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Sample records for atrophic fetal rat

  1. Protective Action of Acupuncture and Moxibustion on Gastric Mucosa in Model Rats with Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高希言; 饶红; 王燕; 孟丹; 魏玉龙

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To probe the mechanism of acupuncture and moxibustion in atrophic gastritis so as to provide a basis for clinical treatment. Method: Observe the effects of acupuncture and moxibustion at the points of Zusanli, Zhongwan and Tianshu on gastric mucosa in model rats with chronic atrophic gastritis. Results:Acupuncture and moxibustion can increase the contents of PGE2α, PGF2α and cAMP, and decrease the content of cGMP in the tissue of gastric mucosa. Conclusion: Acupuncture and moxibustion shows cytoprotection on gastric mucosa, so it is an effective method for treating chronic atrophic gastritis.

  2. Protective effects of heat shock protein70 induced by geranyl-geranylacetone in atrophic gastritis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-li LIU; Shu-jie CHEN; Yan CHEN; Lei-min SUN; Wei ZHANG; Ya-min ZENG; Tian-hua ZHOU; Jian-min SI

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) on the progres-sion of atrophic gastritis in rats and its potential mechanism. Methods: Atrophic gastritis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with 0.1% ammonia solution, 60% ethanol, and 20 mmol/L deoxycholic acid for 24 weeks. Accompanied by the induction of atrophic gastritis, 200 mg/kg GGA was administered by oral gavage for 8 weeks (weeks 17-24). The histological changes in gastric mucosa were quantitated by the index of inflammation, the gastric mucosal thickness, and the amount of glands of 1 mm horizontal length in antrum. Endogenous heat shock protein (HSP)70 levels and distribution were determined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry in gastric mucosa. Results: GGA alleviated the pathologi-cal progression of atrophic gastritis with inflammation relief (inflammation index: 1.40 in the GGA group and 1.65 in the atrophic gastritis group) and glandular restoration (rnucosal thickness and quantity of glands: 194.3 μm and 38.7 mm in the GGA group; 123.3 μm and 32.7 mm in the atrophic gastritis group; P<0.05). GGA significantly induced HSP70 synthesis (P<0.05). Moreover, quercetin, an inhibitor of HSP70 expression, aggravated the infiltration of inflammatory cells and glandular loss in the antrum. Conclusion: GGA prevented the progression of atrophic gastritis in rats via the induction of HSP70 expression.

  3. Effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on chronic atrophic gastritis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Hui Shao; Yue-Ping Yang; Jie Dai; Jing-Fang Wu; Ai-Hua Bo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on experimental chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in rats.METHODS: Sixty-three male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including normal control group, model control group and three different dosages He-Ne laser groups. The chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG)model in rats was made by pouring medicine which was a kind of mixed liquor including 2% sodium salicylate and 30% alcohol down the throat for 8 wk to stimulate rat gastric mucosa, combining with irregular fasting and compulsive sporting as pathogenic factors; 3.36, 4.80, and 6.24J/cm2doses of He-Ne laser were used, respectively for three different treatment groups, once a day for 20 d. The pH value of diluted gastric acid was determined by acidimeter,the histopathological changes such as the inflammatory degrees in gastric mucosa, the morphology and structure of parietal cells were observed, and the thickness of mucosa was measured by micrometer under optical microscope.RESULTS: In model control group, the secretion of gastric acid was little, pathologic morphological changes in gastric mucosa such as thinner mucous, atrophic glands, notable inflammatory infiltration were found. After 3.36 J/cm2 dose of He-Ne laser treatment for 20 d, the secretion of gastric acid was increased (P<0.05), the thickness of gastric mucosa was significantly thicker than that in model control group (P<0.01), the gastric mucosal inflammation cells were decreased (P<0.05). Morphology, structure and volume of the parietal cells all recuperated or were closed to normal.CONCLUSION: 3.36J/cm2 dose of He-Ne laser has a significant effect on CAG in rats.

  4. Atrophic cardiac remodeling induced by taurine deficiency in Wistar rats.

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    Mariele Castilho Pansani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Micronutrient deficiency is observed in heart failure patients. Taurine, for example, represents 50% of total free amino acids in the heart, and in vivo studies have linked taurine deficiency with cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Thirty-four male Wistar rats (body weight = 100 g were weighed and randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control (C or taurine-deficient (T (-. Beta-alanine at a concentration of 3% was added to the animals' water to induce taurine deficiency in the T (- group. On day 30, the rats were individually submitted to echocardiography; morphometrical and histopathological evaluation and metalloproteinase activity, oxidative stress and inflammation evaluation were performed. Tissue samples were collected to determine the taurine concentration in the heart. RESULTS: Taurine deficiency led to decreases in: ventricular wall thickness, left ventricle dry weight, myocyte sectional area, left ventricle posterior wall thickness and ventricular geometry. With regard to heart function, the velocity of the A wave, the ratio between the E and A wave, the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and cardiac output values were decreased in T (- rats, suggesting abnormal diastolic and systolic function. Increased fibrosis, inflammation and increased activation of metalloproteinases were not observed. Oxidative stress was increased in deficient animals. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that taurine deficiency promotes structural and functional cardiac alterations with unique characteristics.

  5. Local inhibition of angiogenesis results in an atrophic non-union in a rat osteotomy model

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    M Fassbender

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Long bone and in particular tibia fractures frequently fail to heal. A disturbed revascularisation is supposed to be a major cause for impaired bone healing or the development of non-unions. We aim to establish an animal model, which reliably mimics the clinical situation. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1 and primary human osteoblast like cells (POBs were cultured with different angiogenesis-inhibitors (Fumagillin, SU5416, Artesunate and 3,5,4’-Trimethoxystilbene released out of poly(D,L-Lactide (PDLLA coated k-wires and cell activity was determined. Discs containing PDLLA or PDLLA + Fumagillin/Artesunate were placed at the chorionallantoic membrane of hen eggs and the effect on vessel formation and egg vitality was observed. Tibia osteotomy was performed in rats and stabilised with K-wires coated with PDLLA + Fumagillin or with PDLLA only (control group. The healing was compared at different time points to the PDLLA control. Fumagillin and Artesunate inhibited the activity of HMEC-1 with minor effect on POBs. Artesunate caused embryonic death, whereas Fumagillin had no effects on egg vitality, but reduced the blood vessels. In the animal study all rats showed an impaired healing with reduced biomechanical stability. The Fumagillin treated tibiae had a significantly decreased callus size at day 42 and 84, less blood vessels in the early callus, a reduced histological callus size at day 10, 28 and 84, as well as an altered callus composition. This study presents a less vascularised, atrophic, tibia non-union and can be used in further investigations to analyse the pathology of atrophic non-union and to test new interventions.

  6. NMR-based metabolomics Reveals Alterations of Electro-acupuncture Stimulations on Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Rats

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    Xu, Jingjing; Zheng, Xujuan; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Chang, Xiaorong; Shen, Guiping; Liu, Mi; Wang, Yadong; Shen, Jiacheng; Zhang, Yuan; He, Qida; Dong, Jiyang; Yang, Zongbao

    2017-01-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a common gastrointestinal disease which has been considered as precancerous lesions of gastric carcinoma. Previously, electro-acupuncture stimulation has been shown to be effective in ameliorating symptoms of CAG. However the underlying mechanism of this beneficial treatment is yet to be established. In the present study, an integrated histopathological examination along with molecular biological assay, as well as 1H NMR analysis of multiple biological samples (urine, serum, stomach, cortex and medulla) were employed to systematically assess the pathology of CAG and therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture stimulation at Sibai (ST 2), Liangmen (ST 21), and Zusanli (ST 36) acupoints located in the stomach meridian using a rat model of CAG. The current results showed that CAG caused comprehensive metabolic alterations including the TCA cycle, glycolysis, membrane metabolism and catabolism, gut microbiota-related metabolism. On the other hand, electro-acupuncture treatment was found able to normalize a number of CAG-induced metabolomics changes by alleviating membrane catabolism, restoring function of neurotransmitter in brain and partially reverse the CAG-induced perturbation in gut microbiota metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the biochemistry of CAG and mechanism of the therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture stimulations. PMID:28358020

  7. Morphological and pathologic changes of experimental chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and the regulating mechanism of protein expression in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-jing; CHEN Shu-jie; CHEN Zhe; CAI Jian-ting; SI Jian-min

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathologic change and molecular regulation in cell proliferation and apoptosis of gastric mucosa in rats with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), and evaluate the possible mechanisms. Methods: Rats were administered with 60% alcohol or 2% salicylate sodium, 20 mmol/L deoxycholate sodium and 0.1% ammonia water to establish chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) models. The gastric specimens were prepared for microscopic view with hematoxylin and eosin (H-E)and alcian blue (A-B) stain. The number of infiltrated inflammatory cells, the thickness of the mucosa gland layer (μm) and the number of gastric glands were calculated. The damage of barrier in mucosa with erosion or ulceration, and the thickness of mucin were examined by scanned electron microscope (SEM). The levels of PGE2, EGF (epiderminal growth factor) and gastrin in the serum were measured with radioimmunoassay or ELISA method. The immunohistochemistry method was used to observe the number of G cells, the expression of protein of EGFR (EGF receptor), C-erbB-2, p53, p16 and bcl-2 in gastric tissue. Results:Under SEM observation, the gastric mucosa was diffused erosion or ulceration and the thickness of mucin was decreased. Compared with normal rats, the grade of inflammatory cell infiltration in CAG rats was elevated, whereas the thickness and number of gastric gland were significantly lower (P<0.05). Compared with normal level of (0.61+0.28) μg/L, EGF in CAG (2.2±0.83) μg/L was significantly higher (P<0.05). The levels of PGE2 and gastrin in serum were significantly lower in CAG rats than that in normal rats (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry detection showed that the number of G cell in antrum was lower in CAG group (P<0.05). Immuno-stain showed EGFR protein expression in the basal and bilateral membrane, and the cytoplasma in atrophic gastric gland, while negative expression was observed in normal gastric epithelial cells. Positive staining of p53 and p16 protein was localized in

  8. Atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stika, Catherine S

    2010-01-01

    With the loss of estrogen that occurs with menopause, physiologic and structural changes occur within the vulvovaginal mucosa that lead to a condition commonly called atrophic vaginitis. Although mild genital changes occur in most women, 10-47% of postmenopausal women will develop one or more debilitating symptoms that include vulvovaginal dryness, dyspareunia, vulvar itching or pain, recurrent urinary tract infections, as well as abnormal vaginal discharge. Topical estrogen replacement therapies reverse these mucosal changes and are effective treatments for the symptoms of atrophic vaginitis. Vaginal moisturizers and lubricants also provide symptomatic relief for vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, respectively. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Hemorrhage Near Fetal Rat Bone: Preliminary Results

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    Bigelow, Timothy A.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; O'Brien, William D.

    2006-05-01

    High-intensity ultrasound has shown potential in treating many ailments requiring noninvasive tissue necrosis. However, little work has been done on using ultrasound to ablate pathologies on or near the developing fetus. For example, Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (cyst on lungs), Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (benign tumor on tail bone), and Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (one twin pumps blood to other twin) are selected problems that will potentially benefit from noninvasive ultrasound treatments. Before these applications can be explored, potential ultrasound-induced bioeffects should be understood. Specifically, ultrasound-induced hemorrhage near the fetal rat skull was investigated. An f/1 spherically focused transducer (5.1-cm focal length) was used to expose the skull of 18- to 19-day-gestation exteriorized rat fetuses. The ultrasound pulse had a center frequency of 0.92 MHz and pulse duration of 9.6 μs. The fetuses were exposed to 1 of 4 exposure conditions (denoted A, B, C, and D) in addition to a sham exposure. Three of the exposures consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 10 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 6.7 MPa, and pulse repetition frequencies of 100 Hz (A), 250 Hz (B), and 500 Hz (C), corresponding to time-average intensities of 1.9 W/cm2, 4.7 W/cm2, and 9.4 W/cm2, respectively. Exposure D consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 6.7 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 5.0 MPa, and a PRF of 500 Hz corresponding to a time-average intensity of 4.6 W/cm2. Hemorrhage occurrence increased slightly with increasing time-average intensity (i.e., 11% for A, 28% for B, 31% for C, and 19% for D with a 9% occurrence when the fetuses were not exposed). The low overall occurrence of hemorrhaging may be attributed to fetal motion (observed in over half of the fetuses from the backscattered echo during the exposure). The mean hemorrhage sizes were 3.1 mm2 for A, 2.5 mm2 for B, 2.7 mm2 for C, and 5.1 mm2 for D. The larger lesions at D may

  10. Rat fetal ventral mesencephalon grown as solid tissue cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglinger, G U; Sautter, J; Meyer, Morten;

    1998-01-01

    Free-floating roller tube (FFRT) cultures of fetal rat and human nigral tissue are a means for tissue storage prior to grafting in experimental Parkinson's disease. In the present study, FFRT cultures prepared from embryonic-day-14 rat ventral mesencephalon were maintained for 4, 8, 12, or 16 days...

  11. Radiation-induced apoptosis in developing fetal rat cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Nam, Taek Keun; Lee, Min Cheol; Ahn, Sung Ja; Song, Ju Young; Park, Seung Jin; Nah, Byung Sik [College of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    The study was performed to investigate apoptosis by radiation in the developing fetal rat brain. Fetal brains were irradiated in utero between the 17th and 19th days of fetal life(E17-19) by linear accelerator. A dose of irradiation ranging from 1 Gy to 4 Gy was used to evaluate dose dependency. To test time dependency the rats were irradiated with 2 Gy and then the fetal brain specimens were removed at variable time course; 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours after the onset of irradiation. Immunohistochemical staining using in situ TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) technique was used for apoptotic cells. The cerebral cortex, including three zones of cortical zone (CZ), intermediate zone (IZ), and ventricular zone (VZ), was examined. TUNEL positive cells revealed typical features of apoptotic cells under light microscope in the fetal rat cerebral cortex. Apoptotic cells were not found in the cerebral cortex of non-irradiated fetal rats, but did appear in the entire cerebral cortex after 1 Gy irradiation, and were more extensive at the ventricular and intermediate zones than at the cortical zone. The extent of apoptosis was increased with increasing doses of radiation. Apoptosis reached the peak at 6 hours after the onset of 2 Gy irradiation and persisted until 24 hours. Typical morphologic features of apoptosis by irradiation were observed in the developing fetal rat cerebral cortex. It was more extensive at the ventricular and intermediate zones than at the cortical zone, which suggested that stem cells or early differentiating cells are more radiosensitive than differentiated cells of the cortical zone.

  12. Maternal Baicalin Treatment Increases Fetal Lung Surfactant Phospholipids in Rats

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    Chung-Ming Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and has been reported to stimulate surfactant protein (SP-A gene expression in human lung epithelial cell lines (H441. The aims of this study were to determine whether maternal baicalin treatment could increase lung surfactant production and induce lung maturation in fetal rats. This study was performed with timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. One-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5 mg/kg/day on Day 18 of gestation. Two-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5 mg/kg/day on Days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control group mothers were injected with vehicle alone on Day 18 of gestation. On Day 19 of gestation, fetuses were delivered by cesarean section. Maternal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased saturated phospholipid when compared with control group and total phospholipid in fetal lung tissue when compared with control and 1-day baicalin groups. Antenatal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased maternal growth hormone when compared with control group. Fetal lung SP-A mRNA expression and maternal serum corticosterone levels were comparable among the three experimental groups. Maternal baicalin treatment increases pulmonary surfactant phospholipids of fetal rat lungs and the improvement was associated with increased maternal serum growth hormone. These results suggest that antenatal baicalin treatment might accelerate fetal rat lung maturation.

  13. Longitudinal analysis of osteogenic and angiogenic signaling factors in healing models mimicking atrophic and hypertrophic non-unions in rats.

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    Susann Minkwitz

    Full Text Available Impaired bone healing can have devastating consequences for the patient. Clinically relevant animal models are necessary to understand the pathology of impaired bone healing. In this study, two impaired healing models, a hypertrophic and an atrophic non-union, were compared to physiological bone healing in rats. The aim was to provide detailed information about differences in gene expression, vascularization and histology during the healing process. The change from a closed fracture (healing control group to an open osteotomy (hypertrophy group led to prolonged healing with reduced mineralized bridging after 42 days. RT-PCR data revealed higher gene expression of most tested osteogenic and angiogenic factors in the hypertrophy group at day 14. After 42 days a significant reduction of gene expression was seen for Bmp4 and Bambi in this group. The inhibition of angiogenesis by Fumagillin (atrophy group decreased the formation of new blood vessels and led to a non-healing situation with diminished chondrogenesis. RT-PCR results showed an attempt towards overcoming the early perturbance by significant up regulation of the angiogenic regulators Vegfa, Angiopoietin 2 and Fgf1 at day 7 and a further continuous increase of Fgf1, -2 and Angiopoietin 2 over time. However µCT angiograms showed incomplete recovery after 42 days. Furthermore, lower expression values were detected for the Bmps at day 14 and 21. The Bmp antagonists Dan and Twsg1 tended to be higher expressed in the atrophy group at day 42. In conclusion, the investigated animal models are suitable models to mimic human fracture healing complications and can be used for longitudinal studies. Analyzing osteogenic and angiogenic signaling patterns, clear changes in expression were identified between these three healing models, revealing the importance of a coordinated interplay of different factors to allow successful bone healing.

  14. Leucine supplementation is anti-atrophic during paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats.

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    de Sá Souza, Helton; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Dáttilo, Murilo; Lee, Kil Sun; Mônico-Neto, Marcos; de Campos Giampa, Sara Quaglia; Phillips, Stuart M; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify sleep deprivation-induced atrophy and the muscle-specific fiber types affected and to determine the effects of leucine supplementation on atrophy and pertinent portions of the pathways of muscle protein synthesis and degradation in rats. A total of 46 Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: control (CTL), leucine supplementation (LEU), sleep deprivation (SD), and leucine supplementation + sleep deprivation (LEU + SD). Leucine supplementation was by gavage (1.35 g/kg/daily), and the animals were subjected to SD for 96 h. Testosterone and corticosterone concentrations, along with proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation and proteasome activity levels, were measured in the gastrocnemius (GA) muscle. Myosin ATPase staining was used to evaluate the different muscle fibers. After sleep deprivation, GA muscle and body masses decreased in the SD group compared to the CTL, LEU, and LEU + SD groups. There was no difference between groups in type I fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). The CSAs for type IIa fibers were lower in the SD and LEU + SD groups vs. the CTL and LEU groups, while the IIb fiber CSA was lower in the SD group vs. the CSAs in all other groups. The phospho (p)-Akt levels were lower in the SD and LEU + SD groups vs. the CTL and LEU groups. The p-mTORC1 levels were higher in the LEU, SD, and LEU + SD groups vs. the CTL group. The p-p70S6k levels were higher in the LEU and LEU + SD groups; the 4E-BP1 levels were higher in the SD and LEU + SD groups compared to those in the CTL and LEU groups, and the p-4E-BP1 levels were higher in the LEU and SD groups compared to those in the CTL group and even higher in the LEU + SD group compared to those in the LEU and SD groups. Ubiquitinated proteins, LC3, and p62/SQSTM, and proteasome activity levels were higher in the SD and LEU + SD groups vs. the LEU and CTL groups. Sleep deprivation led to the atrophy of IIa and IIb muscle fibers; however, leucine

  15. Taurine concentrations in fetal, neonatal and pregnant rats.

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    Akahori,Shuichiro

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of taurine in the fetal and neonatal organs, and the maternal organs, plasma and urine of rats between the 15th day of gestation and the 21st day after birth were determined using an automatic amino acid analyzer. In the fetal liver and brain and in the placenta, the taurine concentration was the highest of all ninhydrin positive compounds. In the fetal liver and placenta, the concentrations of taurine increased significantly with the gestational days. Concentrations of taurine in the brain were much higher in the fetus and neonate than that in the adult. Moreover, the total amount of taurine per fetus increased markedly after the 15th day of gestation, and near term, reached almost the same amount as in the adult rat liver. In contrast to this, a significant decrease was observed in the taurine concentration in the maternal liver and muscle near term. The concentration of taurine in the urine of pregnant rats decreased near term, but in the plasma of pregnant rats the concentration of taurine did not change during pregnancy.

  16. Maternal endotoxin-induced fetal growth restriction in rats: Fetal responses in toll-like receptor

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    Banun Kusumawardani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis as a major etiology of periodontal disease can produce virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide/LPS, which is expected to play a role in the intrauterine fetal growth. Trophoblast at the maternal-fetal interface actively participates in response to infection through the expression of a family of natural immune receptors, toll-like receptor (TLR. Purpose: the aims of study were to identify endotoxin concentration in maternal blood serum of Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected pregnant rats, to characterize the TLR-4 expression in trophoblast cells, and to determine its effect on fetal growth. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2 x 109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrified on 14th and 20th gestational day. Fetuses were evaluated for weight and length. Endotoxin was detected by limulus amebocyte lysate assay in the maternal blood serum. The TLR-4 expression in trophoblast cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. 5-azacytidine enhances proliferation in transplanted rat fetal epiglottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinovic-Kulisic, Sandra; Juric-Lekic, Gordana; Vikic-Topic, Masa; Lokosek, Vedran; Radujkovic, Vedran; Bulic-Jakus, Floriana; Katusic, Ana; Vlahovic, Maja; Serman, Ljiljana; Sincic, Nino

    2011-01-01

    Fetal rat epiglottis and its developmental potential in ectopic transplants under the influence of the epigenetic drug was investigated. Epiglottises from 17-days-old rat embryos were transplanted under kidney capsules of adult rats for 14 days. 5-azacytidine (5 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally during first three days and controls were sham treated. TEM, immunohistochemical detection and quantitative stereological analysis of the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) expression (numerical density N(v)) were performed. Typical chondroblasts with long surface processes and sparse lipid droplets were found in fetal epiglottis and chondrocytes with shorter processes, numerous lipid droplets and elastic fibers in adult. PCNA was expressed in almost all cells of the fetal epiglottis while in the adult it was expressed in minority of cells. In transplants, differentiation progressed towards the differentiation found in the adult. Application of 5-azacytidine increased the capacity for proliferation (N(v PCNA)) in comparison to controls but no difference in differentiation was observed. Data about the developmental potential and induction of proliferation in mammalian epiglottis by epigenetic modulation is of importance for regenerative medicine.

  17. Cholesterol induces fetal rat enterocyte death in culture

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    Gazzola J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholesterol on fetal rat enterocytes and IEC-6 cells (line originated from normal rat small intestine was examined. Both cells were cultured in the presence of 20 to 80 µM cholesterol for up to 72 h. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis and fluorescence microscopy. The expression of HMG-CoA reductase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma was measured by RT-PCR. The addition of 20 µM cholesterol reduced enterocyte proliferation as early as 6 h of culture. Reduction of enterocyte proliferation by 28 and 41% was observed after 24 h of culture in the presence and absence of 10% fetal calf serum, respectively, with the effect lasting up to 72 h. Treatment of IEC-6 cells with cholesterol for 24 h raised the proportion of cells with fragmented DNA by 9.7% at 40 µM and by 20.8% at 80 µM. When the culture period was extended to 48 h, the effect of cholesterol was still more pronounced, with the percent of cells with fragmented DNA reaching 53.5% for 40 µM and 84.3% for 80 µM. Chromatin condensation of IEC-6 cells was observed after treatment with cholesterol even at 20 µM. Cholesterol did not affect HMG-CoA reductase expression. A dose-dependent increase in PPARgamma expression in fetal rat enterocytes was observed. The expression of PPAR-gamma was raised by 7- and 40-fold, in the presence and absence of fetal calf serum, respectively, with cholesterol at 80 mM. The apoptotic effect of cholesterol on enterocytes was possibly due to an increase in PPARgamma expression.

  18. Effect of Bile Acid on Fetal Lung in Rat Model of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

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    Ling Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the correlation between maternal bile acid (BA level and fetal pulmonary surfactant in rats and study the effects of BA on fetal lung in rat model of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Methods. Forty pregnant rats were treated with (A 5.5 mg/kg BA, (B 1.4 mg/kg BA, and (C 1 ml physiological saline. Levels of total bile acid (TBA, ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, and SP-A were determined and the lungs of fetal rats were analyzed for pathological changes. Results. Groups A and B intervened with BA showed significant higher level of TBA in both maternal and fetal serum, more mortality rate of fetal rats, more concentration of SP-A in fetal serum, and wider alveolus mesenchyme of fetal rats than the control Group C. Higher level of BA associated with increased fetal risk and lower numerical density of mitochondria in type II alveolar epithelial cells. The levels of TBA in maternal serum were found to have significant positive correlation with those in fetal serum and SP-A level but negatively with the area of alveolus and the numerical density of lamellar body. Conclusions. The TBA level in maternal serum showed significant association with lung pathological changes in fetal rats.

  19. Stimulation of fetal hypothalamus induces uterine contractions in pregnant rats at term.

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    Endoh, Hisashi; Fujioka, Takashi; Endo, Hideki; Inazuka, Yukiko; Furukawa, Susumu; Nakamura, Shoji

    2008-10-01

    The fetal brain is thought to have a role in the onset and progression of labor. Evidence also exists for fetal oxytocin release just before and during parturition. The present study examined whether activation of the fetal brain could induce uterine myometrial contractions through oxytocin receptors in the dam. Under urethane anesthesia, electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus of fetal rats that were still connected with the dams by an intact umbilical cord induced uterine contractions in term pregnant rats. Intraperitoneal injections of synthetic oxytocin in fetuses induced uterine contractions in the dams similar to those induced by electrical stimulation of the fetal hypothalamus. Maternal intravenous injections of an oxytocin antagonist immediately attenuated uterine contractions induced by fetal oxytocin injections and electrical stimulation of the fetal hypothalamus. These findings suggest the possibility that oxytocin released from the fetal hypothalamus is involved in parturition.

  1. Effect of Mica Monomer Powder on Chief and Parietal Cells as well as G and D Cells in Gastric Mucosa of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Fang-shi; SI Jian-min; WANG Liang-jing; WANG Dong-fei; CHEN Ping

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To study the regulative action of mica monomer powder preparation on the chief and parietal cells as well as G and D cells in the gastric mucosa of the experimental atrophic gastritis(CAG)rats.Methods:Intervention therapy was given to the experimental CAG rats at three different doses of mica monomer powder preparation to evaluate the changes of chief and parietal cells as well as G and D cells in the gastric mucosa and the histopathological changes of gastric mucosa.Results:Mica monomer powder preparation at three different doses could increase the amount of chief and parietal cells as well as G and D cells in gastric mucosa of the experimental CAG rats and alleviate and control the inflammation of gastric mucosa and the atrophy of gastric mucosa glands.Especially,better effects were shown in the mid and high dose groups.Conclusion:Mica has the pharmacological action of protecting the gastric mucosa,promoting the regeneration of gastric glands,enhancing blood flow of the gastric mucosa,and consequently improving the inflammatory responses of the gastric mucosa.One of the mechanisms is associated with promoting the secretion of gastric acid and gastric pepsin and regulating the neuroendocrine mechanism including gut hormone secretion(gastrin and somatostatin)by increasing the number of chief and parietal cells as well as G and D cells.

  2. Venous or arterial blood components trigger more brain swelling, tissue death after acute subdural hematoma compared to elderly atrophic brain with subdural effusion (SDE) model rats.

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    Wajima, Daisuke; Sato, Fumiya; Kawamura, Kenya; Sugiura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Motoyama, Yasushi; Park, Young-Soo; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is a frequent complication of severe head injury, whose secondary ischemic lesions are often responsible for the severity of the disease. We focused on the differences of secondary ischemic lesions caused by the components, 0.4ml venous- or arterial-blood, or saline, infused in the subdural space, evaluating the differences in vivo model, using rats. The saline infused rats are made for elderly atrophic brain with subdural effusion (SDE) model. Our data showed that subdural blood, both venous- and arterial-blood, aggravate brain edema and lesion development more than SDE. This study is the first study, in which different fluids in rats' subdural space, ASDH or SDE are compared with the extension of early and delayed brain damage by measuring brain edema and histological lesion volume. Blood constituents started to affect the degree of ischemia underneath the subdural hemorrhage, leading to more pronounced breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and brain damage. This indicates that further strategies to treat blood-dependent effects more efficiently are in view for patients with ASDH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. INTRODUCTION: A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. From a mechanical point of view, skeletal muscle can be also characterized by its resistance to passive stretch. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet during pregnancy: a control group (mothers fed a 17% protein diet and an isocaloric low-protein group (mothers fed a 7.8% protein diet. At birth, all mothers received a standardized meal ad libitum. At the age of 25 and 90 days, the soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed in order to test the passive mechanical properties. A first mechanical test consisted of an incremental stepwise extension test using fast velocity stretching (500 mm/s enabling us to measure, for each extension stepwise, the dynamic stress (σd and the steady stress (σs. A second test consisted of a slow velocity stretch in order to calculate normalized stiffness and tangent modulus from the stress-strain relationship. RESULTS: The results for the mechanical properties showed an important increase in passive stiffness in both the soleus and EDL muscles in weaned rat. In contrast, no modification was observed in young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in passive stiffness in skeletal muscle of weaned rat submitted to intrauterine undernutrition it is most likely due to changes in muscle passive stiffness.

  4. Zinc antagonizes homocysteine-induced fetal heart defects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyu; Hong, Xinru; Zeng, Fang; Kang, Fenhong; Li, Li; Sun, Qinghua

    2009-09-01

    It has been suggested that zinc may have a protective role against heart defects during fetal development. We investigated the effects of zinc on the development of fetal cardiac malformations induced by homocysteine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into one of five groups: control (C), homocysteine (H), homocysteine + zinc (Z), homocysteine + folic acid (F), or homocysteine + zinc + folic acid (ZF) (each n = 8). Homocysteine (8 nmol/day) was administered intraperitoneally in the H, Z, F, and ZF groups on gestation days (GD) 8, 9, and 10. Zinc (30 mg/kg day), folic acid (30 mg/kg day), or both (30 mg/kg day each) were administered intragastrically daily in the Z, F, and ZF groups, respectively, throughout the pregnancy. In each group, two fetuses were removed on GD 13, 15, 17, and 19 and examined for cardiac malformations; maternal copper/zinc-containing-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) activity and metallothionein type I (MT-1) mRNA expression were measured simultaneously. The prevalence of cardiac malformations was significantly higher in group H than in group C, and significantly lower in group Z than in group H at the studied time points. Cu/Zn-SOD activity and MT-1 mRNA levels were significantly lower in group H than in group C, and significantly higher in group Z than in group H. Our data suggest that zinc antagonizes homocysteine-induced teratogenic effects on the fetal heart, possibly via the inhibition of excessive peroxidation.

  5. Ontogeny of innervation of rat and ovine fetal adrenals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, W C; Wotus, C; Rose, J C

    1998-01-01

    The formation of adrenocortical zonation occurs in rats during late gestation. Since adult cortical function is modulated by neural mediators, it is possible that the development of differentiated function is dependent on cortical innervation. The goal of this study was to compare the pattern and timing of rodent and ovine adrenal innervation during late organogenesis by staining with antibodies directed against the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH). Rat adrenals were collected from fetal days 17-21 (term=21 days) and ovine adrenals from fetal days 101-136 (term=145 days). Adrenals were fixed, cryosectioned at 100 microns and immunostained using Cy3-conjugated secondary antibodies. In both species, staining of VIP, CGRP, NPY and TOH fibers was observed in the capsule and subcapsular layers of the cortex during gestation. In late gestation, VIP- and NPY-positive ganglions cells were observed near the medulla extending processes toward the outer cortex; in ovine adrenals, fibers from ganglion cells appeared to surround nests of outer cortical (presumably, zona glomerulosa) cells. These data show that phenotypically distinct neural elements appear at different stages of adrenocortical development. The presence of neural elements in contact with adrenal cortical cells supports the possibility for neural control of adrenocortical development.

  6. Fetal hydantoin syndrome: inhibition of placental folic acid transport as a potential mechanism for fetal growth retardation in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.; Barnard, J.A.; Said, H.M.; Ghishan, F.K.

    1985-04-01

    Maternal hydantoin ingestion during pregnancy results in a well defined clinical entity termed ''fetal hydantoin syndrome''. The clinical characteristics of this syndrome includes growth retardation, and congenital anomalies. Because folic acid is essential for protein synthesis and growth, and since hydantoin interferes with intestinal transport of folic acid, the authors postulated that part of the fetal hydantoin syndrome may be due to inhibition of placental folic acid by maternal hydantoin. Therefore, they studied in vivo placental folate transport in a well-established model for fetal hydantoin syndrome in the rat. Our results indicate that maternal hydantoin ingestion, significantly decreased fetal weight and placental and fetal uptake of folate compared to controls. To determine whether maternal hydantoin ingestion has a generalized or specific effect on placental function, they examined placental and fetal zinc transport in the same model. Our results indicate that zinc transport is not altered by hydantoin ingestion. They conclude that maternal hydantoin ingestion results in fetal growth retardation which may be due in part to inhibition of placental folate transport.

  7. Latent inhibition of a conditioned taste aversion in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, G Andrew; Hoxha, Zana; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N; Remus, Jennifer L; Biesan, Orion; Ketchesin, Kyle D; Ramos, Linnet; Luchsinger, Joseph R; Prodan, Suzanna; Rogers, Morgan; Wiles, Nathanael R; Hoxha, Nita

    2014-04-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia's cognitive symptoms may have its basis in prenatal alterations of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor functioning. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of ketamine (an NMDA receptor blocking drug) on both a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and latent inhibition (LI; a model of attentional capacity) in rat fetuses. We first sought to determine if a CTA could be diminished by nonreinforced preexposure to a CS in fetal rats (i.e., LI). We injected E18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with 100% allicin (garlic taste) or an equal volume of saline. Some of the pregnant dams also received ketamine (100 mg/kg, i.p.). One day later (E19), the dams received a second injection of the CS, followed by either lithium chloride (the US) or saline. Finally, on E21 pups received oral lavage with allicin and observations of ingestive orofacial motor responses were recorded. When allicin had been paired with LiCl in utero, E21 fetuses exhibited a conditioned suppression of orofacial movements, indicative of an aversion to this taste. Preexposure to the garlic taste on E18 produced a LI of this CTA. Ketamine significantly disrupted the formation of the CTA and had some impact on LI. However, the direct effect of ketamine on LI is less certain since the drug also blocked the original CTA.

  8. Comparative study on influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rat on cultivation of newborn rat neural cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukach A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of fetal bovine serum and serum of adult rats on behavior of newborn rat isolated neural cells during their cultivation in vitro. Methods. The isolation of neural cells from neonatal rat brain. The determination of the dynamics of cellular monolayer formation. Immunocytochemical staining of cells for β-tubulin III, nestin and vimentin. Results. It has been determined that the addition of serum of adult rats to the cultivation medium creates more favorable conditions for survival, attachment and spread of differentiated, and proliferation of the stem/progenitor neural cells of newborn rats during cultivation in vitro compared with the fetal bovine serum. Conclusions. Using the serum of adult rats is preferable for the cultivation of isolated neural cells of newborn rats compared with the fetal bovine serum.

  9. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Lee, John C. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Adamo, Martin L., E-mail: adamo@biochem.uthscsa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  10. Embryotoxicity and fetal toxicity of nickel in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W Jr.; Shen, S.K.; Mitchell, J.M.; Allpass, P.R.; Damjanov, I.

    1978-01-01

    Embryotoxicity and fetal toxicity of nickel chloride (NiCl/sub 2/) and nickel subsulfide (Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/) were studied in Fischer rats. Injection of NiCl/sub 2/ (16 mg of Ni/kg, im) on Day 8 of gestation reduced the man number of live pups per dam and resulted in diminisehd body weights of fetuses on Day 20 of gestation and of weanlings at 4 to 8 weeks after birth. Injection of Ni/sub 2/S/sub 2/ (80 mg of Ni/kg, im) on Day 6 of gestation reduced the mean number of live pups per dam. No congenital anomalies were found in fetuses from any Ni-treated dams, including dams that recieved 10 im injections of NiCl/sub 2/ (2 mg of Ni/kg, twice daily, on Days 6 to 10 of gestation). /sup 63/NiCl/sub 2/ (12 mg of Ni/kg, im) was administered to a group of nonpregnant female rats and to groups of pregnant rats on Day 8 or 18 of gestation. After 24 hr, the relative concentrations of /sup 63/Ni in tissues were: kidney > serum > adrenal approx. = lung approx. = ovary > spleen approx. = heart approx. = liver > skeletal muscle. Pituitary /sup 63/Ni concentrations were much higher in pregnant rats than in non-pregnant females. /sup 63/Ni concentrations in products of conception (embryos and embryonic membranes) on Day 9 and in placentas on Day 19 were equivalent to /sup 63/Ni concentrations in adrenal, lung, and ovary tissues of the dams. Autoradiography of fetuses and placentas on Day 19 of gestation showed /sup 63/Ni localization in fetal urinary bladders and in the basal laminae and yolk sacs of the placentas. These studies show (a) that im injection of NiCl/sub 2/ and Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ during early gestation causes embryonic mortality at dosages that do not cause maternal mortality, and (b) that /sup 63/Ni(II) can cross the feto-maternal barriers and enter the fetuses during late gestation.

  11. Arterial flow regulator enables transplantation and growth of human fetal kidneys in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N K; Gu, J; Gu, S; Osorio, R W; Concepcion, W; Gu, E

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce a novel method of transplanting human fetal kidneys into adult rats. To overcome the technical challenges of fetal-to-adult organ transplantation, we devised an arterial flow regulator (AFR), consisting of a volume adjustable saline-filled cuff, which enables low-pressure human fetal kidneys to be transplanted into high-pressure adult rat hosts. By incrementally withdrawing saline from the AFR over time, blood flow entering the human fetal kidney was gradually increased until full blood flow was restored 30 days after transplantation. Human fetal kidneys were shown to dramatically increase in size and function. Moreover, rats which had all native renal mass removed 30 days after successful transplantation of the human fetal kidney were shown to have a mean survival time of 122 days compared to 3 days for control rats that underwent bilateral nephrectomy without a prior human fetal kidney transplant. These in vivo human fetal kidney models may serve as powerful platforms for drug testing and discovery.

  12. Mechanisms underlying the anti-androgenic effects of diethylhexyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Vinggaard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    testosterone production. The present study investigated the effects of four different doses of DEHP on fetal testicular histopathology, testosterone production and expression of proteins and genes involved in steroid synthesis in fetal testes. Pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged from GD 7 to 21 with vehicle, 10...

  13. A Modified Technique for Culturing Primary Fetal Rat Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui-Yi Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored a modified primary culture system for fetal rat cortical neurons. Day E18 embryos from pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were microdissected under a stereoscope. To minimize enzymatic damage to the cultured neurons, we applied a sequential digestion protocol using papain and Dnase I. The resulting sifted cell suspension was seeded at a density of 50,000 cells per cm2 onto 0.1 mg/mL L-PLL-covered vessels. After a four-hour incubation in high-glucose Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (HG-DMEM to allow the neurons to adhere, the media was changed to neurobasal medium that was refreshed by changing half of the volume after three days followed by a complete medium change every week. The cells displayed progressively robust neurite extension, and nonneuronal-like cells could barely be detected by five days in vitro (DIV; cell growth was still substantial at 14 DIV. Neurons were identified by β-tubulin III immunofluorescence, and neuronal purity within the cultures was assessed at over 95% by both flow cytometry and by dark-field counting of β-tubulin III-positive cells. These results suggest that the protocol was successful and that the high purity of neurons in this system could be used as the basis for generating various cell models of neurological disease.

  14. Placental transfer of metals of coal fly ash into various fetal organs of rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Chauhan, S.S.; Srivastava, P.K.; Shukla, R.R.; Kumar, V.; Misra, U.K. (Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1990-03-01

    Fly ash (100 mg/kg body weight) was administered intratracheally to 14-day pregnant rats for 6 consecutive days. On day 20 of gestation the translocation of metals present in the fly ash to various maternal and fetal organs was studied. Fly ash administration to pregnant mothers retarded the growth of fetal heart and kidney as determined by their weights. Fly ash instillation increased organ levels of nearly all the metals studied in both mother and fetus. Most of the metals present in coal fly ash were transferred in significant amounts through placenta to several fetal organs. However, the pattern of their distribution into various fetal organs was different for different metals.

  15. Oncogene-mediated transformation of fetal rat colon in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pories, S; Jaros, K; Steele, G; Pauley, A; Summerhayes, I C

    1992-05-01

    Short-term maintenance of fetal rat colonic tissue in vitro has been demonstrated using a collagen matrix organ culture system. The introduction of single (v-myc, v-rasH, v-src) oncogenes or combinations of oncogenes (v-myc/rasH, v-myc/src) into normal colon mucosal elements was established using retroviral vectors, resulting in enhanced proliferation and migration of epithelial cells from the lumen of tissue implants. Expression of a single oncogene in normal colon epithelium did not result in the establishment of cell lines. In contrast, expression of cooperating oncogenic elements resulted in cell lines in greater than 80% of experiments, revealing different morphological characteristics dependent upon the oncogene combination used. Confirmation of the expression of viral transcripts was determined using Northern blot analysis and viral oncoprotein expression using Western blot analysis (p21) and an immunoprecipitation kinase assay (src). Expression of keratin filaments was lost following passaging of cell lines but could be induced by the myc/ras transformants by growth on Rat-1 feeder layers. This induction phenomenon was not observed with myc/src lines, and although these expressed high levels of sucrase isomaltase the epithelial origin of these cells is unclear. Karyotypic analysis performed on three myc/ras-transformed cell lines revealed a normal chromosome complement associated with transformation. In this report we describe a novel in vitro transformation system for normal rat colonic epithelium mediated by the introduction of oncogene elements using different retroviral vector constructs. The potential to generate cell lines representing different stages of neoplastic progression using relevant genetic components presents significant advantages for the study of cellular and molecular interactions underlying colon neoplastic progression.

  16. Maternal and fetal metabonomic alterations in prenatal nicotine exposure-induced rat intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiang-hua; Yan, You-e; Liang, Gai; Liu, Yan-song; Li, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Ben-jian; Chen, Liao-bin; Yu, Hong; He, Xiao-hua; Wang, Hui

    2014-08-25

    Prenatal nicotine exposure causes adverse birth outcome. However, the corresponding metabonomic alterations and underlying mechanisms of nicotine-induced developmental toxicity remain unclear. The aims of this study were to characterize the metabolic alterations in biofluids in nicotine-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rat model. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered with different doses of nicotine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg d) from gestational day (GD) 11-20. The metabolic profiles of the biofluids, including maternal plasma, fetal plasma and amniotic fluid, were analyzed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic techniques. Prenatal nicotine exposure caused noticeably lower body weights, higher IUGR rates of fetal rats, and elevated maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels compared to the controls. The correlation analysis among maternal, fetal serum CORT levels and fetal bodyweight suggested that the levels of maternal and fetal serum CORT presented a positive correlation (r=0.356, n=32, Pfetal (r=-0.639, n=32, Pfetal bodyweight. The fetal metabonome alterations included the stimulation of lipogenesis and the decreased levels of glucose and amino acids. The maternal metabonome alterations involved the enhanced blood glucose levels, fatty acid oxygenolysis, proteolysis and amino acid accumulation. These results suggested that prenatal nicotine exposure is associated with an altered maternal and fetal metabonome, which may be related to maternal increased glucocorticoid level induced by nicotine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  18. Pathophysiology of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced fetal growth restriction in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerhof, M.G.; Synowiec, S.; Khan, S.; Thaete, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the pathophysiology of chronic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition-induced fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the rat. Methods. Timed-pregnant rats received L-NAME (2.5 mg/kg/h) with or without endothelin (ET-1) receptor A (ETA) antagonist from day 14 to 21 of gestation. In

  19. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, third (HF3 or all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6 acid proportions (p < 0.05. In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6 and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3 proportions (p < 0.05. High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype.

  20. Fetal and maternal effects of continual exposure of rats to 970-MHz circularly polarized microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E.; Weil, C.; Phillips, P.A.; Carter, H.B.; House, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually continual exposure to970-MHz microwaves in circularly-polarized waveguides was used to elicit fetal responses in Sprague-Dawley rats during gestation. Two hundred fifty rats were exposed to microwave radiation at whole-body averaged specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.07, 2.4, or 4.8 W/kg, or concurrently sham-irradiated for 22 h/day from the 1st through the 19th day of gestation. At SAR of 4.8 W/kg, only fetal body weight was significantly altered (-12%, P=.012). Two of twelve rats died during the exposure at SAR of 4.8 W/kg. Bred, but non-pregnant, rats that were exposed at SAR of 4.8 W/kg had significantly lower body weight gain than sham-irradiated rats; similar lower gain is assumed to have occurred in the pregnant rats exposed at SAR of 4.8 W/kg, and whose fetuses were significantly smaller. The authors conclude that continual gestational exposure at SAR of 4.8 (but not 2.4 or lower) W/kg induces fetal alterations. Apparently, deleterious maternal effects are associated with these fetal changes. Although colonic temperature was not measured in these rats, it is expected that exposure at 4.8 W/kg was hyperthermal.

  1. Altered vestibular function in fetal and newborn rats gestated in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Alberts, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers evaluated vestibular development and function in rat pups flown during gestation on the NASA-NIH R1 and R2 missions. Fetal and postnatal vestibular function were examined. Altered vestibular-mediated responses in the experimental fetal pups are attributed to either direct effect of gravity on the vestibular system or indirect effects of microgravity transduced through the mother. The postnatal tests confirmed the hypothesis that the vestibular system continually adapts and responds to tonic stimulation.

  2. Nitric Oxide Overproduction Reduces Insulin Secretion from Isolated Islets in Fetal Hypothyroid Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouintan, Z; Farrokhfall, K; Karbalaei, N; Ghasemi, A

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid hormones have developmental effects during fetal life. Fetal hypothyroidism leads to glucose intolerance and reduced insulin secretion capacity. Activity of nitric oxide synthases follows a heterogeneous pattern in hypothyroidism. Overactivity of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS), inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin release. The aim of this study was to examine if reduction in insulin secretion in fetal hypothyroidism is due to overproduction of nitric oxide. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups; the experimental group consumed water containing 0.02% of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil till delivery, while the control group consumed tap water. After delivery serum thyroid hormones were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed in 6-month old offspring (n=8). After 3 weeks recovery, pancreatic islets were isolated and insulin secretion, inducible and constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity were measured (n=4). Compared to controls, during intravenous glucose tolerance test, fetal hypothyroid rats had high plasma glucose concentration (p=0.003) and low plasma insulin levels (p=0.012) at 5-20 min and their insulin secretion from isolated islets at basal glucose concentration and in the presence of l-arginine was lower. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester significantly improved insulin secretion in fetal hypothyroid rats at basal glucose concentration and in the presence of l-arginine. The results showed higher NOS activities in fetal hypothyroid rats (constitutive 17.60±1.09 vs. 47.34±4.44 and inducible 4.09±0.96 vs. 19.97±1.14 pmol/min/mg proteins, p=0.002). In conclusion, NO overproduction through NOS participates in decreased insulin secretion in fetal hypothyroid rats.

  3. Neonatally Induced Mild Diabetes in Rats and Its Effect on Maternal, Placental, and Fetal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Karen Sinzato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess placental changes and reproductive outcomes in neonatally induced mild diabetic dams and fetal development in their offspring. At birth, female rats were assigned either to control or diabetic group (100 mg of streptozotocin/Kg, subcutaneously. At adulthood, the female rats were mated. During pregnancy, the blood glucose levels and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. At term, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal and placental weight, and placental morphology were analyzed. Diabetic rats had smaller number of living fetuses, implantations and corpora lutea, and increased rate of embryonic loss. Placenta showed morphometric alterations in decidua area. Our results showed that mild diabetes was sufficient to trigger alterations in maternal organism leading to impaired decidua development contributing to failure in embryonic implantation and early embryonic losses. Regardless placental decidua alteration, the labyrinth, which is responsible for the maternal-fetal exchanges, showed no morphometric changes contributing to an appropriate fetal development, which was able to maintain normal fetal weight at term in mild diabetic rats. Thus, this experimental model of diabetes induction at the day of birth was more effective to reproduce the reproductive alterations of diabetic women.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN DIFFERENT EXPRESSION ANDORGANIZATION OF COLLAGEN IN SKIN WOUNDS OFADULT AND FETAL RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe the spatial and temporal distribution of collagen in fetal and adult rats wounds. Methods The organization of collagen deposition in fetal and adult rats skin wounds were observed by using van Gieson stain. The methods of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were applied to examine collagen type I and Ⅲ peptide and mRNA localization at serial time point during wound healing. Results Collagen type I and III were present in wounds of both fetal and adult rats, but the timing and pattern of collagen deposition varied. In the fetus, collagen was detected by 48h postwounding (PW), but was not present in the adult wounds until 5d PW. By in situ hybridization, signals in the area of the fetal wound were clearly greater and with increased number of cells as compared to that in the adjacent unwounded tissue. Adult rat wounds had evidence in increased signals of procollagen type Ⅰ and Ⅲ production by wound fibroblasts on day 5. Collagen deposited and was arranged in reticular pattern as that of the normal in fetal wounds. While in the adult wounds, collagen de posited in the fashion of coarse bundles. Conclusion Fetal rat wounds appeared to produce collagen mainly by an increased number of fibroblasts in the area of the wound. In contrast, adult rat wounds underwent fibroblast migration and induction of procollagen mRNA synthesis. Our results suggest that the deposition of collagen type Ⅰ and Ⅲ is regulated by their gene expres sion. Collagen type Ⅲ plays an important role in the arrangement of collagen deposition.

  5. Effect of behavior training on learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuelan; Gou Wenli; Huang Pu; Li Chunfang; Sun Yunping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of behavior training on the learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Methods: The model of FGR was established by passive smoking method to pregnant rats.The new-born rats were divided into FGR group and normal group, and then randomly subdivided into trained and untrained group respectively. Morris water maze behavior training was performed on postnatal months 2 and 4, then learning and memory abilities of young rats were measured by dark-avoidance testing and step-down testing. Results: In the dark-avoidance and step-down testing, the young rats' performance of FGR group was worse than that of control group, and the trained group was better than the untrained group significantly. Conclusion: FGR young rats have descended learning and memory abilities. Behavior training could improve the young rats' learning and memory abilities, especially for the FGR young rats.

  6. Selection of housekeeping genes for gene expression studies in the adult rat submandibular gland under normal, inflamed, atrophic and regenerative states

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    Osailan Samira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR is a reliable tool with which to measure mRNA transcripts, and provides valuable information on gene expression profiles. Endogenous controls such as housekeeping genes are used to normalise mRNA levels between samples for sensitive comparisons of mRNA transcription. Selection of the most stable control gene(s is therefore critical for the reliable interpretation of gene expression data. For the purpose of this study, 7 commonly used housekeeping genes were investigated in salivary submandibular glands under normal, inflamed, atrophic and regenerative states. Results The program NormFinder identified the suitability of HPRT to use as a single gene for normalisation within the normal, inflamed and regenerative states, and GAPDH in the atrophic state. For normalisation to multiple housekeeping genes, for each individual state, the optimal number of housekeeping genes as given by geNorm was: ACTB/UBC in the normal, ACTB/YWHAZ in the inflamed, ACTB/HPRT in the atrophic and ACTB/GAPDH in the regenerative state. The most stable housekeeping gene identified between states (compared to normal was UBC. However, ACTB, identified as one of the most stably expressed genes within states, was found to be one of the most variable between states. Furthermore we demonstrated that normalising between states to ACTB, rather than UBC, introduced an approximately 3 fold magnitude of error. Conclusion Using NormFinder, our studies demonstrated the suitability of HPRT to use as a single gene for normalisation within the normal, inflamed and regenerative groups and GAPDH in the atrophic group. However, if normalising to multiple housekeeping genes, we recommend normalising to those identified by geNorm. For normalisation across the physiological states, we recommend the use of UBC.

  7. A novel mode-of-action mediated by the fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor resulting in developmental toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulpour, Reza J; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Terry, Claire; Millar, Neil S; Zablotny, Carol L; Gibb, Alasdair; Marshall, Valerie; Collins, Toby; Carney, Edward W; Billington, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Sulfoxaflor (X11422208), a novel agricultural molecule, induced fetal effects (forelimb flexure, hindlimb rotation, and bent clavicle) and neonatal death in rats at high doses (≥ 400 ppm in diet); however, no such effects occurred in rabbit dietary studies despite achieving similar maternal and fetal plasma exposure levels. Mode-of-action (MoA) studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that the effects in rats had a single MoA induced by sulfoxaflor agonism on the fetal rat muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The studies included cross-fostering and critical windows of exposure studies in rats, fetal ((α1)(2)β1γδ) and adult ((α1)(2)β1δε) rat and human muscle nAChR in vitro agonism experiments, and neonatal rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm contracture studies. The weight of evidence from these studies supported a novel MoA where sulfoxaflor is an agonist to the fetal, but not adult, rat muscle nAChR and that prolonged agonism on this receptor in fetal/neonatal rats causes sustained striated muscle contracture resulting in concomitant reduction in muscle responsiveness to physiological nerve stimulation. Fetal effects were inducible with as little as 1 day of exposure at the end of gestation, but were rapidly reversible after birth, consistent with a pharmacological MoA. With respect to human relevance, sulfoxaflor was shown to have no agonism on human fetal or adult muscle nAChRs. Taken together, the data support the hypothesis that the developmental effects of sulfoxaflor in rats are mediated via sustained agonism on the fetal muscle nAChR during late fetal development and are considered not relevant to humans.

  8. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INTRA- UTERINE HEALING OF FETAL RAT WOUNDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔磊; 张群; 钱云良

    2000-01-01

    Objective In order to investigate the fetal scarless wound healing, we developed an in vivo model to observe the process of wound healing occurring in SD-rat fetus. Methods SD-rat fetuses were given full-thickness incisional wounds in the upper lips under ether anesthesia. Wound specimens were removed successively 12,24,48,72h postwounding (PW) from fetus and 1,3,5,7d PW from adult rats for histological examination. Results In the fetus, re-epithelialization of the skin wound was completed by 24h PW, without apparent acute inflammatory response. Regenerated skin wound with normal architecture and elements was completed by 72h postoperation, indistinguishable from the surrounding normal skin. While in the adult rats, the wounds showed an acute inflammatory response resulting in thickened epithelia and scar formation. Conclusion Fetal wound is characterized by rapid and efficient healing without scar formation followed by real skin regeneration.

  9. Fetal Nerve Cell Transplantation in Early Post-Resuscitation Period in Rats

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    Damira Tazhibayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Fetal cell transplantation is a promising biomedical approach for disease treatment; however, the use of fetal cell therapy is still experimental. This research was deemed a necessity to provide evidence-based research for the application of cell transplantation as a treatment method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fetal nerve cell transplantation in rat survivors (and non-survivors after clinical death by mechanical asphyxia.Methods. 68 white laboratory rats were divided into two groups of identical age and sex: a control group of 12-month adult male rats (n = 26 and an experimental group (n = 42. Rats were fixed under ether anesthesia. We then blocked the oral and nasal regions with cotton wool soaked in saline solution. A four-minute clinical death though acute mechanical asphyxia was simulated by applying the method of N. Shim. After the 4-minute clinical death, we resuscitated the rats using external cardiac massage and artifical respiration. Suspension of the fetal nerve cells was injected intraperitoneally at 1mm3 per 25g at the time of cardiac activity restoration. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phosphokinase (CPK levels were examined in the homogenate cerebral cortex of reanimated animals. We recorded the survival rate during the post-resuscitation period and analyzed the integrative brain functions using anxiety-phobic status and latent inhibition.Results. After fetal nerve cell transplantation, the enzymatic reactions in the experimental group became normal with a significant decrease in LDH and an increase in CPK levels compared to the control group. In the control group, 10 rats died and 16 lived (62% survival rate, while 7 rats died and 35 lived (83% survival rate in the experimental group during the first 7 days. Rats that did not receive the treatment tended to die sooner than those in the experimental group. As a result of transplantation, the anxiety level in the experimental group

  10. Neuroplasticity Changes of Rat Brain by Musical Stimuli during Fetal Period

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    Siamak Sheikhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fetal development of the central nervous system is an important and sensitive stage which is affected by many external and internal stimuli. This study aimed to investigate effect of musical stimuli on fetal rat brain. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, twelve female Wistar rats were selected and evenly assigned to control and musical groups. The females were mated with a male rat of the same genotype. Musical group was exposed to classic music with 60 dB power for 90 minutes twice per day from 2nd to 20th day of gestation. The control rats were handled similar to the musical group, but were not exposed to music. Before parturition, all the dams were anesthetized, and their blood samples were obtained and used for corticosterone (COS measurement. They were transcardially perfused by electron microscope (EM fixative agent. The fetal brains were extracted intact and used for slice preparation. Horizontal slices were made for electron microscope preparation, and images were taken and analyzed in terms of cell density and morphological changes. Results: EM observation indicated significant morphological difference in cellular and intercellular spaces between the two groups. Music-treated fetuses had significantly higher cell density in parietal cortex and music-treated dams had lower COS level. Conclusion: It was concluded that prenatal music would have a great impact on neuroplasticity of fetal rat brain, at least indirectly. Although the rat fetuses cannot hear until birth, music-induced reduction in COS blood level of dams might be the reason for neuroplasticity of fetal brain.

  11. Relationships between fetal body weight of Wistar rats at term and the extent of skeletal ossification

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    I. Chahoud

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between fetal body weight at term (pregnancy day 21 and the extent of ossification of sternum, metacarpus, metatarsus, phalanges (proximal, medial and distal of fore- and hindlimbs and cervical and coccygeal vertebrae in Wistar rats. The relationships between fetal body weight and sex, intrauterine position, uterine horn, horn size, and litter size were determined using historical control data (7594 fetuses; 769 litters of untreated rats. Relationships between body weight and degree of ossification were examined in a subset of 1484 historical control fetuses (154 litters which were subsequently cleared and stained with alizarin red S. Fetal weight was independent of horn size, uterine horn side (left or right or intrauterine position. Males were heavier than females and fetal weight decreased with increasing litter size. Evaluation of the skeleton showed that ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus was extensively complete and independent of fetal weight on pregnancy day 21. In contrast, the extent of ossification of fore- and hindlimb phalanges and of cervical and sacrococcygeal vertebrae was dependent on fetal body weight. The strongest correlation between body weight and degree of ossification was found for hindlimb, medial and proximal phalanges. Our data therefore suggest that, in full-term rat fetuses (day 21, reduced ossification of sternum, metacarpus and metatarsus results from a localized impairment of bone calcification (i.e., a malformation or variation rather than from general growth retardation and that ossification of hindlimb (medial and proximal phalanges is a good indicator of treatment-induced fetal growth retardation.

  12. Cerebellar cytokine expression in a rat model for fetal asphyctic preconditioning and perinatal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlassaks, Evi; Brudek, Tomasz; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2014-01-01

    in saline for 19 min. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression were assessed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in cerebella of newborn rats. We found that tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 mRNA were increased 12 h after fetal asphyxia, while the inflammatory cytokine response...

  13. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Xiaofeng Wang; Ying Liu; Na Yang; Jing Xu; Xiaotun Ren

    2013-01-01

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12th day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neo-natal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cel s in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cel apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cel line-derived neuro-trophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cel apoptosis through the glial cel line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  14. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minalyan, Artem; Benhammou, Jihane N; Artashesyan, Aida; Lewis, Michael S; Pisegna, Joseph R

    2017-01-01

    At present there is no universally accepted classification for gastritis. The first successful classification (The Sydney System) that is still commonly used by medical professionals was first introduced by Misiewicz et al in Sydney in 1990. In fact, it was the first detailed classification after the discovery of Helicobacter pylori by Warren and Marshall in 1982. In 1994, the Updated Sydney System was proposed during the International Workshop on the Histopathology of Gastritis followed by the publication in The American Journal of Surgical Pathology by Dixon et al. Using the new classification, distinction between atrophic and nonatrophic gastritis was revised, and the visual scale grading was incorporated. According to the Updated Sydney System Classification, atrophic gastritis is categorized into multifocal (H. pylori, environmental factors, specific diet) and corpus-predominant (autoimmune). Since metaplasia is a key histological characteristic in patients with atrophic gastritis, it has been recommended to use the word “metaplastic” in both variants of atrophic gastritis: autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis (AMAG) and environmental metaplastic atrophic gastritis. Although there are many overlaps in the course of the disease and distinction between those two entities may be challenging, the aim of this review article was to describe the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and treatment in patients with AMAG. However, it is important to mention that H. pylori is the most common etiologic factor for the development of gastritis in the world. PMID:28223833

  15. The influence of microwave radiation from cellular phone on fetal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ji; Yuhua, Zhang; Xiao-qian, Yang; Rongping, Jiang; Dong-mei, Guo; Xi, Cui

    2012-03-01

    The increasing use of cellular phones in our society has brought focus on the potential detrimental effects to human health by microwave radiation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the intensity of oxidative stress and the level of neurotransmitters in the brains of fetal rats chronically exposed to cellular phones. The experiment was performed on pregnant rats exposed to different intensities of microwave radiation from cellular phones. Thirty-two pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups: CG, GL, GM, and GH. CG accepted no microwave radiation, GL group radiated 10 min each time, GM group radiated 30 min, and GH group radiated 60 min. The 3 experimental groups were radiated 3 times a day from the first pregnant day for consecutively 20 days, and on the 21st day, the fetal rats were taken and then the contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HT) in the brain were assayed. Compared with CG, there were significant differences (Pcellular phones during pregnancy has certain harm on fetal rat brains.

  16. Effects of melamine and cyanuric acid on embryo-fetal development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Baek, Hyung-Seon; No, Kyeong-Woo; Shin, Dong-Ho; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2013-10-01

    After the outbreak of acute renal failure associated with melamine-contaminated pet food, melamine and melamine-related compounds have become of great interest from a toxicologic perspective. We investigated the potential effects of melamine in combination with cyanuric acid (M + CA, 1:1) on pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development in rats. M + CA was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestational days 6 through 19 at doses of 0, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day of both melamine and cyanuric acid. Maternal toxicity of rats administered 30 mg/kg/day M + CA was manifested as increased incidences of clinical signs and death; gross pathologic findings; higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels; lower body weight gain and food intake; decreased thymus weight; and increased heart, lung, and kidney weights. Histopathological examinations revealed an increase in the incidence of congestion, tubular necrosis/degeneration, crystals, casts, mineralization, inflammatory cells in tubules, tubular dilation, and atrophy of glomeruli in maternal kidneys, whereas fetal kidneys did not show any histopathological changes. Developmental toxicity included a decrease in fetal (28%) and placental weights and a delay in fetal ossification (n = 7). Increased incidence of gross and histopathological changes in the maternal kidney was also found in the middle dose group (n = 12). No treatment-related maternal or developmental effects were observed in the low dose group (n = 12). Under these experimental conditions, M + CA is embryotoxic at an overt maternotoxic dose in rats and the no-observed-adverse-effect level of M + CA is considered to be 3 mg/kg/day for pregnant dams and 10 mg/kg/day for embryo-fetal development.

  17. Effect of Fetal Hypothyroidism on Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Expression in Male Rats

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    Nasibeh Yousefzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could affect the cardiac function in later life. The mechanism underlying this action in fetal hypothyroidism (FH in rats has not been elucidated thus far. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluation the effect of FH on cardiac function in male rats and to determine the contribution of α-myosin heavy chain (MHC and β-MHC isoforms. Methods: Six pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two groups: The hypothyroid group received water containing 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. The offspring of the rats were tested in adulthood. Hearts from the FH and control rats were isolated and perfused with langendroff setup for measuring hemodynamic parameters; also, the heart mRNA expressions of α- MHC and β-MHC were measured by qPCR. Results: Baseline LVDP (74.0 ± 3.1 vs. 92.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, p < 0.05 and heart rate (217 ± 11 vs. 273 ± 6 beat/min, p < 0.05 were lower in the FH rats than controls. Also, these results showed the same significance in ±dp/dt. In the FH rats, β-MHC expression was higher (201% and α- MHC expression was lower (47% than control. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could attenuate normal cardiac functions in adult rats, an effect at least in part due to the increased expression of β-MHC to α- MHC ratio in the heart.

