Sample records for atropa belladonna

  1. Atropa Belladonna intoxication: a case report


    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Chetouani, Khadija; Harandou, Mustapha


    Atropa Belladonna is a poisonous plant also called deadly nightshade. Its roots, leaves and fruits contain alkaloids: atropine, hyocyamine and scopolamine. The risk of poisoning in children is important because of possible confusion with other berries. Atropa Belladonna acute intoxication is a severe condition, it's should be considered in the presence of anti-cholinergic toxidrome, the differential diagnosis include other plants or psychoactive drugs containing atropine. The treatment is mai...

  2. Improvement of Asthma and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With Oral Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, a Combination of Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, Bismuth, and Antimonite: A Pediatric Case Report. (United States)

    von Schoen-Angerer, Tido; Madeleyn, René; Kiene, Helmut; Kienle, Gunver S; Vagedes, Jan


    The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and asthma, although well established in adults, is less strong in the pediatric age group. Benefits of proton pump therapy are limited across age ranges. While there is a growing body of literature on the use of complementary treatments for both asthma and GERD, few studies have focused on treatment benefits for the GERD-asthma association. We present the case of a 2-year-old boy with asthma and GERD who was not responding to inhaled, low-dose corticosteroids, beta-mimetic therapy, and a 6-week course of proton pump inhibitor treatment. We noted a gradual disappearance of symptoms when he was given an oral preparation of Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, an anthroposophic medication containing Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, bismuth, and antimonite. Matricaria recutita and bismuth have known gastric protective properties, and Atropa belladonna contains anticholinergic agents that have a bronchodilatory effect. These complementary medications appear promising in terms of relieving the symptoms of GERD-associated asthma. PMID:26937321

  3. An Atropa belladonna hyoscyamine 6beta-hydroxylase gene is differentially expressed in the root pericycle and anthers. (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Yun, D J; Chen, X Y; Yamada, Y; Hashimoto, T


    The AbH6H gene for hyoscyamine 6beta-hydroxylase (H6H), which converts hyoscyamine to scopolamine, was isolated from Atropa belladonna. This plant also possesses a related sequence, Ab psiH6H, which appears to be a non-functional pseudo-gene. AbH6H RNA was detected in cultured root, native root and anther, but not in stem, leaf, pistil, petal, and sepal tissues. In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and promoter::GUS transgene analysis showed that AbH6H is expressed specifically in root pericycle cells, and in tapetum and pollen mother cells. A 671 bp 5'-upstream region from AbH6H was sufficient for pericycle-specific expression in hairy roots of A. belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger, which both produce scopolamine, but cell-specific regulation was severely compromised in tobacco hairy roots, which do not produce scopolamine. PMID:10394953

  4. Multiple shoot cultures of Atropa belladonna: Effect of physico-chemical factors on growth and alkaloid formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple shoot cultures were established from shoot tip and axillary meristem of the plant Atropa belladonna. The cultures were initially raised on agar medium and subsequently maintained on liquid medium of Murashige and Skoog (1962) supplemented with BA. These cultures were subjected to different doses of -y-irradiation. Recovery from the radiation effects was observed in tissues subjected to 29 Gy during four successive passages. Plant growth regulators influenced the growth and morphogenetic events of the tissues. The precursors of tropane alkaloids marginally increased the alkaloid synthesis during the stationary phase of growth. Shoot cultures, established from different field grown plants varying in alkaloid content, were morphologically similar and did not exhibit the parental characteristics with respect to alkaloid formation

  5. Belladonna (United States)

    ... joint pain (rheumatism), leg pain caused by a disc in the backbone pushing on the sciatic nerve ( ... including atony, paralytic ileus, and stenosis) worse. Hiatal hernia: Belladonna might make hiatal hernia worse. High blood ...

  6. Seizures caused by ingestion of Atropa belladonna in a homeopathic medicine in a previously well infant: case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Glatstein, Miguel; Danino, Dana; Wolyniez, Ido; Scolnik, Dennis


    Atropa belladonna is a poisonous plant that can cause anticholinergic effects when ingested. Roots, leaves, and fruits of the plant contain the alkaloids atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine, which can lead to an anticholinergic toxidrome; however, not all characteristics of the toxidrome are necessarily present in each case of poisoning. We present an infant who suffered serious seizures after ingestion of a homeopathic agent containing A. belladonna. The 20-day-old infant arrived at the emergency department with fever and generalized seizures for 30 minutes, 2 hours after ingesting the correct dose of a homeopathic medication agent used for infantile colic. The patient was treated with intravenous benzodiazepines and antibiotics after a full sepsis work up; all the laboratory results were normal and the fever resolved after several hours. The infant recovered fully with normal neurological function and a normal electroencephalogram. This infant probably manifested what is known as the central anticholinergic syndrome. We discuss his presentation and review of the literature on this topic. PMID:24105354

  7. Development of new plants from leaves and roots of Atropa belladonna L. in the in vitro culture

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    M. A. Zenkteler


    Full Text Available Isolated leaves, leaf fragments and fragmented roots of Atropa balladanna were grown in vitro in order to study their morphogenetic potentials. In the presence of 'kinetin and IAA, a great number of shoot buds arose from the leaves and roots. In those cases when cut leaves were implanted a callus arose from the leaves which subsequently gave rise to many buds. In the absence of kinetin and IAA buds were not formed. In the presence of IAA only numerous roots arose from the cut ends of the leafe stalk and from .the fragmented root.

