychopathology. The morphological findings of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy in CT - even with exact measurements - do not allow any conclusions in regard to psychoorganic findings. (orig.)

  13. Macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy: increased risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Noritoshi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to estimate whether the macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy is associated with a risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using a case-control study in Japanese subjects, a population known to have a high prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection. Methods Two hundred and fifty-three patients who were diagnosed as having esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 253 sex- and age-matched controls were enrolled in the present study. The macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy was evaluated based on the Kimura and Takemoto Classification. A conditional logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding factors was used to assess the associations. Results Body gastritis, defined endoscopically, was independently associated with an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion Our findings suggest that macroscopic body gastritis may be a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  14. Bidirectional Growth Based Mining and Cyclic Behaviour Analysis of Web Sequential Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikantaiah K C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Web sequential patterns are important for analyzing and understanding users’ behaviour to improve the quality of service offered by the World Wide Web. Web Prefetching is one such technique that utilizes prefetching rules derived through Cyclic Model Analysis of the mined Web sequential patterns. The moreaccurate the prediction and more satisfying the results of prefetching if we use a highly efficient and scalable mining technique such as the Bidirectional Growth based Directed Acyclic Graph. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm called Bidirectional Growth based mining Cyclic behavior Analysis of web sequential Patterns (BGCAP that effectively combines these strategies to generate prefetching rules in the form of 2-sequence patterns with Periodicity and threshold of Cyclic Behaviour that can be utilized toeffectively prefetch Web pages, thus reducing the users’ perceived latency. As BGCAP is based on Bidirectional pattern growth, it performs only (log n+1 levels of recursion for mining n Web sequential patterns. Our experimental results show that prefetching rules generated using BGCAP is 5-10% faster for different data sizes and 10-15% faster for a fixed data size than TD-Mine. In addition, BGCAP generates about 5-15% more prefetching rules than TD-Mine

  15. BIDIRECTIONAL GROWTH BASED MINING AND CYCLIC BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS OF WEB SEQUENTIAL PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikantaiah K C

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Web sequential patterns are important for analyzing and understanding users’ behaviour to improve the quality of service offered by the World Wide Web. Web Prefetching is one such technique that utilizes prefetching rules derived through Cyclic Model Analysis of the mined Web sequential patterns. The more accurate the prediction and more satisfying the results of prefetching if we use a highly efficient and scalable mining technique such as the Bidirectional Growth based Directed Acyclic Graph. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm called Bidirectional Growth based mining Cyclic behavior Analysis of web sequential Patterns (BGCAP that effectively combines these strategies to generate prefetching rules in the form of 2-sequence patterns with Periodicity and threshold of Cyclic Behaviour that can be utilized to effectively prefetch Web pages, thus reducing the users’ perceived latency. As BGCAP is based on Bidirectional pattern growth, it performs only (log n+1 levels of recursion for mining n Web sequential patterns. Our experimental results show that prefetching rules generated using BGCAP is 5-10% faster for different data sizes and 10-15% faster for a fixed data size than TD-Mine. In addition, BGCAP generates about 5-15% more prefetching rules than TD-Mine.

  16. A Wide-range Survey on Recall-Based Graphical User Authentications Algorithms Based on ISO and Attack Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Habibi Lashkari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, user authentication is one of the important topics in information security. Text-based strong password schemes could provide with certain degree of security. However, the fact that strong passwords being difficult to memorize often leads their owners to write them down on papers or even save them in a computer file. Graphical user authentication (GUA has been proposed as a possible alternative solution to text-based authentication, motivated particularly by the fact that humans can remember images better than text. In recent years, many networks, computer systems and Internet-based environments try used GUA technique for their user’s authentication. All of GUA algorithms have two different aspects which are usability and security. Unfortunately, none of graphical algorithms were being able to cover both of these aspects at the same time. This paper presents a wide-range survey on the pure and cued recall-based algorithms in GUA, based on ISO standards for usability and attack patterns standards for security. After explain usability ISO standards and attack patterns international standards, we try to collect the major attributes of usability and security in GUA. Finally, try to make comparison tables among all recall-based algorithms based on usability attributes and attack patterns those we found. Keywords - Recall-Based Graphical User Authentication; Graphical Password; Usability and security; ISO 9241-11; ISO 9126, ISO 13407; Attack Patterns; Brute force, Dictionary attacks; Guessing; Spyware; Shoulder surfing; Social engineering (description.

  17. The diagnosis of thymoma and thymic atrophy in patients with myasthenia gravis; Dignostikk av tymom og thymusatrofi hos pasienter med myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, K.K.; Skeie, G.O.; Gilhus, N.E.; Aarli, J.A.; Varhaug, J.E. [Haukeland Sykehus, Bergen (Norway)

    1997-11-01

    The authors have compared clinical, immunological and radiological data in 20 patients with myasthenia gravis and thymoma and in 21 patients with myasthenia gravis and thymic atrophy. The median age at onset was 54 years in the thymoma group and 63 years in the thymic atrophy group. The severity of the disease was similar in the two groups, and there was no significant difference in the concentration of acetylcholine receptor antibodies. CA antibodies were demonstrated in 17/20 thymoma patients and in 6/21 with thymic atrophy, while 19/20 thymoma patients had antibodies to titin, compared with 9/21 among those with thymic atrophy. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis is based upon an evaluation of clinical, immunological and radiological data. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Identifying typical patterns of vulnerability: A 5-step approach based on cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietz, Diana; Lüdeke, Matthias; Kok, Marcel; Lucas, Paul; Carsten, Walther; Janssen, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Specific processes that shape the vulnerability of socio-ecological systems to climate, market and other stresses derive from diverse background conditions. Within the multitude of vulnerability-creating mechanisms, distinct processes recur in various regions inspiring research on typical patterns of vulnerability. The vulnerability patterns display typical combinations of the natural and socio-economic properties that shape a systems' vulnerability to particular stresses. Based on the identification of a limited number of vulnerability patterns, pattern analysis provides an efficient approach to improving our understanding of vulnerability and decision-making for vulnerability reduction. However, current pattern analyses often miss explicit descriptions of their methods and pay insufficient attention to the validity of their groupings. Therefore, the question arises as to how do we identify typical vulnerability patterns in order to enhance our understanding of a systems' vulnerability to stresses? A cluster-based pattern recognition applied at global and local levels is scrutinised with a focus on an applicable methodology and practicable insights. Taking the example of drylands, this presentation demonstrates the conditions necessary to identify typical vulnerability patterns. They are summarised in five methodological steps comprising the elicitation of relevant cause-effect hypotheses and the quantitative indication of mechanisms as well as an evaluation of robustness, a validation and a ranking of the identified patterns. Reflecting scale-dependent opportunities, a global study is able to support decision-making with insights into the up-scaling of interventions when available funds are limited. In contrast, local investigations encourage an outcome-based validation. This constitutes a crucial step in establishing the credibility of the patterns and hence their suitability for informing extension services and individual decisions. In this respect, working at

  19. The transmission of fluctuant patterns of the forex burden based on international crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a country that imports crude oil, the forex burden is always fluctuant due to the fluctuation of international crude oil prices and exchange rates over time. The gap discovered between international crude oil prices and the crude oil price based on exchange rates may indicate the fluctuation of the forex burden. There exist different fluctuant patterns in the fluctuation process of the forex burden in different periods. Hence, we proposed an approach combining econometrics and complex network theory to explore the transmission mechanism of these fluctuant patterns. In this study, we defined the forex burden and the fluctuant patterns by normalization, sliding windows of data and econometric models. And then we set the fluctuant patterns as nodes and the transformation between patterns as edges; in this way, the transmission complex network is constructed. The results show that different major fluctuant patterns with different probabilities appear in different scales. The fluctuant patterns transferred into each other conveniently. And the transmission medium can help to identify the transitional periods in the process of the transmission. The contribution of this study to the energy policy decision-making is that the formulations of related policies under different period lengths require different reference standards. - Highlights: • Small “gap” between crude oil price and exchange rate can make great forex fluctuation. • We defined the fluctuant patterns of forex burden through data sliding windows. • We constructed the transmission network models of fluctuant patterns of forex burden. • The transitional periods can be identified by media capabilities of fluctuant patterns. • Energy policies making for different lengths of period should reference different scales standards

  20. Automated CBED processing: Sample thickness estimation based on analysis of zone-axis CBED pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated processing of convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns is presented. The proposed methods are used in an automated tool for estimating the thickness of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples by matching an experimental zone-axis CBED pattern with a series of patterns simulated for known thicknesses. The proposed tool detects CBED disks, localizes a pattern in detected disks and unifies the coordinate system of the experimental pattern with the simulated one. The experimental pattern is then compared disk-by-disk with a series of simulated patterns each corresponding to different known thicknesses. The thickness of the most similar simulated pattern is then taken as the thickness estimate. The tool was tested on [0 1 1] Si, [0 1 0] α-Ti and [0 1 1] α-Ti samples prepared using different techniques. Results of the presented approach were compared with thickness estimates based on analysis of CBED patterns in two beam conditions. The mean difference between these two methods was 4.1% for the FIB-prepared silicon samples, 5.2% for the electro-chemically polished titanium and 7.9% for Ar+ ion-polished titanium. The proposed techniques can also be employed in other established CBED analyses. Apart from the thickness estimation, it can potentially be used to quantify lattice deformation, structure factors, symmetry, defects or extinction distance. - Highlights: • Automated TEM sample thickness estimation using zone-axis CBED is presented. • Computer vision and artificial intelligence are employed in CBED processing. • This approach reduces operator effort, analysis time and increases repeatability. • Individual parts can be employed in other analyses of CBED/diffraction pattern

  1. Automated CBED processing: Sample thickness estimation based on analysis of zone-axis CBED pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, M., E-mail: klinger@post.cz; Němec, M.; Polívka, L.; Gärtnerová, V.; Jäger, A.

    2015-03-15

    An automated processing of convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns is presented. The proposed methods are used in an automated tool for estimating the thickness of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples by matching an experimental zone-axis CBED pattern with a series of patterns simulated for known thicknesses. The proposed tool detects CBED disks, localizes a pattern in detected disks and unifies the coordinate system of the experimental pattern with the simulated one. The experimental pattern is then compared disk-by-disk with a series of simulated patterns each corresponding to different known thicknesses. The thickness of the most similar simulated pattern is then taken as the thickness estimate. The tool was tested on [0 1 1] Si, [0 1 0] α-Ti and [0 1 1] α-Ti samples prepared using different techniques. Results of the presented approach were compared with thickness estimates based on analysis of CBED patterns in two beam conditions. The mean difference between these two methods was 4.1% for the FIB-prepared silicon samples, 5.2% for the electro-chemically polished titanium and 7.9% for Ar{sup +} ion-polished titanium. The proposed techniques can also be employed in other established CBED analyses. Apart from the thickness estimation, it can potentially be used to quantify lattice deformation, structure factors, symmetry, defects or extinction distance. - Highlights: • Automated TEM sample thickness estimation using zone-axis CBED is presented. • Computer vision and artificial intelligence are employed in CBED processing. • This approach reduces operator effort, analysis time and increases repeatability. • Individual parts can be employed in other analyses of CBED/diffraction pattern.

  2. An Effective Method of Monitoring the Large-Scale Traffic Pattern Based on RMT and PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms to extract the characteristics of network traffic play a significant role in traffic monitoring, offering helpful information for network management and control. In this paper, a method based on Random Matrix Theory (RMT and Principal Components Analysis (PCA is proposed for monitoring and analyzing large-scale traffic patterns in the Internet. Besides the analysis of the largest eigenvalue in RMT, useful information is also extracted from small eigenvalues by a method based on PCA. And then an appropriate approach is put forward to select some observation points on the base of the eigen analysis. Finally, some experiments about peer-to-peer traffic pattern recognition and backbone aggregate flow estimation are constructed. The simulation results show that using about 10% of nodes as observation points, our method can monitor and extract key information about Internet traffic patterns.

  3. Ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography using cyclodextrin-based porous template for pattern failure reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    An approach to ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprint lithography using a cyclodextrin-based porous template was investigated for the reduction of air trapping and template damage caused by gases such as nitrogen and oxygen generated from UV cross-linked materials. The accuracy of the printed pattern using UV nanoimprint lithography with the porous transparent template was improved because of enhanced material adsorption and increased permeability to gaseous species. The use of volatile solvents in the UV cross-linked materials for nanoimprint lithography has been limited because of high pattern failure rates. However, using the cyclodextrin-based porous template, the UV cross-linked materials with a 5 wt. % volatile solvent exhibited well-defined nanoscale patterns. Based on this study, acceptable chemistries for the UV cross-linked materials have been expanded, which will be beneficial for future device applications using UV nanoimprint lithography.

  4. Human Walking Pattern Recognition Based on KPCA and SVM with Ground Reflex Pressure Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms based on the ground reflex pressure (GRF signal obtained from a pair of sensing shoes for human walking pattern recognition were investigated. The dimensionality reduction algorithms based on principal component analysis (PCA and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA for walking pattern data compression were studied in order to obtain higher recognition speed. Classifiers based on support vector machine (SVM, SVM-PCA, and SVM-KPCA were designed, and the classification performances of these three kinds of algorithms were compared using data collected from a person who was wearing the sensing shoes. Experimental results showed that the algorithm fusing SVM and KPCA had better recognition performance than the other two methods. Experimental outcomes also confirmed that the sensing shoes developed in this paper can be employed for automatically recognizing human walking pattern in unlimited environments which demonstrated the potential application in the control of exoskeleton robots.

  5. [Regional ecosecurity pattern in urban area based on land use analysis: a case study in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shubo; Xiao, Dunin; An, Shuqing

    2005-12-01

    Mid-scale regional ecosecurity, which takes practical ecosecurity issues as its priority, should be viewed as the core of the multi-scale concept of ecosecurity. For urban area, a special region taking ecological infrastructure as its core mission, the construction of regional ecosecurity pattern may provide a good chance to realize its sustainable development. Based on land use analysis, a qualitative and quantitative research on the landscape pattern, ecovalue evaluation, and driving force analysis of social economy could provide an effective approach to construct the ecosecurity pattern in urban area. This study showed that in Lanzhou, the ecosecurity pattern consisted of three parts, i.e., eco-safeguarding system, eco-buffering system and eco-percolating system, among which, eco-buffering system was the decisive part determining ecosecurity pattern construction. The quantitative analysis of urban spatial expansion pattern was taken as the decisive function to determine the security level of the ecosecurity pattern, which was divided into low, middle and high levels. PMID:16515173

  6. SPMBR: a scalable algorithm for mining sequential patterns based on bitmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiwei; Zhang, Changhai

    2013-12-01

    Now some sequential patterns mining algorithms generate too many candidate sequences, and increase the processing cost of support counting. Therefore, we present an effective and scalable algorithm called SPMBR (Sequential Patterns Mining based on Bitmap Representation) to solve the problem of mining the sequential patterns for large databases. Our method differs from previous related works of mining sequential patterns. The main difference is that the database of sequential patterns is represented by bitmaps, and a simplified bitmap structure is presented firstly. In this paper, First the algorithm generate candidate sequences by SE(Sequence Extension) and IE(Item Extension), and then obtain all frequent sequences by comparing the original bitmap and the extended item bitmap .This method could simplify the problem of mining the sequential patterns and avoid the high processing cost of support counting. Both theories and experiments indicate that the performance of SPMBR is predominant for large transaction databases, the required memory size for storing temporal data is much less during mining process, and all sequential patterns can be mined with feasibility.