  18. Effect of Fetal Hypothyroidism on Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Expression in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Nasibeh; Jeddi, Sajad; Alipour, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could affect the cardiac function in later life. The mechanism underlying this action in fetal hypothyroidism (FH) in rats has not been elucidated thus far. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluation the effect of FH on cardiac function in male rats and to determine the contribution of α-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and β-MHC isoforms. Methods: Six pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two groups: The hypothyroid group received water containing 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. The offspring of the rats were tested in adulthood. Hearts from the FH and control rats were isolated and perfused with langendroff setup for measuring hemodynamic parameters; also, the heart mRNA expressions of α- MHC and β-MHC were measured by qPCR. Results: Baseline LVDP (74.0 ± 3.1 vs. 92.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) and heart rate (217 ± 11 vs. 273 ± 6 beat/min, p < 0.05) were lower in the FH rats than controls. Also, these results showed the same significance in ±dp/dt. In the FH rats, β-MHC expression was higher (201%) and α- MHC expression was lower (47%) than control. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could attenuate normal cardiac functions in adult rats, an effect at least in part due to the increased expression of β-MHC to α- MHC ratio in the heart. PMID:27411095

  19. Ultrastructural changes of gastric mucosa of rats with atrophic gastritis caused by hot water%热水致大鼠萎缩性胃炎胃黏膜超微结构变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张沥; 张玲霞; 陶梅; 王春梅; 江梅; 杨家骥; 宋瑛

    2007-01-01

    Objective To observe the ultrastructural changes of gastric mucosa of rats with atrophic gastritis caused by hot water and investigate the pathogenesis of atrophic gastritis and the relationship between chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and hot diet. Methods The rat atrophic gastritis model was induced by gavage with hot water(55℃, 150g/mL, 2.5mL/d x 32 weeks). Histopathological methods were used to examine the selected gastric glands and antrum of rat. The ultrastructure of gastric mucosa were observed under scanning electromicroscope. Results (1) The optical microscope observation showed that the surface of the gastric mucosa was smooth and no erosion could be observed there in control group. There was no inflammatory infiltration in lamina propria. Nor was there edema in submucous layer or inflammatory infiltration in muscular layer. In hot water group, when hot water was given 24 weeks, the body of gastric gland of rat's gastric mucosa shrank obviously. The smooth muscle in muscular layer of mucosa had hyperplasia and got into the lamina propria of mucosa. The glandular epithelium in the up 1/3~2/3 part of the gland was atrophic. The lumen of the glards became broadened and the width of mucosa in the neck of gastric pit became narrowed. (2) The scanning electromicroscope observation showed that, in control group, the gastric mucosa was compartmentalized by crisscross grooves into many micro gastric areas, in the shape of reticulation. The epithelium was lined regularly and covered with laminar mucus. In hot water group, when hot water was given for 24 weeks, the gastric mucosa cells became atrophic. The lumen of gland was broadened and bleeding could be observed . When hot water was given for 32 weeks, besides the atrophic gastric mucosa and more broadened lumen of gland, much exfoliation of epithelium, the breakage of the cells and the focal erosion of mucosa were also found. (3) The transmission electromicroscope observation showed that the body of gland

  20. N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Excessive Activation Inhibited Fetal Rat Lung Development In Vivo and In Vitro

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    Zhengchang Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intrauterine hypoxia is a common cause of fetal growth and lung development restriction. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are distributed in the postnatal lung and play a role in lung injury, little is known about NMDAR’s expression and role in fetal lung development. Methods. Real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were performed to detect NMDARs between embryonic days (E 15.5 and E21.5 in fetal rat lungs. NMDAR antagonist MK-801’s influence on intrauterine hypoxia-induced retardation of fetal lung development was tested in vivo, and NMDA’s direct effect on fetal lung development was observed using fetal lung organ culture in vitro. Results. All seven NMDARs are expressed in fetal rat lungs. Intrauterine hypoxia upregulated NMDARs expression in fetal lungs and decreased fetal body weight, lung weight, lung-weight-to-body-weight ratio, and radial alveolar count, whereas MK-801 alleviated this damage in vivo. In vitro experiments showed that NMDA decreased saccular circumference and area per unit and downregulated thyroid transcription factor-1 and surfactant protein-C mRNA expression. Conclusions. The excessive activation of NMDARs contributed to hypoxia-induced fetal lung development retardation and appropriate blockade of NMDAR might be a novel therapeutic strategy for minimizing the negative outcomes of prenatal hypoxia on lung development.

  1. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-05

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (ptaurine was supplemented (ptaurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (ptaurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (ptaurine can significantly improve the IUGR fetal brain development.

  2. Maternal endotoxemia, fetal anomalies, and central nervous system damage: a rat model of a human problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, A; Altshuler, G

    1976-01-15

    Endotoxemia is a common consequence of the gram-negative urinary tract infections that complicate human pregnancies. Only rarely, however, have the effects of maternal endotoxemia been evaluated by animal experiments or by human investigations. Data of the Collaborative Perinatal Study suggest an association between maternal endotoxemia and fetal central nervous system damage. For these reasons we performed controlled studies of the fetal effects of treatment of pregnant rats, at appropriate gestational ages, with E. coli endotoxin. We found a maximum 7 per cent incidence of fetal anomalies in the treated animals but no anomalies in controls. Placental light microscopy examinations indicated the mechanism to include Shwartzman-lixemia produces periventricular leukomalacia. We obtained an incidence of neuronal necrosis in treated fetuses that was 10 times greater than in control fetuses. It is therefore of importance that additional studies of the pathologic effects of endotoxin be performed.

  3. Maternal hypoxia alters matrix metalloproteinase expression patterns and causes cardiac remodeling in fetal and neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wenni; Xue, Qin; Li, Yong; Zhang, Lubo

    2011-11-01

    Fetal hypoxia leads to progressive cardiac remodeling in rat offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal hypoxia results in reprogramming of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression patterns and fibrillar collagen matrix in the developing heart. Pregnant rats were treated with normoxia or hypoxia (10.5% O(2)) from day 15 to 21 of gestation. Hearts were isolated from 21-day fetuses (E21) and postnatal day 7 pups (PD7). Maternal hypoxia caused a decrease in the body weight of both E21 and PD7. The heart-to-body weight ratio was increased in E21 but not in PD7. Left ventricular myocardium wall thickness and cardiomyocyte proliferation were significantly decreased in both fetal and neonatal hearts. Hypoxia had no effect on fibrillar collagen content in the fetal heart, but significantly increased the collagen content in the neonatal heart. Western blotting revealed that maternal hypoxia significantly increased collagen I, but not collagen III, levels in the neonatal heart. Maternal hypoxia decreased MMP-1 but increased MMP-13 and membrane type (MT)1-MMP in the fetal heart. In the neonatal heart, MMP-1 and MMP-13 were significantly increased. Active MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and activities were not altered in either fetal or neonatal hearts. Hypoxia significantly increased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 and TIMP-4 in both fetal and neonatal hearts. In contrast, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were not affected. The results demonstrate that in utero hypoxia reprograms the expression patterns of MMPs and TIMPs and causes cardiac tissue remodeling with the increased collagen deposition in the developing heart.

  4. Comparison of the disposition of diethylstilbestrol and estradiol in the fetal rat. Correlation with teratogenic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, E C; Miller, R K

    1986-06-15

    The dispositions of radiolabeled diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol (E2) in the fetal rat were compared to determine whether kinetic differences accounted for their differences in teratogenic potency. 14C (from DES) was concentrated in fetal tissues relative to plasma, whereas 3H (from E2) was largely retained protein-bound in fetal plasma. Both compounds were rapidly metabolized in the fetus (and mother) to less or non-estrogenic products. Fetal levels of E2 declined faster than those of DES (E1 was the primary circulating estrogen within 1-3 hr of E2 injection) so that exposure to unchanged DES was of longer duration than to E2. The unchanged compounds were retained longer and at higher concentrations in the target genital tissue compared to other tissues. Although these differences were consistent with the potencies, the concentration of the unchanged estrogen in fetal genital tract was lower after a teratogenic dose of DES than after a threshold teratogenic dose of E2. However, the 3H in fetal plasma and genital tract cytosol at 1 hr after injection of [3H]E2 at 2 ng or 10 micrograms/fetus was found to be highly protein-bound. DES competed poorly for these binding sites. It is suggested that the concentration of E2 which is "free" in the cell (as DES is), rather than the total content, correlates with its teratogenicity. Thus, in the rat, rapid metabolism and extensive protein-binding, both extra- and intracellularly, reduce the teratogenicity of the natural estrogen compared to the synthetic estrogen.

  5. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  6. Maternal-fetal hepatic and placental metabolome profiles are associated with reduced fetal growth in a rat model of maternal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumme, Karen; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    : Metabolomic profiling was used to reveal altered maternal and fetal metabolic pathways in a model of diet induced obesity during pregnancy, leading to reduced fetal growth. Methods: We examined the metabolome of maternal and fetal livers, and placenta following a high fat and salt intake. Sprague–Dawley rats...... were assigned to (a) control diet (CD; 1 % salt, 10 % kcal from fat), (b) high salt diet (SD; 4 % salt, 10 % kcal from fat), (c) high fat diet (HF; 1 % salt, 45 % kcal from fat) or (d) high-fat high-salt diet (HFSD; 4 % salt, 45 % kcal from fat) 21 days prior to pregnancy and during gestation......Introduction: Maternal obesity is associated with a range of pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction (FGR), whereby a fetus fails to reach its genetically determined growth. Placental insufficiency and reduced nutrient transport play a role in the onset of FGR. Objectives...

  7. Atrophic gastritis in young children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ricuarte, O; Gutierrez, O.; H. Cardona; Kim, J G; Graham, D Y; El-Zimaity, H M T

    2005-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori associated gastric cancer arises via a multistage process, with atrophic gastritis being the precursor lesion. Helicobacter pylori is typically acquired in childhood, yet little is known of the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in childhood.

  8. Stimulation of DNA and Collagen Synthesis by Autologous Growth Factor in Cultured Fetal Rat Calvaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalis, Ernesto; Peck, William A.; Raisz, Lawrence G.

    1980-11-01

    Conditioned medium derived from organ or cell cultures prepared from 19- to 21-day fetal rat calvaria stimulated the incorporation of [3H]proline into collagen and of [3H]thymidine into DNA in organ cultures of the same tissue. Addition of cortisol enhanced the effect on collagen but not on DNA synthesis. These effects appeared to be due to a nondialyzable and heat-stable growth factor.

  9. Moderate Exercise Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Associated Maternal and Fetal Morbidities in Pregnant Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina T Kasawara

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR and coagulopathies are often associated with aberrant maternal inflammation. Moderate-intensity exercise during pregnancy has been shown to increase utero-placental blood flow and to enhance fetal nutrition as well as fetal and placental growth. Furthermore, exercise is known to reduce inflammation. To evaluate the effect of moderate-intensity exercise on inflammation associated with the development of maternal coagulopathies and FGR, Wistar rats were subjected to an exercise regime before and during pregnancy. To model inflammation-induced FGR, pregnant rats were administered daily intraperitoneal injections of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS on gestational days (GD 13.5-16.5 and sacrificed at GD 17.5. Control rats were injected with saline. Maternal hemostasis was assessed by thromboelastography. Moderate-intensity exercise prevented LPS-mediated increases in white blood cell counts measured on GD 17.5 and improved maternal hemostasis profiles. Importantly, our data reveal that exercise prevented LPS-induced FGR. Moderate-intensity exercise initiated before and maintained during pregnancy may decrease the severity of maternal and perinatal complications associated with abnormal maternal inflammation.

  10. Effect of water temperature on exercise-induced maternal hyperthermia on fetal development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, M F; Fitzgerald, H M; Wilson, N C; Taylor, A W

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if water temperature influenced exercise-induced hyperthermia in swim-trained pregnant rats and the resulting fetal development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with 6 weeks pre-pregnancy training were exercised daily from day 1 to day 18 of gestation in water that was 34.6 +/- 0.4 degrees C (Cool Water Swimmers--CWS) or 37.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C (Warm Water Swimmers--WWS), for one hour/day. During this time period another group of pregnant rats was immersed to the neck in warm water (37.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C) (Warm Water Controls--WWC). On day 19 of gestation all animals were sacrificed and fetal development assessed. Maternal exercise in warm water elevated maternal body core temperature by 2.3 +/- 0.1 degrees C above resting values, with an increase in fetal abnormalities compared to the same exercise intensity in cool water. Fifty-eight percent of the abnormal fetuses and 60% of the resorption sites were found in the WWS group. Of the abnormalities determined, 65% were from the WWS group and 45% of these fetuses showed micrencephaly. Results suggest cool water may regulate maternal body temperature during swimming exercise and that swimming in warm water should be avoided during gestation because of potential teratogenic effects.

  11. Responsiveness of fetal rat brain cells to glia maturation factor during neoplastic transformation in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugen, A; Laerum, O D; Bock, E

    1981-01-01

    The effect of partially purified extracts from adult pig brains containing a glia maturation protein factor (BE) has been investigated on neural cells during carcinogenesis. Pregnant BD IX-rats were given a single transplacental dose of the carcinogen ethylnitrosourea (EtNU) on the 18th day of ge...... on GFA-content was seen any longer, although some few weakly GFA positive cells could be observed in all permanent cell lines. Fetal rat brain cells therefore seem to become less responsive to this differentiation inducer during neoplastic transformation in cell culture....

  12. Efeito da icterícia obstrutiva na fertilidade, morfologia ovariana e desenvolvimento fetal em ratas Effect of jaundice on fertility, ovarian morphology and fetal development in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Resende

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da icterícia obstrutiva na capacidade reprodutiva, morfologia ovariana e desenvolvimento fetal em ratas, utilizando 53 ratas sexualmente maduras, distribuídas em dois grupos: grupo 1 (n = 28 - ligadura do ducto biliopancreático e grupo 2 (n = 25 - controle. Pode-se concluir que, em presença de hiperbilirrubinemia, a fertilização é viável, a capacidade reprodutiva é muito reduzida, os ciclos estrais tornam-se irregulares, o epitélio vaginal permanece cornificado, os corpos lúteos ovarianos regridem, os corpos lúteos gravídicos não são alterados, aumentando progressivamente durante a prenhez, e o desenvolvimento fetal é gravemente alterado.The effect of jaundice on the reproductive capacity, ovarian morphology and fetal development in rats was assessed in 53 sexually mature rats divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 28 - submitted to ligature of the biliopancreatic duct and group 2 (n = 25 - control - submitted only to sham operation. In jaundice rats fertilization is viable, the reproductive capacity is intensive reduced, the estrus cycles becomes irregular, the corpi lutea is presented in regression, the gravidic lutea is not modified increasing gradually during the pregnancy and the fetal development is seriously impaired.

  13. Reproducible isolation of type II pneumocytes from fetal and adult rat lung using nycodenz density gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, R M; Ullsperger, S; Resau, J H

    1992-01-01

    Isolating fresh, relatively pure type II pneumocytes from the lung, particularly of fetal origin, is a difficult process. Separation by buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used successfully to isolate adult type II cells. There is concern, however, that Percoll, a gradient medium that is commonly used for type II cell isolation, may be toxic to cells. We evaluated a new gradient medium, Nycodenz, that is (1) a true solution, (2) transparent, (3) not metabolized by cells, and (4) nontoxic to cells. Type II pneumocytes were isolated from 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult rat lung by elastase digestion and separated on preformed isotonic Nycodenz gradients (2 mL each of 27.6, 20.7, 13.8, and 4.6 (w/v) solutions). Type II pneumocytes were recovered from the density range 1.057-1.061 and identified by binding of FITC-conjugated and gold-complexed Maclura pomifera lectin. Cells derived from 19-day fetal lung contained abundant glycogen and reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are markers of the fetal type II cell. Adult type II cells reacted with antibodies to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. Type II cell purity was 79.7 +/- 2.4%, 83.8 +/- 2.8%, and 82.6 +/- 1.8% (means +/- SEM) for 19- and 21-day gestation fetal and adult lung preparations, respectively. Cell viability was greater than 95%. The final cell yield for adult preparations was 17.8 +/- 2.7 x 10(6)/rat (means +/- SEM). To determine if the freshly isolated type II pneumocytes were functionally active, the incorporation of [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine was measured. The percent saturation of phosphatidylcholine was high for both populations of freshly isolated cells. However, adult type II pneumocytes incorporated [3H]choline into phosphatidylcholine more rapidly than 21-day gestation fetal cells (5.97 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h vs. 0.32 x 10(-3) dpm/10(6) cells/h, P less than .005). We have demonstrated that, using the Nycodenz isolation method, it is

  14. The effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkworth, J B; Tumasonis, C; Briggs, R G; Narang, A S; Narang, R S; Rej, R; Stein, V; McMartin, D N; Kaminsky, L S

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  15. Effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Tumasonis, C.; Briggs, R.G.; Narang, A.S.; Narang, R.S.; Rej, R.; Stein, V.; McMartin, D.N.; Kaminsky, L.S.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  16. Fetal iron deficiency induces chromatin remodeling at the Bdnf locus in adult rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phu V; Kennedy, Bruce C; Lien, Yu-Chin; Simmons, Rebecca A; Georgieff, Michael K

    2015-02-15

    Fetal and subsequent early postnatal iron deficiency causes persistent impairments in cognitive and affective behaviors despite prompt postnatal iron repletion. The long-term cognitive impacts are accompanied by persistent downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a factor critical for hippocampal plasticity across the life span. This study determined whether early-life iron deficiency epigenetically modifies the Bdnf locus and whether dietary choline supplementation during late gestation reverses these modifications. DNA methylation and histone modifications were assessed at the Bdnf-IV promoter in the hippocampus of rats [at postnatal day (PND) 65] that were iron-deficient (ID) during the fetal-neonatal period. Iron deficiency was induced in rat pups by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (4 mg/kg Fe) from gestational day (G) 2 through PND7, after which iron deficiency was treated with an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200 mg/kg Fe). This paradigm resulted in about 60% hippocampal iron loss on PND15 with complete recovery by PND65. For choline supplementation, pregnant rat dams were given dietary choline (5 g/kg) from G11 through G18. DNA methylation was determined by quantitative sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA, revealing a small alteration at the Bdnf-IV promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed increased HDAC1 binding accompanied by reduced binding of RNA polymerase II and USF1 at the Bdnf-IV promoter in formerly ID rats. These changes were correlated with altered histone methylations. Prenatal choline supplementation reverses these epigenetic modifications. Collectively, the findings identify epigenetic modifications as a potential mechanism to explicate the long-term repression of Bdnf following fetal and early postnatal iron deficiency.

  17. Placental transfer and fetal distribution of /sup 3/H-retinoic acid in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, R.R.; Kumar, V.; Banerjee, R.; Misra, U.K.

    1986-01-01

    The placental transfer of /sup 3/H-retinoic acid in vitamin A deprived and vitamin A supplemented pregnant female rats was studied on 20th day of gestation and compared with /sup 3/H-retinyl acetate. Radiolabelled compounds were administered to pregnant mothers orally in groundnut oil six hours before sacrifice. The distribution of radioactivity of the two compounds was studied in maternal intestine, liver and plasma and fetal brain, heart liver lung and placenta. The transfer of /sup 3/H-retinoic acid across placenta was restricted as compared to that of /sup 3/H-retinyl acetate which may explain the reason why retinoic acid does not support fetal growth.

  18. Development of epithelia in the ectopic transplant of the fetal rat epiglottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisić, Sandra Marinović; Jurić-Lekić, Gordana; Bulić-Jakus, Floriana; Radujković, Vedran; Parcetić, Ida; Vlahović, Maja; Katusić, Ana; Sincić, Nino; Serman, Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic in situ development is strictly regulated within the specific microenvironment of developing tissues. However, for regenerative medicine purposes (supplementation of damaged tissues/organs), transplantation to ectopic sites has been considered. To investigate developmental potential of fetal epiglottic epithelia at an ectopic site, fetal epiglottis was transplanted under the kidney capsule and its development compared to fetal and adult epiglottis. Seventeen-day-old Fischer rat epiglottides were microsurgically isolated under a dissecting microscope and transplanted under the kidney capsule of adult males. After 14 days, classic histology and immunohistochemical detection of the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) were done in isolated and accordingly fixed transplants. The 17-day-old fetal epiglottis and adult epiglottis were processed in the same way. The 17-day-old fetal epiglottides were covered with immature epithelium expressing PCNA in almost all cells. Adult epiglottis was covered with two types of epithelia (stratified squamous epithelium and ciliated pseudostratified epithelium). In the stratified squamous epithelium PCNA was abundantly expressed in the basal cell layer and absent from more superficial and more differentiated cells. Transplants survived well during the experimental period. On their surface ciliated pseudostratified epithelium could be easily recognized, but squamous epithelium was almost absent. PCNA was expressed in basal cells of the ciliated pseudostratified epithelium and was absent from the more differentiated superficial cells. It seems that at this ectopic site further differentiation of the epiglottic epithelia can proceed but differentiation of squamous epithelium seems not to be favored. It seems that this ectopic site is optimal for further differentiation of the epiglottic epithelium towards ciliated pseudostratified epithelium.

  19. The Effects of Magnesium Sulfate on Fetal Rats of FGR and the Expression of Caspase-3 in the Placenta of Maternal Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; ZOU Li

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate on the fetal rats of FGR and the expression of caspase-3 in the placenta of maternal rat; To explore the mechanism of using magnesium sulfate to cure the FGR. Establish model of FGR by a way of passive smoking: giving the maternal rats different agent of magnesium sulfate by subcutaneous injection: low agent group (300 mg/kg),high agent group (600 mg/kg). Concentration of magnesium sulfate was monitored. The expres sion of caspase-3 was measured by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry technology. Both of the concentrations of magnesium sulfate in high and low agents group are higher than the FGR group (P<0. 01); the weight of the placenta and fetal rat in high agent group are higher than the FGR group (P<0.05 and P<0.01); the expression of mRNA and protein of caspase-3 in the two agent group is higher than the FGR group (P<0.05 respectively); concentration of magnesium sulfate in the maternal rat blood correlate to the weight of fetal rat (r=0. 899, P=0. 038) and the expression of caspase-3 in the placenta of maternal rat (r= 0.747, P 0.033; r=-0. 915, P=0.001).The research suggests that the weight of fetal rat could be increased by treatment of magnesium sulfate. Because it would imfrmove the placental function by depressing the expression of caspase-3.

  20. Toxicity of bryostatin-1 on the embryo-fetal development of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiangbo, Zhu; Xuying, Wan; Yuping, Zhu; Xili, Ma; Yiwen, Zheng; Tianbao, Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Bryostatin-1, a highly oxygenated marine macrolide with a unique polyacetate backbone isolated from the marine animal Bugula neritina (Linnaeus), is now being developed as an anti-cancer drug for treating malignancy. In the present study, developmental toxicity of bryostatin-1 was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Bryostatin-1 was intravenously administered to rats on gestation days 6-15 at 4.0, 8.0, and 16.0 microg/kg on a daily basis. Then the reproductive parameters were determined in animals, and fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations. The total weight gains were significantly different in animals between the control group and 8.0 and 16.0 microg/kg bryostatin-1 groups during and after treatment. The resorption and death fetus rates were significantly different between the bryostatin-1 group (16 microg/kg) and the control group. The fetal weight and fetal crown-rump length in the bryostatin-1 groups were significantly lower than that in the control group. Our results indicated that maternal toxicity occurred when the dose of bryostatin-1 was at 8.0 microg/kg, embryotoxicity at 16.0 microg/kg, and fetotoxicity at 4.0 microg/kg; but bryostatin-1 showed no teratogenic effect in rats. In light of our findings, bryostatin-1 should be used with caution in pregnant women with cancer, if they would like to continue the pregnancy.

  1. Repercussions of mild diabetes on pregnancy in Wistar rats and on the fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Felipe H

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental models are necessary to elucidate diabetes pathophysiological mechanisms not yet understood in humans. Objective: To evaluate the repercussions of the mild diabetes, considering two methodologies, on the pregnancy of Wistar rats and on the development of their offspring. Methods In the 1st induction, female offspring were distributed into two experimental groups: Group streptozotocin (STZ, n = 67: received the β-cytotoxic agent (100 mg STZ/kg body weight - sc on the 1st day of the life; and Non-diabetic Group (ND, n = 14: received the vehicle in a similar time period. In the adult life, the animals were mated. After a positive diagnosis of pregnancy (0, female rats from group STZ presenting with lower glycemia than 120 mg/dL received more 20 mg STZ/kg (ip at day 7 of pregnancy (2nd induction. The female rats with glycemia higher than 120 mg/dL were discarded because they reproduced results already found in the literature. In the mornings of days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy glycemia was determined. At day 21 of pregnancy (at term, the female rats were anesthetized and killed for maternal reproductive performance and fetal development analysis. The data were analyzed using Student-Newman-Keuls, Chi-square and Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP Tests (p Results STZ rats presented increased rates of pre (STZ = 22.0%; ND = 5.1% and post-implantation losses (STZ = 26.1%; ND = 5.7%, reduced rates of fetuses with appropriate weight for gestational age (STZ = 66%; ND = 93% and reduced degree of development (ossification sites. Conclusion Mild diabetes led a negative impact on maternal reproductive performance and caused intrauterine growth restriction and impaired fetal development.

  2. Effects of strenuous maternal exercise on fetal organ weights and skeletal muscle development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, M F; Bagnall, K M; Belcastro, A N

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of strenuous maternal aerobic exercise throughout gestation on fetal outcome in the rat. The strenuous exercise intensity consisted of a treadmill speed of 30 m.min-1 on a 10 degrees incline, for 120 min.day-1, 5 days.week-1. The rats were conditioned to run on a motor-driven treadmill by following a progressive two-week exercise program, so that by the end of the two weeks the rats were capable of running comfortably at this strenuous intensity in the non-pregnant state. Following the two-week running programme, the rats were paired by weight and randomly assigned to either a pregnant group that continued the running program throughout gestation (pregnant runner), or a pregnant group that did not continue the running program throughout pregnancy (pregnant control). At birth the neonates born to the pregnant running group did not differ in average neonatal body weight values, number per litter or total litter weight values when compared to controls, nor were superficial gross abnormalities observed in neonates born to the pregnant control or pregnant running groups. The strenuous maternal exercise intensity did not alter neonatal organ weight values (brain, heart, liver, lung, kidney), nor neonatal skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius, sternomastoid, diaphragm) when compared to control values. It is suggested that maternal exercise of this intensity throughout gestation does not affect fetal outcome in the rat, and may be due to the animals accustomization to the strenuous exercise protocol prior to pregnancy.

  3. Thyroxine inner ring monodeiodinating activity in fetal tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T.S.; Chopra, I.J.; Boado, R.; Soloman, D.H.; Chua Teco, G.N.

    1988-02-01

    We studied thyroxine (T4) inner ring monodeiodinating activity (5-MA) in various tissues of fetal, maternal, and adult male rats. Tissue homogenates were incubated with 0.26 microM T4 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 10 mM EDTA and 400 mM dithiothreitol (final volume 0.7 ml) for 10 min at 37 degrees C; the 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) generated was measured by radioimmunoassay of ethanol extracts of incubation mixture and the result was corrected for rT3 degradation during incubation. Compared to maternal tissues, T4 to rT3 5-MA in the 14-day-old fetus was increased about 70 times in skeletal muscle (mean +/- SEM, velocity, 5.4 +/- 0.9 versus 0.08 +/- 0.01, pmol rT3/h/mg protein); approximately 8 times in intestine (0.72 +/- 0.17 versus 0.09 +/- 0.03);and approximately 4 times in cerebral cortex (19 +/- 0.5 versus 4.5 +/- 0.9), while it was similar in skin (3.2 +/- 0.48 versus 2.6 +/- 0.52). Hepatic T4 5-MA approximated 1.1 +/- 0.63 in the 14-day-old fetus; it could not be measured reliably in maternal or 19-day fetal tissue because of extensive (greater than 90%) degradation of rT3 during incubation. Relative to mother, T4 5-MA in 19-day fetal tissues was increased approximately 30-fold intestine, approximately 20-fold in skeletal muscle, and approximately 6-fold in cerebral cortex while it was similar in skin. The T4 5-MA in maternal rat tissues did not differ significantly from corresponding values in adult male rat, except skin, where it was lower in the mother rat (2.6 +/- 0.52 versus 4.6 +/- 0.61, p less than 0.05). In summary, relative to adult tissues T4 5-MA is exceedingly active in several fetal tissues, most notably in skeletal muscle followed by intestine and cerebral cortex.

  4. Experimental Study on Total Alkaloid of Stephania delavayi Diels for Treating Rat Chronic Atrophic Gastritis%金不换总生物碱治疗大鼠慢性萎缩性胃炎的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽萌; 赖东梅; 陈娟; 周长华; 马仁强; 陈健文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of total alkaloid of stephania delavayi diels on treating chronic atrophic gastritis(CAG) in rats.Methods 20 mmol/L sodium deoxycholate combined 30%, 60% alcohols were given to rats for 13 weeks to establish CAG model.The rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, model control group, high, medium and low doses groups with total alkaloid of stephania delavayi diels, and Sanjiu Weitain group.The acidity of gastric juice, pepsase activities and volume of blood flow in gastric mucosa were detected, and the pathologic changes of the gastric mucosa were observed by microscope.Results In total alkaloid of stephania delavayi diels treated groups, the body weight was increased( P > 0.05) and the concentration of free acid was significantly increased, while pepsase activities and volume of blood flow in gastric mucosa were obviously higher than those in the control groups (P <0.05 or P <0.01 ).Chronic infiltration of inflammatory cells and atrophy of glands on gastric mucosa were observed less in JB groups than in model group( P <0.05 or P <0.01 ).Conclusion The total alkaloid of stephania delavayi diels has the satisfactory curative efficacy for chronic atrophic gastritis in rats, which provides the pharmacological basis for its clinical application.%目的 研究金不换总生物碱对慢性胃炎的作用.方法 饮用及灌胃给予20mmol/L去氧胆酸钠、30%及60%乙醇13周建立慢性萎缩性胃炎模型后,将大鼠随机分为正常对照组,模型对照组,金不换总生物碱高、中、低剂量组和三九胃泰组.观察其对胃酸酸度、胃蛋白酶活性、胃黏膜血流量和胃黏膜组织病理的影响.结果 与模型对照组比较,金不换总生物碱可改善慢性萎缩性胃炎大鼠体重,明显增加胃液游离酸浓度、胃蛋白酶活性和胃黏膜血流量(P<0.05或P<0.01),并能明显减轻胃黏膜的病理学损害.结论 金不换生物碱对慢性萎缩性

  5. Caffeine-induced activated glucocorticoid metabolism in the hippocampus causes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis inhibition in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Zhang, Benjian; Liang, Gai; Ping, Jie; Kou, Hao; Li, Xiaojun; Xiong, Jie; Hu, Dongcai; Chen, Liaobin; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations have shown that fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are susceptible to adult metabolic syndrome. Clinical investigations and experiments have demonstrated that caffeine is a definite inducer of IUGR, as children who ingest caffeine-containing food or drinks are highly susceptible to adult obesity and hypertension. Our goals for this study were to investigate the effect of prenatal caffeine ingestion on the functional development of the fetal hippocampus and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and to clarify an intrauterine HPA axis-associated neuroendocrine alteration induced by caffeine. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered 20, 60, and 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from gestational days 11-20. The results show that prenatal caffeine ingestion significantly decreased the expression of fetal hypothalamus corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The fetal adrenal cortex changed into slight and the expression of fetal adrenal steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), as well as the level of fetal adrenal endogenous corticosterone (CORT), were all significantly decreased after caffeine treatment. Moreover, caffeine ingestion significantly increased the levels of maternal and fetal blood CORT and decreased the expression of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD-2). Additionally, both in vivo and in vitro studies show that caffeine can downregulate the expression of fetal hippocampal 11β-HSD-2, promote the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and enhance DNA methylation within the hippocampal 11β-HSD-2 promoter. These results suggest that prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits the development of the fetal HPA axis, which may be associated with the fetal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoid and activated glucocorticoid metabolism in the fetal hippocampus. These results will be beneficial in

  6. 红外线对慢性萎缩性胃炎大鼠治疗作用的研究%Effects of infrared rays on chronic atrophic gastritis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵雪辉; 王建国; 杨跃平; 戴洁; 薄爱华

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, Chinese herb and comprehensive therapy are widely adopted for the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), while infrared ray is widely used in the fields of physical therapy and scientific research. Therefore, some scholars suggest whether the physical characteristics of infrared ray have effects on the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of infrared ray on the changes of gastric mucosa tissue in rat models with chronic atrophic gastritis.DESIGN: Randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Hebei North University.MATERIALS: Thirty-five adult Wistar male rats weighing from 180 to 230 g were purchased from Hebei Experimental Animal Center [SCXK (ji) 2003-1-003]. The experiment was disposed with the ethical standard. Sodium salicylate powder produced by Beijing Fangcao Chemical Company (batch number: 890720). The drug was prepared with distilled water. Infrared lamp (220 V, 200 W) was bought by Equipment Division of our college.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Experimental Center of Hebei Beifang College from June 2005 to January 2006. ① Experimental intervention: Rats were fed with conventional standard granules for one week. Among them, 8 rats were selected as the normal control group, and other rats underwent model establishment. Rats were perfused with sodium salicylate and alcohol to stimulate gastric mucosa, and then chronic CAG models were established for 8 weeks based on exertion, irregular diet and other factors. Five rats were randomly selected for the check of histopathology before the end of model confirmedly making, and then the model rats were randomly divided into model group and infrared group with 11 in each group. Infrared lamp (220 V, 200 W, 0.76–1.5 μm in wavelength) was used to vertically radiate at the gastric projective area of rats in the infrared group, once a day, ten minutes once for twenty days. The rats in normal group and model group were regularly breed.

  7. Effect of fetal growth on maternal protein metabolism in postabsorptive rat

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    Ling, P.R.; Bistrian, B.R.; Blackburn, G.L.; Istfan, N.

    1987-03-01

    Rates of protein synthesis were measured in whole fetuses and maternal tissues at 17 and 20 days of gestation in postabsorptive rats using continuous infusion of L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine. Fetal protein degradation rates were derived from the fractional rates of synthesis and growth. Whole-body (plasma) leucine kinetics in the mother showed a significant reduction of the fraction of plasma leucine oxidized in the mothers bearing older fetuses, a slight increase in the plasma flux, with total leucine oxidation and incorporation into protein remaining similar at the two gestational ages. Estimates of fractional protein synthesis in maternal tissues revealed an increase in placental and hepatic rates at 20 days of gestation, whereas the fractional synthetic rate in muscle remained unchanged. A model for estimation of the redistribution of leucine between plasma and tissues is described in detail. This model revealed a more efficient utilization of leucine in fetal protein synthesis in comparison with other maternal tissues, a greater dependency of the fetus on plasma supply of leucine, and a significant increase (2-fold) in the release of leucine from maternal muscle as the fetal requirements increased proportionately with its size. The latter conclusion, supported by nitrogen analysis and the ratio of bound-to-free leucine in maternal tissues, confirms the importance of maternal stores in maintaining the homeostasis of essential amino acids during late pregnancy.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of α-cypermethrin on fetal rat testicular steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillenfait, Anne-Marie; Sabaté, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Flavien; Antoine, Guillaume; Robert, Alain; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Ndiaye, Dieynaba; Eljarrat, Ethel

    2017-09-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the insecticide α-cypermethrin at doses of 0.1, 1, 5, or 10mg/kg/day, or di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) at 250mg/kg/day, by gavage, from gestation day (GD) 13 to 19. Testicular testosterone production and the expression of several key genes related to cholesterol and androgen synthesis and transport were assessed in GD 19 male fetuses. Dams treated with 10mg/kg/day of α-cypermethrin showed clinical signs of neurotoxicity and reduced body weight gain. α-Cypermethrin had no significant effect on post-implantation loss, fetal weight, incidence of male fetuses per litter, or anogenital distance of the male fetuses. In the fetal testes, mRNA expressions of HMG-CoA synthase and reductase, SRB1, StAR, P450scc, 3βHSD, P450 17A1, and 17βHSD were not affected by exposure to α-cypermethrin. Testosterone production by the fetal testis was significantly reduced at 5 and 10mg/kg/day of α-cypermethrin, although to a much smaller extent than in DIBP-exposed fetuses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Esophagus of Fetal Rats with Esophageal Atresia

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    Caner Isbir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Scarcity of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC is related to motility disorders. In the study, we aimed to evaluate the number and density of ICCs in the fetal rat esophagus in the adriamycin - esophageal atresia (EA model. Material and Method: Rat fetuses were divided into three groups as a control, adriamycin group without EA and adriamycin group with EA. Four doses of adriamycin, 2 mg/kg each, were injected intraperitoneally to the adriamycin group rats between on 6 and 9 days of gestation. The presence of ICCs in the esophagus of the rat fetuses was determined by using an immunohistochemistry technique (c-kit, CD117. The average numbers of ICCs were calculated with microscopic evaluation by using a visual scoring system (range1 to 3. Results: Seven fetuses were included in each group. The ICCs score 3 distributions of fetuses were 5 (72% fetuses in the control group, 3 (43% fetuses in the adriamycin group without EA, 1 (14% fetus in the adriamycin group with EA. It have been found that there was a marked reduction of ICCs distribution in the adriamycin group with EA compared to control group (p 0.05. Discussion: ICCs density was significantly decreased in the rat fetuses with EA compared to the fetuses without EA. These findings support the idea that ICCs density may be congenitally abnormal in EA. This may be led to dismotility seen in the operated esophagus due to EA.

  10. Toxic effects of maternal zearalenone exposure on uterine capacity and fetal development in gestation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jia, Zhiqiang; Yin, Shutong; Shan, Anshan; Gao, Rui; Qu, Zhe; Liu, Min; Nie, Shaoping

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of high-dose and early gestational exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, to correlate the maternal uterus with the fetus, and to explore the development and malformation of fetuses. Pregnant female SD rats were fed diets containing 0.3, 48.5, 97.6, or 146.0 mg/kg ZEN on gestational days (GDs) 0 through 7. All the females survived until GD 20, at which point a cesarean section was performed to harvest the organs, blood, and fetuses. The results indicated that exposure to ZEN during early gestation can impact the maternal reproductive capability. Delayed fetal development was directly linked to maternal toxicity. The toxic effects of ZEN caused early deaths more frequently than late deaths, and the deleterious effects lasted through the end of pregnancy.

  11. Diabetic rats exercised prior to and during pregnancy: maternal reproductive outcome, biochemical profile, and frequency of fetal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Silva, Hellen Pontes; Vaz, Geizi Fátima; Vasques-Silva, Francine Aparecida; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise prior to or during pregnancy on maternal reproductive outcome, biochemical profile, and on fetal anomaly frequency in a rat pregnancy model utilizing chemically induced diabetes. Wistar rats (minimum n = 11 animals/group) were randomly assigned the following groups: group 1 (G1), sedentary, nondiabetic; G2, nondiabetic, exercised during pregnancy; G3, nondiabetic, exercised prior to and during pregnancy; G4, sedentary, diabetic; G5, diabetic, exercised during pregnancy; and G6, diabetic, exercised prior to and during pregnancy. A swimming program was utilized for moderate exercise. On day 21 of pregnancy, all rats were anesthetized to obtain blood for biochemical measurements. The gravid uterus was weighed with its contents, and the fetuses were analyzed. The nondiabetic rats exercised prior to pregnancy presented a reduced maternal weight gain. Besides, G2 and G3 groups showed decreased fetal weights at term pregnancy, indicating slight intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the diabetic dams, the swimming program did not have antihyperglycemic effects. The exercise applied only during pregnancy caused severe IUGR, as confirmed by reduced fetal weight mean, fetal weight classification, and ossification sites. Nevertheless, exercise was not a teratogenic factor and improved the rats' lipid profiles, demonstrating that the exercise presented possible benefits, but there are also risks prior and during pregnancy, especially in diabetic pregnant women.

  12. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate in utero reduces testosterone production in rat fetal Leydig cells.

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    Binghai Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a synthetic material that has been widely used in industrial applications for decades. Exposure to PFOS has been associated with decreased adult testosterone level, and Leydig cell impairment during the time of adulthood. However, little is known about PFOS effects in utero on fetal Leydig cells (FLC. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study investigated effects of PFOS on FLC function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley female rats received vehicle (0.05% Tween20 or PFOS (5, 20 mg/kg by oral gavage from gestational day (GD 11-19. At GD20, testosterone (T production, FLC numbers and ultrastructure, testicular gene and protein expression levels were examined. The results indicate that exposures to PFOS have affected FLC function as evidenced by decreased T production, impaired FLC, reduced FLC number, and decreased steroidogenic capacity and cholesterol level in utero. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that PFOS is an endocrine disruptor of male reproductive system as it causes reduction of T production and impairment of rat fetal Leydig cells.

  13. Evaluation of embryonic alcoholism from auditory event-related potential in fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁勇; 王正敏; 屈卫东

    2004-01-01

    @@ Auditory event-related potential (AERP) is a kind of electroencephalography that measures the responses of perception, memory and judgement to special acoustic stimulation in the auditory cortex. AERP can be recorded with not only active but also passive mode. The active and passive recording modes of AERP have been shown a possible application in animals.1,2 Alcohol is a substance that can markedly affect the conscious reaction of human. Recently, AERP has been applied to study the effects of alcohol on the auditory centers of the brain. Some reports have shown dose-dependent differences in latency, amplitude, responsibility and waveform of AERP between persons who have and have not take in alcohol.3,4 The epidemiological investigations show that the central nervous function of the offspring of alcohol users might be also affected.5,6 Because the clinic research is limited by certain factors, several animal models have been applied to examine the influences of alcohol on consciousness with AERP. In the present study, young rats were exposed to alcohol during fetal development and AERP as indicator was recorded to monitor the central auditory function, and its mechanisms and characteristics of effects of the fetal alcoholism on auditory center function in rats were analyzed and discussed.

  14. Morpho-functional characteristics of rat fetal thyroid gland are affected by prenatal dexamethasone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica N; Filipović, Branko R; Nestorović, Nataša M; Šošić-Jurjević, Branka T; Ristić, Nataša M; Trifunović, Svetlana L; Milošević, Verica Lj

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) and glucocorticoids strongly contribute to the maturation of fetal tissues in the preparation for extrauterine life. Influence of maternal dexamethasone (Dx) administration on thyroid glands morpho-functional characteristics of near term rat fetuses was investigated applying unbiased stereology. On the 16th day of pregnancy dams received 1.0mg/Dx/kg/b.w., followed by 0.5mg/Dx/kg/b.w. on the 17th and 18th days of gestation. The control females received the same volume of saline. The volume of fetal thyroid was estimated using Cavalieri's principle; the physical/fractionator design was applied for the determination of absolute number of follicular cells in mitosis and immunohistochemically labeled C cells; C cell volume was measured using the planar rotator. The functional activity of thyroid tissue was provided from thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroperoxidase (TPO) immunohistochemical staining. Applying these design-based modern stereological methods it was shown that Dx treatment of gravid females led to a significant decrease of fetal thyroid gland volume in 19- and 21-day-old fetuses, due to decreased proliferation of follicular cells. The Tg and TPO immunohistochemistry demonstrated that intensive TH production starts and continues during the examined period in control and Dx-exposed fetuses. Under the influence of Dx the absolute number of C cells was lower in both groups of near term fetuses, although unchanged relation between the two populations of endocrine cells, follicular and C cells suggesting that structural relationships within the gland are preserved. In conclusion maternal glucocorticoid administration at the thyroid gland level exerts growth-inhibitory and maturational promoting effects in near term rat fetuses.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of deltamethrin on the fetal rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillenfait, Anne-Marie; Ndiaye, Dieynaba; Sabaté, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Flavien; Antoine, Guillaume; Robert, Alain; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Moison, Delphine

    2016-11-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered deltamethrin, at doses 0.1, 1, 5 or 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , or di-n-hexyl phthalate (DnHP) (250 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) ), by gavage, from gestational day 13 to 19. Maternal toxicity was observed at 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , as evidenced by transient clinical signs of neurotoxicity and reductions in body weight, body weight gain and corrected weight gain. Deltamethrin had no statistically significant effect on the incidence of post-implantation loss, fetal weight or anogenital distance in the male fetuses. Unlike DnHP, deltamethrin induced no changes in the expression of several genes involved in cholesterol transport or in the steroid synthesis pathway in the testes of gestational day 19.5 male fetuses (SRB1, StAR, P450scc, 3βHSD, P450 17 A1, 17βHSD). Fetal testicular levels of P450scc and P450 17 A1 protein were also unaffected by deltamethrin. No statistically significant differences were observed in the ex vivo fetal testicular production of testosterone and androstenedione after deltamethrin exposure, whereas DnHP markedly reduced these parameters. The deltamethrin metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, was detected in amniotic fluid. In summary, our results demonstrate that in utero exposure to deltamethrin during the period of sexual differentiation had no significant effect on the testosterone synthesis pathway in the male rat fetus up to a maternal toxic dose. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effect of boric acid on oxidative stress in rats with fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogut, Ibrahim; Oglakci, Aysegul; Kartkaya, Kazim; Ol, Kevser Kusat; Sogut, Melis Savasan; Kanbak, Gungor; Inal, Mine Erden

    2015-03-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning the effect of boric acid (BA) administration on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). In this study, the aim was to investigate prenatal alcohol-induced oxidative stress on the cerebral cortex of newborn rat pups and assess the protective and beneficial effects of BA supplementation on rats with FAS. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups, namely the control, alcohol and alcohol + boric acid groups. As markers of alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of the newborn pups, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were measured. Although the MDA levels in the alcohol group were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (Pboric acid group was shown to be significantly decreased compared with that in the alcohol group (Pboric acid group was significantly higher than that in the alcohol group (P<0.05). The GPx activity in the alcohol group was decreased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that alcohol is capable of triggering damage to membranes of the cerebral cortex of rat pups and BA could be influential in antioxidant mechanisms against oxidative stress resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure.

  17. Evaluation of histological changes after tracheal occlusion at different gestational ages in a fetal rat model

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    Rodrigo Melo Gallindo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the histological changes of tracheal cartilage and epithelium caused by tracheal occlusion at different gestational ages in a fetal rat model. METHODS: Rat fetuses were divided into two groups: a External control, composed of non-operated rats, and b Interventional group, composed of rats operated upon on gestational day 18.5 (term = 22 days, divided into triads: 1 Tracheal occlusion, 2 Internal control and 3 Sham (manipulated but not operated. Morphological data for body weight, total lung weight and total lung weight/body weight ratio were collected and measured on gestational days 19.5, 20.5 and 21.5. Tracheal samples were histologically processed, and epithelial, chondral and total tracheal thicknesses were measured on each gestational day. RESULTS: The tracheal occlusion group exhibited an increase in total lung weight/body weight ratio (p<0.001. Histologically, this group had a thicker epithelial thickness (p<0.05 and thinner chondral (p<0.05 and total tracheal thicknesses (p<0.001. These differences were more prominent on gestational days 20.5 and 21.5. CONCLUSION: Tracheal occlusion changed tracheal morphology, increased epithelial thickness and considerably decreased total tracheal thickness. These changes in the tracheal wall could explain the development of tracheomegaly, recently reported in some human fetuses subjected to tracheal occlusion.

  18. Inhibition of ileal and colonic ornithine decarboxylase activity by alpha-difluoromethylornithine in rats: transient atrophic changes and loss of postresectional adaptive growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsnorth, A N; Abu-Khalaf, M; LaMuraglia, G M; McCann, P P; Diekema, K A; Ross, J S; Malt, R A

    1986-06-01

    To determine the role of putrescine synthesis in adaptive hyperplasia of the ileum and colon, DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an enzyme-activated, irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the enzyme controlling putrescine biosynthesis, was fed to rats after excision of the proximal half of the small bowel. A rise in ODC activity (280% in the proximal ileum, 62% in the proximal colon) and a rise in putrescine content (220% in the proximal ileum, 250% in the proximal colon) normally accompanied characteristic cytochemical adaptive increases in the ileum and colon at day 6. Inclusion of 1% DFMO (2.1 gm/kg/day) in drinking water for 12 hours before operation and for 14 days thereafter decreased ODC activity by 85% to 96%, reduced levels of putrescine and spermidine and measurements of the adaptive response by 50% in the ileum, and abolished the adaptive response in the colon. During the first 10 days of DFMO feeding, villous atrophy and other hypoplastic changes occurred in control rats, but by 14 days of DFMO feeding atrophy and hypoplasia were no longer present. Although DFMO inhibits adaptive hyperplasia occurring in the ileum and colon of rats after resection of the proximal half of the small bowel, spontaneous recovery of villous atrophy occurs during further DFMO feeding and may protect the host during chemotherapy.

  19. Atrophic vaginitis: signs, symptoms, and better outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Annabelle; Johnson, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Atrophic vaginitis is a common finding in women with low estrogen states. Many women believe their symptoms are expected signs of aging. NPs can provide therapeutic options to improve vaginal health and quality of life. This article reviews physiology, clinical manifestations, signs, symptoms, and treatment methods for atrophic vaginitis.

  20. In utero glucocorticoid exposure reduced fetal skeletal muscle mass in rats independent of effects on maternal nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal stress and undernutrition can occur together and expose the fetus to high glucocorticoid (GLC) levels during this vulnerable period. To determine the consequences of GLC exposure on fetal skeletal muscle independently of maternal food intake, groups of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n ...

  1. Therapeutic effect of hyperbaric and normobaric oxygen therapy on experimental fetal growth restriction in rats

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    Ting WAN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric and normobaric oxygen on experimental fetal growth restriction(FGR in rats.Methods Forty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups(8 each: control group(group N,did nothing to rats,sham operation group(group M,rats were only anesthetized on day 12 of gestation and did nothing else except that,FGR model group(group F,rats accepted partial ligation of both uterine arteries and veins on day 12 of gestation and no therapy after that,hyperbaric oxygen therapy group(group A,rats accepted hyperbaric oxygen treatment after the operation,normobaric hyperoxia therapy group(group B,rats accepted normobaric oxygen treatment after the operation.On day 21 of gestation,the fetuses and placentas in all groups were surgically taken out and weighted,and the incidence of FGR and mortality in the fetus,and pathological changes of placentas were analyzed.Results Newborn’s weight in group F,N,M,A and B respectively were 3.26±0.49g,4.57±0.37g,4.46±0.36g,4.11±0.37g and 4.08±0.32g,and the placenta weight were 0.40±0.05g,0.54±0.07g,0.53±0.08g,0.47±0.05g and 0.46±0.05g.Newborn’s weight and placenta in group F were significantly lower than that in group N and M(P 0.05.FGR rates in group N,M,F,A and B respectively were 1.33%,2.94%,83.10%,13.63% and 13.89%,and mortality rates were 1.33%,1.47%,11.27%,6.06% and 6.94%.The incidence of FGR and the mortality in group F were significantly higher than that in group N(P < 0.01,and in group A and B were significantly lower than that in group N(P < 0.01.Blood stasis and villous ischemia were found in placenta of FGR model rats.Placental microcirculation was significantly improved in treatment groups.Conclusion Both hyperbaric oxygen and normobaric oxygen have a similar and good therapeutic effect on experimental FGR in rats.

  2. Quantitative analysis of motor neurons of the levator ani muscle in fetal rats with spina bifida occulta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Yuan, Zheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Lin

    2009-12-01

    With the combination of microsurgery and microinjection techniques, we investigated the development of motor neurons in the spinal cord of fetal rats with spina bifida occulta by injecting the retrograde trace FG into the levator ani muscle. The fetal rats were divided into 3 groups. On the day 9 of gestation, 6 mature Wistar rats (weighing 250-300 g) in the control group (group 1) were subcutaneously injected with 0.5 mL of normal saline at their hind limbs at 9:00 am and 4:00 pm. At these 2 time points, 15 rats in the treatment group (group 2 and group 3) were subcutaneously injected with 20% sodium valproate solution (400 mg/kg of body weight) at their hind limbs, too. On the day 20 of gestation, pregnant rats were anesthetized with 10% chloral hydrate (300 mg/kg of body weight) intraperitoneally, and then fetal microsurgery and microinjection were performed to expose the levator ani muscle, whereas 5% FG was administered with microinjector. Twenty-four hours later, transcardial perfusion of 4% paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was given to the operated fetus. After the spine sample was stained with Alcian blue GX, the image of stained spine was measured using a computer system for the distance of the 2 cartilaginous ends of the vertebra arch. Then, the lumbosacral spinal cord was cryopreserved in 20% sucrose in PBS for a later serial transverse cryosection after 24 hours. The FG-labeled motor neurons were visualized with a wide-band ultraviolet-fluorescent filter, and the number of the FG-labeled motor neurons was recorded. Nine fetal rats survived in group 1. Eighteen fetal rats survived in the treatment group, including 7 (with no malformation) of 18 fetuses in group 2 and 11 fetuses with spina bifida occulta in group 3. The FG-labeled motor neurons in the ventral horn of normal spinal cord clustered at the dorsolateral and dorsomedial corner of the ventral horn. The FG-labeled motor neurons in the ventral horn of deformed spinal cord were

  3. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I produced by fetal rat pancreatic islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharfmann, R.; Corvol, M.; Czernichow, P. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (Unit 30), Paris (France))

    1989-06-01

    Pancreatic islets were prepared from 22-day-old rat fetuses. After 5 days of culture in dishes allowing cell attachment, neoformed islets were kept free floating in RPMI-1640 medium (16.5 mM glucose, 1% fetal calf serum). The islets were then pulsed with ({sup 3}H)leucine and ({sup 35}S)methionine for 24 h. The conditioned medium was acidified with acetic acid (final pH 2.7), desalted, concentrated, and gel filtered on Bio-Gel P100 in acid conditions. The radioactive material that comigrated with immunoreactive insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) produced by the islets was pooled, concentrated, and further characterized by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 Bondapak column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile (20-80%). The radioactive material that eluted as pure IGF-I (40% acetonitrile) was further studied by chromatofocusing on a Pharmacia PBE 94 column. A sharp radioactive peak containing ({sup 3}H)leucine and ({sup 35}S)methionine was eluted at pH 8.55. This material was immunoprecipitated with an antiserum to IGF-I. This study demonstrated that fetal islet cells synthesize molecules that are, by several criteria, equivalent to native IGF-I.

  4. Histopathological Characteristics of Atrophic Gastritisin Adult Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marija Milicevic; Snezana Bozanic; Nenad Solajic

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa. It can be non-atrophic and atrophic. Atrophy isdefined as the loss of appropriate glands. It is frequently located in antral mucosa as consequence of Helicobacter pylori infectionand it is associated with intestinal gastric cancer. Goal: Describe histopathological and demographic characteristics of atrophicgastritis. Matherial and methods: We assessed the pathological reports of 100 patients with atrophic gastritis whose characteristicswere evaluated by using a semiquantitative scale of Sidney system of classification of gastritis. To assess the significance betweenthe incidence of various parametres we used ;~2 test. Results: We found that the difference in frequency of atrophic gastritis betweenmen and women was not statistically significant. The difference in distribution is statistically significant in favor of the antrum.Among patients who have atrophy with Helicobacterpylori infection and intestinal metaplasia and those who do not have metaplasia,it was found that the difference is highly statistically significant. Conclusion: The most frequent localisation of atrophic gastritis isantral mucosa. There is no difference between men and women in frequency of atrophic gastritis, while the aging is related with moreoften occurrence of atrophic gastritis.

  5. Lack of action of exogenously administered T3 on the fetal rat brain despite expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Díez, Diego; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz

    2011-04-01

    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8, SLC16A2) cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, an X-linked syndrome of severe intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. Mct8 transports thyroid hormones (T4 and T3), and the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is likely caused by lack of T3 transport to neurons during critical periods of fetal brain development. To evaluate the role of Mct8 in thyroid hormone action in the fetal brain we administered T4 or T3 to thyroidectomized pregnant dams treated with methyl-mercapto-imidazol to produce maternal and fetal hypothyroidism. Gene expression was then measured in the fetal cerebral cortex. T4 increased Camk4, Sema3c, and Slc7a3 expression, but T3 was without effect. To investigate the cause for the lack of T3 action we analyzed the expression of organic anion transport polypeptide (Oatp14, Slco1c1), a T4 transporter, and Mct8 (Slc16a2), a T4 and T3 transporter, by confocal microscopy. Both proteins were present in the brain capillaries forming the blood-brain barrier and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus forming the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. It is concluded that T4 from the maternal compartment influences gene expression in the fetal cerebral cortex, possibly after transport via organic anion transporter polypeptide and/or Mct8, and conversion to T3 in the astrocytes. On the other hand, T3 does not reach the target neurons despite the presence of Mct8. The data indicate that T4, through local deiodination, provides most T3 in the fetal rat brain. The role of Mct8 as a T3 transporter in the fetal rat brain is therefore uncertain.

  6. Isolation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells from fetal rat dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To find a promising alternative to neurons or schwann cells (SCs) for peripheral nerve repair applications,this study sought to isolate stem cells from fetal rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants.Molecular expression analysis confirmed neural stem cell characteristics of DRG-derived neurospheres in terms of expressing neural stem cell-specific genes and a set of well-defined genes related to stem cell niches and glial fate decision.Under the influence of neurotrophic factors,bFGF and NGF,the neurospheres gave rise to neurofilament-expressing neurons and S100-expressing Schwann cell-like cells by different pathways.This study suggests that a subpopulation of stem cells that reside in DRGs is the progenitor of neurons and glia,which could directly induce the differentiation toward neurons,or SCs.

  7. Effect of restricted food supply to pregnant rats inhaling carbon monoxide on fetal weight, compared with cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, N.; Aoyama, M.

    1986-12-01

    Although many studies have shown that cigarette smoking during gestation retarded the intrauterine fetal growth, resulting in the decreased birth weight in babies born to smoking mothers, neither causal substance nor mechanism of action to disturb fetal growth has been firmly established yet. Based on the human and animal studies, researchers have implied that fetal hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide (CO) in the cigarette smoke to be responsible for the event. A shortage in energy intake in smoking mothers also has been suspected to cause the retardation in fetal development. In the previous results (Tachi and Aoyama 1983), the weight increment in CO exposed animals was greater than that in the smoke exposed group. The phenomenon seemed to indicate that the reduction in the food intake occurs in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, and induces the disturbance of fetal development in association with CO. In the present study, so as to evaluate the role of energy intake upon the fetal development in utero, the experiment of paired feeding with pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke is designed in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, CO, or room air, following after the observation of the quantity of food taken by mothers exposed to cigarette smoke, CO, or room air.

  8. Use of liposome encapsulated hemoglobin as an oxygen carrier for fetal and adult rat liver cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Kevin; Huang, Hongyun; Ohara, Keikou; Matsumoto, Kunio; Mizuno, Atsushi; Ohta, Katsuji; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2011-11-01

    Engineering liver tissue constructs with sufficient cell mass for transplantation implies culturing large numbers of hepatocytes in a reduced volume; however, providing sufficient oxygen to dense cell cultures is still not feasible using only conventional culture medium. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH), an oxygen-carrying blood substitute originally designed for short-term perfusion, may be a good candidate as an oxygen carrier to cultured liver cells. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of maintaining long term hepatocyte cultures using LEH. Primary fetal and adult rat liver cells were directly exposed to LEH for 6 to 14 days in static culture or in a perfused flat plate bioreactor. The functions and viability of adult rat hepatocytes exposed to LEH were not adversely affected in static monolayer culture and were even improved in the bioreactor. However, some cytotoxicity of LEH was observed with fetal rat liver cells after 4 days of culture. LEH, though a suitable oxygen carrier for long-term culture of mature hepatocytes, is not suitable in its present form for perfusing fetal hepatocyte cultures in direct contact with the liposomes; either the LEH will have to be made less toxic or a more sophisticated bioreactor that prevents the direct contact between hepatocytes and perfusates will have to be designed if fetal cells are to be used for liver tissue engineering.

  9. [Analysis of sensitivity of stromal stem cells (CFU-f) from rat bone marrow and fetal liver to 5-fluorouracil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiushina, O V; Damaratskaia, E I; Bueverova, E I; Nikonova, T M; Butorina, N N; Molchanova, E A; Starostin, V I

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of stromal stem cells (CFU-f) from rat bone marrow and fetal liver to the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was compared in vivo and in vitro. Cells from both tissues demonstrated a similar resistance to 5-FU in vitro; however, stromal stem cells from fetal liver proved notably more sensitive to 5-FU compared to marrow CFU-f in vivo. Cells forming colonies of different size were identified in stem cell populations from both tissues. Cells giving rise to small colonies had a higher resistance to 5-FU both in vivo and in vitro.

  10. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yansong [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin [Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine

  11. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in fetal skin of scarless and scar-forming periods of gestational rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the differences of gene expression between earlier gestational skin and later gestational skin of rats with the aids of single primer amplification (SPA) and high-density oligonucleotide DNA array to understand the molecular mechanism of scarless healing.Methods: Total RNAs were isolated from fetal rat skin of the scarless (E15) and scar-forming ( E18 ) periods of gestation ( term = 21.5 days). The RNAs from earlier gestational skin (EGS) and later gestational skin (LGS)were both reversely transcribed to cDNAs, then labeled with the incorporation of fluorescent dCTP for preparing the hybridization probes by SPA method. The mixed probes were then hybridized to the oligonucleotide DNA arrays which contained 5 705 probes representing 5 705 rat genes. After highly stringent washing, these DNA arrays were scanned for fluorescent signals to display the differentially expressed genes between the 2 groups of skin.Results: Among 5 705 rat genes, there were 53 genes (0.93 % ) with differentially expressed levels between EGS and LGS groups, 27 genes, including fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and follistatin were up-regulated (0.47 % ) and 26 genes were down-regulated ( 0.46 % ) in fetal skin during scarless period versus scar-forming period. Higher expressions of FGF2 and follistatin in EGS than those in LGS were also revealed by RT-PCR method. Conclusions: High-density oligonucleotide DNA array provided a powerful tool for investigating differential gene expression in earlier and later gestational fetal skins. This technology validates that the mechanism of fetal scarless healing is very complicate and the change of many gene expressions is associated with fetal scarless healing.

  12. Stem cells decreased neuronal cell death after hypoxic stress in primary fetal rat neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tetsuro; Xu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    To explore stem cell-mediated neuronal protection through extracellular signaling pathways by transplanted stem cells, we sought to identify potential candidate molecules responsible for neuronal protection using an in vitro coculture system. Primary fetal rat hippocampal neurons underwent hypoxia (≤1% oxygen) for 96 h nad then were returned to a normoxic condition. The study group then received rat umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells, while the control group received fresh media only. The experimental group showed decreased neuronal apoptosis compared to the control group [44.5 ± 1.6% vs. 71.0 ± 4.2% (mean ± SD, p = 0.0005) on day 5] and higher neuronal survival (4.9 ± 1.2 cells/100× field vs. 2.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.02 on day 5). Among 90 proteins evaluated using a protein array, stem cell coculture media showed increased protein secretion of TIMP-1 (5.61-fold), TIMP-2 (4.88), CNTF-Rα (3.42), activin A (2.20), fractalkine (2.04), CCR4 (2.02), and decreased secretion in MIP-2 (0.30-fold), AMPK α1 (0.43), TROY (0.48), and TIMP-3 (0.50). This study demonstrated that coculturing stem cells with primary neurons in vitro decreased neuronal cell death after hypoxia with significantly altered protein secretion. The results suggest that stem cells may offer neuronal protection through extracellular signaling.

  13. Tobramycin-induced changes in renal histology of fetal and newborn Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, A; Macrì, C; Stazi, A V; Ricciardi, C; Guastadisegni, C; Maranghi, F

    1992-01-01

    Effects on renal development were studied using tobramycin (TBM) as a model compound. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected i.p. with TBM at 30 or 60 mg/kg body weight/day on gestational days (GD) 10-19. Kidneys from dams and conceptuses were examined on GD 20 and on postnatal day (PD) 9. The dosing regimen caused in dams moderate proximal tubular alterations and increased concentrations in serum creatinine. Fetal kidneys showed granularity and swelling of proximal tubule cells at the 30 mg/kg dose, poor glomerular differentiation at the 60 mg/kg dose, increased glomerular density at both doses, and no changes on macroscopic examination at either dose. In newborns were observed a moderate developmental delay and tubular lesions at the higher dose, and dose-related increases of glomerular density and relative medullary area at both doses. All findings were more pronounced in males. A maturational disruption of the tubular structures possibly leading to increased glomerular density was attributed to TBM exposure during renal organogenesis in the rat.