  8. Establishment of Hairy Root Cultures of Atropa belladonna%颠茄发根培养系统的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春贤; 阳义健; 彭梅芳; 陈敏; 兰小中; 廖志华


    用种子萌发获得颠茄无菌苗,用发根农杆菌A4侵染颠茄无菌苗真叶,所有感染了的叶片都从伤口处产生发根.在无激素培养基中,发根表现出高频侧向分支、生长迅速、失去向地性的典型形态特征.PCR检测表明rolB、rolC确实整合到颠茄发根基因组中,用MS液体培养基发酵培养35 d,3个发根单克隆中发根生物量最大增长率达7.5倍,T6单克隆莨菪碱含量最高(5.61 mg/g),与种植在田间的颠茄植株的根相比,提高7倍;T2单克隆东莨菪碱含量最高,提高9倍多(2.35 mg/g).本研究揭示了rol基因足以诱导获得生长迅速和次生代谢产物积累的发根.表明颠茄转基因发根的发酵培养不失为生产托品烷类生物碱的一条好途径.%In vitro cultural systems of medical plant, A. belladonna was established, bacteria-free leaves were used as explants for genetic transformation by A. rhizogenes strain A4. The result showed that all the infected leaves could produce hairy roots from the wound sites. The hairy roots shown a typical phenotype characterized by plagio tropic growth, high incidence of lateral branching and faster growth than untransformed roots in phytohormone-free medium. PCR analysis showed that the rooting genes including rolB and rolC were confirmed integrated into the genome of A. belledonna hairy roots. Three root lines were investigated for growth rate and alkaloid productivity after cultured in liquid MS medium 35 days, the maximum biomass of hairy roots increased up to 7.5 times. The maxi mum amount of hyoscyamine (5.61 mg · g-1) was present in the hairy root lines T6, which had almost 7 times than that recorded in untransformed mature plant roots (0.84 mg · g-1 ), the maximum amount of scopolamine (2.35 mg · g-1 ) was present in the hairy root lines T2, which had more than 9 times than that recorded in mature plant roots (0.25 mg · g-1). Results revealed that the rol genes seemed sufficient to induce the hairy root

  9. High dilution of Belladonna affect the mycelial growth of Corynespora cassiicola in vitro

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    Kátia Regina Freitas Schawan-Estrada


    Full Text Available Introduction: The target spot is a disease caused by fungus Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. & Curt. Wei. This disease has occurred in several states of Brazil. It is a late season disease and causes economic losses in various crops such as soybeans [1]. Currently there is no adequate treatment for the control of C. cassiicola in organic cultivation of soybeans, since the application of fungicides for the control and management of diseases is not allowed by Brazilian legislation [2]. Thus, the purpose of this experiment was to test the effectiveness of high dilutions of Belladonna in vitro on mycelial growth of Corynespora cassiicola. Materials and Methods: The preliminary tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Pathology, State University of Maringá (UEM. The fungal isolate of C. cassicola was obtained from Embrapa Soja. The fungus was peaked and grown on PDA (potato dextrose agar maintained at 25°C ± 2 and 12h photoperiod. Belladonna dilutions (6, 12, 18, 24 and 30dH were obtained according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [3]. PDA culture medium plus Belladonna dilutions (6, 12, 24 and 30dH beyond the control containing distilled water were placed in petri dishes after filtration through a Millipore membrane (pore diameter of 0.45µm . After medium solidification, a disc of mycelium (4 mm diameter of C. cassiicola was peaked towards the center of each plate and sealed with plastic wrap and then incubated at 25°C with 12h photoperiod. The mycelial growth was measured daily for 8 days. The control consisted of distilled water. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by Scott-Knott test (P ≤ 0.05. Results and Discussion: All dilutions of Belladonna (6, 12, 24, 30dH were effective (p <0.05 in reducing the mycelial growth of C. cassiicola compared to control (Figure 1. Belladonna 30dH was higher in all periods and the difference increased with time. Dilutions

  10. Improvement of sexual destination in Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae)--a critically endangered medicinal plant of Northwestern Himalaya. (United States)

    Wani, Parvaiz A; Nawchoo, Irshad A; Wafai, B A


    Good seed set is no guarantee of absolute sexual destination in plants. Seed viability and seed vigour are crucial phases in the life cycle of every sexually reproducing plant. The present study was an attempt to improve the sexual destination-the germination and seedling survival of Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae), an endemic and extremely restricted sub-alpine medicinal plant of North West Himalayas under ex situ conditions at (1580 m) with an aim to develop a successful germination protocol and agrotechnique in order to revegetate disturbed areas. Among various treatments given to the seeds, GA3, Scarification, warm water treatment and chilling at 4 degrees C for 90 days were found to be most effective with percentage germination of 73.3 +/- 18.80, 79.95 +/- 9.40, 66.6 +/- 6.6, 45 +/- 7.07 (X +/- SE), respectively. The results reveal that the seeds do not germinate unless specific environmental signals or events occur which trigger the genetic and hormonal response of the seeds thereby facilitating their germination. The diversity and the extent of the dormancy mechanisms encountered here suggest that under harsh conditions, natural selection may favour seeds with a genetic system for dormancy and delayed germination. A relation was observed between seed size/weight, % age germination and subsequent seedling survival. Seedling survival is also effected by specific habitat requirement and stiff intra and inter-specific competition particularly the whimsical behaviour of Sambucus wigthiana (an alien species which grows in the vicinity of Atropa) is beyond the ken of Atropa, adding fuel to the already burning candle apart from habitat fragmentation and herbivory. PMID:19069863

  11. Individual larvae of the zebrafish mutant belladonna display multiple infantile nystagmus-like waveforms that are influenced by viewing conditions


    Huber-Reggi, Sabina P; Mueller, Kaspar P; Straumann, Dominik; Huang, Melody Ying-Yu; Neuhauss, Stephan C. F.