  7. Myopathic EMG findings and type II muscle fiber atrophy in patients with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John

    2013-01-01

    Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare condition, which may mimic myopathy. A few reports have described that EMG in LEMS may show changes compatible with myopathy, and muscle biopsies have been described with type II as well as type I atrophy. The EMG results were, however, based on ...

  8. Functional neural substrates of posterior cortical atrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shames, H; Raz, N; Levin, Netta

    2015-07-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome in which the most pronounced pathologic involvement is in the occipito-parietal visual regions. Herein, we aimed to better define the cortical reflection of this unique syndrome using a thorough battery of behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) tests. Eight PCA patients underwent extensive testing to map their visual deficits. Assessments included visual functions associated with lower and higher components of the cortical hierarchy, as well as dorsal- and ventral-related cortical functions. fMRI was performed on five patients to examine the neuronal substrate of their visual functions. The PCA patient cohort exhibited stereopsis, saccadic eye movements and higher dorsal stream-related functional impairments, including simultant perception, image orientation, figure-from-ground segregation, closure and spatial orientation. In accordance with the behavioral findings, fMRI revealed intact activation in the ventral visual regions of face and object perception while more dorsal aspects of perception, including motion and gestalt perception, revealed impaired patterns of activity. In most of the patients, there was a lack of activity in the word form area, which is known to be linked to reading disorders. Finally, there was evidence of reduced cortical representation of the peripheral visual field, corresponding to the behaviorally assessed peripheral visual deficit. The findings are discussed in the context of networks extending from parietal regions, which mediate navigationally related processing, visually guided actions, eye movement control and working memory, suggesting that damage to these networks might explain the wide range of deficits in PCA patients. PMID:25976028

  9. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. This research aims to find out the white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera variability based on the morphological characteristic and protein banding pattern found in ”salak pondoh” farm in Regencies of Sleman, Yogyakarta and Magelang, Central Java. Each area has five sampling points. Morphological analysis on white grub was conducted using descriptive method and analysis on protein banding pattern was conducted using qualitative analysis based on the presence or absent of band pattern on the gel, and qualitatively based on the relative mobility value (Rf of protein. The result indicated that the white grub in Sleman and Magelang, based on morphology characteristic is only one species, namely Holothricia sp. Based on the protein banding pattern, the white grub sample have differences of protein band number and protein molecular weight. Key words: Salacca zalacca, white grub, morphology, protein banding pattern.Abstrak. Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Karakterisasi lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera pada pertanaman salak berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman lundi putih (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein yang ditemukan di lahan pertanaman salak pondoh di Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta dan Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah. Pada masing-masing wilayah diambil lima titik sampling. Analisis morfologi lundi putih digunakan metode deskriptif, dan analisis pola pita protein digunakan analisis kualitatif berdasarkan muncul tidaknya pola pita pada gel, dan secara kuantitatif berdasarkan nilai mobilitas relatif protein (RF. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sampel lundi putih di Kabupaten Sleman dan Magelang, berdasar karakter

  10. Analysis of phase-resolved partial discharge patterns of voids based on a stochastic process approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented for the determination of physical discharge parameters for partial discharges (PDs) of voids in solid insulation. Based on a recently developed stochastic theory of PD processes, a statistical analysis of a measured phase-resolved partial discharge (PRPD) pattern allows the determination of the relevant physical parameters like first electron availability or decay time constants for deployed charge carriers. These parameters can be estimated directly from the measured patterns without the need of performing simulations. Furthermore, error bounds for the parameter values can be given. The parameter estimation algorithm is based on the analysis of a contiguous region of the PRPD pattern where this region can be chosen nearly arbitrarily. Thus, even patterns with several active PD defects or patterns which are corrupted by noise can be analysed. The method is applied to a sequence of patterns of a void in epoxy resin. The change in first electron availability in the course of a day can be determined quantitatively from the data while the other physical parameters remain constant. (author)

  11. A Combination of Central Pattern Generator-based and Reflex-based Neural Networks for Dynamic, Adaptive, Robust Bipedal Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Canio, Giuliano; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin;

    2016-01-01

    Robotic systems inspired from humans have always been lightening up the curiosity of engineers and scientists. Of many challenges, human locomotion is a very difficult one where a number of different systems needs to interact in order to generate a correct and balanced pattern. To simulate...... the interaction of these systems, implementations with reflexbased or central pattern generator (CPG)-based controllers have been tested on bipedal robot systems. In this paper we will combine the two controller types, into a controller that works with both reflex and CPG signals. We use a reflex-based neural...... network to generate basic walking patterns of a dynamic bipedal walking robot (DACBOT) and then a CPG-based neural network to ensure robust walking behavior...

  12. Combining Biometric Fractal Pattern and Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Classifier for Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes combining the biometric fractal pattern and particle swarm optimization (PSO-based classifier for fingerprint recognition. Fingerprints have arch, loop, whorl, and accidental morphologies, and embed singular points, resulting in the establishment of fingerprint individuality. An automatic fingerprint identification system consists of two stages: digital image processing (DIP and pattern recognition. DIP is used to convert to binary images, refine out noise, and locate the reference point. For binary images, Katz's algorithm is employed to estimate the fractal dimension (FD from a two-dimensional (2D image. Biometric features are extracted as fractal patterns using different FDs. Probabilistic neural network (PNN as a classifier performs to compare the fractal patterns among the small-scale database. A PSO algorithm is used to tune the optimal parameters and heighten the accuracy. For 30 subjects in the laboratory, the proposed classifier demonstrates greater efficiency and higher accuracy in fingerprint recognition.

  13. A Pattern Language for the Evolution of Component-based Software Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Aakash; Jamshidi, Pooyan; Pahl, Claus;

    2013-01-01

    Modern software systems are prone to a continuous evolution under frequently varying requirements. Architecture-centric software evolution enables change in system’s structure and behavior while maintaining a global view of the software to address evolution-centric tradeoffs. Lehman’s law of...... continuing change demands for long-living and continuously evolving architectures to prolong the productive life and economic value of deployed software. However, existing solutions for architectural maintenance and evolution fall short of exploiting generic and reusable expertise to address recurring...... enable reuse-driven and consistent evolution in component-based software architectures. Pattern interconnections represent possible relationships among patterns (such as variants or related patterns) in the language. In general, we introduce architecture change mining (pattern language development) as a...

  14. Hypospadias as a novel feature in spinal bulbar muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenvall, Anna Skarin; Paucar, Martin; Almqvist, Catarina; Nordenström, Anna; Frisén, Louise; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2016-04-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscle atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked neuromuscular disorder caused by CAG repeat expansions in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The SBMA phenotype consists of slowly progressive neuromuscular symptoms and undermasculinization features as the result of malfunction of the AR. The latter mainly includes gynecomastia and infertility. Hypospadias is also a feature of undermasculinization with an underdeveloped urethra and penis; it has not been described as part of the SBMA phenotype but has been suggested to be associated with a prolonged CAG repeat in the AR gene. This study includes the first epidemiologic description of the co-occurrence of hypospadias and SBMA in subjects and their male relatives in Swedish population-based health registers, as well as an additional clinical case. One boy with severe hypospadias was screened for mutations in the AR gene and was found to have 42 CAG repeats in it, which is in the full range of mutations causing SBMA later in life. We also detected a maximum of four cases displaying the combination of SBMA and hypospadias in our national register databases. This is the third case report with hypospadias in association with CAG repeat expansions in the AR gene in the full range known to cause SBMA later in life. Our findings suggest that hypospadias may be an under diagnosed feature of the SBMA phenotype and we propose that neurologists working with SBMA further investigate and report the true prevalence of hypospadias among patients with SBMA. PMID:26872663

  15. FBXO7 mutations in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conedera, Silvio; Apaydin, Hulya; Li, Yuanzhe; Yoshino, Hiroyo; Ikeda, Aya; Matsushima, Takashi; Funayama, Manabu; Nishioka, Kenya; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in the F-box only protein 7 (FBXO7) gene, located on chromosome 22q12-q13, have recently been identified as having distinct clinical features in patients with hereditary Parkinson's disease (PD). Pathologically, α-synuclein-positive inclusions have been identified using anti-FBXO7 antibody staining techniques. In the present study, we screened entire exons of FBXO7 from 271 patients (231 PD and 40 multiple system atrophy [MSA]), of which 221 samples were of Japanese origin. The PD patients (n = 231) comprised 31 autosomal dominant, 82 autosomal recessive, and 118 sporadic forms. The 40 cases of MSA consisted of 8 autosomal dominant, 2 autosomal recessive, and 30 sporadic forms. We detected a Turkish patient with autosomal recessive inheritance, harboring a homozygous truncating mutation, Arg498Stop (p.R498X), in the FBXO7 gene. Consequently, we evaluated her and assessed the correlation between her clinical manifestations and genotypic analysis, although the FBXO7 p.R498X gene has lower frequency than others. Her age at onset was 17 years, and she clinically manifested with progressive parkinsonism and cognitive decline. In contrast, no pathogenic mutations in FBXO7 among PD and MSA patients of Japanese or other ethnicities were observed. Based on recent literature, we reviewed and compared the clinical findings and population differences between documented FBXO7 cases. PMID:26882974

  16. Biomarkers in Rare Disorders: The Experience with Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Brahe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by homozygous mutations of the SMN1 gene. Based on clinical severity, three forms of SMA are recognized (type I–III. All patients have at least one (usually 2–4 copies of a highly homologous gene (SMN2 which produces insufficient levels of functional SMN protein, due to alternative splicing of exon7. Recently, evidence has been provided that SMN2 expression can be enhanced by different strategies. The availability of potential candidates to treat SMA has raised a number of issues, including the availability of data on the natural history of the disease, the reliability and sensitivity of outcome measures, the duration of the studies, and the number and clinical homogeneity of participating patients. Equally critical is the availability of reliable biomarkers. So far, different tools have been proposed as biomarkers in SMA, classifiable into two groups: instrumental (the Compound Motor Action Potential, the Motor Unit Number Estimation, and the Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and molecular (SMN gene products dosage, either transcripts or protein. However, none of the biomarkers available so far can be considered the gold standard. Preclinical studies on SMA animal models and double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are crucial to evaluate the appropriateness of biomarkers, on the basis of correlations with clinical outcome.

  17. Dietary Patterns Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease: Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Gustaw-Rothenberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently dietary pattern analysis has emerged as a way for examining diet-disease relations in Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast with the conventional approach, which focuses on a single nutrient or a few nutrients or foods, this method considers overall eating patterns. We examined the dietary patterns defined by factor analysis using data collected with a food-frequency questionnaire in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD as compared to healthy controls. The diet data were obtained during population based study of the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in a population in Poland. Stratified sampling and random selection strategies were combined to obtain a representative population for screening (age group > 55. From the population screened three times, 71 people were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s according to DSM-IV, and were recruited for further diet risk factors assessment. A group of people with Alzheimer disease (n = 71; F/M 42/29 and the same number of healthy, age and gender matched control were recruited for the study. Patients and their caregivers as well as controls were presented with a food frequency questionnaire based on the 12 food groups. Factor analysis (principal component was used to derive food patterns. The analysis was conducted using the factor procedure. The factors were rotated by an orthogonal transformation (Varimax rotation to achieve simpler structure with greater interpretability. Using factor analysis, we identified major eating patterns, one for Alzheimer’s patients and a different one for control group. The AD dietary pattern, FACTOR AD was characterized by a high intake of meat, butter, high-fat dairy products, eggs, and refined sugar, whereas the other pattern, (FACTOR C was characterized by a high intake of grains and vegetables. These data indicate the existence of dietary patterns defined by factor analysis with data from a food frequency questionnaire, characteristic for Alzheimer’s disease in a

  18. A novel analysis of spring phenological patterns over Europe based on co-clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Kraak, Menno-Jan

    2016-06-01

    The study of phenological patterns and their dynamics provides insights into the impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems. Here we present a novel analytical workflow, based on co-clustering, that enables the concurrent study of spatio-temporal patterns in spring phenology. The workflow is illustrated with a long-term time series of first leaf dates (FLD) over Europe, northern Africa, and Turkey calculated using the extended spring index models and the European E-OBS daily maximum and minimum temperatures (1950 to 2011 with a spatial resolution of 0.25°). This FLD dataset was co-clustered using the Bregman block average co-clustering with I-divergence (BBAC_I), and the results were refined using k-means. These refined co-clusters were mapped to provide a first spatially-continuous delineation of phenoregions in Europe. Our results show that the study area exhibits four main spatial phenological patterns of spring onset. The temporal dynamics of these phenological patterns indicate that the first years of the study period tend to have late spring onsets and the recent years have early spring onsets. Our results also show that the study period exhibits 12 main temporal phenological patterns of spring onset. The spatial distributions of these temporal phenological patterns show that western Turkey tends to have the most variable spring onsets. Changes in the boundaries of other phenoregions can also be observed. These results indicate that this co-clustering based analytical workflow effectively enables the simultaneous study of both spatial patterns and their temporal dynamics and of temporal patterns and their spatial dynamics in spring phenology.

  19. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaegashi Nobuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. Methods We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI and energy intake. Results Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94 after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90 after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. Conclusions The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.

  20. Patterns and Rates of Learning in Two Problem-Based Learning Courses Using Outcome Based Assessment and Elaboration Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ted Needham; Usha Kuruganti; Pierre Zundel

    2012-01-01

    The concept of “practice makes perfect” was examined in this work in the context of effective learning. Specifically, we wanted to know how much practice was needed for students to demonstrate mastery of learning outcomes. Student learning patterns in two different university courses that use a similar education approach involving problem based learning, outcomes based assessment, and problem sequencing based on elaboration theory were examined. Learning outcomes for each course were explicit...