  14. An investigation of the endocrine-disruptive effects of bisphenol a in human and rat fetal testes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millissia Ben Maamar

    Full Text Available Few studies have been undertaken to assess the possible effects of bisphenol A (BPA on the reproductive hormone balance in animals or humans with often contradictory results. We investigated possible direct endocrine disruption by BPA of the fetal testes of 2 rat strains (14.5-17.5 days post-coitum and humans (8-12 gestational weeks and under different culture conditions. BPA concentrations of 10(-8M and 10(-5M for 72 h reduced testosterone production by the Sprague-Dawley fetal rat testes, while only 10-5M suppressed it in the Wistar strain. The suppressive effects at 10-5M were seen as early as 24h and 48 h in both strains. BPA at 10(-7-10(-5M for 72 h suppressed the levels of fetal rat Leydig cell insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3. BPA exposure at 10(-8M, 10(-7M, and 10(-5M for 72 h inhibited testosterone production in fetal human testes. For the lowest doses, the effects observed occurred only when no gonadotrophin was added to the culture media and were associated with a poorly preserved testicular morphology. We concluded that (i BPA can display anti-androgenic effects both in rat and human fetal testes; (ii it is essential to ascertain that the divergent effects of endocrine disruptors between species in vitro do not result from the culture conditions used, and/or the rodent strain selected; (iii the optimization of each in vitro assay for a given species should be a major objective rather than the search of an hypothetical trans-species consensual model-system, as the organization of the testis is intrinsically different between mammalian species; (iv due to the uncertainty existing on the internal exposure of the human fetal testis to BPA, and the insufficient number of epidemiological studies on the endocrine disruptive effects of BPA, caution should be taken in the extrapolation of our present results to the human reproductive health after fetal exposure to BPA.

  15. Establishing the "Biological Relevance" of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Leon Earl; Furr, Johnathan; Tatum-Gibbs, Katoria R; Lambright, Christy; Sampson, Hunter; Hannas, Bethany R; Wilson, Vickie S; Hotchkiss, Andrew; Foster, Paul M D

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that relatively large reductions in fetal testosterone (T) levels and testis gene expression may be required to adversely affect reproductive development (Hannas, B. R., Lambright, C. S., Furr, J., Evans, N., Foster, P. M., Gray, E. L., and Wilson, V. S. (2012). Genomic biomarkers of phthalate-induced male reproductive developmental toxicity: a targeted RT-PCR array approach for defining relative potency. Toxicol. Sci. 125, 544-557). The objectives of this study were (1) to model the relationships between changes in fetal male rat plasma testosterone (PT), T levels in the testis (TT), T production (PROD), and testis gene expression with the reproductive malformation rates, and (2) to quantify the "biologically relevant reductions" (BRRs) in fetal T necessary to induce adverse effects in the offspring. In the fetal experiment, Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with dipentyl phthalate (DPeP) at 0, 11, 33, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestational days (GD) 14-18 and fetal testicular T, PT levels, and T Prod and gene expression were assessed on GD 18. In the postnatal experiment, rats were dosed with DPeP from GD 8-18 and reproductive development was monitored through adulthood. The dose-response curves for TT levels (ED(50) = 53 mg/kg) and T PROD (ED(50) = 45 mg/kg) were similar, whereas PT was reduced at ED50 = 19 mg/kg. When the reductions in TPROD and Insl3 mRNA were compared with the postnatal effects of in utero DPeP, dose-related reproductive alterations were noted when T PROD and Insl3 mRNA were reduced by >45% and 42%, respectively. The determination of BRR levels may enable risk assessors to utilize fetal endocrine data to help establish points of departure for

  16. Structural equation modeling and nested ANOVA: Effects of lead exposure on maternal and fetal growth in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.D. (Rohm and Haas Company, Spring House, PA (United States)); O' Flaherty, E.J.; Shukla, R.; Gartside, P.S. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Ross, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1994-01-01

    This study provided an assessment of the effects of lead on early growth in rats based on structural equation modeling and nested analysis of variance (ANOVA). Structural equation modeling showed that lead in drinking water (250, 500, or 1000 ppm) had a direct negative effect on body weight and tail length (i.e., growth) in female rats during the first week of exposure. During the following 2 weeks of exposure, high correlation between growth measurements taken over time resulted in reduced early postnatal growth. By the fourth week of exposure, reduced growth was not evident. Mating began after 8 weeks of exposure, and exposure continued during gestation. Decreased fetal body weight was detected when the effects of litter size, intrauterine position, and sex were controlled in a nested ANOVA. Lead exposure did not appear to affect fetal skeletal development, possibly because lead did not alter maternal serum calcium and phosphorus levels. The effect of lead on individual fetal body weight suggests that additional studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal lead exposure on fetal development and early postnatal growth. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Effect of maternal alcohol and nicotine intake, individually and in combination, on fetal growth in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichter, J. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1991-03-15

    The effect of maternal ethanol and nicotine administration, separately and in combination, on fetal growth of rats was studied. Nicotine was administered by gavage for the entire gestational period. Alcohol was given in drinking water for 4 weeks prior to mating and 30% throughout gestation. Appropriate pair-fed and ad libitum control animals were included to separate the effect of ethanol and nicotine on the outcome of pregnancy from those produced by the confounding variables of malnutrition. Body weights of fetuses exposed to alcohol alone or in combination with nicotine were significantly lower than those of the pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, the difference in fetal body weight between the alcohol plus nicotine and the alcohol alone group was not significant. Similarly, in the rats administered nicotine only, fetal weight was not significantly different compared to control animals. The results of this study indicate that maternal alcohol intake impairs fetal growth and nicotine does not, regardless whether it is administered separately or in combination with alcohol for the entire gestational period.

  18. Correlation between spina bifida manifesta in fetal rats and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghuan Ma; Yongxin Bao; Chenghao Li; Fubin Jiao; Hongjie Xin; Zhengwei Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Fetal rat models with neural tube defects were established by injection with retinoic acid at 10 days after conception. The immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis showed that the number of caspase-3 positive cells in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta was increased. There was also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase family. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation level was positively correlated with caspase-3 expression in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta. Experimental findings indicate that abnormal apoptosis is involved in retinoic acid-induced dominant spina bifida formation in fetal rats, and may be associated with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signal transduction pathway.

  19. Correlation between spina bifida manifesta in fetal rats and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yinghuan; Bao, Yongxin; Li, Chenghao; Jiao, Fubin; Xin, Hongjie; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2012-01-01

    Fetal rat models with neural tube defects were established by injection with retinoic acid at 10 days after conception. The immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis showed that the number of caspase-3 positive cells in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta was increased. There was also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase family. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation level was positively correlated with caspase-3 expression in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta. Experimental findings indicate that abnormal apoptosis is involved in retinoic acid-induced dominant spina bifida formation in fetal rats, and may be associated with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signal transduction pathway. PMID:25337099

  20. Effects of Different Measures of Recovery on the Fiber Types of Atrophic Muscle in Rats%不同恢复方式对去负荷大鼠腓肠肌纤维类型组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金富; 周越; 王兵; 许寿生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of eccentric exercise on the atrophic gastrocnemius and its fibre types induced by simulated weightlessness. Methods Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control group (CON, n = 6) , two-week tail-suspension group (TS, n = 6) > two-week tail-suspension following two-week normal rehabilitation group (NR, n = 6) , two-week tail-suspension following two-week eccentric exercise rehabilitation group (ER, n = 6) . The eccentric exercise was executed through downhill running with the slope of 5% at the speed of 16m/min. Gastrocnemius were sectioned with cryostat and stained with ATPase. The cross sectional area (CSA) and the proportion of type I, Ha, and IIb fibers were measured using Leica image analysis system. Results In group TS, wet weights of the gastrocnemius, CSA of type I and IIb fibers, and proportion of type I and IIa fibers decreased obviously, as compared with that in group CON (P<0.01) . The proportion of type IIb fiber increased significantly as compared with that in group CON (P < 0.01) . CSA and proportion of type I, II and IIb fibers after eccentric exercise became normal (P<0.01) ,and the proportion of type I in group NR only restored to normal level. Conclusion Eccentric exercise training fully promoted the recovering of CSA and relative proportion of type I, IIa, and IIb fibers in atrophic gastrocnemius induced by simulated weightlessness in rats.%目的:探讨自然恢复和离心运动恢复等再负荷方式对废用性骨骼肌纤维横截面积及类型的影响.方法:采用尾部悬吊模型.24只成年雌性SD大鼠按体重随机分为对照组(CON)、尾部悬吊组(TS),悬吊14天后解悬吊自然恢复组(NR)和悬吊14天后离心运动恢复组(ER),每组6只.离心运动为每天下坡跑1h,坡度-5%,跑速16 m/min,共2周.取大鼠腓肠肌进行异染性染料ATPase染色,计算腓肠肌纤维组成百分比和肌纤维横截面积(CSA).结果:(1) TS组大鼠腓

  1. Exposure in utero to di(n-butyl) phthalate alters the vimentin cytoskeleton of fetal rat Sertoli cells and disrupts Sertoli cell-gonocyte contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleymenova, Elena; Swanson, Cynthia; Boekelheide, Kim; Gaido, Kevin W

    2005-09-01

    Di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) is commonly used in personal care products and as a plasticizer to soften consumer plastic products. Male rats exposed to DBP in utero have malformations of the male reproductive tract and testicular atrophy characterized by degeneration of seminiferous epithelium and decreased sperm production. In the fetal testis, in utero exposure to DBP reportedly resulted in reduced testosterone levels, Leydig cell aggregates, and multinucleated gonocytes (MNG). We investigated whether exposure in utero to DBP affects rat fetal Sertoli cells and compromises interactions between Sertoli and germ cells in the developing testis. Histological examination showed that MNG occurred at low frequency in the normal fetal rat testis. Exposure in utero at the dose level of DBP above estimated environmental or occupational human exposure levels significantly increased the number of these abnormal germ cells. Postnatally, MNG exhibited aberrant mitoses and were detected at the basal lamina. MNG were not apoptotic in the fetal and postnatal rat testes, as indicated by TUNEL. Sertoli cells in DBP-exposed fetal testis had retracted apical processes, altered organization of the vimentin cytoskeleton, and abnormal cell-cell contacts with gonocytes. The effect of DBP on Sertoli cell morphology at the level of light microscopy was reversed after birth and cessation of exposure. Our data indicate that fetal Sertoli cells are targeted by exposure in utero to DBP and suggest that abnormal interactions between Sertoli and germ cells during fetal life play a role in the development of MNG.

  2. TRANSPLANTATION OF CRYOPRESERVED FETAL LIVER CELLS SEEDED INTO MACROPOROUS ALGINATE-GELATIN SCAFFOLDS IN RATS WITH LIVER FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Grizay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the therapeutic potential of cryopreserved fetal liver cells seeded into macroporous alginategelatin scaffolds after implantation to omentum of rats with hepatic failure.Materials and methods.Hepatic failure was simulated by administration of 2-acetyl aminofl uorene followed partial hepatectomy. Macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds, seeded with allogenic cryopreserved fetal liver cells (FLCs were implanted into rat omentum. To prevent from colonization of host cells scaffolds were coated with alginate gel shell. Serum transaminase activity, levels of albumin and bilirubin as markers of hepatic function were determined during 4 weeks after failure model formation and scaffold implantation. Morphology of liver and scaffolds after implantation were examined histologically. Results. Macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds after implantation to healthy rats were colonized by host cells. Additional formation of alginate gel shell around scaffolds prevented the colonization. Implantation of macroporous scaffolds seeded with cryopreserved rat FLCs and additionally coated with alginate gel shell into omentum of rats with hepatic failure resulted in signifi cant improvement of hepatospecifi c parameters of the blood serum and positive changes of liver morphology. The presence of cells with their extracellular matrix within the scaffolds was confi rmed after 4 weeks post implantation.Conclusion. The data above indicate that macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds coated with alginate gel shell are promising cell carriers for the development of bioengineered liver equivalents.

  3. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Amaral, María M.; Zotta, Elsa; Franchi, Ana M.; Ibarra, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5 ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt), at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation). Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3) in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2. PMID:25157355

  4. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Sacerdoti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2, a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5 ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt, at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation. Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3 in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2.

  5. Fetal Kidney Cells Can Ameliorate Ischemic Acute Renal Failure in Rats through Their Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Oxidative Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashwani Kumar; Jadhav, Sachin H; Tripathy, Naresh Kumar; Nityanand, Soniya

    2015-01-01

    Fetal kidney cells may contain multiple populations of kidney stem cells and thus appear to be a suitable cellular therapy for the treatment of acute renal failure (ARF) but their biological characteristics and therapeutic potential have not been adequately explored. We have culture expanded fetal kidney cells derived from rat fetal kidneys, characterized them and evaluated their therapeutic effect in an ischemia reperfusion (IR) induced rat model of ARF. The fetal kidney cells grew in culture as adherent spindle shaped/polygonal cells and expressed CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD24 and CD133 markers. Administration of PKH26 labeled fetal kidney cells in ARF rats resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and decreased tubular necrosis in the kidney tissues (pkidney cells were observed to engraft around injured tubular cells, and there was increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of tubular cells in the kidneys (pkidney tissues of ARF rats treated with fetal kidney cells had a higher gene expression of renotropic growth factors (VEGF-A, IGF-1, BMP-7 and bFGF) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL10); up regulation of anti-oxidative markers (HO-1 and NQO-1); and a lower Bax/Bcl2 ratio as compared to saline treated rats (pkidney cells express mesenchymal and renal progenitor markers, and ameliorate ischemic ARF predominantly by their anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  6. Maternal saturated-fat-rich diet promotes leptin resistance in fetal liver lipid catabolism and programs lipid homeostasis impairments in the liver of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucco, María Belén; Fornes, Daiana; Capobianco, Evangelina; Higa, Romina; Jawerbaum, Alicia; White, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyze if an overload of saturated fat in maternal diet induced lipid metabolic impairments in livers from rat fetuses that persist in the offspring and to identify potential mechanisms involving fetal leptin resistance. Female rats were fed either a diet enriched in 25% of saturated fat (SFD rats) or a regular diet (controls). Fetuses of 21days of gestation and offspring of 21 and 140days of age were obtained and plasma and liver were kept for further analysis. Livers from a group of control and SFD fetuses were cultured in the presence or absence of leptin. Leptin or vehicle was administered to control fetuses during the last days of gestation and, on day 21, fetal livers and plasma were obtained. Lipid levels were assessed by thin-layer chromatography and mRNA gene expression of CPT1, ACO and PPARα by RT-PCR. Liver lipid levels were increased and CPT1 and ACO were down-regulated in fetuses and offspring from SFD rats compared to controls. After the culture with leptin, control fetal livers showed increased ACO and CPT1 expression and decreased lipid levels, while fetal livers from SFD rats showed no changes. Fetal administration of leptin induced a decrease in ACO and no changes in CPT1 expression. In summary, our results suggest that a saturated fat overload in maternal diet induces fetal leptin resistance in liver lipid catabolism, which might be contributing to liver lipid alterations that are sustained in the offspring.

  7. Maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy enhances bile acid-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in fetal rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Maria J; Velasco, Elena; Monte, Maria J; Gonzalez-Buitrago, Jose M; Marin, Jose J G

    2006-08-15

    Ethanol is able to cross the placenta, which may cause teratogenicity. Here we investigated whether ethanol consumption during pregnancy (ECDP), even at doses unable to cause malformation, might increase the susceptibility of fetal rat liver to oxidative insults. Since cholestasis is a common condition in alcoholic liver disease and pregnancy, exposure to glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) has been used here as the oxidative insult. The mothers received drinking water without or with ethanol from 4 weeks before mating until term, when placenta, maternal liver, and fetal liver were used. Ethanol induced a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio in these organs, together with enhanced gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione reductase activities in both placenta and fetal liver. Lipid peroxidation in placenta and fetal liver was enhanced by ethanol, although it had no effect on caspase-3 activity. Although the basal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was higher by fetal (FHs) than by maternal (AHs) hepatocytes in short-term cultures, the production of ROS in response to the presence of varying GCDCA concentrations was higher in AHs and was further increased by ECDP, which was associated to a more marked impairment in mitochondrial function. Moreover, GCDCA-induced apoptosis was increased by ECDP, as revealed by enhanced Bax-alpha/Bcl-2 ratio (both in AHs and FHs) and the activity of caspase-8 (only in AHs) and caspase-3. In sum, our results indicate that although AHs are more prone than FHs to producing ROS, at doses unable to cause maternal liver damage ethanol consumption causes oxidative stress and apoptosis in fetal liver.

  8. Maternal molecular hydrogen administration ameliorates rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by in utero ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Yukio; Kotani, Tomomi; Ito, Mikako; Nagai, Taku; Ichinohashi, Yuko; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ohno, Kinji; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2014-04-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) scavenges hydroxyl radicals. Recently, H2 has been reported to prevent a variety of diseases associated with oxidative stress in model systems and in humans. Here, we studied the effects of H2 on rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by ischemia and reperfusion (IR) on day 16 of pregnancy with the transient occlusion of the bilateral utero-ovarian arteries. Starting 2 days before the operation, we provided the mothers with hydrogen-saturated water ad libitum until vaginal delivery. We observed a significant increase in the concentration of H2 in the placenta after the oral administration of hydrogen-saturated water to the mothers, with less placental oxidative damage after IR in the presence of H2. Neonatal growth retardation was observed in the IR group, which was alleviated by the H2 administration. We analyzed the neuronal cell damage in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus at day 7 after birth by immunohistochemical analysis of the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2׳-deoxyguanosine- and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins. Both oxidative stress markers were significantly increased in the IR group, which was again ameliorated by the H2 intake. Last, 8-week-old rats were subjected to a Morris water maze test. Maternal H2 administration improved the reference memory of the offspring to the sham level after IR injury during pregnancy. Overall, the present results support the idea that maternal H2 intake helps prevent the hippocampal impairment of offspring induced by IR during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which {sup 45}Ca release from {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption. These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke.

  10. Development of an artificial neuronal network with post-mitotic rat fetal hippocampal cells by polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingfang; Ma, Jun; Gao, Erjing; He, Yu; Cui, Fuzhai; Xu, Qunyuan

    2008-03-14

    The selection of appropriate surface materials that promote cellular adhesion and growth is an important consideration when designing a simplified neuronal network in vitro. In the past, extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin (LN) or positively charged substances such as poly-l-lysine (PLL) have been used. In this study, we examined the ability of another positively charged polymer, polyethyleneimine (PEI), to promote neuronal adhesion, growth and the formation of a functional neuronal network in vitro. PEI, PLL and LN were used to produce grid-shape patterns on glass coverslips by micro-contact printing. Post-mitotic neurons from the rat fetal hippocampus were cultured on the different polymers and the viability and morphology of these neurons under serum-free culture conditions were observed using fluorescent microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We show that neurons cultured on the PEI- and PLL-coated surfaces adhered to and extended neurites along the grid-shape patterns, whereas neurons cultured on the LN-coated coverslips clustered into clumps of cells. In addition, we found that the neurons on the PEI and PLL-coated grids survived for more than 2 weeks in serum-free conditions, whereas most neurons cultured on the LN-coated grids died after 1 week. Using AFM, we observed some neurosynapse-like structures near the neuronal soma on PEI-coated coverslips. These findings indicate that PEI is a suitable surface for establishing a functional neuronal network in vitro.

  11. Biological monitoring of embrio-fetal exposure to methamidophos or chlorothalonil on rat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, V L; Chiorato, S H; Pinto, N F

    2000-12-01

    Maternal exposure to pesticides during the pre-implantation and very early post-implantation periods of pregnancy is correlated with numerous adverse effects on the offspring and in reproductive parameters like an increase in resorption, a decrease in fetal survival and weight, and teratogenic effects. Although the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive as regards the risk of the adverse outcome of pregnancy and developmental toxicity events, the use of biomarkers in exposure assessment may contribute to recognizing a potential health impairment. The present study evaluated the influence of prenatal oral exposure to an insecticide (1.0 mg methamidophos/kg) or a fungicide (200.0 mg chlorothalonil/kg) during gestation days 1 to 6 on maturational and behavioral aspects of offspring development of rats. The pesticides did not affect the body weight gain of dams and offspring, nor did the exposure affect the weight of gravid uterus, fetus, placenta and ovary. There were no observed alterations in the swimming behavior tested at postnatal days 7, 14 and 21, but the pesticides interfered with physical and maturational development landmarks of offspring according to age, showing subtle effects on behavioral and physical development. These findings show the importance of categorizing developmental effects, establishing the relationship between age and important performances, to recognize potential impacts on human populations.

  12. Effect of fetal undernutrition and postnatal overfeeding on rat adipose tissue and organ growth at early stages of postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Valverde, D; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, P; Gutierrez-Arzapalo, P Y; López de Pablo, A L; Carmen González, M; López-Giménez, R; Somoza, B; Arribas, S M

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine and perinatal life are critical periods for programming of cardiometabolic diseases. However, their relative role remains controversial. We aimed to assess, at weaning, sex-dependent alterations induced by fetal or postnatal nutritional interventions on key organs for metabolic and cardiovascular control. Fetal undernutrition was induced by dam food restriction (50 % from mid-gestation to delivery) returning to ad libitum throughout lactation (Maternal Undernutrition, MUN, 12 pups/litter). Postnatal overfeeding (POF) was induced by litter size reduction from normally fed dams (4 pups/litter). Compared to control, female and male MUN offspring exhibited: 1) low birth weight and accelerated growth, reaching similar weight and tibial length by weaning, 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) increased ventricular weight and tendency to reduced kidney weight (males only). Female and male POF offspring showed: 1) accelerated growth; 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) unchanged heart and kidney weights. In conclusion, postnatal accelerated growth, with or without fetal undernutrition, induces early alterations relevant for metabolic disease programming, while fetal undernutrition is required for heart abnormalities. The progression of cardiac alterations and their role on hypertension development needs to be evaluated. The similarities between sexes in pre-pubertal rats suggest a role of sex-hormones in female protection against programming.

  13. Simultaneous transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue and encapsulated genetically modified cells releasing GDNF in a hemi-parkinsonian rat model of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Di Santo, Stefano; Seiler, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons for Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by poor survival and suboptimal integration of grafted tissue into the host brain. In a 6-OHDA rat model of PD we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous transplantation of rat fetal VM tissue...... and polymer-encapsulated C2C12 myoblasts genetically modified to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor or mocktransfected myoblasts on graft function. Amphetamine-induced rotations were assessed prior and 2, 4, 6 and 9 weeks post-transplantation. We found that rats grafted with VM transplants...

  14. Evaluation of 2-year-old intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Danz, Manfred; Müller, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Liver cell transplantation into host organs like the spleen may possibly provide a temporary relief after extensive liver resection or severe liver disease or may enable treatment of an enzyme deficiency. With time, however, dedifferentiation or malignant transformation of the ectopically transplanted cells may be possible. Thus, in the present study syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleen of adult male rats and evaluated 2 years thereafter in comparison to orthotopic livers for histopathological changes and (as markers for preneoplastic transformation) for cytochrome P450 (P450) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoform expression. Because inducibility of P450 and GST isoforms may be changed in preneoplastic foci, prior to sacrifice animals were additionally treated either with beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, dexamethasone, or the respective solvent. In the 2-year-old grafts more than 70% of the spleen mass was occupied by the transplant. The transplanted hepatocytes were arranged in cord-like structures. Also few bile ducts were present. Morphologically, no signs of malignancy were visible. With all rats, transplant recipients as well as controls, however, discrete nodular structures were seen in the livers. Due to age, both livers and transplants displayed only a low P450 2B1 and 3A2 and GST class alpha and mu isoform expression. No immunostaining for P450 1A1 was visible. At both sites, beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, or dexamethasone treatment enhanced P450 1A1, P450 2B1 and 3A2, or P450 3A2 expression, respectively. No immunostaining for GST class pi isoforms was seen in the transplants. The livers of both transplant recipients and control rats, however, displayed GST pi-positive foci, corresponding to the nodular structures seen histomorphologically. Compared to the surrounding tissue, these foci also exhibited a more pronounced staining for GST class alpha and mu isoforms and a stronger inducibility of the P450 1A

  15. Contribution of maternal thyroxine to fetal thyroxine pools in normal rats near term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morreale de Escobar, G.; Calvo, R.; Obregon, M.J.; Escobar Del Rey, F. (Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Madrid (Spain))

    1990-05-01

    Normal dams were equilibrated isotopically with ({sup 125}I)T4 infused from 11 to 21 days of gestation, at which time maternal and fetal extrathyroidal tissues were obtained to determine their ({sup 125}I)T4 and T4 contents. The specific activity of the ({sup 125}I)T4 in the fetal tissues was lower than in maternal T4 pools. The extent of this change allows evaluation of the net contribution of maternal T4 to the fetal extrathyroidal T4 pools. At 21 days of gestation, near term, this represents 17.5 +/- 0.9% of the T4 in fetal tissues, a value considerably higher than previously calculated. The methodological approach was validated in dams given a goitrogen to block fetal thyroid function. The specific activities of the ({sup 125}I)T4 in maternal and fetal T4 pools were then similar, confirming that in cases of fetal thyroid impairment the T4 in fetal tissues is determined by the maternal contribution. Thus, previous statements that in normal conditions fetal thyroid economy near term is totally independent of maternal thyroid status ought to be reconsidered.

  16. Intrastriatal grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalon improve allodynia-like withdrawal response to mechanical stimulation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryuichiro; Ishida, Yasushi; Ebihara, Kosuke; Abe, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hisae; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Koganemaru, Go; Kuramashi, Aki; Funahashi, Hideki; Magata, Yasuhiro; Kawai, Keiichi; Nishimori, Toshikazu

    2014-06-24

    We previously reported that a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of Parkinson's disease showed allodynia-like withdrawal response to mechanical stimulation of the ipsilateral side of the rat hindpaw. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of intrastriatal grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalon (VM) on the withdrawal response in 6-OHDA rats. The withdrawal threshold in response to the mechanical stimulation of the rat hindpaw was measured using von Frey filaments. In the ipsilateral side of the 6-OHDA lesions, the withdrawal threshold in response to mechanical stimulation significantly increased in 6-OHDA rats with VM grafts compared with those with sham grafts, but did not change in the contralateral side at 5 weeks after transplantation. The present results suggest that the intrastriatal grafts of fetal VM may relieve pain sensation induced by mechanical stimulation in 6-OHDA rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prenatal testosterone-induced fetal growth restriction is associated with down-regulation of rat placental amino acid transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Gary DV

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure of pregnant mothers to elevated concentrations of circulating testosterone levels is associated with fetal growth restriction and delivery of small-for-gestational-age babies. We examined whether maternal testosterone crosses the placenta to directly suppress fetal growth or if it modifies placental function to reduce the capacity for transport of nutrients to the fetus. Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to testosterone propionate (TP; 0.5 mg/kg by daily subcutaneous injection from gestational days (GD 15-19. Maternal and fetal testosterone levels, placental nutrient transport activity and expression of transporters and birth weight of pups and their anogenital distances were determined. Results This dose of TP doubled maternal testosterone levels but had no effect on fetal testosterone levels. Maternal daily weight gain was significantly lower only on GD 19 in TP treated dams compared to controls. Placental weight and birth weight of pups were significantly reduced, but the anogenital distance of pups were unaffected by TP treatment. Maternal plasma amino acids concentrations were altered following testosterone exposure, with decreases in glutamine, glycine, tyrosine, serine, proline, and hydroxyproline and increases in asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine and arginine. In the TP dams, placental system A amino acid transport activity was significantly reduced while placental glucose transport capacity was unaffected. Decreased expression of mRNA and protein levels of slc38a2/Snat2, an amino acid transporter, suggests that reduced transporter proteins may be responsible for the decrease in amino acid transport activity. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that increased maternal testosterone concentrations do not cross the placenta to directly suppress fetal growth but affects amino acid nutrient delivery to the fetus by downregulating specific amino acid transporter activity.

  18. The Effect of Fetal Olfactory Mucosa on Tissue Sparing and Locomotor Recovery after Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Delaviz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs has been shown to have a neuroprotectiveeffect after transplanted in brain and spinal cord injury (SCI. This study was conductedto determine the possible beneficial results of transplantation of fetal olfactorymucosa (FOM that was the source of OECs in the recovery of locomotor function andin spinal tissue sparing after spinal cord hemisection.Materials and Methods: Forty-eight adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were spinallyhemisected at the L1 level and were randomized into the three groups of 16 animals.The first group, immunosuppressed injured animals were received cyclosporine A (CsAand FOM graft. The second group was received CsA and fetal respiratory mucosa(FRM graft, and the control group; non-immunosuppressed rats were received salineand gel foam. Locomotor performance was assessed weekly for 8 weeks after lesion,using locomotive rating scale developed by Basso, Bresnahan and Beattie (BBB. Afterbehavioral assessment, the spinal cord was examined by a histologist for spinal tissuesparing.Results: From weeks 6-8, the functional recovery of the FOM rats significantly increasedin comparison to the FRM, although a significant difference in tissue sparing was not apparent.From weeks, 2-8 the functional recovery of the FOM and FRM groups as well astissue sparing of the FOM group increased significantly compared to the control group.Conclusion: Thus, the FOM treatment may be effective to promote functional recoveryand partially preserving tissue sparing.

  19. In vitro effects of fetal rat cerebrospinal fluid on viability and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiuni Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF contains many neurotrophic and growth factors and has been shown to be capable of supporting viability, proliferation and differentiation of primary cortical progenitor cells. Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells have been widely used as an in vitro model of neuronal differentiation since they differentiate into sympathetic neuron-like cells in response to growth factors. This study aimed to establish whether PC12 cells were responsive to fetal CSF and therefore whether they might be used to investigate CSF physiology in a stable cell line lacking the time-specific response patterns of primary cells previously described. Methods In vitro assays of viability, proliferation and differentiation were carried out after incubation of PC12 cells in media with and without addition of fetal rat CSF. An MTT tetrazolium assay was used to assess cell viability and/or cell proliferation. Expression of neural differentiation markers (MAP-2 and β-III tubulin was determined by immunocytochemistry. Formation and growth of neurites was measured by image analysis. Results PC12 cells differentiate into neuronal cell types when exposed to bFGF. Viability and cell proliferation of PC12 cells cultured in CSF-supplemented medium from E18 rat fetuses were significantly elevated relative to the control group. Neuronal-like outgrowths from cells appeared following the application of bFGF or CSF from E17 and E19 fetuses but not E18 or E20 CSF. Beta-III tubulin was expressed in PC12 cells cultured in any media except that supplemented with E18 CSF. MAP-2 expression was found in control cultures and in those with E17 and E19 CSF. MAP2 was located in neurites except in E17 CSF when the whole cell was positive. Conclusions Fetal rat CSF supports viability and stimulates proliferation and neurogenic differentiation of PC12 cells in an age-dependent way, suggesting that CSF composition changes with age. This feature may be important

  20. Differentiated cells derived from fetal neural stem cells improve motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Hao Song; Aifang Shen; Chao Chen; Yanming Liu; Yabing Dong; Fabin Han 

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Parkinson’s disease (PD), which is one of the most common neuro‐degenerative disorders, is characterized by the loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that fetal neural stem cells (NSCs) have therapeutic effects in neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat model of PD. Methods:NSCs were isolated from 14‐week‐old embryos and induced to differentiate into neurons, DA neurons, and glial cells, and these cells were characterized by their expression of the following markers:βⅢ‐tubulin and microtubule‐associated protein 2 (neurons), tyrosine hydroxylase (DA neurons), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cells). After a 6‐hydroxydopamine (6‐OHDA)‐lesioned rat model of PD was generated, the differentiated cells were transplanted into the striata of the 6‐OHDA‐lesioned PD rats. Results:The motor behaviors of the PD rats were assessed by the number of apomorphine‐induced rotation turns. The results showed that the NSCs differentiated in vitro into neurons and DA neurons with high efficiencies. After transplantation into the striata of the PD rats, the differentiated cells significantly improved the motor deficits of the transplanted PD rats compared to those of the control nontransplanted PD rats by decreasing the apomorphine‐induced turn cycles as early as 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that the differentiated DA neurons survived more than 16 weeks. Conclusions:Our results showed that cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat PD model, which suggests that differentiated cells may be an effective treatment for patients with PD.

  1. Paternal dapoxetine administration induced deterioration in reproductive performance, fetal outcome, sexual behavior and biochemistry of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMazoudy, R; AbdelHameed, N; ElMasry, A

    2015-01-01

    Dapoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is considered an antidepressant drug and has been developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Hence the objective was to assess whether dapoxetine administration to male rats adversely affect sexual behavior and pregnancy outcomes after mating with untreated female rats. Proven fertile male rats were gavaged with 0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg dapoxetine per kg body weight (bw) per day (DC, DI, DII and DIII groups, respectively) for 70 days prior to mating with untreated female rats. Weight gain, organ weights and feed consumption were decreased significantly in the DII and DIII groups. A significant decline in the number of spermatozoa in the DII and DIII groups is attributed to a significant decrease in testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Levels of prolactin were significantly increased in the DII and DIII groups. Rats treated with a high dose of dapoxetine (8.0 mg kg(-1)) showed a significant inhibition in sperm motility and increment in sperm abnormalities. There was a pronounced decrease in fertility index in females mated with males treated chronically with 4.0 and 8.0 mg per kg bw dapoxetine. In addition, the treatment markedly increased the number of fetal resorptions in female rats impregnated by males in the DII and DIII groups reflecting their infertility. The number of implantation sites and the number of viable fetuses were also notably decreased in female rats impregnated by males given 4.0 or 8.0 mg kg(-1) dapoxetine. These findings suggest that the long-term dapoxetine at high dosages causes failure of the fertilization or successful impregnation of the females mated with dapoxetine-treated male rats, which were clearly able to copulate. A detrimental effect of dapoxetine on fertility parameters was also revealed.

  2. Cadmium and zinc concentrations in fetal and maternal rat tissues after parenteral administration of cadmium during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazelhoff Roelfzema, W.; Roelofsen, A.M.; Herber, R.F.M.; Copius Peereboom-Stegeman, J.H.J.

    1988-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were determined by solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in rat maternal and fetal tissues after exposure to cadmium. Cadmium was administered subcutaneously as CdCl/sub 2/ in saline daily during pregnancy. Two experiments were performed. In expt. I we investigated the tissue concentration at day 19 (gestational age) after addministration of several doses: 0, 1.1, 2.2, 4.4, and 8.8 ..mu..mol Cd/kg/day. In expt. II the course of the Cd and Zn concentrations during pregnancy was investigated by collecting samples at days 14, 16, 18 and 20, after daily injections of 4.4 ..mu..mol Cd/kg. Cadmium concentrations in blood, maternal liver, placenta and fetal liver increased with dose and duration of exposure. Cadmium was heavily accumulated in the liver and transferred to the fetus only in small amounts. The zinc concentration in the maternal liver was positively correlated with the cadmium concentration. In the placenta the zinc concentration was not affected. Zinc in fetal liver was decreased from day 18 onward. Despite relatively high cadmium levels and decreased zinc levels in the fetus, we observed no adverse effects on various reproduction parameters, such as birth weights and obvious malformations.

  3. 1,25(OH) sub 2 D sub 3 and Ca-binding protein in fetal rats: Relationship to the maternal vitamin D status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaeghe, J.; Thomasset, M.; Brehier, A.; Van Assche, F.A.; Bouillon, R. (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium) Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medical (France))

    1988-04-01

    The autonomy and functional role of fetal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) were investigated in nondiabetic and diabetic BB rats fed diets containing 0.85% calcium-0.7% phosphorus or 0.2% calcium and phosphorus and in semistarved rats on the low calcium-phosphorus diet. The changes in maternal and fetal plasma 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} were similar: the levels were increased by calcium-phosphorus restriction and decreased by diabetes and semistarvation. Maternal and fetal 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} levels were correlated. The vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding proteins (CaBP{sub 9K} and CaBP{sub 28K}) were measured in multiple maternal and fetal tissues and in the placenta of nondiabetic, diabetic, and calcium-phosphorus-restricted rats. The distributions of CaBP{sub 9K} and CaBP{sub 28K} in the pregnant rat were similar to that of the growing rat. The increased maternal plasma 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} levels in calcium-phosphorus-restricted rats were associated with higher duodenal CaBP{sub 9K} and renal CaBPs, but placental CaBP{sub 9K} was not different. In diabetic pregnant rats, duodenal CaBP{sub 9K} was not different. In diabetic pregnant rats, duodenal CaBP{sub 9K} tended to be lower, while renal CaBPs were normal; placental CaBP{sub 9K} was decreased. The results indicate that in the rat fetal 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} depends on maternal 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} or on factors regulating maternal 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. The lack of changes in fetal CaBP in the presence of altered fetal plasma 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} levels confirms earlier data showing that 1,25(H){sub 2}D{sub 3} has a limited hormonal function during perinatal development in the rat.

  4. Inulin supplementation during gestation mitigates acrylamide-induced maternal and fetal brain oxidative dysfunctions and neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Gokul; Muralidhara

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the developing brain is more susceptible to a variety of chemicals. Recent studies have shown a link between the enteric microbiota and brain function. While supplementation of non-digestible oligosaccharides during pregnancy has been demonstrated to positively influence human health mediated through stimulation of beneficial microbiota, our understanding on their neuromodulatory propensity is limited. In the present study, our primary focus was to examine whether supplementation of inulin (a well known fructan) during gestation can abrogate acrylamide (ACR)-induced oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity in maternal and fetal brain of rats. Initially, in a dose-determinative study, we recapitulated the impact of ACR exposure during gestation days (GD 6-19) on gestational parameters, extent of oxidative impairments in brain (maternal/fetal), cholinergic function and neurotoxicity. Subsequently, pregnant rats orally (gavage) administered with inulin (IN, 2 g/kg/day in two equal installments) supplements during gestation days (GD 0-19) were exposed to ACR (200 ppm) in drinking water. IN supplements significantly attenuated ACR-induced changes in exploratory activity (reduced open field exploration) measured on GD 14. Further, IN restored the placental weights among ACR exposed dams. Analysis of biochemical markers revealed that IN supplements effectively offset ACR associated oxidative stress not only in the maternal brain, but in the fetal brain as well. Elevated levels of protein carbonyls in maternal brain regions were completely normalized with IN supplements. More importantly, IN supplements significantly augmented the number of Bifidobacteria in the cecum of ACR rats which correlated well with the neurorestorative effect as evidenced by restored dopamine levels in the maternal cortex and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase activity among ACR-exposed dams. Further, IN supplements also conferred significant protection against

  5. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the genital circulation, fetal growth and postnatal development in the Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoama, Kassem; Yassine Mallem, Mohamed; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2015-07-05

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of nebivolol, a cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic receptor blocker of the third generation with vasodilatory properties, vs. bisoprolol on the genital circulation, uterine vasculature, fetal growth and postnatal development in pregnant Wistar rats. Non invasive measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate (HR), and invasive measurement of genital blood flow (GBF) were taken in pregnant rats, by tail cuff and transonic probe methods respectively, after an oral treatment by gastric gavage with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy. Other morphometrical and histological measurements were performed on the ovarian and uterine arteries to evaluate the effect of nebivolol on the uterine vasculature. Furthermore, postnatal mortality and pup growth were recorded. The data demonstrated that nebivolol (compared with bisoprolol) induced a significant decrease in SBP, HR and GBF while DBP remained unchanged. Moreover, nebivolol increased the diameter and the length of ovarian and uterine arteries and the number of uterine artery segmental branches. The results also showed that the body weight gain of newborns in the nebivolol group was significantly lower vs. bisoprolol and vs. control with a higher mortality rate. The nebivolol action is not only limited to its favorable hemodynamic effects represented by a decrease in blood pressure, but it also produces adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development that may limit its therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  6. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Bruin

    Full Text Available Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on pancreatic mitochondrial structure and function during postnatal development. Female Wistar rats were given saline (vehicle control or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/d via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 3-4, 15 and 26 weeks of age, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and pancreas tissue was collected for electron microscopy, enzyme activity assays and islet isolation. Following nicotine exposure mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed beginning at 3 weeks and worsened with advancing age. Importantly the appearance of these structural defects in nicotine-exposed animals preceded the onset of glucose intolerance. Nicotine exposure also resulted in significantly reduced pancreatic respiratory chain enzyme activity, degranulation of beta cells, elevated islet oxidative stress and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to saline controls at 26 weeks of age. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal nicotine use during pregnancy results in postnatal mitochondrial dysfunction that may explain, in part, the dysglycemia observed in the offspring from this animal model. These results clearly indicate that further investigation into the safety of NRT use during pregnancy is warranted.

  7. Grafts of fetal locus coeruleus neurons in rat amygdala-piriform cortex suppress seizure development in hippocampal kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D I; Wanscher, B; Kragh, J; Bolwig, T G; Kokaia, M; Brundin, P; Björklund, A; Lindvall, O

    1989-11-01

    Hippocampal kindling was investigated in rats with a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of the forebrain catecholamine system after implantation of neural tissue from the fetal locus coeruleus region either bilaterally into the amygdala-piriform cortex (i.e., distant to the kindling site) or unilaterally into the hippocampus (close to the kindling site). Lesioned animals with either sham grafts or control grafts consisting of fetal striatal tissue showed a kindling rate much faster than that of normal controls. In contrast, in rats with bilateral locus coeruleus grafts in the amygdala-piriform cortex (implanted at three sites) the development of seizures was similar to that of controls and significantly slower than that in lesioned animals with sham grafts. All these animals had bilateral surviving grafts with a mean of 125 noradrenergic cells per implantation site. In the animals with locus coeruleus grafts in the stimulated hippocampus the kindling rate did not differ from that in the lesioned animals with control grafts. Most of these animals had large surviving grafts and showed a dense noradrenergic reinnervation of the implanted hippocampus. The present findings indicate that grafting of fetal pontine tissue (rich in noradrenergic neurons) to a site distant to the stimulation focus, but important for the generalization and spread of seizures, can retard the development of seizures in hippocampal kindling. Together with the data of our previous report this study also indicates that noradrenergic reinnervation of both hippocampi is important for the seizure-suppressant action in hippocampal kindling of locus coeruleus grafts implanted in the hippocampus.

  8. Developmental changes in glutathione S-transferase isoforms expression and activity in intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Anschütz, Tino; Lindström-Seppä, Pirjo; Müller, Dieter

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise developmental changes in glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoforms expression and in glutathione conjugation capacity in intrasplenic liver tissue transplants. For this purpose, syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of adult male Fischer 344 rats. Three days, 1, 2, 4 weeks, 2, 4, 6 months and 1 year later, transplant-recipients and control animals were sacrificed and class alpha, mu and pi GST isoforms expression and GST activities using the substrates o-dinitrobenzene and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene were assessed in livers and spleens. In the hepatocytes of the adult livers no class pi, but a distinct class alpha and mu GST expression was seen. The bile duct epithelia were class pi GST positive. Fetal livers displayed almost no class alpha and mu, but a slight class pi GST expression. The same pattern was seen in 3-day-old intrasplenic liver tissue transplants. Up to 2 weeks after surgery the class alpha and mu GST expression increased in the hepatocytes of the transplants, whereas the immunostaining for class pi GST disappeared. No remarkable changes were seen thereafter. Normal conjugation capacities were observed with the livers of both groups of rats. Control spleens displayed only low GST activities. From 2 months after transplantation on activities were significantly higher in transplant-containing spleens than in respective control organs with a further increase up to one year after grafting. These results show that intrasplenically transplanted fetal liver cells proliferate and differentiate into mature cells displaying a GST expression pattern with respective enzyme activities similar to adult liver.

  9. Tretinoin-iontophoresis in atrophic acne scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J B; Donath, P; Hannes, J; Perl, S; Neumayer, R; Reiner, A

    1999-02-01

    Atrophic acne scars are a frequent problem after acne. Hitherto, mainly invasive treatment measures were possible. In a recent paper, we demonstrated the positive effects of iontophoresis with 0.025% tretinoin gel vs. estriol 0.03%. In this further study, the recording of the clinical effects of iontophoresis with 0.025% tretinoin gel in atrophic acne scars was supplemented by immunohistochemistry investigations of collagen I and III, proliferation markers, and the estimation of epidermal thickness. The treatment was performed twice weekly in 32 volunteer patients for a period of 3 months by application of the substance under a constant direct current of 3 mA for 20 min. Skin biopsies prior to and at the end of treatment were performed in 32 voluntary patients in order to investigate collagen I/III and proliferation markers by immunohistochemistry methods. Clinically, at the end of treatment, in 94% of patients a significant decrease in the scar depth was observed. Neither epidermal thickness nor proliferation markers revealed a significant increase at the end of treatment. Furthermore, collagen I and collagen III showed no common trend, as expressed statistically by a lack of significance. In some cases, increases in collagen III became evident at the end of treatment. Tretinoin-iontophoresis is an effective, noninvasive treatment of atrophic acne scars without causing disturbing side-effects.

  10. Steroidogenesis in fetal male rats is reduced by DEHP and DINP, but endocrine effects of DEHP are not modulated by DEHA in fetal, prepubertal and adult male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Ladefoged, Ole; Hass, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    with DEHA and DINP have led to the hypothesis that similarities inaction may also exist. Pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with vehicle, DEHP (300 or 750 mg/kg bodyweight per day), DINP (750 mg/kg bodyweight per day), DEHP (750 mg/kg bodyweight per day) in combination...

  11. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity data for 379 pharmaceuticals: on the nature and severity of developmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Peter T; Beken, Sonja; Beyer, Bruce K; Breslin, William J; Cappon, Gregg D; Chen, Connie L; Chmielewski, Gary; De Schaepdrijver, Luc; Enright, Brian; Foreman, Jennifer E; Harrouk, Wafa; Hew, Kok-Wah; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia Y; Knudsen, Thomas B; Laffan, Susan B; Makris, Susan L; Martin, Matt; McNerney, Mary Ellen; Siezen, Christine L; Stanislaus, Dinesh J; Stewart, Jane; Thompson, Kary E; Tornesi, Belen; Van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weinbauer, Gerhard F; Wood, Sandra; Piersma, Aldert H

    2016-11-01

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceuticals typically requires embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species (one rodent and one non-rodent). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the testing in a second species could be decided on a case-by-case basis. As part of a consortium initiative, we built and queried a database of 379 compounds with EFDT studies (in both rat and rabbit animal models) conducted for marketed and non-marketed pharmaceuticals for their potential for adverse developmental and maternal outcomes, including EFDT incidence and the nature and severity of adverse findings. Manifestation of EFDT in either one or both species was demonstrated for 282 compounds (74%). EFDT was detected in only one species (rat or rabbit) in almost a third (31%, 118 compounds), with 58% (68 compounds) of rat studies and 42% (50 compounds) of rabbit studies identifying an EFDT signal. For 24 compounds (6%), fetal malformations were observed in one species (rat or rabbit) in the absence of any EFDT in the second species. In general, growth retardation, fetal variations, and malformations were more prominent in the rat, whereas embryo-fetal death was observed more often in the rabbit. Discordance across species may be attributed to factors such as maternal toxicity, study design differences, pharmacokinetic differences, and pharmacologic relevance of species. The current analysis suggests that in general both species are equally sensitive on the basis of an overall EFDT LOAEL comparison, but selective EFDT toxicity in one species is not uncommon. Also, there appear to be species differences in the prevalence of various EFDT manifestations (i.e. embryo-fetal death, growth retardation, and dysmorphogenesis) between rat and rabbit, suggesting that the use of both species has a higher probability of detecting developmental toxicants than either one alone.

  12. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised at Pregnancy: Maternal-Fetal Repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, S B; Netto, A O; Sinzato, Y K; Campos, K E; Calderon, I M P; Rudge, M V C; Volpato, G T; Zambrano, E; Damasceno, D C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming in pregnant rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring, IUGR rats were obtained using the streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic (SD) rats. In this study, the nondiabetic parental generation presented 10 rats and diabetic parental generation presented 116 rats. Of these, the mated nondiabetic female rats were 10 and the number of diabetic rats was 45. In relation to term pregnancy, there were 10 animals in the nondiabetic group and 15 rats in the diabetic group. In the offspring of SD rats (IUGR group), 43 females were classified as small for pregnancy age, 19 rats were classified as appropriate for pregnancy age, and 0 female was classified as large for pregnancy age. The nondiabetic and SD pregnant rats generated offspring with appropriate (control [C]) and small (IUGR) weight for pregnancy age, respectively. At adult life, the C group was maintained as nonexercised C group and IUGR rats were distributed into 2 subgroups, namely, nonexercised (IUGR) and exercised (IUGRex). The rate of mated rats in the IUGR group was reduced compared to the C group. During pregnancy, the IUGR rats presented hyperinsulinemia, impaired reproductive outcomes, decreased body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlactacidemia. The IUGRex presented reduced insulin and triglyceride levels. Thus, swimming improved lipid metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity. However, the offspring showed retarded growth, reinforcing the need to stimulate the exercise practice in women under supervision with different professional expertise to promote appropriate gestational conditions and improve perinatal outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Lei, Youying [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tan, Yang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes.

  14. Effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on the maternal-fetal outcome, oxidative stress status and lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Sinzato, S. [UNESP; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha [UNESP; Damasceno,Débora Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Morus nigra, commonly known as black mulberry, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment.Aim of this study: To evaluate the effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on maternal lipid and oxidative stress profile, reproductive outcomes, and also fetal anomaly incidence from diabetic and non-diabetic rats.Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) in virgin female Wistar rats. Morus nigra leaf aqueou...

  15. Experimental study on cleft palate repair of rat using rat fetal membrane%鼠胎膜修复大鼠腭裂的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张驰; 娜荷雅; 张幸竹; 王丝墨; 唐喜乐; 马振宇; 肖晶; 李武伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 以鼠胎膜对腭裂进行整复手术,研究修复腭裂的效果.方法 建立腭裂动物模型实验.30只SD大鼠按照腭部裂隙大小分为3组,每组10只.a组:长7 mm×宽0.9 mm;b组:长7 mm×宽1.1 mm;c组:长7mm×宽1.3 mm.术后12周处死所有大鼠,观察裂隙变化.手术关闭裂隙实验.10只SD大鼠分为3组.A组大鼠5只,手术造腭裂并以新鲜双层胎膜关闭裂隙;B组大鼠3只,手术造腭裂,令裂隙自行生长;C组2只作为空白对照组.术后4周处死动物,大体观察;制作切片,行组织学观察.结果 腭裂动物模型成功建立,确立b组7mm×1.1 mm为临界缺损.A组大鼠腭裂得到成功修复,口鼻腔黏膜分别愈合,完全覆盖腭裂,镜下见腭裂处口腔黏膜层次清楚,存在黏膜下层,顶部有完整的鼻腔黏膜.结论 鼠胎膜对SD大鼠腭裂具有良好的修复效果.%Objective To explore the feasibility of repairing the defect in cleft palate using fetal membrane in a rat model. Methods To establish the animal model of cleft palate. Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rats in each group according to the different size of man - made cleft, group a: 7 mm × 0. 9 mm, group b: 7 mm × 1. 1 mm, group c: 7 mm × 1.3 mm. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 12 weeks and the changes of clefts were compared. Repairing experiment for cleft palate. Ten SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, group A was underwent reduction with 5 rats, group B was only performed model operation with 3 rats, group C was blank with 2 rats. All rats were sacrificed at the end of 4 weeks and the gross and histological observation was respectively carried out. Results The animal model of cleft palate was successfully established. Group b was determined to be the animal model group for critical - sized defect. Cleft palate was repaired successfully in group A with fetal membrane of rat, the structure of palate mucosa was similar to that of the group C in gross

  16. Maternal exposure to diphenhydramine during the fetal period in rats: effects on physical and neurobehavioral development and on neurochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A P; Schwarz, A; Spinosa, H S; Florio, J C; Bernardi, M M

    2004-01-01

    Previous research from our laboratory suggested that the administration of antihistaminics (H(1) receptor antagonists) to pregnant Wistar rats throughout pregnancy altered brain sexual differentiation and dopaminergic physiology of the offspring. In the present study, we assessed the effects of 20 mg/kg diphenhydramine (DPH) administration to pregnant rats during the fetal period of pregnancy [Gestation Days (GDs) 16-21], a critical period for brain sexual differentiation and central nervous system (CNS) maturation. Maternal body weight and water and food consumption were measured during pregnancy and offspring physical and behavioral development were evaluated during lactation. Offspring open-field behavior was assessed at 21 and 100 days of age. After the final open-field test, male and female sexual behavior, stereotypy following an apomorphine challenge, striatal content of dopamine (DA), the dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA), serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were assessed. There were no significant treatment-related changes in maternal reproductive parameters, but DPH treatment decreased maternal body weight gain during the treatment period. Offspring physical parameters were not altered in the treated group, and no significant treatment-related changes were found in female open-field measures, sexual behavior or in striatal neurochemical measurements. However, delayed testis descent and altered patterns of sexual behavior occurred in male offspring accompanied by increased striatal DA, decreased striatal DOPAC as well as reduced DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios. Taken together, these data suggest that exposure to DPH during the fetal period of rat development altered postnatal CNS maturation and sexual development of male offspring via changes in striatal bioamine systems.

  17. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies for 379 pharmaceuticals: On systemic dose and developmental effects (Critical Reviews in Toxicology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse ef...

  18. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity data for 379 pharmaceuticals: on the nature and severity of developmental effects (Critical Reviews in Toxicology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditio...

  19. The fetal programming of dietary fructose and saturated fat on hepatic quercetin glucuronidation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective Phase II biotransformation of flavonoids generates bioactive metabolites in vivo. However, data on the effect of environmental and physiological factors and fetal programming on phase II pathways toward flavonoids are limited. We examined the effect of parental exposure to a diet high in s...

  20. In utero glucocorticoid (GLC) exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle growth in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal undernutrition and stress expose the fetus to above normal levels of GLC and predispose to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to determine if fetal GLC exposure impairs skeletal muscle growth independently of maternal undernutrition. Three groups (n=7/group) of timed...

  1. How to assess the severity of atrophic gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Cheng Dai; Zhi-Peng Tang; Ya-Li Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis, is the main consequence of long-standing Helicobacter pylori infection, and is linked to the development of gastric cancer. The severity of atrophic gastritis is related to the lifetime risk of gastric cancer development, especially in terms of its degree and extent of mucosal damage. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to assess the severity of atrophic gastritis, interfere with the disease progress, and reverse gastric mucosal atrophy. In the article, we demonstrated some methods (conventional endoscopy, modern endoscopic technology and noninvasive methods) that may help assess the severity of atrophic gastritis and select the reasonable treatment protocols.

  2. Gestation under chronic constant light leads to extensive gene expression changes in the fetal rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spichiger, Carlos; Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Galdames, Hugo A; Mendez, Natalia; Alonso-Vazquez, Pamela; Richter, Hans G

    2015-12-01

    Recent reports account for altered metabolism in adult offspring from pregnancy subjected to abnormal photoperiod, suggesting fetal programming of liver physiology. To generate a pipeline of subsequent mechanistic experiments addressing strong candidate genes, here we investigated the effects of constant gestational light on the fetal liver transcriptome. At 10 days of gestation, dams were randomized in two groups (n = 7 each): constant light (LL) and normal photoperiod (12 h light/12 h dark; LD). At 18 days of gestation, RNA was isolated from the fetal liver and subjected to DNA microarray (Affymetrix platform for 28,000 genes). Selected differential mRNAs were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while integrated transcriptional changes were analyzed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and other bioinformatics tools. Comparison of LL relative to LD fetal liver led to the following findings. Significant differential expression was found for 3,431 transcripts (1,960 upregulated and 1,471 downregulated), with 393 of them displaying ≥ 1.5-fold change. We validated 27 selected transcripts by qPCR, which displayed fold-change values highly correlated with microarray (r(2) = 0.91). Different markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were either upregulated (e.g., Ndn and Pnpla3) or downregulated (e.g., Gnmt, Bhmt1/2, Sult1a1, Mpo, and Mat1a). Diverse pathways were altered, including hematopoiesis, coagulation cascade, complement system, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The microRNAs 7a-1, 431, 146a, and 153 were upregulated, while the abundant hepatic miRNA 122 was downregulated. Constant gestational light induced extensive modification of the fetal liver transcriptome. A number of differentially expressed transcripts belong to fundamental functional pathways, potentially contributing to long-term liver disease.

  3. Reverse effects of Chinese drug Shenfouweikang herbs on chronic atrophic gastritis in rats%参佛胃康对大鼠慢性萎缩性胃炎及胃癌前病变逆转作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺焕萍; 王小平; 付倩; 李守朝

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reverse effect of Shenfouweikang herbs on experimental chronic atrophic gastritis( CAG )in rats. Methods: CAG model in rats was made using complex methods of active immunization combined with oral administration of sodium deoxycholate and hot water for 90 d. Five animal groups were divided. Empty control group was fed with water, while experimental animal groups were fed with distilled water, 0. 018mg Liz-hudele herds solution per kg weight of rat, 2.44mg high dose and 0. 61 mg low dose of Shenfouweikang herbs solutionper kg weight of rat for 90 days. Then the acidity of gastric juice was measured using acid - base balance. Pathology of rat gastric mucous morphology was examined by general observation and microscopy. At the same time, rat gastric pH value and pepsin content were detected by spectrophotometer. Results: After treated with Shenfouweikang herbs, rat gastric pH value and pepsin content increased and gastric mucous morphology was recovered, which presented a significant effect with high dose of Shenfouweikang herbs. Conclusion: Shenfouweikang herbs demonstrated a distinct preventive and protective effect on chronic atrophic gastritis( CAG )in rats.%目的 观察参佛胃康对大鼠慢性萎缩性胃炎及胃癌前病变的逆转作用,探讨其作用机制.方法 采用主动免疫、去氧胆酸钠、热水灌胃综合法连续造模90d,复制慢性萎缩性胃炎(CAG)大鼠模型,空白组自由饮水,模型组用等体积的蒸馏水灌胃,丽珠得乐组用丽珠得乐溶液0.018mg/kg灌胃,参佛胃康大剂量组、参佛胃康小剂量组分别用参佛胃康溶液2.44mg/kg和0.61mg/kg灌胃.肉眼观察胃黏膜的变化,光镜下观察胃黏膜的病理学改变,同时测定大鼠胃液pH值及胃蛋白酶活性的变化.结果 参佛胃康能保护大鼠慢性胃黏膜损伤,增加胃液酸度提高胃蛋白酶活性,且参佛胃康大剂量组效果显著.结论 参佛胃康对慢性胃萎缩性胃炎黏膜的各

  4. Effectiveness of xenotransplantation of human fetal hepatocytes in spleen of rats with acute liver failure induced by CCL4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdukhakim Khadjibaev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human’s fetal hepatocytes (HFH were intrasplenic transplanted white non-pedigree rats with acute liver failure (ALF challenged by single per oral administration of hepatotropic toxin diluted in oil ССl4 at a dose 10 ml/kg (volumetric correlation 1:1 (10 mL/kg body weight as a 1:1 mixture of CCl4 and mineral oil. Transplantation had positive effect on all biochemical blood parameters of the studying animals. Morphologic study showed that reparative-restorative processes were arising in hepatic parenchyma after administration of HFH into splenic pulp of rats with model of ALF on days 14-21. Substantial and main factor in restoration of parenchyma was restoration of micro topographic interrelations in acinus as well as polyploidy of hepatic cells expressed in increase of hepatocytes’ nuclei sizes and hypertrophy of cells themselves. It is an indirect confirmation of engraftment of HFH in liver of rats with model of ALF.

  5. Effect of in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors on fetal steroidogenesis governed by the pituitary-gonad axis: a study in rats using different ways of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyazono, Yudai; Taura, Junki; Hattori, Yukiko; Ishii, Yuji; Narimatsu, Shizuo; Fujimura, Masatake; Takeda, Tomoki; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2015-12-01

    The effects of endocrine disruptors on testicular steroidogenesis in fetal rats were investigated in a study involving in utero exposure. In the major part of this study, pregnant rats at gestational day (GD)15 were given a single oral administration of the test substance, and then the expression of the following mRNAs in GD20 fetuses was determined: testicular steroidogenic acute-regulatory protein (StAR), a cholesterol transporter mediating the rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis, a ß-subunit of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH), and a regulator of gonadal steroidogenesis. Among the substances tested, only di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) reduced the expression of fetal testicular StAR. The others listed below exhibited little effect on fetal StAR: 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether, tributyltin chloride, atrazine, permethrin, cadmium chloride (Cd), lead acetate (Pb) and methylmercury (CH3HgOH). None of them, including DEHP, lacked the ability to reduce the expression of pituitary LHß mRNA. The present study also examined the potential of metals as modifiers of fetal steroidogenesis by giving them to pregnant dams in drinking water during GD1 and GD20. Under these conditions, Cd and Pb at a low concentration (0.01 ppm) significantly attenuated the fetal testicular expression of StAR mRNA without a concomitant reduction in LHß. No such effect was detected with CH3HgOH even at 1 ppm. These results suggest that: 1) DEHP, Cd and Pb attenuate the fetal production of sex steroids by directly acting on the testis, and 2) chronic treatment during the entire gestational period is more useful than a single administration for determining the hazardous effect of a suspected endocrine disruptor on fetal steroidogenesis.

  6. Biosynthesis of the D2 cell adhesion molecule: pulse-chase studies in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, J M; Norrild, B; Bock, E

    1984-01-01

    D2 is a membrane glycoprotein that is believed to function as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in neural cells. We have examined its biosynthesis in cultured fetal rat brain neurones. We found D2-CAM to be synthesized initially as two polypeptides: Mr 186,000 (A) and Mr 136,000 (B). With increasing...... chase times the Mr of both molecules increased to 187,000-201,000 (A) and 137,000-158,000 (B). These were similar to the sizes of D2-CAM labeled with [14C]glucosamine, [3H]fucose and [14C]mannosamine, indicating that the higher Mr species are glycoproteins. In the presence of tunicamycin, which...... pulse or chase times, showing that these molecules are not interconverted. Thus, our data indicate that the neuronal D2-CAM glycoproteins are derived from two mRNAs....

  7. Autoradiographic localization of target cells for 1. cap alpha. , 25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ in bones from fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narbaitz, R.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.; Huang, S.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    Thaw-mount autoradiographic studies after injection of /sup 3/H-1,25-D/sub 3/ were conducted on 18- and 20-day-old rat fetuses. In maxillary bones, ribs, and tibia, nuclear concentration of radioactivity was found in osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Osteocytes and chondrocytes in epiphyseal plates were either unlabeled or weakly labeled. In competition experiments, nuclear concentration of radioactivity was blocked by the injection of a high dose of nonradioactive 1,25-D/sub 3/ prior to the administration of the labeled hormone, but not by a similar dose of nonradioactive 25-D/sub 3/. The results are interpreted as indicating that osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts are target cells for the direct action of 1,25-D/sub 3/ on fetal bone.

  8. Effects of an overload of animal protein on the rat: brain DNA alterations and tissue morphological modifications during fetal and post-natal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A M; Sticchi, R; Boschi, G; Vetrani, A; Salvatore, G

    1985-01-01

    On account of many literature reports about the definite correlation between high animal protein intake and cardiovascular diseases, we have studied the effect of a hyperproteic purified diet (casein 40%, lactalbumin 20%) on fetal and post-natal (not further than 40th day) stage of the rat, when cell subdivision process is faster and therefore damage by nutritional imbalance is certainly more serious. Litters of rats were grouped according to mother's (either hyperproteic or common basic) and rat's (after lactation) diet. Brain DNA and histology of various organs were studied. Hyperproteic diet during fetal stage and lactation would inhibit brain cell subdivision since overall content of brain DNA would be decreased on autoptic finding. Structural changes were also shown in liver, heart, kidney and adrenal cortex, especially when hyperproteic diet was continued even after lactation.

  9. Co-transplantation of GDNF-overexpressing neural stem cells and fetal dopaminergic neurons mitigates motor symptoms in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingli; Liang, Yuanxin; Lu, Hua; Yang, Zhiyong; Liu, Ru'en; Wang, Jinkun; Song, Xiaobin; Long, Jiang; Li, Yu; Lei, Deqiang; Feng, Zhongtang

    2013-01-01

    Striatal transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons or neural stem cells (NSCs) has been reported to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the low rate of cell survival, differentiation, and integration in the host brain limits the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the therapeutic effects of intracranial co-transplantation of mesencephalic NSCs stably overexpressing human glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF-mNSCs) together with fetal DA neurons in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Striatal injection of mNSCs labeled by the contrast enhancer superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) resulted in a hypointense signal in the striatum on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images that lasted for at least 8 weeks post-injection, confirming the long-term survival of injected stem cells in vivo. Co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs with fetal DA neurons significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotation, a behavioral endophenotype of PD, compared to sham-treated controls, rats injected with mNSCs expressing empty vector (control mNSCs) plus fetal DA neurons, or rats injected separately with either control mNSCs, GDNF-mNSCs, or fetal DA neurons. In addition, survival and differentiation of mNSCs into DA neurons was significantly greater following co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs plus fetal DA neurons compared to the other treatment groups as indicated by the greater number of cell expressing both the mNSCs lineage tracer enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and the DA neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase. The success of cell-based therapies for PD may be greatly improved by co-transplantation of fetal DA neurons with mNSCs genetically modified to overexpress trophic factors such as GDNF that support differentiation into DA cells and their survival in vivo.