    PURPOSE: Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is characterized by involuntary eye oscillations that can assume different waveforms. Previous attempts to uncover reasons for the presence of several nystagmus waveforms have not led to a general consensus in the community. Recently, we characterized the belladonna (bel) zebrafish mutant strain, in which INS-like ocular motor abnormalities are caused by misprojection of a variable fraction of optic nerve fibers. Here we studied intrinsic and extrin...

  12. Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of amaryllin, a plant pathogenesis-related protein from Amaryllis belladonna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel 15 kDa antifungal protein amaryllin has been crystallized using 30% PEG 8000 as the precipitating agent. The crystals belong to orthorhombic space group I or I212121 with cell dimensions, a = 48.6, b = 61.9 and c = 79.6–Å. A novel antifungal protein, amaryllin, has been isolated from the underground bulbs of Amaryllis belladonna, purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The protein was extracted using ammonium sulfate fractionation. The purified protein samples indicated a molecular weight of 15 kDa on SDS–PAGE. The protein showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporum. The N-terminal sequence of the first 15 amino-acid residues was determined using Edman degradation and did not show significant sequence identity to any known protein. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 30% PEG 8000 as precipitating agent. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group I222 or I212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.6, b = 61.9, c = 79.6 Å. The complete sequence and structure determination of amaryllin are in progress

  13. Belladonna Alkaloid Combinations and Phenobarbital (United States)

    ... to relieve cramping pains in conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and spastic colon. They also are used with other medicine to treat ulcers. These medicines decrease the motion of the stomach and intestines and the secretion of stomach fluids, including acid. ...

  14. Novel respirable powder formulation: design, aerosolization and permeation studies through pulmonary epithelial cell line and mucus models.


    Stigliani, Mariateresa


    2013 - 2014 Direct administration of drugs to the lungs has been used for millennia as a major treatment for a number of diseases. Origin of the inhalation therapies can be found 2000 B.C in India, where people were used to smoke Atropa belladonna leaves to suppress cough. In 1986, researchers at Genentech Inc. (San Francisco, USA) discovered that the hormone of the human growth was naturally absorbed into systemic circulation of rats after its instillation into their lungs. Thus, the ...

  15. Comparative Genomics of Ten Solanaceous Plastomes

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    Harpreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna. AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura.

  16. A DNA barcoding approach to identify plant species in multiflower honey. (United States)

    Bruni, I; Galimberti, A; Caridi, L; Scaccabarozzi, D; De Mattia, F; Casiraghi, M; Labra, M


    The purpose of this study was to test the ability of DNA barcoding to identify the plant origins of processed honey. Four multifloral honeys produced at different sites in a floristically rich area in the northern Italian Alps were examined by using the rbcL and trnH-psbA plastid regions as barcode markers. An extensive reference database of barcode sequences was generated for the local flora to determine the taxonomic composition of honey. Thirty-nine plant species were identified in the four honey samples, each of which originated from a mix of common plants belonging to Castanea, Quercus, Fagus and several herbaceous taxa. Interestingly, at least one endemic plant was found in all four honey samples, providing a clear signature for the geographic identity of these products. DNA of the toxic plant Atropa belladonna was detected in one sample, illustrating the usefulness of DNA barcoding for evaluating the safety of honey. PMID:25306350

  17. Morphological, biochemical and genetic influence of mutagen treatments on medicinal plant tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma rays and/or alkylant agents have been applied on callus tissue, young regenerants and cell suspension in order to establish their effect on morphogenesis, regeneration ability and biosynthetic potential. Growth dynamics, morpho-anatomic variables, secondary metabolite production, cell cytogenetics, enzyme specific activities, isoperoxidase and isoesterase patterns were analyzed in relation to the morphogenetic response of Atropa belladonna, Datura innoxia, Lavandula angustifolia, Chamomilla recutita, Digitalis lanata and Vinca minor tissue cultures. The effects of gamma-ray doses varied from one species to another; 10 to 20 Gy were generally able to stimulate growth and plant regeneration (via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis), while 10 to 50 Gy enhanced secondary metabolite biosynthesis both in callus and cell suspension culture. Semnificative increase of secondary metabolite production was obtained when treatments with EMS (0.1-0.2%) have been applied to young regenerants. Many differences in biological features and biochemical behaviour were registered 20 days and one year, respectively, after treatment. (author)

  18. The forest melliferous flora in the vicinity of Blace, Serbia

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    Perišić Snežana


    Full Text Available Melliferous plant species in the forests near Blace (South Serbia were investigated in order to estimate the significance, contribution, quality and ecological characteristics of representatives of the apiflora as potential nectar and pollen sources, the elements of bee pasturage. The significance of melliferous plants was determined on the basis of nectar and pollen production intensity, as well as by following blooming periods. According to adaptations to moisture, light, and temperature, melliferous species can be relegated to eight groups and six subgroups. Out of the total number of melliferous species in the investigated area (223, the forest apiflora accounted for 82 species (36,77%. The species with highest nectar and/or pollen production are: Alnus glutinosa, Corylus avellana, Paulownia tomentosa, Picea abies, Prunus tenella, Robinia pseudoacacia, species of the genera Salix, Tilia, and Campanula, Atropa bella-donna, Calamintha officinalis, Glechoma hederacea, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salvia glutinosa and Valeriana officinalis.

