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Sample records for atropa belladonna

  1. Belladonna

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse. High blood pressure: Taking large amounts of belladona can increase blood pressure. This might make blood ... Atropa belladonna, Atropa acuminata, Baccifère, Belladona, Belladone, ... Cerise d’Espagne, Deadly Nightshade, Devil's Cherries, Devil's Herb, ...

  2. Selection of somatic hybrids after fusion of protoplasts from Datura innoxia Mill. and Atropa belladonna L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumbiegel, G; Schieder, O

    1979-01-01

    After fusion of protoplasts from a diploid (2n=24) and a tetraploid (4n=48) chlorophyll-deficient mutant of Datura innoxia Mill. with diploid (2n=72) green wild-type protoplasts of Atropa belladonna L. thirteen somatic hybrids could be selected, most of which had already started to produce leaves and shoots. Hybrid calli were recognizable by the production of hairs, typical for Datura innoxia, and the green colour, derived from Atropa belladonna. Further proof for the hybrid nature was furnished by cytological investigations. The metaphase chromosomes of both species are easily distinguishable in their size: chromosomes of Datura innoxia are about twice as large as those of Atropa belladonna. The chromosome numbers of the hybrids varied from ca. 84 to ca. 175.

  3. Comparison of somatic and sexual incompatibility between Datura innoxia and Atropa belladonna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumbiegel, G; Schieder, O

    1981-12-01

    After protoplast fusion somatic hybrid calli were obtained by complementation selection between an albino mutant of Datura innoxia and the wildtype of Atropa belladonna (Krumbiegel and Schieder, 1979. Planta 145, 371-375). In the present study experiments are described concerning leaf and shoot induction on several media supplemented with different combinations and concentrations of hormones. Except for fleshy leaves and embryos, no well-formed shoot could be obtained. However, under standard culture conditions after one and a half years, one line produced numerous green shoots, showing a reduced number of chromosomes from Atropa belladonna. The loss of some chromosomes decreased the degree of somatic incompatibility. The additional appearance of shoots with albino sectors, of total albino shoots, and of green shoots showing a different phenotype, demonstrated that the elimination of the chromosomes occurred not only once, but several times. At least one shoot nearly stable in chromosome content and green subline could be obtained possessing only 6 chromosomes of Atropa belladonna and the original chromosome number of Datura innoxia. Experiments were carried out to test the feasibility of producing sexual hybrids through in vivo and in vitro methods by cross pollination. However, no embryos, seeds, or plantlets were obtained, thus demonstrating that protoplast fusion is the only possibility for obtaining hybrids between these two species.

  4. Enhanced accumulation of atropine in Atropa belladonna transformed by Rac GTPase gene isolated from Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kyouhei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2013-12-01

    Leaf tissues of Atropa belladonna were transformed by Sdrac2, a Rac GTPase gene, that is isolated from Scoparia dulcis, and the change in atropine concentration of the transformants was examined. Re-differentiated A. belladonna overexpressing Sdrac2 accumulated considerable concentration of atropine in the leaf tissues, whereas the leaves of plants transformed by an empty vector accumulated only a very low concentration of the compound. A. belladonna transformed by CASdrac2, a modified Sdrac2 of which translate was expected to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP) permanently, accumulated very high concentrations of atropine (approximately 2.4-fold excess to those found in the wild-type plant in its natural habitat). In sharp contrast, the atropine concentration in transformed A. belladonna prepared with negatively modified Sdrac2, DNSdrac2, expected to bind guanosine diphosphate instead of GTP, was very low. These results suggested that Rac GTPases play an important role in the regulation of secondary metabolism in plant cells and that overexpression of the gene(s) may be capable of enhancing the production of natural products accumulated in higher plant cells. PMID:23852262

  5. Improvement of Asthma and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With Oral Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, a Combination of Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, Bismuth, and Antimonite: A Pediatric Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schoen-Angerer, Tido; Madeleyn, René; Kiene, Helmut; Kienle, Gunver S; Vagedes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and asthma, although well established in adults, is less strong in the pediatric age group. Benefits of proton pump therapy are limited across age ranges. While there is a growing body of literature on the use of complementary treatments for both asthma and GERD, few studies have focused on treatment benefits for the GERD-asthma association. We present the case of a 2-year-old boy with asthma and GERD who was not responding to inhaled, low-dose corticosteroids, beta-mimetic therapy, and a 6-week course of proton pump inhibitor treatment. We noted a gradual disappearance of symptoms when he was given an oral preparation of Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, an anthroposophic medication containing Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, bismuth, and antimonite. Matricaria recutita and bismuth have known gastric protective properties, and Atropa belladonna contains anticholinergic agents that have a bronchodilatory effect. These complementary medications appear promising in terms of relieving the symptoms of GERD-associated asthma. PMID:26937321

  6. Multiple shoot cultures of Atropa belladonna: Effect of physico-chemical factors on growth and alkaloid formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple shoot cultures were established from shoot tip and axillary meristem of the plant Atropa belladonna. The cultures were initially raised on agar medium and subsequently maintained on liquid medium of Murashige and Skoog (1962) supplemented with BA. These cultures were subjected to different doses of -y-irradiation. Recovery from the radiation effects was observed in tissues subjected to 29 Gy during four successive passages. Plant growth regulators influenced the growth and morphogenetic events of the tissues. The precursors of tropane alkaloids marginally increased the alkaloid synthesis during the stationary phase of growth. Shoot cultures, established from different field grown plants varying in alkaloid content, were morphologically similar and did not exhibit the parental characteristics with respect to alkaloid formation

  7. Establishment of Hairy Root Cultures of Atropa belladonna%颠茄发根培养系统的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春贤; 阳义健; 彭梅芳; 陈敏; 兰小中; 廖志华