  10. Co-transplantation of GDNF-overexpressing neural stem cells and fetal dopaminergic neurons mitigates motor symptoms in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Deng

    Full Text Available Striatal transplantation of dopaminergic (DA neurons or neural stem cells (NSCs has been reported to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD, but the low rate of cell survival, differentiation, and integration in the host brain limits the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the therapeutic effects of intracranial co-transplantation of mesencephalic NSCs stably overexpressing human glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF-mNSCs together with fetal DA neurons in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Striatal injection of mNSCs labeled by the contrast enhancer superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO resulted in a hypointense signal in the striatum on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images that lasted for at least 8 weeks post-injection, confirming the long-term survival of injected stem cells in vivo. Co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs with fetal DA neurons significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotation, a behavioral endophenotype of PD, compared to sham-treated controls, rats injected with mNSCs expressing empty vector (control mNSCs plus fetal DA neurons, or rats injected separately with either control mNSCs, GDNF-mNSCs, or fetal DA neurons. In addition, survival and differentiation of mNSCs into DA neurons was significantly greater following co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs plus fetal DA neurons compared to the other treatment groups as indicated by the greater number of cell expressing both the mNSCs lineage tracer enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP and the DA neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase. The success of cell-based therapies for PD may be greatly improved by co-transplantation of fetal DA neurons with mNSCs genetically modified to overexpress trophic factors such as GDNF that support differentiation into DA cells and their survival in vivo.

  11. Co-Transplantation of GDNF-Overexpressing Neural Stem Cells and Fetal Dopaminergic Neurons Mitigates Motor Symptoms in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua; Yang, Zhiyong; Liu, Ru’en; Wang, Jinkun; Song, Xiaobin; Long, Jiang; Li, Yu; Lei, Deqiang; Feng, Zhongtang

    2013-01-01

    Striatal transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons or neural stem cells (NSCs) has been reported to improve the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the low rate of cell survival, differentiation, and integration in the host brain limits the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the therapeutic effects of intracranial co-transplantation of mesencephalic NSCs stably overexpressing human glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF-mNSCs) together with fetal DA neurons in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Striatal injection of mNSCs labeled by the contrast enhancer superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) resulted in a hypointense signal in the striatum on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images that lasted for at least 8 weeks post-injection, confirming the long-term survival of injected stem cells in vivo. Co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs with fetal DA neurons significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotation, a behavioral endophenotype of PD, compared to sham-treated controls, rats injected with mNSCs expressing empty vector (control mNSCs) plus fetal DA neurons, or rats injected separately with either control mNSCs, GDNF-mNSCs, or fetal DA neurons. In addition, survival and differentiation of mNSCs into DA neurons was significantly greater following co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs plus fetal DA neurons compared to the other treatment groups as indicated by the greater number of cell expressing both the mNSCs lineage tracer enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and the DA neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase. The success of cell-based therapies for PD may be greatly improved by co-transplantation of fetal DA neurons with mNSCs genetically modified to overexpress trophic factors such as GDNF that support differentiation into DA cells and their survival in vivo. PMID:24312503

  12. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neerja; Thakkur, Rahul K

    2013-10-01

    Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40° of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  13. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  14. Region-specific growth effects in the developing rat prostate following fetal exposure to estrogenic ultraviolet filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofkamp, Luke; Bradley, Sarahann; Tresguerres, Jesus; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Schlumpf, Margret; Timms, Barry

    2008-07-01

    Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors is a potential risk factor for humans. Many of these chemicals have been shown to exhibit disruption of normal cellular and developmental processes in animal models. Ultraviolet (UV) filters used as sunscreens in cosmetics have previously been shown to exhibit estrogenic activity in in vitro and in vivo assays. We examined the effects of two UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC), in the developing prostate of the fetal rat. Pregnant Long Evans rats were fed diets containing doses of 4-MBC and 3-BC that resulted in average daily intakes of these chemicals corresponding to the lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL) and the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) doses in prior developmental toxicity studies. Using digital photographs of serial sections from postnatal day 1 animals, we identified, contoured, and aligned the epithelial ducts from specific regions of the developing prostate, plus the accessory sex glands and calculated the total volume for each region from three-dimensional, surface-rendered models. Fetal exposure to 4-MBC (7.0 mg/kg body weight/day) resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in tissue volume in the prostate and accessory sex glands. Treated males exhibited a 62% increase in the number of ducts in the caudal dorsal prostate. Increased distal branching morphogenesis appears to be a consequence of exposure in the ventral region, resulting in a 106% increase in ductal volume. 4-MBC exposure during development of the male reproductive accessory sex glands exhibited classical growth effects associated with estrogenic endocrine disruptors. The different regional responses suggest that the two developmental processes of ductal outgrowth and branching morphogenesis are affected independently by exposure to the environmental chemicals.

  15. Late appearance of a type I alveolar epithelial cell marker during fetal rat lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, S I; Zabski, S M; Crandall, E D

    1994-10-01

    Recent studies in fetal lung using immunological and molecular probes have revealed type I and type II cell phenotypic markers in primordial lung epithelial cells prior to the morphogenesis of these cell types. We have recently developed monoclonal antibodies specific for adult type I cells. To evaluate further the temporal appearance of the type I cell phenotype during alveolar epithelial cell ontogeny, we analyzed fetal lung development using one of our monoclonal antibodies (mAb VIII B2). The epitope recognized by mAb VIII B2 first appears in the canalicular stage of fetal lung development, at approx. embryonic day 19 (E19), in occasional, faintly stained tubules. Staining with this type I cell probe becomes more intense and more widespread with increasing gestational age, during which time the pattern of staining changes. Initially, all cells of the distal epithelial tubules are uniformly labelled along their apical and basolateral surfaces. As morphological differentiation of the alveolar epithelium proceeds, type I cell immunoreactivity appears to become restricted to the apical surface of the primitive type I cells in a pattern approaching that seen in the mature lung. We concurrently analyzed developing fetal lung with an antiserum to surfactant apoprotein-A (alpha-SP-A). Consistent with the findings of others, labeling of SP-A was first detectable in scattered cuboidal cells at E18. Careful examination of the double-labeled specimens suggested that some cells were reactive with both the VIII B2 and SP-A antibodies, particularly at E20. Confocal microscopic analysis of such sections from E20 lung confirmed this impression. Three populations of cells were detected: cells labeled only with alpha-SP-A, cells labeled only with mAb VIII B2, and a smaller subset of cells labeled by both.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. The ontogeny of scarless healing II: EGF and PDGF-B gene expression in fetal rat skin and fibroblasts as a function of gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Z M; Rhee, S J; Hsu, M; Chang, J; Krummel, T M; Longaker, M T

    2001-10-01

    Twenty years ago, surgeons noted the ability of early-gestation fetal skin to heal in a scarless manner. Since that time, numerous investigators have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms behind this phenomenon. As a result of this effort, it is now well established that many animals undergo a transition late in development from scarless cutaneous healing to a scar-forming, adultlike phenotype. The authors have been interested in the role played by cytokines known to be involved in the adult wound-healing process and how they relate to scarless repair. They therefore asked the following question: Are genes for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) expressed differentially as a function of gestational age in fetal rat skin and dermal fibroblasts? To answer this question, skin from fetal Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 56) at time points that represented both the scarless and scar-forming periods of rat gestation was harvested. In addition, fibroblasts derived from fetal rat skin were cultured in vitro at similar times. These cells were expanded in culture and, when confluent, total ribonucleic acid from both fibroblasts and whole skin was extracted and subjected to Northern blot analysis with probes for EGF and PDGF-B. Results demonstrated that neither EGF nor PDGF-B gene expression changed markedly as a function of gestational age in fetal fibroblasts alone. In whole skin, however, both EGF and PDGF-B demonstrated a marked decrease in gene expression with increasing gestational age. Furthermore, the most striking decrease in gene expression for both cytokines came between 16 and 18 days of gestation-the transition point between scarless and scar-forming repair in the fetal rat. These data suggest that EGF and PDGF may play a role in the mechanism of scarless cutaneous repair. Moreover, it appears that fetal fibroblasts are not the cell type responsible for this differential gene expression. These results raise questions about the

  17. Viabilidade de células do sistema nervoso central fetal no tratamento da lesão medular em ratos Viability of fetal central nervous system cells in the treatment of spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fogaça Cristante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Propor um modelo experimental de transplante de células do sistema nervoso fetal de ratos Wistar para o sítio de lesão medular de ratos adultos que permitisse sua sobrevivência e integração para possibilitar protocolos de pesquisa que identificarão outros fatores de regeneração e recuperação funcional pós trauma raquimedular. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos adultos foram submetidos a laminectomia, e lesão de 5mm de hemimedula realizada com auxílio de microscópio óptico. Quinze deste ratos tiveram seu sítio de lesão medular transplantado com células do sistema nervoso central de fetos de rato; os ratos foram monitorados por 2 dias e tiveram sua coluna vertebral extraída para análise histológica. RESULTADOS: Evidenciou-se que em 60% dos casos as células transplantadas permaneciam viáveis no sítio da lesão e que a reação inflamatória no grupo transplantado era sempre maior que no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: O presente trabalho demonstrou a possibilidade de contar com o modelo de pesquisa para transplante de células fetais que permanecem viáveis 2 dias após seu implante.OBJECTIVE: To propose an experimental model for transplantation of fetal cells from the nervous system of Wistar rats to the site of spinal cord injury in adult rats, to enable their survival and integration for research protocols that identify other factors of regeneration and functional recovery following spinal cord trauma. METHODS: Twenty adult rats were submitted to laminectomy and a 5mm incision was made, using an optical microscope, In fifteen of these rats, the site of the spinal cord lesion was transplanted with cells from the fetal rat central nervous system; the rats were monitored for two days, then the spinal cord was removed for histological analysis. RESULTS: In 60% of cases, the transplanted cells remained viable in the site of the lesion; the inflammatory response in the transplanted group was always greater than in the control group

  18. The Study of Fetal Rat Model of Intra-Amniotic Isoproterenol Injection Induced Heart Dysfunction and Phenotypic Switch of Contractile Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish a reliable isoproterenol induced heart dysfunction fetal rat model and understand the switches of contractile proteins, 45 pregnant rats were divided into 15 mg/kg-once, 15 mg/kg-twice, sham-operated once, sham-operated twice, and control groups. And 18 adult rats were divided into isoproterenol-treated and control groups. H&E staining, Masson staining, and transmission electron microscope were performed. Apoptotic rate assessed by TUNEL analysis and expressions of ANP, BNP, MMP-2, and CTGF of hearts were measured. Intra-amniotic injections of isoproterenol were supplied on E14.5 and E15.5 for fetuses and 7-day continuous intraperitoneal injections were performed for adults. Then echocardiography was performed with M-mode view assessment on E18.5 and 6 weeks later, respectively. Isoproterenol twice treated fetuses exhibited significant changes in histological evaluation, and mitochondrial damages were significantly severe with increased apoptotic rate. ANP and BNP increased and that of MMP-2 increased in isoproterenol twice treated group compared to control group, without CTGF. The isoforms transition of troponin I and myosin heavy chain of fetal heart dysfunction were opposite to adult procedure. The administration of intra-amniotic isoproterenol to fetal rats could induce heart dysfunction and the regulation of contractile proteins of fetuses was different from adult procedure.

  19. Convenient and efficient enrichment of the CD133+ liver cells from rat fetal liver as a source of liver stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihui; You, Nan; Dou, Kefeng

    2012-01-01

    Although stem cells are commonly isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or magnetic affinity cell sorting, they are very expensive, and they need known markers. However, there is no specific marker for liver stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs). Here, we describe a convenient and efficient method (three-step method) to enrich LSPCs. The fetal liver cells (FLCs) were firstly enriched by Percoll discontinuous gradient centrifugation from the rat fetal liver. Then the FLCs in culture were purified to be homogeneous in size by differential trypsinization and differential adherence. Finally, fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (FLSPCs) were enriched from purified FLCs by Percoll continuous gradient centrifugation. Flow cytometric analysis combining with marker CD133 was used to detect the purity of FLSPCs and evaluate the isolating effects of the three-step method.

  20. Possible promotion of neuronal differentiation in fetal rat brain neural progenitor cells after sustained exposure to static magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ishioka, Yukichi; Hirai, Takao; Ozawa, Shusuke; Tachibana, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2009-08-15

    We have previously shown significant potentiation of Ca(2+) influx mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, along with decreased microtubules-associated protein-2 (MAP2) expression, in hippocampal neurons cultured under static magnetism without cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of static magnetism on the functionality of neural progenitor cells endowed to proliferate for self-replication and differentiate into neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial lineages. Neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryonic rat neocortex and hippocampus, followed by culture under static magnetism at 100 mT and subsequent determination of the number of cells immunoreactive for a marker protein of particular progeny lineages. Static magnetism not only significantly decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells without affecting cell viability, but also promoted differentiation into cells immunoreactive for MAP2 with a concomitant decrease in that for an astroglial marker, irrespective of the presence of differentiation inducers. In neural progenitors cultured under static magnetism, a significant increase was seen in mRNA expression of several activator-type proneural genes, such as Mash1, Math1, and Math3, together with decreased mRNA expression of the repressor type Hes5. These results suggest that sustained static magnetism could suppress proliferation for self-renewal and facilitate differentiation into neurons through promoted expression of activator-type proneural genes by progenitor cells in fetal rat brain.

  1. Effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on the maternal-fetal outcome, oxidative stress status and lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, G T; Calderon, I M P; Sinzato, S; Campos, K E; Rudge, M V C; Damasceno, D C

    2011-12-08

    Morus nigra, commonly known as black mulberry, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. To evaluate the effect of Morus nigra aqueous extract treatment on maternal lipid and oxidative stress profile, reproductive outcomes, and also fetal anomaly incidence from diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) in virgin female Wistar rats. Morus nigra leaf aqueous extract (400 mg/kg) was administered from day 0 to 20 of pregnancy. At day 21 of pregnancy, all rats were anesthetized and killed to obtain blood samples and maternal-fetal data. After treatment with Morus nigra extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. Fetuses from diabetic dams, regardless of Morus nigra treatment, were small for pregnancy age. In diabetic dams, plant treatment caused reduced MDA, cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL levels, and decreased placental index and weight as compared to diabetic group. The fetuses from diabetic rats treated with Morus nigra extract had lower frequency of skeletal and visceral anomalies as compared to diabetic group. Thus, Morus nigra leaf aqueous extract failed to control hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. However, Morus nigra treatment had antioxidant effect, contributing to reduce incidence of internal anomalies in offspring from diabetic dams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transitional change in rat fetal cell proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin during the last stage of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keiko [Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Kangawa, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishirodai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Murakami, Noboru, E-mail: a0d201u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    Expression of mRNA for the ghrelin receptor, GHS-R1a, was detected in various peripheral and central tissues of fetal rats, including skin, bone, heart, liver, gut, brain and spinal cord, on embryonic day (ED)15 and ED17. However, its expression in skin, bone, heart and liver, but not in gut, brain and spinal cord, became relatively weak on ED19 and disappeared after birth (ND2). Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin facilitated the proliferation of cultured fetal (ED17, 19), but not neonatal (ND2), skin cells. On the other hand, with regard to cells from the spinal cord and hypothalamus, the proliferative effect of ghrelin continued after birth, whereas the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis in these tissues was lost at the ED19 fetal and ND2 neonatal stages. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cells in the hypothalamus induced to proliferate by ghrelin at the ND2 stage were positive for nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. These results suggest that in the period immediately prior to, and after birth, rat fetal cells showing proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are at a transitional stage characterized by alteration of the expression of GHS-R1a and an undefined des-acyl ghrelin receptor, their responsiveness varying among different tissues.

  3. Influence of recipient gender on intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats: cytochrome P450-mediated monooxygenase functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Hugenschmidt, Sabine; Rost, Michael; Müller, Dieter

    2004-05-01

    Rat livers display a sex-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms expression pattern with consecutive differences in P450-mediated monooxygenase activities, which have been shown to be due to a differential profile of growth hormone (GH) secretion. Parallel to previous investigations on P450 isoforms expression, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the influence of recipient gender on P450-mediated monooxygenase activities in intrasplenic liver tissue transplants in comparison to orthotopic liver. Fetal liver tissue suspensions of mixed gender were transplanted into the spleen of adult male or female syngenic recipients. Four months after grafting transplant-recipients and age-matched controls were treated with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB), dexamethasone (DEX) or the vehicles and sacrificed 24 or 48 h thereafter. P450-dependent monooxygenase activities were assessed by a series of model reactions for different P450 subtypes in liver and spleen 9000 g supernatants. In spleens of male and female control rats only very low monooxygenase activities were detectable, whereas with most model reactions distinct activities were observed in transplant-containing organs. Livers and transplant-containing spleens from male rats displayed higher basal ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and testosterone 2alpha-, 2beta-, 6beta-, 14alpha-, 15alpha-, 15beta-, 16alpha-, 16beta- and 17-hydroxylase activities than those from females. On the other hand, like the respective livers, spleens from female transplant-recipients demonstrated more pronounced p-nitrophenol- and testosterone 6alpha- and 7alpha-hydroxylase activities than those from male hosts. With nearly all model reactions gender-specific differences in inducibility by BNF, PB or DEX could be demonstrated in livers as well as in transplant-containing spleens. These results further confirm that the P450 system of intrasplenic liver tissue transplants and the respective orthotopic livers is similarly influenced

  4. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Circulation Updated:Oct 18,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  5. Screening markers for chronic atrophic gastritis in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, C; Mohar, A; Guarner, J; Herrera-Goepfert, R; Figueroa, L S; Halperin, D; Parsonnet, J

    2001-02-01

    Intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinomas usually are preceded by chronic atrophic gastritis. Studies of gastric cancer prevention often rely on identification of this condition. In a clinical trial, we sought to determine the best serological screening method for chronic atrophic gastritis and compared our findings to the published literature. Test characteristics of potential screening tests (antibodies to Helicobacter pyloni or CagA, elevated gastrin, low pepsinogen, increased age) alone or in combination were examined among consecutive subjects enrolled in a study of H. pylori and preneoplastic gastric lesions in Chiapas, Mexico; 70% had chronic atrophic gastritis. English-language articles concerning screening for chronic atrophic gastritis were also reviewed. Sensitivity for chronic atrophic gastritis was highest for antibodies to H. pylori (92%) or CagA, or gastrin levels >25 ng/l (both 83%). Specificity, however, was low for these tests (18, 41, and 22%, respectively). Pepsinogen levels were highly specific but insensitive markers of chronic atrophic gastritis (for pepsinogen I gastritis screening. However, no screening test was both highly sensitive and highly specific for chronic atrophic gastritis.

  6. Developmental changes of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase functions after transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into spleens of adult syngenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, A; Trautmann, A K; Krausse, T; Klinger, W

    1998-06-01

    Fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of adult male syngenic Fisher 344 inbred rats. Animals were sacrificed at 3 days, 1, 2, 4 weeks, and 2, 4 and 6 months after transplantation and cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent monooxygenase functions in spleen and liver 9000 g supernatants were assessed by measuring three model reactions for different P450 subtypes: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD; mainly 1A), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD; predominantly 1A, 2A, 2B) and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (END; mainly 3A). Values of transplant recipients were compared to those of sham operated and age matched control rats. Spleen weights were significantly higher in transplanted rats, compared to controls or sham operated animals, but there was no influence of the transplants within the spleens on liver weights. With fetal livers at the 21st day of gestation, the day of transplantation, a weak EROD and ECOD, but no END activity was seen. Spleens of controls or sham operated animals displayed nearly no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions. In the explant containing spleens a significant and increasing EROD activity was found from 4 weeks after surgery on and an ECOD activity already 2 weeks after transplantation. END was only slightly enhanced at 6 months after surgery. The livers of all three groups of rats displayed normal EROD, ECOD and END activities. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspensions into the spleens did not influence the P450 dependent monooxygenase functions within the livers of the animals. From these results it can be concluded that intrasplenically transplanted liver cells originating from syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions proliferate and differentiate within the host organs. They display P450 dependent monooxygenase functions with some developmental changes during the observed time period of 6 months.

  7. [The relationship between the effects of MTA on mRNA expression of four iconic proteins in cells of fetal rat skull and cell culture environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Yuan; He, Li; Hu, Tu-qiang

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the influence of MTA on mRNA expression of Cbfa1, ALP, Col-Ⅰand BGP which are 4 kinds of iconic protein in cells of fetal rats skull, and explore its influence on cell culture environment and association of changes of calcium, phosphorus. Cells were obtained by 2 kinds of mixed enzymatic digestion for 3 steps from gestation fetal rat calvarial bone. The expression of Cbfa1mRNA, ALPmRNA, Col-1mRNA, BGP mRNA and extracellular calcium were detected. Phosphorus (P) and calcium concentration of fetal rat skull cells co-cultured with MTA for 3 weeks at different stages of cell differentiation was assessed atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS10.0 software package. At the 4th day, P3- content decreased significantly (PMTA group increased most greatly and was 40 times of the control group. At the 14th to 18th day, the Ca2+ and P3- content reduced significantly (PMTA group rised most greatly which was about 7.71 times of the control group. Then Cbfalpha l mRNA in MTA group increased most strongly later which was about 7.38 times of the control group. Col Ⅰ mRNA increased minimally in all time points. The change of P3- content may be the initiating factor when MTA promoted differentiation of fetal rats skull cells in vitro, and Ca2+ could greatly accelerate the process of mineralization when accumulated to a certain extent. At the same time, the expression of ALPmRNA, BGPmRNA, Col Ⅰ mRNA and Cbfalpha lmRNA were regulated accordingly, which is the key to explain osteogenetic mechanism of MTA.

  8. Expression of AFP and Rev-Erb A/Rev-Erb B and N-CoR in fetal rat liver, liver injury and liver regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Volker; Tron, Kyrylo; Batusic, Danko; Elmaouhoub, Abderrahim; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    Background Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) expression can resume in the adult liver under pathophysiological conditions. Orphan nuclear receptors were supposed to regulate AFP gene expression, in vitro. We were interested to study the expression of AFP and orphan nuclear receptors, in vivo. Results The expression of AFP gene and orphan nuclear receptors in the liver was examined in different rat models: (a) fetal liver (b) liver regeneration [partial hepatectomy (PH) with and without 2-acetyl-aminofl...

  9. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and pup postnatal development in the l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoama, Kassem; Mallem, Mohamed Yassine; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2016-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of nebivolol vs. bisoprolol treatment on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and postnatal development in N(ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in normotensive pregnant Wistar rats by daily administration of l-NAME (100mg/kg/day, in the drinking water) for the period of pregnancy. After 9 days of l-NAME treatment, rats with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) more than 140/90mmHg were considered hypertensive. Then, some of them were treated from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) via oral gavage. SBP, DBP and heart rate (HR) were re-evaluated by tail cuff method on day 19 of pregnancy and morphometrical or histological studies were performed on day 20. In addition, the mortality and postnatal development of newborn pups were assessed in all groups. The l-NAME administration during pregnancy induced an increase in SBP and DBP while HR did not change. Nebivolol or bisoprolol treatment completely prevented the elevation of SBP and DBP induced by l-NAME with a reduction in HR in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The intra-uterine fetal growth and the postnatal development of newborn rats in nebivolol-treated hypertensive group were significantly lower vs. control and higher vs. bisoprolol-treated group with a higher mortality in the both types of treatments vs. control rats. The nebivolol and bisoprolol administration produce adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development, that limits their therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  10. The consequence of fetal ethanol exposure and adolescent odor re-exposure on the response to ethanol odor in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Juan C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiologic predictive relationship exists between fetal ethanol exposure and the likelihood for adolescent use. Further, an inverse relationship exists between the age of first experience and the probability of adult abuse. Whether and how the combined effects of prenatal and adolescent ethanol experiences contribute to this progressive pattern remains unknown. Fetal ethanol exposure directly changes the odor attributes of ethanol important for both ethanol odor preference behavior and ethanol flavor perception. These effects persist only to adolescence. Here we tested whether adolescent ethanol odor re-exposure: (Experiment 1 augments the fetal effect on the adolescent behavioral response to ethanol odor; and/or (Experiment 2 perpetuates previously observed adolescent behavioral and neurophysiological responses into adulthood. Methods Pregnant rats received either an ethanol or control liquid diet. Progeny (observers experienced ethanol odor in adolescence via social interaction with a peer (demonstrators that received an intragastric infusion of either 1.5 g/kg ethanol or water. Social interactions were scored for the frequency that observers followed their demonstrator. Whole-body plethysmography evaluated the unconditioned behavioral response of observers to ethanol odor in adolescence (P37 or adulthood (P90. The olfactory epithelium of adults was also examined for its neural response to five odorants, including ethanol. Results Experiment 1: Relative to fetal or adolescent exposure alone, adolescent re-exposure enhanced the behavioral response to ethanol odor in P37 animals. Compared to animals with no ethanol experience, rats receiving a single experience (fetal or adolescent show an enhanced, yet equivalent, ethanol odor response. Fetal ethanol experience also increased olfactory-guided following of an intoxicated peer. Experiment 2: Combined exposure yielded persistence of the behavioral effects only in adult

  11. Maternal and fetal toxicity of Wistar rats exposed to herbicide metolachlor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cristina de Melo Tavares Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metolachlor is a selective pre-emergent herbicide widely used in agriculture to control weeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of metolachlor on reproductive performance of adult rats, as well as its teratogenic potential when administered during the period of organogenesis. Pregnant adult female rats were allocated into 4 experimental groups (n = 10 group-1, that received 0 (control; 150 (TA; 300 (TB; or 1000 mg kg-1 bw day-1 (TC of metolachlor, by gavage, from the 6th to 15th gestational day (GD. There is reduction in the weight gain of the animals from TB and TC groups compared to the control group. Liver and placenta weights were reduced in TB and TC groups, respectively, while the percentage of post-implantation loss was increased in the TC group. There were no external malformations in either rat of the control or treated groups. However, an increased incidence of skeletal anomalies and visceral anomalies (especially in the urogenital system was observed in TC group. These results demonstrate that exposure of pregnant rats to metolachlor can lead to signs of general toxicity, late embryonic losses and congenital anomalies.

  12. Fetal effects of epidermal growth factor deficiency induced in rats by autoantibodies against epidermal growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Jørgensen, P E

    1995-01-01

    , the amount of surfactant protein-A was decreased, suggesting a delayed lung maturation. The offspring of EGF-immunized rats had dry and wrinkled skin. The skin was thin and the hair follicles were immature. This suggests a role for EGF in the growth and development of the skin. The liver/body weight ratio...

  13. 复方蜥蜴散不同微粒组合剂治疗大鼠慢性萎缩性胃炎的实验研究%Experimental Study of the Different Combination of Compound Lizards Powder on Chronic Atrophic Gastritis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭利民; 朱西杰; 李卫强; 徐丽华; 苏维霞; 朱微微; 张静霜; 王新汉

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察复方蜥蜴散不同微粒组合剂对慢性萎缩性胃炎(Chronic atrophic gastritis,CAG)模型大鼠血清PGE2及NOS水平的影响,探讨其胃黏膜保护作用机制.方法:将90只SD雄鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、复方蜥蜴散80目组、复方蜥蜴散100目组、复方蜥蜴散不同微粒组合剂(80目+100目)组及维酶素组.除正常组外,其余各组采取2%水杨酸、55℃热盐水经口灌胃,20mmoL/L脱氧胆酸钠自由饮用,配合饥饱失常造成CAG模型.治疗后4周,检测大鼠血清PGE2及NOS的水平.结果:复方蜥蜴散各不同微粒剂型治疗组大鼠PGE2水平明显高于模型组(P<0.01),NOS水平则低于模型组(P<0.01);复方蜥蜴散不同微粒组合剂组大鼠PGE2水平高于复方蜥蜴散80目组和100目组(P<0.01),NOS水平则低于复方蜥蜴散80目组和100目组(P<0.01);各治疗组胃黏膜病理表现明显好转.结论:复方蜥蜴散各不同微粒剂型均可改善CAG模型大鼠胃黏膜的病理情况,升高PGE2水平,降低NOS水平,发挥保护胃黏膜的作用;其中以复方蜥蜴散不同微粒组合剂疗效最佳.%Objective: To observe the effect of the Different Combination of Compound Lizards Powder (DCCLP) on serum PGE2 and NOS of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) model rats, and explore the mechanism of gastric mucosal protection. Methods: 90 SD male rats were randomly divided into normal group,model group,compound powder lizards 80 mesh group,compound powder lizards 100 mesh group,the DCCLP (80 mesh +100 mesh) group and the Vitamycin group. In addition to the normal group, other groups take 2% salicylic acid,55 t hot saline water by gavage,20mmoL/L sodium deoxycholate freely drinking,with irregular diet caused CAG model. After 4 weeks treatment,serum PGE2 and NOS were detected. Results;The PGE2 levels of the DCCLP group was significantly higher than the model group (P < 0. 01), NOS was lower than the model group ( P < 0. 01) ; PGE2 levels of the DCCLP

  14. Congenital hypothyroidism, as studied in rats. Crucial role of maternal thyroxine but not of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in the protection of the fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, R; Obregón, M J; Ruiz de Oña, C; Escobar del Rey, F; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1990-09-01

    To study the protective effects of maternal thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in congenital hypothyroidism, we gave pregnant rats methimazole (MMI), an antithyroid drug that crosses the placenta, and infused them with three different doses of T4 or T3. The concentrations of both T4 and T3 were determined in maternal and fetal plasma and tissues (obtained near term) by specific RIAs. Several thyroid hormone-dependent biological end-points were also measured. MMI treatment resulted in marked fetal T4 and T3 deficiency. Infusion of T4 into the mothers increased both these pools in a dose-dependent fashion. There was a preferential increase of T3 in the fetal brain. Thus, with a T4 dose maintaining maternal euthyroidism, fetal brain T3 reached normal values, although fetal plasma T4 was 40% of normal and plasma TSH was high. The infusion of T3 pool into the mothers increased the total fetal extrathyroidal T3 pool in a dose-dependent fashion. The fetal T4 pools were not increased, however, and this deprived the fetal brain (and possibly the pituitary) of local generation of T3 from T4. As a consequence, fetal brain T3 deficiency was not mitigated even when dams were infused with a toxic dose of T3. The results show that (a) there is a preferential protection of the brain of the hypothyroid fetus from T3 deficiency; (b) maternal T4, but not T3, plays a crucial role in this protection, and (c) any condition which lowers maternal T4 (including treatment with T3) is potentially harmful for the brain of a hypothyroid fetus. Recent confirmation of transplacental passage of T4 in women at term suggests that present results are relevant for human fetuses with impairment of thyroid function. Finding signs of hypothyroidism at birth does not necessarily mean that the brain was unprotected in utero, provided maternal T4 is normal. It is crucial to realize that maintainance of maternal "euthyroidism" is not sufficient, as despite hypothyroxinemia, the mothers may be

  15. Influência da icterícia obstrutiva na capacidade reprodutiva, desenvolvimento fetal e morfologia ovariana em ratas Influence of jaundice in the reproductive capacity, fetal development and ovarian morphology in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Resende

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a influência da icterícia obstrutiva sobre a capacidade reprodutiva e desenvolvimento fetal em ratas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 60 ratas sexualmente maduras e sabidamente férteis distribuídas em dois grupos: grupo 1 (n=30- submetidas a ligadura do ducto biliopancreático e grupo 2 (n=30 -controles. A partir do 23? dia pós-operatório, as ratas foram acasaladas e seus ciclos estrais avaliados diariamente por meio de esfregaços vaginais, que permitiram determinar o dia da cópula e a idade gestacional em que foram mortas. Realizou-se estudo histológico dos corpos lúteos nos ovários de todas as ratas e analisou-se macroscopicamente a morfologia externa dos fetos. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 23 ratas controle (92% e 11 ratas ictéricas (39,3% desenvolveram prenhez (p=0,0002. As 17 ratas com hiperbilirrubinemia e sem prenhez (60,7% apresentaram somente corpos lúteos com aspecto involutivo em seus ovários e sofreram modificações em seus ciclos estrais, permanecendo vários dias em proestro ou estro. As ratas prenhes com hiperbilirrubinemia não apresentaram alterações em seus corpos lúteos, porém os seus fetos eram anormais. CONCLUSÃO: Em presença de hiperbilirrubinemia, a fertilização é viável, a capacidade reprodutiva é muito reduzida, os ciclos estrais tornam-se irregulares, o epitélio vaginal permanece cornificado, os corpos lúteos ovarianos regridem, os corpos lúteos gravídicos não são alterados aumentando progressivamente durante a prenhez e o desenvolvimento fetal é gravemente alterado.OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of jaundice on the reproductive capacity and fetal development in rats. METHODS: 60 sexually mature rats were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=30 - submitted to ligature of the biliopancreatic duct and Group 2 (n=30 -control- submitted only to sham operation. 23 days later, the animals were matted with sexually mature males for copulation. Vaginal smears were daily collected

  16. Influência da multimistura na gestação de ratas: pesos materno e fetal e triglicerídeos séricos Multimixture influence on rats gestation: maternal and fetal weights and serum triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Blondet de Azeredo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visa determinar a influência da multimistura (MM sobre o ganho de peso materno e fetal e sobre a hipertrigliceridemia materna no final do período gestacional. Foram utilizadas ratas Wistar (n= 120, divididas em quatro grupos: a à base da dieta habitual do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (HERJ; b à base da dieta habitual do Estado do Rio de Janeiro adicionada de 2% de MM (HERJ+MM; c à base de caseína (CAS1 com 12% de proteína; d controle caseína (CAS2 com 20% de proteína. Os pesos materno e fetal foram registrados semanalmente nos dias 7, 14 e 21 do experimento. Para a determinação dos triglicerídeos séricos (mg/dL foram usados Kits BioClin (Química Básica-Quibasa, BH. De acordo com os resultados, a complementação da dieta HERJ com 2% de multimistura não aumentou o ganho de peso materno e fetal e não alterou a hipertrigliceridemia fisiológica. Conclui-se que a utilização da multimistura, na proporção usada durante a gestação, não possui nenhum efeito sobre os parâmetros estudados.The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the multimixture (MM on maternal and fetal weight gain and on maternal hypertriglyceridemia at the end of gestational period. Female Wistar rats (n = 120 were divided into four groups: a typical diet of the state of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil (HERJ; b HERJ diet supplemented with 2% of MM (HERJ+MM; c casein diet (CAS1 with 12% of protein; d casein control (CAS2 with 20% of protein. Maternal and fetal weights were weekly registered in the days 7,14 and 21 of the experiment. Serum triglycerides (mg/dL were determined by kits (BioClin. The results demonstrated that the supplementation of the HERJ diet with 2% of MM did not increase maternal and fetal weight gain and did not alter the hypertriglyceridemia. In conclusion, the multimixture utilization during gestation does not affect these studied parameters.

  17. Characterization of Fetal Antigen 1/Delta-Like 1 Homologue Expressing Cells in the Rat Nigrostriatal System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liechti, Rémy; Ducray, Angélique D; Jensen, Pia;

    2015-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1/delta-like 1 homologue (FA1/dlk1) belongs to the epidermal growth factor superfamily and is considered to be a non-canonical ligand for the Notch receptor. Interactions between Notch and its ligands are crucial for the development of various tissues. Moreover, FA1/dlk1 has been su...... adult rats. FA1/dlk1-ir cells were predominantly distributed in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta (SNc) and in the ventral tegmental area. Interestingly, the expression of FA1/dlk1 significantly increased in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-ir cells during early postnatal development. Co......-localization and tracing studies demonstrated that FA1/dlk1-ir cells in the SNc were nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, and unilateral 6-OHDA lesions resulted in loss of both FA1/dlk1-ir and TH-ir cells in the SNc. Surprisingly, increased numbers of FA1/dlk1-ir cells (by 70%) were detected in dopamine-depleted striata...... as compared to unlesioned controls. The higher number of FA1/dlk1-ir cells was likely not due to neurogenesis as colocalization studies for proliferation markers were negative. This suggests that FA1/dlk1 was up-regulated in intrinsic cells in response to the 6-OHDA-mediated loss of FA1/dlk1-expressing SNc...

  18. Comparison on the Effects of Three Sex Hormones on the Fetal Rat Calvarial Osteoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lulu; ZENG Tianshu; XIA Wenfang; KE Li

    2000-01-01

    17β-estradiol(E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) were investigated for their effects on the proliferation and differentiation of primary rat calvarial osteoblasts in vitro. Rat calvarial osteoblasts were cultured with l0-10 mol/L E2, 10-9-10-6 mol/L P and l0-10 mol/L T for 20days. Cell proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation and cell counting. Cell differentiation was examined by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin gene expression and production, bone nodule formation in different periods of culture. Our results showed that no effect of three sex hormones was observed on cell proliferation, but, the responses of cell differentiation to the hormones were more or less different. Among these three hormones used in this study, P appeared to have multi-stimulating effect on cell differentiation. Effect of T seemed not so significant as that of P on cell differentiation. Although ALP activity and osteocalcin production were increased significantly by T, it had slight effect on osteocalcin mRNA and bone nodule formation. Besides, E2 did not demonstrate any effect on cell differentiation. It is concluded that the proliferation of rat calvarial osteoblasts was independent of the presence of sex hormones. However, the differentiation of these cells were stimulated in different levels and to different extent either by P or T. P appeared to be a multi-stimulator on differentiation of such cells.

  19. Fetal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John T.; Sladek, John R.

    1989-11-01

    This article reviews some of the significant contributions of fetal research and fetal tissue research over the past 20 years. The benefits of fetal research include the development of vaccines, advances in prenatal diagnosis, detection of malformations, assessment of safe and effective medications, and the development of in utero surgical therapies. Fetal tissue research benefits vaccine development, assessment of risk factors and toxicity levels in drug production, development of cell lines, and provides a source of fetal cells for ongoing transplantation trials. Together, fetal research and fetal tissue research offer tremendous potential for the treatment of the fetus, neonate, and adult.

  20. Comparative Study on the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Between Fetal and Postnatal Rat Spinal Cord Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Songying; Wei, Xiaowei; Li, Hui; Miao, Jianing; Zhao, Guifeng; Wu, Di; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Gu, Hui; Wang, Lili; Fan, Yang; An, Dong; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we established a prenatal surgical approach and transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the fetal rat spinal column to treat neural tube defects (NTDs). We found that the transplanted MSCs survived and differentiated into neural lineage cells. Various cytokines and extracellular signaling systems in the spinal cord niche play an important role in cell differentiation. In this study, we observed the differentiation of transplanted MSCs in different spinal cord niches and further observed the expression of neurotrophic factors and growth factors in the spinal cord at different developmental stages to explore the mechanism of MSC differentiation in different spinal cord niches. The results showed that transplanted MSCs expressed markers of neural precursor cells (nestin), neurogliocytes (GFAP), and neurons (β-tubulin). The percentages of GFP(+)/nestin(+) double-positive cells in transplanted MSCs in E16, P1, and P21 rats were 18.31%, 12.18%, and 5.06%, respectively. The percentages of GFP(+)/GFAP(+) double-positive cells in E16, P1, and P21 rats were 32.01%, 15.35%, and 12.56%, respectively. The percentages of GFP(+)/β-tubulin(+) double-positive cells in E16, P1, and P21 were 11.76%, 7.62%, and 4.88%, respectively. The differentiation rates of MSCs in embryonic spinal cords were significantly higher than in postnatal spinal cords (p < 0.05). We found that the transplanted MSCs expressed synapsin-1 at different developmental stages. After MSC transplantation, we observed that neurotrophic factor-3 (NT-3), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), FGF-8, transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) significantly increased in the MSC transplantation group compared with the blank injection group. Furthermore, FGF-2 and VEGF expression were positively correlated with the number of surviving MSCs. In addition, we found that the expression of brain

  1. Influence of recipient gender on cytochrome P450 isoforms expression in intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, Amelie; Hugenschmidt, Sabine; Danz, Manfred; Müller, Dieter

    2003-06-30

    Rat livers display a sex-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms expression pattern which is regulated by a differential profile of growth hormone (GH) secretion. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether liver cell transplants at an ectopic site are also subject to this influence. Fetal liver tissue suspensions of mixed gender were transplanted into the spleen of adult male or female syngenic recipients. Four months after grafting transplant recipients and age-matched controls were treated with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB), dexamethasone (DEX) or the solvents and sacrificed 24 or 48 h thereafter. Livers and intrasplenic transplants were evaluated for the expression of the P450 subtypes 1A1, 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1 by means of immunohistochemistry. The livers of both male and female rats displayed nearly no P450 1A1, but a distinct P450 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1 expression. Whereas no sex differences were seen in the P450 1A1 expression, the immunostaining for P450 2B1, 3A2 and 4A1 was stronger in males and that for P450 2E1 in females. Similarly, in the intrasplenic liver cell transplants almost no P450 1A1, but a noticeable P450 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1 expression was observed. Like in the respective livers, the immunostaining for P450 2B1, 3A2 and 4A1 was stronger in the transplants hosted by male than by female rats, whereas the opposite was the case for the P450 2E1 expression. Both in livers and transplants with some sex-specific differences P450 1A1 and 2E1 expression was induced by BNF, that of P450 2B1 by BNF and PB, and that of P450 3A2 by PB and DEX. These results indicate that the P450 system of ectopically transplanted liver cells is influenced by the gender of the recipient organism like that of the orthotopic livers.

  2. Investigation of the effects of acrylamide applied during pregnancy on fetal brain development in rats and protective role of the vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemli, M E; Turkoz, Y; Altinoz, E; Elibol, E; Dogan, Z

    2016-12-01

    A liberal amount of acrylamide (AA) is produced as a result of frying or baking foods in high temperatures, and individuals take certain amounts of AA everyday by consuming these food items. Pregnant women are also exposed to AA originating from food during pregnancy and their fetus are probably affected. The rats were divided into five different groups: control (C), corn oil (CO), vitamin E (Vit E), AA, and Vit E + AA, with eight pregnant rats in each group. On the 20th day of pregnancy, fetuses were removed and brain tissues of fetuses were examined for biochemical and histological changes. AA caused degeneration in neuron structures in fetal brain tissue and caused hemorrhagic damages; dramatically decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels; increased malondialdehyde, total oxidant capacity levels; and decreased reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity levels (p E, a neuroprotectant and a powerful antioxidant, suppressed the effects of AA on fetal development and fetal brain tissue damage for the above-mentioned parameters (p E as a protection to minimize the toxic effects of food-oriented AA on fetus development due to the widespread nature of fast-food culture in today's life and the impossibility of protection from AA toxicity.

  3. Experiment K-314: Fetal and neonatal rat bone and joint development following in Utero spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelman, E. E.; Holton, E. M.; Arnaud, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Infant rat limb specimens from Soviet and U.S. ground-based studies were examined by radiography, macrophotography, histologic sectioning and staining and scanning electron microscopy. A comparison was conducted between vivarium and flight-type diets suggesting that nutritional obesity may adversely affect pregnancy. Data were obtained on maturation of ossification centers, orientation of collagen fibers in bone, tendon and ligaments, joint surface texture and spatial relationships of bones of the hind limb. Computer reconstructions of the knee and hip show promise as a means of investigating the etiology of congenital hip dislocation.

  4. Expression of c-Fos protein and nitricoxide synthase in neurons of cerebral cortex from fetal rats in hypoxia and protective role of Angelica sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Hongxian Zhao; Yuling Wu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both c-Fos protein and nitricoxide synthase (NOS) have been used as general indexes in relative research about neurons, but it is lack of reports that c-Fos protein and NOS are applied synchronously to study the neurons of hypoxic fetal rats in uterus.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hypoxia in uterus on the expression of c-Fos protein and NOS in neurons of cerebral cortex from fetal rats and whether Angelica sinensis has the protective effect on these neurons in hypoxia.DESIGN: Randomized control experiment.SETTING: Department of Histology and Embryology, Luzhou Medical College.MATERIALS: Twelve adult female Wistar rats in oestrum and 1 male Wistar rat with bodymass from 220 to 250 g were chosen. Parenteral solution of Angelica sinensis mainly contained angelica sinensis, 10 mL/ampoule, was provided by Department of Agent of the Second Hospital Affiliated to Hubei Medical University (batch number: 01062310).METHODS: This experiment was completed in the Department of Histology and Embryology of Luzhou Medical College from September 2003 to June 2004. ① Twelve adult female Wistar rats in oestrum and 1 male Wistar rat were housed in one rearing cage. Vaginal embolus was performed on conceive female rat at 8:00 am next day.On the 15th conceiving day,all conceiving rats were divided randomly into three groups:control group, hypoxia group and Angelica group with 4 in each group. Rats in hypoxia group and Angelica group were modeled with hypotonic hypoxia in uterus. Angelica group: Rats were injected with 8 mL/kg Angelica sinensis injection through caudal veins before hypoxia.Hypoxia group:Rats were injected with the same volume of saline.Control group:Rats were not modeled and fed with normal way. ② Twenty embryos of rats were chosen randomly from each group and then routinely embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections were cut from the brain of embryos to anterior fontanelle. Double-label staining was used to detect the expression of nNOS and c-Fos in

  5. Somatostatin and leu-enkephalin in the rat auditory brainstem during fetal and postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungel, M; Friauf, E

    1995-05-01

    A transient expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin has been described in several brain areas during early ontogeny and several opioid peptides, such as leu-enkephalin, have also been found in the brain at this stage in development. It is therefore believed that somatostatin and leu-enkephalin may play a role in neural maturation. The aim of the present study was to describe the spatiotemporal pattern of somatostatin and leu-enkephalin immunoreactivity in the auditory brainstem nuclei of the developing rat and to correlate it with other developmental events. In order to achieve this goal, we applied peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemistry to rat brains between embryonic day (E) 17 and adulthood. Somatostatin immunoreactivity (SIR) was found in all nuclei of the auditory brainstem, yet it was temporally restricted in most nuclei. SIR appeared prenatally and reached maximum levels around postnatal day (P) 7, when great numbers of immunoreactive neurons were present in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and in the lateral lemniscus. At that time relatively low numbers of cells were labeled in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the lateral superior olive (LSO), and the inferior colliculus (IC). During the same period, when somata in the VCN were somatostatin-immunoreactive (SIR), a dense network of labeled fibers was also present in the LSO, the medial superior olive (MSO), and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). As these nuclei receive direct input from VCN neurons, and as the distribution and morphology of the somatostatinergic fibers in the superior olivary complex (SOC) was like that of axons from VCN neurons, these findings suggest a transient somatostatinergic connection within the auditory system. Aside from the LSO, MSO, and MNTB, labeled fibers were found to a smaller extent in all other auditory brainstem nuclei. After P7, the SIR decreased and only a few immunoreactive elements were found in the adult auditory brainstem nuclei, indicating

  6. Effect of behavior training on learning, memory and the expression of NR2B, GluR1 in hippocampus of rats offspring with fetal growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunfang Li; Wenli Gou; Yunping Sun; Huang Pu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study effects of behavior training on learning, memory and the expression of NR2B, GIuR1 in hippocampus of rat's offspring with fetal growth restricfion(FGR). Methods: The rat model of FGR was established by passive smoking method. The rats offspring were divided into the FGR group and the control group, then randomly divided into the trained and untrained group, respectively. Morris water maze test was procezded on postnatal month(PM2/4) as a behavior training method, then the learning-memory of rats was detected through dark-avoidance and step-down tests. The expressions of NR2B and GluR1 suhunits in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas were detected by immunohistochemical method. Results: In the dark-avoidance and step-down tests, the performance record of rats with FGR was worse than that of control rats, and the behavior-trained rats was better than the untrained rats, when the FGR model and training factors were analyzed singly. The model factor and training factor had significant interacfion(P < 0.05). The expressions of NR2B and GIuR1 subunits in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas of rats with FGR reduced. In contrast, the expressions of GIuR1 and NR2B subunits in CA1 area of behavior-trained rats increased, when the FGR model and training factors were analyzed singly. Conclusion: These findings suggested that the effect of behavior training on the expressions of NR2B and GiuR1 subunits in CA1 area should be the mechanistic basis for the training-induced improvement in learning-memory abilities.

  7. Iodothyronine deiodinase activities in fetal rat tissues at several levels of iodine deficiency: a role for the skin in 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder-van der Elst, J P; van der Heide, D; Morreale de Escobar, G; Obregón, M J

    1998-05-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinases, types I, II, and III (D1, D2, and D3) activities were measured in tissues of fetal rats, at 18 and 21 days of gestation, at several levels of iodine deficiency (ID): mild ID diet (MID) and moderately severe ID, MID + 0.005% perchlorate (MID+P). D2 was present in fetal skin, increased between days 18 and 21, and also in MID and MID+P. In skin, D3 increased during ID at day 18, whereas there was a decrease at day 21. Skin T4 decreased in MID and MID+P, showing an inverse relationship with D2. Skin T3 decreased at day 18 in MID and MID+P but increased at day 21, probably because of the increased D2 and decreased D3, maintaining T3 concentrations. No effect of ID was observed on hepatic D1. D2 increased in brain and brown adipose tissue at day 21 in MID+P. No changes were found in maternal placental D2 and D3, but D2 and D3 increased in the fetal placenta at day 18 in MID+P. A higher level of D2 is present in fetal skin than in the brain. As the activity is increased, in even mild ID (and already at 18 days) it can be concluded that skin D2 is likely to be of considerable physiological importance, at least for fetal thyroid hormone economy, by contributing to the intracellular T3 content of the skin and, possibly, to the plasma T3.

  8. Xenon and sevoflurane provide analgesia during labor and fetal brain protection in a perinatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    Full Text Available It is not possible to identify all pregnancies at risk of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Many women use some form of analgesia during childbirth and some anesthetic agents have been shown to be neuroprotective when used as analgesics at subanesthetic concentrations. In this study we sought to understand the effects of two anesthetic agents with presumptive analgesic activity and known preconditioning-neuroprotective properties (sevoflurane or xenon, in reducing hypoxia-induced brain damage in a model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. The analgesic and neuroprotective effects at subanesthetic levels of sevoflurane (0.35% or xenon (35% were tested in a rat model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. Analgesic effects were measured by assessing maternal behavior and spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal activation using c-Fos. In separate experiments, intrauterine fetal asphyxia was induced four hours after gas exposure; on post-insult day 3 apoptotic cell death was measured by caspase-3 immunostaining in hippocampal neurons and correlated with the number of viable neurons on postnatal day (PND 7. A separate cohort of pups was nurtured by a surrogate mother for 50 days when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed. Both anesthetic agents provided analgesia as reflected by a reduction in the number of stretching movements and decreased c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both agents also reduced the number of caspase-3 positive (apoptotic neurons and increased cell viability in the hippocampus at PND7. These acute histological changes were mirrored by improved cognitive function measured remotely after birth on PND 50 compared to control group. Subanesthetic doses of sevoflurane or xenon provided both analgesia and neuroprotection in this model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. These data suggest that anesthetic agents with neuroprotective properties may be effective in preventing HIE and should be

  9. Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidase Expression by Cigarette Smoke Condensate in Cultured Rat Fetal Lung Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Chen, Keyang; Zhao, Yinzhi; Rich, Celeste B.; Chen, Lijun; Li, Sandy J.; Toselli, Paul; Stone, Phillip; Li, Wande

    2005-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LO) catalyzes crosslinking of collagen and elastin essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM). To understand mechanisms of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, we investigated effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate matter of CS, on LO mRNA expression in cultured rat fetal lung fibroblasts (RFL6). Exposure of RFL6 cells to 0–120 μg CSC/ml for 24 h induced a dose-dependent inhibition of LO steady-state mRNAs, for example, reducing transcript levels to below 10% of the control in cells incubated with 80–120 μg CSC/ml. Nuclear run-on assays indicated a marked reduction in LO relative transcriptional rates amounting to 27.7% of the control in cells treated with 120 μg CSC/ml. The actinomycin D-chase assay showed that CSC enhanced the instability of LO transcripts. The t1/2 for LO mRNA decay was decreased from 24 h in the control to 4.5 h in cells treated with 120 μg CSC/ml. Moreover, 80–120 μg CSC/ml also inhibited LO promoter activity as revealed by suppression of reporter gene expression in cells transfected with LO promoter-luciferase vectors. Thus, inhibition of LO transcription initiation and enhancement of LO mRNA instability both contributed to downregulation of LO steady-state mRNA in CSC-treated cells. Note that inhibition of LO mRNA expression by CSC was closely accompanied by markedly decreased levels of transcripts of collagen type I and tropoelastin, two substrates of LO. Thus, transcriptional perturbation of LO and its substrates may be a critical mechanism for ECM damage in CS-induced emphysema. PMID:15933228

  10. Development of adrenal zonation in fetal rats defined by expression of aldosterone synthase and 11beta-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotus, C; Levay-Young, B K; Rogers, L M; Gomez-Sanchez, C E; Engeland, W C

    1998-10-01

    The adult rat adrenal cortex is comprised of three concentric steroidogenic zones that are morphologically and functionally distinguishable: the zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia, and the zona fasciculata/reticularis. Expression of the zone-specific steroidogenic enzymes, cytochrome P450 aldosterone synthase (P450aldo), and P450 11beta hydroxylase (P45011beta), produced by the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata/reticularis, respectively, can be used to define the adrenal cortical cell phenotype of these two zones. In this study, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to determine the ontogeny of expression of P450aldo and P45011beta to monitor the pattern of development of the rat adrenal cortex. RIA was used to measure adrenal content of aldosterone and corticosterone, the resulting products of the two enzymatic pathways. Double immunofluorescent staining for both enzymes at gestational day 16 (E16) showed P45011beta protein expressed in cells distributed throughout most of the adrenal intermixed with a separate, but smaller, population of cells expressing P450aldo protein. Whereas expression of P45011beta protein retained a similar pattern of distribution from E16 to adulthood (ignoring distribution of SA-1 positive, presumptive medullary cells), P450aldo protein changed its pattern of distribution by E19, becoming localized in a discontinuous ring of cells adjacent to the capsule. By postnatal day 1, P450aldo protein distribution was similar to that observed in adult glands; P450aldo-positive cells formed a continuous zone underlying the capsule. In situ hybridization showed that the pattern of P45011beta messenger RNA expression paralleled protein expression at all times, whereas P450aldo messenger RNA paralleled protein at E19 and after, but was undetectable before E19. However, adrenal aldosterone and corticosterone, as measured by RIA, were detected by E16, supporting the functional capacity of both phenotypes for all ages studied. These

  11. Ability of tetraploid rat blastocysts to support fetal development after complementation with embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masumi; Tamura, Chihiro; Sanbo, Makoto; Goto, Teppei; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Hochi, Shinichi

    2012-06-01

    This study was undertaken to generate rat offspring via tetraploid blastocyst complementation with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Tetraploid blastocysts were prepared by electrofusion of blastomeres from two-cell stage embryos, and subsequent in vivo culture for 4 days. Microinjection into the tetraploid blastocoel of an inner cell mass isolated by immunosurgery resulted in the generation of rat offspring, suggesting the successful contribution of tetraploid blastocysts to their placenta. Tetraploid blastocyst complementation was attempted with a total of 4 ES cell lines (2 lines of female karyotype and 2 lines of male karyotype). In the rESWIv-3i-5 (XX) cell line, normal-sized fetuses with heartbeats were harvested on E11.5 (12.1%), E12.5 (9.5%), and E13.5 (9.1%), but no viable fetuses were detected on E14.5. Similarly, use of the rESWIv-3i-1 (XX) cell line resulted in no viable fetus production on E14.5. Using the rESBLK2i-1 (XY) cell line, viable fetuses were harvested not only on E11.5-E13.5 (2.6-5.5%), but also on E14.5 (3.0%). The transfer of a total of 487 tetraploid blastocysts complemented with rESBLK2i-1 cells resulted in 256 implantation sites (52.6%) on E21.5, but no viable offspring was detected. Use of the rESBLK2i-1/huKO (XY) cell line also resulted in no viable offspring production on E21.5. Analyses of the methylation pattern in differentially methylated regions and transcript level of genes that are imprinted in mice (H19, Meg3, Igf2r, Peg5, and Peg10) in the E14.5 conceptuses indicated a marked difference between the ES cell-derived and control normal fetuses, but not between the tetraploid and control diploid placenta.

  12. Inhibition and recovery of maternal and fetal cholinesterase enzyme activity following a single cutaneous dose of methyl parathion and diazinon, alone and in combination, in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abou-Donia, M B

    2001-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (14-18 days of gestation) were treated with a single cutaneous subclinical dose(s) of 10 mg kg(-1) (15% of LD(50)) of methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) and 65 mg kg(-1) (15% of LD(50)) of diazinon (O,O)-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidinyl phosphorothioate, and their combination. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Inhibition of maternal and fetal cholinesterase enzyme activity has been determined. Methyl parathion significantly inhibited maternal and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity within 24 h after dosing. Diazinon and a mixture of methyl parathion and diazinon caused lesser inhibition compared with methyl parathion alone. Recovery of maternal and fetal brain AChE activity was in the order of diazinon > combination of diazinon and methyl parathion > methyl parathion 96 h after dosing. Although fetal plasma BuChE activity recovered to 100% of control within 96 h of application, maternal BuChE activity remained inhibited to 55% and 32% of control 96 h after application of methyl parathion and a mixture of methyl parathion and diazinon, respectively. Following a single dermal dose of methyl parathion, the activity of maternal liver BuChE was 63% of control 2 h after dosing, whereas inhibition of placental AChE or BuChE activity occurred 12 and 1 h following a single dose of methyl parathion, corresponding to activities of 63% and 54% of control, respectively. Diazinon, alone or in combination with methyl parathion, did not inhibit significantly the maternal liver BuChE or placental AChE and BuChE activity. The results suggest that dermal application of a single dose of methyl parathion and diazinon, alone or in combination, has an easy access into maternal and fetal tissues, resulting in inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes. The lower inhibitory effect of the combination of methyl parathion and diazinon

  13. Abnormal innervation patterns in the anorectum of ETU-induced fetal rats with anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilin; Jia, Huimin; Zhang, Hailan; Chen, Qingjiang; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Yuzuo; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2011-05-16

    To investigate whether anorectal malformations (ARMs) were associated with a global neuromuscular maldevelopment of the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract and anorectum, the distribution of neuronal markers protein gene product (PGP9.5), nitric oxide synthases (NOs), neuromuscular junction markers (synaptophysin, SYP), interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) marker (c-kit) within the terminal rectum were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot in rat embryos with ethylenethiourea (ETU) induced ARMs. From Gestational day16 (Gd16) to Gd21, neural crest-derived cells (NCC) migrated from the proximal gut into the terminal colon, colonising it along its entire length, gradually proliferated and differentiated to innervate the distal gut. From Gd19 to Gd21, significant gross-morphological differences of the anorectum of normal (n=90) and ARMs (n=90) embryos were found. Different myenteric plexus (MPs) development of the anorectum suggested that ARMs were associated with a global abnormal innervation patterns in the anorectum in gestational course and might have some postoperative effect.

  14. Early effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on the fetal cerebral cortex in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.; Kimler, B.F. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to gamma radiation from a 137Cs irradiator on gestational Day 15. Fetuses that received 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0 Gy were examined 24 h after irradiation for changes in the cells of the cerebral mantle of the developing brain. The extent of changes following 0.5 Gy was studied at 3, 6, 12, or 24 h after exposure. Cortical thickness of the cerebral mantle was not significantly altered. The number of pyknotic cells, number of macrophages, nuclear area, and number of mitotic cells were altered in a dose-related way. The number of pyknotic cells was significantly increased at all doses. A positive correlation between the number of pyknotic cells and the number of macrophages developed with time. At 3 h after irradiation about 60% of pyknotic cells were found in the subventricular zone and about 25% in the intermediate zone and cortical plate. The number of such cells in the upper layers of the cortex steadily increased up to 24 h, at which time about 70% of pyknotic cells were in these two layers. The relationship of the movement of pyknotic cells to migration of postmitotic neuroblasts is discussed.

  15. Purification and Identification of Microglia in Fetal Rat Brain%胎大鼠脑内小胶质细胞的分离纯化和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马怡然; 马英桓; 颜永红

    2011-01-01

    目的 分离纯化和鉴定胎大鼠脑内小胶质细胞,为小胶质细胞的研究奠定基础.方法 盐酸利多卡因注射液联合机械振摇纯化分离胎大鼠脑内小胶质细胞.免疫荧光技术和流式细胞技术鉴定小胶质细胞的纯度.结果 通过盐酸利多卡因注射液联合机械振摇纯化分离法,得到纯度>98%的小胶质细胞.结论 盐酸利多卡因注射液联合机械振摇纯化分离法是一种能获得较高纯度胎大鼠脑内小胶质细胞的方法.%Objective To explore a method to isolate, purify and identify the microglia in fetal rat brain. Methods Fetal rat microglia cells in brain were isolated and purified by adding lidocaine hydrochloride with shock culturing,and the identification of microglia was completed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Results 98% of microglia cells were successfully collected by the method of adding lidocaine hydrochloride with shock culturing. Conclusion The method of lidocaine hydrochloride with shock culturing can collect microglia with high purity in fetal rat brain.

  16. Atrophic Vaginitis in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Difficult Survivorship Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Lester

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of breast cancer includes systematic therapies including chemotherapy and endocrine therapy can lead to a variety of symptoms that can impair the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. Atrophic vaginitis, caused by decreased levels of circulating estrogen to urinary and vaginal receptors, is commonly experienced by this group. Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure and endocrine therapies including aromatase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators can trigger the onset of atrophic vaginitis or exacerbate existing symptoms. Symptoms of atrophic vaginitis include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and irritation of genital skin, pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge, and soreness. The diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis is confirmed through patient-reported symptoms and gynecological examination of external structures, introitus, and vaginal mucosa. Lifestyle modifications can be helpful but are usually insufficient to significantly improve symptoms. Non-hormonal vaginal therapies may provide additional relief by increasing vaginal moisture and fluid. Systemic estrogen therapy is contraindicated in breast cancer survivors. Continued investigations of various treatments for atrophic vaginitis are necessary. Local estrogen-based therapies, DHEA, testosterone, and pH-balanced gels continue to be evaluated in ongoing studies. Definitive results are needed pertaining to the safety of topical estrogens in breast cancer survivors.

  17. Atrophic Vaginitis in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Difficult Survivorship Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Joanne; Pahouja, Gaurav; Andersen, Barbara; Lustberg, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Management of breast cancer includes systematic therapies including chemotherapy and endocrine therapy can lead to a variety of symptoms that can impair the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. Atrophic vaginitis, caused by decreased levels of circulating estrogen to urinary and vaginal receptors, is commonly experienced by this group. Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure and endocrine therapies including aromatase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators can trigger the onset of atrophic vaginitis or exacerbate existing symptoms. Symptoms of atrophic vaginitis include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and irritation of genital skin, pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge, and soreness. The diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis is confirmed through patient-reported symptoms and gynecological examination of external structures, introitus, and vaginal mucosa. Lifestyle modifications can be helpful but are usually insufficient to significantly improve symptoms. Non-hormonal vaginal therapies may provide additional relief by increasing vaginal moisture and fluid. Systemic estrogen therapy is contraindicated in breast cancer survivors. Continued investigations of various treatments for atrophic vaginitis are necessary. Local estrogen-based therapies, DHEA, testosterone, and pH-balanced gels continue to be evaluated in ongoing studies. Definitive results are needed pertaining to the safety of topical estrogens in breast cancer survivors. PMID:25815692

  18. Safety evaluation of a vaccine: Effect in maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly frequency in rats using a leishmanial vaccine as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Thaigra S.; Silva, Ana Luiza T.; Giunchetti, Rodolfo C.; Takano, Maria A. S.; Akamatsu, Milena A.; Kubrusly, Flávia S.; Lúcio-Macarini, Fernanda; Raw, Isaias; Iourtov, Dmitri; Ho, Paulo Lee; Bueno, Lilian L.; Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Volpato, Gustavo T.