  1. Early silent microstructural degeneration and atrophy of the thalamocortical network in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Michael; Krämer, Julia; Tenberge, Jan-Gerd; Marinell, Jasmin; Schwindt, Wolfram; Deppe, Katja; Groppa, Sergiu; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies on patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrated thalamic atrophy. Here we addressed the following question: Is early thalamic atrophy in patients with CIS and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) mainly a direct consequence of white matter (WM) lesions-as frequently claimed-or is the atrophy stronger correlated to "silent" (nonlesional) microstructural thalamic alterations? One-hundred and ten patients with RRMS, 12 with CIS, and 30 healthy controls were admitted to 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was computed from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess thalamic and WM microstructure. The relative thalamic volume (RTV) and thalamic FA were significantly reduced in patients with CIS and RRMS relative to healthy controls. Both measures were also correlated. The age, gender, WM lesion load, thalamic FA, and gray matter volume-corrected RTV were reduced even in the absence of thalamic and extensive white matter lesions-also in patients with short disease duration (≤24 months). A voxel-based correlation analysis revealed that the RTV reduction had a significant effect on local WM FA-in areas next to the thalamus and basal ganglia. These WM alterations could not be explained by WM lesions, which had a differing spatial distribution. Early thalamic atrophy is mainly driven by silent microstructural thalamic alterations. Lesions do not disclose the early damage of thalamocortical circuits, which seem to be much more affected in CIS and RRMS than expected. Thalamocortical damage can be detected by DTI in normal appearing brain tissue. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1866-1879, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26920497

  2. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. (orig.)

  3. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Christiane; Benedictus, Marije R.; Koedam, Esther L.G.M.; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center and Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center and Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Versteeg, Adriaan; Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrenken, Hugo [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. (orig.)

  4. Medical image classification using spatial adjacent histogram based on adaptive local binary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Shengsheng; Huang, Dezhi; Deng, Gang; Zeng, Fantao; Chen, Huiling

    2016-05-01

    Medical image recognition is an important task in both computer vision and computational biology. In the field of medical image classification, representing an image based on local binary patterns (LBP) descriptor has become popular. However, most existing LBP-based methods encode the binary patterns in a fixed neighborhood radius and ignore the spatial relationships among local patterns. The ignoring of the spatial relationships in the LBP will cause a poor performance in the process of capturing discriminative features for complex samples, such as medical images obtained by microscope. To address this problem, in this paper we propose a novel method to improve local binary patterns by assigning an adaptive neighborhood radius for each pixel. Based on these adaptive local binary patterns, we further propose a spatial adjacent histogram strategy to encode the micro-structures for image representation. An extensive set of evaluations are performed on four medical datasets which show that the proposed method significantly improves standard LBP and compares favorably with several other prevailing approaches. PMID:27058283

  5. Preliminary study on computer automatic quantification of brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the variability of normal brain volume with the sex and age, and put forward an objective standard for computer automatic quantification of brain atrophy. Methods: The cranial volume, brain volume and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) of 487 cases of brain atrophy (310 males, 177 females) and 1901 cases of normal subjects (993 males, 908 females) were calculated with the newly developed algorithm of automatic quantification for brain atrophy. With the technique of polynomial curve fitting, the mathematical relationship of BPF with age in normal subjects was analyzed. Results: The cranial volume, brain volume and BPF of normal subjects were (1 271 322 ± 128 699) mm3, (1 211 725 ± 122 077) mm3 and (95.3471 ± 2.3453)%, respectively, and those of atrophy subjects were (1 276 900 ± 125 180) mm3, (1 203 400 ± 117 760) mm3 and BPF(91.8115 ± 2.3035)% respectively. The difference of BPF between the two groups was extremely significant (P0.05). The expression P(x)=-0.0008x2 + 0.0193x + 96.9999 could accurately describe the mathematical relationship between BPF and age in normal subject (lower limit of 95% CI y=-0.0008x2+0.0184x+95.1090). Conclusion: The lower limit of 95% confidence interval mathematical relationship between BPF and age could be used as an objective criteria for automatic quantification of brain atrophy with computer. (authors)

  6. A case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clinical case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA) was reported. We established several aspects on the basis of MRI findings and a neuro-otological study. A 47-year-old woman had gait disturbance, involuntary movements, speech disturbance, and memory disturbance at the age of 42. She was admitted to the hospital because of worsening of the gait disturbance. Neurological examinations showed choreo-athetosis of the face, neck and upper extremities, mental disturbance, and scanning speech. However, she had neither ocular disturbance nor epilepsy or myoclonus. On the MRI-CT, an atrophy of midbrain and pontine tegmentum was observed. The neuro-otological study showed gaze nystagmus at the horizontal gaze, rebound nystagmus, hypometria of the saccade, saccadic pursuit, reduction of the optokinetic nystagmus, and increase in caloric nystagmus by means of visual input. A severe atrophy of the brainstem tegmentum and a mild atrophy of the cerebellar hemisphere and cerebral cortex are regarded as neuro-radiological features of DRPLA. Moreover, tegmental atrophy is related to ocular disturbance as a clinical feature. Various neuro-otological findings reveal many systems of ocular movements, i.e., a smooth pursuit system, a saccade system, and a vestibulo-ocular reflex system, involving flocculus. DRPLA can be clinically diagnosed by means of clinical features, MRI findings, and neuro-otological findings. A variety of neuro-otological abnormalities may indicate a progression of the ocular disturbance and a variety of lesions. (author)

  7. Novel On-Wafer Radiation Pattern Measurement Technique for MEMS Actuator Based Reconfigurable Patch Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2002-10-01

    The paper presents a novel on-wafer, antenna far field pattern measurement technique for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based reconfigurable patch antennas. The measurement technique significantly reduces the time and the cost associated with the characterization of printed antennas, fabricated on a semiconductor wafer or dielectric substrate. To measure the radiation patterns, the RF probe station is modified to accommodate an open-ended rectangular waveguide as the rotating linearly polarized sampling antenna. The open-ended waveguide is attached through a coaxial rotary joint to a Plexiglas(Trademark) arm and is driven along an arc by a stepper motor. Thus, the spinning open-ended waveguide can sample the relative field intensity of the patch as a function of the angle from bore sight. The experimental results include the measured linearly polarized and circularly polarized radiation patterns for MEMS-based frequency reconfigurable rectangular and polarization reconfigurable nearly square patch antennas, respectively.

  8. Towards a Pattern Language for Self-adaptation of Cloud-based Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Aakash; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing enables organisations to deploy their software systems over a pool of available services – exploiting pay-per-use models – rather than upfront purchase of an overprovisioned infrastructure. In an architectural context for cloud systems that demand elasticity in terms of service...... availability, reliability, and efficiency, there is a need to capitalise on the ‘build-once, use-often’ solutions that support reuse-driven self-adaptations of cloud-based architectures. We support the composition and application of a pattern language that exploits adaptation patterns and their relations to...... support ‘adaptation-off-the-shelf’ for cloud-based software architectures. We unify the concepts of software repository mining and software evolution to support the composition and application of an adaptation pattern language. First, we exploit the software repository mining concepts by investigating...

  9. DNA methylation in the NCAPH2/LMF2 promoter region is associated with hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and amnesic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Tomoyuki; Kusaka, Akira; Yamada, Hisashi; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-26

    Several studies have noted an effect of DNA methylation on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have already reported that DNA methylation levels in the NCAPH2/LMF2 promoter region can be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of AD and amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, there is still uncertainty about the mechanism by which NCAPH2/LMF2 methylation affects the pathogenesis of AD and aMCI. In this study, we investigated relationships between NCAPH2/LMF2 methylation and other factors. AD (n=30) and aMCI (n=28) subjects were included in this study. NCAPH2/LMF2 methylation levels were measured by pyrosequencing. Correlations between methylation levels and other factors including age at onset, sex, duration of disease, education, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and frontal assessment battery (FAB) scores, APOE genotype, degree of hippocampal atrophy, and total brain atrophy were measured. Degrees of hippocampal atrophy and total brain atrophy were measured by VSRAD (Voxel-Based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease). Regression analysis revealed that only hippocampal atrophy according to VSRAD is a significant dependent variable correlated with NCAPH2/LMF2 methylation levels. Our results suggest that DNA methylation in the NCAPH2/LMF2 promoter region is associated with hippocampal atrophy through apoptosis. PMID:27356276

  10. An Heighten PSO-K-harmonic Mean Based Pattern Recognition in User Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gobinath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The website navigation patterns can be searched and analyzed with the introduction of the new methodology. The user navigation path is stored as a sequence of URL categories in web server. The approaches followed are to separate the users and sessions from the web log files and acquiring the necessary patterns for web personalization. The clustering concept is used for grouping the necessary patterns in separate groups. The approaches used for clustering of navigation patterns are done with improvised particle swarm optimization technique which divides users depends on the order in which they request web pages. This approach mines the web log files which are resultant from the web users while interacting with web pages for a particular period of web sessions. The work carried with an optimized method of particle swarm optimization-K-Harmonic means to cluster the similar users based on their navigation pattern. Particle swarm optimization-K-Harmonic method is used to discover or extract user’s navigational patterns from web log files.

  11. Brain atrophy in Huntington's disease: A CT-scan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT-scan measurements of cortical and subcortical atrophy were carried out in 34 patients with Huntington's disease (HD). While a significant correlation was observed between parameters of subcortical atrophy (bicaudate ratio, bifrontal ratio and third ventricular ratio) and duration of the disease, there was no significant correlation between these parameters and age. On the other hand, measurements of cortical atrophy (frontal fissure ratio and cortical sulci ratio) correlated significantly with age but not with duration of the disease. When a group of 24 HD patients were compared on CT-scan measurements with a group of 24 age-matched normal controls, significant differences were obtained for all the variables examined, but the bicaudate ratio showed the highest sensitivity and specificity. Even mildly affected patients, with duration of motor symptoms less than 3 years had higher bicaudate ratios than age-matched controls. (orig.)

  12. Apoptosis in skeletal muscle and its relevance to atrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esther E Dupont-Versteegden

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis is necessary for maintaining the integrity of proliferative tissues, such as epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal system. The role of apoptosis in post mitotic tissues, such as skeletal muscle, is less well defined. Apoptosis during muscle atrophy occurs in both myonuclei and other muscle cell types. Apoptosis of myonuclei likely contributes to the loss of muscle mass, but the mechanisms underlying this process are largely unknown. Caspase-dependent as well as -independent pathways have been implicated and the mode by which atrophy is induced likely determines the apoptotic mechanisms that are utilized. It remains to be determined whether a decrease in apoptosis will alleviate atrophy and distinct research strategies may be required for different causes of skeletal muscle loss.

  13. The relationship between brain atrophy and asymptomatic cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the relationship between brain atrophy and asymptomatic cerebral lesions, total of 235 subjects (130 males and 105 females), who had neither neurologic deficits nor organic lesions on cerebral computed tomography, were studied. The subjects' ages ranged from 40 to 86 years (mean 66). They were divided into two groups: 90 controls without hypertension or diabetes mellitus (Group C), and 145 patients with essential hypertension (Group H). Brain atrophy was diagnosed using the caudate head index (CHI). Asymptomatic cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging were defined as asymptomatic lacunae and white matter lesions. Caudate head index was higher in Group H than it was in Group C, and CHI in both groups was significantly correlated with the number of asymptomatic lacunae and the severity of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. These results indicate that brain atrophy may progress along with asymptomatic cerebral lesions. (author)

  14. Can endurance exercise preconditioning prevention disuse muscle atrophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Wiggs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can provide a level of protection against disuse muscle atrophy. Endurance exercise training imposes oxidative, metabolic, and heat stress on skeletal muscle which activates a variety of cellular signaling pathways that ultimately leads to the increased expression of proteins that have been demonstrated to protect muscle from inactivity –induced atrophy. This review will highlight the effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on endogenous enzymatic antioxidant capacity (i.e., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, the role of oxidative and metabolic stress on PGC1-α, and finally highlight the effect heat stress and HSP70 induction. Finally, this review will discuss the supporting scientific evidence that these proteins can attenuate muscle atrophy through exercise preconditioning.

  15. Micro-patterning of Copper Based on Photolithographed Self-assembly Monolayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new method has been developed for fabrication of copper micro-pattern by selective chemical copper deposition based on photolithographed (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) self-assembly monolayers (SAMs). As confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Cu closely replicated the mask features. The present approach makes this technic to be cheap and may be applicable to assembly of microelectronic circuits.

  16. Genetic Algorithm-Based Relevance Feedback for Image Retrieval Using Local Similarity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejic, Zoran; Takama, Yasufumi; Hirota, Kaoru

    2003-01-01

    Proposes local similarity pattern (LSP) as a new method for computing digital image similarity. Topics include optimizing similarity computation based on genetic algorithm; relevance feedback; and an evaluation of LSP on five databases that showed an increase in retrieval precision over other methods for computing image similarity. (Author/LRW)

  17. Alexander Meets Michotte: A Simulation Tool Based on Pattern Programming and Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basawapatna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Simulation and modeling activities, a key point of computational thinking, are currently not being integrated into the science classroom. This paper describes a new visual programming tool entitled the Simulation Creation Toolkit. The Simulation Creation Toolkit is a high level pattern-based phenomenological approach to bringing rapid simulation…

  18. Exploring the Argumentation Pattern in Modeling-Based Learning about Apparent Motion of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    This study proposed an analytic framework for coding students' dialogic argumentation and investigated the characteristics of the small-group argumentation pattern observed in modeling-based learning. The participants were 122 second grade high school students in South Korea divided into an experimental and a comparison group. Modeling-based…

  19. Spatiotemporal Mining of Time-Series Remote Sensing Images Based on Sequential Pattern Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. C.; He, G. J.; Zhang, X. M.; Jiang, W.; Ling, S. G.

    2015-07-01

    With the continuous development of satellite techniques, it is now possible to acquire a regular series of images concerning a given geographical zone with both high accuracy and low cost. Research on how best to effectively process huge volumes of observational data obtained on different dates for a specific geographical zone, and to exploit the valuable information regarding land cover contained in these images has received increasing interest from the remote sensing community. In contrast to traditional land cover change measures using pair-wise comparisons that emphasize the compositional or configurational changes between dates, this research focuses on the analysis of the temporal sequence of land cover dynamics, which refers to the succession of land cover types for a given area over more than two observational periods. Using a time series of classified Landsat images, ranging from 2006 to 2011, a sequential pattern mining method was extended to this spatiotemporal context to extract sets of connected pixels sharing similar temporal evolutions. The resultant sequential patterns could be selected (or not) based on the range of support values. These selected patterns were used to explore the spatial compositions and temporal evolutions of land cover change within the study region. Experimental results showed that continuous patterns that represent consistent land cover over time appeared as quite homogeneous zones, which agreed with our domain knowledge. Discontinuous patterns that represent land cover change trajectories were dominated by the transition from vegetation to bare land, especially during 2009-2010. This approach quantified land cover changes in terms of the percentage area affected and mapped the spatial distribution of these changes. Sequential pattern mining has been used for string mining or itemset mining in transactions analysis. The expected novel significance of this study is the generalization of the application of the sequential pattern

  20. Review of Remotely Sensed Imagery Classification Patterns Based on Object-oriented Image Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yongxue; LI Manchun; MAO Liang; XU Feifei; HUANG Shuo

    2006-01-01

    With the wide use of high-resolution remotely sensed imagery, the object-oriented remotely sensed information classification pattern has been intensively studied. Starting with the definition of object-oriented remotely sensed information classification pattern and a literature review of related research progress, this paper sums up 4 developing phases of object-oriented classification pattern during the past 20 years. Then, we discuss the three aspects of methodology in detail, namely remotely sensed imagery segmentation, feature analysis and feature selection, and classification rule generation, through comparing them with remotely sensed information classification method based on per-pixel. At last, this paper presents several points that need to be paid attention to in the future studies on object-oriented RS information classification pattern: 1) developing robust and highly effective image segmentation algorithm for multi-spectral RS imagery; 2) improving the feature-set including edge, spatial-adjacent and temporal characteristics; 3) discussing the classification rule generation classifier based on the decision tree; 4) presenting evaluation methods for classification result by object-oriented classification pattern.