    2006-01-01

    用种子萌发获得颠茄无菌苗,用发根农杆菌A4侵染颠茄无菌苗真叶,所有感染了的叶片都从伤口处产生发根.在无激素培养基中,发根表现出高频侧向分支、生长迅速、失去向地性的典型形态特征.PCR检测表明rolB、rolC确实整合到颠茄发根基因组中,用MS液体培养基发酵培养35 d,3个发根单克隆中发根生物量最大增长率达7.5倍,T6单克隆莨菪碱含量最高(5.61 mg/g),与种植在田间的颠茄植株的根相比,提高7倍;T2单克隆东莨菪碱含量最高,提高9倍多(2.35 mg/g).本研究揭示了rol基因足以诱导获得生长迅速和次生代谢产物积累的发根.表明颠茄转基因发根的发酵培养不失为生产托品烷类生物碱的一条好途径.%In vitro cultural systems of medical plant, A. belladonna was established, bacteria-free leaves were used as explants for genetic transformation by A. rhizogenes strain A4. The result showed that all the infected leaves could produce hairy roots from the wound sites. The hairy roots shown a typical phenotype characterized by plagio tropic growth, high incidence of lateral branching and faster growth than untransformed roots in phytohormone-free medium. PCR analysis showed that the rooting genes including rolB and rolC were confirmed integrated into the genome of A. belledonna hairy roots. Three root lines were investigated for growth rate and alkaloid productivity after cultured in liquid MS medium 35 days, the maximum biomass of hairy roots increased up to 7.5 times. The maxi mum amount of hyoscyamine (5.61 mg · g-1) was present in the hairy root lines T6, which had almost 7 times than that recorded in untransformed mature plant roots (0.84 mg · g-1 ), the maximum amount of scopolamine (2.35 mg · g-1 ) was present in the hairy root lines T2, which had more than 9 times than that recorded in mature plant roots (0.25 mg · g-1). Results revealed that the rol genes seemed sufficient to induce the hairy root

  8. High dilution of Belladonna affect the mycelial growth of Corynespora cassiicola in vitro

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    Kátia Regina Freitas Schawan-Estrada

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The target spot is a disease caused by fungus Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. & Curt. Wei. This disease has occurred in several states of Brazil. It is a late season disease and causes economic losses in various crops such as soybeans [1]. Currently there is no adequate treatment for the control of C. cassiicola in organic cultivation of soybeans, since the application of fungicides for the control and management of diseases is not allowed by Brazilian legislation [2]. Thus, the purpose of this experiment was to test the effectiveness of high dilutions of Belladonna in vitro on mycelial growth of Corynespora cassiicola. Materials and Methods: The preliminary tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Pathology, State University of Maringá (UEM. The fungal isolate of C. cassicola was obtained from Embrapa Soja. The fungus was peaked and grown on PDA (potato dextrose agar maintained at 25°C ± 2 and 12h photoperiod. Belladonna dilutions (6, 12, 18, 24 and 30dH were obtained according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [3]. PDA culture medium plus Belladonna dilutions (6, 12, 24 and 30dH beyond the control containing distilled water were placed in petri dishes after filtration through a Millipore membrane (pore diameter of 0.45µm . After medium solidification, a disc of mycelium (4 mm diameter of C. cassiicola was peaked towards the center of each plate and sealed with plastic wrap and then incubated at 25°C with 12h photoperiod. The mycelial growth was measured daily for 8 days. The control consisted of distilled water. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by Scott-Knott test (P ≤ 0.05. Results and Discussion: All dilutions of Belladonna (6, 12, 24, 30dH were effective (p <0.05 in reducing the mycelial growth of C. cassiicola compared to control (Figure 1. Belladonna 30dH was higher in all periods and the difference increased with time. Dilutions

  9. Toxicidade pré-clínica de fitoterápico contendo Gentiana lutea, Rheum palmatum, Aloe ferox, Cynara scolymus, Atropa belladona, Peumus boldus e Baccharis trimera em Coelhos Nova Zelândia

    OpenAIRE

    Braga de Mello Joao Roberto; Mello, Fernanda B.; Langeloh, Augusto

    2008-01-01

    The phytotherapic formulation constituted by Gentiana lutea (genciana), Rheum palmatum (ruibarbo), Aloe ferox (aloé), Cynara scolymus (alcachofra), Atropa belladona (beladona), Paumus boldus (boldo) and Baccharis trimera (carqueja) (Gotas Preciosas®) was investigated from the potential of toxicological effects when orally administered for 30 days to male and female New Zealand rabbits. The daily oral dose was ten times the prescribed dosage to humans. The general signs of toxicity...

  10. Improvement of Determination Method of Compound Belladonna and Aluminium Hydroxide Tablets%复方颠茄氢氧化铝片含量测定方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦庆芳; 黄勇

    2014-01-01

    目的:改进复方颠茄氢氧化铝片含量测定方法。方法:不需进行沉淀处理,采用锌盐返滴定法。结果:回收率平均值为99.1%,RSD为0.18%( n=6)。结论:该方法简便、准确,可用于该制剂的质量控制。%Objective:To improve the determination method of Compound Belladonna and Aluminium Hydroxide Tablets.Method:U-sing zinc salt titrimetric method directly without precipitation treatment.Result:The average recovery was 99.1%, RSD=0.18%( n=6).Conclusion:The method is simple, accurate and can be used for the quality control of the preparation.

  11. Belladonna Alkaloid Combinations and Phenobarbital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to relieve cramping pains in conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and spastic colon. They also are used with other medicine to treat ulcers. These medicines decrease the motion of the stomach and intestines and the secretion of stomach fluids, including acid. ...

  12. Estudo de toxicidade pré-clínica de fitoterápico contendo Gentiana lutea, Rheum palmatum, Aloe ferox, Cynara scolymus, Atropa belladona, Peumus boldus e Baccharis trimera

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Joao Roberto Braga de; Mello, Fernanda B.; Langeloh, Augusto

    2008-01-01

    A formulação fitoterápica contendo Gentiana lutea, (genciana), Rheum palmatum (ruibarbo), Aloe ferox (aloé), Cynara scolymus (alcachofra), Atropa belladona (beladona), Paumus boldus (boldo) e Baccharis trimera (carqueja) (Gotas Preciosas®) foi investigada quanto aos potenciais efeitos tóxicos em doses repetidas quando administrada por via oral (gavagem) a ratos e ratas Wistar (machos por 30 dias e fêmeas por 44 dias, correspondendo à gestação e lactação). Nos estudos a dosagem diária usada fo...

  13. Novel respirable powder formulation: design, aerosolization and permeation studies through pulmonary epithelial cell line and mucus models.

    OpenAIRE

    Stigliani, Mariateresa

    2015-01-01

    2013 - 2014 Direct administration of drugs to the lungs has been used for millennia as a major treatment for a number of diseases. Origin of the inhalation therapies can be found 2000 B.C in India, where people were used to smoke Atropa belladonna leaves to suppress cough. In 1986, researchers at Genentech Inc. (San Francisco, USA) discovered that the hormone of the human growth was naturally absorbed into systemic circulation of rats after its instillation into their lungs. Thus, the ...