    2017-01-01

    While the immunogenic potential of the vaccination against infectious diseases was extensively shown, data on the safety assessment of recombinant proteins in vaccine formulations administered during pregnancy are still scarce. In the current study, the antigenicity of a vaccine against leishmaniasis (based on Leishmania braziliensis recombinant protein peroxidoxin) during pregnancy and possible maternal reproductive outcomes and fetal anomalies after immunization with a leishmanial vaccine or adjuvant alone (Bordetella pertussis derived MPLA adjuvant) were assessed. Rats were mated and allocated in three groups: Control—rats received saline; Adjuvant—rats received the adjuvant MPLA, and Vaccine—rats received the combination of MPLA and peroxidoxin. The administration was subcutaneously at the dorsal region, three times (days 0, 7, 14 of pregnancy). On day 21 of pregnancy, all rats were bled for biochemical and immunological measurements. The gravid uterus was weighed with its contents, and the fetuses were analyzed. The immunization with peroxidoxin induced a significant production of circulating IgG levels compared to other groups but caused a significant in post-implantation loss (14.7%) when compared to Control (5.0%) and Adjuvant (4.4%) groups. Furthermore, a significantly high rate of fetal visceral anomalies, such as hydronephrosis and convoluted ureter, was also observed in animals that received vaccine when compared to Control or Adjuvant groups. These data indicate the importance of safety evaluation of vaccines during pregnancy and the limited use of peroxidoxin administration during pregnancy. More importantly, the safety monitoring of immunization with MPLA derived from Bordetella pertussis demonstrated no reproductive outcomes associated with adjuvant administration, suggesting its safe use during pregnancy. PMID:28249007

  19. Effects of cytotoxic deletions of somatic sensory cortex in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkewicz, L; Valentino, K L; Floeter, M K; Fleshman, J W; Jones, E G

    1984-01-01

    Pregnant rats were injected on the 14th day of gestation with the cytotoxic drug methylazoxymethanol acetate. This compound causes the death of neural precursor cells that were synthesizing DNA at the time of injection. After birth, the progeny of treated mothers grew to maturity with a neocortex that was greatly reduced in area by the death of all cells, particularly at the frontal and occipital poles but at medial and lateral margins of neocortex as well. In the remaining cortex layers II through IV failed to develop. The experiment deprived growing thalamocortical axons, which innervate the somatic sensory cortex late in development, of part of their normal target area and of a substantial number of their definitive target cells. It also deprived them of any cues they might have received from these target cells migrating through them as the axons accumulate beneath the cortical plate. Anatomical experiments indicated that, despite these defects, thalamocortical axons could still colonize the sensorimotor areas and form synapses in their typically bilaminar pattern, though the outer, denser lamina of terminations occurred abnormally at the level of the apices of layer V pyramidal cell bodies. Receptive field mapping of single and multiunit responses in the somatic sensory region showed brisk responses and receptive fields of normal size. It also indicated the formation of a body map that was topographically intact except for deletions at its periphery; that is, a total map was not compressed into a smaller area. This suggests that somatic sensory thalamocortical fibers recognize only remaining cortical target cells in appropriate fields. Moreover, successful ones among them seem to recognize neighborhood relations and conserve synaptic space at the expense of those that would have innervated the deleted peripheral parts of the area. Pyramidal neurons in the remaining cortical layers and in ectopic islands of cells that had incompletely migrated from the

  20. 妊娠期糖尿病大鼠胎膜中水通道蛋白8mRNA的表达%The expression of mRNA of aquaporin 8 in fetal membrane of gestationai diabetes mellitus rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广智; 刘金梅; 王志军; 郭小丽; 姚玉洁

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨在影响妊娠期糖尿病大鼠胎膜通透性方面的可能机制.方法 选取造模成功的妊娠期糖尿病大鼠(模型组)和正常妊娠大鼠(对照组)各30只,在妊娠19 d时于无菌条件下留取大小1.0 cm×1.0 cm胎膜2块,采用RT-PCR反应检测胎膜中AQP8 mRNA的表达.结果 2组大鼠胎膜上均有AQP8 mRNA的表达,且AQP8 mRNA在模型组大鼠胎膜上的表达明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 水通道蛋白8 mRNA在孕足月大鼠胎膜有表达,其在妊娠期糖尿病大鼠胎膜中的表达降低可能参与了羊水量异常的调控.%Objectives To investigate the possible mechanism of permeability changes in fetal membrane of gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM) rats by detecting the aquaporin 8 ( AQP8 ) gene' s expression in the fetal membrane by using the reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) technique. Methods The 30 gestational diabetic rats (model group) and 30 normal full-term pregnancy rats (control group) were enrolled in the study. At 19 days after pregnancy, two pieces of fetal membranes with size about 1. 0 cm x 1. 0 cm were taken out under sterile condition, and the expression of AQP8 mRNA in fetal membrane was detected by RT-PCR. Results The both groups showed the expression of AQP8 mRNA in fetal membrane of rats, furthermore, the expression of AQP8 mRNA in fetal membrane of the rats of model group was significantly lower than that of rats in control group ( P < 0. 05 )*. Conclusion The aquaporins 8 mRNA expresses in the fetal membrane of full-term pregnancy rats,and the decrease of expression in the fetal membrane of gestational diabetic mellitus rats may be involved in the regulation of the abnormality of amniotic fluid amount.

  1. Prof.Shan Zhaowei's Experience in Treating Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴连恩; 杨建平

    2004-01-01

    @@ Having been engaged in clinical practice for 40 years,Prof. Shah Zhaowei of Jiangsu Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine is good at treating chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). In clinical practice,he often pays great attention to the combination of TCM syndrome-differentiation with diseasedifferentiation as well as the combination of macroscopic differentiation with microscopic differentiation. The therapeutic method he adopts or the drugs he prescribes are both simple and clear,often leading to remarkably therapeutic results. The following is a brief introduction to his clinical experience on the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG).

  2. Maternal obesity induced by a 'cafeteria' diet in the rat does not increase inflammation in maternal, placental or fetal tissues in late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rachael C; Waddell, Brendan J; Mark, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Obesity during pregnancy can cause serious complications for maternal and infant health. While this has often been attributed to increased inflammation during obese pregnancy, human and animal studies exhibit variable results with respect to the inflammatory status of the mother, placenta and fetus. Cafeteria (CAF) feeding induces more inflammation than standard high-fat feeding in non-pregnant animal models. This study investigated whether maternal obesity induced by a CAF diet increases maternal, fetal or placental inflammation. Maternal obesity was established in rats by 8 weeks of pre-pregnancy CAF feeding. Maternal plasma inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, MCP1, GRO/KC, MIP-2 and TNFα) and expression of inflammatory genes (Tnfα, Il-6, Il-1β, Tlr2, Tlr4, Cox2 and Emr1) in maternal, placental and fetal tissues were measured at day 21 of gestation. Despite CAF animals having 63% more central body fat than controls at day 21 of gestation, plasma inflammatory markers were not increased; indeed, levels of IL-6, IL-12p40 and MIP2 were reduced slightly. Similarly, inflammatory gene expression remained largely unaffected by CAF feeding, except for slight reductions to Tlr4 and Emr1 expression in CAF maternal adipose tissue, and reduced Tlr4 expression in male labyrinth zone (LZ). The junctional zone (JZ) displayed increased Il-6 expression in CAF animals when fetal sexes were combined, but no inflammatory genes were affected by the CAF diet in fetal liver. Maternal obesity induced by a CAF diet before and during pregnancy does not increase the inflammatory status of the mother, placenta or fetus in late gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impaired translocation of GLUT4 results in insulin resistance of atrophic soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng-Tao; Song, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Jiao, Bo; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle. The unchanged phosphorylation of Akt and p38 suggested that the activity of two signal pathways was not altered in unloaded soleus muscle. The AS160 and GLUT4 expression on the common downstream pathway also was not changed in unloaded soleus muscle. But the GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma was inhibited during insulin stimulation in unloaded soleus muscle. The above results suggest that hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rat induces atrophy in antigravity soleus muscle. The impaired GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma under insulin stimulation may mediate insulin resistance in unloaded soleus muscle and further affect the insulin sensitivity of whole body in tail-suspended rats.

  4. Impaired Translocation of GLUT4 Results in Insulin Resistance of Atrophic Soleus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Tao Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle. The unchanged phosphorylation of Akt and p38 suggested that the activity of two signal pathways was not altered in unloaded soleus muscle. The AS160 and GLUT4 expression on the common downstream pathway also was not changed in unloaded soleus muscle. But the GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma was inhibited during insulin stimulation in unloaded soleus muscle. The above results suggest that hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rat induces atrophy in antigravity soleus muscle. The impaired GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma under insulin stimulation may mediate insulin resistance in unloaded soleus muscle and further affect the insulin sensitivity of whole body in tail-suspended rats.

  5. Vigilancia Fetal

    OpenAIRE

    SAONA UGARTE, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    La percepción de la actividad fetal por la madre es la técnica más antigua y menos costosa de controlar el bienestar fetal. Tradicionalmente se ha considerado la disminución o ausencia de movimientos fetales percibidos por la madre, como una señal de alarma, en especial cuando existe insuficiencia útero placentaria. Varios investigadores han descrito el valor del registro diario de movimientos fetales como un método para identificar el feto en peligrote morir. El poder discernir si el feto se...

  6. [Safety of promestriene capsule used in postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ai-jun; Lin, Shou-qing; Jing, Lian-hong; Wang, Zi-yi; Ye, Jia-lin; Zhang, Ying

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the safety and efficacy of promestriene capsule used in the treatment of postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis. Fifty-three women at age of 45 - 75 years (more than one year history of menopause) diagnosed with postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis were enrolled in self-control study. They all had typicalsymptoms of postmenopausal vaginitis. Promestriene was given by continuous therapy for 20 days, then maintenance therapy for for 8 weeks (1 pill two times per week used). The level of follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E(2)) in serum was and thickness of endometrium were detected before and after treatment. The routine biochemical test was used as index to monitoring the safety. The vaginal mature index (VMI), the atrophic vaginitis evaluating score and vaginal healthy evaluating score were evaluated for therapeutic effect. In the mean time, adverse effect was recorded. (1) SAFETY: during promestriene treatment, no case with adverse effect was observed. Before treatment, the mean level of FSH and E(2) was (71 +/- 3) U/L and (41 +/- 18) pmol/L, the mean thickness of endometrium was (2.4 +/- 0.9) mm. After treatment, the mean level of FSH and E(2) was (67 +/- 22) U/L and (43 +/- 37) pmol/L, the mean thickness of endometrium was (2.5 +/- 1.3) mm. No significant difference was observed (P > 0.05). (2) Therapeutic effect: VMI were 42 +/- 15 before and 54 +/- 8 after treatment. The atrophic vaginitis evaluating score were 3.4 +/- 1.7 before and 1.5 +/- 1.4 after treatment. Vaginal healthy evaluating score were 7.8 +/- 2.4 before and 12.0 +/- 2.4 after treatment. They all showed significant difference (P vaginal bleeding, 3 cases with breast nodules and 1 case with cervical polyp was observed, however, it was uncertain whether those events were associated with promestriene use. The premestriene capsule was safe and effective in the treatment of postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis.

  7. Lack of action of exogenously administered T3 on the fetal rat brain despite expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 8

    OpenAIRE

    Grijota Martínez, María del Carmen; Díez, Diego; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8, SLC16A2) cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, an X-linked syndrome of severe intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. Mct8 transports thyroid hormones (T4 and T3), and the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is likely caused by lack of T3 transport to neurons during critical periods of fetal brain development. To evaluate the role of Mct8 in thyroid hormone action in the fetal brain we administered T4 or T3 to thyroidectomized ...

  8. Does a diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis on Papanicolaou test signify the presence of inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S; Weiss, Gerson; Bittman, Sara; Goldsmith, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Vaginal atrophy in menopause shows increased parabasal cells on cytology. This may be accompanied by abundant neutrophils. A shift in maturation index in the absence of significant inflammation is more accurately termed "atrophic pattern." This study aims to determine whether a diagnosis of "atrophic vaginitis" or atrophic pattern on Papanicolaou test is a reliable indicator of what is present on the slide. A retrospective review of Papanicolaou test slides from University Hospital Newark was performed. Cases that had been diagnosed as either atrophic vaginitis (n = 100) or atrophic pattern (n = 100) were selected. Exclusion criteria included any additional diagnosis of neoplasia. Slides were re-reviewed and scored based on abundance of neutrophils: 0 to 5, 6 to 10, or more than 10 neutrophils per high-power field (×40), with 10 fields per slide reviewed. Data were analyzed by χ analysis. Among 200 cases with atrophic vaginitis or atrophic pattern, the proportion of those diagnosed with atrophic vaginitis to those diagnosed with atrophic pattern increased across three neutrophil categories (P vaginitis on Papanicolaou test is reliably associated with increased numbers of neutrophils. A diagnosis of atrophic pattern is indicative of low numbers of neutrophils. As the Papanicolaou test diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis does not correlate with clinical symptoms, a single diagnostic term that does not suggest a disease process would more reliably communicate cytology findings to clinicians.

  9. The intrauterine metabolic environment modulates the gene expression pattern in fetal rat islets: prevention by maternal taurine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusens, B; Sparre, T; Kalbe, L;

    2008-01-01

    is decreased at birth and metabolic perturbation lasts through adulthood even though a normal diet is given after birth or after weaning. Maternal and fetal plasma taurine levels are suboptimal. Maternal taurine supplementation prevents these induced abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to reveal changes...

  10. Characterisation of the maternal response to chronic phase shifts during gestation in the rat: implications for fetal metabolic programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J Varcoe

    Full Text Available Disrupting maternal circadian rhythms through exposure to chronic phase shifts of the photoperiod has lifelong consequences for the metabolic homeostasis of the fetus, such that offspring develop increased adiposity, hyperinsulinaemia and poor glucose and insulin tolerance. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms by which these poor metabolic outcomes arise, we investigated the impact of chronic phase shifts (CPS on maternal and fetal hormonal, metabolic and circadian rhythms. We assessed weight gain and food consumption of dams exposed to either CPS or control lighting conditions throughout gestation. At day 20, dams were assessed for plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations and glucose and insulin tolerance. Additionally, the expression of a range of circadian and metabolic genes was assessed in maternal, placental and fetal tissue. Control and CPS dams consumed the same amount of food, yet CPS dams gained 70% less weight during the first week of gestation. At day 20, CPS dams had reduced retroperitoneal fat pad weight (-15%, and time-of-day dependent decreases in liver weight, whereas fetal and placental weight was not affected. Melatonin secretion was not altered, yet the timing of corticosterone, leptin, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations were profoundly disrupted. The expression of gluconeogenic and circadian clock genes in maternal and fetal liver became either arrhythmic or were in antiphase to the controls. These results demonstrate that disruptions of the photoperiod can severely disrupt normal circadian profiles of plasma hormones and metabolites, as well as gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues. Disruptions in the timing of food consumption and the downstream metabolic processes required to utilise that food, may lead to reduced efficiency of growth such that maternal weight gain is reduced during early embryonic development. It is these perturbations that may contribute to

  11. The pathogenicitv of melamine on fetal kidney in SD rats%三聚氰胺对SD胎鼠肾脏致病性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡仕彬; 吴玉; 冯洋; 刘智涛; 苏萍; 王继红; 杜永洪

    2011-01-01

    and yellow precipitates were not found in kidneys of 720 mg/( kg· d ) dose group. Tubules dearly expanded. Conclusion: Melamine could penetrate into fetal rats through placental barrier, and accumulate in the kidney, which may result in the injury of the growth and development of fetal rat kidney.

  12. Early Life Exposure to Fructose Alters Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Hepatic Gene Expression and Leads to Sex-Dependent Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Zoe E; Vickers, Mark H; Bernal, Angelica; Yap, Cassandra; Sloboda, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Fructose consumption is associated with altered hepatic function and metabolic compromise and not surprisingly has become a focus for perinatal studies. We have previously shown that maternal fructose intake results in sex specific changes in fetal, placental and neonatal outcomes. In this follow-up study we investigated effects on maternal, fetal and neonatal hepatic fatty acid metabolism and immune modulation. Pregnant rats were randomised to either control (CON) or high-fructose (FR) diets. Fructose was given in solution and comprised 20% of total caloric intake. Blood and liver samples were collected at embryonic day 21 (E21) and postnatal day (P)10. Maternal liver samples were also collected at E21 and P10. Liver triglyceride and glycogen content was measured with standard assays. Hepatic gene expression was measured with qPCR. Maternal fructose intake during pregnancy resulted in maternal hepatic ER stress, hepatocellular injury and increased levels of genes that favour lipogenesis. These changes were associated with a reduction in the NLRP3 inflammasome. Fetuses of mothers fed a high fructose diet displayed increased hepatic fructose transporter and reduced fructokinase mRNA levels and by 10 days of postnatal age, also have hepatic ER stress, and elevated IL1β mRNA levels. At P10, FR neonates demonstrated increased hepatic triglyceride content and particularly in males, associated changes in the expression of genes regulating beta oxidation and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Further, prenatal fructose results in sex-dependant changes in levels of key clock genes. Maternal fructose intake results in age and sex-specific alterations in maternal fetal and neonatal free fatty acid metabolism, which may be associated in disruptions in core clock gene machinery. How these changes are associated with hepatic inflammatory processes is still unclear, although suppression of the hepatic inflammasome, as least in mothers and male neonates may point to impaired immune sensing.

  13. 牙周炎与胎鼠生长受限相关性的实验研究%The experiment study between periodontitis and fetal growth restriction in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宗蕊; 林垚; 台保军; 江汉; 杜民权

    2012-01-01

    Objectine: To study the relationship between periodontitis and fetal growth restriction in rats on the basis of the establishment of periodontitis and pregnancy rat model. Method:11 female SD rats were ligated thread in bilateral mandibular first molar. 7 female SD rats belonged to the control group. The female rats mated male rats 2 weeks later and were killed before production. We collected maternal heart blood and rat fetal.measured fetal weight and crown- rump length, tested the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TTSF-α) in maternal serum by ELISA technology. Result: The incidence of fetal growth restriction in the periodontitis group was 8.3 %> significantly higher than that in the control group. The serum concentrations of TNF-α in pregnant rats which prouducted fetal growth restriction in the periodontitis group was significantly higher than that in the control group. (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Periodontitis is a risk factor for fetal growth restriction, and it may be associated with the changing of cytokine such as TNF-a induced by periodontitis.%目的:在建立大鼠牙周炎及大鼠怀孕模型基础上,研究牙周炎与生长受限胎鼠之间的相关关系.方法:11只雌性SD大鼠双侧下颌第一磨牙丝线结扎制作牙周炎动物模型,7只雌性SD大鼠作对照组,2周后将雌鼠与雄鼠合笼建立大鼠怀孕模型.分娩前处死孕鼠,收集孕鼠心脏血、胎鼠,测量胎鼠体重、顶臀长度,ELISA方法检测孕鼠血清中肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)的浓度.结果:牙周炎组中胎鼠生长受限的发生率为8.3%,显著高于对照组胎鼠生长受限的发生率.牙周炎组生长受限胎鼠的孕鼠TNF-α血清浓度显著高于对照组孕鼠血清浓度(P<0.05).结论:牙周炎是胎鼠生长受限发生的危险因素,可能与牙周局部感染引起血液中TNF-a等炎性细胞因子的改变有关.

  14. Distinct efficacy of pre-differentiated versus intact fetal mesencephalon-derived human neural progenitor cells in alleviating rat model of Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuanWang; YanyanLu; HuanqingZhang; KunWang; QihuaHe; YueWang; XianyuLiu; LinsongLi; XiaominWang

    2005-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells have shown tile effectiveness in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, but tile therapeutic efficacy remains variable. One of important factors that determine the efficacy is the necessity ofpre-differentiation of progenitor cells into dopaminergic neurons before transplantation. This study therefore investigated the therapeutic efficacy of mesencephalon-derived human neural progenitor cells with or without the pre-differentiation in alleviating a rat model of Parkinson's disease. We found that a combination of 50ng/ml fibroblast growth factor 8, 10ng/ml glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and 10μM forskolin facilitated the differentiation of human fetal mesencephalic progenitor cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro. More importantly, after transplanted into the striatum ofparkinsonian rats, only pre-differentiated grafts resulted in an elevated production ofdopamine in the transplanted site and the amelioration of behavioral impairments of the parkinsonian rats. Unlike pre-differentiated progenitors, grafted intactprogenitors rarely differentiated into dopaminergic neurons in vivo and emigrated actively away from the transplanted site. These data demonstrates the importance ofpre-differentiation of human progenitor cells before transplantation in enhancing therapeutic potency for Parkinson's disease.

  15. Investigation of the protective effect of ellagic acid for preventing kidney injury in rats exposed to nicotine during the fetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoyun, H T; Karadeniz, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the possible protective effects of ellagic acid on rat kidneys exposed to nicotine during the fetal period. Twenty pregnant female rats were divided randomly into four groups: control (C), nicotine (N), ellagic acid (EA) and nicotine + ellagic acid (N + EA). Nicotine and ellagic acid treatments were continued throughout the pregnancies and for 15 days after delivery. On day 15, all neonatal pups were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for biochemical and histopathological examination. The nicotine treatment significantly decreased body weight, total glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the N group compared to controls. EA treatment ameliorated decreased body weight, GSH, GSH-Px and SOD activities, and increased MDA and NO levels in group N + EA compared to group N (p kidney damage as shown by incomplete development of glomeruli and Bowman's capsules. Nicotine also caused greater apoptosis in group N compared to group C. Ellagic acid treatment produced histological kidney structure that was closer to normal and it exerted an anti-apoptotic effect in the N + EA group compared to the N group. EA played a protective role against nicotine-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats owing to its antioxidant, radical scavenging and anti-apoptotic effects.

  16. Convenient and efficient enrichment of the CD133+ liver cells from rat fetal liver cells as a source of liver stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-hui; Li, Ren; Dou, Ke-feng

    2011-03-01

    Although the stem cells are commonly isolated by FACS or MACS, they are very expensive and these is no specific marker for liver stem/progentior cells (LSPCs). This paper applied a convenient and efficient method to enrich LSPCs. The fetal liver cells (FLCs) were firstly enriched by Percoll discontinuous gradient centrifugation (PDGC) from the rat fetal liver. Then the FLCs in culture were purified to be homogeneous in size by differential trypsinization and differential adherence (DTDA). Flow cytometric analysis revealed more than half of the purified FLCs expressed alternative markers of LSPCs (CD117, c-Met, Sca-1, CD90, CD49f and CD133). In other words, the purified FLCs were heterogeneous. Therefore, they were sequentially layered into six fractions by Percoll continuous gradient centrifugation (PCGC). Both CD133 and CD49f expressed decreasingly from fraction 1 to 6. In fraction 1 and 2, about 85% FLCs expressed CD133, which were revealed to be LSPCs by high expressions of AFP and CK-19, low expressions of G-6-P and ALB. To conclude, the purity of CD133(+) LSPCs enriched by combination of PDGC, DTDA and PCGC is close to that obtained by MACS. This study will greatly contribute to two important biological aspects: liver stem cells isolation and liver cell therapy.

  17. Human ESC-derived dopamine neurons show similar preclinical efficacy and potency to fetal neurons when grafted in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Shane; Diguet, Elsa; Kirkeby, Agnete; Mattsson, Bengt; Heuer, Andreas; Bramoulle, Yann; Van Camp, Nadja; Perrier, Anselme L; Hantraye, Philippe; Björklund, Anders; Parmar, Malin

    2014-11-06

    Considerable progress has been made in generating fully functional and transplantable dopamine neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Before these cells can be used for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD), it is important to verify their functional properties and efficacy in animal models. Here we provide a comprehensive preclinical assessment of hESC-derived midbrain dopamine neurons in a rat model of PD. We show long-term survival and functionality using clinically relevant MRI and PET imaging techniques and demonstrate efficacy in restoration of motor function with a potency comparable to that seen with human fetal dopamine neurons. Furthermore, we show that hESC-derived dopamine neurons can project sufficiently long distances for use in humans, fully regenerate midbrain-to-forebrain projections, and innervate correct target structures. This provides strong preclinical support for clinical translation of hESC-derived dopamine neurons using approaches similar to those established with fetal cells for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human ESC-Derived Dopamine Neurons Show Similar Preclinical Efficacy and Potency to Fetal Neurons when Grafted in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Shane; Diguet, Elsa; Kirkeby, Agnete; Mattsson, Bengt; Heuer, Andreas; Bramoulle, Yann; Van Camp, Nadja; Perrier, Anselme L.; Hantraye, Philippe; Björklund, Anders; Parmar, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Considerable progress has been made in generating fully functional and transplantable dopamine neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Before these cells can be used for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is important to verify their functional properties and efficacy in animal models. Here we provide a comprehensive preclinical assessment of hESC-derived midbrain dopamine neurons in a rat model of PD. We show long-term survival and functionality using clinically relevant MRI and PET imaging techniques and demonstrate efficacy in restoration of motor function with a potency comparable to that seen with human fetal dopamine neurons. Furthermore, we show that hESC-derived dopamine neurons can project sufficiently long distances for use in humans, fully regenerate midbrain-to-forebrain projections, and innervate correct target structures. This provides strong preclinical support for clinical translation of hESC-derived dopamine neurons using approaches similar to those established with fetal cells for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25517469

  19. Severe atrophic vaginitis causing vaginal synechiae and hematocolpos at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Saya; Harvie, Heidi S; Siegelman, Evan; Arya, Lily A

    2011-03-01

    Vaginal atrophy caused by decreased levels of ovarian estrogen production is common at menopause. Atrophic vaginitis severe enough to result in vaginal stricture of the upper two thirds of the vagina and subsequent hematocolpos is unusual. A 53-year-old woman presented with nonvisualization of the cervix at the time of her annual examination. Pelvic ultrasound reported a "vaginal cyst," and the final diagnosis of hematocolpos was made by magnetic resonance imaging. The woman was managed with surgical excision of vaginal synechiae followed by local vaginal estrogen therapy and dilators, with satisfactory results. Untreated severe atrophic vaginitis at menopause can result in a shortened vagina and hematocolpos. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful to characterize vaginal pathology in postmenopausal women.

  20. Painful linear atrophic lichen planus along lines of Blaschko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Chembolli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear lichen planus along the lines of Blaschko is uncommon. Atrophic lichen planus is usually a sequel to resolving annular and ulcerative lesions. We herewith report a case of histopathologically proven lichen planus, presenting with atrophy at the outset, in a linear distribution along the lines of Blaschko. In addition to the cutaneous findings, she also had pain along the distribution of lesions.

  1. Combination therapy in the management of atrophic acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrophic acne scars are difficult to treat. The demand for less invasive but highly effective treatment for scars is growing. Objective: To assess the efficacy of combination therapy using subcision, microneedling and 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA peel in the management of atrophic scars. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with atrophic acne scars were graded using Goodman and Baron Qualitative grading. After subcision, dermaroller and 15% TCA peel were performed alternatively at 2-weeks interval for a total of 6 sessions of each. Grading of acne scar photographs was done pretreatment and 1 month after last procedure. Patients own evaluation of improvement was assessed. Results: Out of 16 patients with Grade 4 scars, 10 (62.5% patients improved to Grade 2 and 6 (37.5% patients improved to Grade 3 scars. Out of 22 patients with Grade 3 scars, 5 (22.7% patients were left with no scars, 2 (9.1% patients improved to Grade 1and 15 (68.2% patients improved to Grade 2. All 11 (100% patients with Grade 2 scars were left with no scars. There was high level of patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This combination has shown good results in treating not only Grade 2 but also severe Grade 4 and 3 scars.

  2. Serum Prohepcidin Levels Are Lower in Patients with Atrophic Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Keun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, is increased in response to inflammation and some infections. We investigated the relationships among serum prohepcidin, iron status, Helicobacter pylori infection status, and the presence of gastric mucosal atrophy. Methods. Seventy subjects undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy underwent multiple gastric biopsies, and the possibility of H. pylori infection and the degree of endoscopic and histologic gastritis were investigated. In all subjects, serum prohepcidin and iron parameters were evaluated. Results. No correlations were observed between serum prohepcidin levels and the other markers of anemia, such as hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity. Serum prohepcidin levels were not significantly different between the H. pylori-positive group and the H. pylori-negative group. Serum prohepcidin levels in atrophic gastritis patients were significantly lower than those in subjects without atrophic gastritis irrespective of H. pylori infection. Conclusion. Serum prohepcidin levels were not altered by H. pylori infection. Serum prohepcidin levels decrease in patients with atrophic gastritis, irrespective of H. pylori infection. It suggests that hepcidin may decrease due to gastric atrophy, a condition that causes a loss of hepcidin-producing parietal cells. Further investigations with a larger number of patients are necessary to substantiate this point.

  3. Serum prohepcidin levels are lower in patients with atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Keun; Jang, Eun-Chul; Yeom, Ju-Ok; Kim, Sun-Young; Cho, Hyunjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, is increased in response to inflammation and some infections. We investigated the relationships among serum prohepcidin, iron status, Helicobacter pylori infection status, and the presence of gastric mucosal atrophy. Methods. Seventy subjects undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy underwent multiple gastric biopsies, and the possibility of H. pylori infection and the degree of endoscopic and histologic gastritis were investigated. In all subjects, serum prohepcidin and iron parameters were evaluated. Results. No correlations were observed between serum prohepcidin levels and the other markers of anemia, such as hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity. Serum prohepcidin levels were not significantly different between the H. pylori-positive group and the H. pylori-negative group. Serum prohepcidin levels in atrophic gastritis patients were significantly lower than those in subjects without atrophic gastritis irrespective of H. pylori infection. Conclusion. Serum prohepcidin levels were not altered by H. pylori infection. Serum prohepcidin levels decrease in patients with atrophic gastritis, irrespective of H. pylori infection. It suggests that hepcidin may decrease due to gastric atrophy, a condition that causes a loss of hepcidin-producing parietal cells. Further investigations with a larger number of patients are necessary to substantiate this point.

  4. [Effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Wen; Li, Fang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yan; Fu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    To study the possible effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR), and to provide a basis for antepartum taurine supplementation to promote brain development in children with FGR. A total of 24 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, FGR, and taurine (n=8 each ). A rat model of FGR was established by food restriction throughout pregnancy. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used to measure the expression of the specific intracellular markers for neural stem cells fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA), and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac). The FGR group had significantly lower OD value of FABP7-positive cells and mRNA and protein expression of FABP7 than the control group, and the taurine group had significantly higher OD value of FABP7-positive cells and mRNA and protein expression of FABP7 than the FGR group (Ptaurine group had significantly higher mRNA expression of RhoA and ROCK2 than the control group and significantly lower expression than the FGR group (Ptaurine group had significantly higher mRNA expression of Rac than the FGR and control groups (Ptaurine group had significantly lower protein expression of RhoA and ROCK2 than the FGR group (Ptaurine supplementation can promote the proliferation of neural stem cells in rats with FGR, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of the activity of Rho family factors.

  5. Tracer kinetic studies of the low density lipoprotein metabolism in the fetal rat: An example for estimation of flux rates in the nonsteady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plonne, D.; Schlag, B.; Winkler, L.; Dargel, R. (Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-05-01

    To get insight into the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apoB flux in the rat fetus near term and in the early postnatal period, homologous apoE-free 125I-labeled LDL was injected into the umbilical vein of the rat fetus immediately after Caesarean section. Since the serum LDL-apoB spontaneously declined after birth, a time-dependent two-pool model was used to calculate the flux rates in the neonate from the specific activities of LDL-apoB up to 15 h post partum. An approximate value of LDL-apoB flux in the fetus at birth was obtained by extrapolation of the kinetic data to the time of injection of the tracer. The data revealed that the turnover of LDL-apoB in the fetus (18.6 micrograms LDL-apoB/h per g body weight) exceeded that in the adult rat (0.4 microgram/h per g body weight) by at least one order of magnitude. Even 15 h after delivery, the LDL-apoB influx amounted to 2.5 micrograms/h per g body weight. The fractional catabolic rate of LDL-apoB in the fetus at term (0.39, h-1) slightly exceeded that in the adult animal (0.15, h-1) and reached the adult level within the first 3 h after birth and remained constant thereafter. In the rat fetus, LDL-apoB flux greatly exceeds that of VLDL-apoB. The data support the view of a direct synthesis and secretion of LDL, most probably by the fetal membranes.

  6. Purification of fetal liver stem/progenitor cells containing all the repopulation potential for normal adult rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oertel, Michael; Menthena, Anuradha; Chen, Yuan-Qing

    2008-01-01

    and characteristic properties in vitro and their proliferative and differentiation potential in vivo after transplantation into normal adult rat liver. RESULTS: Rat ED14 FLSPC were purified to 95% homogeneity and exhibited cell culture and gene expression characteristics expected for hepatic stem/progenitor cells...

  7. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might need special care in the hospital's neonatal intensive care unit. Keep in mind that your baby might ... References Copel JA, et al. Fetal macrosomia. In: Obstetric Imaging. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www. ...

  8. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needle placement during certain prenatal tests, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Determine fetal position before ... home. Accessed Aug. 11, 2015. Ghidini A. Diagnostic amniocentesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 11, ...

  9. Fetal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), or in the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV). Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that fetal hormonal changes during intrauterine transfusion are more pronounced when the needl...

  10. Electroacupuncture atBaihui (DU20) acupoint up-regulates mRNA expression of NeuroD molecules in the brains of newborn rats sufferingin utero fetal distress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Chen; Yan Liu; Qiao-mei Lin; Lan Xue; Wei Wang; Jian-wen Xu

    2016-01-01

    NeuroD plays a key regulatory effect on differentiation of neural stem cells into mature neurons in the brain. Thus, we assumed that electroacupuncture atBaihui (DU20) acupoint in newborn rats exposed toin utero fetal distress would inlfuence expression of NeuroD. Electroacupuncture atBaihui was performed for 20 minutes on 3-day-old (Day 3) newborn Sprague-Dawley rats exposed toin utero fetal distress; electroacupuncture parameters consisted of sparse and dense waves at a frequency of 2–10 Hz. Real-time lfuorescent quantitative PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of NeuroD, a molecule that indicates NeuroD, increased with prolonged time in brains of newborn rats, and peaked on Day 22. The level of mRNA expression was similar between Day 16 and Day 35. These ifndings suggest that electro acupuncture atBaihui acupoint could effectively increase mRNA expression of molecules involved in NeuroD in the brains of new-born rats exposed to in utero fetal distress.

  11. [Fetal magnetocardiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P

    1997-09-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography is a new, alternative method for prenatal surveillance. The fetal magnetocardiogram (FMCG) registers the magnetic field produced by conduction currents in the fetal heart. Compared to the fetal electrocardiogram, the propagation of magnetic fields is relatively undisturbed by surrounding tissue. The FMCG thus has the advantage of a higher signal-to-noise ratio and can be acquired earlier pregnancy. Also, the high temporal resolution of the signal permits a significantly more precise determination of fetal heart rate parameters than fetal ultrasound. FMCG registration using a biomagnetometer is noninvasive and can be performed as of the second trimeter. It can be used to examine signal morphology, cardiac time intervals, heart rate variability as well as cardiac magnetic fields. To date, arrhythmic activity has been observed in the form of supraventricular and ventricular ectopies as well as atrial flutter, atrio-ventricular block, atrial tachycardia and Torsades de Pointes tachycardia. We also report here on the presence of short episodes of bradycardia in the second trimester of normal pregnancy. Measurement of the magnetic field strength at various locations above the abdomen has allowed the reconstruction of the fetal cardiac magnetic field and the determination of its relation to the position of the fetus. Signal averaging has permitted the precise examination of signal amplitude and cardiac time intervals and has shown that they increase in the course of pregnancy. Heart rate variability could be quantified in the time and frequency domain as well as using parameters of nonlinear dynamics. The results demonstrated an increase of variability and complexity over gestational age. Furthermore spectral analysis of fetal heart arte data could be associated with sympathetic and parasympathetic activity as well as, with respiration. Although the studies presenting these results have involved only limited numbers of observations, they

  12. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into the spleens of adult syngenic rats: inducibility of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase functions by beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital and dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupp, A; Lau, K; Trautmann, A K; Krausse, T; Klinger, W

    1999-01-01

    In the present study the effects of beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB) and dexamethasone (DEX) on cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent monooxygenase functions were investigated in intrasplenic liver cell explants in comparison to adult liver. Fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of 60-90 days old adult male syngenic Fisher 344 inbred rats. 2, 4 or 6 months after surgery, transplant recipients and age matched controls were orally treated with BNF (1x50 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.)), PB (1x50 mg/kg b.wt.), DEX (for 3 days 4 mg/kg b.wt. per day), or the respective solvents (dimethylsulfoxide or 0.9% NaCl). The animals were sacrificed 24 (BNF, DEX) or 48 (PB) hours after the last treatment. P450 mediated monooxygenase functions were measured in spleen and liver 9000 g supernatants by three model reactions for different P450 subtypes: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD; 1A), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD; 1A, 2A, 2B), and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (END; 3A). Spleen weights were significantly higher in transplanted rats, compared to controls, at all three time points after surgery. Induction with PB or DEX, and in some cases also with BNF, lead to a significant increase in liver weights of transplant recipients and control rats independent of the time after transplantation. In contrast, there was no influence on spleen weights due to BNF or PB. At all time points after surgery, with DEX a marked decrease in body weights, weights of adrenal glands and of lymphatic organs like thymus glands and spleens was observed, with the weights of the transplant containing spleens being still higher in comparison to control organs. Spleens of control animals displayed nearly no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions neither without nor with induction. After transplantation, however, significant EROD and ECOD, but hardly any END activities were seen in the host organs at all three time points after surgery. In transplant containing spleens

  13. Regulation of pulmonary surfactant synthesis in fetal rat type II alveolar epithelial cells by microRNA-26a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Yang; Qiu, Jie; Kan, Qin; Liang, Hong-Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Guang

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary surfactant, a unique developmentally regulated, phospholipid-rich lipoprotein, is synthesized by the type II epithelial cells (AECII) of the pulmonary alveolus, where it is stored in organelles termed lamellar bodies. The synthesis of pulmonary surfactant is under multifactorial control and is regulated by a number of hormones and factors, including glucocorticoids, prolactin, insulin, growth factors, estrogens, androgens, thyroid hormones, and catecholamines acting through beta-adrenergic receptors, and cAMP. While there is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of almost every cellular and physiological process, the potential role of miRNAs in the regulation of pulmonary surfactant synthesis remains unknown. miRNA-26a (miR-26a) has been predicted to target SMAD1, one of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor downstream signaling proteins that plays a key role in differentiation of lung epithelial cells during lung development. In this study, we explored the regulation role of miR-26a in the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant. An adenoviral miR-26a overexpression vector was constructed and introduced into primary cultured fetal AECII. GFP fluorescence was observed to determinate the transfection efficiency and miR-26a levels were measured by RT-PCR. MTT was performed to analyze AECII viability. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein level of SMAD1 and surfactant-associated proteins. The results showed that miR-26a in fetal AECII was overexpressed after the transfection, and that the overexpression of miR-26a inhibited pulmonary surfactant synthesis in AECII. There was no significant change in cell proliferation. Our results further showed that overexpression of miR-26a reduced the SMAD1 expression both in mRNA and protein level in fetal AECII. These findings indicate that miR-26a regulates surfactant synthesis in fetal AECII through SMAD1.

  14. Impact of diisobutyl phthalate and other PPAR agonists on steroidogenesis and plasma insulin and leptin levels in fetal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Wortziger, Rasmus Henrik Sorgenfryd

    2008-01-01

    of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects could be related to chemical interaction with nuclear receptors such as the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). As several testosterone-reducing drugs are PPAR activators, we aimed to examine whether four PPAR agonists were able to affect....... DiBP and rosiglitazone additionally reduced fetal plasma insulin levels. In mates, DiBP reduced anogenital testosterone production and testicular expression of Insl-3 and genes related to steroidogenesis. distance, PPAR alpha mRNA levels were reduced by DiBP at GD 19 in testis and liver. In females...

  15. Selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin modulates diabetes-induced blood oxidative damage and fetal outcomes in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mehmet; Erdemoglu, Evrim; Mungan, Tamer

    2011-11-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be the main cause of diabetic complications. In the current study, we investigated the effect of selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and scavenging enzyme activity in the blood of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. Forty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first and second groups were used as the non-pregnant control and pregnant control groups, respectively. The third group was the pregnant diabetic group. Vitamin E plus selenium and melatonin were administered to the diabetic pregnant rats consisting fourth and fifth groups, respectively. Diabetes was induced on day 0 of the study by STZ. Blood samples were taken from all animals on the 20th day of pregnancy. LPO level was higher in diabetic pregnant rats than in control, although superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower in diabetic pregnant animals than in control. LPO levels were lower both in the two treatment groups than in the diabetic pregnant rats, whereas selenium-vitamin E combination and melatonin caused a significant increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes (pmelatonin in diabetic pregnant rats. Melatonin did not significantly affect the elevated glucose concentration of diabetic pregnant treated with melatonin group. Vitamin E plus selenium may play a role in preventing diabetes-related diseases of pregnant subjects.

  16. Morphological and functional aspects of acute kidney injury after fetal programing in the offspring of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Karla Roberta Martins; Pereira Júnior, Carlos Donizete; Idaló, Priscila Barbosa; Moreira, Ana Carolina Santana Pinheiro; Rocha, Laura Penna; Rodrigues, Aldo Rogélis Aquiles; Reis, Luiz Carlos Dos; Gomes, Roseli A da Silva; Rocha, Lenaldo Branco; Guimarães, Camila Souza de Oliveira; Reis, Marlene Antônia Dos; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of folic acid (FA)-induced renal failure in young offspring of diabetic mothers. The offspring of streptozotocin-induced diabetic dams were divided into four groups: CC (controls receiving vehicle); DC (diabetics receiving vehicle); CA (controls receiving FA solution, 250 mg/kg) and DA (diabetics receiving FA solution, 250 mg/kg). Renal function tests and morphometry results were analyzed. An increase in creatinine and urea levels was observed in CA and DA groups at two and five months. FA administration caused a significant reduction in the number of glomeruli in the offspring of diabetic dams. The diabetes group treated with FA had fewer glomeruli compared to controls at two and five months. FA caused an increase in the area of the urinary space both in controls and offspring of diabetic dams at two and five months. The number of glomeruli and area of the urinary space at two months were negatively correlated. Fetal programing promotes remarkable changes in kidney morphology and function in offspring. We suggest that the morphological changes in the kidneys are more pronounced when fetal programing is associated with newly acquired diseases, e.g. renal failure induced by FA.

  17. Development of the insulin secretion mechanism in fetal and neonatal rat pancreatic B-cells: response to glucose, K+, theophylline, and carbamylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Mendonça

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the development of the insulin secretion mechanism in the pancreas of fetal (19- and 21-day-old, neonatal (3-day-old, and adult (90-day-old rats in response to stimulation with 8.3 or 16.7 mM glucose, 30 mM K+, 5 mM theophylline (Theo and 200 µM carbamylcholine (Cch. No effect of glucose or high K+ was observed on the pancreas from 19-day-old fetuses, whereas Theo and Cch significantly increased insulin secretion at this age (82 and 127% above basal levels, respectively. High K+ also failed to alter the insulin secretion in the pancreas from 21-day-old fetuses, whereas 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose significantly stimulated insulin release by 41 and 54% above basal levels, respectively. Similar results were obtained with Theo and Cch. A more marked effect of glucose on insulin secretion was observed in the pancreas of 3-day-old rats, reaching 84 and 179% above basal levels with 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose, respectively. At this age, both Theo and Cch increased insulin secretion to close to two-times basal levels. In islets from adult rats, 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose, Theo, and Cch increased the insulin release by 104, 193, 318 and 396% above basal levels, respectively. These data indicate that pancreatic B-cells from 19-day-old fetuses were already sensitive to stimuli that use either cAMP or IP3 and DAG as second messengers, but insensitive to stimuli such as glucose and high K+ that induce membrane depolarization. The greater effect of glucose on insulin secretion during the neonatal period indicates that this period is crucial for the maturation of the glucose-sensing mechanism in B-cells.

  18. [Clinico-morphological variants of gastric mucosa atrophic lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, L A; Pal'tsev, A I; Beliaeva, Ia Iu

    2009-01-01

    To characterize clinicomorphological manifestations of atrophic process (AP) in gastric mucosa (GM) in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) associated and not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Clinicoendoscopic and pathomorphological (light microscopy of gastric biopsies, 6 point scale assessment of dysregeneratory alterations) investigations were made in 98 patients aged 16 to 68 years. H. pylori-negative CAG was diagnosed in 52 of them, H. pylori-positive one in 46 patients (groups 1 and 2, respectively). A comparative clinicomorphological analysis has identified 2 variants of AP morphogenesis in GM. Variant 1 is not associated with H. pylori but associated with a combined action of several endogenic risk factors of chronic gastritis or failure of regeneration, with diffuse or diffuse-focal changes with initial prevalence of dysregeneratory changes in a fundal stomach manifesting as a trend to atrophy of the glands. Clinically, this variant is characterized by longer disease, frequent systemic atrophic lesions of gastrointestinal mucosa, prevalent complaints of dyspeptic pain. Variant 2 is associated with a combined action of endo- and exogenic factors, H. pylori infection in particular, pathogenetic components of "chemical" gastritis (duodenogastric reflux, malnutrition), prevalence of dysregeneratory and sclerotic alterations in the antral stomach. GM atrophy is characterized by a significant frequency of concomitant endocrinopathies, undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia, systemic lesions, structurally--by multidirectional disorders of proliferation and differentiation. First of all, it is the result of impaired regulation of regenerative processes. AP polyetiology and different morphogenetic variants in GM suggest necessity of both individual diagnostic algorithm and pathogenetically sound therapy in each individual case.

  19. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Decreased in Rat Kidney Following Fetal Exposure to a Maternal Low-Protein Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Engeham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein restriction in rat pregnancy is associated with impaired renal development and age-related loss of renal function in the resulting offspring. Pregnant rats were fed either control or low-protein (LP diets, and kidneys from their male offspring were collected at 4, 13, or 16 weeks of age. Mitochondrial state 3 and state 4 respiratory rates were decreased by a third in the LP exposed adults. The reduction in mitochondrial function was not explained by complex IV deficiency or altered expression of the complex I subunits that are typically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Similarly, there was no evidence that LP-exposure resulted in greater oxidative damage to the kidney, differential expression of ATP synthetase β-subunit, and ATP-ADP translocase 1. mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 2 was increased in adult rats exposed to LP in utero, but there was no evidence of differential expression at the protein level. Exposure to maternal undernutrition is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in kidneys of adult rats. In the absence of gross disturbances in respiratory chain protein expression, programming of coupling efficiency may explain the long-term impact of the maternal diet.

  20. Fetal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI), o

  1. Paradigm Shift in the Management of the Atrophic Posterior Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah Nedir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the posterior maxilla is atrophic, the reference standard of care would be to perform sinus augmentation with an autologous bone graft through the lateral approach and delayed implant placement. However, placement of short implants with the osteotome sinus floor elevation technique and without graft can be proposed for an efficient treatment of clinical cases with a maxillary residual bone height of 4 to 8 mm. The use of grafting material is recommended only when the residual bone height is ≤4 mm. Indications of the lateral sinus floor elevation are limited to cases with a residual bone height ≤ 2 mm and fused corticals, uncompleted healing of the edentulous site, and absence of flat cortical bone crest or when the patient wishes to wear a removable prosthesis during the healing period. The presented case report illustrates osteotome sinus floor elevation with and without grafting and simultaneous implant placement in extreme conditions: atrophic maxilla, short implant placement, reduced healing time, and single crown rehabilitation. After 6 years, all placed implants were functional with an endosinus bone gain.

  2. Flattening of atrophic acne scars by using tretinoin by iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knor, Tanja

    2004-01-01

    Atrophic scars are a frequent consequence of acne, with a negative esthetic and psychological influence. Treatment of atrophic acne scars includes different invasive methods. In our study, we used a noninvasive method with local application of 0.05% tretinoin gel by iontophoresis. In patients with a tendency towards exacerbation, we performed mild peeling with 5% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) solution 3-4 times during the treatment. Twenty-minute treatments were applied on 38 patients, 29 women and 9 men, during 3.5 months on average. Median age of patients was 21 years (range, 16-29). Clinical assessment included an assessment of scars, pore size, skin moisture, vascularization, and skin firmness and elasticity. As confirmed by photographs taken before and after therapy, the treatment proved to be clinically effective in decreasing acne scars and persistence of effects. Flattening of acne scars was observed in 79% of the patients. The results depended on duration of scars persistence as well as on a the type of scars. The best results were achieved with younger scars as well as with superficial and ice pick scars. Side effects involved a very mild retinoid dermatitis and more often acne exacerbation. The therapy was clinically effective and the patients accepted the treatment very easily. Local therapy of acne scars with tretinoin by iontophoresis can in some cases successfully replace invasive techniques, and could also be combined with those techniques.

  3. HLA-DR-positive cells in large plaque (atrophic) parapsoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, E M; Wasik, R; Everett, M A

    1981-10-01

    The development of a monoclonal antibody directed against HLA DR (Ia-like) antigens of B cells and monocytes but not against normal peripheral human T cells suggested that this antibody might be used as a marker of B cells and monocytes in tissue sections. The T cell nature of large plaque (atrophic) parapsoriasis has recently been demonstrated by the immunoperoxidase technic. Immunoperoxidase examination of serial sections of tissues from two cases of large plaque parapsoriasis with one T cell antiserum, two monoclonal T cell antibodies, and one monoclonal reagent directed against HLA DR indicated that T cells in the cutaneous infiltrates were also HLA DR-positive. Evidence is accumulating that HLA DR positivity may be expressed by activated T cells. The findings here therefore suggest that many of the T lymphoid cells in two cases of large plaque (atrophic) parapsoriasis examined were activated in nature, and that HLA DR may not be a specific marker for B cells and monocytes in certain pathologic conditions. Caution should therefore presently be exercised in attempting to use this marker for the specific identification of B cells and monocytes in pathologic specimens, without simultaneous testing for T cell markers.

  4. Maternal iron deficiency worsens the associative learning deficits and hippocampal and cerebellar losses in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Shane M; Tran, Tuan D; Rufer, Echoleah S; Crump, Peter M; Smith, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Gestational alcohol exposure causes lifelong physical and neurocognitive deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Micronutrient deficiencies are common in pregnancies of alcohol-abusing women. Here we show the most common micronutrient deficiency of pregnancy-iron deficiency without anemia-significantly worsens neurocognitive outcomes following perinatal alcohol exposure. Pregnant rats were fed iron-deficient (ID) or iron-sufficient diets from gestational day 13 to postnatal day (P) 7. Pups received alcohol (0, 3.5, 5.0 g/kg) from P 4 to P 9, targeting the brain growth spurt. At P 32, learning was assessed using delay or trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC). Cerebellar interpositus nucleus (IPN) and hippocampal CA1 cellularity was quantified using unbiased stereology. Global analysis of variance revealed that ID and alcohol separately and significantly reduced ECC learning with respect to amplitude (ps ≤ 0.001) and conditioned response [CR] percentage (ps ≤ 0.001). Iron and alcohol interacted to reduce CR percentage in the trace ECC task (p = 0.013). Both ID and alcohol significantly reduced IPN (ps learning impairments persisted even though the offsprings' iron status had normalized. Supporting our previous work, gestational ID exacerbates the associative learning deficits in this rat model of FASD. This is strongly associated with cellular reductions within the ECC neurocircuitry. Significant learning impairments in FASD could be the consequence, in part, of pregnancies in which the mother was also iron inadequate. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Effects of lead on ultrastructural charactristics of sinusoidal endothelial cell of fetal rat's spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Z

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Amount of environmental lead pollution is increased with progression of industry. This pollution is able to damage the living beings in many ways. Blood and Immune systems are more sensitive to toxic effects of lead. 30 female and 6 male rats from Sprague dawley race are chosen by simple random sampling. After copulation and vaginal plug observation, expectant rats are calssified in test and control groups. Since the first day of pregnancy, test group is given a drink containing lead acetate 0.13% in distilled water and control group is given distilled water. After delivery, for ultrastrectural studies, spleen specimens of newborn rats are fixed in glutaraldehyde solution 2% and after processing are studied by T.E.M. Sinusoidal endothelial cell show: morphological changes in mitochondria, appearance of primary & secondary lysosomes and multivesicular bodies and swelling in ER. It seems that these changes are caused by interaction of lead with enzymathic functions or lead accumulation in these cellular organels.

  6. Flunarizine and lamotngine propnyiaxis effects on neuron-specific enolase,S-100,and brain-specific creatine kinase in a fetal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li He; Jingyi Deng; Wendan He

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Calcium antagonists may act as neuroprotectants,diminishing the influx of calcium ions through voltage-sensitive calcium channels. When administered prophylactically,they display neuroprotective effects against hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in newborn rats.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the neuroprotective effects of flunarizine(FNZ),lamotrigine (LTG)and the combination of both drugs,on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in fetal rats.DESIGN AND SETTING:This randomized,complete block design was performed at the Department of Pediatrics.Shenzhen Fourth People's Hospital,Guangdong Medical College.MATERIALS:Forty pregnant Wistar rats,at gestational day 20,were selected for the experiment and were randomly divided into FNZ,LTG,FNZ+LTG,and model groups,with 10 rats in each group.METHODS:Rats in the FNZ.LTG,and FNZ+LTG groups received intragastric injections of FNZ (0.5 mg/kg/d),LTG(10 mg/kg/d),and FNZ(0.5 mg/kg/d)+LTG(10 mg/kg/d),respectively.Drugs were administered once a day for 3 days prior to induction of hypoxia-ischemia.Rats in the modeJ group were not administered any drugs.Three hours after the final administration,eight pregnant rats from each group underwent model establishment hypoxia-ischemia brain damage to the fetal rats.Cesareans were performed at 6,12,24,and 48 hours later;and 5 fetal rats were removed from each mother and kept warm.Twe fetuses without model establishment were removed by planned cesarean at the same time and served as controls.A total of 0.3 mL serum was collected from fetal rats at 6,12,24,and 48 hours,respectively,following birth.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Serum protein concentrations of neuron-specific enolase and S-100 were measured by ELISA.Serum concentrations of brain-specific creatine kinase were measured using an electrogenerated chemiluminescence method.RESULTS:Serum concentrations of neuron-specific enolase,S-100,and brain-specific creatine kinase were significantly higher in the hypoxic-ischemic fetal rats.compared with the non

  7. An experimental model for the transplantation of fetal central nervous system cells to the injured spinal cord in rats Modelo experimental de transplante de células do sistema nervoso central fetal para lesão de medula espinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de Barros Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Traumatic spinal cord injury is one of the most disabling conditions occurring in man and thus stimulates a strong interest in its histopathological, biochemical, and functional changes, primarily as we search for preventive and therapeutic methods. PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model for transplantation of cells from the fetal rat central nervous system to the site of an injured spinal cord of an adult rat in which the transplanted cells survive and become integrated. This experimental model will facilitate investigations of factors that promote regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen adult Wistar rats underwent laminectomy, and an spinal cord lesion was made with microdissection. Fetal spinal cord tissue was then transplanted to the site of the injury. The rats were monitored over a 48-hour period, and then their vertebral column was completely removed for histological analysis. RESULTS: In 60% of transplanted rats, the fetal tissue at the injured site remained viable in the site of the lesion.INTRODUÇÃO: A lesão traumática da medula espinal consiste numa das mais incapacitantes lesões que o ser humano pode sofrer e tem despertado grande interesse no conhecimento das alterações histopatológicas, bioquímicas, funcionais e principalmente na busca de métodos de prevenção e tratamento. OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo experimental de transplante de células do sistema nervoso fetal de ratos para o sítio de lesão medular de ratos adultos que permitisse sua sobrevivência e integração para possibilitar protocolos de pesquisa para identificar outros fatores de regeneração e recuperação funcional pós trauma raquimedular. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 15 ratos adultos que foram submetidos a laminectomia e lesão de 5mm de hemimelula realizada com auxílio de microscópio óptico. Os ratos tiveram seu sítio de lesão medular transplantado com células do

  8. Human fetal brain-derived neural stem/progenitor cells grafted into the adult epileptic brain restrain seizures in rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haejin; Yun, Seokhwan; Kim, Il-Sun; Lee, Il-Shin; Shin, Jeong Eun; Park, Soo Chul; Kim, Won-Joo; Park, Kook In

    2014-01-01

    Cell transplantation has been suggested as an alternative therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) because this can suppress spontaneous recurrent seizures in animal models. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells (huNSPCs) for treating TLE, we transplanted huNSPCs, derived from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres over a long time period, into the epileptic hippocampus of fully kindled and pilocarpine-treated adult rats exhibiting TLE. In vitro, huNSPCs not only produced all three central nervous system neural cell types, but also differentiated into ganglionic eminences-derived γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and released GABA in response to the depolarization induced by a high K+ medium. NSPC grafting reduced behavioral seizure duration, afterdischarge duration on electroencephalograms, and seizure stage in the kindling model, as well as the frequency and the duration of spontaneous recurrent motor seizures in pilocarpine-induced animals. However, NSPC grafting neither improved spatial learning or memory function in pilocarpine-treated animals. Following transplantation, grafted cells showed extensive migration around the injection site, robust engraftment, and long-term survival, along with differentiation into β-tubulin III+ neurons (∼34%), APC-CC1+ oligodendrocytes (∼28%), and GFAP+ astrocytes (∼8%). Furthermore, among donor-derived cells, ∼24% produced GABA. Additionally, to explain the effect of seizure suppression after NSPC grafting, we examined the anticonvulsant glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels in host hippocampal astrocytes and mossy fiber sprouting into the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the epileptic brain. Grafted cells restored the expression of GDNF in host astrocytes but did not reverse the mossy fiber sprouting, eliminating the latter as potential mechanism. These results suggest that human fetal

  9. Induction of pancreatic duct cells of neonatal rats into insulin-producing cells with fetal bovine serum: A natural protocol and its use for patch clamp experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-Hua Leng; Fu-Er Lu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To induce the pancreatic duct cells into endocrine cells with a new natural protocol for electrophysiological study.METHODS: The pancreatic duct cells of neonatal rats were isolated, cultured and induced into endocrine oells with 15% fetal bovine serum for a period of 20 d. During this period, insulin secretion, MTT value, and morphological change of neonatal and adult pancreatic islet cells were comparatively investigated. Pancreatic β-cells were identified by morphological and electrophysiological characteristics, while ATP sensitive potassium channels(KATP), voltage-dependent potassium channels (KV), and voltage-dependent calcium channels (KCA) in β-cells were identified by patch clamp technique.RESULTS: After incubation with fetal bovine serum, the neonatal duct cells budded out, changed from duct-like cells into islet clusters. In the first 4 d, MTT value and insulin secretion increased slowly (MTT value from 0.024±0.003 to0.028±0.003, insulin secretion from 2.6±0.6to 3.1±0.8 mIU/L). Then MTT value and insulin secretion increased quickly from d 5 to d 10 (MTT value from 0.028±0.003 to 0.052±0.008, insulin secretion from 3.1±0.8to 18.3±2.6 mIU/L), then reached high plateau (MTT value >0.052±0.008, insulin secretion >18.3±2.6 mIU/L).In contrast, for the isolated adult pancreatic islet cells,both insulin release and MTT value were stable in the first 4 d (MTT value from 0.029±0.01 to 0.031±0.011,insulin secretion from 13.9±3.1 to 14.3±3.3 mIU/L), but afterwards they reduced gradually (MTT value <0.031±0.011, insulin secretion <8.2±1.5 mIU/L), and the pancrearic islet cells became dispersed, broken or atrophied correspondingly. The differentiated neonatal cells were identified as pancreatic islet cells by dithizone staining method, and pancreatic β-cells were further identified by both morphological features and electrophysiological characteristics, i.e. the existence of recording currents from KATP KV, and KCA.CONCLUSION: Islet

  10. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...... banned for use in toys in the EU mainly due to their reproductive toxicity. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) has similar structural and application properties as DBP. and is being used as a substitute for DBR However, knowledge on male reproductive effects of DiBP in experimental animals is lacking, Methods...

  11. Cloning of the Eukaryotic Expression Vector with Nerve Growth Factor in Rats and Its Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of Mesencephal Neural Stem Cells of Fetal Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minhua LIN; Lin YANG; Rong FU; Hongyang ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The eukaryotic expression vector containing full-length cDNA sequence of rate nerve growth factor (NGF) β subunit was constructed and its effects on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells were observed. By using PCR, full-length cDNA sequence of NGF β subunit in rats was cloned and ligated into the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1-NGE The recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-NGF was transfected into the mesencephal neural stem cells of embryonic rats by Lipofectamin and transiently expressed. MTT method was used to determine the effects of NGF on proliferation of neural stem cells, and under phase-contrast microscopy, the effects of NGF on growth of nervous processes following differentiation of neural stem cells were observed. Sequence analysis indicated that the cloned full-length cDNA sequence of rat NGF β was identical to that of published sequence encoding NGF in gene GeneBank. The transfection of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-NGF into mesencephal neural stem cells of embryonic rats could obviously promote proliferation of neural stem cells and faciliate the growth of neural stem cells-derived nerve cells. It was suggested that neural stem cells could be used as a vehicle of gene transfer, and the expression of NGF β subunit in the neural stem cells could promote the growth of nerve cells derived from neural stem cells.

  12. Placental Protein 13 Administration to Pregnant Rats Lowers Blood Pressure and Augments Fetal Growth and Venous Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Sigurdardottir, Elisabet Run; Meiri, Hamutal; Huppertz, Berthold; Sammar, Marei; Sharabi-Nov, Adi; Mandalá, Maurizio; Osol, George

    2016-01-01

    Reduced first-trimester concentrations of placental protein 13 (PP13) are associated with subsequent development of preeclampsia, a major pregnancy disorder. We previously showed that PP13 has a vasodilatory effect, reduces blood pressure and augments expansive remodeling of the uteroplacental vasculature in pregnant rats. In this study, slow-release osmotic pumps were implanted in gravid rats (on day 8) to provide 1 week of PP13 supplementation. Treatment was associated with a reversible blood pressure reduction that returned to normal on day 15. In addition, PP13 caused venous expansion that is larger in the venous branches closer to the placenta. Then, it increased placental and pup weights. Similar administration of a truncated PP13 variant (DelT221) that is unable to bind carbohydrates (a rare spontaneous mutation associated with a high frequency of severe early preeclampsia among Blacks in South Africa) produced a hypotensive effect similar to the full-length molecule, but without venous remodeling and increased placental and pup weights. These results indicate the importance of PP13 carbohydrate binding for inducing vascular remodeling and improving reproductive outcome. Future studies are needed to determine whether beneficial effects would be evident in animal models of preeclampsia or in women predisposed to the development of preeclampsia.

  13. Rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla: a review of 101 zygomatic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi Urgell, Joan; Revilla Gutiérrez, Verónica; Gay Escoda, Cosme Gay

    2008-06-01

    Zygomatic implants are a good rehabilitation alternative for upper maxilla with severe bone reabsorption. These implants reduce the need for onlay-type bone grafting in the posterior sectors and for maxillary sinus lift procedures - limiting the use of bone grafts to the anterior zone of the upper jaw in those cases where grafting is considered necessary. To evaluate the survival of 101 zygomatic implants placed in upper maxilla presenting important bone reabsorption, with a follow-up of 1-72 months. A retrospective study was made of 101 Zygoma(R) implants (Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden) placed in 54 patients with totally edentulous and atrophic upper maxilla, in the period between 1998-2004. There were 35 women and 19 men, subjected to rehabilitation in the form of fixed prostheses and overdentures using 1-2 zygomatic implants and 2-7 implants in the anterior maxillary zone. The principal study variables were smoking, a history of sinusitis, the degree of bone reabsorption, and peri-implant bone loss, among others. The descriptive analysis of the 101 zygomatic implants placed in 54 patients with a mean age of 56 years (range 38-75) yielded a percentage survival of 96.04%, with four failed implants that were removed (two before and two after prosthetic loading). Nine patients were smokers, and none of the 54 subjects reported a history of sinus disorders. Zygomatic implants are designed for use in compromised upper maxilla. They allow the clinician to shorten the treatment time, affording an interesting alternative for fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. This study confirms that zygomatic bone offers predictable anchorage and acceptable support function for prostheses in atrophic jaws. However, these implants are not without complications. Longer-term evaluations are needed of zygomatic implant survival in order to establish a correct clinical prognosis.