  19. In silico analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats from chloroplast genomes of Solanaceae species

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    Evandro Vagner Tambarussi


    Full Text Available The availability of chloroplast genome (cpDNA sequences of Atropa belladonna, Nicotiana sylvestris, N.tabacum, N. tomentosiformis, Solanum bulbocastanum, S. lycopersicum and S. tuberosum, which are Solanaceae species,allowed us to analyze the organization of cpSSRs in their genic and intergenic regions. In general, the number of cpSSRs incpDNA ranged from 161 in S. tuberosum to 226 in N. tabacum, and the number of intergenic cpSSRs was higher than geniccpSSRs. The mononucleotide repeats were the most frequent in studied species, but we also identified di-, tri-, tetra-, pentaandhexanucleotide repeats. Multiple alignments of all cpSSRs sequences from Solanaceae species made the identification ofnucleotide variability possible and the phylogeny was estimated by maximum parsimony. Our study showed that the plastomedatabase can be exploited for phylogenetic analysis and biotechnological approaches.

  20. Alterations in chlorophyll a/b binding proteins in Solanaceae cybrids. (United States)

    Babiychuk, E; Schantz, R; Cherep, N; Weil, J H; Gleba, Y; Kushnir, S


    In this study we have constructed a number of plants (cybrids), in which the nuclear genome of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia is combined with the plastome of Atropa belladonna, or the nuclear genome of N. tabacum with plastomes of Lycium barbarum, Scopolia carniolica, Physochlaine officinalis or Nolana paradoxa. Our biochemical and immunological analyses prove that in these cybrids the biogenesis of the chlorophyll a/b binding proteins (CAB) of the light harvesting complex II (LHCII) is altered. Besides normal sized CAB polypeptides of 27, 25.5 and 25 kDa, which become less abundant, the cybrids analyzed have additional polypeptides of 26, 24.5 and 24 kDa. Direct protein micro-sequencing showed that at least two truncated 26 kDa CAB polypeptides in plant cells containing a nucleus of N. plumbaginifolia and plastids of A. belladonna are encoded by the type 1 Lhcb genes. These polypeptides are 11-12 amino acids shorter at the N-terminus than the expected size. Based on the available data we conclude that the biogenesis of the LHCII in vivo may depend on plastome-encoded factor(s). These results suggest that plastome-encoded factors that cause specific protein degradation and/or abnormal processing might determine compartmental genetic incompatibility in plants. PMID:8544830

  1. High dilution of Belladonna affect the mycelial growth of Corynespora cassiicola in vitro


    Kátia Regina Freitas Schawan-Estrada; Bruno Reis; Romulo Vinícios Fagan; Carlos Moacir Bonato


    Introduction: The target spot is a disease caused by fungus Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. & Curt.) Wei. This disease has occurred in several states of Brazil. It is a late season disease and causes economic losses in various crops such as soybeans [1]. Currently there is no adequate treatment for the control of C. cassiicola in organic cultivation of soybeans, since the application of fungicides for the control and management of diseases is not allowed by Brazilian legislation [2]. Thus, the ...

  2. Drug: D03069 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03069 Crude, Drug Belladonna extract (JP16); Belladonna (USP) Hyoscyamine [CPD:C02...113] Anticholinergic Same as: E00008 ATC code: A03BA04 Solanaceae (nightshade family) Belladonna root alkaloids D03069 Belladonna extract (JP16); Belladonna (USP) Crude drugs [B...R:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Solanaceae (nightshade family) D03069 Belladonna extract; Belladonna CAS: 8007-93-0 PubChem: 17397224 ...

  3. Rapid in situ detection of alkaloids in plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization. (United States)

    Talaty, Nari; Takáts, Zoltán; Cooks, R Graham


    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is applied to the in situ detection of alkaloids in the tissue of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). The experiment is carried out by electrospraying micro-droplets of solvent onto native or freshly-cut plant tissue surfaces. No sample preparation is required and the mass spectra are recorded under ambient conditions, in times of a few seconds. The impact of the sprayed droplets on the surface produces gaseous ions from organic compounds originally present in the plant tissue. The effects of operating parameters, including the electrospray high voltage, heated capillary temperature, the solvent infusion rate and the carrier gas pressure on analytical performance are evaluated and optimized. Different types of plant material are analyzed including seeds, stems, leaves, roots and flowers. All the previously reported alkaloids have been detected in C. maculatum, while fifteen out of nineteen known alkaloids for D. stramonium and the principal alkaloids of A. belladonna were also identified. All identifications were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Results obtained show similar mass spectra, number of alkaloids, and signal intensities to those obtained when extraction and separation processes are performed prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Evidence is provided that DESI ionization occurs by both a gas-phase ionization process and by a droplet pick-up mechanism. Quantitative precision of DESI is compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (after sample workup) and the RSD values for the same set of 25 dicotyledonous C. maculatum seeds (one half of each seed analyzed by ESI and the other by DESI) are 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively. PMID:16284661

  4. A Randomised Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Milking Cream and a Homeopathic Complex Topical Cream on Diaper Dermatitis

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    Janice Pellow


    Full Text Available Diaper dermatitis (DD is an acute inflammation of the skin in the diaper area and is the most common cutaneous disease among infants and children. Calendula officinalis, Atropa belladonna and Sulphuricum acidum are homeopathic remedies which have been purported to be beneficial in wound healing and conditions affecting the skin, however, to date, no research has been conducted on the use of these remedies for DD. The aim of this seven-day, double-blind, controlled pilot study was to assess the efficacy of milking cream and a homeopathic complex cream as topical treatments for DD. Forty children between the ages of three to 24 months with DD were recruited. The homeopathic complex cream (n= 20 or unmedicated milking cream (n = 20 was applied after every nappy change for seven days. Efficacy on the severity of symptoms and the percentage of area affected was assessed by means of the 4-Point Grading Scale and the Modified Lund and Browder Charts respectively, on days 1, 2, 4 and 7. The results revealed that both groups showed statistically-significant improvements on rash severity and the percentage of area affected between consecutive visits, as well as over the entire research study period. Trends indicated that the treatment group had a faster resolution of symptoms and outperformed the control in certain affected body regions. Preliminary findings suggest that both milking cream and the homeopathic complex cream may be effective alternative treatment options for DD, and further investigation is warranted.