  1. Photolithography-Based Patterning of Liquid Metal Interconnects for Monolithically Integrated Stretchable Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Woo; Moon, Yu Gyeong; Seong, Hyejeong; Jung, Soon Won; Oh, Ji-Young; Na, Bock Soon; Park, Nae-Man; Lee, Sang Seok; Im, Sung Gap; Koo, Jae Bon

    2016-06-22

    We demonstrate a new patterning technique for gallium-based liquid metals on flat substrates, which can provide both high pattern resolution (∼20 μm) and alignment precision as required for highly integrated circuits. In a very similar manner as in the patterning of solid metal films by photolithography and lift-off processes, the liquid metal layer painted over the whole substrate area can be selectively removed by dissolving the underlying photoresist layer, leaving behind robust liquid patterns as defined by the photolithography. This quick and simple method makes it possible to integrate fine-scale interconnects with preformed devices precisely, which is indispensable for realizing monolithically integrated stretchable circuits. As a way for constructing stretchable integrated circuits, we propose a hybrid configuration composed of rigid device regions and liquid interconnects, which is constructed on a rigid substrate first but highly stretchable after being transferred onto an elastomeric substrate. This new method can be useful in various applications requiring both high-resolution and precisely aligned patterning of gallium-based liquid metals. PMID:27250997

  2. Association of white-matter lesions with brain atrophy markers: the three-city Dijon MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Brain atrophy and white-matter lesions (WML) are common features at cerebral MRI of both normal and demented elderly people. In a population-based study of 1, 792 elderly subjects aged 65-80 years, free of dementia, who had a cerebral MRI at entry, we investigated the relationship between WML volume and brain atrophy markers estimated by hippocampal, gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. Methods: An automated algorithm of detection and quantification of WML was developed, and voxel-based morphometry methods were used to estimate GM, CSF and hippocampal volumes. To evaluate the relation between those volumes and WML load, we used analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders and total intracranial volumes. Results: Age was highly correlated with WML load and all brain atrophy markers. Total WML volume was negatively associated with both GM (β = -0.03, p ≤ 0.0001) and hippocampal volumes (β = -0.75, p = 0.0009) and positively with CSF volumes (beta 0.008, p = 0.02) after controlling for sex, age, education level, hypertension and apolipoprotein E genotype. Evidence for a relationship between brain atrophy markers and WML was stronger for periventricular WML. We found that the relationship between WML and hippocampal volumes was independent of other brain tissue volumes. Conclusion: These results suggest that, in the brain of non demented elderly subjects, degenerative processes and vascular changes co-occur and are related independently of vascular risk factors. (authors)

  3. Mining Individual Behavior Pattern Based on Semantic Knowledge Discovery of Trajectory

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Guangchun; Wang, Haiping

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to mine the hidden individual behavior pattern from the raw users’ trajectory data. Based on DBSCAN, a novel spatio-temporal data clustering algorithm named Speed-based Clustering Algorithm was put forward to find slow-speed subtrajectories (i.e., stops) of the single trajectory that the user stopped for a longer time. The algorithm used maximal speed and minimal stopping time to compute the stops and introduced the quantile function to estimate the value of the parameter,...

  4. A generic agent-based framework for cooperative search using pattern matching and reinforcement learning

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Simon; Ouelhadj, Djamila; Beullens, P.; Ozcan, E.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative search provides a class of strategies to design more effective search methodologies through combining (meta-) heuristics for solving combinatorial optimisation problems. This area has been little explored in operational research. In this study, we propose a general agent-based distributed framework where each agent implements a (meta-) heuristic. An agent continuously adapts itself during the search process using a cooperation protocol based on reinforcement learning and pattern m...

  5. 3D PATTERN OF BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN WILLIAMS SYNDROME VISUALIZED USING TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Reiss, Allan L.; Lee, Agatha D.; Bellugi, Ursula; Galaburda, Albert M.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Mills, Debra L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with deletion of ~20 contiguous genes in chromosome band 7q11.23. Individuals with WS exhibit mild to moderate mental retardation, but are relatively more proficient in specific language and musical abilities. We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to visualize the complex pattern of gray/white matter reductions in WS, based on fluid registration of structural brain images.

  6. An Effective Method of Monitoring the Large-Scale Traffic Pattern Based on RMT and PCA

    OpenAIRE

    Xuetao Du; Jian Yuan; Peng Gao; Jia Liu

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms to extract the characteristics of network traffic play a significant role in traffic monitoring, offering helpful information for network management and control. In this paper, a method based on Random Matrix Theory (RMT) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is proposed for monitoring and analyzing large-scale traffic patterns in the Internet. Besides the analysis of the largest eigenvalue in RMT, useful information is also extracted from small eigenvalues by a method based on P...

  7. Evolutionary Patterns of RNA-Based Duplication in Non-Mammalian Chordates

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Chen; Ming Zou; Beide Fu; Xin Li; Vibranovski, Maria D.; Xiaoni Gan; Dengqiang Wang; Wen Wang; Manyuan Long; Shunping He

    2011-01-01

    The role of RNA-based duplication, or retroposition, in the evolution of new gene functions in mammals, plants, and Drosophila has been widely reported. However, little is known about RNA-based duplication in non-mammalian chordates. In this study, we screened ten non-mammalian chordate genomes for retrocopies and investigated their evolutionary patterns. We identified numerous retrocopies in these species. Examination of the age distribution of these retrocopies revealed no burst of young re...

  8. [A Case of Musicophilia with Right Predominant Temporal Lobe Atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old woman exhibiting musicophilia with right predominant temporal lobe atrophy happened to visit our clinic. She had no musical background, but beginning two years ago, she acquired a strong preference for especially popular music and sometimes sang at home. She did not exhibit obvious semantic aphasia or facial agnosia, and showed only mild behavioral changes including apathy. Her musicophilia can be explained as an instance of stereotypical behavior. Her right temporal lobe atrophy may have caused changes in her emotional and reward systems, resulting in her music specific behaviors. PMID:26560960

  9. Molecular and cellular determinants of skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Fulco, Marcella

    2004-08-01

    The maintenance of adult skeletal muscle mass is ensured by physical exercise. Accordingly, physiological and pathological situations characterized by either impaired motor neuron activity, reduced gravity (microgravity during space flights), or reduced physical activity result in loss of muscle mass. Furthermore, a plethora of clinical conditions, including cancer, sepsis, diabetes, and AIDS, are associated with varying degrees of muscle atrophy. The cellular and molecular pathways responsible for maintaining the skeletal muscle mass are not well defined. Nonetheless, studies aimed at the understanding of the mechanisms underlying either muscular atrophy or hypertrophy have begun to identify the physiological determinants and clarify the molecular pathways responsible for the maintenance of muscle mass. PMID:15292521

  10. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  11. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A. [Section of Neuropsychology, Division of Disability Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, 980-8575 Sendai (Japan); Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J. [MR Unit, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France); Viader, F. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France)

    2000-06-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  12. Accelerating regional atrophy rates in the progression from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluimer, Jasper D. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Karas, Giorgos B.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schijndel, Ronald van [VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barnes, Josephine; Boyes, Richard G. [UCL, Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Cover, Keith S. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olabarriaga, Silvia D. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fox, Nick C. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UCL, Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Vrenken, Hugo [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    We investigated progression of atrophy in vivo, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We included 64 patients with AD, 44 with MCI and 34 controls with serial MRI examinations (interval 1.8 {+-} 0.7 years). A nonlinear registration algorithm (fluid) was used to calculate atrophy rates in six regions: frontal, medial temporal, temporal (extramedial), parietal, occipital lobes and insular cortex. In MCI, the highest atrophy rate was observed in the medial temporal lobe, comparable with AD. AD patients showed even higher atrophy rates in the extramedial temporal lobe. Additionally, atrophy rates in frontal, parietal and occipital lobes were increased. Cox proportional hazard models showed that all regional atrophy rates predicted conversion to AD. Hazard ratios varied between 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2) for occipital atrophy and 15.8 (95% CI = 3.5-71.8) for medial temporal lobe atrophy. In conclusion, atrophy spreads through the brain with development of AD. MCI is marked by temporal lobe atrophy. In AD, atrophy rate in the extramedial temporal lobe was even higher. Moreover, atrophy rates also accelerated in parietal, frontal, insular and occipital lobes. Finally, in nondemented elderly, medial temporal lobe atrophy was most predictive of progression to AD, demonstrating the involvement of this region in the development of AD. (orig.)

  13. Accelerating regional atrophy rates in the progression from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated progression of atrophy in vivo, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We included 64 patients with AD, 44 with MCI and 34 controls with serial MRI examinations (interval 1.8 ± 0.7 years). A nonlinear registration algorithm (fluid) was used to calculate atrophy rates in six regions: frontal, medial temporal, temporal (extramedial), parietal, occipital lobes and insular cortex. In MCI, the highest atrophy rate was observed in the medial temporal lobe, comparable with AD. AD patients showed even higher atrophy rates in the extramedial temporal lobe. Additionally, atrophy rates in frontal, parietal and occipital lobes were increased. Cox proportional hazard models showed that all regional atrophy rates predicted conversion to AD. Hazard ratios varied between 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2) for occipital atrophy and 15.8 (95% CI = 3.5-71.8) for medial temporal lobe atrophy. In conclusion, atrophy spreads through the brain with development of AD. MCI is marked by temporal lobe atrophy. In AD, atrophy rate in the extramedial temporal lobe was even higher. Moreover, atrophy rates also accelerated in parietal, frontal, insular and occipital lobes. Finally, in nondemented elderly, medial temporal lobe atrophy was most predictive of progression to AD, demonstrating the involvement of this region in the development of AD. (orig.)

  14. Optical Metrology for Directed Self-assembly Patterning Using Mueller Matrix Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Based Scatterometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Dhairya J.

    The semiconductor industry continues to drive patterning solutions that enable devices with higher memory storage capacity, faster computing performance, lower cost per transistors, and higher transistor density. These developments in the field of semiconductor manufacturing along with the overall minimization of the size of transistors require cutting-edge metrology tools for characterization. Directed self-assembly (DSA) patterning process can be used to fabricate nanoscale line-space patterns and contact holes via thermodynamically driven micro-phase separation of block copolymer (BCP) films with boundary constraints from guiding templates. Its main advantages are high pattern resolution (~10 nm), high throughput, no requirement of a high-resolution mask, and compatibility with standard fab-equipment and processes. Although research into DSA patterning has demonstrated a high potential as a nanoscale patterning process, there are critical challenges that must be overcome before transferring DSA into high volume manufacturing, including achievement of low defect density and high process stability. For this, advances in critical dimension (CD) and overlay measurement as well as rapid defect characterization are required. Both scatterometry and critical dimension-scanning electron microscopy (CD-SEM) are routinely used for inline dimensional metrology. CD-SEM inspection is limited, as it does not easily provide detailed line-shape information, whereas scatterometry has the capability of measuring important feature dimensions including: line-width, line-shape, sidewall-angle, and thickness of the patterned samples quickly and non-destructively. The present work describes the application of Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry (MMSE) based scatterometry to optically characterize DSA patterned line- space grating and contact hole structures fabricated with phase-separated polystyrene-b-polymethylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) at various integration steps of BCP DSA

  15. Robust PCA-Based Abnormal Traffic Flow Pattern Isolation and Loop Detector Fault Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xuexiang; ZHANG Yi; LI Li; HU Jianming

    2008-01-01

    One key function of intelligent transportation systems is to automatically detect abnormal traffic phenomena and to help further investigations of the cause of the abnormality. This paper describes a robust principal components analysis (RPCA)-based abnormal traffic flow pattern isolation and loop detector fault detection method. The results show that RPCA is a useful tool to distinguish regular traffic flow from abnor-mal traffic flow patterns caused by accidents and loop detector faults. This approach gives an effective traffic flow data pre-processing method to reduce the human effort in finding potential loop detector faults. The method can also be used to further investigate the causes of the abnormality.

  16. Fingerprint attendance system based on hypersphere covering of biomimetic pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Yin, Ye; Cui, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Hypersphere covering of biomimetic pattern recognition method has the features of fast identification,low rate of false recognition,easy implementation,and so on.It is particularly suitable for a number of strong practical applications.In this paper,we study a biomimetic pattern recognition method based on the hypersphere string covering and apply it in a fingerprint attendance system.On the basis of analyzing actual teaching needs,we design a complete hardware and software system for the fin...

  17. Focusing light into desired patterns through turbid media by feedback-based wavefront shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lipeng; Chen, Ziyang; Huang, Huiling; Pu, Jixiong

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that the focusing of light into desired patterns through turbid media can be realized using feedback-based wavefront shaping. Three desired focused patterns—a triangle, a circle, and a rectangle—are used as examples to study this ability. During the process of modulating scattered light, the Pearson's correlation coefficient is introduced as a feedback signal. It is found that the speckle field formed by the turbid media gradually transforms into the desired pattern through a process of modulation of the input beam wave front. The proposed approach has potential applications in biomedical treatment and laser material processing.

  18. Spray-coated nanoscale conductive patterns based on in situ sintered silver nanoparticle inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yifan; Li, Shuguang; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale patterns with high conductivity based on silver nanoparticle inks were fabricated using spray coating method. Through optimizing the solution content and spray operation, accurate nanoscale patterns consisting of silver nanoparticles with a square resistance lower than 1 Ω /cm2 were obtained. By incorporating in situ sintering to substitute the general post sintering process, the time consumption could be significantly reduced to one sixth, qualifying it for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of printed electronics. To testify the application of spray-coated silver nanoparticle inks, an inverted polymer solar cell was also fabricated, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.76%. PMID:24666992

  19. Color pattern recognition based on the joint fractional Fourier transform correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Jin; Yupei Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A new system of multi-channel single-output joint fractional Fourier transform correlator (JFRTC) for color pattern recognition is proposed based on the conventional system of multi-channel single-output joint transform correlator (JTC). The theoretical analysis and optical experiments are performed. With this method, one can obtain three correlation peaks at the output plane which show a pair of desired cross-correlation peaks and one auto-correlation peak. In comparison, the conventional system leads to more correlation peaks playing a noise role in color pattern recognition.