  14. Tetanic contraction induces enhancement of fatigability and sarcomeric damage in atrophic skeletal muscle and its underlying molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Muscle unloading due to long-term exposure of weightlessness or simulated weightlessness causes atrophy, loss of functional capacity, impaired locomotor coordination, and decreased resistance to fatigue in the antigravity muscles of the lower limbs. Besides reducing astronauts' mobility in space and on returning to a gravity environment, the molecular mechanisms for the adaptation of skeletal muscle to unloading also play an important medical role in conditions such as disuse and paralysis. The tail-suspended rat model was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness on skeletal muscles and to induce muscle unloading in the rat hindlimb. Our series studies have shown that the maximum of twitch tension and the twitch duration decreased significantly in the atrophic soleus muscles, the maximal tension of high-frequency tetanic contraction was significantly reduced in 2-week unloaded soleus muscles, however, the fatigability of high-frequency tetanic contraction increased after one week of unloading. The maximal isometric tension of intermittent tetanic contraction at optimal stimulating frequency did not alter in 1- and 2-week unloaded soleus, but significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus. The 1-week unloaded soleus, but not extensor digitorum longus (EDL), was more susceptible to fatigue during intermittent tetanic contraction than the synchronous controls. The changes in K+ channel characteristics may increase the fatigability during high-frequency tetanic contraction in atrophic soleus muscles. High fatigability of intermittent tetanic contraction may be involved in enhanced activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and switching from slow to fast isoform of myosin heavy chain, tropomyosin, troponin I and T subunit in atrophic soleus muscles. Unloaded soleus muscle also showed a decreased protein level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the reduction in nNOS-derived NO increased frequency of calcium sparks and elevated

  15. Plasma concentrations and placental immunostaining of interleukin-10 and tumornecrosis factor-α as predictors of alterations in the embryo-fetal organism and the placental development of diabetic rats

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    Y.K. Sinzato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-10 (IL-10 appears to be the key cytokine for the maintenance of pregnancy and inhibits the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. However, there are no studies evaluating the profile of these cytokines in diabetic rat models. Thus, our aim was to analyze IL-10 and TNF-α immunostaining in placental tissue and their respective concentrations in maternal plasma during pregnancy in diabetic rats in order to determine whether these cytokines can be used as predictors of alterations in the embryo-fetal organism and in placental development. These parameters were evaluated in non-diabetic (control; N = 15 and Wistar rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes (N = 15. At term, the dams (100 days of life were killed under anesthesia and plasma and placental samples were collected for IL-10 and TNF-α determinations by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The reproductive performance was analyzed. Plasma IL-10 concentrations were reduced in STZ rats compared to controls (7.6 ± 4.5 vs 20.9 ± 8.1 pg/mL. The placental scores of immunostaining intensity did not differ between groups (P > 0.05. Prevalence analysis showed that the IL-10 expression followed TNF-α expression, showing a balance between them. STZ rats also presented impaired reproductive performance and reduced plasma IL-10 levels related to damage during early embryonic development. However, the increased placental IL-10 as a compensatory mechanism for the deficit of maternal regulation permitted embryo development. Therefore, the data suggest that IL-10 can be used as a predictor of changes in the embryo-fetal organism and in placental development in pregnant diabetic rats.

  16. Histological Features and Biocompatibility of Bone and Soft Tissue Substitutes in the Atrophic Alveolar Ridge Reconstruction

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    Carlo Maiorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridges for implant placement is today a common procedure in dentistry daily practice. The surgical reconstruction provides for the optimization of the supporting bone for the implants and a restoration of the amount of keratinized gingiva for esthetic and functional reasons. In the past, tissue regeneration has been performed with autogenous bone and free gingival or connective tissue grafts. Nowadays, bone substitutes and specific collagen matrix allow for a complete restoration of the atrophic ridge without invasive harvesting procedures. A maxillary reconstruction of an atrophic ridge by means of tissue substitutes and its histological features are then presented.

  17. Effects of Post-coital Administration of Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb) Leaves on some Fetal and Maternal Outcomes of Pregnant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Musa, Isa Fakai

    2012-10-01

    The abortifacient claim of Senna alata (S. alata) was scientifically validated recently with alkaloids speculated to be the bioactive agent. This speculation is yet to be substantiated or refuted by scientific evidence. The present study was aimed to investigate the pregnancy terminating effects of the alkaloids from S. alata leaves. Twenty four Pregnant rats (143.99±1.21 g) allocated randomly to four groups: A, B, C and D respectively received, 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the S. alata extracted alkaloids orally, once daily from day 10 until day 18 post-coitum. The indices of abortifacient were evaluated at the end of the exposure period. The results were analyzed by both the analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Thin-layer chromatographic separation produced five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47 and 0.55 which gave positive reaction with Meyer's and Wagner's reagents, respectively. The number of implantation sites and corpora lutea, as well as the concentrations of FSH, LH, progesterone, weight of uterus, uterine/ body weight ratio, glucose and cholesterol decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas the resorption index, pre- and post-implantation losses, uterine protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly. None of the alkaloid treated animals presented with provoked vaginal opening or bleeding except fetal deaths. The alkaloid decreased the maternal weight gain, as well as feed and water intake. Overall, the alkaloids from S. alata leaves exhibited anti-implantation, anti-gonadotropic, anti-progesteronic, embryonic resorptive, feto-maternal toxic activities but not complete abortifacient. The alkaloids alone may not be the sole abortifacient bioactive agent in the leaf extract.

  18. Assessment of the Protective Role of Prenatal Zinc versus Insulin Supplementation on Fetal Cardiac Damage Induced by Maternal Diabetes in Rat Using Caspase-3 and KI67 Immunohistochemical Stains

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    Ahmed S. Shams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal diabetes mellitus (DM affects early organogenesis. Metabolic disorders of DM are associated with a depleted zinc status. This study evaluated the effect of maternal DM on cardiac development of rat fetuses and protective roles of prenatal zinc versus insulin supplementation. Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups ((I control, (II STZ-induced DM, (III STZ-induced DM treated with Zn, and (IV STZ induced DM treated with insulin, all sacrificed on GD 20. Fetal heart weight of diabetic rats showed significant decrease compared to controls (P<0.05. H&E stained section of controls had normal appearance of the myocardium, compared to diabetics that showed myocardial disarray with characteristic degenerative changes. Sections of zinc treated group showed restored architecture of normal myofibrils with minimal degenerative changes, while those of insulin treated group show partial restoration of the normal architecture of cardiomyocytes with focal improvement of cardiac tissue. Caspase-3 immunostained slides showed positive cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in diabetic group. But KI67 immunostained slides revealed negative nuclear immunoreaction in diabetics. We observed that gestational diabetes was associated with increased risk of fetal myocardial damage that might be caused by increased apoptotic level. Treating diabetic pregnant subjects with zinc and insulin was associated with improvement in myocardial integrity.

  19. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  20. Effects of engrafted neural stem cells derived from fetal rat on model rat with Parkinson's diseases%鼠胚神经干细胞移植对帕金森模型大鼠的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明; 陈新成; 吴旻; 邓引生; 陶轶

    2011-01-01

    背景:干细胞移植是治疗帕金森的有潜力的方法之一.目的:观察神经干细胞纹状体移植对帕金森模型大鼠旋转行为及脑内多巴胺含量的影响.方法:采用6-羟基多巴胺定点注射毁损黑质纹状体的方法构建帕金森大鼠模型;向造模成功的大鼠纹状体内分别移植1×106(共计20 μL)的第3代胚鼠神经干细胞或等量生理盐水.结果与结论:神经干细胞移植后,帕金森大鼠的旋转行为明显改善.干细胞移植后3周,免疫组化检测发现移植干细胞的帕金森大鼠脑黑质部位酪氨酸羟化酶阳性细胞数增多,纹状体内可见酪氨酸羟化酶阳性细胞;荧光显微镜下观察发现Hoechst 33324d标记神经干细胞在移植针道附近最为密集,并向远隔部位迁徙.干细胞移植后8周,高效液相色谱检测显示移植干细胞的帕金森大鼠纹状体内多巴胺含量明显增高(P < 0.01).说明神经干细胞脑内移植能够减轻6-羟基多巴胺引起的大鼠中脑黑质多巴胺能神经元的损伤,改善大鼠的旋转行为.%BACKGROUND: Stem cells transplantation is one of the potential methods for the treatment of Parkinson's diseases (PD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of neural stem cells engrafted into the striatum on rotational behavior and dopamine concentration of rat model with PD.METHODS: Rat models of PD were established by point injection with 6-hydroxy dopamine to damage nigrostriatal. The 1×106 (total 20 μL) passage 3 fetal rat neural stem cells or normal saline were injected into the striatum of the established rat model. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After neural stem cells were transplanted into the striatum. The rotational behavior of the PD rat was improved obviously. Three weeks later, the results of immun oh isto chemistry detection showed that the number of tyros in e hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra of transfected PD rat was increased obviously, and the tyrosine hydroxylase

  1. Fetal syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Anne; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan; Keating, Sarah; Shannon, Patrick

    2014-08-06

    We explored the prevalence of syringomyelia in a series of 113 cases of fetal dysraphism and hindbrain crowding, of gestational age ranging from 17.5 to 34 weeks with the vast majority less than 26 weeks gestational age. We found syringomyelia in 13 cases of Chiari II malformations, 5 cases of Omphalocele/Exostrophy/Imperforate anus/Spinal abnormality (OEIS), 2 cases of Meckel Gruber syndrome and in a single pair of pyopagus conjoined twins. Secondary injury was not uncommon, with vernicomyelia in Chiari malformations, infarct like histology, or old hemorrhage in 8 cases of syringomyelia. Vernicomyelia did not occur in the absence of syrinx formation. The syringes extended from the sites of dysraphism, in ascending or descending patterns. The syringes were usually in a major proportion anatomically distinct from a dilated or denuded central canal and tended to be dorsal and paramedian or median. We suggest that fetal syringomyelia in Chiari II malformation and other dysraphic states is often established prior to midgestation, has contributions from the primary malformation as well as from secondary in utero injury and is anatomically and pathophysiologically distinct from post natal syringomyelia secondary to hindbrain crowding.

  2. Effective analysis on treatment of rat acute liver failure by human fetal hepatocyte transplantation%人胚胎肝细胞移植治疗大鼠急性肝衰竭的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯歌; 尚红利; 赵慧; 牛春燕; 汪雯

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨人胚胎肝细胞移植治疗急性肝衰竭(ALF)的疗效及能否成为移植细胞源.方法 采用四甲基偶氮唑盐法检测人胚胎肝细胞增殖情况;免疫细胞化学检测其ALB、细胞角蛋白-18(CK-18)的表达; D-氨基半乳糖(D-gal)药物诱导ALF的实验动物模型;人胚胎肝细胞移植治疗ALF的动物模型,包括移植组与对照组在肝功能指标[ALT、AST、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、总胆红素(TBIL)]的差异性比较.免疫组织化学法检测植入脾脏中的人胚胎肝细胞ALB及CK-18的表达.结果 培养第5天左右细胞数量达到最高峰,每天完成4~5次分裂,胚胎肝细胞的生长曲线呈抛物线型.免疫细胞化学检测提示其具有表达ALB、CK-18的功能; D-gal 1.6 g/kg腹腔注射72 h后大鼠ALF模型制备成功;移植第3~5天后,移植组与对照组比较,肝功能(ALT、AST、ALP、TBIL)指标差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).植入脾内的肝细胞具有分泌并表达CK-18、ALB的功能.结论 人胚胎肝细胞脾内移植能有效治疗ALF,并可能成为肝细胞移植的靶细胞源.%Objective To investigate the effect of treating rat acute liver failure and alternative sources of cells for transplantation by human fetal hepatocyte transplantation Methods The proliferation,expression of albumin and cytokeratin-18 of human fetal hepatocyte were detected by MTT and immunocytochemistry.The animal models of rat acute liver failure were made by D-galactosamine.Hepatic functions.such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin were measured between the treated and the control groups.The expression of albumin and cytokeratin-18 of human fetal hepatocyte transplanted in spleen were detected by immunohistochemistry.Results The cell population reached a peak, when human fetal hepatocyte were cultivated for 5 d.The cell division had 4 - 5 times per day,its growth curve present parabola.Immunocytochemistry revealed the

  3. Impaired fetal adrenal function in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfang; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-associated liver disease of unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in maternal and fetal adrenal function in clinical and experimental ICP. Material/Methods The maternal and fetal serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were determined in 14 women with ICP and in pregnant rats with estrogen-induced intrahepatic cholestasis. Results In women with ICP, the fetal serum cortisol and DHEAS levels were significantly higher than those in women with normal pregnancy, after correcting the impact of gestational age at delivery. The relationship between fetal cortisol and maternal cholic acid levels was bidirectional; the fetal cortisol tended to increase in mild ICP, while it decreased in severe ICP. In pregnant rats with estrogen-induced cholestasis, the fetal cortisol level was significantly lower in the group with oxytocin injection, compared with the group without oxytocin injection (191.92±18.86 vs. 272.71±31.83 ng/ml, P<0.05). In contrast, the fetal cortisol concentration was increased after oxytocin injection in normal control rats. Conclusions The data indicate that fetal stress-responsive system is stimulated in mild ICP, but it is suppressed in severe ICP, which might contribute to the occurrence of unpredictable sudden fetal death. Further studies are warranted to explore the role of impaired fetal adrenal function in the pathogenesis of ICP and the clinical implications. PMID:21525808

  4. Development of turbinate lesions and nasal colonization by Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida during long-term exposure of healthy pigs to pigs affected by atrophic rhinitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckström, L R; Brim, T A; Collins, M T

    1988-01-01

    Natural transmission of atrophic rhinitis from pigs from a herd with an endemic atrophic rhinitis problem to pigs from a herd free of atrophic rhinitis was demonstrated. Six replicates each with five pigs from the endemic atrophic rhinitis herd (Group A) and five pigs from the atrophic rhinitis-free herd (Group B) were housed together from 5 wk of age, with each replicate kept in isolation rooms maintained at optimal and controlled environmental conditions. Three replicates each with six pigs...

  5. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection Decreases with Older Age in Atrophic Gastritis

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    Shaohua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical pathological characteristics of 3969 adult patients with chronic atrophic gastritis were retrospectively studied. The positivity of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in atrophic gastric specimens increased with age; however, H. pylori positivity and inflammatory activity decreased significantly with increased age. H. pylori infection was present in 21.01% of chronic atrophic gastritis patients, and 92.33% of the subjects with H. pylori infection were found to have simultaneous inflammatory activity. The intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia positivity markedly increased as the degree of gastric atrophy increased. In conclusion, the incidence of H. pylori infection decreased with age and correlated significantly with inflammatory activity in atrophic gastritis patients. The intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia positivity notably increased as the degree of gastric atrophy increased. Large population-based prospective studies are needed to better understand the progression of CAG.

  6. Acute large bowel pseudo-obstruction due to atrophic visceral myopathy: A case report

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    Sean M. Wrenn

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Atrophic visceral neuropathy is a rare cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction. While often presenting with chronic obstruction in younger populations, we present a rare late-onset acute presentation that may have been secondary to underlying hypothyroidism.

  7. CASE OF REACTIVE PANCREATITIS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC NON-ATROPHIC GASTRITIS FOLLOWING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Avramenko, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    It was analyzed the case of reactive pancreatitis in patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis, which passed a comprehensive examination and planned to undergo a course of treatment. It was found that reactive pancreatitis developed after sexual intercourse.

  8. Quantification of scar margin in keloid different from atrophic scar by multiphoton microscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zheng, Liqin; Jiang, Xingshan; Chen, Jianxin; Lin, Bifang

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was applied to examine the marginal region at dermis of keloid compared with atrophic scar. High-resolution large-area image showed an obvious boundary at the scar margin and different morphological patterns of elastin and collagen on the two sides, further visualized by the focused three-dimensional images. Content alteration of elastin or collagen between the two sides of boundary was quantified to show significant difference between keloid and atrophic scar. Owing to the raised property of keloid with overproduced collagen on the scar side, the content alteration was positive for elastin and negative for collagen. On the contrary, the content alteration was negative for elastin and positive for collagen in the atrophic scar case due to the atrophic collagen on the scar side. It indicated that examination of the scar margin by MPM may lead a new way to discriminate different types of scars and better understand the scarring mechanisms.

  9. Modified ridge splitting technique using conical space maintainers for delayed implant placement in highly atrophic maxillae.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanes Gumbau, Guillermo; Silvestre Donat, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    Background: A low-morbidity surgical technique is described for the horizontal augmentation of highly atrophic alveolar ridges in which first surgical step implant placement is contraindicated. The aim of this case report was to present an alternative treatment for the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Methods: The technique involves a crestal corticotomy with transverse expansion of the vestibular and lingual cortical layers, followed by the placement of threaded titaniu...

  10. Ultrastructural and cytochemical identification of apoptotic cell death accompanying development of the fetal rat olfactory nerve layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellier, V; Saucier, D; Oestreicher, A B; Astic, L

    1996-07-01

    It has been previously shown that the embryonic olfactory nerve contains, in addition to glial ensheathing cells, a large population of differentiated neurons that migrate from the developing olfactory epithelium, in close association with the olfactory axon fascicles. The purpose of our study was to verify the hypothesis according to which a process of physiological cell death might be involved in the progressive disappearance of these migrating neurons that has been reported during late embryonic stages in several immunocytochemical studies. To do so, we have investigated the development of the olfactory nerve layer in rat embryos by using light and electron microscopy, with special reference to the presence of cell death processes within this structure. We have also applied the histochemical TUNEL method allowing in situ visualization of cells degenerating by apoptosis. In order to determine if neurons were present among dying cells, a procedure of double-labeling was performed by combining the DNA-specific bisbenzimide with two neuronal markers, the protein B-50/GAP-43 and the lectin Ulex europaeus I. Results brought out the precise temporal and spatial patterns of programmed cell death accompanying the morphogenesis of the olfactory nerve layer. A cell death process was observed within the olfactory nerve layer from its onset at embryonic day 13 (E13). While only few pycnotic cells were observed in E13 and E14 embryos, their number increased from E15 to reach a maximum at E16 and then diminished. Few dying cells were also observed along the olfactory axon fascicles when they penetrated the olfactory nerve layer. Degenerating cells appeared strongly TUNEL-labeled and exhibited morphological features of cell death by apoptosis. Double-labeling experiments revealed that some of the apoptotic cells were neurons. These observations indicate that apoptosis may account for the progressive decrease in the number of migrating neurons present within the embryonic

  11. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  12. Fetal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokyta, Richard

    2008-12-01

    The fetus reacts to nociceptive stimulations through different motor, autonomic, vegetative, hormonal, and metabolic changes relatively early in the gestation period. With respect to the fact that the modulatory system does not yet exist, the first reactions are purely reflexive and without connection to the type of stimulus. While the fetal nervous system is able to react through protective reflexes to potentially harmful stimuli, there is no accurate evidence concerning pain sensations in this early period. Cortical processes occur only after thalamocortical connections and pathways have been completed at the 26th gestational week. Harmful (painful) stimuli, especially in fetuses have an adverse effect on the development of humans regardless of the processes in brain. Moreover, pain activates a number of subcortical mechanisms and a wide spectrum of stress responses influence the maturation of thalamocortical pathways and other cortical activation which are very important in pain processing.

  13. Oxidative stress as a signal to up-regulate gamma-cystathionase in the fetal-to-neonatal transition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, J A; Pereda, J; Martínez-López, I; Escrig, R; Miralles, V; Pallardó, F V; Viña, J R; Vento, M; Viña, J; Sastre, J

    2007-11-30

    Hepatic gamma-cystathionase, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of L-cysteine from L-methionine in the trans-sulphuration pathway, exhibits significantly higher activity in the newly born infant as compared to the fetus. The aim of this work was: 1) To determine whether the increase in gamma-cystathionase activity occurring in the fetal-to-neonatal transition is due to up-regulation of its mRNA and protein, 2) To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this increase in gamma-cystathionase activity. Our results show that expression of gamma-cystathionase at both the mRNA and protein levels was higher in newborn than in fetal liver. gamma-Cystathionase activity in fetal hepatocytes in vitro increased when incubated with tert-butyl-hydroperoxide at low concentration (0.01 mM). Hence, moderate oxidative stress would act as a signal to up-regulate gamma-cystathionase in the fetal to neonatal transition. Stress hormones, such as phenylephrine or glucagon also increased gamma-cystathionase activity in fetal hepatocytes. We also report a competitive inhibition of purified gamma-cystathionase by L-cysteine, which would help to maintain physiological low L-cysteine levels in hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results show that increased hepatic gamma-cystathionase activity in the fetal-to-neonatal transition is due to up-regulation of its gene expression mediated by stress hormones together with the physiological oxidative stress that occurs at birth.

  14. The Diagnostic Value of Gastrin-17 Detection in Atrophic Gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Ling, Li; Li, Shanshan; Qin, Guiping; Cui, Wei; Li, Xiang; Ni, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A meta-analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of gastrin-17 (G-17) for the early detection of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). An extensive literature search was performed, with the aim of selecting publications that reported the accuracy of G-17 in predicting CAG, in the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Chinese Biological Medicine, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP. To assess the diagnostic value of G-17, the following statistics were estimated and described: sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), summary receiver operating characteristic curves, area under the curve (AUC), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis, comprising 894 patients and 1950 controls. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of these studies were 0.48 (95% CI: 0.45–0.51) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.77–0.81), respectively. The DOR was 5.93 (95% CI: 2.93–11.99), and the AUC was 0.82. G-17 may have potential diagnostic value because it has good specificity and a moderate DOR and AUC for CAG. However, more studies are needed to improve the sensitivity of this diagnostic tool in the future. PMID:27149493

  15. Immunological studies in chronic atrophic gastritis and chronic (superficial) gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, W P; Rigby, R J; Trenchev, P; Matz, L R

    1978-01-01

    Detection of autoantibodies, HLA typing and immunofluorescence studies on gastric biopsies were carried out in subjects with histologically proven chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and chronic superficial gastritis (CG). All were seronegative for parietal cell antibody and did not have pernicious anemia. Except for positive antismooth muscle and antimitochrondrial antibodies in one patient with CAG, autoantibodies (antinuclear, smooth muscle, mitochrondrial, parietal cell) were absent in patients with CAG and CG. Immunofluorescence studies showed that Ig-G and IgA were presented in the lamina propria of all cases with CAG or CG and of subjects with normal gastric histology. Ig-M was seen less often, in about half the cases. Complement C3 was an uncommon finding, being positive in only one case with CAG and one case with CG and in none of the cases with normal gastric histology. Fibrinogen was more commonly seen in patients with CG (5/5 cases) than in those with CAG (3/11 cases). Fibrinogen was found in one case with normal gastric histology. The most consistent fluorescence was obtained with antiparietal cell antiserum. All subjects with CAG showed negative or weak staining only. In contrast, subjects with CG and normal gastric histology had strong specific fluorescence. An increased frequency of HLA-A1 plus HLA-B8 was found in subjects with CAG (20.7% in controls; 40% in CAG).

  16. Finite element analysis of dental implant loading on atrophic and non-atrophic cancellous and cortical mandibular bone - a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcián, P.; Borák, L.; Valášek, J.; Kaiser, J.; Florian, Z.; Wolff, J.

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to assess displacements and micro-strain induced on different grades of atrophic cortical and trabecular mandibular bone by axially loaded dental implants using finite element analysis (FEA). The second aim was to assess the micro-strain induced by different implant g

  17. Apigenin has anti-atrophic gastritis and anti-gastric cancer progression effects in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Weng, Bi-Chuang; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Wu, Deng-Chang; Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-02-12

    Apigenin, one of the most common flavonoids, is abundant in celery, parsley, chamomile, passionflower, and other vegetables and fruits. Celery is recognized as a medicinal vegetable in Oriental countries to traditionally treat inflammation, swelling, blood pressure, serum lipid, and toothache. In this study, we investigated apigenin treatment effects on Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression in Mongolian gerbils. Five to eight-week-old Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with Helicobacter pylori for four weeks without (atrophic gastritis group) or with N'-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG) (gastric cancer group) in drinking water, and were then rested for two weeks. During the 7th-32th (atrophic gastritis group) or the 7th-52th (gastric cancer group) weeks, they were given various doses (0-60 mg/kgbw/day) of apigenin. At the end of the 32th (atrophic gastritis group) or the 52th (atrophic gastritis group) week, all Mongolian gerbils were sacrificed using the CO2 asphyxia method. The histological changes of Helicobacter pylori colonization, neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations, and atrophic gastritis in both atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer Mongolian gerbils were examined using immunohistochemistry stain and Sydney System scoring. Apigenin treatments (30-60 mg/kgbw/day) effectively decreased atrophic gastritis (atrophic gastritis group) and dysplasia/gastric cancer (gastric cancer group) rates in Mongolian gerbils. Apigenin treatment (60 mg/kgbw/day) significantly decreased Helicobacter pylori colonization and Helicobacter pylori-induced histological changes of neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations and atrophic gastritis in both atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer Mongolian gerbils. Apigenin has the remarkable ability to inhibit Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression as well as possessing potent anti-gastric cancer activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  18. Insulinoterapia na prenhez de ratas diabéticas: repercussões fetais e placentárias Effect of insulin therapy in on pregnancy of diabetic rats: fetal and placental repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza V.C. Rudge

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as repercussões feto-placentárias da insulinoterapia na prenhez de ratas diabéticas. A droga diabetogênica foi aloxana na dose de 42 mg/kg de peso por via intravenosa. Formaram-se cinco grupos experimentais: controle (G1, n=12; diabete moderado não-tratado (G2, n=10; diabete moderado tratado com insulina (G3, n=11; diabete grave não-tratado (G4, n=12 e diabete grave tratado com insulina (G5, n=10. Foram obtidos 634 recém-nascidos e respectivas placentas. O resultado perinatal do tratamento com insulina teve relação direta com a qualidade do controle glicêmico. O tratamento inadequado do diabete moderado determinou níveis de hiperglicemia moderada nos recém-nascidos, não interferiu com o peso corporal dos filhotes e diminuiu a proporção de recém-nascidos grandes para a idade da prenhez (GIP. O controle adequado do diabete grave normalizou a glicemia dos recém-nascidos, aumentou o peso dos filhotes e diminuiu a proporção de recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade da prenhez (PIP. A administração de doses adequadas de insulina no grupo de ratas diabéticas grave diminuiu o peso das placentas mas sem modificar o índice placentário.Fetal and placental effects of insulin therapy on pregnancy of diabetic rats were studied. Alloxan was administered intravenously at the dose of 42 mg/kg of body weight. Five experimental groups were formed: control (G1, n=12, non-treated rats with moderate diabetes (G2, n=10, insulin-treated rats with moderate diabetes (G3, n=11,non-treated rats with severe diabetes (G4, n=12 and insulin-treated rats with severe diabetes (G5, n=10. Six hundred and thirty-four newborn rats and placentas wereprocured. The perinatal result of insulin therapy was directly related to the quality of glycemia control. Thus, inadequate control of moderate diabetes produced levels of moderate hyperglycemia, did not interfere with the newborn rats' body weight and decreased the proportion

  19. Fetal pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, S; van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    2000-05-01

    During the last few years a vivid debate, both scientifically and emotionally, has risen in the medical literature as to whether a fetus is able to feel pain during abortion or intrauterine surgery. This debate has mainly been inspired by the demonstration of various hormonal or motor reactions to noxious stimuli at very early stages of fetal development. The aims of this paper are to review the literature on development of the pain system in the fetus, and to speculate about the relationship between "sensing" as opposed to "feeling" pain and the number of reactions associated with painful stimuli. While a cortical processing of pain theoretically becomes possible after development of the thalamo-cortical connections in the 26th week of gestation, noxious stimuli may trigger complex reflex reactions much earlier. However, more important than possible painfulness is the fact that the noxious stimuli, by triggering stress responses, most likely affect the development of an individual at very early stages. Hence, it is not reasonable to speculate on the possible emotional experiences of pain in fetuses or premature babies. A clinically relevant aim is rather to avoid and/or treat any possibly noxious stimuli, and thereby prevent their potential adverse effects on the subsequent development.

  20. Malignant atrophic papulosis (Köhlmeier-Degos disease - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoridis Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease Malignant atrophic papulosis (MAP, described independently by Köhlmeier and Degos et al., is a rare, chronic, thrombo-obliterative vasculopathy characterized by papular skin lesions with central porcelain-white atrophy and surrounding teleangiectatic rim. Epidemiology Less than 200 cases have been described in the literature. The first manifestation of MAP usually occurs between the 20th and 50th year of life. Clinical description The cutaneous clinical picture is almost pathognomonic. The histology is not consistent but in most cases it shows a wedge-shaped connective tissue necrosis in the deep corium due to a thrombotic occlusion of the small arteries. In the systemic variant, manifestations mostly occur at the intestine and central nervous system. Etiology The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, a genetic predisposition may occur. Vasculitis, coagulopathy or primary dysfunction of the endothelial cells have been implicated. Diagnostic methods Diagnosis is only based on the characteristic skin lesions. Differrential diagnosis It depends on the clinical presentation of MAP, but systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases need to be considered. Management No effective treatment exists for the systemic manifestations, while compounds that facilitate blood perfusion have achieved a partial regression of the skin lesions in single cases. Prognosis An apparently idiopathic, monosymptomatic, cutaneous, benign variant and a progressive, visceral one with approx. 50% lethality within 2–3 years have been reported. Systemic manifestations can develop years after the occurrence of skin lesions leading to bowel perforation and peritonitis, thrombosis of the cerebral arteries or massive intracerebral hemorrhage, meningitis, encephalitis, radiculopathy, myelitis.

  1. Differential proteomics of Helicobacter pylori associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ombretta; Zanussi, Stefania; Casarotto, Mariateresa; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; De Paoli, Paolo; Cannizzaro, Renato; De Re, Valli

    2014-02-28

    Atrophic autoimmune gastritis (AAG) is a condition of chronic inflammation and atrophy of stomach mucosa, for which development can be partially triggered by the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori (HP). HP can cause a variety of gastric diseases, such as duodenal ulcer (DU) or gastric cancer (GC). In this study, a comparative proteomic approach was used by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) to identify differentially expressed proteins of HP strains isolated from patients with AAG, to identify markers of HP strain associated with AAG. Proteome profiles of HP isolated from GC or DU were used as a reference to compare proteomic levels. Proteomics analyses revealed 27 differentially expressed spots in AAG-associated HP in comparison with GC, whereas only 9 differential spots were found in AAG-associated HP profiles compared with DU. Proteins were identified after matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-TOF and peptide mass fingerprinting. Some AAG-HP differential proteins were common between DU- and GC-HP (peroxiredoxin, heat shock protein 70 [HSP70], adenosine 5'-triphosphate [ATP] synthase subunit α, flagellin A). Our results presented here may suggest that comparative proteomes of HP isolated from AAG and DU share more common protein expression than GC and provide subsets of putative AAG-specific upregulated or downregulated proteins that could be proposed as putative markers of AAG-associated HP. Other comparative studies by two-dimensional maps integrated with functional genomics of candidate proteins will undoubtedly contribute to better decipher the biology of AAG-associated HP strains.

  2. Caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of retinoic acid induce spiua bifida fetal rat%维甲酸诱导脊柱裂胎鼠脊髓组织中Caspase-3表达情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英桓; 袁正伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of retinoic acid induced spina bifida fetal rat. Methods Pregnant Wister rats with 10 days were used. Retinoic acid dissolved in olive oil (40mg /ml) were stomach fed for preparing the rat model of spina bifida malformations 135mg / kg). Control group only received olive oil. The animals were divided into 4 groups: pregnancy of 12 days, 15 days, 17 days and 20 days. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect and compare caspase-3 expression in different groups. Results The expression of caspase-3 increased at the day 15 after pregnancy, and maintained until day 20 in the spinal tissue of modeled fetal rat, which presented significant difference compared to that of control groups at the same pregnant time. At day 15, day 17 and day 20 of pregnancy, the number of caspase-3 positive cells was more in model animals than the control. Conclusions Retinoic acid induced spina bifida fetal rat demonstrates the increased caspase-3 expression in spinal tissue of fetal rats.%目的 本文旨在探讨维甲酸诱导脊柱裂胎鼠脊髓组织Caspase-3表达情况.方法 选取孕10d Wistar大鼠,实验组用溶有维甲酸(40mg/ml)的橄榄油,以135mg/kg经胃管注入给药制作脊柱裂畸形大鼠模型;对照组选取孕10 d Wistar大鼠给等量橄榄油.将实验组及对照组按照孕12、15、17和20 d分为4组.应用免疫组织化学方法比较分析Caspase-3在对照组、畸形组胎鼠脊髓组织细胞中的分布和表达情况.结果 脊柱裂大鼠脊髓神经组织中Caspase-3在15d开始增多,一直持续到20 d胚胎大鼠.其增高情况明显高于同一时间点对照组大鼠.胚胎15、17和20 d显性脊柱裂畸形鼠脊髓组织Caspase-3阳性细胞数多于对照组,荧光强度高于对照组.结论 维甲酸诱导的脊柱裂胎鼠Caspase-3表达明显高于正常发育胎鼠.

  3. Effect of prenatal high-salt exposure on cardiac cell cycle in the fetal rats%孕期高盐饮食对胎鼠心肌细胞周期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕琴; 吕娟秀; 李世刚; 徐智策; 茅彩萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察孕期给予高盐饮食后,胎鼠心肌细胞周期是否有改变及其与血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngⅡ)的关系.方法 将SD大鼠随机分为正常组和高盐组,在孕3至21 d分别给予正常盐饮食和高盐饮食,孕21 d时检测母鼠和胎鼠的血钠浓度、血浆渗透压、血浆AngⅡ浓度以及胎鼠心脏组织中的AngⅡ含量,称量孕21 d胎鼠的心脏质量后,分离出心肌细胞,培养后检测细胞周期.结果 与正常组相比,高盐组母鼠和胎鼠的血钠、血浆渗透压无明显改变(均P>0.05),母鼠和胎鼠血浆AngⅡ浓度明显降低,而胎鼠心脏局部AngⅡ明显增加(均P<0.05).胎鼠心肌细胞G1期比例明显降低而S期比例明显增加,AngⅡ明显降低心肌细胞G1期比例并明显增加S期比例(均P<0.05),AngⅡ受体Ⅰ型(AT1R)阻断剂可以阻断AngⅡ引起的细胞周期改变,而AngⅡ受体2型(AT2R)阻断剂对由AngⅡ引起的细胞周期改变无影响.结论 孕期高盐饮食可能激活了胎鼠心脏局部AngⅡ,进而改变心肌细胞周期和影响胎鼠心脏发育,且AT1R介导了AngⅡ对心肌细胞周期的影响.%Objective To determine the effect of high-salt diet during pregnancy on angiotensin-re-lated cardiac cell cycles. Methods Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to either normal-salt diet or high-salt diet during gestational day 3 ~ 21. Blood samples from maternal and fetal rats were prepared for measuring sodium,osmolality,and the hormones. Fetal heart weight was measured. Cardiac cells were cultured for analyzing cell cycle. Results There was no significantly difference of blood sodium concentrations and osmolality in both maternal and fetal rats between the control and high-salt group (all P >0.05). High-salt diet caused plasma Ang Ⅱ decreased in both the mothers and fetuses, and Ang Ⅱ in the fetal myocardium was significantly increased ( all P > 0.05). Gl phase percentage was significantly decreased, whereas S phase percentage was

  4. Effect of the exogenons glucocorticoid on GR expression in fetal rat lung%外源性糖皮质激素对胎鼠肺糖皮质激素受体基因的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of glucocorticoid receptor(GR)in late gestation fetal lung around the time of the onset of augmented surfactant production. Methods GR mRNA was meaanred by Northern blots and hybridizations. GR binding activity was measured by Wrang's method. Results Maternal administration of a high dose dexamethatone increased fetal rat lung GR binding activity, without alteration in GR mRNA levels. Also incubation of fibroblasts (FIB)with 10-7 mol/L cortisol increased GR immunoreactive protein and binding activity without affecting GR mRNA. Identical treatment, epithelial eells(EPI)were followed by decrease of GR protein without changes of GR mRNA. Conclusion The regulation of GR by glucocorticoid in fetal rat lung occurs at a posttranscriptional level, and increasing circulation glucocorticoid concentration during late gestation may be important to the maturation of fetal lung.%目的研究糖皮质激素在妊娠后期肺表面活性物质合成过程中对糖皮质激素受体(GR)的调节作用。方法采用分子生物学杂交技术、Northern印迹法测定胎鼠肺及其二种主要细胞的GR mRNA及Wrang法测定外源性糖皮质激素对胎鼠肺及二种主要细胞GR结合活性的作用。结果大剂量地塞米松可使胎鼠肺GR结合活性增加而GR mRNA无变化。在成纤维细胞(FIB)培养液中加入10-7mol/L的可的松,GR结合活性和蛋白量增加,GRmRNA无变化。上皮细胞(EPI)GR蛋白量减少,GR mRNA无变化,肺表面活性物质蛋白(SP-A)经同样处理其值增加。结论胎鼠肺GR的调节发生于转译后水平,妊娠后期使用糖皮质激素对胎鼠的成熟有重要生理意义。

  5. Transpositioned flap vestibuloplasty combined with implant surgery in the severely resorbed atrophic edentulous ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shou-Yen; Yeung, Tze-Cheung; Hung, Kai-Feng; Chou, I-Chiang; Wu, Che-Hsian; Chang, Richard Che-Shoa

    2002-01-01

    The use of transpositioned flap (lipswitch) vestibuloplasty combined with implant surgery in patients with severely resorbed atrophic edentulous ridges is reviewed. The cases of 17 patients with severely resorbed atrophic edentulous ridges at the mandible undergoing implant rehabilitation were reviewed. Lipswitch vestibuloplasty was followed immediately by the implant surgery. Postoperative follow-up consisted of clinical and radiographic examinations. Seventeen patients with atrophic ridges (12 class II and 5 class III) each had 2 implant fixtures placed in the mandible as abutments for a clip and bar overdenture. The average time of follow-up was 6 years. Before surgery, all patients had severely atrophic ridges with a compromised shallow vestibule of varying degrees. Satisfactory results were observed in regard to the immediate and long-term morphology of the vestibule, the health of the peri-implant tissue, the stability of implant fixtures, and the functionality of the prostheses. The lipswitch vestibuloplasty offers a safe and convenient method of surgical access for implant fixture installation, with the advantage of rebuilding the vestibule of a compromised atrophic ridge in the anterior mandible.

  6. Comparative proteomics analysis of chronic atrophic gastritis: changes of protein expression in chronic atrophic gastritis with out Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin; Hou, Yanhong; Wu, Kai; Li, Dan [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The 309 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-02

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a very common gastritis and one of the major precursor lesions of gastric cancer, one of the most common cancers worldwide. The molecular mechanism underlying CAG is unclear, but its elucidation is essential for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer and appropriate intervention. A combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used in the present study to analyze the differentially expressed proteins. Samples from 21 patients (9 females and 12 males; mean age: 61.8 years) were used. We identified 18 differentially expressed proteins in CAG compared with matched normal mucosa. Eight proteins were up-regulated and 10 down-regulated in CAG when compared with the same amounts of proteins in individually matched normal gastric mucosa. Two novel proteins, proteasome activator subunit 1 (PSME1), which was down-regulated in CAG, and ribosomal protein S12 (RPS12), which was up-regulated in CAG, were further investigated. Their expression was validated by Western blot and RT-PCR in 15 CAG samples matched with normal mucosa. The expression level of RPS12 was significantly higher in CAG than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression level of PSME1 in CAG was significantly lower than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). This study clearly demonstrated that there are some changes in protein expression between CAG and normal mucosa. In these changes, down-regulation of PSME1 and up-regulation of RPS12 could be involved in the development of CAG. Thus, the differentially expressed proteins might play important roles in CAG as functional molecules.

  7. Challenge of Fetal Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports from the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey Clearinghouse on Health Indexes Statistical Notes for ... Fetal mortality is a major, but often overlooked, public health problem. Fetal mortality refers to spontaneous intrauterine ...

  8. Effects of GDNF pretreatment on function and survival of transplanted fetal ventral mesencephalic cells in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andereggen, Lukas; Meyer, Morten; Guzman, Raphael

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation of fetal dopaminergic (DA) neurons offers an experimental therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The low availability and the poor survival and integration of transplanted cells in the host brain are major obstacles in this approach. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF...

  9. Atrophic pityriasis versicolor occurring in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinello, Elena; Piaserico, Stefano; Alaibac, Mauro

    2017-01-18

    Pityriasis versicolor is one of the most frequent epidermal mycotic infections in the world, but its atrophic variant is rarely described. The aetiology of the atrophy is still unknown, and two main hypotheses have been formulated, one suggesting a correlation with long-term use of topical steroids and the other a delayed type hypersensitivity to epicutaneous antigens derived from components of the fungus. Atrophic pityriasis versicolor is a benign disease, but needs to be distinguished from other more severe skin diseases manifesting with cutaneous atrophy. The diagnosis can be easily confirmed by direct microscopic observation of the scales soaked in 15% potassium hydroxide, which reveals the typical 'spaghetti and meatball' appearance, or by a skin biopsy in doubtful cases. Here, we describe a case of extensive atrophic pityriasis versicolor occurring in a woman affected by Sjögren's syndrome which completely resolved after topical antifungal treatment. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Fetal behavioral teratology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Gerard H. A.; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Ververs, F. F. Tessa

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct - in vivo - insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quanti

  11. Association of autoimmune type atrophic corpus gastritis with Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lea; Irene; Veijola; Aino; Mirjam; Oksanen; Pentti; Ilmari; Sipponen; Hilpi; Iris; Kaarina; Rautelin

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study the association between Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori)infection and autoimmune type atrophic gastritis. METHODS:Twenty-three patients with different grades of atrophic gastritis were analysed using enzyme immunoassay-based serology,immunoblot-based serology,and histology to reveal a past or a present H.pylori infection.In addition,serum markers for gastric atrophy(pepsinogenⅠ,pepsinogenⅠ/Ⅱand gastrin)and autoimmunity[parietal cell antibodies(PCA), and intrinsic factor(IF),antibodies]were determi...

  12. HOGG1 polymorphism in atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the association between Ser326Cys human oxoguanine glycosylase 1(hOGG1) polymorphism and atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer after Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) eradication.METHODS:A total of 488 subjects(73 patients with gastric cancer,160 with atrophic gastritis after H.pylori eradication and 255 controls) were prospectively collected.Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed to distinguish hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism.Statistical analys...

  13. [Chronic atrophic polychondritis and renal and cardiopulmonary amylosis: a case report and literature review (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrozo, J; Baubion, D; Brodaty, Y; Leclerc, J P

    1981-01-01

    Glomerular lesions with a nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function developed secondary to a chronic atrophic polychondritis confirmed by auricular biopsy. In the absence of renal histology data, the possibility of an iatrogenic complication or a renal lesion specific to the affection itself were successively eliminated. Pos-mortem histological examination demonstrated renal and cardiopulmonary amylosis, the latter being clinically asymptomatic. The probable autoimmune origin of the chronic atrophic polychondritis has to be discussed in parallel with the dysimmunity mechanism responsible for the amyloid lesions, but no relationship between them was demonstrated.

  14. Antenatal taurine supplementation reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with growth restriction%孕鼠补充牛磺酸减少胎儿生长受限胎鼠脑细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓凤; 滕慧云; 刘敬; 杨娜; 任晓暾

    2013-01-01

    论 FGR胎鼠脑细胞凋亡显著增多.孕鼠补充牛磺酸可以显著减少FGR胎鼠脑细胞凋亡,其机制可能与牛磺酸能够促进GDNF表达和减少caspase-3表达有关.%Objective To explore the effect of antenatal taurine supplementation on cerebral apoptosis and the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and caspase-3 in fetal rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR).Methods Fifteen pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:control group,FGR model group (model group) and FGR with antenatal taurine supplementation group (taurine group).Taurine was added into the diet of taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/(kg · d) from the 12th day of gestation until natural delivery.Two appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborn rats were randomly selected from each mother in control group and two FGR fetal rats were randomly selected from each mother both in model and taurine groups.Apoptosis of neural cells in the brain was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL).Changes in protein expression of GDNF and caspase-3 were detected by immunohistochemistry.Levene method,one-way ANOVA and SNK-test,or Kruskal Wallis rank sum test and Tamhane’ s test were applied for statistical analysis.Results (1)The total amounts of fetal rats in control group,model group and taurine group were 65,60 and 59.The mean body weight of fetal rats were (6.36±0.44) g,(4.55 ± 0.45) g and (5.11±0.67) g,respectively.All fetal rats developed FGR in model group,while 76.3%(45/59) of fetal rats were FGR in taurine group.Therefore,FGR model was successfully established.(2) In control group,there were few expression of TUNEL positive cells in cerebral cortex.A large amount of TUNEL positive cells were found in the cortex,hippocampal and white matter area in model group,but less positive cells were identified in taurine group than in model group.The amount of apoptotic brain cells in the three groups

  15. The Influence of Mordified Dan Shou Decoction on Rat Model of Fetal Loss Induced by BPA%加味丹寿汤对双酚A染毒孕鼠妊娠丢失的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫爱武; 王润之; 何东杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective;To explore the influence of Mordified Dan Shou Tang on pregnant rat models of felal loss induced by bisphenol A (BPA). Methods: 10-week-old SD pregnant rats were divided randomly into nourishing kidney and promoting blood flow group 、nouris-hing kidney group 、 model group 、negative control group and blank group. From the first day of pregnancy,rats in nourishing kidney and promoting blood flow group were given Mordified Dan Shou Tang through intragastric administration; rats in nourishing kidney group were given the formula of nourishing kidney ;while rats in other groups were given the physiological brine respectively through intragas-tric administration. From the seventh to the eleventh day of pregnancy,nourishing kidney and promoting blood flow group,nourishing kidney group and model group were given multi-site intraperitoneal injection of BPA with a dosage of 50mg · (kg · d) ‐1 while negative control group were given multi-site intraperitoneal injection of sesame oil with the same volume. On the eighteenth day of pregnancy,rats in all the five groups were killed for samples to calculate fetal absorption rate,fetal weight and living birth rate. Results:Compared with model group,nourishing kidney and promoting blood flow group and nourishing kidney group could dramatically reduce the fetal absorp-tion rate, increase fetal weight, enhance the content of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor ( P < 0.05) and significantly improve the placental pathological condition with nourishing kidney and promoting blood flow group displaying better effects in the above items ( P<0.05). Conclusion: Modified Dan Shou Decoction could dramatically increase the content of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and improve the placental pathological condition, thus decreasing fetal absorbility of pregnant rats of BPA and increasing fetal weight and the chances of pregnancy.%目的:探讨补肾活血方——加味丹寿汤对双酚A染毒孕鼠模

  16. 大鼠胚胎卵巢原位移植后子代的健康安全性研究%Health safety of the offspring after orthotopic fetal ovarian allotransplantation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程春霞; 薛敏; 徐大宝

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨大鼠胚胎卵巢原位移植术后自然生育的子代健康安全性问题.方法:选胚胎卵巢原位移植术后确定妊娠的19只雌性大鼠(研究组)和正常妊娠的10只雌性大鼠(对照组),观察其妊娠后有无流产征象、死产、幼鼠死亡(观察至出生后第3天),并比较观察结果;随机抽取2组大鼠的子代各40只;比较子代大鼠35日龄时的体质量;应用常规G显带技术对2组子代大鼠进行核型分析,观察大鼠的染色体数目和结构的变异情况.结果:研究组及对照组均无流产征象、无死产、无幼鼠生后3d内死亡;研究组和对照组子代大鼠35日龄的体质量分别为(93.80±4.93)g和(94.13±4.53)g,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).2组子代大鼠的核型均为42,XX或42,XY,未发现染色体数目和结构异常.结论:大鼠胚胎卵巢原位移植后生育的子代在健康方面是安全的.%Objective To investigate the health safety of the offspring delivered following natural pregnancy after orthotopic fetal ovarian allotransplantation in rats. Methods Any symptoms of spontaneous abortion during pregnancy and of any possible still birth and death of infant rats within 3 days after the delivery were observed and compared in 19 pregnant rats (the study group) after the orthotopic fetal ovarian allotransplantation and in another 10 pregnant rats (the control group). Forty offspring rats from each group were selected randomly. The mean weight at day 35 after the birth of offsprings was measured and compared. By routine G-banding technique, the karyotype was analyzed and the chromosomal number and structure were observed. Results There was no spontaneous abortion, still birth, or death in the infants within 3 days after the birth in both groups. The body weight of offsprings at 35 days in both groups was (93. 80 ±4. 93) g and (94. 13 ±4. 53) g, respectively. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The karyotype a

  17. Effect of Invigorating Spleen-Generating Blood Granule on Embryo-fetal Development of Rats%健脾生血颗粒对大鼠胚胎-胎仔发育毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵刚; 夏莹; 黄志军; 裴学军; 唐惠丹

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价灌胃给予健脾生血颗粒对大鼠胚胎-胎仔发毒性作用。方法:孕鼠随机分为阴性对照、阳性对照和低、中、高剂量试验组,分别于孕期第6至第15天连续灌胃给药。其中,低、中、高剂量试验组分别灌胃健脾生血颗粒浸膏1.16、3.48、10.44 g/kg/d,阳性对照组灌胃维生素 A 醋酸酯0.08 g/kg/d,阴性对照组给予同样体积的纯净水。记录孕鼠的体重、身长、摄食量及临床表现。于妊娠第20天剖检孕鼠,观察胎盘和胎鼠外观形态,记录黄体数、活胎数、死胎数、吸收胎、着床数及胎盘质量,制作骨骼和内脏标本,以作进一步检查。结果:阳性对照组出现了明显的致畸作用,证明本试验系统结果可靠。试验组大鼠经给药后,均未见明显异常临床症状,各剂量组对胚胎的形成均无明显影响,且黄体数、植入数、死胎、活胎以及吸收胎与阴性对照组比较差异均无统计学意义。此外,低、中剂量的浸膏对亲代大鼠未见明显一般毒性,但高剂量浸膏可致亲代大鼠体重和摄食量下降,影响部分胎鼠的发育,主要表现为体重减轻,少数动物关节畸形等。结论:在本试验条件下,健脾生血颗粒浸膏对大鼠胚胎-胎仔发育毒性的无不良反应剂量为3.48 g/kg,相当于成人临床最大用量的42倍。%Objective:To investigate the effects of Invigorating Spleen-Generating Blood Granule on embryo-fetal development of rats after intragastric administration.Methods:Pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups:negative control,positive control,treatment groups with low,medium,or high dosage.The control groups were given oral administration with extract of the granule at 1.16、3.48、10.44 g/kg/d respectively for 10 days after six days’pregnancy.The positive control group were given Vita-min A acetate at 0.08 g/kg/d;the negative group were

  18. Atrophic vaginitis: concordance and interpretation of slides in the College of American Pathologists Cervicovaginal Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Gynecologic Cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Barbara A; Booth, Christine N; Darragh, Teresa M; Means, Marilee M; Souers, Rhona J; Thomas, Nicole; Moriarty, Ann T

    2012-11-01

    Atrophic vaginitis is a commonly reported subset of Papanicolaou test results that are negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, but interpretive criteria overlap with atrophic changes and other entities, hindering concordance among observers. To report on the participant concordance from 2000 to 2009 in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Gynecologic Cytopathology, with a reference interpretation of atrophic vaginitis, and to investigate cytologic features of good and poorly performing slides to identify criteria useful in the interpretation of atrophic vaginitis. We summarized 18 302 responses from the program for slides with a reference interpretation of atrophic vaginitis. We randomly selected 18 Papanicolaou test results (3 conventional, 4 SurePath, and 11 ThinPrep) from good and poor performers for prospective, blinded criteria scoring for the following features: abundance of neutrophils, more than 100 degenerating parabasal cells, more than 25% necrotic background, more than 100 pseudoparakeratotic cells, and the presence of stripped or streaked nuclei, histiocytes, and superficial or intermediate squamous cells. Most Papanicolaou test results (>90%) with a specific reference interpretation of atrophic vaginitis were categorized as negative. Cytotechnologists are more likely than pathologists are to label it negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) and are equally likely to mistake it for a high-grade lesion. Degenerating parabasal cells, pseudoparakeratosis, and necrotic background are associated with atrophic vaginitis (P  =  .001) on Papanicolaou. Abundant neutrophils (>100 per ×400 field) are also significantly correlated (P  =  .01). Exact concordance to atrophic vaginitis is less than 90%. Most of the discrepancies are negative results for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Advanced atrophic features are as significant as neutrophils are to the interpretation of atrophic

  19. Placental lactogen administration reverses the effect of low-protein diet on maternal and fetal serum somatomedin levels in the pregnant rat.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Female rats were studied on day 20 of pregnancy after being fed either a 5% lactalbumin (low protein) diet or a 20% lactalbumin (adequate) diet for the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. Rats on the lower intake of protein showed decreased serum levels of rat placental lactogen and reduced numbers of lactogenic receptors in the maternal liver. These changes were accompanied by much reduced serum levels of somatomedins IGF I(insulin-like growth factor) and II (multiplication-stimulating activity, MSA)...

  20. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  1. 孕期亚临床维生素A缺乏对胎鼠肺形态发育的影响%Effects of marginal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy on the lung morphology of fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘友红

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨孕期亚临床维生素A(vitamin A,VA)缺乏对胎鼠肺形态发育的影响. [方法]建立孕期VA正常(vitamin A normal,VAN)和亚临床缺乏(marginal vitamin A deficiency,MVAD)动物模型,每组均于孕19 d剖宫取胎鼠.比较其体重、肺重、肝重和肺组织VA含量及其肺视黄酸受体(retinoic acid receptor,RAR)mRNAs的表达,HE染色光镜观察胎鼠肺的形态结构. [结果]1)胎鼠基本情况的比较体重、肺重和肝重三个指标VAN组均显著高于MVAD组(P<0.05);2)胎肺大体形态比较低倍镜(×200)与高倍镜(×400)下观察结果显示,VAN组肺泡样结构分布较规则,肺泡间隔较薄,肺实质发育较好,肺间质毛细血管较丰富,肺泡2型细胞较明显,大多处于小管期;而MVAD组上述指标均相对较差,发育幼稚,局部为小管期,大多为假腺体期;3)胎鼠肺单位组织VA水平VAN组>MVAD组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);4)胎鼠肺RAR-α、RAR-y和RAR-β mRNAs表达水平VAN组<MVAD组,三个基因的表达水平两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05). [结论]孕期VA水平不同能影响胎鼠基本发育、胎肺形态结构、肺单位组织VA水平及其RAR mRNAs的表达;孕期MVAD时其胎肺发育相对较差.%[Objective] To observe the effects of marginal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy on the lung' morphology of fetal rats. [Methods] Prenatal vitamin A norma( VAN)and marginal vitamin A deficiency(MVAD)of Spra-gue-Dawley rat models were employed. There were 6 mice in each group. On the gestational day 19 .fetal rats were harvested by cesarean section. Then weighed their body,lung and liver. The fetal lung morphology were observed by light microscope after hematoxylin and eosin stain. The vitamin A concentrations of lung were detected by high-performance liquid chroma-tography(HPLC) ,and the levels of retinoic acid receptor(RAR) mRNAs were detected by semi-quantitative reverse tran-scription-polymerase chain reaction

  2. Clinical Research on Acupuncture and Moxibustion Treatment of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xiyan; Yuan Jing; Li Huijuan; Ren Shan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effects of acupuncture and moxibustion in treating chronic atrophic gastritis. Methods: Patients who met the criteria were randomly divided into the treatment groups consisting of the acupuncture group (30 cases) and the acupuncture-moxibustion group (30 cases), and the control group (28 cases). After two months of treatment, observed were safety and the curative effects,through general physical check ups, routine examinations of blood, urine and feces, and symptoms,pathology and gastrin before, during and after the treatment. Results: 1) The treatment groups showed significant superiorities in the improvement of symptoms, with the acupuncture-moxibustion group showing the best therapeutic effects. 2) The acupuncture-moxibustion group showed marked differences before and after the treatment in the improvement of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, with a total effective rate of 66.67%. 3) After the treatment, the three groups all showed marked improvement in the level of serum gastrin, with the acupuncture-moxibustion group showing the best effects. Conclusion: Acupuncture and moxibustion have definite therapeutic effects for chronic atrophic gastritis, especially in improving the symptoms. Acupuncture or acupuncture combined with moxibustion can provide possibilities in reversing the pathologic changes of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia for patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. Acupuncture-moxibustion is really an effective and safe therapy for chronic atrophic gastritis.

  3. The serological gastric biopsy in primary care : studies on atrophic gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, Andries

    2006-01-01

    This thesis sheds light on the clinical utility of serum markers of gastric atrophy, pepsinogen and gastrin, in general practice in the Dutch province of Zeeland. The biomarkers were used in studies on atrophic corpus gastritis, as surrogate outcome of gastric cancer. Attention was paid to seroepide

  4. The serological gastric biopsy in primary care : studies on atrophic gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, Andries

    2006-01-01

    This thesis sheds light on the clinical utility of serum markers of gastric atrophy, pepsinogen and gastrin, in general practice in the Dutch province of Zeeland. The biomarkers were used in studies on atrophic corpus gastritis, as surrogate outcome of gastric cancer. Attention was paid to

  5. Dominant inherited distal spinal muscular atrophy with atrophic and hypertrophic calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; Sie, O G; van Weerden, T W

    1993-01-01

    The clinical, electrophysiological, radiological and morphological data of 3 members of a family with autosomal dominant distal spinal muscular atrophy (DSMA) are reported. One patient has the clinical picture of peroneal muscular atrophy with atrophic calves. His father and sister suffer from cramp

  6. Maxillary sinus lateral wall thickness and morphologic patterns in the atrophic posterior maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Catena, Andrés; Monje, Florencio; Gonzalez-García, Raúl; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Suarez, Fernando; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the sinus lateral wall thickness (LWT) of atrophic posterior maxilla (maxillary LWT. Four hundred fourteen measures were taken from 140 consecutive patients that met the inclusion criteria. On the selected sagittal section, a built-in digital caliper recorded in millimeters the RH and LWT (a perpendicular line at 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, and 15 mm from the lowest point of the sinus floor). Edentulous spans were further classified as complete edentulous atrophic maxilla (CEM) and partial edentulous atrophic maxilla (PEM). The mixed linear model was used to test the effects of sex, type of edentulism, edentulous span, and RH on the measurement of the LWT of the sinus. Mean LWT for PEM was 1.71 ± 0.12 mm, and for CEM, 1.57 ± 0.07 mm (P = 0.01). The mixed model yielded significant effect of edentulous span (P = 0.048) and interactions among type of edentulism and edentulous span (P maxillary sinus lateral wall tends to increase in thickness from the second premolar to the second molar and from 5 mm up to 15 mm. In addition, RH, presence of teeth adjacent to the edentulous atrophic ridge, and age were shown to influence maxillary sinus LWT.

  7. Dominant inherited distal spinal muscular atrophy with atrophic and hypertrophic calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; Sie, O G; van Weerden, T W

    1993-01-01

    The clinical, electrophysiological, radiological and morphological data of 3 members of a family with autosomal dominant distal spinal muscular atrophy (DSMA) are reported. One patient has the clinical picture of peroneal muscular atrophy with atrophic calves. His father and sister suffer from cramp

  8. Differential expression of phospholipase C epsilon 1 is associated with chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation plays a causal role in gastric tumor initiation. The identification of predictive biomarkers from gastric inflammation to tumorigenesis will help us to distinguish gastric cancer from atrophic gastritis and establish the diagnosis of early-stage gastric cancer. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCε1 is reported to play a vital role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of PLCε1 in the initiation and progression of gastric cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Firstly, the mRNA and protein expression of PLCε1 were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting in normal gastric mucous epithelial cell line GES-1 and gastric cancer cell lines AGS, SGC7901, and MGC803. The results showed both mRNA and protein levels of PLCε1 were up-regulated in gastric cancer cells compared with normal gastric mucous epithelial cells. Secondly, this result was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection in a tissue microarray including 74 paired gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues. Thirdly, an independence immunohistochemical analysis of 799 chronic atrophic gastritis tissue specimens demonstrated that PLCε1 expression in atrophic gastritis tissues were down-regulated since PLCε1 expression was negative in 524 (65.6% atrophic gastritis. In addition, matched clinical tissues from atrophic severe gastritis and gastric cancer patients were used to further confirm the previous results by analyzing mRNA and protein levels expression of PLCε1 in clinical samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: Our results suggested that PLCε1 protein may be a potential biomarker to distinguish gastric cancer from inflammation lesion, and could have great potential in applications such as diagnosis and pre-warning of early-stage gastric cancer.

  9. Increased expression of intranuclear matrix metalloproteinase 9 in atrophic renal tubules is associated with renal fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Pi Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced turnover of extracellular matrix has a role in renal fibrosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs is associated with many glomerular diseases, but the histological association of MMPs and human renal fibrosis is unclear. METHODS: This is a retrospective study. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for the review of patients' medical records, data analysis and pathological specimens staining with waiver of informed consents. Specimens of forty-six patients were examined by immunohistochemical stain of MMP-9 in nephrectomized kidneys, and the association of renal expression of MMP-9 and renal fibrosis was determined. MMP-9 expression in individual renal components and fibrosis was graded as high or low based on MMP-9 staining and fibrotic scores. RESULTS: Patients with high interstitial fibrosis scores (IFS and glomerular fibrosis scores (GFS had significantly higher serum creatinine, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and were more likely to have chronic kidney disease (CKD and urothelial cell carcinoma. Univariate analysis showed that IFS and GFS were negatively associated with normal and atrophic tubular cytoplasmic MMP-9 expression and IFS was positively correlated with atrophic tubular nuclear MMP-9 expression. Multivariate stepwise regression indicated that MMP-9 expression in atrophic tubular nuclei (r = 0.4, p = 0.002 was an independent predictor of IFS, and that MMP-9 expression in normal tubular cytoplasm (r = -0.465, p<0.001 was an independent predictor of GFS. CONCLUSIONS: Interstitial fibrosis correlated with MMP-9 expression in the atrophic tubular nuclei. Our results indicate that renal fibrosis is associated with a decline of MMP-9 expression in the cytoplasm of normal tubular cells and increased expression of MMP-9 in the nuclei of tubular atrophic renal tubules.

  10. Leptin promotes fetal lung maturity and upregulates SP-A expression in pulmonary alveoli type-II epithelial cells involving TTF-1 activation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Hui; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Huang, Hui; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Cheng, Rui; Cai, Wei-Bin

    2013-01-01

    .... In the present study, we found that antenatal treatment with leptin for 2 d significantly enhanced the relative alveolus area and improved the maturity of fetal lungs in a rat model of fetal growth restriction (FGR...

  11. Fetal Health and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific prenatal tests to monitor both the mother's health and fetal health during each trimester. With modern technology, health professionals can Detect birth defects Identify problems that ...

  12. ASCITIS FETAL AISLADA

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    La ascitis fetal aislada es una entidad asociada a múltiples patologías, el diagnostico se realiza usualmente cuando fueron descartados las otras causas de ascitis fetal. Se describe el diagnóstico prenatal de un paciente con ascitis fetal aislada compatible con atresia ileal y peritonitis meconial secundaria a perforación de ileon distal. La ascitis fetal se resolvió posterior a la cirugía al segundo día de vida. Este caso tiene un buen pronostico debido al control tanto prenatal como intra ...

  13. Genetic loci for ventricular dilatation in the LEW/Jms rat with fetal-onset hydrocephalus are influenced by gender and genetic background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayorga David A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The LEW/Jms rat strain has inherited hydrocephalus, with more males affected than females and an overall expression rate of 28%. This study aimed to determine chromosomal positions for genetic loci causing the hydrocephalus. Methods An F1 backcross was made to the parental LEW/Jms strain from a cross with non-hydrocephalic Fischer 344 rats. BC1 rats were generated for two specific crosses: the first with a male LEW/Jms rat as parent and grandparent, [(F × L × L], designated B group, and the second with a female LEW/Jms rat as the parent and grandparent [L × (L × F], designated C group. All hydrocephalic and a similar number of non-hydrocephalic rats from these two groups were genotyped with microsatellite markers and the data was analyzed separately for each sex by MAPMAKER. Results The frequency of hydrocephalus was not significantly different between the two groups (18.2 and 19.9 %, but there was a significant excess of males in the B group. The mean severity of hydrocephalus, measured as the ventricle-to-brain width ratio, was ranked as B group Conclusion Phenotypic expression of hydrocephalus in Lew/Jms, although not X-linked, has a strong male bias. One, and possibly two chromosomal regions are associated with the hydrocephalus.