  14. Comparative Genomics of Ten Solanaceous Plastomes

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    Harpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna. AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura.

  15. [Central anticholinergic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Urretavizcaya, P; Cenoz Osinaga, J C; Jáuregui Garía, M L; Gállego Culleré, J

    1991-10-01

    Two new cases of anticolinergic central syndrome are described. The first case, a 8 year old girl, suffered a severe encefalopathy after topical application of mydriatic cholirio as an aid in a rutine study of ocular refraction. The second case, 67 year old man presented a severe neurological picture after accidental intake of a silvester plantground (Atropa belladonna). His neurological condition returned quickly to normal whith administration of physostigmine. Differents aspects of the etiology, clinical picture and diagnosis are discussed with special emphasis in patients with delirium or acute confusional states. Finally, attention is drawn in the necessity of a properly use of anticholinergic drugs overcoat in aged or children.

  16. The forest melliferous flora in the vicinity of Blace, Serbia

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    Perišić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Melliferous plant species in the forests near Blace (South Serbia were investigated in order to estimate the significance, contribution, quality and ecological characteristics of representatives of the apiflora as potential nectar and pollen sources, the elements of bee pasturage. The significance of melliferous plants was determined on the basis of nectar and pollen production intensity, as well as by following blooming periods. According to adaptations to moisture, light, and temperature, melliferous species can be relegated to eight groups and six subgroups. Out of the total number of melliferous species in the investigated area (223, the forest apiflora accounted for 82 species (36,77%. The species with highest nectar and/or pollen production are: Alnus glutinosa, Corylus avellana, Paulownia tomentosa, Picea abies, Prunus tenella, Robinia pseudoacacia, species of the genera Salix, Tilia, and Campanula, Atropa bella-donna, Calamintha officinalis, Glechoma hederacea, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salvia glutinosa and Valeriana officinalis.

  17. In silico analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats from chloroplast genomes of Solanaceae species

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    Evandro Vagner Tambarussi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of chloroplast genome (cpDNA sequences of Atropa belladonna, Nicotiana sylvestris, N.tabacum, N. tomentosiformis, Solanum bulbocastanum, S. lycopersicum and S. tuberosum, which are Solanaceae species,allowed us to analyze the organization of cpSSRs in their genic and intergenic regions. In general, the number of cpSSRs incpDNA ranged from 161 in S. tuberosum to 226 in N. tabacum, and the number of intergenic cpSSRs was higher than geniccpSSRs. The mononucleotide repeats were the most frequent in studied species, but we also identified di-, tri-, tetra-, pentaandhexanucleotide repeats. Multiple alignments of all cpSSRs sequences from Solanaceae species made the identification ofnucleotide variability possible and the phylogeny was estimated by maximum parsimony. Our study showed that the plastomedatabase can be exploited for phylogenetic analysis and biotechnological approaches.

  18. High dilution of Belladonna affect the mycelial growth of Corynespora cassiicola in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kátia Regina Freitas Schawan-Estrada; Bruno Reis; Romulo Vinícios Fagan; Carlos Moacir Bonato

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The target spot is a disease caused by fungus Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. & Curt.) Wei. This disease has occurred in several states of Brazil. It is a late season disease and causes economic losses in various crops such as soybeans [1]. Currently there is no adequate treatment for the control of C. cassiicola in organic cultivation of soybeans, since the application of fungicides for the control and management of diseases is not allowed by Brazilian legislation [2]. Thus, the ...

  19. Drug: D03069 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03069 Crude, Drug Belladonna extract (JP16); Belladonna (USP) Hyoscyamine [CPD:C02...113] Anticholinergic Same as: E00008 ATC code: A03BA04 Solanaceae (nightshade family) Belladonna root extract...total alkaloids D03069 Belladonna extract (JP16); Belladonna (USP) Crude drugs [B...R:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Solanaceae (nightshade family) D03069 Belladonna extract; Belladonna CAS: 8007-93-0 PubChem: 17397224 ...

  20. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MULBERRY ASSOCIATED WITH INTERCROPPING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS UNDER TEMPERATE CLIMATIC CONDITIONSBIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MULBERRY ASSOCIATED WITH INTERCROPPING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS UNDER TEMPERATE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Rathore

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kashmir valley represents temperate climatic conditions and is known for its bivoltine sericulture. The sericulture in the region however, sustains on tree type of plants. Majority of sericulturists in this traditional area have taken up mulberry cultivation on small land holdings as a life sustaining occupation. Other farmers with more land have taken up it as subsidiary occupation. Mulberry is facing stiff competition from other economic crops. In order to make the mulberry cultivation more profitable and sustainable, intercrops can be practiced with them. Medicinal plants like Lavendula officinalis, Atropa belladonna and Echinacea purpurea are important source of alkaloids and essential oils, which have huge demand in pharmaceutical industry. The wider spacing available in the tree type of plantation of mulberry facilitates the cultivation of these medicinal plants as an intercrop. The present paper focuses on utilization of medicinal plants as an intercrop with mulberry to generate an additional income to the progressive farmers as the biochemical studies shows that there is no significant impact on mulberry leaf quality and soil health.

  1. A Randomised Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Milking Cream and a Homeopathic Complex Topical Cream on Diaper Dermatitis

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    Janice Pellow

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diaper dermatitis (DD is an acute inflammation of the skin in the diaper area and is the most common cutaneous disease among infants and children. Calendula officinalis, Atropa belladonna and Sulphuricum acidum are homeopathic remedies which have been purported to be beneficial in wound healing and conditions affecting the skin, however, to date, no research has been conducted on the use of these remedies for DD. The aim of this seven-day, double-blind, controlled pilot study was to assess the efficacy of milking cream and a homeopathic complex cream as topical treatments for DD. Forty children between the ages of three to 24 months with DD were recruited. The homeopathic complex cream (n= 20 or unmedicated milking cream (n = 20 was applied after every nappy change for seven days. Efficacy on the severity of symptoms and the percentage of area affected was assessed by means of the 4-Point Grading Scale and the Modified Lund and Browder Charts respectively, on days 1, 2, 4 and 7. The results revealed that both groups showed statistically-significant improvements on rash severity and the percentage of area affected between consecutive visits, as well as over the entire research study period. Trends indicated that the treatment group had a faster resolution of symptoms and outperformed the control in certain affected body regions. Preliminary findings suggest that both milking cream and the homeopathic complex cream may be effective alternative treatment options for DD, and further investigation is warranted.