  5. Drug: D03224 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available T AND METABOLISM A03 DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES, PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloid...s, tertiary amines A03BA04 Belladonna total alkaloids D03224 Belladonna root (JP16)

  6. [On the history of barbiturates]. (United States)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R


    Throughout the history of humanity, numerous therapeutic agents have been employed for their sedative and hypnotic properties such as opium, henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), but also alcohol and wine. In the 19th century potassium bromide was introduced as a sedative - and antiepileptic drug and chloral hydrate as sedative-hypnotics. A new era was reached by the introduction of barbiturates. The story started with the chemist Adolf von Baeyer. His breakthrough in the synthesis of new agents as barbituric acid and indigo and his education of young chemists was of great importance for the science of organic chemistry and the development of the dye and medicine industry in the late 19th century. The next important step was the development of barbiturates. The pioneers were Josef von Mering and Emil Fischer. Using the Grimaux-method they synthesized various barbiturates. It was von Mering who got the idea of introducing ethyl groups in the inactive barbituric acid to obtain sedatives, but the synthesis was succeeded by the chemist Emil Fischer. Experiments with dogs clearly showed sedative and hypnotic effect of the barbiturates and the oral administration of barbital (Veronal) confirmed the effect in humans. Barbital was commercialized in 1903 and in 1911 phenobarbital (Luminal) was introduced in the clinic, and this drug showed hypnotic and antiepileptic effects. Thereafter a lot of new barbiturates appeared. Dangerous properties of the drugs were recognized as abuse, addiction, and poisoning. An optimum treatment of acute barbiturate intoxication was obtained by the "Scandinavian method", which was developed in the Poison Centre of the Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen. The centre was established by Carl Clemmesen in 1949 and the intensive care treatment reduced the mortality of the admitted persons from 20% to less than 2%. To-day only a few barbiturates are used in connection with anaesthesia and for the treatment of epilepsy

  7. Foaming and cell flotation in suspended plant cell cultures and the effect of chemical antifoams. (United States)

    Wongsamuth, R; Doran, P M


    Foam development and stability in Atropa belladonna suspensions were investigated as a function of culture conditions. Foaming was due mainly to properties of the cell-free broth and was correlated with protein content; effects due to presence of cells increased towards the end of batch culture. Highest foam levels were measured 11 days after inoculation. Air flow rate was of major importance in determining foam volume; foam volume and stability were also strongly dependent on pH. Foam flotation of plant cells was very effective. After 30 min foaming, ca. 55% of cells were found in the foam; this increased to ca. 75% after 90 min. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and 2025, Pluronic PE 6100, and Antifoam-C emulsion were tested as chemical antifoams. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and Antifoam C at concentrations up to 600 ppm had no adverse effect on growth in shake flasks; Pluronic PE 6100 has an inhibitory effect at all levels tested. Concentrations of polypropylene glycol 2025 and Pluronic PE 6100 as low as 20 ppm reduced foam volumes by a factor of ca. 10. Addition of antifoam reduced k(L)a values in bubble-column and stirred-tank bioreactors. After operation of a stirred reactor for 2 days using Antifoam C for foam control, cell production was limited by oxygen due to the effect of antifoam on mass transfer. Theoretical analysis showed that maximum cell concentrations and biomass levels decline with increasing reactors working volume due to greater consumption of antifoam to prevent foam overflow. The results indicate that when chemical foam control is used in plant cell cultures, head-space volume and tolerable foam levels must be considered to optimize biomass production. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18618782

  8. Purification and characterisation of an antifungal protein, MCha-Pr, from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves. (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Wei, Yunming; Li, Jing; Yang, Xingyong


    An antifungal protein, designated MCha-Pr, was isolated from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves during a screen for potent antimicrobial proteins from plants. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex, an additional gel filtration on HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 30, and finally, HPLC on a SOURCE 5RPC column. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 25733.46Da. Automated Edman degradation was used to determine the N-terminal sequence of MCha-Pr, and the amino acid sequence was identified as V-E-Y-T-I-T-G-N-A-G-N-T-P-G-G. The MCha-Pr protein has some similarity to the pathogenesis-related proteins from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Ricinus communis (castor bean), and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Analysis of the circular dichroism spectra indicated that MCha-Pr predominantly contains α-helix and β-sheet structures. MCha-Pr had inhibitory effects towards a variety of fungal species and the 50% inhibition of fungal growth (IC50) for Alternaria brassicae, Cercospora personata, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor sp., and Rhizoctonia solani are 33 μM, 42 μM, 37 μM, 40 μM, and 48 μM, respectively. In addition, this antifungal protein can inhibit the germination of A. brassicae spores at 12.5 μM. These results suggest that MCha-Pr in bitter gourd leaves plays a protective role against phytopathogens and has a wide antimicrobial spectrum. PMID:25245535

  9. Drug: D01648 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA03 Hyoscyamine D01648 Hyoscyamine methylbromide (JAN... DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES,

  10. Drug: D00147 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aloids, tertiary amines A03BA03 Hyoscyamine D00147 Hyoscyamine (USP) Target-based c...RUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES, PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alk

  11. Drug: D07477 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA01 Atropine D07477 Atropine oxide (INN) USP drug clas...DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES,