  14. Modelo experimental para restrição do crescimento fetal em ratos: efeito sobre o glicogênio hepático e morfometria intestinal e renal Experimental rat model for fetal growth restriction: effects on liver glycogen and intestinal and renal morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pereira Bueno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficácia do modelo de RCIU por ligadura da artéria uterina simulando insuficiência placentária em ratos. MÉTODOS: fetos de ratas prenhes Sprague-Dawley foram divididos em três grupos: RCIU (restrição de crescimento intrauterino, com fetos submetidos à ligadura da artéria uterina com 18,5 dias de gestação (termo = 22 dias, C-RCIU (controle da restrição, com fetos do corno contralateral à ligadura, CE (Controle Externo, com fetos de ratas sem manipulação. Com 21,5 dias de gestação, foi realizada cesárea, os fetos foram pesados e dissecados para análise morfométrica e histológica do fígado, intestino e rins. RESULTADOS: os dados morfométricos avaliados mostraram o peso corpóreo (PC, hepático (PH e intestinal (PI dos fetos com RCIU menor que C-RCIU e CE (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effectiveness of the IUGR model by uterine artery ligation mimicking placental insufficiency in rats. METHODS: sprague-Dawley rat fetuses were divided into three groups: IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction, with fetuses in the right horn of pregnant rats subjected to right uterine artery ligation at 18.5 days of gestation (term = 22 days; C-IUGR (control of restriction, with control fetuses in the left horn, and EC (external control, with fetuses of intact rats. Animals were harvested by cesarean section at day 21.5 days of gestation. Fetuses were weighed and then sacrificed. The intestine, liver, kidney and placenta were weighed and dissected for morphometric and histological analysis. RESULTS: the morphometric data showed decreased body weight (BW, liver weight (LW and intestinal weight (IW of fetuses with IUGR compared to C-IUGR and EC (p<0.001. The placental weight (PW, renal weight (RW and LW/BW, IW/BW, and RW/BW ratios did not change. IUGR fetuses had decreased kidney thickness (p<0.001 and decreased thickness of the intestinal mucosa and submucosa (p<0.05. Histological evaluation showed reduction of liver glycogen

  15. Cytochrome P450 mRNA expressions along with in vitro differentiation of hepatocyte precursor cells from fetal, young and old rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wiaderkiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-differentiated cells are attractive targets for cell therapy. During liver regeneration oval cells intensively proliferate and differentiate extending their metabolic activity. Hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYPs can be linked either with metabolic activation of toxic compounds or drug metabolism. We investigated the differentiation and biotransformative potential of non-differentiated cells in primary cell cultures isolated from livers of fetuses (16-days-old, young (4-months-old and old (20-months-old rats. Under the conditions of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, adult rats were fed for three weeks with CDE diet. Liver cells were cultured and precursor cells were differentiated to hepatocytes following induction with sodium butyrate (SB or dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO in culture on MesenCult medium. We identified a number of cells expressing Thy-1, CD34, alpha-fetoprotein, cytokeratines--CK18 or CK19 and glutathione transferases--GSTpi or GSTalpha. In vitro differentiation of these cells, isolated from CDE-treated rats begun earlier as compared to non-treated ones. Age-dependent changes in the cell differentiation sequence, as well as CYPmRNA expression sequence accompanying precursor cells differentiation, were also observed. mRNA expression of CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2 and CYP3A1 was higher in the cells of young rats, but in the case of CYP2E1--in the cells of old rats. It was concluded that both proliferation and differentiation potential of oval cells, decreased with age.

  16. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  18. Efficacy of tepronone and folic acid in the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis evaluated by the marking targeting biopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘力锋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of tepronone and folic acid in the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis(CAG) evaluated by the marking targeting biopsy(MTB).Methods A total of 224 H.pylori negative

  19. The staging of gastritis with the OLGA system by using intestinal metaplasia as an accurate alternative for atrophic gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle, Lisette G.; de Vries, Annemarie C.; Haringsma, Jelle; Ter Borg, Frank; de Vries, Richard A.; Bruno, Marco J.; van Dekken, Herman; Meijer, Jos; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The OLGA (operative link on gastritis assessment) staging system is based on severity of atrophic gastritis (AG). AG remains a difficult histopathologic diagnosis with low interobserver agreement, whereas intestinal metaplasia (IM) is associated with high interobserver agreement. Objecti

  20. The staging of gastritis with the OLGA system by using intestinal metaplasia as an accurate alternative for atrophic gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle, Lisette G.; de Vries, Annemarie C.; Haringsma, Jelle; Ter Borg, Frank; de Vries, Richard A.; Bruno, Marco J.; van Dekken, Herman; Meijer, Jos; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    Background: The OLGA (operative link on gastritis assessment) staging system is based on severity of atrophic gastritis (AG). AG remains a difficult histopathologic diagnosis with low interobserver agreement, whereas intestinal metaplasia (IM) is associated with high interobserver agreement.

  1. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  2. Clinical and Histological Results of Vertical Ridge Augmentation of Atrophic Posterior Mandible with Inlay Technique of Cancellous Equine Bone Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Pistilli R; Barausse C; Checchi L; Nannmark U; Felice P

    2013-01-01

    Aim: We want to evaluate a new bone block material in the inlay technique, for the vertical bone augmentation of a posterior atrophic mandible, in order to perfom aesthetic and prosthetic rehabilitation and enable implant insertion. Materials & Methods: Inlay technique and the subsequent successful implant rehabilitation in the atrophic right posterior mandible in a 42-year-old woman, was completed using a cancellous equine bone block as grafting material. Results: Three months after ...

  3. Taking pressure off the heart: the ins and outs of atrophic remodelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Kedryn K.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Our work on atrophic remodelling of the heart has led us to appreciate the simple principles in biology: (i) the dynamic nature of intracellular protein turnover, (ii) the return to the foetal gene programme when the heart remodels, and (iii) the adaptive changes of cardiac metabolism. Although the molecular mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy are many, much less is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of cardiac atrophy. We state the case that knowing more about mechanisms of atrophic remodelling may provide insights into cellular consequences of metabolic and haemodynamic unloading of the stressed heart. Overall we strive to find an answer to the question: ‘What makes the failing heart shrink and become stronger?' We speculate that signals arising from intermediary metabolism of energy-providing substrates are likely candidates. PMID:21354996

  4. IL-1β a potential factor for discriminating between thyroid carcinoma and atrophic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun-Krichen, Maha; Bougacha-Elleuch, Noura; Mnif, Mouna; Bougacha, Fadia; Charffedine, Ilhem; Rebuffat, Sandra; Rebai, Ahmed; Glasson, Emilie; Abid, Mohamed; Ayadi, Fatma; Péraldi-Roux, Sylvie; Ayadi, Hammadi

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between cytokines and others soluble factors (hormones, antibodies...) can play an important role in the development of thyroid pathogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible correlation between serum cytokine concentrations, thyroid hormones (FT4 and TSH) and auto-antibodies (Tg and TPO), and their usefulness in discriminating between different thyroid conditions. In this study, we investigated serum from 115 patients affected with a variety of thyroid conditions (44 Graves' disease, 17 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 11 atrophic thyroiditis, 28 thyroid nodular goitre and 15 papillary thyroid cancer), and 30 controls. Levels of 17 cytokines in serum samples were measured simultaneously using a multiplexed human cytokine assay. Thyroid hormones and auto-antibodies were measured using ELISA. Our study showed that IL-1β serum concentrations allow the discrimination between atrophic thyroiditis and papillary thyroid cancer groups (p = 0.027).

  5. Severely atrophic human muscle fibers with nuclear misplacement survive many years of permanent denervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Carraro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Likewise in rodents, after complete spinal cord injury (SCI the lower motor neuron (LMN denervated human muscle fibers lose completely the myofibrillar apparatus and the coil distribution of myonuclei that are relocated in groups (nuclear clumps in the center of severely atrophic muscle fibers. Up to two years of LMN denervation the muscle fibers with nuclear clumps are very seldom, but in this cohort of patients the severely atrophic muscle fibers are frequent in muscle biopsies harvested three to six years after SCI. Indeed, the percentage increased to 27 ± 9% (p< 0.001, and then abruptly decreased from the 6th year onward, when fibrosis takes over to neurogenic muscle atrophy. Immunohistochemical analyses shown that nuclear misplacements occurred in both fast and slow muscle fibers. In conclusion, human muscle fibers survive permanent denervation much longer than generally accepted and relocation of nuclei is a general behavior in long term denervated muscle fibers.

  6. Fractional CO2 lasers for the treatment of atrophic acne scars: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Lauren Rose; Schweiger, Eric S

    2014-04-01

    This review examines the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 lasers for the treatment of atrophic scarring secondary to acne vulgaris. We reviewed 20 papers published between 2008 and 2013 that conducted clinical studies using fractional CO2 lasers to treat atrophic scarring. We discuss the prevalence and pathogenesis of acne scarring, as well as the laser mechanism. The histologic findings are included to highlight the ability of these lasers to induce the collagen reorganization and formation that improves scar appearance. We considered the number of treatments and different laser settings to determine which methods achieve optimal outcomes. We noted unique treatment regimens that yielded superior results. An overview of adverse effects is included to identify the most common ones. We concluded that more studies need to be done using uniform treatment parameters and reporting in order to establish which fractional CO2 laser treatment approaches allow for the greatest scar improvement.

  7. Rationale in diagnosis and screening of atrophic gastritis with stomach-specific plasma biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Agréus, Lars; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Di Mario, Francesco; Leja, Marcis; Mahachai, Varocha; Yaron, Niv; Van Oijen, Martijn; Perez, Guillermo Perez; Rugge, Massimo; Ronkainen, Jukka; Salaspuro, Mikko; Sipponen, Pentti; Sugano, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Atrophic gastritis (AG) results most often from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AG is the most important single risk condition for gastric cancer that often leads to an acid-free or hypochlorhydric stomach. In the present paper, we suggest a rationale for noninvasive screening of AG with stomach-specific biomarkers. Methods The paper summarizes a set of data on application of the biomarkers and describes how the test results could be interpreted in practice. Res...

  8. Inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms increase the risk of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of interleukin-8 (IL-8 ), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF ) gene polymorphisms, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) infection, on the risk of developing severe chronic atrophic gastritis (SCAG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM). METHODS: A total of 372 cases were selected from a cohort study in Linqu County, a high risk area for gastric cancer (GC) in northern China. To obtain a sufficient group size, patients with normal or superficial gastritis were included. Based on...

  9. INFLUENCE BILIARY DYSKINESIA ON RELIABLE CHAIR-TEST IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC NON-ATROPHIC GASTRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Avramenko, A. A.; Korolenko, R N; Shuhtina, I. N.

    2017-01-01

    It was carried out a comprehensive survey of 45 patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis with biliary dyskinesia, which included ultrasound diagnosis of abdominal organs, pH meters, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, double testing for H. pylori infection and histological examination of the gastric mucosa to 4 - m topographic zones, stool test and determine the level of antibodies to HP infection by ELISA. It was found that the presence of biliary dyskinesia reduces the reliability of the chair-...

  10. Resistance and barriers to local estrogen therapy in women with atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Krychman, Michael L

    2013-06-01

    Vaginal atrophy results from a decrease in circulating estrogen and is experienced by approximately 50% of postmenopausal women. Its symptoms affect multiple dimensions of genitopelvic health, sexuality, and overall quality of life. Nonhormonal over-the-counter treatments may provide temporary symptom relief, but the condition is progressive, and hormonal treatment may be warranted. The study aims to review the literature and discuss the impact of atrophic vaginitis and various treatment options, including the resistance and barriers to the use of local estrogen therapy for atrophic vaginitis. This article also aims to provide a greater awareness of the condition and the difficulties in communicating effectively with patients, and to provide strategies to help healthcare professionals acquire effective communication skills to initiate a candid dialogue with patients who may be suffering in silence and may benefit from therapy. This review was based on peer-reviewed publications on the topic of atrophic vaginitis and local estrogen therapy identified from key word searches of PubMed, in addition to landmark studies/surveys and treatment guidelines/recommendations on menopause available in the literature and on the Internet. The main outcomes are the impact of atrophic vaginitis and the various treatment options, including the resistance and barriers to the use of local estrogen therapy. Minimally absorbed local vaginal estrogen therapy enables administration of estrogen doses much lower than systemic doses used for vasomotor symptoms. Local therapy is also the first-line pharmacologic treatment recommended by the North American Menopause and International Menopause Societies. Despite treatment options, the sensitive nature of the condition and embarrassment may prohibit or limit many women from openly discussing symptoms with healthcare professionals. Many are hesitant to initiate hormonal treatment because of safety concerns. Healthcare professionals should

  11. Treatment of atrophic scars with fractionated CO2 laser facilitating delivery of topically applied poly-L-lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rkein, Ali; Ozog, David; Waibel, Jill S

    2014-06-01

    Atrophic scars represent a loss of collagen and a challenging reconstructive dilemma with disappointing traditional treatments. To study the safety and efficacy of the treatment of atrophic scars using an ablative fractionated CO2 laser and topical poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) immediately after to improve atrophic scars. This was an uncontrolled, institutional review board-approved, prospective study evaluating the treatment of atrophic scars. Four blinded dermatologists evaluated a total of 20 photographs taken at baseline and 3 months after the laser and PLLA treatments using the Modified Manchester Scar Scale. Four criteria were evaluated: (1) overall improvement, (2) improvement in scar atrophy, (3) improvement in scar color/dyschromia mismatch, and (4) improvement in scar contour. All 4 observers accurately identified 76 of the 80 "before" and "after" photographs. Therefore, the blinded evaluating physicians agreed that at the 3-month follow-up visit, 95% of the scars had improved. Each criterion demonstrated an average improvement of at least 33%. The combination of using an ablative fractional CO2 laser and PLLA in the treatment of atrophic scars has a synergistic effect on their inherent properties in up-regulating new collagen synthesis to improve atrophic scars.

  12. Influence of H pylori on plasma ghrelin in patients without atrophic gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Cindoruk; Ilhan Yetkin; Serpil Muge Deger; Tarkan Karakan; Erdal Kan; Selahattin Unal

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the association between H pylori infection and serum ghrelin levels in patients without atrophic gastritis.METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients (24 males and 26 females) with either H pylori-positive gastritis (n = 34) or H pylori-negative gastritis (n = 16) with normal gastric acid secretion determined by 24-h pHmetry and without atrophic gastritis in histopathology were enrolled in this study. Thirty-four H pylori-infected patients were treated with triple therapy consisting of a daily regimen of 30 mg lansoprazole bid, 1 g amoxicillin bid and 500 mg clarithromycin bid for 14 d, followed by an additional 4 wk of 30 mg lansoprazol treatment. H pylori infection was eradicated in 23 of 34 (67.6%) patients. H pylori-positive patients were given eradication therapy. Gastric acidity was determined via intragastric pH catethers. Serum ghrelin was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA).RESULTS: There was no significant difference in plasma ghrelin levels between H pylori -positive and H pylori-negative groups (81.10 ± 162.66 ng/L vs 76.51 ± 122.94 ng/L). In addition, there was no significant difference in plasma ghrelin levels and gastric acidity levels measured before and 3 mo after the eradication therapy.CONCLUSION: H pylori infection does not influence ghrelin secretion in patients with chronic gastritis without atrophic gastritis.

  13. Lack of specific association between gastric autoimmunity hallmarks and clinical presentations of atrophic body gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruno Annibale; Edith Lahner; Riccardo Negrini; Flavia Baccini; Cesare Bordi; Bruno Monarca; Gianfranco Delle Fave

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible relationships between gastric autoimmune phenomena and clinical presentations of this disorder, in consecutive atrophic body gastritis patients.METHODS: A total of 140 atrophic body gastritis patients,diagnosed as consecutive outpatients presenting with macrocytic or iron deficiency anemia, or longstanding dyspepsia underwent gastroscopy with antral and body biopsies, assay of intrinsic factor, parietal cells and Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) antibodies. Gastritis was assessed according to Sydney System.RESULTS: Parietal cell antibodies were equally distributed in all clinical presentations, whereas the positivity of intrinsic factor antibodies (49/140, 35%) was significantly higher in pernicious anemia patients (49.2%) than in iron deficiency (21.1%) and dyspeptic patients (27.8%). No specific pattern of autoantibodies was related to the clinical presentations of atrophic body gastritis. A positive correlation was obtained between the body atrophy score and the intrinsic factor antibody levels (r = 0.2216,P = 0.0085). Associated autoimmune diseases were present in 25/140 (17.9%) patients, but the prevalence of autoimmune diseases was comparable, irrespective of the clinical presentations.CONCLUSION: The so-called hallmarks of gastric autoimmunity, particularly in intrinsic factor antibody cannot be usefully employed in defining an autoimmune pattern in the clinical presentations of ABG.

  14. An Unusual Presentation of Pseudothrombotic Microangiopathy in a Patient with Autoimmune Atrophic Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Malek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We hereby describe the case of a young female patient who presented with pseudothrombotic microangiopathy, as well as pancytopenia accompanied by autoimmune atrophic gastritis. Case Presentation. A 36-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the emergency department with fatigue and dyspnea on minimal exertion. Physical examination was unremarkable except for pallor and noninjected conjunctiva. Laboratory tests revealed high LDH and low hemoglobin, white blood cells, platelets, and haptoglobin. The peripheral blood smear showed schistocytes suggestive of pseudothrombotic microangiopathy. Low cobalamin level and hyperhomocysteinemia were also detected. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis was confirmed by gastric biopsy and positive anti-intrinsic factor antibodies. Vitamin B12 supplements were given which led to rapid recovery and normalization of blood parameters. Conclusion. This case highlights the importance and serves as a reminder to clinicians to rule out cobalamin deficiency and autoimmune atrophic gastritis in patients presenting with a picture suggestive of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and pancytopenia, which was completely reversible after appropriate replacement therapy without recurring to unnecessary and invasive procedures such as plasma exchange.

  15. Changes of multiple biotransformation phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ enzyme activities in human fetal adrenals during fetal development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Jie PING; Ren-xiu PENG; Jiang YUE; Xue-yan XIA; Qi-xiong LI; Rui KONG; Jun-yan HONG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Fetal adrenal, which synthesizes steroid hormones, is critical to fetal growth and development. Our recent research showed that some xenobiotics could inter-fere with steroidogenesis and induce intrauterine growth retardation in rats. The study on the characteristics of biotransformation enzymes in fetal adrenals still seems to be important with respect to possible significance in xenobiotic-induced fetal development toxicity. In this study, the activities of several important xenobiotic-related phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ enzymes in human fetal adrenals were examined and compared with those in fetal livers. Methods: The activity and mRNA expression were determined by enzymatic analysis and RT-PCR. Results: The levels of cytochrome (CYP)2A6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A7 isozymes in fetal adrenals were 82%, 92%, and 33% of those in fetal livers, respectively. There was a good positive correlation between adrenal CYP2A6 activity and gestational time. The values of α glutathione S-transferase (GST), πGST, and μGST in adrenals were 0.5, 4.4, and 8.3-fold of those in the livers, respectively, and the activity of adrenal πGST was negatively correlated with gestational time. The uridine diphosphoglucuronyl transferase activities, which were measured using p-hydroxy-biphenyl and 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin as substrates, were 9% and 3%, respectively, of those in the fetal livers. Conclusion: Our investiga-tion suggested that adrenal could be an important xenobiotic-metabolizing or-gan in fetal development and may play a potential role in xenobiotic-induced fetal development toxicity.

  16. A Comparison Study of the Effects of Echinacea purpurea Ethanolic Extract and Mesna on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Macroscopic Fetal Defects in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Najafzadeh Varzi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s There are some reports that the teratogenic effects of cyclophosphamide (CPA can be prevented by application of antioxidant drugs and stimulation of the maternal immune system. Echinacea purpurea extract is antioxidative and immunomodulator drug. Mesna (Sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate is used for decreasing side effects of CPA, especially hemorrhagic cystitis. In this study, we compared the prophylactic effects of mesna and Echinacea extract on teratogenic effects of CPA. Materials and Methods This study was performed on 32 pregnant rats that were divided into 4 groups. The first group (control group received normal saline and the other groups received CPA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally on 13th day of gestation. Mesna and E. purpurea extracts were administrated at doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg by IP injection, respectively, along with it and 12 hr later, after CPA injection. Rats were dissected on day 20 of gestation, embryos harvested and after determination of gross malformations they were stained by Alizarin red-Alcian blue method. ResultsCleft palate incidence was 38.46, 30.77 and 14.28% in fetuses of rats that received only CPA, CPA with mesna and CPA with Echinacea extract, respectively. In addition, skeletal anomalies incidence including limbs, vertebra, sternum, and scapula defects were decreased by Echinacea extract.ConclusionE. purpurea has significant effect on preventing CPA-induced malformations and better prophylactic effect than mesna on cases like CPA-induced cleft palate.

  17. Ação da Betametasona em Ratas Prenhes: Impacto sobre os Níveis de Corticosterona e Glândulas Adrenais Maternas e Fetais Effect of Betamethasone on Pregnant Rats: Impact on Corticosterone Level and Maternal and Fetal Adrenal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: a utilização repetitiva do corticóide antenatal objetivando acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal tem sido muito empregada no risco de parto prematuro, o que nos motivou a estudar a dosagem de corticosterona no termo e aspectos morfológicos das glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais de ratas albinas submetidas à ação da betametasona na segunda metade da prenhez, para verificar conseqüências dessa terapêutica. Métodos: utilizamos 30 ratas prenhes, distribuídas em 3 grupos numericamente iguais. As do Grupo I receberam betametasona nos dias 11, 12, 18 e 19 da prenhez. As do Grupo II receberam água destilada nesses dias (grupo controle, e as do Grupo III não receberam qualquer medicamento, constituindo grupo controle de estresse. Foram todas sacrificadas no 20º dia de prenhez, quando dosamos a corticosterona no sangue das matrizes e extirpamos as glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais para exame de microscopia óptica. Resultados: a dosagem de corticosterona plasmática foi significantemente menor no grupo tratado com betametasona (4,8 mg/dL, quando comparada aos grupos controles (17,7 e 26,8 mg/dL. À microscopia óptica observou-se intensa vacuolização citoplasmática na zona fasciculada das adrenais maternas e fetais no grupo que utilizou a betametasona, indicando intensa supressão adrenal secundária ao uso do medicamento. Conclusões: o uso repetitivo e prolongado de corticóides, em ratas prenhes, para acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal determina supressão adrenal materna e fetal.Purpose: the repetitive use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for acceleration of fetal lung maturation has been common in cases at risk of preterm delivery. We studied the corticosterone levels at term and the morphologic aspects in the maternal and fetal adrenal glands submitted to the effect of betamethasone in the second half of rat pregnancy in order to verify its consequences. Methods: thirty female pregnant rats were divided into

  18. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

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    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  19. Food/nutrient intake and risk of atrophic gastritis among the Helicobacter pylori-infected population of northeastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Ai; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2003-04-01

    Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) infection is considered a key risk factor for atrophic gastritis, along with other environmental factors, it is still unclear which factor is involved in the development of atrophic gastritis among H. pylori-infected subjects. In the present cross-sectional study, therefore, we analyzed various dietary factors in relation to the presence of atrophic gastritis among H. pylori-infected subjects who participated in a health check-up program in a town in northeastern Japan. One thousand and seventy-one subjects (362 males and 709 females) who provided both self-administered validated food frequency questionnaires and blood samples were the basis for the study, and all of them were serologically positive for H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. Among them, 663 (223 males and 440 females) were diagnosed as having atrophic gastritis on the basis of serum pepsinogen levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated based on tertile categories of subjects without atrophic gastritis, using logistic regression analysis. Among females, high consumptions of rice (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3), cod roe (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.2) and cuttlefish (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3) were associated with a moderately increased risk of atrophic gastritis after adjustment for age (P for trend = 0.02 for these items). Among males, high consumptions of rice and miso soup showed a tendency toward an increased risk (P for trend = 0.12 and 0.13, respectively). Vegetables and fruits showed no association among either males or females. From these results, it is suggested that the dietary habits of consumers of traditional Japanese foods may play a role in the development of atrophic gastritis after H. pylori infection.

  20. Common microRNA signatures in cardiac hypertrophic and atrophic remodeling induced by changes in hemodynamic load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali El-Armouche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mechanical overload leads to cardiac hypertrophy and mechanical unloading to cardiac atrophy. Both conditions produce similar transcriptional changes including a re-expression of fetal genes, despite obvious differences in phenotype. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are discussed as superordinate regulators of global gene networks acting mainly at the translational level. Here, we hypothesized that defined sets of miRNAs may determine the direction of cardiomyocyte plasticity responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed ascending aortic stenosis (AS and heterotopic heart transplantation (HTX in syngenic Lewis rats to induce mechanical overloading and unloading, respectively. Heart weight was 26±3% higher in AS (n = 7 and 33±2% lower in HTX (n = 7 as compared to sham-operated (n = 6 and healthy controls (n = 7. Small RNAs were enriched from the left ventricles and subjected to quantitative stem-loop specific RT-PCR targeting a panel of 351 miRNAs. In total, 153 miRNAs could be unambiguously detected. Out of 72 miRNAs previously implicated in the cardiovascular system, 40 miRNAs were regulated in AS and/or HTX. Overall, HTX displayed a slightly broader activation pattern for moderately regulated miRNAs. Surprisingly, however, the regulation of individual miRNA expression was strikingly similar in direction and amplitude in AS and HTX with no miRNA being regulated in opposite direction. In contrast, fetal hearts from Lewis rats at embryonic day 18 exhibited an entirely different miRNA expression pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings demonstrate that opposite changes in cardiac workload induce a common miRNA expression pattern which is markedly different from the fetal miRNA expression pattern. The direction of postnatal adaptive cardiac growth does, therefore, not appear to be determined at the level of single miRNAs or a specific set of miRNAs. Moreover, miRNAs themselves are not reprogrammed to a fetal

  1. Common MicroRNA Signatures in Cardiac Hypertrophic and Atrophic Remodeling Induced by Changes in Hemodynamic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, Christiane; Emmons, Julius; Biermann, Daniel; Christalla, Thomas; Grundhoff, Adam; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Zimmermann, Wolfram Hubertus; Ehmke, Heimo

    2010-01-01

    Background Mechanical overload leads to cardiac hypertrophy and mechanical unloading to cardiac atrophy. Both conditions produce similar transcriptional changes including a re-expression of fetal genes, despite obvious differences in phenotype. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are discussed as superordinate regulators of global gene networks acting mainly at the translational level. Here, we hypothesized that defined sets of miRNAs may determine the direction of cardiomyocyte plasticity responses. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed ascending aortic stenosis (AS) and heterotopic heart transplantation (HTX) in syngenic Lewis rats to induce mechanical overloading and unloading, respectively. Heart weight was 26±3% higher in AS (n = 7) and 33±2% lower in HTX (n = 7) as compared to sham-operated (n = 6) and healthy controls (n = 7). Small RNAs were enriched from the left ventricles and subjected to quantitative stem-loop specific RT-PCR targeting a panel of 351 miRNAs. In total, 153 miRNAs could be unambiguously detected. Out of 72 miRNAs previously implicated in the cardiovascular system, 40 miRNAs were regulated in AS and/or HTX. Overall, HTX displayed a slightly broader activation pattern for moderately regulated miRNAs. Surprisingly, however, the regulation of individual miRNA expression was strikingly similar in direction and amplitude in AS and HTX with no miRNA being regulated in opposite direction. In contrast, fetal hearts from Lewis rats at embryonic day 18 exhibited an entirely different miRNA expression pattern. Conclusions Taken together, our findings demonstrate that opposite changes in cardiac workload induce a common miRNA expression pattern which is markedly different from the fetal miRNA expression pattern. The direction of postnatal adaptive cardiac growth does, therefore, not appear to be determined at the level of single miRNAs or a specific set of miRNAs. Moreover, miRNAs themselves are not reprogrammed to a fetal program in response to

  2. 胎儿期生长受限对雌性大鼠胰岛素抵抗及生殖的影响%Effects of fetal growth retardation on insulin resistance and fertility in female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔谷媛; 赵辉平; 马向东; 陈必良; 黄艳红; 张建芳; 王德堂; 郭会灵; 徐佳; 王胜春

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the influences of fetal growth retardation ( FGR ) and insulin resistance at their adult stage on ovarian development, function and glucose metabolism in female rats. Methods FGR models were constructed by ligating uterine artery of pregnant rats. The Sprague-Dawley ( SD ) pregnant rats on day 17 of gestation were divided into experimental group ( n = 14 ) performing bilateral uterine artery ligation ( UAL ) and control group ( n = 8 ) performing sham operation. Thirty newborn female rats were chosen from FGR group and control group respectively, and they were divided into two groups and provided with normal diet. Fasting plasma glucose ( FPG ) and fasting insulin ( FINS ) of FGR group and control group were detected, and glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic clamp test were processed to calculate glucose intake rate ( GIR ). Islet β -cell endocrine function and insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue were evaluated. The change of oestrous cycle and testosterone level were observed in both groups. The ovarian tissues of both groups were evaluated, and Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to measure the content and expression of GSK-3β. Results FPG and insulin level of adult FGR rats were 5. 60 ±0. 82mmol/L and 59. 06 ± 14. 00mU/L respectively, which were significantly higher than those of rats in control group (4. 55 ±0.57mmol/L and 47.20 ±15. 00mU/L respectively, t was -3. 353 and 2. 203 , both P<0.05). GIR in experimental group was ( 7. 95 ±0. 80 )mg · kg-1 · min-1 , which was lower than that ( 12. 99 ±0. 35 )mg · kg-1 · min-1 in control group ( P <0.05 ). Compared with that of control group, the estrous cycle of FGR rats prolonged significantly, and testosterone level rose. The estrous cycle of FGR group ( 8. 3 ±1.5 days ) was longer than that of control group (5.1 ±0. 9 days ). Ovarian follicle of various stages and corepus luteum were found in ovary of two groups, but the differences in ovarian

  3. Fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing as monotherapy in the treatment of atrophic facial acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as ′excellent′ if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and <25% improvement were labelled as ′good′ and ′poor′ response, respectively. The overall satisfaction of the patients and any adverse reactions to the treatment were also noted. Results: Most of the patients showed a combination of different morphological types of acne scars. At the time of final assessment 6 months after the last laser session, an excellent response was observed in 26 patients (43.3% while 15 (25% and 19 patients (31.7% demonstrated a good and poor response respectively. Rolling and superficial boxcar scars responded the best while pitted scars responded the least to fractional laser monotherapy. The commonest reported adverse effect was transient erythema and crusting lasting for an average of 3-4 and 4-6 days, respectively while three patients developed post-inflammatory pigmentation lasting for 8-12 weeks. Conclusions: Fractional laser resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar

  4. Efficacy and safety of vaginal estriol and progesterone in postmenopausal women with atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Janet A; Carter, Gloria; Meyn, Leslie A; Mermelstein, Fred; Balk, Judith L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of intravaginal estriol and progesterone on atrophic vaginitis in postmenopausal women. Under a physician-sponsored Investigational New Drug application, 19 healthy postmenopausal women with atrophic vaginitis received vaginal suppositories containing estriol (1 mg) and progesterone (30 mg). The participants were instructed to insert one suppository intravaginally once daily for 2 weeks and thrice weekly for a total of 6 months. Vaginal pH, Vaginal Maturation Index, urinalysis, self-reported vaginal dryness, menopausal quality of life, and serum estriol and progesterone levels were measured at enrollment and after 3 and 6 months of suppository use. Endometrial biopsies were obtained at enrollment and at 6 months. After 2 weeks of therapy, six participants had serum estriol and progesterone measured. The Vaginal Maturation Index, vaginal pH, and vaginal dryness rating improved significantly at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline. Menopausal quality of life scores improved significantly in all domains, with the sexual subscale showing the most improvement. There were no cases of endometrial hyperplasia after 6 months of suppository use. Serum preinsertion estriol at week 2 and months 3 and 6 were similar to baseline levels. Serum preinsertion progesterone increased but returned to baseline preinsertion levels at month 6, and preinsertion levels were significantly less at month 6 compared with month 3. Intravaginal administration of a combination estriol and progesterone agent to women with atrophic vaginitis may represent a safe and effective alternative to systemic hormone replacement, although this study was not adequate to provide proof of efficacy given that it was uncontrolled.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF MICRONEEDLING THERAPY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ATROPHIC FACIAL ACNE SCARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available STUDY BACKGROUND Post acne scars are always a challenge to treat, especially the ones which are deep seated. There are many treatment options like laser resurfacing, dermabrasion, microdermabrasion and non-ablative laser resurfacing but with considerable morbidity and interference with the daily activities of the patient in the post-treatment period. Microneedling or dermaroller therapy is one of the new treatment options in the management of acne scars with satisfactory improvement and no significant side effect. The aim of the present study is to perform an objective evaluation the efficacy of microneedling in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty patients of skin type III-V having atrophic facial acne scars presenting to our dermatology OPD. were received multiple sittings of microneedling (dermaroller treatment with an interval of 6 weeks between each session. Goodman & Baron’s acne scar grading system was used for assessment of their scars and was evaluated clinically by serial photography at the start as well as at two months after the conclusion of the treatment. Patients on anticoagulant therapy, of keloidal tendency, with bleeding disorders, vitiligo patients, pregnant and lactating mothers and patients with active acne lesions were excluded from the study. The duration of this study was for ten months-from January 2014 to October 2014. RESULTS Any change in the grading of scars after the end of treatment and follow-up period was noted down. The efficacy and improvement of dermaroller treatment was assessed by Goodman and Baron’s Global Acne Scarring System. Out of 30 patients, 26(80.64% patients achieved a reduction in the severity of their scarring by one or two grades. Quantitative assessment showed that 13.3% of patients had minimal, 16.6% had good and 70% showed very good improvement. Adverse effects were limited to transient pain, erythema and edema. CONCLUSION Microneedling therapy seems to be

  6. Neutron induced teratogenesis and spermatogenesis inhibitor fertilysin induced fetal bis-diamine syndrome in the rat. An animal model for DiGeorge and CATCH22 syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Shuneki [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    To develop preventive and regenerative medicine measures and to clarify the effect of neutron-irradiation and Fertilysin on vasculogenesis and teratogenesis, we decided to investigate the pathogenesis of these abnormalities in this study and compare them to abnormalities reported in humans. Pregnant rats were exposed to graded doses of 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation or Fertilysin on day 10 of gestation. The rats were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation, examined for lethality and surviving fetuses, and were microdissected for malformations. Our studies showed that neutron irradiation of rats commonly induced abnormalities whose types included eye, limb and tail defects, transposition of the great arteries, riding aorta, right aortic arch and aortic arch anomalies. These results suggest that maternal exposure to neutron-irradiation may have caused DNA damage and neural crest deficiency in offspring. These results are similar to those found in animal models with Retinoic acid syndrome and human fetuses with DiGeorge syndrome, a condition considered as a pharyngeal arch syndrome related to a cephalic neurocristopathy. In addition, multi-organ malformations associated with the highest incidences of abnormal vasculogenesis, cardiac outflow tracts and aortic arch anomalies such as right aortic arch and aberrant subclavian artery were found to be consistently produced following maternal exposure to Fertilysin on day 10 of gestation. Evidently the crucial scenario for administering Fertilysin to cause the cardiovascular defects of all surviving fetuses, in which over 80% of the fetuses were persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) and the remainder was tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), is 200 mg for day 10 of gestation. This corresponds in humans to approximately day 21 after conception. A mechanism involving DNA damage, disruption of neural crest cells and growth and transcription factors, as well as growth failure of the branchial arches from apoptosis and neurocristopathy of the third

  7. Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica in atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia in swine.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowart, R P; Bäckström, L; Brim, T A

    1989-01-01

    A total of 163 pigs from nine farrow-to-finish herds representing various levels of atrophic rhinitis (AR) were selected for postslaughter examination of AR and pneumonia. Nasal swabs and lungs were cultured for detection of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida. Seventy-three pigs were examined at eight weeks of age and 90 contemporaries at six months of age. Mean AR scores were 1.21 and 1.11 for the eight week and six month old pigs, respectively (0 = normal, 3 = severe). In i...

  8. Plasma estrogen concentrations after oral and vaginal estrogen administration in women with atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Mary Beth; Nelson, Anita L; Mayer, Philip R; Ranganath, Radhika P; Norris, Paul M; Helzner, Eileen C; Preston, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    In this open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, two-treatment crossover study, 24 postmenopausal women with moderate to severe atrophic vaginitis received 0.3 mg conjugated estrogens daily for 14 days: 7 days orally (0.3 mg tablet) and 7 days vaginally (0.5 g cream). Steady-state plasma concentrations of E2 and estrone were one-third lower after vaginal versus oral administration of conjugated estrogens. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Recent developments in interpositional bone-grafting of the atrophic mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, F; Stoelinga, P J; Tideman, H; de Koomen, H A

    1985-02-01

    A clinical study on 54 patients, who underwent augmentation of the atrophic mandible by interposed bone-grafts, but in whom routine follow-up vestibuloplasty was deliberately avoided, is presented. The results show a reduced rate of bone resorption in the anterior region and less interference with lip and chin sensibility. An additional study is included concerning the fate of the elevated ridge and associated bone-graft in the body region posterior to the mental foramen. Results suggest that the resorption pattern in this area is very similar to that of a subperiosteal bone-graft. Modification of surgical technique in this regard has produced encouraging results.

  10. Magnesium and fetal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, K.

    1988-01-01

    Fetal growth retardation and premature labor are major problems in perinatal medicine today and account for a great deal of the observed fetal morbidity. While the neonatal death rate has steadily declined over the past decade, there has been a lack of concommitant decrease in these two leading problems. Magnesium (Mg/sup ++/) plays a major role in both of these areas of concern. The fact that it is used as a treatment for premature labor has led investigators to look at low Mg/sup ++/ as a possible cause of this poorly understood phenomenon. The second major cause of small for gestational age infants is intrauterine growth retardation, a condition which may be of either fetal or maternal origin. In either case, Mg/sup ++/ may be implicated since it exerts a strong influence on the underlying pathophysiology of placental failure and maternal hypertension. Both of these conditions are mediated by vascular and platelet hyperactivity as well as by and increase in the ration of thromboxane to prostacyclin. Studies in both the human and animal species are beginning to show how Mg/sup ++/ interacts in these conditions to produce such a damaging fetal outcome. The recent use of Doppler velocimetry of the developing fetus has shown reduced fetal vascular and maternal uterine vascular compliance as early as 14 weeks of gestation in those who would be so affected.

  11. Immunomagenetic indirect positive sorting of neural stem cells from fetal rat brain%免疫磁珠法分选胚胎大鼠脑神经干细胞的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国一; 李莉

    2000-01-01

    目的:探索应用免疫磁珠间接阳性法分选神经上皮干细胞蛋白(nestin)阳性的神经干细胞群的实验条件.为研究神经干细胞的特性与神经干细胞的培养和移植研究创造有利条件。方法:制取胎鼠大脑组织细胞悬液,免疫磁珠法分选胎鼠脑神经干细胞,以流式细胞术检测阳性细胞纯度,以锥虫蓝染色法检测细胞活性。结果:该法分选的nestin阳性细胞纯度为93.0%~99.7%,其中活性细胞为92%~97%。结论:免疫磁珠法分离胎鼠脑神经干细胞群落简便、有效,可以为神经干细胞细胞培养和移植提供细胞来源,也为研究高纯度神经干细胞的特性提供了实验基础。%Objective:To study the sorting high-purity neural stem cells fromfetal rat brain cells.Methods:Fetal rat brain cell suspensions were incubated with monoclone antibody of nestin,and the labelled cells were separated from the suspension in the magnetic field by immunobeads coated with the second antibody.Purity of the sorted cells was determined with flow cytometry.Results:Purity of the sorted neural stem cells were determined as 93.0%-99.7%,active cells acount for 92 %-97 %.Conclusion:The magnetic cell sorting system can effectively separate neural stem cell from brain cell suspension.

  12. Association of tumor necrosis factor genetic polymorphism with chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma in Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Ying Fei; Bing Xia; Chang-Sheng Deng; Xiao-Qing Xia; Min Xie; J Bart A Crusius; A Salvador Pena

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association of TNF polymorphisms with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and gastric adenocarcinoma in Chinese Han patients.METHODS: The TNFa-e 5 microsatellites and 3 RFLP sites were typed using PCR technique, followed by high-voltage denaturing PAGE with silver staining and restriction enzyme digestion respectively in specimens from 53 patients with CAG and 56 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 164 healthy controls. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced.RESULTS: The frequency of TNF-β Ncol*1/2 genotype was higher in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy controls, but no significant difference was observed (60.38% vs 46.34%, P=0.076). The frequency of TNa10 allele was significantly higher in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy controls (19.81% vs 11.89%,P=0.04). However, it did not relate to age, gender, atrophic degree or intestinal metaplasia in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. The frequency of TNF-β Ncol*1/2 and d2/d6 genotypes were significantly higher in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma than in healthy individuals(P>0.05).However, TNF-β Ncol*1/2 and d2/d6 genotypes did not relate to age, gender, grade of differentiation and clinicopathologic stage in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. The frequency of TNFa6b5c1 haplotype homozygote was significantly lower in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma than in healthy controls (1.79% vs15.85%, P=0.006).CONCLUSION: TNFa10 allele may be a risk factor for chronic atrophic gastritis. TNF-β Ncol*1/2 and d2/d6 genotypes are associated with the susceptibility to gastric adenocarcinoma,whereas TNFa6b5c1 haplotype homozygote may contribute to the resistance against gastric adenocarcinoma.

  13. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. HaghighatKhah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nFetal biophysical profile scoring is a sonographic-based method of fetal assessment first described by Manning and Platt in 1980. "nThe biophysical profile score was developed as a method to integrate real-time observations of the fetus and his/her intrauterine environment in order to more comprehensively assess the fetal condition. These findings must be evaluated in the context of maternal/fetal history (i.e., chronic hypertension, post-dates, intrauterine growth restriction, etc, fetal structural integrity (presence or absence of congenital anomalies, and the functionality of fetal support structures (placental and umbilical cord. For example, acute asphyxia due to placental abruption may result in an absence of the acute variables of the biophysical profile score (fetal breathing movements, fetal movement, fetal tone, and fetal heart rate reactivity with a normal amniotic fluid volume. With post maturity the asphyxial event may be intermittent and chronic resulting in a decrease in amniotic fluid volume, but with the acute variables remaining normal. "nWhile the 5 components of the biophysical profile score have remained unchanged since 1980 (Manning, 1980, the definitions of a normal and abnormal parameter have evolved with increasing experience. "nIn 1984 the definition of oligohydramnios was increased from < 1cm pocket of fluid to < 2.0 x 1.0 cm pocket. Oligohydramnios is now defined as a pocket of amniotic fluid < 2.0 x 2.0 cm (Manning, 1995a "nIf the four ultrasound variables are normal, the accuracy of the biophysical profile score was not found to be significantly improved by adding the non-stress test. As a result, in 1987 the profile score was modified to incorporate the non-stress test only when one of the ultrasound variables was abnormal (Manning 1987. Table 1 outlines the current definitions for quantifying a variable as present or absent. "nEach of the 5 components of the biophysical profile score does not have equal

  14. New treatment of atrophic acne scars by iontophoresis with estriol and tretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J B; Binder, M; Macheiner, W; Bieglmayer, C

    1995-01-01

    Common treatment of atrophic acne scars consists of invasive methods such as dermabrasion, chemopeeling, or implantation of bovine collagen. In our study a new noninvasive treatment method consisting of local iontophoresis is demonstrated. Local iontophoresis was performed with either estriol--a mainly topically active estrogen--or with tretinoin. Eighteen women were treated with estriol iontophoresis twice weekly for a period of 3 months. In addition to photographic and clinical documentation of the skin, venous blood for determination of serum levels of prolactin and estradiol according to standard radioimmunoassay methods was obtained monthly. Tretinoin iontophoresis was performed according to the same time schedule in 28 patients (19 women and 9 men) with atrophic acne scars. Improvement of acne scars was observed in 93% of patients treated with tretinoin iontophoresis and in 100% of the group treated with estriol iontophoresis. No hormonal changes were noted in the estrogen group. Side effects involving the skin appeared in the tretinoin group in 4 cases and consisted of increased dryness and of retinoid dermatitis. Both treatments were shown to be clinically effective in decreasing acne scars and persistence of effects. This promising new therapeutic approach may thus replace invasive treatment methods in many patients.

  15. Detection and characterization of stomach cancer and atrophic gastritis with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Lin, Junxiu; Jia, Chunde; Wang, Rong

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we attempt to find a valid method to distinguish gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. Auto-fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy of laser induced (514.5 nm and 488.0 nm) was measured. The serum spectrum is different between normal and cancer. Average value of diagnosis parameter for normal serum, red shift is less than 12 nm and Raman relative intensity of peak C by 514.5 nm excited is stronger than that of 488.0 nm. To gastric cancer, its red shift of average is bigger than 12 nm and relative intensity of Raman peak C by 514.5 nm excited is weaker than that by 488.0 nm. To atrophic gastritis, the distribution state of Raman peaks is similar with normal serum and auto-fluorescence spectrum's shape is similar to that of gastric cancer. Its average Raman peak red shift is bigger than 12 nm and the relative intensity of peak C by 514.5 excited is stronger than that of by 488.0. We considered it as a criterion and got an accuracy of 85.6% for diagnosis of gastric cancer compared with the result of clinical diagnosis.

  16. Prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis in different parts of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Melanie Nicole; Brenner, Hermann

    2006-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a well-established precursor of intestinal gastric cancer, but epidemiologic data about its occurrence are sparse. We provide an overview on studies that examined the prevalence of CAG in different parts of the world. Articles containing data about the prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis in unselected population samples and published until November 2005 were identified by searching the MEDLINE database. Furthermore, the references in the identified publications were screened for additional suitable studies. Studies comprising at least 50 subjects were included. Forty-one studies providing data on the prevalence of CAG in unselected population samples could be identified. CAG was determined by gastroscopy in 15 studies and by pepsinogen serum levels in 26 studies. Although results are difficult to compare due to the various definitions of CAG used, a strong increase with age, the lack of major gender differences, and strong variations between populations and population groups (in particular, relatively high rates in certain Asian populations) could be observed quite consistently. We conclude that CAG is relatively common among older adults in different parts of the world, but large variations exist. Large-scale international comparative studies with standardized methodology to determine CAG are needed to provide a coherent picture of the epidemiology of CAG in various populations. Noninvasive measurements of CAG by pepsinogen levels may be particularly suited for that purpose.

  17. A two-short-implant-supported molar restoration in atrophic posterior maxilla: A finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the stress distribution of 2-short implants (2SIs) installed in a severely atrophic maxillary molar site. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different diameters of internal connection implants were modeled: narrow platform (NP), regular platform (RP), and wide platform (WP). The maxillary first molars were restored with one implant or two short implants. Three 2SI models (NP-oblique, NP-vertical, and NP-horizontal) and four single implant models (RP and WP in a centered or cantilevered position) were used. Axial and oblique loadings were applied on the occlusal surface of the crown. The von Mises stress values were measured at the bone-implant, peri-implant bone, and implant/abutment complex. RESULTS The highest stress distribution at the bone-implant interface and the peri-implant bone was noticed in the RP group, and the lowest stress distribution was observed in the 2SI groups. Cantilevered position showed unfavorable stress distribution with axial loading. 2SI types did not affect the stress distribution in oblique loading. The number and installation positions of the implant, rather than the bone level, influenced the stress distribution of 2SIs. The implant/abutment complex of WP presented the highest stress concentration while that of 2SIs showed the lowest stress concentration. CONCLUSION 2SIs may be useful for achieving stable stress distribution on the surrounding bone and implant-abutment complex in the atrophic posterior maxilla. PMID:27555900

  18. Efficacy of fractional CO2 laser in treatment of atrophic scar of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Maleki, Masoud; Esmaily, Habibollah; Moghimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Unfortunately, it can lead to unsightly atrophic scars with limited treatment options. Fractional CO2 laser is accepted for treatment of atrophic acne scars and recently has been used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, so we planned to use fractional CO2 laser on leishmaniasis scar. We conducted this study on 60 leishmaniasis scars on the face of 40 patients. The lesions were treated by a fractional CO2 laser with beam size of 120 μm, with energy of 50-90 mJ, and 50-100 spots/cm(2) density with two passes in three monthly sessions. Evaluation was done in the first and second months after the first treatment and 3 and 6 months after the last treatment. Digital photography was performed at each visit. Assessment of improvement rate by patient and physician was rated separately as follows: no improvement (0%), mild (CO2 laser for leishmaniasis scar. No significant adverse effects were noted.

  19. Progressive atrophic rhinitis in a medium-scale pig farm in Kiambu, Kenya : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Wabacha

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to muco-purulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intra-muscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15 % lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7. Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were madeat the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.

  20. Plasticity of fetal cartilaginous cells

    OpenAIRE

    Quintin, Aurelie; Schizas, Constantin; Scaletta, Corinne; Jaccoud, Sandra; Applegate, Lee Ann; Pioletti, Dominique P.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue-specific stem cells found in adult tissues can participate to the repair process following injury. However adult tissues, such as articular cartilage and intervertebral disc, have low regeneration capacity, whereas fetal tissues, such as articular cartilage, show high regeneration ability. The presence of fetal stem cells in fetal cartilaginous tissues and their involvement in the regeneration of fetal cartilage is unknown. The aim of the study was to assess the chondrogenic differenti...

  1. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion.

  2. Effect of ethanol (EtOH) and dietary histidine (His) on fetal brain histamine (Hm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, G.W.J.; Liying Jin (Rutgers-the State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The authors have previously shown that gestational EtOH consumption decreased free His in fetal tissues, including the brain. His is the precursor of Hm, a neurotransmitter, and since central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is frequently observed in the offspring of alcoholic women, experiments were conducted to examine the effects of gestational EtOH consumption on fetal brain Hm. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 35% EtOH-calorie liquid diets with three levels of His from gestation day (GD) 7 to 21. Control rats (LHC, MHC and HHC) were pair-fed with isocaloric sucrose substituted for EtOH. ON GD-21, fetal and maternal tissue were analyzed for His and H. In all tissues examined (fetal brain, plasma and liver, and maternal plasma and liver), His was increased with the increase of dietary His. Hm was also increased in fetal brain and liver in 0.8% dietary His groups. EtOH feeding decreased His in all fetal tissues but increased Hm in fetal brain and liver. The values of fetal brain Hm were: 805 {plus minus} 89 vs 574 {plus minus}47 (LHE vs LHC), 690 {plus minus} 29 vs 446 {plus minus} 32 (MHE vs MHC) and 1,335 {plus minus} 165 vs 938 {plus minus} 72 (HHE vs HHC), an increase of 40-50% by EtOH. Alteration in fetal brain Hm may contribute to the CNS dysfunction.

  3. Effects on weight gain and gut microbiota in rats given bacterial supplements and a high-energy-dense diet from fetal life through to 6 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline L J; Molin, Göran; Fåk, Frida; Johansson Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jakesevic, Maja; Håkansson, Åsa; Jeppsson, Bengt; Weström, Björn; Ahrné, Siv

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term effects of a high-energy-dense diet, supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) or Escherichia coli (Ec), on weight gain, fattening and the gut microbiota in rats. Since the mother's dietary habits can influence offspring physiology, dietary regimens started with the dams at pregnancy and throughout lactation and continued with the offspring for 6 months. The weight gain of group Lp was lower than that of groups C (control) and Ec (P = 0·086). More retroperitoneal adipose tissue (P = 0·030) and higher plasma leptin (P = 0·035) were observed in group Ec compared with group Lp. The viable count of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in group Ec than in group Lp (P = 0·019), and when all animals were compared, Enterobacteriaceae correlated positively with body weight (r 0·428, P = 0·029). Bacterial diversity was lower in group Ec than in groups C (P ≤ 0·05) and Lp (P ≤ 0·05). Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia dominated in all groups, but Bacteroidetes were more prevalent in group C than in groups Lp (P = 0·036) and Ec (P = 0·056). The same five bacterial families dominated the microbiota of groups Ec and C, and four of these were also present in group Lp. The other five families dominating in group Lp were not found in any of the other groups. Multivariate data analysis pointed in the same directions as the univariate statistics. The present results suggest that supplementation of L. plantarum or E. coli can have long-term effects on the composition of the intestinal microbiota, as well as on weight gain and fattening.

  4. Changes of Clara cell protein and interferon-γ in lungs with fetal growth retardation in fetal rats%宫内生长受限胎鼠肺组织Clara细胞蛋白与干扰素γ的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓梅; 田宝玲; 焦伊胜; 袁正伟; 刘彩霞

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究孕期营养不良造成的宫内生长受限(IUGR)胎鼠肺组织Clara细胞蛋白(CCSP)和调控其转录表达的细胞因子干扰素-γ(IFN-γ)的变化及相互联系,探讨其与肺部疾病发生的相关性.方法 采用孕期全程低蛋白饮食法建立大鼠IUGR模型,孕第20.5天(足月21.5 d)剖腹取胎鼠,分离其肺脏,肺组织切片HE染色后观察其肺组织病理变化,酶联免疫分析法检测其血清和肺组织中CCSP和IFN-γ水平.采用荧光定量反转录-聚合酶链式反应技术检测胎鼠肺脏中IFN-γ mRNA和CCSP mRNA表达.结果 低蛋白组胎鼠体质量和湿肺质量均低于对照组;IUGR胎鼠肺组织切片放射性肺泡计数降低,提示IUGR组胎鼠肺泡数量减少,肺泡平均线性截距增加.IUGR组胎鼠肺组织CCSP mRNA和蛋白水平均低于对照组(P均<0.05),其血浆CCSP蛋白水平亦明显低于对照组(P<0.05).IUGR胎鼠血循环和肺组织IFN-γ水平均明显低于对照组(P均<0.05).结论 宫内营养不良引起胎鼠肺组织结构发生改变,IFN-γ表达降低,可能抑制CCSP基因的转录和表达,从而诱发产后早期乃至后期肺部疾病.%Objective To determine the effects of intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR) caused by malnutrition during pregnancy on the lung structure and expression of Clara cell protein (CCSP) and interferon (IFN)-γ in the fetal lungs,and to explore their relation ship with pulmonary disease.Methods Fetal rats from maternal protein-malnutrition dams were studied on day 20(term 21.5 day).The lung pathology was examined by means of Hematoxylin and eosin(HE) stain.Plasma was collected to determine the CCSP and IFN-γ concentration.Lungs were harvested to measure the expression of CCSP and IFN-γ mRNA by using fluorescent quantization reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and the levels of CCSP and IFN-γ protein were assessed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results Malnutrition fetus body weight significantly less compared

  5. Micronutrients and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Rao, Shobha; Davies, Anna A; Brown, Nick; Farrant, Hannah J W

    2003-05-01

    Fetal undernutrition affects large numbers of infants in developing countries, with adverse consequences for their immediate survival and lifelong health. It manifests as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), defined as birth weight fetus is nourished by a complex supply line that includes the mother's diet and absorption, endocrine status and metabolism, cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy and placental function. Micronutrients are essential for growth, and maternal micronutrient deficiency, frequently multiple in developing countries, may be an important cause of IUGR. Supplementation of undernourished mothers with micronutrients has several benefits but there is little hard evidence of improved fetal growth. However, this has been inadequately tested. Most trials have only used single micronutrients and many were inconclusive because of methodological problems. Several food-based studies (some uncontrolled) suggest benefits from improving maternal dietary quality with micronutrient-dense foods. One trial of a multivitamin supplement (HIV-positive mothers, Tanzania) showed increased birth weight and fewer fetal deaths. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials of adequate sample size and including measures of effectiveness are needed in populations at high risk of micronutrient deficiency and IUGR and should include food-based interventions and better measurements of fetal growth, maternal metabolism, and long-term outcomes in the offspring.

  6. Finite element analysis of dental implant loading on atrophic and non-atrophic cancellous and cortical mandibular bone - a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcián, Petr; Borák, Libor; Valášek, Jiří; Kaiser, Jozef; Florian, Zdeněk; Wolff, Jan

    2014-12-18

    The first aim of this study was to assess displacements and micro-strain induced on different grades of atrophic cortical and trabecular mandibular bone by axially loaded dental implants using finite element analysis (FEA). The second aim was to assess the micro-strain induced by different implant geometries and the levels of bone-to-implant contact (BIC) on the surrounding bone. Six mandibular bone segments demonstrating different grades of mandibular bone atrophy and various bone volume fractions (from 0.149 to 0.471) were imaged using a micro-CT device. The acquired bone STL models and implant (Brånemark, Straumann, Ankylos) were merged into a three-dimensional finite elements structure. The mean displacement value for all implants was 3.1 ±1.2 µm. Displacements were lower in the group with a strong BIC. The results indicated that the maximum strain values of cortical and cancellous bone increased with lower bone density. Strain distribution is the first and foremost dependent on the shape of bone and architecture of cancellous bone. The geometry of the implant, thread patterns, grade of bone atrophy and BIC all affect the displacement and micro-strain on the mandible bone. Preoperative finite element analysis could offer improved predictability in the long-term outlook of dental implant restorations.

  7. MRI of the Fetal Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstanner, C; Kasprian, G; Gruber, G M; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the possibilities for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the fetal brain. For brain pathologies, fetal MRI is usually performed when an abnormality is detected by previous prenatal ultrasound, and is, therefore, an important adjunct to ultrasound. The most commonly suspected brain pathologies referred to fetal MRI for further evaluation are ventriculomegaly, missing corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. We will briefly discuss the most common indications for fetal brain MRI, as well as recent advances.

  8. Expression of Estrogen Receptor mRNA and Genes Related to Regulation of Bile acid Metabolism in Fetal Rat Liver of Pregnant Rats with Intrahepatic Cholestasis%雌激素受体及胆汁酸代谢相关基因在胆汁淤积孕鼠胎鼠肝脏中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时青云; 赵晋; 林宇庚; 闫时; 周新; 林颖奇

    2011-01-01

    gene related to regulation of bile acid metabolism in fetal rat liver of pregnant rats with intrahepafic cholestasis. Methods Sixty clean SD pregnant rats were selected and divided into two groups at random. ① Since the 13th day of pregnancy after taking blood, the rats in control group were injected subcutaneously with refined vegetable oil 2. 5mL · kg -1 · d -1, study group was injected subcutaneously with the 17-a-ethynylestradiol(EE) 1.25 mg· kg -1 · d-1 till the 17th day. ② On the 21st day, all rats were killed. Then the fetus livers were collected for study. ③) The levels of serum total bile acid(TBA) were examined by ELISA. The expression of ER, CYP7A1, CYP27AI, CYP8B1 (mRNA) in fetal rat liver was examined by real-time PCR. Results ② The levels of TBA were significanfiy higher in study group mother rats(58.7 ±3.2) μmol/L than that of control group(24. 6 ± 1.3 ) μmol/L on the ITs day ( P < 0.05 ); The levels of TBA were higher in study group mother rats (66.4 ± 2.7 ) μnol/L than that of control group ( 26.5 ± 3.1 ) μmoL/L on the 21 st day ( P < O. 05 ). The levels of TBA were higher in study group fetus rats(28.4 ±2.6) μ mol/L than that of control group( 10.5 ± 3.1 ) μ moL/L on the 21st day. ③ The expression of CYP7AI mRNA( 1.25 ± 0 01 ), CYP27A1 mRNA ( 2.05 ± 0. 03 ), CYPSB1 mRNA ( 1.85 ± 0. 01 ) in study group fetus liver increased as compared to control group(0.35 ± 0.02, 0.75 ± 0.03, 0. 85 ± 0.02, respectively) ( P < O. 05 ). 3) The expression of ERα mRNA in study group ( 0.75 ± 0.02 ) was higher than that ofcontrol group ( 0.45 ± 0.01 ) ( P< 0.05 ) . Conclusion The expression of ERα,CYP7AI, CYP27A1, CYPSBI(mRNA ) increased in the fetal rat liver of pregnant rots with intrahepatic cholestasis, resulting in increased synthesis of bile acids, which may be one of the mechanisms of perinatal death of the fetal rats.

  9. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in maternal and fetal guinea pig serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughaday, W H; Yanow, C E; Kapadia, M

    1986-08-01

    The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in fetal development has been the subject of much speculation. We undertook studies of maternal and fetal IGF I and II in the guinea pig because the long gestation period and greater size of the fetuses permitted blood sampling over a longer period of gestation and maturation than is possible in the rat. Acid gel filtrates of fetal and maternal serum were prepared, and the IGF I was measured by RIA; IGF II was measured by rat placental membrane radioreceptor assay. Fetal IGF I levels were lower than maternal levels from the 33rd day of estimated gestation to term. Fetal IGF II levels from the 33rd day to the 49th day of gestation were not significantly different from those of maternal serum [1597 +/- 377 (SE) ng/ml vs. 1295 +/- 224] ng/ml. Very high levels of IGF II, in excess of 5000 ng/ml, were observed in fetuses at 50, 55, and 60 days of gestation. Thereafter, fetal IGF II levels fell markedly before term. Fetal and maternal IGFs after 49, 50, 60, and 65 days of pregnancy were compared by isoelectric focusing. The guinea pig normally has two major basic peaks of IGF I, which were present both in maternal and fetal serum. Most maternal and fetal guinea pig sera contained only a single, slightly acidic peak of IGF II. No evidence of a unique fetal IGF was detected by our methods. The very high levels of IGF II reached in fetal guinea pig sera suggest that it may have a role in fetal development.

  10. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  11. Spontaneous healing of an atrophic pseudoarthrosis during femoral lengthening : A case report with six-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

     A seven-year old girl developed an atrophic pseudoarthrosis at the midshaft of the femur with 8.5 cm of femoral shortening after an open type II fracture. During a femoral lengthening procedure, the pseudoarthrosis filled with spontaneous callus formation and bone union was obtained.

  12. What is the quality of the evidence base for pre-implant surgery of the atrophic jaw?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackburn, T.K.; Cawood, J.I.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.; Lowe, D.

    2008-01-01

    This review aimed to evaluate the level of evidence for bone augmentation preimplant surgery for atrophic jaws in studies which measure outcome. Medline, Embase, Cochrane library and online journal searches were performed with a defined search strategy and the abstracts screened against selection cr

  13. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system.