  2. Drug: D03224 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available T AND METABOLISM A03 DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES, PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloid...s, tertiary amines A03BA04 Belladonna total alkaloids D03224 Belladonna root (JP16)

  3. Effects of 200cH medications on mice bone marrow cells and macrophages

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    Dorly de F. Buchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Paracelsus once wrote: "All things are poison and nothing is without poison, only the dose permits something not to be poisonous." Latter Hahnemann formulated the law of similars, preparations which cause certain symptoms in healthy individuals if given in diluted form to patients exhibiting similar symptoms will cure it. Highly diluted natural complexes prepared according to Hahnemann’s ancient techniques may represent a new form of immunomodulatory therapy. The lack of scientific research with highly diluted products led us to investigate the in vivo and in vitro actions of commonly used medications. Here we describe the results of experimental studies aimed at verifying the effects of Mercurius solubilis, Atropa Belladonna, Lachesis muta and Bryonia alba. All medications were at 200cH dilution. Animals were maintained for 7 days and were allowed to drink the medications, which were prepared in a way that the final dilution and agitation (200cH was performed in drinking water. The medication bottle was changed and sucussed every afternoon. Co-culture of non treated mice bone marrow cells and in vitro treated peritoneal macrophages were also performed. After animal treatment the bone marrow cells were immunophenotyped with hematopoietic lineage markers on a flow cytometer. We have determined CD11b levels on bone marrow cells after culture and co-culture with treated macrophages and these macrophages were processed to scanning electron microscopy. We have observed by morphological changes that macrophages were activated after all treatments. Mercurius solubilis treated mice showed an increase in CD3 expression and in CD11b on nonadherent bone marrow cells after co-culture with in vitro treatment. Atropa Belladonna increased CD45R and decreased Ly-6G expression on bone marrow cells after animal treatment. Lachesis muta increased CD3, CD45R and, CD11c expression and decreased CD11b ex vivo and in nonadherent cells from co

  4. Foaming and cell flotation in suspended plant cell cultures and the effect of chemical antifoams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsamuth, R; Doran, P M

    1994-08-01

    Foam development and stability in Atropa belladonna suspensions were investigated as a function of culture conditions. Foaming was due mainly to properties of the cell-free broth and was correlated with protein content; effects due to presence of cells increased towards the end of batch culture. Highest foam levels were measured 11 days after inoculation. Air flow rate was of major importance in determining foam volume; foam volume and stability were also strongly dependent on pH. Foam flotation of plant cells was very effective. After 30 min foaming, ca. 55% of cells were found in the foam; this increased to ca. 75% after 90 min. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and 2025, Pluronic PE 6100, and Antifoam-C emulsion were tested as chemical antifoams. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and Antifoam C at concentrations up to 600 ppm had no adverse effect on growth in shake flasks; Pluronic PE 6100 has an inhibitory effect at all levels tested. Concentrations of polypropylene glycol 2025 and Pluronic PE 6100 as low as 20 ppm reduced foam volumes by a factor of ca. 10. Addition of antifoam reduced k(L)a values in bubble-column and stirred-tank bioreactors. After operation of a stirred reactor for 2 days using Antifoam C for foam control, cell production was limited by oxygen due to the effect of antifoam on mass transfer. Theoretical analysis showed that maximum cell concentrations and biomass levels decline with increasing reactors working volume due to greater consumption of antifoam to prevent foam overflow. The results indicate that when chemical foam control is used in plant cell cultures, head-space volume and tolerable foam levels must be considered to optimize biomass production. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Deterrent effect evaluation of vegetal extracts on Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

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    Cupertino de Souza Débora María

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação mundial tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem alternativas consideradas saudáveis e que controlem insetos-praga e doenças. Dentre estas alternativas, destaca-se a utilização de aleloquímicos extraídos de plantas (Jacobson 1989, pois são produtos naturais que reduzem os efeitos negativos ocasionados pela aplicação descontrolada de inseticidas organossintéticos (Medeiros et al 2005, reduzindo o desenvolvimento de populações resistentes do inseto, e o aparecimento de novas pragas ou a ressurgência de outras (Souza 2004. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais faz com que determinados componentes ativos presentes nos vegetais, quando utilizados de forma concentrada, atuem no controle de insetos, inibindo sua alimentação ou prejudicando-os após a ingestão (Costa et al 2004. Muitas apresentam sobre os insetos efeito tóxico, inibição de crescimento, redução de fecundidade, fertilidade e repelência dado os compostos metabólicos secundários que apresentam como alcalóides, terpenos, flavonóides e esteróides com propriedades medicinais comprovadas (Di Stasi 1996, se justificado, portanto, o uso delas no controle de pragas. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito deterrente de extratos de espécies medicinais de Atropa belladonna L. (belladona; Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim; Mikania glomerata Spreng. (guaco; Symphytum officinale L. (confrei; Ruta graveolens L. (arruda; sobre Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae. Na presente pesquisa o destaque deve ser dado ao confrei e nim pelo efeito deterrente apresentado. No presente estudo foi possível determinar que houve deterrência, mas não há como informar se outros efeitos ocorreram somados a esse.

  6. Purification and characterisation of an antifungal protein, MCha-Pr, from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Wei, Yunming; Li, Jing; Yang, Xingyong

    2015-03-01

    An antifungal protein, designated MCha-Pr, was isolated from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves during a screen for potent antimicrobial proteins from plants. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex, an additional gel filtration on HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 30, and finally, HPLC on a SOURCE 5RPC column. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 25733.46Da. Automated Edman degradation was used to determine the N-terminal sequence of MCha-Pr, and the amino acid sequence was identified as V-E-Y-T-I-T-G-N-A-G-N-T-P-G-G. The MCha-Pr protein has some similarity to the pathogenesis-related proteins from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Ricinus communis (castor bean), and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Analysis of the circular dichroism spectra indicated that MCha-Pr predominantly contains α-helix and β-sheet structures. MCha-Pr had inhibitory effects towards a variety of fungal species and the 50% inhibition of fungal growth (IC50) for Alternaria brassicae, Cercospora personata, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor sp., and Rhizoctonia solani are 33 μM, 42 μM, 37 μM, 40 μM, and 48 μM, respectively. In addition, this antifungal protein can inhibit the germination of A. brassicae spores at 12.5 μM. These results suggest that MCha-Pr in bitter gourd leaves plays a protective role against phytopathogens and has a wide antimicrobial spectrum. PMID:25245535