  20. Spray-coated nanoscale conductive patterns based on in situ sintered silver nanoparticle inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yifan; Li, Shuguang; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-03-01

    Nanoscale patterns with high conductivity based on silver nanoparticle inks were fabricated using spray coating method. Through optimizing the solution content and spray operation, accurate nanoscale patterns consisting of silver nanoparticles with a square resistance lower than 1 Ω /cm2 were obtained. By incorporating in situ sintering to substitute the general post sintering process, the time consumption could be significantly reduced to one sixth, qualifying it for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of printed electronics. To testify the application of spray-coated silver nanoparticle inks, an inverted polymer solar cell was also fabricated, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.76%.

  1. Simple micro-patterning of high conductive polymer with UV-nano-imprinted patterned substrate and ethylene glycol-based second doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a simple micro-patterning process for high conductive polymer (i.e., poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)) with a patterned substrate by using an ultraviolet (UV) nano-imprint and an ethylene glycol-based second doping technique. In the patterning process, the PEDOT:PSS water dispersion is first coated only on the hydrophilic area, which is fabricated by UV nano-imprinting, forming patterned PEDOT:PSS on the substrate. The patterned PEDOT:PSS film is then immersed in the ethylene glycol as a second doping technique for increasing its conductivity. The proposed process provides simplicity in terms of shorter process steps of the UV nano-imprinting and PEDOT:PSS coating and higher conductivity of patterned PEDOT:PSS film than existing complicated micro-fabrication processes for organic materials. The 200 nm wide nano-imprinted pillar structures change the wettability of the substrate where the contact angle of the substrate is decreased from 66.8° to 33.3°. The patterning resolution with the nano-imprinted pattern substrate is down to 100 µm, which is useful for sensor applications. The conductivity increase delivers a low sheet resistance (120 Ω sq−1) of patterned PEDOT:PSS film. Then, the patterning of PEDOT:PSS sensor shapes with its 300 µm wide feature line and high conductivity are demonstrated. Therefore, our process leads to applications to a variety of PEDOT:PSS-based sensors. (paper)

  2. Research on CPFR pattern of the Internet of things based on B2C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Yang, Jie

    2013-03-01

    The CPFR pattern proposed by this article is based on the internet of things platform, using frontier technology of internet of things to realize real-time monitoring and the feedback in logistics, information stream in B2C mode, and simultaneously construct an e-business mode which takes the customer guidance as the center to be possible to meet the customers' need and realize the service made by customer. This new pattern uses the coordination, plan, prediction and replenishment of CPFR to realize custom-made stock based on B2C for terminal customer and specialized service for commodity stock. Moreover, it can bring suppliers real-time monitoring of terminal logistics, storage and users' notes for use, and feed back users' bugs, adjustment of orders and plan of replenishment. Furthermore, based on new pattern, we can data min users' interests and undertake a study in increment modeling, process reengineering in enterprise, optimizing enterprise's interior resources and conformity industry of supply chain. Above all it provides a new mentality and the operation pattern for the electronic commerce marketing.

  3. Nanoporous silicon-based surface patterns fabricated by UV laser interference techniques for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Sánchez, G.; Peláez, R. J.; Vega, F.; Martín-Palma, R. J.

    2016-06-01

    The fabrication of selectively functionalized micropatterns based on nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) by phase mask ultraviolet laser interference is presented here. This single-step process constitutes a flexible method for the fabrication of surface patterns with tailored properties. These surface patterns consist of alternate regions of almost untransformed nanoPS and areas where nanoPS is transformed into Si nanoparticles (Si NPs) as a result of the laser irradiation process. The size of the transformed areas as well as the diameter of the Si NPs can be straightforwardly tailored by controlling the main fabrications parameters including the porosity of the nanoPS layers, the laser interference period areas, and laser fluence. The surface patterns have been found to be appropriate candidates for the development of selectively-functionalized surfaces for biological applications mainly due to the biocompatibility of the untransformed nanoPS regions.

  4. Vibration measurement based on electronic speckle pattern interferometry and radial basis function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiangjun; Shao, Xinxing; Geng, Zhencen; Yang, Fujun; Jiang, Yijun; He, Xiaoyuan

    2015-11-01

    A method incorporating amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI) with radial basis function (RBF) was proposed to investigate vibration characteristics of structures. The vibration patterns were obtained by AF-ESPI. A novel pre-filtering RBF method was presented to improve the quality of patterns. The out-of-plane vibration amplitude was rebuilt after fringe analysis. Ideal pre-filtering widow sizes for the presented RBF were given based on numerical experiments. For validation, an aluminum circular plate with fixed boundary was determined and compared with FEM, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, vibration characteristics of sandwich panels with honeycomb core were measured. The influence of presence of a pre-notch at different location was also investigated.

  5. Recognition of Grouping Patterns in Trademarks Based on the Gestalt Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Hiromasa; Abe, Koji; Misawa, Tadanobu; Kimura, Haruhiko; Daido, Yoshimasa

    According to the Gestalt principals, in this paper, we model features for measuring the attraction degree between couples of image components, and grouping areas in trademark images are recognized. This investigation would be used for content-based image retrieval from the view of mirroring human perception for images. The features of proximity, shape similarity, closure, and good continuation are extracted from every combination of two components in an image. After that, according to results of the judgments, a grouping pattern for the query is fixed. Besides, changing combination of the features, the proposed method can output plural grouping patterns. In the experiments, we have evaluated the proposed method on 74 test images comparing between outputs by the proposed method and grouping patterns for the test images obtained from results of questionnaires by 104 participants.

  6. A rule-based expert system for control rod pattern of boiling water reactors by hovering around haling exposure shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasible strategies for automatic BWR control rod pattern generation have been implemented in a rule-based expert system. These strategies are majorly based on a concept for which exposure distributions are hovering around the Haling exposure distribution through a cycle while radial and axial power distributions are dominantly controlled by some abstracted factors indicating the desired distributions. The system can either automatically generate expert-level control rod patterns or search for criteria-satisfied patterns originated from user's input. It has successfully been demonstrated by generating control rod patterns for the the 1775 MWth Chinshan plant in Unit I Cycle 13 alternate loading pattern and Unit 2 Cycle 8 but with longer cycle length. All rod patterns for two cycles result in all-rod-out at EOC and no violation against the four criteria. The demonstrations show that the system is considerably good in choosing initial trial rod patterns and adjusting rod patterns to satisfy the design criteria. (author)

  7. Development of a VVER-1000 core loading pattern optimization program based on perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We use perturbation theory to find an optimum fuel loading pattern in a VVER-1000. ► We provide a software for in-core fuel management optimization. ► We consider two objectives for our method (perturbation theory). ► We show that perturbation theory method is very fast and accurate for optimization. - Abstract: In-core nuclear fuel management is one of the most important concerns in the design of nuclear reactors. Two main goals in core fuel loading pattern design optimization are maximizing the core effective multiplication factor in order to extract the maximum energy, and keeping the local power peaking factor lower than a predetermined value to maintain the fuel integrity. Because of the numerous possible patterns of fuel assemblies in the reactor core, finding the best configuration is so important and challenging. Different techniques for optimization of fuel loading pattern in the reactor core have been introduced by now. In this study, a software is programmed in C language to find an order of the fuel loading pattern of a VVER-1000 reactor core using the perturbation theory. Our optimization method is based on minimizing the radial power peaking factor. The optimization process launches by considering an initial loading pattern and the specifications of the fuel assemblies which are given as the input of the software. The results on a typical VVER-1000 reactor reveal that the method could reach to a pattern with an allowed radial power peaking factor and increases the cycle length 1.1 days, as well.

  8. A Novel Strategy for Quantum Image Steganography Based on Moiré Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Wang, Luo

    2015-03-01

    Image steganography technique is widely used to realize the secrecy transmission. Although its strategies on classical computers have been extensively researched, there are few studies on such strategies on quantum computers. Therefore, in this paper, a novel, secure and keyless steganography approach for images on quantum computers is proposed based on Moiré pattern. Algorithms based on the Moiré pattern are proposed for binary image embedding and extraction. Based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images (NEQR), recursive and progressively layered quantum circuits for embedding and extraction operations are designed. In the end, experiments are done to verify the validity and robustness of proposed methods, which confirms that the approach in this paper is effective in quantum image steganography strategy.

  9. Simulation of the emission properties of patterned metal-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijun; Luo, Jun; Peng, Sha; Zhu, Yaping; Lei, Yu; Tong, Qing; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-12-01

    Enormous pressures have been puts on current optical storage technologies as the rapid development of information technologies. Recently, it has been found that the surface plasmon-polaritons'modes (SPPMs) in metallic nanostructures may lead to the high localization of guided light beams with nanometer size and only limited by several factors such as atomic structure, dissipation, and light dispersion, and thus far beyond the common diffraction limit of electromagnetic waves in dielectric media. This discovery provides a way to produce nanoscale light signal and thus makes a significant breakthrough in optical storage technologies. In this paper, our work focuses on the modeling and simulation of particular kinds of patterned metal-based nanostructure fabricated over silicon dioxide (SiO2) wafer. The nanostructures designed are expected to concentrate, deliver incident light energy into nanoscale regions and generate nanoscale light signal. In our research, the duty cycle of patterned nanostructures is taken as a key parameter, and then the factors including the patterned nanostructures, the frequency of the incident electromagnetic wave, the size of patterned nanostructure and the distance arrangement between adjacent single patterns, are taken as variables. The common CST microwave studio is used to simulate beam transportation and transformation behaviors. By comparing electric-field intensity distribution in nano-areas and the reflectance of the nanostructure array, the nano-light-emission effects are analyzed.

  10. Dietary patterns and hypertension: a population-based study with women from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Del Ponte da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between dietary pattern and hypertension using the rank reduced regression (RRR. It was a cross-sectional population-based study with a representative sample of 1,026 women living in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. In order to identify dietary patterns, dietary variables from a dietary frequency questionnaire were used as predictors and sodium, potassium and saturated fat consumption were selected as response variables. The RRR identified three dietary patterns: Factor 1, Factor 2 and Factor 3. The association between hypertension and factors 1, 2 and 3, after adjustment for socio-demographic, behavioral and obesity variables, was not significant. After stratification by age, the association between hypertension and factor 2 was present in 40-60 year-old women (tertile 2 compared to 3 RP = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.43-0.91; p = 0,05. The new statistical method (RRR, proved to be a useful tool for identifying dietary patterns. In this study, healthier dietary pattern was directly associated with hypertension in women between 40 and 60 years of age.

  11. SOM-based Pattern Generator: Pattern Generation Based on the Backward Projection in a Self-Organizing Map and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakuya, Hiroshi; Ishiguma, Takahiro

    A major feature of the self-organizing map (SOM) is a topology-preserving projection from the input layer to the competitive layer, and it has been used mainly as an analytical tool for discovering underlying rules in the given data set. Even though recent splendid progress in this area, there are few novel ideas to break such a conventional style. On the contrary, based on its distinctive nature, a new method for generating patterns through backward projection from the competitive layer to the input layer is proposed recently. Moreover, a promising technology for producing animation as a series of backward-projected patterns along with any pathways on the competitive layer is presented. Then, in order to carry out further considerations, some computer simulations with a variety of posed stick figures are tried in this paper. After training, four kinds of pathways, which correspond to different movements such as dancing, exercising and walking, are prepared. Though some of them does not contain any training samples, all of them worked well as we have intended in advance. As a result, it is found that the proposed method shows good performance and it is also confirmed its effectiveness.

  12. Patterns as a Paradigm for Theory in Community-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John M.; Farooq, Umer

    Learning about information technology is typically not a first-order goal for community-based volunteer organizations. Nonetheless, information technology is vital to such groups for member recruiting and management, communication and visibility to the community, and for primary group activities. During the past 12 years, we have worked with community groups in Centre County, Pennsylvania, and Montgomery County, Virginia. We have built partnerships with these groups to better understand and address their learning challenges with respect to information technology. In this paper, we suggest that patterns, standard solution schemata for recurring problems (as used in architecture and software engineering, among other design domains), can be a paradigm for codifying and developing an understanding of learning in and by community organizations. Patterns are middle-level abstractions; they capture regularities of practices in ways that are potentially intelligible, verifiable, and perhaps useful to the practitioners themselves. We present two example patterns and discuss issues and directions for developing patterns as a theoretical foundation for community-based learning.

  13. Evaluation of a compound distribution based on weather pattern subsampling for extreme rainfall in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, J.; Touati, J.; Lawrence, D.; Garavaglia, F.; Paquet, E.

    2015-12-01

    Simulation methods for design flood analyses require estimates of extreme precipitation for simulating maximum discharges. This article evaluates the multi-exponential weather pattern (MEWP) model, a compound model based on weather pattern classification, seasonal splitting and exponential distributions, for its suitability for use in Norway. The MEWP model is the probabilistic rainfall model used in the SCHADEX method for extreme flood estimation. Regional scores of evaluation are used in a split sample framework to compare the MEWP distribution with more general heavy-tailed distributions, in this case the Multi Generalized Pareto Weather Pattern (MGPWP) distribution. The analysis shows the clear benefit obtained from seasonal and weather pattern-based subsampling for extreme value estimation. The MEWP distribution is found to have an overall better performance as compared with the MGPWP, which tends to overfit the data and lacks robustness. Finally, we take advantage of the split sample framework to present evidence for an increase in extreme rainfall in the southwestern part of Norway during the period 1979-2009, relative to 1948-1978.

  14. A Pattern Construction Scheme for Neural Network-Based Cognitive Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Orcay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient utilization of the frequency spectrum due to conventional regulatory limitations and physical performance limiting factors, mainly the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR, are prominent restrictions in digital wireless communication. Pattern Based Communication System (PBCS is an adaptive and perceptual communication method based on a Cognitive Radio (CR approach. It intends an SNR oriented cognition mechanism in the physical layer for improvement of Link Spectral Efficiency (LSE. The key to this system is construction of optimal communication signals, which consist of encoded data in different pattern forms (waveforms depending on spectral availabilities. The signals distorted in the communication medium are recovered according to the pre-trained pattern glossary by the perceptual receiver. In this study, we have shown that it is possible to improve the bandwidth efficiency when largely uncorrelated signal patterns are chosen in order to form a glossary that represents symbols for different length data groups and the information can be recovered by the Artificial Neural Network (ANN in the receiver site.

  15. Deductive Glue Code Synthesis for Embedded Software Systems Based on Code Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Fu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yansheng; Bastani, Farokh; Yen, I-Ling; Tai, Ann; Chau, Savio N.