  12. Muusikamaailm : "Belladonna" Aspeni festivalil. Veel suviseid uusoopereid. James Levine"i debüüt peadirigendina. Loomingukonkursilt Hannoveris. Usedomi festival algab / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-


    USA-s Colorados toimuva Aspeni suvefestivali 50. aastapäevaks tellitud uudisteostest. Luzerni festivalil ettekantud uudisteostest. J. Levine sõlmis lepingu Müncheni Filharmoonikute muusikadirektori ametikohale. Hannoveri uue muusika biennaali kompositsioonikonkursi tulemustest. Usedomi pidustustest Saksamaal, kus on esindatud ka eesti muusikud

  13. Fumigation of Folia belladonnae with 14C-labelled ethylene oxide to reduce the germ number - activity distributions in the drug and preparations made from it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study described here provided evidence to prove that considerable quantities of ethylene oxide, ethylene chlorhydrin and ethylene glycol are retained, when a drug is fumigated with ethylene oxide under standard fumigation conditions in order to reduce the germ number. Ethylene oxide bound by adsorption may be eliminated from the drug by repeated aeration. If an aqueous-ethanolic percolate is prepared from a drug showing very high levels of ethylene chlorhydrin and then carefully distilled at 40 C using only little pressure, a dry extract can be obtained that contains no such residue. (orig.)

  14. Environ: E00008 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00008 Belladonna extract (JP16) Belladonna (USP) Crude drug Hyoscyamine [CPD:C0204...3] Same as: D03069 Solanaceae (nightshade family) Belladonna root extract Major component: Hyoscyamine [DR:D00147] CAS: 8007-93-0 ...

  15. Rat models of acute inflammation: a randomized controlled study on the effects of homeopathic remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menniti-Ippolito Francesca


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the cardinal principles of homeopathy is the "law of similarities", according to which patients can be treated by administering substances which, when tested in healthy subjects, cause symptoms that are similar to those presented by the patients themselves. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the number of pre-clinical (in vitro and animal studies aimed at evaluating the pharmacological activity or efficacy of some homeopathic remedies under potentially reproducible conditions. However, in addition to some contradictory results, these studies have also highlighted a series of methodological difficulties. The present study was designed to explore the possibility to test in a controlled way the effects of homeopathic remedies on two known experimental models of acute inflammation in the rat. To this aim, the study considered six different remedies indicated by homeopathic practice for this type of symptom in two experimental edema models (carrageenan- and autologous blood-induced edema, using two treatment administration routes (sub-plantar injection and oral administration. Methods In a first phase, the different remedies were tested in the four experimental conditions, following a single-blind (measurement procedure. In a second phase, some of the remedies (in the same and in different dilutions were tested by oral administration in the carrageenan-induced edema, under double-blind (treatment administration and measurement and fully randomized conditions. Seven-hundred-twenty male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 170–180 g were used. Six homeopathic remedies (Arnica montana D4, Apis mellifica D4, D30, Atropa belladonna D4, Hamamelis virginiana D4, Lachesis D6, D30, Phosphorus D6, D30, saline and indomethacin were tested. Edema was measured using a water-based plethysmometer, before and at different times after edema induction. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student t test. Results In the first phase

  16. The Common History and Popular Uses of Roots (United States)

    Rost, Thomas L.; Sandler, Maureen L.


    Describes the historical uses of popular plant roots such as mandrake, ginseng, chicory, belladonna, and blood root. Besides the text, information is organized into a table presenting use, application, and constituents. (MA)

  17. Recent experiences in application of homeopathy in farm animals


    Fidelak, Christian


    Objectives This RCCT should assess the efficacy of a fixed homeopathic combination for therapy of bovine clinical mastitis in order to minimize the use of antibiotics. Methods In a German organic dairy herd of about 300 cows cases of clinical mastitis received a homeopathic therapy using a predetermined treatment protocol and a certain diagnostic pattern. For treatment of acute mastitis the following remedies were used: Phytolacca, Bryonia, Echinacea and Belladonna or Aconitum depend...

  18. Cuéntame un cuento, homeopatía. Desarrollo de una herramienta didáctica sobre la materia médica de un grupo de solanáceas comúnmente utilizadas en Homeopatía


    Cepeda Romero, Julie Catherine


    Este trabajo de tesis es requisito parcial para optar al título de Magister en Homeopatía de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bajo la modalidad de producto para docencia y pedagogía, esta tesis suple en parte la necesidad de material didáctico para el aprendizaje de la Homeopatía. Desde la óptica del constructivismo pedagógico, se desarrolla la materia médica de seis solanáceas comúnmente utilizadas como materia prima en la elaboración de seis remedios homeopáticos: Atropa bellad...

  19. Breast Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husasin Irfan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.

  20. The Use of Bio-Guided Fractionation to Explore the Use of Leftover Biomass in Dutch Flower Bulb Production as Allelochemicals against Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Verpoorte


    Full Text Available A major problem in flower bulb cultivation is weed control. Synthetic herbicides are mainly used, although they cause a range of problems, and integrated weed control through application of naturally occurring allelochemicals would be highly desirable. Flower bulb production creates large amounts of leftover biomass. Utilizing this source for weed control may provide new applications of the bulb crops. We therefore screened 33 flower bulb extracts for allelochemical activity against weeds. Several methanol and chloroform extracts were observed to inhibit germination and growth of Senecio vulgaris L. and Lolium perenne L., as representatives of di- and mono-cotyledonous weeds, respectively. Narciclasine was identified as the bioactive compound in Narcissus. The extract of Amaryllis belladonna L. was equally active, but did not contain any narciclasine. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the A. belladonna extract resulted in the identification of lycorine as the bio-active compound. The IC50 measured for radicle growth inhibition was 0.10 µM for narciclasine and 0.93 µM for lycorine, compared to 0.11 mM of chlorpropham, a synthetic herbicide. Therefore, the leftover biomass from the spring bulb industry represents an interesting potential source for promising allelochemicals for further studies on weed growth inhibition.