  7. Foaming and cell flotation in suspended plant cell cultures and the effect of chemical antifoams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsamuth, R; Doran, P M

    1994-08-01

    Foam development and stability in Atropa belladonna suspensions were investigated as a function of culture conditions. Foaming was due mainly to properties of the cell-free broth and was correlated with protein content; effects due to presence of cells increased towards the end of batch culture. Highest foam levels were measured 11 days after inoculation. Air flow rate was of major importance in determining foam volume; foam volume and stability were also strongly dependent on pH. Foam flotation of plant cells was very effective. After 30 min foaming, ca. 55% of cells were found in the foam; this increased to ca. 75% after 90 min. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and 2025, Pluronic PE 6100, and Antifoam-C emulsion were tested as chemical antifoams. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and Antifoam C at concentrations up to 600 ppm had no adverse effect on growth in shake flasks; Pluronic PE 6100 has an inhibitory effect at all levels tested. Concentrations of polypropylene glycol 2025 and Pluronic PE 6100 as low as 20 ppm reduced foam volumes by a factor of ca. 10. Addition of antifoam reduced k(L)a values in bubble-column and stirred-tank bioreactors. After operation of a stirred reactor for 2 days using Antifoam C for foam control, cell production was limited by oxygen due to the effect of antifoam on mass transfer. Theoretical analysis showed that maximum cell concentrations and biomass levels decline with increasing reactors working volume due to greater consumption of antifoam to prevent foam overflow. The results indicate that when chemical foam control is used in plant cell cultures, head-space volume and tolerable foam levels must be considered to optimize biomass production. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18618782

  8. [On the history of barbiturates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of humanity, numerous therapeutic agents have been employed for their sedative and hypnotic properties such as opium, henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), but also alcohol and wine. In the 19th century potassium bromide was introduced as a sedative - and antiepileptic drug and chloral hydrate as sedative-hypnotics. A new era was reached by the introduction of barbiturates. The story started with the chemist Adolf von Baeyer. His breakthrough in the synthesis of new agents as barbituric acid and indigo and his education of young chemists was of great importance for the science of organic chemistry and the development of the dye and medicine industry in the late 19th century. The next important step was the development of barbiturates. The pioneers were Josef von Mering and Emil Fischer. Using the Grimaux-method they synthesized various barbiturates. It was von Mering who got the idea of introducing ethyl groups in the inactive barbituric acid to obtain sedatives, but the synthesis was succeeded by the chemist Emil Fischer. Experiments with dogs clearly showed sedative and hypnotic effect of the barbiturates and the oral administration of barbital (Veronal) confirmed the effect in humans. Barbital was commercialized in 1903 and in 1911 phenobarbital (Luminal) was introduced in the clinic, and this drug showed hypnotic and antiepileptic effects. Thereafter a lot of new barbiturates appeared. Dangerous properties of the drugs were recognized as abuse, addiction, and poisoning. An optimum treatment of acute barbiturate intoxication was obtained by the "Scandinavian method", which was developed in the Poison Centre of the Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen. The centre was established by Carl Clemmesen in 1949 and the intensive care treatment reduced the mortality of the admitted persons from 20% to less than 2%. To-day only a few barbiturates are used in connection with anaesthesia and for the treatment of epilepsy

  9. Muusikamaailm : "Belladonna" Aspeni festivalil. Veel suviseid uusoopereid. James Levine"i debüüt peadirigendina. Loomingukonkursilt Hannoveris. Usedomi festival algab / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    USA-s Colorados toimuva Aspeni suvefestivali 50. aastapäevaks tellitud uudisteostest. Luzerni festivalil ettekantud uudisteostest. J. Levine sõlmis lepingu Müncheni Filharmoonikute muusikadirektori ametikohale. Hannoveri uue muusika biennaali kompositsioonikonkursi tulemustest. Usedomi pidustustest Saksamaal, kus on esindatud ka eesti muusikud

  10. Drug: D00147 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aloids, tertiary amines A03BA03 Hyoscyamine D00147 Hyoscyamine (USP) Target-based c...RUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES, PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alk

  11. Drug: D07477 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA01 Atropine D07477 Atropine oxide (INN) USP drug clas...DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES,

  12. Environ: E00008 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00008 Belladonna extract (JP16) Belladonna (USP) Crude drug Hyoscyamine [CPD:C0204...3] Same as: D03069 Solanaceae (nightshade family) Belladonna root extract Major component: Hyoscyamine [DR:D00147] CAS: 8007-93-0 ...

  13. Rat models of acute inflammation: a randomized controlled study on the effects of homeopathic remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menniti-Ippolito Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the cardinal principles of homeopathy is the "law of similarities", according to which patients can be treated by administering substances which, when tested in healthy subjects, cause symptoms that are similar to those presented by the patients themselves. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the number of pre-clinical (in vitro and animal studies aimed at evaluating the pharmacological activity or efficacy of some homeopathic remedies under potentially reproducible conditions. However, in addition to some contradictory results, these studies have also highlighted a series of methodological difficulties. The present study was designed to explore the possibility to test in a controlled way the effects of homeopathic remedies on two known experimental models of acute inflammation in the rat. To this aim, the study considered six different remedies indicated by homeopathic practice for this type of symptom in two experimental edema models (carrageenan- and autologous blood-induced edema, using two treatment administration routes (sub-plantar injection and oral administration. Methods In a first phase, the different remedies were tested in the four experimental conditions, following a single-blind (measurement procedure. In a second phase, some of the remedies (in the same and in different dilutions were tested by oral administration in the carrageenan-induced edema, under double-blind (treatment administration and measurement and fully randomized conditions. Seven-hundred-twenty male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 170–180 g were used. Six homeopathic remedies (Arnica montana D4, Apis mellifica D4, D30, Atropa belladonna D4, Hamamelis virginiana D4, Lachesis D6, D30, Phosphorus D6, D30, saline and indomethacin were tested. Edema was measured using a water-based plethysmometer, before and at different times after edema induction. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student t test. Results In the first phase

  14. The Common History and Popular Uses of Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Thomas L.; Sandler, Maureen L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the historical uses of popular plant roots such as mandrake, ginseng, chicory, belladonna, and blood root. Besides the text, information is organized into a table presenting use, application, and constituents. (MA)

  15. Drug: D04479 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04479 Drug Hyoscyamine hydrobromide (USP) C17H23NO3. HBr 369.094 370.2814 D04479.g...03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES, PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA03 Hyoscyamine D04479 Hyoscyamine hydrobromide...A:1128 1129 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] Hyoscyamine [ATC:A03BA03] D04479 Hyoscyamine hydrobromide

  16. Alkaloids in the pharmaceutical industry: Structure, isolation and application

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Milan; Đorđević Siniša M.