  14. 被动吸烟影响仔鼠小脑皮质神经生长因子含量及牛磺酸的干预作用%Effect of passive smoking on content of nerve growth factor in cerebellar cortex of fetal rats and the interventional effect of taurine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳兰

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reported about passive smoking on development of nervous system are rare and it is lack of preventive and therapeutic measures.Previous animal experiments proved that passive smoking at pregrancy could decrease content of Nerve growth factor (NGF) in hippocampal tissue and eliminate abilities of learning of fetal rats. Cerebellar cortex contain high levels of NGF at embryonic phase. Passive smoking decrease content of NGF in cerebellar cortex. Brain of mammalis animal is full of taurine which is released by neuron and neuroglia cell to maintain normal activities in cerebral tissue. Inhibitory synthesis and ingestion of taurine can cause disfunction.Therefore, a certain level of taurine is possibly correlated with expression of NGF gene in embryoids. However, the decrease of NGF content in cerebellar cortex may be one of factors for brain injury of fetal rats.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of brain injury induced by passive smoking in fetal rats and the interventional effect of taurine.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Fenyang College of Shanxi Medical University.MATERIALS:Twenty-one 2-month-old female Wistar rats,weighing 150-210 g, were randomly divided into 3 group with 7 rats in each group,including passive smoking group, passive smoking+taurine group and normal control group. All rats in the three groups were treated till naturalpartrition from the second day of cyesis. Rats in the passive smoking group were suffered from successively experimental smoking after intragastrical administration with 0.65 mL/ampoule saline; rats in the passive smoking+taurine group were intragastrically administrated with 500 mg/kg taurine before smoking rats in the normal contrl group did not smoke and were intragastrically administrated with 0.65 mL/ampoule saline every day.METHODS: Newborn rats were weighed and then their heads were cut off. Rapidly, brains were separated,weighed,boiled in boiling saline for 5 minuters. Then, cerebellum was

  15. Effect of Reinforcing Kidney Replenishing qi and Promoting Blood Circulation Recipe on the Expression of IGF-1, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 in liver of the Fetal Rat with FGR%补肾益气活血方对胎儿生长受限胎鼠IGF-1、IGFBP-1及IGFBP-3表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 熊丽萍; 陶秀良

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Bushen Yiqi Huoxue (Reinforcing Kidney Replenishing qi and Promoting Blood Circulation) Decoction on the expression of IGF - 1, IGFBP - 1 and IGFBP - 3 proteins in fetal liver of Fetal growth restriction ( FGR) rat. Methods The smoke inhalation rat model was created. Thirty two pregnant Sprague - Dawley rats were randomly dividedly into four groups: control group, FGR group, group of FGR treated with Bushen Yiqi Huoxue Decoction (Chinese medicine group), group of FGR treated with arginine ( arginine group). The expression of IGF - 1, IGFBP - 1 and IGFBP - 3 proteins in fetal liver were analyzed by immunohistochemis-try. Result Compared with FGR group, the expression of IGF - 1 and IGFBP -3 in fetal liver of Chinese medicine group increased significantly (P 0. 05). Conclusion The effect of Bushen Yiqi Huoxue Decoction on preventing and treating FGR may be attributed to regulating the expression of IGF - 1, IGFBP -1 and IGFBP -3.%目的 观察补肾益气活血方对胎儿生长受限胎鼠肝脏IGF-1、IGFBP-1、IGFBP-3表达的影响,探讨补肾益气活血方治疗FGR的作用机制.方法 采用被动吸烟法建立SD大鼠FGR模型,分为正常组、FGR组、补肾益气活血方治疗组(中药组)、精氨酸治疗组(精氨酸组).采用免疫组织化学方法检测胎鼠肝脏IGF-1、IGFBP-1、IGFBP-3的表达.结果 与FGR组比较,中药组胎鼠肝脏IGF-1、IGFBP-3的表达均明显升高(P<0.05),而IGFBP-1的表达明显降低(P<0.05),并且IGF-1的表达强度高于精氨酸组(P<0.05),各项指标与正常组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 补肾益气活血方可能通过调节IGF-Ⅰ、IGFBP-1、IGFBP-3的表达,从而促进胎儿在宫内的生长发育.

  16. Maternal diet during pregnancy has tissue-specific effects upon fetal fatty acid composition and alters fetal immune parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Caroline E; Romijn, Tessa; Enke, Uta; Hoile, Samuel; Calder, Philip C

    2010-01-01

    Both animal and human studies demonstrate that the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content of plasma and/or tissue lipids is increased during pregnancy. We hypothesised that increasing the α-linolenic acid (ALA) or longer chain (n-3) PUFA content of the maternal diet during pregnancy influences fetal fatty acid composition and the fetal immune system. Pregnant rats were fed a low-fat (LF) soybean oil diet, or high-fat (HF) soybean, linseed, salmon or sunflower oil diets from conception to 20d gestation. The ALA-rich Linseed-HF diet resulted in an equivalent eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) status in fetal immune tissues and an equivalent DHA status in the fetal brain to that achieved with the Salmon-HF diet. An (n-3) rich maternal diet during pregnancy associated with the highest expression of CD3 (Salmon-HF) and CD8 (Linseed-HF and Salmon-HF) on fetal thymic CD3(+)CD8(+) cells. The Linseed-HF diet resulted in the highest proportion of CD161(+) cells within the fetal thymus, which correlated with the production of IL-4. These data indicate that dietary ALA supplementation may confer some of the benefits of LC (n-3) PUFA during pregnancy. This should be examined in suitably designed human studies.

  17. Restoration of an atrophic eye socket with custom made eye prosthesis, utilizing digital photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav P Jayaswal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular defects may cause several ocular and orbital disorders, which require surgical intervention. These defects are psychologically disturbing for the patients, and therefore, they require immediate management and rehabilitation by a team of specialist. Ocular prosthesis may be either readymade (stock or custom made. Fabrication of a custom ocular prosthesis allows for a range of variations during construction. The iris can also be custom made by ocular painting or by digital photography. The optimum cosmetic and functional results of a custom-made prosthesis enhance the patient′s rehabilitation to a normal life style. This paper elaborates the technique for fabrication of a custom-made ocular prosthesis for an atrophic eye socket utilizing digital photography.

  18. Loss of interleukin-21 leads to atrophic germinal centers in multicentric Castleman's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Hidetaka; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Shimizu, Yui; Sakurai, Nodoka; Suzuki, Chisako; Naishiro, Yasuyoshi; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Both multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) and immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) are systemic diseases, presenting with hypergammaglobulinemia and elevated serum levels of IgG4. However, with regard to histopathological findings, MCD shows atrophic germinal centers. On the other hand, expanded germinal centers are detected in IgG4-RD. We extracted germinal centers from specimens of each disorder by microdissection and analyzed the expression of mRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction to clarify the mechanisms underlying atrophied germinal centers in MCD. This analysis disclosed loss of interleukin (IL)-21 and B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-6 in the germinal centers of MCD. Loss of IL-21 is considered to be involved in the disappearance of Bcl-6 and leads to atrophied germinal centers in MCD.

  19. The Opa1-Dependent Mitochondrial Cristae Remodeling Pathway Controls Atrophic, Apoptotic, and Ischemic Tissue Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanita, Tatiana; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Romanello, Vanina; Zaglia, Tania; Quintana-Cabrera, Rubén; Semenzato, Martina; Menabò, Roberta; Costa, Veronica; Civiletto, Gabriele; Pesce, Paola; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Di Lisa, Fabio; Mongillo, Marco; Sandri, Marco; Scorrano, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial morphological and ultrastructural changes occur during apoptosis and autophagy, but whether they are relevant in vivo for tissue response to damage is unclear. Here we investigate the role of the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1)-dependent cristae remodeling pathway in vivo and provide evidence that it regulates the response of multiple tissues to apoptotic, necrotic, and atrophic stimuli. Genetic inhibition of the cristae remodeling pathway in vivo does not affect development, but protects mice from denervation-induced muscular atrophy, ischemic heart and brain damage, as well as hepatocellular apoptosis. Mechanistically, OPA1-dependent mitochondrial cristae stabilization increases mitochondrial respiratory efficiency and blunts mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, and reactive oxygen species production. Our results indicate that the OPA1-dependent cristae remodeling pathway is a fundamental, targetable determinant of tissue damage in vivo. PMID:26039448

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell implantation in atrophic nonunion of the long bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phedy, P.; Kholinne, E.; Djaja, Y. P.; Kusnadi, Y.; Merlina, M.; Yulisa, N. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the therapeutic potential of combining bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) granules to treat nonunion of the long bone. Methods Ten patients with an atrophic nonunion of a long bone fracture were selectively divided into two groups. Five subjects in the treatment group were treated with the combination of 15 million autologous BM-MSCs, 5g/cm3 (HA) granules and internal fixation. Control subjects were treated with iliac crest autograft, 5g/cm3 HA granules and internal fixation. The outcomes measured were post-operative pain (visual analogue scale), level of functionality (LEFS and DASH), and radiograph assessment. Results Post-operative pain evaluation showed no significant differences between the two groups. The treatment group demonstrated faster initial radiographic and functional improvements. Statistically significant differences in functional scores were present during the first (p = 0.002), second (p = 0.005) and third (p = 0.01) month. Both groups achieved similar outcomes by the end of one-year follow-up. No immunologic or neoplastic side effects were reported. Conclusions All cases of nonunion of a long bone presented in this study were successfully treated using autologous BM-MSCs. The combination of autologous BM-MSCs and HA granules is a safe method for treating nonunion. Patients treated with BM-MSCs had faster initial radiographic and functional improvements. By the end of 12 months, both groups had similar outcomes. Cite this article: H.D. Ismail, P. Phedy, E. Kholinne, Y. P. Djaja, Y. Kusnadi, M. Merlina, N. D. Yulisa. Mesenchymal stem cell implantation in atrophic nonunion of the long bones: A translational study. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:287–293. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.57.2000587. PMID:27412657

  1. Relation of atrophic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori-CagA+and interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafaela Sierra; Francis Mégraud; Clas Une; Vanessa Ramírez; Warner Alpízar-Alpízar; María I González; José A Ramírez; Antoine de Mascarel; Patricia Cuenca; Guillermo Pérez-Pérez

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the association of Helicobacter pylori (H pylon) CagA+ infection and pro-inflammatory poly-morphisms of the genes interleukin (IL)-IRN and IL-1B with the risk of gastric atrophy and peptic ulcers in a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, a country with high incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. METHODS: Seven biopsy specimens, a fasting blood sample and a questionnaire concerning nutritional and sociodemographic factors were obtained from 501 con-secutive patients who had undergone endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. A histopathological diagnosis was made. Pepsinogen concentrations were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Infection with H pylori CagA* was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IL-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR respectively. RESULTS: In this dyspeptic population, 86% wereHpy/ori positive and of these, 67.8% were positive forCagA. Atrophic antral gastritis (AAG) was associatedwith CagA+ status [odd ratio (OR) = 4.1; P < 0.000]and fruit consumption (OR = 0.3; P < 0.00). Atrophicbody gastritis (ABG) was associated with pepsinogenPGI/PGII < 3.4 (OR = 4.9; P < 0.04) and alcoholconsumption (OR = 7.3; P < 0.02). Duodenal ulcerwas associated with CagA+ (OR = 2.9; P < 0.04) andsmoking (OR = 2.4; P < 0.04). PGI < 60 μg/L as wellas PGI/PGII < 3.4 were associated with CagA+. CONCLUSION: In a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica,H pylori CagA+ is not associated with ABG, but it is arisk factor for AAG. The pro-inflammatory cytokine poly-morphisms IL-1B + 3945 and IL-1RN are not associatedwith the atrophic lesions of this dyspeptic population.

  2. A comparative study of vaginal estrogen cream and sustained-release estradiol vaginal tablet (Vagifem in the treatment of atrophic vaginitis in Isfahan, Iran in 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Hosseinzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrophic vaginitis is a disease, which affects up to 50% of postmenopausal women. This study compared the effectiveness and user-friendliness of Vagifem (an estradiol vaginal tablet and vaginal estrogen cream in the treatment of atrophic vaginitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty postmenopausal women with symptoms of atrophic vaginitis were randomly divided into two groups of treatment with Vagifem or with vaginal estrogen cream for 12 weeks. Patients used the medication daily for the first 2 weeks of the study, and twice weekly. Severity of vaginal atrophy and four main symptoms of atrophic vaginitis including dysuria, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and dryness were evaluated and compared before and after treatment. In addition, patients were asked regarding user-friendliness and hygienic issues of medications. Results: Both vaginal estrogen cream and Vagifem significantly improved symptoms of atrophic vaginitis but in terms of effectiveness for the treatment symptoms of atrophic vaginitis, there was no significant difference between the two medications. Vagifem compared to estrogen cream resulted in significantly lower rate of hygienic problems (0% versus 23%, P < 0.001, and was reported by the patients as a significantly easier method of treatment (90% versus 55%, P < 0.0001. Conclusion: This investigation showed that Vagifem is an appropriate medication for the treatment of atrophic vaginitis, which is as effective as vaginal estrogen creams and is more user-friendly.

  3. Fetal congenital lobar emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Soon-Cen; Liu, Min-Chang; Se, Tung-Yi

    2007-03-01

    To report a rare fetal congenital lung anomaly characterized by over inflation of a pulmonary lobe. A 28-year-old systemic lupus erythematous mother, gravida 1 para 0, who had normal prenatal care in our department, was admitted for labor pain and an abnormal fetal heart location was noted incidentally during labor. The baby showed rib retraction in room air but no obvious cyanotic change after delivery. Both the fetus chest X-ray and ultrasound showed a hyperechogenic tumor in the left thoracic cavity with a right-side-shifted heart and trachea. Computed tomography showed a hypodense and multiseptal tumor in the left thoracic cavity with right-sided shift of the heart and trachea. It was a soft, solid tumor in the parenchyma of the left lung and the histopathology confirmed it to be benign congenital lobar emphysema. The favorable outcome in both asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic children suggests that a nonsurgical approach should be considered for these patients.

  4. Maternal protein restriction and fetal growth: lack of evidence of a role for homocysteine in fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley-Evans, Simon C; Lilley, Christina; McMullen, Sarah

    2006-09-01

    The disease-programming effects of a maternal low-protein (MLP) diet in rat pregnancy have been suggested to be attributable of hyperhomocysteinaemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether MLP feeding impacted upon maternal and day 20 fetal homocysteine concentrations, with ensuing effects upon oxidant/antioxidant status. Sixty-four pregnant rats were fed either MLP diet or control diet before termination of pregnancy at days 4, 10, 18 or 20 gestation (full-term gestation 22 d). Maternal plasma homocysteine concentrations were similar in control and MLP-fed dams at all points in gestation. Fetal plasma homocysteine was similarly unaffected by MLP feeding at day 20 gestation. Activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were similar in livers of mothers and fetuses in the two groups. Whilst catalase activity was not influenced by diet in maternal liver, MLP exposure increased catalase activity in fetal liver at day 20. Oxidative injury (protein carbonyl concentration) was lower in the livers of MLP-fed animals at day 18 gestation (Phomocysteine concentrations prior to day 20 gestation in the rat. There was no evidence of increased oxidative injury in fetal tissue that might explain the long-term programming effects of the diet.

  5. The fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Acharya, Ganesh

    2004-12-30

    Accumulating data on the human fetal circulation shows the similarity to the experimental animal physiology, but with important differences. The human fetus seems to circulate less blood through the placenta, shunt less through the ductus venosus and foramen ovale, but direct more blood through the lungs than the fetal sheep. However, there are substantial individual variations and the pattern changes with gestational age. The normalised umbilical blood flow decreases with gestational age, and, at 28 to 32 weeks, a new level of development seems to be reached. At this stage, the shunting through the ductus venosus and the foramen ovale reaches a minimum, and the flow through the lungs a maximum. The ductus venosus and foramen ovale are functionally closely related and represent an important distributional unit for the venous return. The left portal branch represents a venous watershed, and, similarly, the isthmus aorta an arterial watershed. Thus, the fetal central circulation is a very flexible and adaptive circulatory system. The responses to increased afterload, hypoxaemia and acidaemia in the human fetus are equivalent to those found in animal studies: increased ductus venosus and foramen ovale shunting, increased impedance in the lungs, reduced impedance in the brain, increasingly reversed flow in the aortic isthmus and a more prominent coronary blood flow.

  6. Effects of maternal subtotal nephrectomy on the development of the fetal kidney: A morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomohiro; Kitano-Amahori, Yoko; Nagai, Hiroaki; Mino, Masaki; Takeshita, Ai; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Okada, Toshiya

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to explore if maternal subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy affects the development of fetal rat kidneys using morphometric methods and examining whether there are any apoptotic changes in the fetal kidney. To generate 5/6 nephrectomized model rats, animals underwent 2/3 left nephrectomy on gestation day (GD) 5 and total right nephrectomy on GD 12. The fetal kidneys were examined on GDs 16 and 22. A significant decrease in fetal body weight resulting from maternal 5/6 nephrectomy was observed on GD 16, and a significant decrease in fetal renal weight and fetal body weight caused by maternal nephrectomy was observed on GD 22. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy induced a significant increase in glomerular number, proximal tubular length, and total proximal tubular volume of fetuses on GD 22. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the metanephric mesenchyme of the kidney on GD 16, and in the collecting tubules on GD 22. These findings suggest that maternal 5/6 nephrectomy stimulates the development of the fetal kidney while suppressing fetal growth.

  7. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of nonretinoid retinol binding protein 4 antagonists for the potential treatment of atrophic age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Christopher L; Dobri, Nicoleta; Freeman, Emily E; Conlon, Michael P; Chen, Ping; Stafford, Douglas G; Schwarz, Daniel M C; Golden, Kathy C; Zhu, Lei; Kitchen, Douglas B; Barnes, Keith D; Racz, Boglarka; Qin, Qiong; Michelotti, Enrique; Cywin, Charles L; Martin, William H; Pearson, Paul G; Johnson, Graham; Petrukhin, Konstantin

    2014-09-25

    Accumulation of lipofuscin in the retina is associated with pathogenesis of atrophic age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease. Lipofuscin bisretinoids (exemplified by N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine) seem to mediate lipofuscin toxicity. Synthesis of lipofuscin bisretinoids depends on the influx of retinol from serum to the retina. Compounds antagonizing the retinol-dependent interaction of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) with transthyretin in the serum would reduce serum RBP4 and retinol and inhibit bisretinoid formation. We recently showed that A1120 (3), a potent carboxylic acid based RBP4 antagonist, can significantly reduce lipofuscin bisretinoid formation in the retinas of Abca4(-/-) mice. As part of the NIH Blueprint Neurotherapeutics Network project we undertook the in vitro exploration to identify novel conformationally flexible and constrained RBP4 antagonists with improved potency and metabolic stability. We also demonstrate that upon acute and chronic dosing in rats, 43, a potent cyclopentyl fused pyrrolidine antagonist, reduced circulating plasma RBP4 protein levels by approximately 60%.

  8. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation for facilitation of tests of fetal wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kelvin H; Smyth, Rebecca M D; Wei, Xing

    2013-12-07

    Acoustic stimulation of the fetus has been suggested to improve the efficiency of antepartum fetal heart rate testing. To assess the advantages and disadvantages of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials assessing the merits of the use of fetal vibroacoustic stimulation in conjunction with tests of fetal wellbeing. All review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Authors of published and unpublished trials were contacted for further information. Altogether 12 trials with a total of 6822 participants were included. Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation reduced the incidence of non-reactive antenatal cardiotocography test (nine trials; average risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.81). Vibroacoustic stimulation compared with mock stimulation evoked significantly more fetal movements when used in conjunction with fetal heart rate testing (one trial, RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.29). Vibroacoustic stimulation offers benefits by decreasing the incidence of non-reactive cardiotocography and reducing the testing time. Further randomised trials should be encouraged to determine not only the optimum intensity, frequency, duration and position of the vibroacoustic stimulation, but also to evaluate the efficacy, predictive reliability, safety and perinatal outcome of these stimuli with cardiotocography and other tests of fetal wellbeing.

  9. Cirugía fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. B. Juan Luis Leiva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El campo de la cirugía fetal es de reciente comienzo y rápida evolución. Con el avance en las herramientas de diagnóstico antenatal, la capacidad de diagnóstico de condiciones fetales susceptibles de ser tratadas in utero ha dado paso a una serie de procedimientos destinados a dar solución a situaciones que, de no ser por estas intervenciones, terminarían en un resultado adverso perinatal. Las técnicas descritas para la terapia fetal incluyen procedimientos percutáneos guiados por ultrasonido, cirugía fetal abierta y cirugía mínimamente invasiva. En este artículo se presentan las diversas condiciones fetales tributarias de cirugía fetal y se discuten las opciones terapéuticas actuales para cada una.

  10. Nutritional regulation of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Frank H; Jaquiery, Anne L; Oliver, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth is largely regulated by nutritional supply. The placenta is responsible for fetal nutrient supply for much of pregnancy, but in early pregnancy nutrition is histiotrophic. Both placental size and efficiency, and fetal growth, may be affected by maternal nutritional state before and during very early pregnancy. In contrast, manipulating maternal nutrition during later stages of pregnancy has a smaller than expected effect on fetal growth. Maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy also has a greater effect on gestation length than maternal nutrition later in pregnancy, suggesting that nutritional status may regulate both fetal growth trajectory and gestation length and that these two outcomes may be linked. Thus, determination of the nutritional factors regulating fetal growth, and potentially postnatal growth and body phenotype, may lie with the maternal nutritional status even before conception.

  11. Fluoxetine effect on gestation and fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ösz Bianca Eugenia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs is very controversial. There is no conclusive evidence for increased risk of malformations after SSRI use in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine how fluoxetine is affecting gestation and fetal development in rats. Twenty sexually mature female Wistar rats weighting between 250-260 g received 20 mg/kg body weight fluoxetine from the first day of gestation and during the entire gestation period.The drug was administered by oral route. Healthy, primipareus animals were selected along with 20 female Wistar rats, as control group. Mature males were caged with virgin females for an entire week. Rat’s behaviour during gestation, after birth and rats body weight was examined. The number of healthy pups was also noted. The females not giving birth after 21 days to any pup were anesthetized (halothane through gas scavenging apparatus untilled death and the gravid uterus were dissected out and examined. Compared to the controlled group, in which weight gain was more significant, the animals from the experimental group had a slight increase in body weight. The weight gain normally induced by gestation, is less significant in fluoxetine treated rats due to the increase serotonin levels in the brain. The uteri examination of pregnant rats showed an increase in the number of dead and resorbed rat embryos. Preclinical studies suggest that the inclusion of fluoxetine in pregnancy category C is justified and the appropriateness of its administration in pregnancy is still an unresolved issue.

  12. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  13. Forkhead box O1 and muscle RING finger 1 protein expression in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated mouse skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors and E3 ubiquitin ligases such as Muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) are believed to participate in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. The function of FoxO transcription factors is regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation. In the present study FoxO1 protein expression, phosphorylation and acetylation as well as MuRF1 protein expression, were examined in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated skeletal muscle. Methods Protein expression, phosphorylation and acetylation were studied semi-quantitatively using Western blots. Muscles studied were 6-days denervated mouse hind-limb muscles (anterior tibial as well as pooled gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, all atrophic), 6-days denervated mouse hemidiaphragm muscles (hypertrophic) and innervated control muscles. Total muscle homogenates were used as well as separated nuclear and cytosolic fractions of innervated and 6-days denervated anterior tibial and hemidiaphragm muscles. Results Expression of FoxO1 and MuRF1 proteins increased 0.3-3.7-fold in all 6-days denervated muscles studied, atrophic as well as hypertrophic. Phosphorylation of FoxO1 at S256 increased about 0.8-1-fold after denervation in pooled gastrocnemius and soleus muscles and in hemidiaphragm but not in unfractionated anterior tibial muscle. A small (0.2-fold) but statistically significant increase in FoxO1 phosphorylation was, however, observed in cytosolic fractions of denervated anterior tibial muscle. A statistically significant increase in FoxO1 acetylation (0.8-fold) was observed only in denervated anterior tibial muscle. Increases in total FoxO1 and in phosphorylated FoxO1 were only seen in cytosolic fractions of denervated atrophic anterior tibial muscle whereas in denervated hypertrophic hemidiaphragm both total FoxO1 and phosphorylated FoxO1 increased in cytosolic as well as in nuclear fractions. MuRF1 protein expression increased in cytosolic as well

  14. Ovine fetal necrobacillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, B.

    2007-01-01

    were found in several tissues. Histologically, placental lesions were characterized by locally diffuse infiltration of neutrophils, closely associated with abundant small Gram-negative and FISH-positive rods, thrombosis and necrosis. Lesions in the fetal-maternal interface were multifocal and consisted...... of villous necrosis and suppurative inflammation. Spread to the fetus from the placenta appeared to occur in two ways. Some fetuses had multifocal necrotizing hepatitis consistent with haematogenous spread through the umbilical vein; further dissemination to other organs occurred. Transplacental spread...

  15. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  16. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  17. Osteoarthritis of the hip joint in elderly patients is most commonly atrophic, with low parameters of acetabular dysplasia and possible involvement of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Matsuyama, Kanehiro; Sakuma, Daisuke; Setoguchi, Takao; Nagano, Satoshi; Kawamura, Ichiro; Maeda, Shingo; Komiya, Setsuro

    2017-12-01

    As elderly patients with hip osteoarthritis aged, acetabular dysplasia parameters decreased (Sharp's angle, acetabular roof obliquity angle, and acetabular head index) and the incidence of the atrophic type increased. Vertebral body fracture was more frequent in the atrophic type, suggesting the involvement of osteoporosis at the onset of hip osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased bone formation at a local site. However, excessive bone resorption has also been found to occur in the early stages of OA. Osteoporosis may be involved in the onset of OA in elderly patients. We conducted a cross-sectional radiographic study of patients with hip OA and examined the association between age and factors of acetabular dysplasia (Sharp's angle, acetabular roof obliquity angle, and acetabular head index) as well as the osteoblastic response to determine the potential involvement of osteoporosis. This study included 366 patients (58 men, 308 women) who had undergone total hip arthroplasty for the diagnosis of hip OA. We measured the parameters of acetabular dysplasia using preoperative frontal X-ray images and evaluated each patient according to Bombelli classification of OA (hypertrophic, normotrophic, or atrophic type). As the patients aged, the parameters of acetabular dysplasia decreased. The incidence of the atrophic type of OA was significantly higher in older patients. Vertebral body fractures were more frequent in the atrophic type than in the other types. Additionally, the index of acetabular dysplasia was lower in the atrophic type. By contrast, the hypertrophic type was present in relatively younger patients and was associated with an increased index of acetabular dysplasia. In elderly patients with hip OA, the parameters of acetabular dysplasia decreased and the incidence of the atrophic type increased as the patients aged. The frequency of vertebral body fracture was high in patients with the atrophic type, suggesting the involvement of

  18. [A new approach to the evaluation of the state of the microcirculatory system in patients presenting with chronic atrophic pharyngitis and treated with a synthetic neuropeptide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyreva, O V; Burenkov, G I; Toropova, L A

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the mechanisms of development of chronic atrophic pharyngitis. A method is proposed for studying microcirculation in the mucous membrane at the posterior pharyngeal wall of the patients with this condition using laser Doppler flowmetry. The role of chronic somatic pathology in the development of pharyngeal dystrophy is demonstrated. It is shown that therapy with the synthetic neuropeptide is highly efficacious for the treatment of chronic atrophic pharyngitis.

  19. [The application of helium-neon laser radiation for the combined treatment of the patients with atrophic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipov, R A; Sharipova, E R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to improve the efficacy of the treatment of the patients presenting with atrophic rhinitis (ozena) of the upper respiratory tract by the application of helium-neon laser radiation. A total of 120 patients aged from 15 to 53 years were treated based at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, G.G. Kuvatov Republican Clinical Hospital, Ufa. All these patients underwent routine clinical, roentgenological, microbiological, and rheographic examination. The method for the treatment of atrophic rhinitis is described; it includes the application of helium-neon laser radiation in combination with the administration of the purified preparation of liquid polyvalent Klebsiella bacteriophage. The positive results of the treatment by the proposed method were documented in 90% of the patients.

  20. Clinical and Histological Results of Vertical Ridge Augmentation of Atrophic Posterior Mandible with Inlay Technique of Cancellous Equine Bone Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistilli R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We want to evaluate a new bone block material in the inlay technique, for the vertical bone augmentation of a posterior atrophic mandible, in order to perfom aesthetic and prosthetic rehabilitation and enable implant insertion. Materials & Methods: Inlay technique and the subsequent successful implant rehabilitation in the atrophic right posterior mandible in a 42-year-old woman, was completed using a cancellous equine bone block as grafting material. Results: Three months after surgical procedure both clinical and histological aspects show complete integration of the biomaterial with the surrounding bone and three dental implants were placed. Computed tomography and conventional radiography showed a 5mm mean vertical bone gain. Conclusion: Cancellous equine bone grafts may be an effective alternative to autogenous bone and/or inorganic bovine bone for reconstruction of the posterior mandible using inlay technique.

  1. Atrophic and Metaplastic Progression in the Background Mucosa of Patients with Gastric Adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Suh Eun; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Young Soo; Ahn, Ji Yong; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jang, Se Jin; Jung, Hwoon-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background In patients with adenoma, assessing premalignant changes in the surrounding mucosa is important for surveillance. This study evaluated atrophic and metaplastic progression in the background mucosa of adenoma or early gastric cancer (EGC) cases. Methods Among 146 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic resection for intestinal-type gastric neoplasia, the adenoma group included 56 patients with low-grade dysplasia and the ECG group included 90 patients with high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. For histology, 3 paired biopsies were obtained from the antrum, corpus lesser curvature (CLC), and corpus greater curvature (CGC). Serological atrophy was determined based on pepsinogen A (PGA), progastricsin (PGC), gastrin-17, and total ghrelin levels. Topographic progression of atrophy and/or metaplasia was staged using the operative link on gastritis assessment (OLGA) and operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) systems. Results Rates of moderate-to-marked histological atrophy/metaplasia in patients with adenoma were 52.7%/78.2% at the antrum (vs. 58.8%/76.4% in EGC group), 63.5%/75.0% at the CLC (vs. 60.2%/69.7% in EGC group), and 10.9%/17.9% at the CGC (vs. 5.6%/7.8% in EGC group). Serological atrophy indicated by PGA and PGC occurred in 23.2% and 15.6% of cases in the adenoma and ECG groups, respectively (p = 0.25). Mean serum gastrin-17 concentrations of the adenoma group and EGC group were 10.4 and 9.0 pmol/L, respectively (p = 0.54). Mean serum total ghrelin levels were 216.6 and 209.5 pg/mL, respectively (p = 0.71). Additionally, between group rates of stage III–IV OLGA and OLGIM were similar (25.9% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.90; 41.8% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.71, respectively). Conclusions Atrophic and metaplastic progression is extensive and severe in gastric adenoma patients. A surveillance strategy for metachronous tumors should be applied similarly for patients with adenoma or EGC. PMID:28072871

  2. Clinical implications of fetal magnetocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartero, H.W.P.; Stinstra, J.G.; Golbach, E.G.M.; Meijboom, E.J.; Peters, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the usefulness and reliability of fetal magnetocardiography as a diagnostic or screening tool, both for fetuses with arrhythmias as well as for fetuses with a congenital heart defect. Methods We describe 21 women with either a fetal arrhythmia or a congenital heart defect disc

  3. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  4. Feto-fetal transfusion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, P; Scott, J M; Goel, K M

    1982-01-01

    Out of 42 pairs of liveborn monochorial twins there were 32 pairs with vascular anastomoses. Of these, 11 pairs had feto-fetal transfusion syndrome. There were another 8 pairs of stillborn twin fetuses with vascular communications and in these chronic feto-fetal transfusion syndrome might have resulted in intrauterine death. PMID:6890328

  5. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  6. Impact of fetal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson John

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is now well established for a wide range of cardiac anomalies. Diagnosis of congenital heart disease during fetal life not only identifies the cardiac lesion but may also lead to detection of associated abnormalities. This information allows a detailed discussion of the prognosis with parents. For continuing pregnancies, appropriate preparation can be made to optimize the postnatal outcome. Reduced morbidity and mortality, following antenatal diagnosis, has been reported for coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and transposition of the great arteries. With regard to screening policy, most affected fetuses are in the "low risk" population, emphasizing the importance of appropriate training for those who undertake such obstetric anomaly scans. As a minimum, the four chamber view of the fetal heart should be incorporated into midtrimester anomaly scans, and where feasible, views of the outflow tracts should also be included, to increase the diagnostic yield. Newer screening techniques, such as measurement of nuchal translucency, may contribute to identification of fetuses at high risk for congenital heart disease and prompt referral for detailed cardiac assessment.

  7. Caveolin-1, E-cadherin and β-catenin in Gastric Carcinoma, Precancerous Tissues and Chronic Non-atrophic Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-yang Sun; Jun-xia Wu; Jian-sheng Wu; Yu-ting Pan; Rong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expressions of caveolin-1,E-cadherin and β-catenin in gastric carcinoma,precancerous gastric and chronic non-atrophic gastritis tissues,and evaluate the correlation of these expressions with the development of gastric cancer.Methods:The expressions of caveolin-1,E-cadherin and β-catenin were detected by biotin-streptavidinperoxidase (SP) immunohistochemistry on 58 gastric cancer tissues,40 precancerous gastric tissues and 42 chronic non-atrophic gastritis tissues.The correlation between the expressions of caveolin-1,E-cadherin and β-catenin,and the clinicopathologic parameters of gastric cancer was analyzed retrospectively.Results:The positive rates of caveolin-1 and E-cadherin expressions in gastric carcinoma were significantly lower than precancerous gastric and chronic non-atrophic gastritis tissues (P<0.01).An abnormal rate of β-catenin expression in gastric carcinoma was higher than precancerous gastric and chronic non-atrophic gastritis tissues (P<0.01).Moreover,low expressions of caveolin-1,E-cadherin and β-catenin correlated with tumor size,depth of invasion,lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (P<0.05).The positive rates of caveolin-1 and E-cadherin expressions decreased (P<0.01),while an abnormal rate of β-catenin expression increased inversely,with the degree of atypical hyperplasia (P<0.01).Caveolin-1 expression correlated positively with E-cadherin (r=0.41,P<0.05).Caveolin-1 (r=-0.36,P<0.05) and E-cadherin (r=-0.45,P<0.05) expressions negatively correlated with abnormal β-catenin expression.Conclusion:These results suggested that dysregulated expressions of caveolin-1,E-cadherin and β-catenin correlated with the development of gastric cancer and its biological behavior.

  8. Split Face Comparative Study of Microneedling with PRP Versus Microneedling with Vitamin C in Treating Atrophic Post Acne Scars

    OpenAIRE

    Simran Chawla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acne scars are largely preventable complications of acne. 95% of the scars occur over the face thus impacting the quality of life. Correction of scars is the priority for acne patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with post acne atrophic facial scars attending the OPD during the period from April to October 2013 were offered four sittings of microneedling with PRP on one side and microneedling with vitamin C on other side of the face at an interval of 1 month. Results...

  9. Predictability of short implants (< 10 mm) as a treatment option for the rehabilitation of atrophic maxillae. A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Sánchez, José Luis; García-Sala Bonmatí, Fernando; Martínez González, Amparo; Garcia Dalmau, Carlos; Mañes Ferrer, José Félix; Brotóns Oliver, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Short implants (< 10 mm) are one of the treatment options available in cases of limited vertical bone. A purpose of this paper is to evaluate the predictability of short implants as an alternative to technically molthough such implants are now widely used, there is controversy regarding their clinical reliability. There complex treatments in patients with atrophic maxillae, based on a systematic review of the literature and the analysis of the implant survival rates, changes in per...

  10. Effects of hyperthyroidism on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and apoptosis in fetal adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, T; Hulya Uz, Y; Karabacak, R; Karaboga, I; Demirtas, S; Cagatay Cicek, A

    2015-11-26

    This study investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular density, and apoptosis in fetal rat adrenal glands with hyperthyroidism in late gestation. Twelve mature female Wistar albino rats with the same biological and physiological features were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups: control and hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of L-thyroxine (250 μg/kg) before pregnancy for 21 days and during pregnancy. Rats in the control and hyperthyroidism groups were caged according to the number of male rats. Zero day of pregnancy (Day 0) was indicated when the animals were observed to have microscopic sperm in vaginal smears. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy; blood from each animal was collected to determine the concentrations of maternal adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroxine. Rat fetuses were then quickly removed from the uterus, and the adrenal glands of the fetuses were dissected. VEGF expression, vascular density, and apoptosis were analyzed in fetal rat adrenal glands. Maternal serum levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and free thyroxine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group than in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of VEGF positive cells and vessel density significantly increased in the hyperthyroidism rat fetal adrenal group compared with the control group. Hyperthyroidism did not change the fetal and placental weights and the number of fetuses. This study demonstrates that hyperthyroidism may have an effect on the development of rat adrenal glands mediated by VEGF expression, angiogenesis, and apoptosis.

  11. A comparative study of vaginal estrogen cream and sustained-release estradiol vaginal tablet (Vagifem) in the treatment of atrophic vaginitis in Isfahan, Iran in 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Pardis; Ghahiri, Atallah; Daneshmand, Freshteh; Ghasemi, Mojdeh

    2015-12-01

    Atrophic vaginitis is a disease, which affects up to 50% of postmenopausal women. This study compared the effectiveness and user-friendliness of Vagifem (an estradiol vaginal tablet) and vaginal estrogen cream in the treatment of atrophic vaginitis. One hundred and sixty postmenopausal women with symptoms of atrophic vaginitis were randomly divided into two groups of treatment with Vagifem or with vaginal estrogen cream for 12 weeks. Patients used the medication daily for the first 2 weeks of the study, and twice weekly. Severity of vaginal atrophy and four main symptoms of atrophic vaginitis including dysuria, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and dryness were evaluated and compared before and after treatment. In addition, patients were asked regarding user-friendliness and hygienic issues of medications. Both vaginal estrogen cream and Vagifem significantly improved symptoms of atrophic vaginitis but in terms of effectiveness for the treatment symptoms of atrophic vaginitis, there was no significant difference between the two medications. Vagifem compared to estrogen cream resulted in significantly lower rate of hygienic problems (0% versus 23%, P vaginitis, which is as effective as vaginal estrogen creams and is more user-friendly.

  12. Artificial neural networks in the recognition of the presence of thyroid disease in patients with atrophic body gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edith Lahner; Marco Intraligi; Massimo Buscema; Marco Centanni; Lucy Vannella; Enzo Grossi; Bruno Annibale

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of artificial neural networks in predicting the presence of thyroid disease in atrophic body gastritis patients.METHODS: A dataset of 29 input variables of 253 atrophic body gastritis patients was applied to artificial neural networks (ANNs) using a data optimisation procedure (standard ANNs, T&T-IS protocol, TWIST protocol). The target variable was the presence of thyroid disease.RESULTS: Standard ANNs obtained a mean accuracy of 64.4% with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 59.8% in recognizing atrophic body gastritis patients with thyroid disease. The optimization procedures (T&T-IS and TWIST protocol) improved the performance of the recognition task yielding a mean accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 74.7% and 75.8%, 78.8% and 81.8%, and 70.5% and 69.9%, respectively. The increase of sensitivity of the TWIST protocol was statistically significant compared to T&T-IS.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that artificial neural networks may be taken into consideration as a potential clinical decision-support tool for identifying ABG patients at risk for harbouring an unknown thyroid disease and thus requiring diagnostic work-up of their thyroid status.

  13. The interaction between vitamin K nutriture and warfarin administration in patients with bacterial overgrowth due to atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, M E; Paiva, S A; O'Brien, M E; Booth, S L; Davidson, K W; Sokoll, L J; Sadowski, J A; Russell, R M

    1998-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis patients have intestinal bacterial overgrowth which could produce menaquinones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between a diet low in phylloquinone and minidoses of warfarin in subjects with and without bacterial overgrowth. Subjects with atrophic gastritis (indicated by serum pepsinogen ratio) and healthy volunteers were studied while fed a restrictive phylloquinone diet and while receiving a minidose of warfarin. Coagulation times, serum osteocalcin, serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin, plasma phylloquinone, plasma K-epoxide, plasma undercarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA)-II and urinary gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) were measured. At baseline, there were no differences between groups for any variable measured. Comparisons between baseline and post intervention in both groups, showed significant increases in circulating levels of K-epoxide, PIVKA II and undercarboxylated osteocalcin. However, no differences were observed when comparisons were made between groups. Our data do not support the hypothesis that bacterial synthesis of menaquinones in patients with bacterial overgrowth due to atrophic gastritis confers considerable resistance to the effect of warfarin.

  14. Rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla using the combination of autogenous and allogeneic bone grafts followed by protocol-type prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margonar, Rogério; dos Santos, Pâmela Letícia; Queiroz, Thallita Pereira; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2010-11-01

    Currently, there are several techniques for the rehabilitation of atrophic maxillary ridges in literature. The grafting procedure using autogenous bone is considered ideal by many researchers, as it shows osteogenic capability and causes no antigenic reaction. However, this type of bone graft has some shortcomings, mainly the restricted availability of donor sites. In recent years, several alternatives have been investigated to supply the disadvantages of autogenous bone grafts. In such studies, allogeneic bone grafts, which are obtained from individuals with different genetic load, but from the same species, have been extensively used. They can be indicated in cases of arthroplasty, surgical knee reconstruction, large bone defects, and in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction. Besides showing great applicability and biocompatibility, this type of bone is available in unlimited quantities. On the other hand, allogeneic bone may have the disadvantage of transmitting infectious diseases. Atrophic maxillae can be treated with bone grafts followed by osseointegrated implants to obtain aesthetic and functional oral rehabilitation. This study aimed to show the viability of allogeneic bone grafting in an atrophic maxilla, followed by oral rehabilitation with dental implant and protocol-type prosthesis within a 3-year follow-up period by means of a clinical case report.

  15. Maternal oxytocin triggers a transient inhibitory switch in GABA signaling in the fetal brain during delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyzio, Roman; Cossart, Rosa; Khalilov, Ilgam; Minlebaev, Marat; Hübner, Christian A; Represa, Alfonso; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Khazipov, Rustem

    2006-12-15

    We report a signaling mechanism in rats between mother and fetus aimed at preparing fetal neurons for delivery. In immature neurons, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. We found that, shortly before delivery, there is a transient reduction in the intracellular chloride concentration and an excitatory-to-inhibitory switch of GABA actions. These events were triggered by oxytocin, an essential maternal hormone for labor. In vivo administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist before delivery prevented the switch of GABA actions in fetal neurons and aggravated the severity of anoxic episodes. Thus, maternal oxytocin inhibits fetal neurons and increases their resistance to insults during delivery.

  16. Fetal and Maternal Outcomes in Pregnancies Complicated with Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkahatim; Ahmed, Salah Roshdy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%), perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%), cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%), and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6%) that resulted in 4 cases of Erb's palsy (0.96%), and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%). The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199), while 52.4% (219) delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition. PMID:22754881

  17. Fetal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with fetal macrosomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alkhatim Alsammani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal macrosomia remains a considerable challenge in current obstetrics due to the fetal and maternal complications associated with this condition. Aim: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of fetal macrosomia and associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in the Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This register-based study was conducted from January 1, 2011 through December 30, 2011 at the Maternity and Child Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight of 4 kg or greater. Malformed babies and those born dead were excluded. Results: The total number of babies delivered was 9241; of these, 418 were macrosomic. Thus, the prevalence of fetal macrosomia was 4.5%. The most common maternal complications were postpartum hemorrhage (5 cases, 1.2%, perineal tear (7 cases, 1.7%, cervical lacerations (3 cases, 0.7%, and shoulder dystocia (40 cases, 9.6% that resulted in 4 cases of Erb′s palsy (0.96%, and 6 cases of bone fractures (1.4%. The rate of cesarean section among women delivering macrosomic babies was 47.6% (199, while 52.4% (219 delivered vaginally. Conclusion: Despite extensive efforts to reduce fetal and maternal complications associated with macrosomia, considerable fetal and maternal morbidity remain associated with this condition.

  18. Fetal acoustic stimulation test for early intrapartum fetal monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, M; Hanwellage, K

    2011-03-01

    The fetal acoustic stimulation test (FAST) is a simple cost effective screening test for antenatal fetal monitoring. The aim of the study was to evaluate the FAST as a screening test for early intrapartum fetal well being. An initial non stress test (NST) followed by a FAST using corometric model 146 was carried out in 486 participants in early labour with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and > 32 weeks gestation. A repeat NST was recorded in the participants who had an initial non reactive NST. The results of the NST and FAST were compared with fetal outcome. Maternal perception of fetal movements after FAST, results of NST before and after FAST, and the babies' 5 minute APGAR scores were measured. Of the 486 participants 413 (85%) noticed fetal movements after FAST. Initial NST was non reactive in 203 (42%) but 149 (31%) became reactive after FAST. Compared to the NST, FAST had a better sensitivity (97% vs 62%, p fetal well being in early labour. It complements the NST and is better than the NST alone.

  19. Time Course of Atrophic Remodeling: Effects of Exercise on Cardiac Morpology and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. M.; Martin, D.; Caine, T.; Matz, T.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Early and consistent evaluation of cardiac morphology and function throughout an atrophic stimulus is critically important for the design and optimization of interventions. Exercise training is one intervention that has been shown to confer favorable improvements in LV mass and function during unloading. However, the format and intensity of exercise required to induce optimal cardiac improvements has not been investigated. PURPOSE: This randomized, controlled trial was designed to 1) comprehensively characterize the time course of unloading-induced morpho-functional remodeling, and 2) examine the effects of high intensity exercise training on cardiac structural and functional parameters during unloading. METHODS: Twenty six subjects completed 70 days of head down tilt bed rest (HDBR): 17 were randomized to exercise training (ExBR) and 9 remained sedentary. Exercise consisted of integrated high intensity, continuous, and resistance exercise. We assessed cardiac morphology (left ventricular mass; LVM) and function (speckle-tracking assessment of longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain and twist) before (BR-2), during (BR7,21,31,70), and following (BR+0, +3) HDBR. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was evaluated before (BR- 3), during (BR4,25,46,68) and following (BR+0) HDBR. RESULTS: Sedentary HDBR resulted in a progressive decline in LVM, longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain, and an increase in twist. ExBR mitigated decreases in LVM and function. Change in twist was significantly related to change in VO2max (R=0.68, premodeling.

  20. Can atrophic erosive oral lichen planus promote cardiovascular diseases? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrotto, Davide; Barattero, Roberta; Carbone, Mario; Gambino, Alessio; Sciannameo, Veronica; Ricceri, Fulvio; Conrotto, Federico; Broccoletti, Roberto; Arduino, Paolo G

    2017-06-19

    Lichen planus has been recently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The oral manifestations can be divided into white hyperkeratotic lesions (WL) and atrophic erosive lesions (RL). The aim of this report was to compare the presence of CVDs between patients affected by WL or RL, to test the hypothesis that RL are associated with an increased incidence of CVDs. Patients were analysed through a complete collection of all the risk factors for CVDs. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a cardiovascular event -acute coronary syndrome (ACS), any revascularization or stroke/TIA. A multivariable logistic regression model, adjusted for age at diagnosis, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, hypertension, CVDs familiarity and periodontitis was performed. A prospective cohort of 307 patients has been evaluated; 185 (60.3%) had WL and 122 RL (39.7%). Twenty-four patients had a CVD. ACS occurred more frequently in RL (adjusted odd ratio 5.83; 95%CI: 1.16-29.39), mainly due to the higher risk of it after the histological diagnosis of OLP (odd ratio 4.23; 95%CI: 0.66-27.23). Patients with RL could possibly have a higher risk of developing ACS. Further analysis on larger cohort are however warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Micronutrient deficiencies in patients with chronic atrophic autoimmune gastritis: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcoli, Federica; Zilli, Alessandra; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Chronic atrophic autoimmune gastritis (CAAG) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by an immune response, which is directed towards the parietal cells and intrinsic factor of the gastric body and fundus and leads to hypochlorhydria, hypergastrinemia and inadequate production of the intrinsic factor. As a result, the stomach’s secretion of essential substances, such as hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, is reduced, leading to digestive impairments. The most common is vitamin B12 deficiency, which results in a megaloblastic anemia and iron malabsorption, leading to iron deficiency anemia. However, in the last years the deficiency of several other vitamins and micronutrients, such as vitamin C, vitamin D, folic acid and calcium, has been increasingly described in patients with CAAG. In addition the occurrence of multiple vitamin deficiencies may lead to severe hematological, neurological and skeletal manifestations in CAAG patients and highlights the importance of an integrated evaluation of these patients. Nevertheless, the nutritional deficiencies in CAAG are largely understudied. We have investigated the frequency and associated features of nutritional deficiencies in CAAG in order to focus on any deficit that may be clinically significant, but relatively easy to correct. This descriptive review updates and summarizes the literature on different nutrient deficiencies in CAAG in order to optimize the treatment and the follow-up of patients affected with CAAG. PMID:28216963

  2. Sclerosus and atrophic genital Lichen or vulvar craurosis. About a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Caridad Cabrera Acea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosus and atrophic genital Lichen or vulvar craurosis is an affection characterized by a progressive chronic atrophy of the vulvar skin and mucosa, associated to involutive changes in external genitalia. The presentation of this case was motivated by the unusual appearance of it in our context. A 49 year old white patient with history of hypertension, came to the Dermatology consultation referred by her Family Doctor. She reported that she had had an intense pruritus since approximately eight months in the vulvar region and changes in texture which she stated as ¨hardening sensation¨ which had had intensified, so as irregularities in her menstrual period, all of which was not relieved with the usual treatment as it was interpreted as vaginal parasites. She explained that she suffered from an intense pain during intercourse, more frequently in the last months so as sleeping problems and nervousness. A biopsy was performed and it showed lichen sclerosus. It was treated with local high potency steroids, conjugated estrogens and psychological support. The patient had an evident symptom improvement. She has a periodic evaluation to avoid relapse and /or complications.

  3. Distinct metaplastic and inflammatory phenotypes in autoimmune and adenocarcinoma-associated chronic atrophic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sangho; Choi, Eunyoung; Petersen, Christine P; Roland, Joseph T; Federico, Alessandro; Ippolito, Rossana; D'Armiento, Francesco P; Nardone, Gerardo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Romano, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background Autoimmune gastritis (AIG) and adenocarcinoma-associated chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) are both associated with oxyntic atrophy, but AIG patients demonstrate an increased risk of carcinoid tumors rather than the elevated risk of adenocarcinoma observed with CAG. We therefore sought to compare the characteristics of the metaplastic mucosa in AIG and CAG patients. Methods We examined markers for metaplasia (spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM) and intestinal metaplasia) as well as proliferation (Ki67) and immune cell populations (neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils) in gastric sections from 16 female patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and AIG and 17 patients with CAG associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. Results Both AIG and CAG patients demonstrated prominent SPEM and intestinal metaplasia. However, AIG patients displayed significantly lower numbers of infiltrating macrophages and significantly reduced mucosal cell proliferation as compared to CAG patients. Conclusions These findings indicate that, while both AIG and CAG patients display prominent oxyntic atrophy and metaplasia, the AIG patients do not show proliferative metaplastic lineages that would predispose to adenocarcinoma. PMID:28405320

  4. Review of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia as a Premalignant Lesion of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the main precursor lesions of gastric cancer as the incidence of gastric cancer increases in the gastric mucosa involved with AG and IM. The prevalence of AG and IM vary depending on countries, even it represents diverse results in the same nation. Usually AG is antecedent of IM but the etiologies of AG and IM are not always the same. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic methods to detect AG and IM are different. Furthermore, the management strategy of AG and IM has not been established, yet. Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved as the most important cause of AG and IM. Thus the eradication of H. pylori is very important to prevent the progression to gastric cancer which is still placed in the high rank in morbidity and mortality among cancers. However, the reversibility of AG and IM by eradication of H. pylori which was assumed to be certain by meta-analysis is; however, controversial now. Therefore, the understanding and early diagnosis of AG and IM are very important, especially, in high incidence area of gastric cancer such as Republic of Korea. PMID:25853101

  5. Time Trends in Helicobacter pylori Infection and Atrophic Gastritis Over 40 Years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Tomoari; Haruma, Ken; Ito, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Manabe, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Hata, Jiro; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Sumii, Koji; Akiyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinji; Shiotani, Akiko; Graham, David Y

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection produces progressive mucosal damage that may eventually result in gastric cancer. We studied the changes that occurred in the presence and severity of atrophic gastritis and the prevalence of H. pylori infection that occurred coincident with improvements in economic and hygienic conditions in Japan since World War II. The prevalence of H. pylori infection and histologic grades of gastric damage were retrospectively evaluated using gastric biopsy specimens obtained over a 40-year period. Gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were scored using the updated Sydney classification system. The prevalence of H. pylori and severity of atrophy were examined in 1381 patients including 289 patients examined in the 1970s (158 men; mean age, 44.9 years), 787 in the 1990s (430 men; 44.2 years), and 305 in the 2010s (163 men; 53.2 years). Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection decreased significantly from 74.7% (1970s) to 53% (1990s) and 35.1% (2010s) (p pylori infection. There has been a progressive and rapid decline in the prevalence of H. pylori infection as well a fall in the rate of progression of gastric atrophy among H. pylori-infected Japanese coincident with the westernization and improvements in economic and hygienic conditions in Japan since World War II. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Occurrence, isolation and differentiation of Candida spp. and prevalence of variables associated to chronic atrophic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Rafael Guerra; da Silva Nascente, Patrícia; Etges, Adriana; Ribeiro, Gladis Aver; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto Burkert

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the frequency of Candida spp. in patients with chronic atrophic candidiasis (CAC), to differentiate Candida species and to assess the prevalence of certain infection-associated variables to this disease. Patients with CAC and wearing partial or complete dentures were recruited. Data were obtained by means of a questionnaire with details involving identification of the subject, demographic characteristics, behaviour and medical history, clinical and mycological evaluation and identification of yeast. The sample collection was carried out in the palate or palate and tongue of the subjects using sterilised swabs. Data were submitted to statistical analyses using Fischer's test. Forty-three (53%) cases of CAC showed the presence of Candida albicans. Females (75.2%) wearing complete dentures (60.1%) for more than 10 years (58%) were risk factors to CAC development. It could be concluded that: (a) the results did not confirm a significant difference among patients with CAC concerning the presence or absence of Candida spp.; (b) the occurrence of Candida was negatively related to important factors associated to this opportunistic infection; and (c) mycological findings did not indicate that the variables investigated have a significant effect on oral infections by C. albicans or other Candida species.

  7. Rationale in diagnosis and screening of atrophic gastritis with stomach-specific plasma biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agréus, Lars; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Di Mario, Francesco; Leja, Marcis; Mahachai, Varocha; Yaron, Niv; Van Oijen, Martijn; Perez, Guillermo Perez; Rugge, Massimo; Ronkainen, Jukka; Salaspuro, Mikko; Sipponen, Pentti; Sugano, Kentaro; Sung, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Atrophic gastritis (AG) results most often from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AG is the most important single risk condition for gastric cancer that often leads to an acid-free or hypochlorhydric stomach. In the present paper, we suggest a rationale for noninvasive screening of AG with stomach-specific biomarkers. Methods The paper summarizes a set of data on application of the biomarkers and describes how the test results could be interpreted in practice. Results In AG of the gastric corpus and fundus, the plasma levels of pepsinogen I and/or the pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio are always low. The fasting level of gastrin-17 is high in AG limited to the corpus and fundus, but low or non-elevated if the AG occurs in both antrum and corpus. A low fasting level of G-17 is a sign of antral AG or indicates high intragastric acidity. Differentiation between antral AG and high intragastric acidity can be done by assaying the plasma G-17 before and after protein stimulation, or before and after administration of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Amidated G-17 will rise if the antral mucosa is normal in structure. H. pylori antibodies are a reliable indicator of helicobacter infection, even in patients with AG and hypochlorhydria. Conclusions Stomach-specific biomarkers provide information about the stomach health and about the function of stomach mucosa and are a noninvasive tool for diagnosis and screening of AG and acid-free stomach. PMID:22242613

  8. Broccoli consumption and chronic atrophic gastritis among Japanese males: an epidemiological investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous in vitro and animal experiments have shown that sulforaphane, which is abundant in broccoli, inhibits Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and blocks gastric tumor formation. This suggests that broccoli consumption prevents chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG introduced by H. pylori infection and, therefore, gastric cancer. For an epidemiological investigation of the relationship between the broccoli consumption and CAG, a cross-sectional study of 438 male employees, aged 39 to 60 years, of a Japanese steel company was conducted. CAG was serologically determined with serum cut-off values set at pepsinogen I < or = 70 ng/ml and a ratio of serum pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II < or = 3.0. Broccoli consumption (weekly frequency and diet were monitored by using a 31-item food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of CAG among men who ate broccoli once or more weekly was twice as high as that among men who consumed a negligible amount (P < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that broccoli consumption once or more weekly significantly increased the risk for CAG (odds ratio, 3.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-8.38; P < 0.05, after controlling for age, education, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. The present study failed to show an expected association between frequent broccoli consumption and a low prevalence of CAG.

  9. Effects of low dose estrogen therapy on the vaginal microbiomes of women with atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Song, Ning; Williams, Christopher J; Brown, Celeste J; Yan, Zheng; Xu, Chen; Forney, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    Atrophic vaginitis (AV) is common in postmenopausal women, but its causes are not well understood. The symptoms, which include vaginal itching, burning, dryness, irritation, and dyspareunia, can usually be alleviated by low doses of estrogen given orally or locally. Regrettably, the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in women with AV have not been fully characterized and little is known as to how these communities change over time in response to hormonal therapy. In the present intervention study we determined the response of vaginal bacterial communities in postmenopausal women with AV to low-dose estrogen therapy. The changes in community composition in response to hormonal therapy were rapid and typified by significant increases in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. that were mirrored by a decreased relative abundance of Gardnerella. These changes were paralleled by a significant four-fold increase in serum estradiol levels and decreased vaginal pH, as well as nearly a two-fold increase in the Vaginal Maturation Index (VMI). The results suggest that after menopause a vaginal microbiota dominated by species of Lactobacillus may have a beneficial role in the maintenance of health and these findings that could lead to new strategies to protect postmenopausal women from AV.

  10. Outcome of dermal grafting in the management of atrophic facial scars

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    Kanathur Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scars over the face are cosmetically and psychologically disturbing. Various techniques have been described and are being practiced in the management of these scars. Aims and Objectives: This study was undertaken to study the safety, effectiveness of using dermal grafts as fillers in the management of facial scars due to acne, chickenpox, trauma or any others. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with atrophic facial scars of varied aetiology and willing for surgery were considered for dermal graft technique. After pre-operative workup, subcision was done 2 weeks before planned surgery. Depending on the type of scar, grafts were inserted using pocket or road railing techniques. Scar improvement was assessed based on patient satisfaction. Results: Linear scars showed excellent improvement. Acne, varicella and traumatic scars also showed good improvement. However, two patients did not appreciate improvement due to marked surface irregularities as the scars were elevated. They were further subjected to LASER and chemical peel resurfacing. Conclusion: Dermal grafting can be used in the management of any round to oval facial scar which is soft, prominent and at least 4-5 mm across; linear scars at least 2-3 mm across and 3-4 cm in length. However, scars with prominent surface irregularities need further resurfacing techniques along with dermal grafting. Limitations: Limitations of the study include small sample size, and only subjective assessment of the scar has been taken into consideration to assess the outcome.

  11. Long-term stability of atrophic ridges reconstructed with hydroxylapatite: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, P; Bellavance, F; Cholewa, J; Djokovic, S

    1996-08-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation of the long-term efficacy and stability of reconstructive surgery of atrophic ridges using dense hydroxylapatite (HA). Subperiosteal HA was used as a first stage of reconstruction in 678 ridges, 645 mandibular and 35 maxillary, followed after 4 to 5 weeks by a total lowering of the floor of the mouth, vestibuloplasty, and skin graft in the mandible: a same-stage submucous vestibuloplasty was done in the maxilla. Patients were followed for an average of 5.3 +/- 2.7 years by the same surgical and prosthodontic team. The presence of severe or moderate radiographic change was analyzed in relation to gender, age, severity of atrophy, postoperative complications, clinical changes, patient satisfaction, and type of HA particles used alone or with a binder. Seventy-seven percent of cases had no observable radiographic changes, 13% had moderate changes, and 10% had severe changes, of which fewer than half also had severe clinical changes. Relationships were established between the presence of radiographic change and certain parameters, especially postoperative delay in healing, severe or moderate clinical changes, and type of HA particles used. Hydroxylapatite, when used alone or with binding agents, and in association with basic techniques of reconstructive surgery and soft tissue handling, is a predictable and stable biomaterial for ridge reconstruction.

  12. On the Feasibility of Utilizing Allogeneic Bone Blocks for Atrophic Maxillary Augmentation

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    Alberto Monje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This systematic review was aimed at assessing the feasibility by means of survival rate, histologic analysis, and causes of failure of allogeneic block grafts for augmenting the atrophic maxilla. Material and Methods. A literature search was conducted by one reviewer in several databases. Articles were included in this systematic review if they were human clinical trials in which outcomes of allogeneic bone block grafts were studied by means of survival rate. In addition other factors were extracted in order to assess their influence upon graft failure. Results. Fifteen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and subsequently were analyzed in this systematic review. A total of 361 block grafts could be followed 4 to 9 months after the surgery, of which 9 (2.4% failed within 1 month to 2 months after the surgery. Additionally, a weighed mean 4.79 mm (95% CI: 4.51–5.08 horizontal bone gain was computed from 119 grafted sites in 5 studies. Regarding implant cumulative survival rate, the weighed mean was 96.9% (95% CI: 92.8–98.7%, computed from 228 implants over a mean follow-up period of 23.9 months. Histologic analysis showed that allogeneic block grafts behave differently in the early stages of healing when compared to autogenous block grafts. Conclusion. Atrophied maxillary reconstruction with allogeneic bone block grafts represents a reliable option as shown by low block graft failure rate, minimal resorption, and high implant survival rate.

  13. Co-ordinated regulation of neurogenin-3 expression in the maternal and fetal pancreas during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søstrup, Birgitte; Gaarn, Louise W; Nalla, Amarnadh;

    2014-01-01

    -3. Messenger RNA levels of neurogenin-3 and the transcription factor musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein B in fetal rat pancreas cells, cultured with serum from pregnant women, were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number...... of neurogenin-3-positive cells present in pregnant mice was increased compared with nonpregnant mice. Neurogenin-3 and musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein B mRNA was detected in fetal rat pancreas exposed to serum from pregnant women. RESULTS: In pregnant mice we found a 3.6-fold increase...... in beta cell volume at day 18 compared with nonpregnant mice and a 3.5-fold increase in neurogenin-3 volume at day 14, mainly located in the acinar compartment where it was eightfold higher than in nonpregnant mice. In fetal rat pancreatic cells exposed to serum from pregnant women we found a marked...

  14. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Chauvin, Nancy Anne; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra Sue; Epelman, Monica [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Capilla, Elena [Hospital Universitario Clinico San Carlos de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  15. Fetal valproate syndrome

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    Parmarth G Chandane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal use of anticonvulsant valproic acid can result in a well-recognized cluster of facial dysmorphism, congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental retardation. In this report, we describe a case with typical features of fetal valproate syndrome (FVS. A 26-year-old female with epilepsy controlled on sodium valproate 800 mg/day since 3 years, gave birth to a male child with characteristic features of FVS. She also had 3 spontaneous first-trimester abortions during those 3 years. Sodium valproate, a widely used anticonvulsant and mood regulator, is a well-recognized teratogen that can result in facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis, neural tube defects, and neurodevelopmental retardation. Therefore, we strongly recommend avoidance of valproic acid and supplementation of folic acid during pregnancy.

  16. 维生素E对手机辐射致孕鼠及胎鼠脑组织损伤的干预作用%Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娴; 罗芮; 马斌; 王慧; 刘天; 张静; 廉志顺; 崔晞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the interference of vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats.Methods 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control,negative control,low,middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups).The low,middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5,15 and 30mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy.And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E.All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time,three times per day for 21 days.After accouchement,the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope.The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px),and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested.Results Compared with the negative control group,the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling,mild edema was found around the capillary,chromatin was concentrated and collected,and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group,whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups.We can see uniform chromatin,abundant mitochondrion,rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group.The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections.In the antioxidase activity analysis,compared with the negative control group,the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P < 0.05).In fetal rats,the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly increased in the brain tissues of all three different vitamin E dosages groups when compared with the

  17. Circadian rhythms of fetal liver transcription persist in the absence of canonical circadian clock gene expression rhythms in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwei Li

    Full Text Available The cellular circadian clock and systemic cues drive rhythmicity in the transcriptome of adult peripheral tissues. However, the oscillating status of the circadian clocks in fetal tissues, and their response to maternal cues, are less clear. Most clock genes do not cycle in fetal livers from mice and rats, although tissue level rhythms rapidly emerge when fetal mouse liver explants are cultured in vitro. Thus, in the fetal mouse liver, the circadian clock does not oscillate at the cellular level (but is induced to oscillate in culture. To gain a comprehensive overview of the clock status in the fetal liver during late gestation, we performed microarray analyses on fetal liver tissues. In the fetal liver we did not observe circadian rhythms of clock gene expression or many other transcripts known to be rhythmically expressed in the adult liver. Nevertheless, JTK_CYCLE analysis identified some transcripts in the fetal liver that were rhythmically expressed, albeit at low amplitudes. Upon data filtering by coefficient of variation, the expression levels for transcripts related to pancreatic exocrine enzymes and zymogen secretion were found to undergo synchronized daily fluctuations at high amplitudes. These results suggest that maternal cues influence the fetal liver, despite the fact that we did not detect circadian rhythms of canonical clock gene expression in the fetal liver. These results raise important questions on the role of the circadian clock, or lack thereof, during ontogeny.

  18. Fetal pain perception and pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; Jani, Jacques; De Buck, Frederik; Deprest, J

    2006-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of current science related to the concept of fetal pain. We have answered three important questions: (1) does fetal pain exist? (2) does management of fetal pain benefit the unborn child? and (3) which techniques are available to provide good fetal analgesia?

  19. The Danish Fetal Medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann

    2016-01-01

    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  20. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to p