    2006-01-01

    Automated code synthesis is a constructive process that can be used to generate programs from specifications. It can, thus, greatly reduce the software development cost and time. The use of formal code synthesis approach for software generation further increases the dependability of the system. Though code synthesis has many potential benefits, the synthesis techniques are still limited. Meanwhile, components are widely used in embedded system development. Applying code synthesis to component based software development (CBSD) process can greatly enhance the capability of code synthesis while reducing the component composition efforts. In this paper, we discuss the issues and techniques for applying deductive code synthesis techniques to CBSD. For deductive synthesis in CBSD, a rule base is the key for inferring appropriate component composition. We use the code patterns to guide the development of rules. Code patterns have been proposed to capture the typical usages of the components. Several general composition operations have been identified to facilitate systematic composition. We present the technique for rule development and automated generation of new patterns from existing code patterns. A case study of using this method in building a real-time control system is also presented.

  16. Benefits of Laser Therapy in Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brînzan, Daniela; Pǎiuşan, Lucian; Daşcǎu, Voicu; Furǎu, Gheorghe

    2011-08-01

    Maybe the worst aspect of menopause is the decline of the quality of the sexual life. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser therapy in comparison with topical application of estrogen preparations, for the treatment of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions induced by menopause. A total of 50 menopausal patients were examined during a one year period. The methods used for objectifying vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions were history taking, local clinical exam and PAP smear. From this group, 40 patients had vaginal atrophy with sexual dysfunctions. They have been treated differently, being included in four groups: patients treated with local estrogens, patients treated with intravaginal laser therapy, patients treated with both laser therapy and estrogens, patients treated with estrogens and placebo laser therapy. Therapeutic benefit, improvement of vaginal atrophy and quality of sexual life, were objectified by anamnesis (questionnaire), local and general clinical examination and PAP smear. The best results have been obtained, by far, in the 3rd group, followed by the women treated only with laser. In conclusion, we can say that laser therapy is the best way for solving the sexual inconveniences of menopause.

  17. CT findings of hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) has recently been recognized as a clinicopathological entity. It may be defined as a multisystem degenerative disease of dominant inheritance, and characterized clinically by a combination of epilepsy, myoclonus, ataxia, dementia, and choreo-athetosis. This paper reports on the CT findings of ten patients (in four families) with DRPLA. In two families, the diagnosis was established on the basis of the clinicopathological findings, while in the other two, the diagnosis was made clinically. Although the CT findings were not identical in all patients, some degree of atrophic change was always observed in the cerebellum, brainstem, and cerebral cortex. Cerebellar atrophy was always accompanied by a dilatation of the fourth ventricle. Midbrain atrophy was characterized by a prominent tegmental atrophy and aqueductal dilatation, such as is seen in progressive supranuclear palsy. Of the four patients over 40 years of age, three had a diffuse hypodensity of the cerebral white matter on CT. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on this hypodensity in patients with spino-cerebellar degeneration or Huntington's chorea. CT may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of progressive neuro-degenerative disorders. (author)

  18. Physical complaints in ageing persons with spinal muscular atrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, I.J.M. de; Witte, L.P de

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While life expectancy is improving for persons with spinal muscular atrophy, new physical complaints may arise. To investigate this, we studied persons with a long duration and severe course (high functional limitations) of the disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SUBJECTS/

  19. Reversible Altered Consciousness and Brain Atrophy Induced by Valproic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old female child with valproic acid (VPA-related alteration of consciousness and brain atrophy that progressed over a 3 day period and resolved within 12 hours of discontinuing VPA is reported from Dokkyo University School of Medicine and Shimotsuga General Hospital, Tochigi, Japan.

  20. The Relationship between Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Soltani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveA 4-month-old female with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI type II was admitted in PICU of our center due to severe respiratory distress and fever with a diagnosis of severe pneumonia, and mechanical ventilation was initiated. Due to severe hypotonia, NCV and EMG were performed, and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA type I was diagnosed.

  1. Pregnancy in multiple system atrophy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Lirong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multiple system atrophy is a late, adult-onset α-synucleinopathy with no data on the effect of pregnancy on the disease course. Early stage multiple system atrophy can be difficult to distinguish from Parkinson's disease. Case presentation We describe the case of an Irish woman with parkinsonism starting at age 31, initially diagnosed as having dopa-responsive, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, who successfully delivered a full-term child at age 35. Her pregnancy was complicated by severe orthostatic hypotension and motor fluctuations. Two years post-partum, she underwent bilateral subthalamic nuclei deep brain stimulation for intractable motor fluctuations and disabling dyskinesia. After this treatment course she experienced deterioration of motor symptoms and death eight years after disease onset. Post-mortem neuropathological examination revealed striatonigral degeneration and α-synuclein-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions in brain stem nuclei, basal ganglia and white matter tracts, consistent with a neuropathological diagnosis of multiple system atrophy. Conclusions Multiple system atrophy can affect women of child-bearing age and pregnancy may be associated with marked disease progression.

  2. Excessive daytime sleepiness in multiple system atrophy (SLEEMSA study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Lopez, C.; Santamaria, J.; Salamero, M.; Del Sorbo, F.; Albanese, A.; Pellecchia, M.T.; Barone, P.; Overeem, S.; Bloem, B.R.; Aarden, W.C.C.A.; Canesi, M.; Antonini, A.; Duerr, S.; Wenning, G.K.; Poewe, W.; Rubino, A.; Meco, G.; Schneider, S.A.; Bhatia, K.P.; Djaldetti, R.; Coelho, M.; Sampaio, C.; Cochen, V.; Hellriegel, H.; Deuschl, G.; Colosimo, C.; Marsili, L.; Gasser, T.; Tolosa, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders are common in multiple system atrophy (MSA), but the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and associations of EDS in MSA. DESIGN: Survey of EDS in consecutive patients with MSA and comparison with patients

  3. Interpretation of electrodiagnostic findings in sporadic progressive muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; de Visser, M.; Van den Berg-Vos, R. M.; Van den Berg, L. H.; Wokke, J. H. J.; De Jong, J. M. B. V.; Franssen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We present the electrophysiologic data at baseline of 37 patients who were included in our prospective study on sporadic adult-onset progressive muscular atrophy (PMA). The aim was to correlate electrophysiological. signs of lower motor neuron (LMN) loss with clinical signs of LMN loss, an

  4. CT findings of hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokiguchi, Susumu; Kurashima, Akihiko; Tsuchiya, Toshiaki; Ito, Jusuke; Naito, Haruhiko; Nagai, Hiroko; Wakabayashi, Masatoshi; Morita, Masahiro

    1987-12-01

    Hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) has recently been recognized as a clinicopathological entity. It may be defined as a multisystem degenerative disease of dominant inheritance, and characterized clinically by a combination of epilepsy, myoclonus, ataxia, dementia, and choreo-athetosis. This paper reports on the CT findings of ten patients (in four families) with DRPLA. In two families, the diagnosis was established on the basis of the clinicopathological findings, while in the other two, the diagnosis was made clinically. Although the CT findings were not identical in all patients, some degree of atrophic change was always observed in the cerebellum, brainstem, and cerebral cortex. Cerebellar atrophy was always accompanied by a dilatation of the fourth ventricle. Midbrain atrophy was characterized by a prominent tegmental atrophy and aqueductal dilatation, such as is seen in progressive supranuclear palsy. Of the four patients over 40 years of age, three had a diffuse hypodensity of the cerebral white matter on CT. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on this hypodensity in patients with spino-cerebellar degeneration or Huntington's chorea. CT may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of progressive neuro-degenerative disorders.

  5. Best practice guidelines for molecular analysis in spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, H; Cobben, JM; Matthijs, G; Wirth, B

    2001-01-01

    With a prevalence of approximately 1/10 000, and a carrier frequency of 1/40-1/60 the proximal spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are among the most frequent autosomal recessive hereditary disorders. Patients can be classified clinically into four groups: acute, intermediate, mild, and adult (SMA type

  6. Brain atrophy at onset and physical disability in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS patients during the disease onset predicts long term disability. METHODS: MS patients with follow-up time of at least 7 years from disease onset and with baseline and second magnetic resonance 12 months later were included to measure brain atrophy. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS was categorized in three groups, EDSS=0, EDSS=1 and 2.5 and EDSS>2.5, and used as disability measure. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included. Mean atrophy during the first year in patients that reached an EDSS≥3 was -0.76±0.45 %, in patients with an EDSS between 1 and 2.5 was -0.59±0.56, while in patients with an EDSS of 0 it was -0.38±0.42 (p=0.003. DISCUSSION: Brain atrophy rates during the first year of disease were predictive of disease progression in our population.

  7. Characterization of disuse skeletal muscle atrophy and the efficacy of a novel muscle atrophy countermeasure during spaceflight and simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea Marie

    Humans are an integral part of the engineered systems that will enable return to the Moon and eventually travel to Mars. Major advancements in countermeasure development addressing deleterious effects of microgravity and reduced gravity on the musculoskeletal system need to be made to ensure mission safety and success. The primary objectives of this dissertation are to advance the knowledge and understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy, and support development of novel countermeasures for disuse atrophy to enable healthy long-duration human spaceflight. Models simulating microgravity and actual spaceflight were used to examine the musculoskeletal adaptations during periods of unloading. Myostatin inhibition, a novel anti-atrophy drug therapy, and exercise were examined as a means of preventing and recovering from disuse atrophy. A combination of assays was used to quantify adaptation responses to unloading and examine efficacy of the countermeasures. Body and muscle masses were collected to analyze systemic changes due to treatments. Hindlimb strength and individual muscle forces were measured to demonstrate functional adaptations to treatments. Muscle fiber morphology and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression was examined to identify adaptations at the cellular level. Protein synthesis signals insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), Akt, and p70s6 kinase; and the degradation signals Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 were examined to identify adaptations at the molecular level that ultimately lead to muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. A time course study provided a thorough characterization of the adaptation of skeletal muscle during unloading in C57BL/6 mice, and baseline data for comparison to and evaluation of subsequent studies. Time points defining the on-set and endpoints of disuse muscle atrophy were identified to enable characterization of rapid vs. long-term responses of skeletal muscle to hindlimb suspension. Unloading-induced atrophy primarily resulted from increased protein

  8. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  9. Phenotypic and molecular insights into spinal muscular atrophy due to mutations in BICD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossor, Alexander M; Oates, Emily C; Salter, Hannah K; Liu, Yang; Murphy, Sinead M; Schule, Rebecca; Gonzalez, Michael A; Scoto, Mariacristina; Phadke, Rahul; Sewry, Caroline A; Houlden, Henry; Jordanova, Albena; Tournev, Iyailo; Chamova, Teodora; Litvinenko, Ivan; Zuchner, Stephan; Herrmann, David N; Blake, Julian; Sowden, Janet E; Acsadi, Gyuda; Rodriguez, Michael L; Menezes, Manoj P; Clarke, Nigel F; Auer Grumbach, Michaela; Bullock, Simon L; Muntoni, Francesco; Reilly, Mary M; North, Kathryn N

    2015-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a disorder of lower motor neurons, most commonly caused by recessive mutations in SMN1 on chromosome 5q. Cases without SMN1 mutations are subclassified according to phenotype. Spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity-predominant, is characterized by lower limb muscle weakness and wasting, associated with reduced numbers of lumbar motor neurons and is caused by mutations in DYNC1H1, which encodes a microtubule motor protein in the dynein-dynactin complex and one of its cargo adaptors, BICD2. We have now identified 32 patients with BICD2 mutations from nine different families, providing detailed insights into the clinical phenotype and natural history of BICD2 disease. BICD2 spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity predominant most commonly presents with delayed motor milestones and ankle contractures. Additional features at presentation include arthrogryposis and congenital dislocation of the hips. In all affected individuals, weakness and wasting is lower-limb predominant, and typically involves both proximal and distal muscle groups. There is no evidence of sensory nerve involvement. Upper motor neuron signs are a prominent feature in a subset of individuals, including one family with exclusively adult-onset upper motor neuron features, consistent with a diagnosis of hereditary spastic paraplegia. In all cohort members, lower motor neuron features were static or only slowly progressive, and the majority remained ambulant throughout life. Muscle MRI in six individuals showed a common pattern of muscle involvement with fat deposition in most thigh muscles, but sparing of the adductors and semitendinosus. Muscle pathology findings were highly variable and included pseudomyopathic features, neuropathic features, and minimal change. The six causative mutations, including one not previously reported, result in amino acid changes within all three coiled-coil domains of the BICD2 protein, and include a possible 'hot spot' mutation, p.Ser107Leu

  10. A real-time pattern recognition based myoelectric control usability study implemented in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, L; Losier, Y; Lock, B; Englehart, K; Hudgins, B

    2007-01-01

    Pattern recognition based myoelectric control systems have been well researched; however very few systems have been implemented in a clinical environment. Although classification accuracy or classification error is the metric most often reported to describe how well these control systems perform, very little work research has been conducted to relate this measure to the usability of the system. This work presents a virtual clothespin usability test to assess the performance of pattern recognition based myoelectric control systems. The results suggest that users can complete the virtual task in reasonable time frames when using systems with high classification accuracies. Additionally, results indicate that a clinically-supported classifier training approach (inclusion of the transient potion of contraction signals) may reduce classification accuracy but increase real-time performance. PMID:18003090

  11. Extremely Robust and Patternable Electrodes for Copy-Paper-Based Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaeho; Seo, Ji-Won; Lee, Tae-Ik; Kwon, Donguk; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-07-27

    We propose a fabrication process for extremely robust and easily patternable silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes on paper. Using an auxiliary donor layer and a simple laminating process, AgNWs can be easily transferred to copy paper as well as various other substrates using a dry process. Intercalating a polymeric binder between the AgNWs and the substrate through a simple printing technique enhances adhesion, not only guaranteeing high foldability of the electrodes, but also facilitating selective patterning of the AgNWs. Using the proposed process, extremely crease-tolerant electronics based on copy paper can be fabricated, such as a printed circuit board for a 7-segment display, portable heater, and capacitive touch sensor, demonstrating the applicability of the AgNWs-based electrodes to paper electronics. PMID:27378213

  12. Renal Atrophy Secondary to Chemoradiotherapy of Abdominal Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify factors predictive of renal atrophy after chemoradiotherapy of gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods and Materials: Patients who received chemotherapy and abdominal radiotherapy (RT) between 2002 and 2008 were identified for this study evaluating change in kidney size and function after RT. Imaging and biochemical data were obtained before and after RT in 6-month intervals. Kidney size was defined by craniocaudal measurement on CT images. The primarily irradiated kidney (PK) was defined as the kidney that received the greater mean kidney dose. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to predict risk for renal atrophy. Results: Of 130 patients, median age was 64 years, and 51.5% were male. Most primary disease sites were pancreas and periampullary tumors (77.7%). Median follow-up was 9.4 months. Creatinine clearance declined 20.89%, and size of the PK decreased 4.67% 1 year after completion of chemoradiation. Compensatory hypertrophy of the non-PK was not seen. Percentage volumes of the PK receiving ≥10 Gy (V10), 15 Gy (V15), and 20 Gy (V20) were significantly associated with renal atrophy 1 year after RT (p = 0.0030, 0.0029, and 0.0028, respectively). Areas under the ROC curves for V10, V15, and V20 to predict >5% decrease in PK size were 0.760, 0.760, and 0.762, respectively. Conclusions: Significant detriments in PK size and renal function were seen after abdominal RT. The V10, V15, and V20 were predictive of risk for PK atrophy 1 year after RT. Analyses suggest the association of lower-dose renal irradiation with subsequent development of renal atrophy.