    2003-01-01

    By the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century a new era began in medicine, pharmaceutics and chemistry that was strongly connected with alkaloids and alkaloid drugs. Even before that it was known that certain drugs administered in limited doses were medicines, and toxic if taken in larger doses (opium, coke leaves, belladonna roots, monkshood tubers crocus or hemlock seeds). However, the identification, isolation and structural characterization of the active ingredients of the ...

  17. Drug: D01648 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01648 Drug Hyoscyamine methylbromide (JAN) C18H26NO3. Br 383.1096 384.3079 D01648.... PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA03 Hyoscyamine D01648 Hyoscyamine methylbromide (JAN...O:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] Hyoscyamine [ATC:A03BA03] D01648 Hyoscyamine methylbromide (JAN) PubCh

  18. Breast Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husasin Irfan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.

  19. The Use of Bio-Guided Fractionation to Explore the Use of Leftover Biomass in Dutch Flower Bulb Production as Allelochemicals against Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Verpoorte

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A major problem in flower bulb cultivation is weed control. Synthetic herbicides are mainly used, although they cause a range of problems, and integrated weed control through application of naturally occurring allelochemicals would be highly desirable. Flower bulb production creates large amounts of leftover biomass. Utilizing this source for weed control may provide new applications of the bulb crops. We therefore screened 33 flower bulb extracts for allelochemical activity against weeds. Several methanol and chloroform extracts were observed to inhibit germination and growth of Senecio vulgaris L. and Lolium perenne L., as representatives of di- and mono-cotyledonous weeds, respectively. Narciclasine was identified as the bioactive compound in Narcissus. The extract of Amaryllis belladonna L. was equally active, but did not contain any narciclasine. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the A. belladonna extract resulted in the identification of lycorine as the bio-active compound. The IC50 measured for radicle growth inhibition was 0.10 µM for narciclasine and 0.93 µM for lycorine, compared to 0.11 mM of chlorpropham, a synthetic herbicide. Therefore, the leftover biomass from the spring bulb industry represents an interesting potential source for promising allelochemicals for further studies on weed growth inhibition.

  20. Research on Phosphatases of Belladona Leaves and Their Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorsand

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available Through experimentation with several leaves it has been possible for us to point out the existance of two different acid phosphatases. We have studied in more detail the phosphatases of belldon a leaves (Atropa Belladona L. Solanacees. The great part of the phosphatase activity is water extractable. We have compared the activity of the soluble fraction with that not directly extractable by means of water. The insoluble fraction could not be solubilized in a satisfaetC'fY m.anner.The digestion by papaine produced a slight solubilizing effect; on the other hand salt solutions, neutral or alkaline, or water glycerol mixtures had no solubilizing effect on the enzyme, It has been possible to demonstrate the existence of two different phosphatases in the insoluble fraction: the first of the type II,

  1. Use of an “electronic tongue” in the assessment of highly diluted systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Riul Jr

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: “Eletronic tongue” is a device commonly used in the analysis of tastants, heavy metal ions, fruit juice, wines and also in the development of biosensors [1-3]. Briefly, the e-tongue is constituted by sensing units formed by ultrathin films of distinct materials deposited on gold interdigitated electrodes, which are immersed in liquid samples, followed by impedance spectroscopy measurements [1]. The e-tongue sensor is based on the global selectivity concept, i.e., the materials forming the sensing units are not selective to any substance in the samples, therefore, it allows the grouping of information into distinct patterns of response, enabling the distinction of complex liquid systems [1]. Aim: Our aim was to use e-tongue system for the assessment the homeopathic medicine Belladonna at different degrees of dilution, in attempt to differentiate highly diluted systems. Methods: Ultrathin films forming the sensing units were prepared by the layer-by-layer technique [4], using conventional polyelectrolytes such as poly(sodium styene sulfonate (PSS and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH, chitosan and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT. Homeopathic medicines (Belladonna 1cH, 6cH, 12cH and 30cH were prepared by dilution and agitation according to Hahnemann´s method [5], using ethanol at 30% (w/w as vehicle. Experimental data acquisition was conducted by blind tests measurements involving Belladonna samples and the vehicle used in the dilutions. Five independent and consecutive measurements were taken for each solution at 1 kHz, which were further analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA, a statistical method largely employed to reduce the dimensionality of the original data without losing information in the correlation of the samples [3]. Results: Figure 1 shows that the five independent measurements are grouped quite closed each other for each solution analysed, with a clear

  2. Assays of homeopathic remedies in rodent behavioural and psychopathological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavite, Paolo; Magnani, Paolo; Marzotto, Marta; Conforti, Anita

    2009-10-01

    The first part of this paper reviews the effects of homeopathic remedies on several models of anxiety-like behaviours developed and described in rodents. The existing literature in this field comprises some fifteen exploratory studies, often published in non-indexed and non-peer-reviewed journals. Only a few results have been confirmed by multiple laboratories, and concern Ignatia, Gelsemium, Chamomilla (in homeopathic dilutions/potencies). Nevertheless, there are some interesting results pointing to the possible efficacy of other remedies, and confirming a statistically significant effect of high dilutions of neurotrophic molecules and antibodies. In the second part of this paper we report some recent results obtained in our laboratory, testing Aconitum, Nux vomica, Belladonna, Argentum nitricum, Tabacum (all 5CH potency) and Gelsemium (5, 7, 9 and 30CH potencies) on mice using ethological models of behaviour. The test was performed using coded drugs and controls in double blind (operations and calculations). After an initial screening that showed all the tested remedies (except for Belladonna) to have some effects on the behavioural parameters (light-dark test and open-field test), but with high experimental variability, we focused our study on Gelsemium, and carried out two complete series of experiments. The results showed that Gelsemium had several effects on the exploratory behaviour of mice, which in some models were highly statistically significant (p test performed. Finally, some methodological issues of animal research in this field of homeopathy are discussed. The "Gelsemium model" - encompassing experimental studies in vitro and in vivo from different laboratories and with different methods, including significant effects of its major active principle gelsemine - may play a pivotal rule for investigations on other homeopathic remedies. PMID:19945676