  1. The effect of homeopathic preparations on the activity level of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants=Atividade de formigas cortadeiras Acromyrmex spp. submetidas a preparações homeopáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Boff


    Full Text Available The effect of homeopathic preparations on the activities of the leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex spp. was studied. A field experiment involving ant nests in six experimental areas was performed using a randomised complete block design. Within each block, every ant nest was considered to represent one repetition. The treatments consisted of the following: Belladonna homeopathic preparations of macerated or triturated Acromyrmex spp. adults, homeopathic preparations of macerated or triturated ant nest fungus (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus collected from Acromyrmex laticeps and Acromyrmex heyeri nests, a homeopathy Belladonna, and dynamised water. All of the homeopathic treatments were tested at the 30 CH (thirtieth centesimal Hahnemannian dynamisation. An untreated nest served as the control. The total number of ants from each trail was counted, including both those carrying or not-carrying green plant fragments, immediately before the daily homeopathic applications. All of the tested homeopathic preparations, except for the water, significantly reduced the activity level of Acromyrmex spp. The homeopathic preparations of Belladonna and the macerated nosodes of Acromyrmex spp. reduced the activity level of the ants beginning with the sixth day after the first treatment application; the activity level reduction effect lasted more than 20 days after the last application.O efeito de preparados homeopáticos sobre as atividades de formigas cortadeiras Acromyrmex spp. foi estudado. O experimento foi realizado no campo, utilizando formigueiros distribuídos em seis diferentes áreas. Em cada área cada, formigueiro foi considerado uma repetição. Os tratamentos consistiram de preparados homeopáticos obtidos da tintura-mãe dos triturados e macerados de adultos de Acromyrmex spp. e do fungo Leucoagaricus gongylophorus de formigueiros de Acromyrmex laticeps e Acromyrmex heyeri. A homeopatia Belladonna e água dinamizada também foram testados. Todos os

  2. Use of an “electronic tongue” in the assessment of highly diluted systems

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    Antônio Riul Jr


    Full Text Available Introduction: “Eletronic tongue” is a device commonly used in the analysis of tastants, heavy metal ions, fruit juice, wines and also in the development of biosensors [1-3]. Briefly, the e-tongue is constituted by sensing units formed by ultrathin films of distinct materials deposited on gold interdigitated electrodes, which are immersed in liquid samples, followed by impedance spectroscopy measurements [1]. The e-tongue sensor is based on the global selectivity concept, i.e., the materials forming the sensing units are not selective to any substance in the samples, therefore, it allows the grouping of information into distinct patterns of response, enabling the distinction of complex liquid systems [1]. Aim: Our aim was to use e-tongue system for the assessment the homeopathic medicine Belladonna at different degrees of dilution, in attempt to differentiate highly diluted systems. Methods: Ultrathin films forming the sensing units were prepared by the layer-by-layer technique [4], using conventional polyelectrolytes such as poly(sodium styene sulfonate (PSS and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH, chitosan and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT. Homeopathic medicines (Belladonna 1cH, 6cH, 12cH and 30cH were prepared by dilution and agitation according to Hahnemann´s method [5], using ethanol at 30% (w/w as vehicle. Experimental data acquisition was conducted by blind tests measurements involving Belladonna samples and the vehicle used in the dilutions. Five independent and consecutive measurements were taken for each solution at 1 kHz, which were further analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA, a statistical method largely employed to reduce the dimensionality of the original data without losing information in the correlation of the samples [3]. Results: Figure 1 shows that the five independent measurements are grouped quite closed each other for each solution analysed, with a clear

  3. Decontamination of alkaloid drugs with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of the effect of ionizing radiation (doses of 5, 10 and 25 kGy) on selected kinds of alkaloid drugs revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of microorganisms (bacteria, moulds) in dependence on the dose. The largest decrease in the alkaloid content due to ionizing radiation took place in Radix veratri. in other drugs the differences are statistically insignificant. The alkaloid content never decreased to below the limit required by the pharmacopoeia. Infusions prepared from the parent material complied with the requirements of PhBs 4 for microbiological purity except for Folium belladonnae; in infusions from the irradiated drugs the decrease in the number of microorganisms correlated with the decrease found after the irradiation of the drug. (author). 7 tabs., 14 refs

  4. Assays of homeopathic remedies in rodent behavioural and psychopathological models. (United States)

    Bellavite, Paolo; Magnani, Paolo; Marzotto, Marta; Conforti, Anita


    The first part of this paper reviews the effects of homeopathic remedies on several models of anxiety-like behaviours developed and described in rodents. The existing literature in this field comprises some fifteen exploratory studies, often published in non-indexed and non-peer-reviewed journals. Only a few results have been confirmed by multiple laboratories, and concern Ignatia, Gelsemium, Chamomilla (in homeopathic dilutions/potencies). Nevertheless, there are some interesting results pointing to the possible efficacy of other remedies, and confirming a statistically significant effect of high dilutions of neurotrophic molecules and antibodies. In the second part of this paper we report some recent results obtained in our laboratory, testing Aconitum, Nux vomica, Belladonna, Argentum nitricum, Tabacum (all 5CH potency) and Gelsemium (5, 7, 9 and 30CH potencies) on mice using ethological models of behaviour. The test was performed using coded drugs and controls in double blind (operations and calculations). After an initial screening that showed all the tested remedies (except for Belladonna) to have some effects on the behavioural parameters (light-dark test and open-field test), but with high experimental variability, we focused our study on Gelsemium, and carried out two complete series of experiments. The results showed that Gelsemium had several effects on the exploratory behaviour of mice, which in some models were highly statistically significant (p test performed. Finally, some methodological issues of animal research in this field of homeopathy are discussed. The "Gelsemium model" - encompassing experimental studies in vitro and in vivo from different laboratories and with different methods, including significant effects of its major active principle gelsemine - may play a pivotal rule for investigations on other homeopathic remedies. PMID:19945676