  13. Clinical and MRI correlation in multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we studied 11 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA): 5 olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), 2 Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS), and 4 striatonigral degeneration (SND). The diagnoses of OPCA, SDS and SND were clinically made. The MR images were performed on 1.5 tesla MRI unit (Siemens Asahi Medical, Magnetom H15), using a T2-weighted spin echo (SE) sequence (TR: 2000-3000 ms, TE: 80-90 ms), a T1-weighted SE sequence (TR: 550, TE: 15), and a proton density-weighted (PD) SE sequence (TR: 2000-3000, TE: 12-22). In the patients with OPCA, MRI revealed cerebellar and brainstem atrophy and degeneration of pontine transverse fibers more marked than in the patients with SDS and SND. T2-weighted images showed low intensity in posterolateral putamina in one OPCA patient and all of SDS and SND patients. PD images demonstrated the abnormal slit-like high signals in posterolateral putamina in three SND. The degree of cerebellar ataxia was not well correlated with cerebellar and brainstem atrophy and degeneration of pontine transverse fibers. There was a positive correlation between the atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem and the duration of cerebellar ataxia. In most of the patients with Parkinsonism, MRI demonstrated abnormal low signals in putamina on T2-weighted images. There were positive correlations between the abnormal low signals putamina and the duration and severity of Parkinsonism. Though abnormal low signals in lateral putamina may be seen in normal aging and other disorders on T2-weighted images, it is useful to evaluate Parkinsonism in MSA. We believe that the abnormal slit-like high signals in posterolateral putamina in MSA may suggest loss of neurons and gliosis. (author)

  14. PROLIFERATIVE INFLAMMATORY ATROPHY: POTENTIAL PRECURSOR LESION FOR PROSTATIC ADENOCARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti-Padrón Inés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostatic Intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN is currently considered as the only precursor lesion of prostate cancer (PCa; nevertheless, some years ago, it has been suspected that the atrophic lesions also might be involved in its carcinogenesis. In 1999, De Marzo prospered, the expression Proliferative Inflammatory Atrophy (PIA to denominate a lesion located in the peripheral area of the gland, with epithelial cells with high proliferative potential, frequently accompanied of inflammation that has been postulated as possible precursor lesion of PIN and PCa. Objective: To review the concepts about Proliferative Inflammatory Atrophy (PIA, its morphological, genetics and molecular characteristics and to explain the precursor capacity of PIN and PCa. Methods: Databases Pubmed, Sciencedirect, EBSCOhost and OvidSP were reviewed in search of studies, systematic reviews, consensus and meta-analyses with keywords: Proliferative Inflammatory Atrophy, Prostatic Atrophy, Prostatic Carcinoma, using as due date December of 2012. Results: Molecular disorders described in PIA support the beginning of these lesions in a context of oxidative stress, possibly caused by the surrounding inflammatory cells, which induce the expression of defense gene against the oxidative damage of the genome in some epithelial cells, while those that fail in the expression of these gene become vulnerable to oxidants and electrophiles, which do them prone to develop genetic disorders that will benefit their transformation in cells of PIN and PCa. The morphological association PIA-PIN/PCa points to a progressive relationship between these lesions.Conclusion: Topographic association and morphological transition of PIA with PIN and PCa have been observed. Besides, genetic, somatic and molecular disorders have been reported in PIA, similar to those observed in PIN and PCa due to it has been postulated as possible precursor lesion of both. Nevertheless, this approach is

  15. Metabolic patterns in prion diseases: an FDG PET voxel-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical diagnosis of human prion diseases can be challenging since symptoms are common to other disorders associated with rapidly progressive dementia. In this context, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) might be a useful complementary tool. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic pattern in human prion diseases, particularly sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). We retrospectively studied 17 patients with a definitive, probable or possible prion disease who underwent FDG PET in our institution. Of these patients, 12 were diagnosed as sCJD (9 definitive, 2 probable and 1 possible), 1 was diagnosed as definitive vCJD and 4 were diagnosed as definitive FFI. The hypometabolic pattern of each individual and comparisons across the groups of subjects (control subjects, sCJD and FFI) were evaluated using a voxel-based analysis. The sCJD group exhibited a pattern of hypometabolism that affected both subcortical (bilateral caudate, thalamus) and cortical (frontal cortex) structures, while the FFI group only presented a slight hypometabolism in the thalamus. Individual analysis demonstrated a considerable variability of metabolic patterns among patients, with the thalamus and basal ganglia the most frequently affected areas, combined in some cases with frontal and temporal hypometabolism. Patients with a prion disease exhibit a characteristic pattern of brain metabolism presentation in FDG PET imaging. Consequently, in patients with rapidly progressive cognitive impairment, the detection of these patterns in the FDG PET study could orient the diagnosis to a prion disease. (orig.)

  16. Metabolic patterns in prion diseases: an FDG PET voxel-based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Elena; Dominguez-Prado, Ines; Jesus Ribelles, Maria; Arbizu, Javier [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Riverol, Mario; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Rosario Luquin, Maria; Castro, Purificacion de [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Neurology Department, Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Clinical diagnosis of human prion diseases can be challenging since symptoms are common to other disorders associated with rapidly progressive dementia. In this context, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) might be a useful complementary tool. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic pattern in human prion diseases, particularly sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). We retrospectively studied 17 patients with a definitive, probable or possible prion disease who underwent FDG PET in our institution. Of these patients, 12 were diagnosed as sCJD (9 definitive, 2 probable and 1 possible), 1 was diagnosed as definitive vCJD and 4 were diagnosed as definitive FFI. The hypometabolic pattern of each individual and comparisons across the groups of subjects (control subjects, sCJD and FFI) were evaluated using a voxel-based analysis. The sCJD group exhibited a pattern of hypometabolism that affected both subcortical (bilateral caudate, thalamus) and cortical (frontal cortex) structures, while the FFI group only presented a slight hypometabolism in the thalamus. Individual analysis demonstrated a considerable variability of metabolic patterns among patients, with the thalamus and basal ganglia the most frequently affected areas, combined in some cases with frontal and temporal hypometabolism. Patients with a prion disease exhibit a characteristic pattern of brain metabolism presentation in FDG PET imaging. Consequently, in patients with rapidly progressive cognitive impairment, the detection of these patterns in the FDG PET study could orient the diagnosis to a prion disease. (orig.)

  17. The vertical pattern of microwave radiation around BTS (Base Transceiver Station) antennae in Hashtgerd township

    OpenAIRE

    Nasseri, Simin; Monazzam, Mohammadreza; Beheshti, Meisam; Zare, Sajad; Mahvi, Amirhosein

    2013-01-01

    New environmental pollutants interfere with the environment and human life along with technology development. One of these pollutants is electromagnetic field. This study determines the vertical microwave radiation pattern of different types of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antennae in the Hashtgerd city as the capital of Savojbolagh County, Alborz Province of Iran. The basic data including the geographical location of the BTS antennae in the city, brand, operator type, installation and its ...

  18. Image based techniques for determining spread patterns of centrifugal fertilizer spreaders

    OpenAIRE

    Cool, Simon; Jan G Pieters; Koen C. Mertens; Nuyttens, D.; Hijazi, Bilal; Dubois, Julien; Cointault, Frédéric; Vangeyte, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Precision fertilization requires new techniques for determining the spread pattern of fertilizer spreaders. Because of the accuracy and non-intrusive nature, techniques based on digital image processing are most promising. Using image processing, dynamics of particles leaving the spreader can be determined. Combined with a ballistic flight model, this allows predicting the landing position of individual fertilizer particles. In a first approach, a two-dimensional imaging technique was used wi...

  19. Uniform Local Binary Pattern Based Texture-Edge Feature for 3D Human Behavior Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Yue; Wang, Guangchao; Fan, Chunxiao

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of 3D somatosensory technology, human behavior recognition has become an important research field. Human behavior feature analysis has evolved from traditional 2D features to 3D features. In order to improve the performance of human activity recognition, a human behavior recognition method is proposed, which is based on a hybrid texture-edge local pattern coding feature extraction and integration of RGB and depth videos information. The paper mainly focuses on backg...

  20. Joint transform correlator based on CIELAB model with encoding technique for color pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tiengsheng; Chen, Chulung; Liu, Chengyu; Chen, Yuming

    2010-10-01

    The CIELAB standard color vision model instead of the traditional RGB color model is utilized for polychromatic pattern recognition. The image encoding technique is introduced. The joint transform correlator is set to be the optical configuration. To achieve the distortion invariance in discrimination processes, we have used the minimum average correlation energy approach to yield sharp correlation peak. From the numerical results, it is found that the recognition ability based on CIELAB color specification system is accepted.

  1. Dynamic Assessment of Water Quality Based on a Variable Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shiguo Xu; Tianxiang Wang; Suduan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Water quality assessment is an important foundation of water resource protection and is affected by many indicators. The dynamic and fuzzy changes of water quality lead to problems for proper assessment. This paper explores a method which is in accordance with the water quality changes. The proposed method is based on the variable fuzzy pattern recognition (VFPR) model and combines the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model with the entropy weight (EW) method. The proposed method was applied ...

  2. Block Texture Pattern Detection Based on Smoothness and Complexity of Neighborhood Pixels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Farhad Nilizadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method for detecting Block Texture Patterns (BTP, based on two measures: smoothness and complexity of neighborhood pixels is proposed. With these two measures, a new classification for texture detection is defined. Texture detection with these measures can be used in many image processing and computer vision applications. As an example, the applicability of BTP on data hiding algorithms is discussed, and the advantages of this classification on these algorithms are shown.

  3. Flow pattern based correlations of two-phase pressure drop in rectangular microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chiwoong, E-mail: chiwoongchoi@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, San 31, Hyoja Dong 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moohwan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, San 31, Hyoja Dong 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glass microchannels with embedded pressure ports were fabricated to obtain accurate measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessments of seven HFM (Homogeneous Flow Model) and ten SFM (Separated Flow Model) were conducted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate models shows best estimations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In addition, the pressure drop is well agreed with flow pattern tendency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on two-phase flow patterns, new correlations were proposed for both homogeneous and separated flow types. - Abstract: Numerous pressure drop correlations for microchannels have been proposed; most of them can be classified as either a homogeneous flow model (HFM) or a separated flow model (SFM). However, the predictions of these correlations have not been compared directly because they were developed in experiments conducted under a range of conditions, including channel shape, the number of channels, channel material and the working fluid. In this study, single rectangular microchannels with different aspect ratios and hydraulic diameters were fabricated in a photosensitive glass. Adiabatic water-liquid and Nitrogen-gas two-phase flow experiments were conducted using liquid superficial velocities of 0.06-1.0 m/s, gas superficial velocities of 0.06-72 m/s and hydraulic diameters of 141, 143, 304, 322 and 490 {mu}m. A pressure drop in microchannels was directly measured through embedded ports. The flow pattern was visualized using a high-speed camera and a long-distance microscope. A two-phase pressure drop in the microchannel was highly related to the flow pattern. Data were used to assess seven different HFM viscosity models and ten SFM correlations, and new correlations based on flow patterns were proposed for both HFMs and SFMs.

  4. Flow pattern based correlations of two-phase pressure drop in rectangular microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Glass microchannels with embedded pressure ports were fabricated to obtain accurate measurements. ► The assessments of seven HFM (Homogeneous Flow Model) and ten SFM (Separated Flow Model) were conducted. ► The results indicate models shows best estimations. ► In addition, the pressure drop is well agreed with flow pattern tendency. ► Based on two-phase flow patterns, new correlations were proposed for both homogeneous and separated flow types. - Abstract: Numerous pressure drop correlations for microchannels have been proposed; most of them can be classified as either a homogeneous flow model (HFM) or a separated flow model (SFM). However, the predictions of these correlations have not been compared directly because they were developed in experiments conducted under a range of conditions, including channel shape, the number of channels, channel material and the working fluid. In this study, single rectangular microchannels with different aspect ratios and hydraulic diameters were fabricated in a photosensitive glass. Adiabatic water-liquid and Nitrogen-gas two-phase flow experiments were conducted using liquid superficial velocities of 0.06–1.0 m/s, gas superficial velocities of 0.06–72 m/s and hydraulic diameters of 141, 143, 304, 322 and 490 μm. A pressure drop in microchannels was directly measured through embedded ports. The flow pattern was visualized using a high-speed camera and a long-distance microscope. A two-phase pressure drop in the microchannel was highly related to the flow pattern. Data were used to assess seven different HFM viscosity models and ten SFM correlations, and new correlations based on flow patterns were proposed for both HFMs and SFMs.

  5. Optimizing of large-number-patterns string matching algorithms based on definite-state automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xun-xun; FANG Bin-xing

    2007-01-01

    Because the small CACHE size of computers, the scanning speed of DFA based multi-pattern stringmatching algorithms slows down rapidly especially when the number of patterns is very large. For solving such problems, we cut down the scanning time of those algorithms (i.e. DFA based) by rearranging the states table and shrinking the DFA alphabet size. Both the methods can decrease the probability of large-scale random memory accessing and increase the probability of continuously memory accessing. Then the hitting rate of the CACHE is increased and the searching time of on the DFA is reduced. Shrinking the alphabet size of the DFA also reduces the storage complication. The AC + + algorithm, by optimizing the Aho-Corasick ( i. e. AC) algorithm using such methods, proves the theoretical analysis. And the experimentation results show that the scanning time of AC + + and the storage occupied is better than that of AC in most cases and the result is much attractive when the number of patterns is very large. Because DFA is a widely used base algorithm in may string matching algorithms, such as DAWG, SBOM etc. , the optimizing method discussed is significant in practice.

  6. Fault Detection Based on Multi-Scale Local Binary Patterns Operator and Improved Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjian Zhang; Ping He; Xudong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to effectively recognize train center plate bolt loss faults, this paper presents an improved fault detection method. A multi-scale local binary pattern operator containing the local texture information of different radii is designed to extract more efficient discrimination information. An improved teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm is established to optimize the classification results in the decision level. Two new phases including the worst recombination phase and the cuc...

  7. Argumentation and Equity in Inquiry-Based Science Instruction: Reasoning Patterns of Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Tobias E. L.