  3. Illusionary self-motion perception in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yu Huang

    Full Text Available Zebrafish mutant belladonna (bel carries a mutation in the lhx2 gene (encoding a Lim domain homeobox transcription factor that results in a defect in retinotectal axon pathfinding, which can lead to uncrossed optic nerves failing to form an optic chiasm. Here, we report on a novel swimming behavior of the bel mutants, best described as looping. Together with two previously reported oculomotor instabilities that have been related to achiasmatic bel mutants, reversed optokinetic response (OKR and congenital nystagmus (CN, involuntary conjugate oscillations of both eyes, looping opens a door to study the influence of visual input and eye movements on postural balance. Our result shows that looping correlates perfectly with reversed OKR and CN and is vision-dependent and contrast sensitive. CN precedes looping and the direction of the CN slow phase is predictive of the looping direction, but is absent during looping. Therefore, looping may be triggered by CN in bel. Moreover, looping in wild-type fish can also be evoked by whole-field motion, suggesting that looping in a bel mutant larvae is a result of self-motion perception. In contrary to previous hypotheses, our findings indicate that postural control in vertebrates relies on both direct visual input (afference signal and eye-movement-related signals (efference copy or reafference signal.

  4. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  5. The Effect of Transdermal Scopolamine for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Antor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative nausea and vomiting is one of the most common and undesirable complaints recorded in as many as 70%-80% of high-risk surgical patients. The current prophylactic therapy recommendations for PONV management stated in the Society of Ambulatory Anesthesia guidelines should start with monotherapy and patients at moderate to high risk, a combination of antiemetic medication should be considered. Consequently, if rescue medication is required, the antiemetic drug chosen should be from a different therapeutic class and administration mode than the drug used for prophylaxis. The guidelines restrict the use of dexamethasone, transdermal scopolamine, aprepitant, and palonosetron as rescue medication 6 hours after surgery. In an effort to find a safer and reliable therapy for postoperative nausea and vomiting, new drugs with antiemetic properties and minimal side effects are needed, and scopolamine may be considered an effective alternative. Scopolamine is a belladonna alkaloid, α-(hydroxymethyl benzene acetic acid 9-methyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo non-7-yl ester, acting as a nonselective muscarinic antagonist and producing both peripheral antimuscarinic and central sedative, antiemetic, and amnestic effects. The empirical formula is C17H21NO4 and its structural formula is a tertiary amine L-(2-scopolamine (tropic acid ester with scopine; MW = 303.4. Scopolamine became the first drug commercially available as a transdermal therapeutic system used for extended continuous drug delivery during 72 hours. Clinical trials with transdermal scopolamine have consistently demonstrated its safety and efficacy in postoperative nausea and vomiting. Thus, scopolamine is a promising candidate for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults as a first line monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. In addition, transdermal scopolamine might be helpful in preventing postoperative discharge nausea and vomiting owing to its long

  6. 加味半夏泻心汤治疗慢性胃窦炎临床观察%Clinical Observation of Jiawei Banxiaxiexin Decoction in the Treatment of Chronic Antral Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍武

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察加味半夏泻心汤治疗慢性胃窦炎的临床疗效。方法:将120例寒热错杂型慢性胃窦炎患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,分别给予加味半夏泻心汤、斯达舒胶囊,均以30 d为一疗程。观察治疗后两组患者总有效率及治疗前后各组患者中医症候学评分,判断临床疗效。结果:治疗后,两组总有效率分别为81.67%和65.00%,治疗组优于对照组(P<0.01)。在中医症候学评分方面,治疗组优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:加味半夏泻心汤对寒热错杂型慢性胃窦炎有较好的疗效。%Objective:To observe the clinical effect of Jiawei Banxiaxiexin decoction in treatment of chronic antral gastritis.Method:120 cases of chronic coldheat complex antral gastritis were randomized into treatment group and control group,treated respectively with Jiawei Banxiaxiexin decoction,Vitamin U, belladonna and aluminium capsules.To observed total efficiency of patients with evaluate the clinical effect,and Traditional Chinese Medicion(TCM) syndrome score after 30 days follow-up in the two groups.Result:After treatment,the total effective rate of treatment group(81.67%) was obviously better than that of control group(65.00%)(P<0.01).TCM symptom score between treatment group and control group showed significant differences (P<0.05).Conclusion:The therapeutic efect of Jiawei Banxiaxiexin decoction on chronic coldheat complex antral gastritis is satisfactory.

  7. Beans, roots and leaves: a brief history of the pharmacological therapy of parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Paul

    2003-01-01

    It is not clear whether parkinsonism as it is now defined - a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia characterized by sharply reduced striatal dopamine levels - has always affected a significant minority of aged persons, but suggestive evidence to this effect is reviewed. THe major discussion commences, however, with the administration of various plant alkaloids to parkinsonism patients in the second half of the 19th century. Antiparkinsonian therapy since this time can be divided into a number of phases: 1. Employment of alkaloids derived from solanaceous plants: initially hyoscyamine, then hyoscien/scopolamine. 2. With the outbreak of encephalitis lethargica during the First World War, parkinsonian patient numbers increased dramatically, leading to a multiplicity of new directions, including high dose atropine and harmala alkaloid therapies. 3. The "Bulgarian treatment", popularized in western Europe in the mid-1930s, was also a belladona alkaloid-based therapy, but associated with greater efficacy and few side effects. This approach, whether as actual plant extracts or as defined combinations of belladona alkaloids, remained internationally dominant until the end of the 1940s. 4. Following the Second World War, synthetic antiparkinsonism agents were developed with the aim of overcoming the deficiencies of belladonna alkaloid therapy. These agents fell into two major classes: synthetic anticholinergic agents, such as benzhexol, and antihistaminergic drugs, including diphenhydramine. 5. A complete change in direction was heralded by the discovery in 1960 of the striatal dopamine deficit in parkinsonism. This led to the introduction of L-DOPA therapy, the first approach directed against an identified physiological abnormality in the disorder. 6. Subsequent developments have thus far refined of supplemented the L-DOPA effect. Recent attempts to develop neuroprotective or -restorative approaches are also briefly discussed. The history of