  5. Toxic compounds in honey. (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua


    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

  6. Illusionary self-motion perception in zebrafish.

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    Ying-Yu Huang

    Full Text Available Zebrafish mutant belladonna (bel carries a mutation in the lhx2 gene (encoding a Lim domain homeobox transcription factor that results in a defect in retinotectal axon pathfinding, which can lead to uncrossed optic nerves failing to form an optic chiasm. Here, we report on a novel swimming behavior of the bel mutants, best described as looping. Together with two previously reported oculomotor instabilities that have been related to achiasmatic bel mutants, reversed optokinetic response (OKR and congenital nystagmus (CN, involuntary conjugate oscillations of both eyes, looping opens a door to study the influence of visual input and eye movements on postural balance. Our result shows that looping correlates perfectly with reversed OKR and CN and is vision-dependent and contrast sensitive. CN precedes looping and the direction of the CN slow phase is predictive of the looping direction, but is absent during looping. Therefore, looping may be triggered by CN in bel. Moreover, looping in wild-type fish can also be evoked by whole-field motion, suggesting that looping in a bel mutant larvae is a result of self-motion perception. In contrary to previous hypotheses, our findings indicate that postural control in vertebrates relies on both direct visual input (afference signal and eye-movement-related signals (efference copy or reafference signal.

  7. Alkaloids in the pharmaceutical industry: Structure, isolation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Milan


    Full Text Available By the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century a new era began in medicine, pharmaceutics and chemistry that was strongly connected with alkaloids and alkaloid drugs. Even before that it was known that certain drugs administered in limited doses were medicines, and toxic if taken in larger doses (opium, coke leaves, belladonna roots, monkshood tubers crocus or hemlock seeds. However, the identification, isolation and structural characterization of the active ingredients of the alkaloid drugs was only possible in the mid 20th century by the use of modern extraction equipment and instrumental methods (NMR, X-ray diffraction and others.In spite of continuing use over a long time, there is still great interest in investigating new drugs, potential raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the more detailed investigation and definition of bio-active components and the indication of their activity range, and the partial synthesis of new alkaloid molecules based on natural alkaloids. The scope of these investigations, especially in the field of semi-synthesis is to make better use of the bio-active ingredients of alkaloid drugs, i.e. to improve the pharmacological effect (stronger and prolonged effect of the medicine, decreased toxicity and side effects, or to extend or change the applications. A combined classification of alkaloids was used, based on the chemical structure and origin, i.e. the source of their isolation to study alkaloid structure. For practical reasons, the following classification of alkaloids was used: ergot alkaloids, poppy alkaloids, tropanic alkaloids purine derivative alkaloids, carbon-cyclic alkaloids, and other alkaloids. The second part of this report presents a table of general procedures for alkaloid isolation from plant drugs (extraction by water non-miscible solvents, extraction by water-miscible solvents and extraction by diluted acid solutions. Also, methods for obtaining chelidonine and

  8. Investigation on situation of potentially inappropriate medication before and after pharmacist intervention in elderly patients in Beijing primary health care institutions%北京地区基层医疗机构药师干预前后老年患者潜在不适当用药情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星炜; 沈芊; 李晓玲; 刘琛; 王雅葳; 王育琴


    Objective To explore the impact of pharmacist intervention on the potentially inappropriate drug application in the elderly patients in the primary health care institutions. Methods Twenty four primary health care institutions in Beijing were selected. The researchers selected 15 kinds of potentially inappropriate drugs according to the Beers criteria and lists of potentially inappropriate drugs of USA,UK,and Japanese and organized a training of medication safety for pharmacists in above primary health care institutions. From February 10th,2014 to February 20th,2014,education on the risks of potentially inappropriate drug application in the elderly patients was carried out among the doctors in above mentioned institutions and relevant documents were distributed. Prescriptions for the elderly outpatients in the 24 primary health care institutions before(from June 3,2013 to June 7,2013)and after(from March 12,2014 to March 16,2014)the intervention were collected and the proportions of prescriptions containing 15 kinds of potentially inappropriate drugs in the prescriptions containing the appropriate diagnosis before and after the intervention were calculated and compared. Results The number of collected prescriptions in the elderly patients before and after the intervention was 12 243 and 11 571, respectively. Before the intervention,there were 10 kinds of inappropriate drugs, including estazolam, diazepam, ibuprofen, diclofenac, belladonna, theophylline, aminophylline, chlorpheniramine, digoxin, compound reserpine triamterene,and glyburide. After pharmacist intervention,the proportions of prescriptions of 5 kinds of potentially inappropriate drugs in the elderly patients decreased significantly,including ibuprofen(5. 92% vs. 27. 43%),diclofenac(5. 92% vs. 13. 17%),chlorpheniramine(1. 08% vs. 4. 86%),digoxin(2. 40% vs. 7. 56%)and glyburide(1. 61% vs. 8. 03%),all P<0. 001. Conclusion Pharmacist intervention has a positive effect on improving the potentially