    This multiple case study explores issues of equity in science education through an examination of how teachers' reasoning patterns compare with students' reasoning patterns during inquiry-based lessons. It also examines the ways in which teachers utilize students' cultural and linguistic resources, or funds of knowledge, during inquiry-based lessons and the ways in which students utilize their funds of knowledge, during inquiry-based lessons. Three middle school teachers and a total of 57 middle school students participated in this study. The data collection involved classroom observations and multiple interviews with each of the teachers individually and with small groups of students. The findings indicate that the students are capable of far more complex reasoning than what was elicited by the lessons observed or what was modeled and expected by the teachers, but that during the inquiry-based lessons they conformed to the more simplistic reasoning patterns they perceived as the expected norm of classroom dialogue. The findings also indicate that the students possess funds of knowledge that are relevant to science topics, but very seldom use these funds in the context of their inquiry-based lessons. In addition, the teachers in this study very seldom worked to elicit students' use of their funds in these contexts. The few attempts they did make involved the use of analogies, examples, or questions. The findings from this study have implications for both teachers and teacher educators in that they highlight similarities and differences in reasoning that can help teachers establish instructional congruence and facilitate more equitable science instruction. They also provide insight into how students' cultural and linguistic resources are utilized during inquiry-based science lessons.

  8. A subject-independent pattern-based Brain-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andreas M.; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Rana, Mohit; Pasqualotto, Emanuele; Buyukturkoglu, Korhan; Guan, Cuntai; Ang, Kai-Keng; Tejos, Cristián; Zamorano, Francisco; Aboitiz, Francisco; Birbaumer, Niels; Ruiz, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    While earlier Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) studies have mostly focused on modulating specific brain regions or signals, new developments in pattern classification of brain states are enabling real-time decoding and modulation of an entire functional network. The present study proposes a new method for real-time pattern classification and neurofeedback of brain states from electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. It involves the creation of a fused classification model based on the method of Common Spatial Patterns (CSPs) from data of several healthy individuals. The subject-independent model is then used to classify EEG data in real-time and provide feedback to new individuals. In a series of offline experiments involving training and testing of the classifier with individual data from 27 healthy subjects, a mean classification accuracy of 75.30% was achieved, demonstrating that the classification system at hand can reliably decode two types of imagery used in our experiments, i.e., happy emotional imagery and motor imagery. In a subsequent experiment it is shown that the classifier can be used to provide neurofeedback to new subjects, and that these subjects learn to “match” their brain pattern to that of the fused classification model in a few days of neurofeedback training. This finding can have important implications for future studies on neurofeedback and its clinical applications on neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26539089

  9. Handwritten Pattern Recognition Using Kohonen Neural Network Based on Pixel Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu C. Munggaran

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Handwriting is the human way in communicating each other using written media. By the advancement in technology and development of science, there are a lot of changes of technology in terms of communication with computer through handwriting. Therefore, it is needed computer able to receive input in the form of handwriting data and able to recognize the handwriting input. Therefore, this research focuses on handwritten character recognition using Kohonen neural network. The purpose of this research is to find handwriting recognition algorithm which can receive handwriting input and recognize handwritten character directly inputted in computer using Kohonen neural network. This method studies the distribution of a set of patterns without any class information. The basic idea of this technique is understood from how human brain stores images/patterns that have been recognized through eyes, and then able to reveal the images/patterns back. This research has been successful in developing an application to recognize handwritten characters using Kohonen neural network method, and it has been tested. The application is personal computer based and using a canvas as input media. The recognition process consist of 3 stages layer: Input layer, Training Layer and Hidden Layer. The Kohonen neural network method on handwritten character recognition application has good similarity level of character patterns in character mapping process.

  10. A subject-independent pattern-based Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Markus Ray

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available While earlier Brain-Computer Interface (BCI studies have mostly focused on modulating specific brain regions or signals, new developments in pattern classification of brain states are enabling real-time decoding and modulation of an entire functional network. The present study proposes a new method for real-time pattern classification and neurofeedback of brain states from electroencephalographic (EEG signals. It involves the creation of a fused classification model based on the method of Common Spatial Patterns (CSPs from data of several healthy individuals. The subject-independent model is then used to classify EEG data in real-time and provide feedback to new individuals. In a series of offline experiments involving training and testing of the classifier with individual data from 27 healthy subjects, a mean classification accuracy of 75.30% was achieved, demonstrating that the classification system at hand can reliably decode two types of imagery used in our experiments, i.e. happy emotional imagery and motor imagery. In a subsequent experiment it is shown that the classifier can be used to provide neurofeedback to new subjects, and that these subjects learn to match their brain pattern to that of the fused classification model in a few days of neurofeedback training. This finding can have important implications for future studies on neurofeedback and its clinical applications on neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. A New Flatness Pattern Recognition Model Based on Cerebellar Model Articulation Controllers Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hai-tao; LI Yan

    2008-01-01

    In the traditional flatness pattern recognition neural network,the topologic configurations need to be rebuilt with a changing width of cold strip.Furthermore,the large learning assignment,slow convergence,and local minimum in the network are observed.Moreover,going by the structure of the tradtional neural network,according to experience,the model is time-consuming and complex.Thus,a new approach of flatness pattern recognition is proposed based on the CMAC (cerebellar model articulation controllers) neural network.The difference in fuzzy distances between samples and the basic patterns is introduced as the input of the CMAC network.Simultaneously,the adequate learning rate is improved in the error correction algorithm of this neural network.The new approach with advantages,such as high learning speed,good generalization,and easy implementation,is efficient and intelligent.The simulation results show that the speed and accuracy of the flatness pattern recognition model are obviously improved.

  12. Growth of GaN based structures on focused ion beam patterned templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, Y.; Tottereau, O.; Nguyen, L. [Centre de Recherche sur l' Heteroepitaxie et ses Application, UPR-CNRS, Valbonne (France); Ramdani, M.; Soltani, A.; Boucherit, M.; Troadec, D.; Lo, F.Y.; Hu, Y.Y.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A.D. [Centre de Recherche sur l' Heteroepitaxie et ses Application, UPR-CNRS, Valbonne (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Cite Scientifique, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Focused ion beam technique is a powerful tool for defining patterns within a semiconductor film. In this paper, we show that it is possible to realize patterns such as disks and columns within thick GaN templates and that it is compatible with the regrowth of GaN based heterostructures. We study the effect of the pattern size and shape on the regrowth by molecular beam epitaxy. We show that the growth using ammonia as the nitrogen source with flux at temperature optimized for 2-dimensional growth leads to the apparition of well defined growth planes. We show that the development of these planes is dependent with the initial pattern size and shape. These results confirm the difficulty for realizing micro or nano-columns with axial heterostructures. At the opposite, these growth conditions seem favourable for core-shell heterostructures column with well defined m-plane and eventually a-plane lateral facets. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Mitigating illumination gradients in a SAR image based on the image data and antenna beam pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2013-04-30

    Illumination gradients in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image of a target can be mitigated by determining a correction for pixel values associated with the SAR image. This correction is determined based on information indicative of a beam pattern used by a SAR antenna apparatus to illuminate the target, and also based on the pixel values associated with the SAR image. The correction is applied to the pixel values associated with the SAR image to produce corrected pixel values that define a corrected SAR image.

  14. Skeletal muscle wasting with disuse atrophy is multi-dimensional: the response and interaction of myonuclei, satellite cells and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Elisabeth Brooks

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of skeletal muscle is essential for health and survival. There are marked losses of skeletal muscle mass as well as strength and physiological function under conditions of low mechanical load, such as space flight, as well as ground based models such as bed rest, immobilisation, disuse and various animal models. Disuse atrophy is caused by mechanical unloading of muscle and this leads to reduced muscle mass without fibre attrition. Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells and myonuclei are integrally involved in skeletal muscle responses to environmental changes that induce atrophy. Myonuclear domain size is influenced differently in fast and slow twitch muscle, but also by different models of muscle wasting, a factor that is not yet understood. Although the myonuclear domain is 3-dimensional this is rarely considered. Apoptosis as a mechanism for myonuclear loss with atrophy is controversial, whereas cell death of satellite cells has not been considered. Molecular signals such as myostatin/SMAD pathway, MAFbx and MuRF1 E3 ligases of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and IGF1-AKT-mTOR pathway are 3 distinctly different contributors to skeletal muscle protein adaptation to disuse. Molecular signalling pathways activated in muscle fibres by disuse are rarely considered within satellite cells themselves despite similar exposure to unloading or low mechanical load. These molecular pathways interact with each other during atrophy and also when various interventions are applied that could alleviate atrophy. Re-applying mechanical load is an obvious method to restore muscle mass, however how nutrient supplementation (e.g. amino acids may further enhance recovery (or reduce atrophy despite unloading or ageing is currently of great interest. Satellite cells are particularly responsive to myostatin and to growth factors. Recently, the hibernating squirrel has been identified as an innovative model to study resistance to atrophy.

  15. An algorithm about spatial association rule mining based on cell pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangping; Li, Pingxiang; Fei, Huang; Wang, Rong

    2006-10-01

    Spatial association rule is one of the upmost knowledge rules in the result of spatial data mining. It emphasizes particularly on confirming the relation of data in different fields. It tries to find out the dependence of data in multi-fields. As we know, in GIS the spatial database is often separated into several layers or tables according the type of the spatial object such as road layer, building layer, plant layer etc. In the relational database we often separate it into several tables which be associated by the primary key and foreign key according the normal form theory. Consequently, the spatial data is stored in different layers and tables. It is necessary and meaning to mining the knowledge and rules in multi-layer and multi-tables. And, It is inevitable to mining spatial association rules in multi-layer in some application. There is a problem in it, that is the number of the rules are magnitude. So, we point a new way by using the cell pattern of the rules which the user interested to reduce and simplify the operation. In this paper the concept of multi-layer spatial association rule is put forward. Then an algorithm of mining multi-layer spatial association rule is presented which based on cell pattern and spatial concept relation. It was called AP-MLSAM in the paper. Last, an example in GIS is given. In AP-MLSAM, First, it confirms the patterns and rules that the user is interested in. Second it counts the large itemsets according with the cell pattern in each data layer. Last, the spatial association rules are gained by the itemsets which be counted in the second step. From the experiment, it proved that AP-MLSAM is effective. It improved the efficiency by reducing the time of finding the large itemsets. It is a significance research field for mining multi-layer spatial association rules. There are many applications based on multi-layer spatial association analyse. For example: traffic flux analyse in city, weather pattern analyse, trend analyse for

  16. Atrophy of amygdala and abnormal memory-related alpha oscillations over posterior cingulate predict conversion to Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto del Val, Laura; Cantero, Jose L.; Atienza, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic dysfunction, a key pathophysiological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), may account for abnormal memory-related EEG patterns in prodromal AD. Here, we investigate to what extent oscillatory EEG changes during memory encoding and/or retrieval enhance the accuracy of medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy in predicting conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to AD. As expected, aMCI individuals that, within a 2-year follow-up period, developed dementia (N = 16) compared to healthy older (HO) (N = 26) and stable aMCI (N = 18) showed poorer associative memory, greater MTL atrophy, and lower capacity to recruit alpha oscillatory cortical networks. Interestingly, encoding-induced abnormal alpha desynchronized activity over the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) at baseline showed significantly higher accuracy in predicting AD than the magnitude of amygdala atrophy. Nevertheless, the best accuracy was obtained when the two markers were fitted into the model (sensitivity = 78%, specificity = 82%). These results support the idea that synaptic integrity/function in the PCC is affected during prodromal AD and has the potential of improving early detection when combined with MRI biomarkers. PMID:27546195

  17. A Pressure Plate-Based Method for the Automatic Assessment of Foot Strike Patterns During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santuz, Alessandro; Ekizos, Antonis; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2016-05-01

    The foot strike pattern (FSP, description of how the foot touches the ground at impact) is recognized to be a predictor of both performance and injury risk. The objective of the current investigation was to validate an original foot strike pattern assessment technique based on the numerical analysis of foot pressure distribution. We analyzed the strike patterns during running of 145 healthy men and women (85 male, 60 female). The participants ran on a treadmill with integrated pressure plate at three different speeds: preferred (shod and barefoot 2.8 ± 0.4 m/s), faster (shod 3.5 ± 0.6 m/s) and slower (shod 2.3 ± 0.3 m/s). A custom-designed algorithm allowed the automatic footprint recognition and FSP evaluation. Incomplete footprints were simultaneously identified and corrected from the software itself. The widely used technique of analyzing high-speed video recordings was checked for its reliability and has been used to validate the numerical technique. The automatic numerical approach showed a good conformity with the reference video-based technique (ICC = 0.93, p software as a powerful feedback tool in a simple experimental setup. PMID:26471786

  18. A PN-based approach along PSO scheme for PWR core reloading patterns optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► PSO algorithm along PN improves optimum loading pattern. ► The method provides great geometrical flexibility. ► The method uses a well known optimization algorithm. ► There is a capability of using high order PN in the algorithm. - Abstract: Core performance analysis constitutes an essential phase in core fuel management optimization. The output consists mainly of the neutron flux and core power distributions which are needed for deriving the safety related thermal margins. Based on the results of the core simulation, feasible options of loading patterns and control strategies can be specified within the broader scope. In other words, the output is employed in the logical decisions where the fuel management strategies are determined over a few core cycles. This work is focused on the strategy for obtaining a core reload optimization based on using continuous version of particle swarm optimization, PSO, along PN approximation for core analysis. In the last decades the obstruction one faced to use Boltzmann equation for neutron transport in optimization algorithms, was the formidable requirement of computer storage and running time. Now days, however, development of computer storage and running time make it possible to implement advanced methods for particle transport. In this paper an even-parity spherical harmonic expansion for angular distribution and finite element discretization for space variable is used to treat core analysis of particle swarm optimization. It is illustrated that the increasing spherical expansion of angular flux improves the obtained core loading pattern through PSO algorithm.

  19. Classification of reticular pattern and streaks in dermoscopic images based on texture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marlene; Pereira, Jorge; Fonseca-Pinto, Rui

    2015-10-01

    The early detection of melanoma is one of the greatest challenges in clinical practice of dermatology, and the reticular pattern is one of the most important dermoscopic structures to improve melanocytic lesion diagnosis. A texture-based approach is developed for the automatic detection of reticular patterns, whose output will assist clinical decision-making. Feature selection was based on the use of two algorithms by means of the classical graylevel co-occurrence matrix and Laws energy masks optimized on a set of 104 dermoscopy images. The AdaBoost (adaptive boosting) approach to machine learning was used within this strategy. Results suggest superiority of LEM for reticular pattern detection in dermoscopic images, achieving a sensitivity of 90.16% and a specificity of 86.67%. The use of automatic classification in dermoscopy to support clinicians is a strong tool to assist diagnosis; however, the use of automatic classification as a complementary tool in clinical routine requires algorithms with high levels of sensitivity and specificity. The results presented in this work will contribute to achieving this goal. PMID:26719848

  20. Dietary pattern and risk of hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Mara M; Chang, Ellen T; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T; Batista, Julie L; Ambinder, Richard F; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E; Birmann, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997-2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns ("vegetable," "high meat," "fruit/low-fat dairy," "desserts/sweets") using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. PMID:26182945