  8. Alkaloids in the pharmaceutical industry: Structure, isolation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Milan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century a new era began in medicine, pharmaceutics and chemistry that was strongly connected with alkaloids and alkaloid drugs. Even before that it was known that certain drugs administered in limited doses were medicines, and toxic if taken in larger doses (opium, coke leaves, belladonna roots, monkshood tubers crocus or hemlock seeds. However, the identification, isolation and structural characterization of the active ingredients of the alkaloid drugs was only possible in the mid 20th century by the use of modern extraction equipment and instrumental methods (NMR, X-ray diffraction and others.In spite of continuing use over a long time, there is still great interest in investigating new drugs, potential raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the more detailed investigation and definition of bio-active components and the indication of their activity range, and the partial synthesis of new alkaloid molecules based on natural alkaloids. The scope of these investigations, especially in the field of semi-synthesis is to make better use of the bio-active ingredients of alkaloid drugs, i.e. to improve the pharmacological effect (stronger and prolonged effect of the medicine, decreased toxicity and side effects, or to extend or change the applications. A combined classification of alkaloids was used, based on the chemical structure and origin, i.e. the source of their isolation to study alkaloid structure. For practical reasons, the following classification of alkaloids was used: ergot alkaloids, poppy alkaloids, tropanic alkaloids purine derivative alkaloids, carbon-cyclic alkaloids, and other alkaloids. The second part of this report presents a table of general procedures for alkaloid isolation from plant drugs (extraction by water non-miscible solvents, extraction by water-miscible solvents and extraction by diluted acid solutions. Also, methods for obtaining chelidonine and

  9. Evaluation of Steam and Soil Solarization for Meloidogyne arenaria Control in Florida Floriculture Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N.; Butler, David M.; Fennimore, Steven A.; Holzinger, John

    2016-01-01

    Steam and soil solarization were investigated for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in 2 yr of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if preplant steam treatments in combination with solarization, or solarization alone effectively controlled nematodes compared to methyl bromide (MeBr). Trials were conducted in a field with naturally occurring populations of M. arenaria. Treatments were solarization alone, steam treatment after solarization using standard 7.6-cm-diameter perforated plastic drain tile (steam 1), steam treatment following solarization using custom-drilled plastic drain tile with 1.6-mm holes spaced every 3.8 cm (steam 2), and MeBr applied at 392 kg/ha 80:20 MeBr:chloropicrin. Drain tiles were buried approximately 35 cm deep with four tiles per 1.8 by 30 m plot. Steam application followed a 4-wk solarization period concluding in mid-October. All steam was generated using a Sioux propane boiler system. Plots were steamed for sufficient time to reach the target temperature of 70°C for 20 min. Solarization plastic was retained on the plots during steaming and plots were covered with a single layer of carpet padding to provide additional insulation. The floriculture crops larkspur (Delphinium elatum and Delphinium × belladonna), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were produced according to standard commercial practices. One month after treatment in both years of the study, soil populations of M. arenaria were lower in both steam treatments and in MeBr compared to solarization alone. At the end of the season in both years, galling on larkspur, snapdragon, and sunflowers was lower in both steam treatments than in solarization. Both steam treatments also provided control of M. arenaria in soil at the end of the season comparable to, or exceeding that provided by MeBr. Both steam treatments also reduced M. arenaria in snapdragon roots comparable to, or exceeding

  10. Investigation on situation of potentially inappropriate medication before and after pharmacist intervention in elderly patients in Beijing primary health care institutions%北京地区基层医疗机构药师干预前后老年患者潜在不适当用药情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星炜; 沈芊; 李晓玲; 刘琛; 王雅葳; 王育琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of pharmacist intervention on the potentially inappropriate drug application in the elderly patients in the primary health care institutions. Methods Twenty four primary health care institutions in Beijing were selected. The researchers selected 15 kinds of potentially inappropriate drugs according to the Beers criteria and lists of potentially inappropriate drugs of USA,UK,and Japanese and organized a training of medication safety for pharmacists in above primary health care institutions. From February 10th,2014 to February 20th,2014,education on the risks of potentially inappropriate drug application in the elderly patients was carried out among the doctors in above mentioned institutions and relevant documents were distributed. Prescriptions for the elderly outpatients in the 24 primary health care institutions before(from June 3,2013 to June 7,2013)and after(from March 12,2014 to March 16,2014)the intervention were collected and the proportions of prescriptions containing 15 kinds of potentially inappropriate drugs in the prescriptions containing the appropriate diagnosis before and after the intervention were calculated and compared. Results The number of collected prescriptions in the elderly patients before and after the intervention was 12 243 and 11 571, respectively. Before the intervention,there were 10 kinds of inappropriate drugs, including estazolam, diazepam, ibuprofen, diclofenac, belladonna, theophylline, aminophylline, chlorpheniramine, digoxin, compound reserpine triamterene,and glyburide. After pharmacist intervention,the proportions of prescriptions of 5 kinds of potentially inappropriate drugs in the elderly patients decreased significantly,including ibuprofen(5. 92% vs. 27. 43%),diclofenac(5. 92% vs. 13. 17%),chlorpheniramine(1. 08% vs. 4. 86%),digoxin(2. 40% vs. 7. 56%)and glyburide(1. 61% vs. 8. 03%),all P<0. 001. Conclusion Pharmacist intervention has a positive effect on improving the potentially

  11. 高度稀释的顺势疗法药物对噬菌体感染的细菌基因水平的作用%Phenotypic evidence of ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies acting at gene expression level: a novel probe on experimental phage infectivity in bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santu Kumar Saha; SreemantiDas; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

    2012-01-01

    's protective ability against the attack of ΦX174.The plaque number in the agar-plated Petri dishes,either containing the phage-bacteria mixture subjected to one of the diluted homeopathic drugs under test (1% volume ratio;Belladonna 30C,Rhus Tox 30C,Arnica 30C) or the succussed 1% “alcoholic vehicle” of the drug was recorded.The plaques represented the bacterial colony actually infected and lysed by ΦX174.Conversely,we subjected ΦX174 to the homeopathic drug treatment before allowing them to interact with the bacteria to ascertain if the drug itself had any direct effect on the infective potential of the phage DNA entering into the bacterial cell.RESULTS:Each homeopathic remedy showed a significant decrease in plaque number on pretreated bacteria (1 h prior to infection) with respect to untreated and placebo-treated controls; there was only an insignificant change in the plaque number when ΦX174 was pretreated with the drugs.As ΦX174 starts lytic cycle when inside the bacterial cell,the loss of plaque number would mean that either the lytic gene E in many was repressed or the entire phage DNA was annihilated by the bacterial gene product (restriction enzymes) known to be regulated by a cluster of genes.CONCLUSION:This provides phenotypic evidence for the ability of ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies to regulate expression of certain gene(s) depending on need of the organism.