Volkov, Roman A; Panchuk, Irina I; Borisjuk, Nikolai V; Hosiawa-Baranska, Marta; Maluszynska, Jolanta; Hemleben, Vera
Polyploid hybrids represent a rich natural resource to study molecular evolution of plant genes and genomes. Here, we applied a combination of karyological and molecular methods to investigate chromosomal structure, molecular organization and evolution of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in nightshade, Atropa belladonna (fam. Solanaceae), one of the oldest known allohexaploids among flowering plants. Because of their abundance and specific molecular organization (evolutionarily conserved coding regions linked to variable intergenic spacers, IGS), 45S and 5S rDNA are widely used in plant taxonomic and evolutionary studies. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of A. belladonna 45S rDNA repeats revealed a general structure characteristic of other Solanaceae species, and a very high sequence similarity of two length variants, with the only difference in number of short IGS subrepeats. These results combined with the detection of three pairs of 45S rDNA loci on separate chromosomes, presumably inherited from both tetraploid and diploid ancestor species, example intensive sequence homogenization that led to substitution/elimination of rDNA repeats of one parent. Chromosome silver-staining revealed that only four out of six 45S rDNA sites are frequently transcriptionally active, demonstrating nucleolar dominance. For 5S rDNA, three size variants of repeats were detected, with the major class represented by repeats containing all functional IGS elements required for transcription, the intermediate size repeats containing partially deleted IGS sequences, and the short 5S repeats containing severe defects both in the IGS and coding sequences. While shorter variants demonstrate increased rate of based substitution, probably in their transition into pseudogenes, the functional 5S rDNA variants are nearly identical at the sequence level, pointing to their origin from a single parental species. Localization of the 5S rDNA genes on two chromosome pairs further supports uniparental
Improvement of Asthma and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With Oral Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, a Combination of Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, Bismuth, and Antimonite: A Pediatric Case Report.
von Schoen-Angerer, Tido; Madeleyn, René; Kiene, Helmut; Kienle, Gunver S; Vagedes, Jan
The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and asthma, although well established in adults, is less strong in the pediatric age group. Benefits of proton pump therapy are limited across age ranges. While there is a growing body of literature on the use of complementary treatments for both asthma and GERD, few studies have focused on treatment benefits for the GERD-asthma association. We present the case of a 2-year-old boy with asthma and GERD who was not responding to inhaled, low-dose corticosteroids, beta-mimetic therapy, and a 6-week course of proton pump inhibitor treatment. We noted a gradual disappearance of symptoms when he was given an oral preparation of Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, an anthroposophic medication containing Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, bismuth, and antimonite. Matricaria recutita and bismuth have known gastric protective properties, and Atropa belladonna contains anticholinergic agents that have a bronchodilatory effect. These complementary medications appear promising in terms of relieving the symptoms of GERD-associated asthma.
Bagheri, Fereshte; Piri, Khosro; Mohsenifar, Afshine; Ghaderi, Smaiil
A simple, sensitive, selective, and rapid optical nanobiosensor based on FRET was designed to detect tropane alkaloids as anti-cholinergic agents in natural and transgenic hairy roots extracts of Atropa belladonna. To achieve that, conjugation of tioglycolyic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum Dots, M2 muscarinic receptor (Cd/Te QDs-M2R) and conjugation of scopolamine-rhodamine123 (Sc-Rho123) were performed. More specifically, proportional amounts of M2 muscarinic receptor and quantum dots (QDs) were conjugated while scopolamine (as a tropane alkaloid) and rhodamine123 were also combined and these moieties functioned as donor and acceptor pairs, respectively. The system response was linear over the range of 0.01-4µmolL-1 of scopolamine hydrochloride concentration with a detection limit of 0.001µmolL-1. The developed nanobiosensor was successfully used for in vitro recognition of scopolamine as an anti-cholinergic agent in the investigated plant extracts. In addition, Agrobacterium rhizogenesis mediated gene transfer technique was employed to generate hairy roots and to enhance the production of tropane alkaloids in the studied medicinal plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bonhomme, V; Laurain-Mattar, D; Fliniaux, M A
Two series of Atropa belladonna hairy root lines were obtained, the first one transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring rol C and npt II genes, and the other transformed with rol ABC and npt II genes. Thirteen hairy root lines were obtained and selected on hormone-free medium. The transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis, and these root lines were first examinated for their growth rate. Then hyoscyamine and scopolamine production was measured after 3 and 4 weeks of culture to evaluate the possible role of rol C gene in tropane alkaloid formation. The rol C gene alone played a significant role in the hairy root growth rate (17-fold increase). However this effect was much lower than that induced by the rol ABC genes together (75-fold increase). In contrast, the rol C gene alone was as efficient as the rol ABC genes together (mean value of total alkaloids: 0.36% dry weight, i.e., 12-fold times more than in untransformed roots) to stimulate the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids in A. belladonna hairy root cultures.
Bonhomme, V; Laurain-Mattar, D; Lacoux, J; Fliniaux, M; Jacquin-Dubreuil, A
Atropa belladonna leaf disks were infected by a wild strain Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 harboring the Ri-TL-DNA and by a disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a construction with only rol ABC and npt II genes. Thirteen root lines were established and examined for their growth rate and alkaloid productivity to evaluate the possible role of rol genes in morphological differentiation and in tropane alkaloid formation. A great diversity has been observed in the growth rate of these 13 root lines. The root biomass increased up to 75 times. The total alkaloid contents were similar in the root lines obtained by infection with A. rhizogenes 15834 and A. tumefaciens rol ABC. The last ones accumulated between 4 (1.1 mg g(-1) DW) and 27 (8 mg g(-1) DW) times more alkaloids than the intact roots (0.3 mg g(-1) DW). This work has shown that the rol ABC genes were sufficient to increase tropane alkaloid production in A. belladonna hairy root cultures.
Belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital are used to relieve cramping pains in conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and ... Belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital come as a regular tablet, a slow-acting tablet, capsule, and liquid to take ...
Mazaheri, Hamide; Piri, Khosro
Phenolic compounds that present in the several industries are harmful and dangerous for human health. In this study we have studied the potential of Atropa belladonna hairy roots in phenol removal of wastewater. The optimal conditions for the removal process were evaluated using different phenol (10-500 mg.1(-1)) and H2O2 (1-15 Mm) concentrations. In the presence of H2O2, Roots were able to remove phenol concentrations up to 500 mg.1(-1). in the wide range of pH (4-9), reaching high removal efficiency. When roots were re-used for five consecutive cycles, phenol removal efficiency decreased from 98-62%, in the last cycle. After the removal process, the solutions were obtained from the experiment were estimated for their toxicity using a test with Lactaca sativa L. seeds. Results showed that the treated solution was less toxic than the parent solution.
... system. Symptoms include dry mouth, enlarged pupils, blurred vision, red dry skin, fever, fast heartbeat, inability to urinate or sweat, hallucinations, spasms, mental problems, convulsions, coma, and others. Special ...
... contained in Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium have been present as ingredients in cough-cold drug... Atropa belladonna and Datura stramonium, are neither safe nor effective as an OTC anticholinergic. There...
Full Text Available E00008 Belladonna extract (JP16) Belladonna (USP) Crude drug Hyoscyamine [CPD:C0204...6], Atropine [CPD:C01479], Norhyoscyamine [CPD:C10862], Scopolamine [CPD:C01851] Atropa belladonna [TAX:3311...3] Same as: D03069 Solanaceae (nightshade family) Belladonna root extract Major component: Hyoscyamine [DR:D00147] CAS: 8007-93-0 ...
Full Text Available D03069 Crude, Drug Belladonna extract (JP16); Belladonna (USP) Hyoscyamine [CPD:C02...046], Atropine [CPD:C01479], Norhyoscyamine [CPD:C10862], Scopolamine [CPD:C01851] Atropa belladonna [TAX:33...113] Anticholinergic Same as: E00008 ATC code: A03BA04 Solanaceae (nightshade family) Belladonna root extrac...RDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES, PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA04 Belladonna ...total alkaloids D03069 Belladonna extract (JP16); Belladonna (USP) Crude drugs [B
Full Text Available E00010 Belladonna root (JP16) Crude drug Hyoscyamine [CPD:C02046], Atropine [CPD:C0...1479], Norhyoscyamine [CPD:C10862], Scopolamine [CPD:C01851] Atropa belladonna [TAX:33113] Same as: D03224 S...olanaceae (nightshade family) Belladonna root Major component: Hyoscyamine [DR:D00147] CAS: 8007-93-0 ...
Full Text Available D03223 Crude, Drug Belladonna leaf (USP) Hyoscyamine [CPD:C02046], Atropine [CPD:C0...1479], Norhyoscyamine [CPD:C10862], Scopolamine [CPD:C01851] Atropa belladonna [TAX:33113] Same as: E00229 A...TC code: A03BA04 Solanaceae (nightshade family) Belladonna leaf Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classi...GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES, PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA04 Belladonna... total alkaloids D03223 Belladonna leaf (USP) PubChem: 17397376 ...
Norikoshi, Ryo; Yamada, Kunio; Niki, Tomoko; Ichimura, Kazuo
The role of mannitol differs from that of glucose, fructose and sucrose in sepal cell expansion associated with flower opening in Delphinium × belladonna. Sepals of Delphinium × belladonna are colored and much larger than the petals. To determine whether the role of mannitol in sepal growth associated with flower opening differs from those of ubiquitous metabolic sugars including glucose, fructose and sucrose, we investigated changes in cell number, subcellular concentrations of soluble carbohydrates, and osmotic potential in sepals during flower opening in Delphinium × belladonna cv. Bellamosum. The number of epidermal cells in the sepals did not increase from the stage when sepal pigmentation started, whereas the cell area increased during flower opening, indicating that petal growth during flower opening depends on cell expansion. Mannitol concentrations in the vacuole at three different stages were approximately 100 mM, which were much higher than the other carbohydrate concentrations, but they decreased slightly at open stage. In contrast, mannitol concentration in the cytoplasm was 56 mM at bud stage, but it increased to 104 mM at open stage. Glucose and fructose concentrations in the vacuole at open stage increased to 45 and 56 mM, respectively. Total osmotic potential in apoplast and symplast, which was partially due to soluble carbohydrates, was almost constant during flower opening. Therefore, mannitol may be acting constitutively as the main osmoticum in the vacuole where it may contribute to the maintenance of the osmotic balance between the cytoplasm and vacuole in open flowers. The role of mannitol differs from those of glucose, fructose, and sucrose in sepal cell expansion in Delphinium × belladonna.
Braga de Mello Joao Roberto; de Mello, Fernanda B.; Langeloh, Augusto
The phytotherapic formulation constituted by Gentiana lutea (genciana), Rheum palmatum (ruibarbo), Aloe ferox (aloé), Cynara scolymus (alcachofra), Atropa belladona (beladona), Paumus boldus (boldo) and Baccharis trimera (carqueja) (Gotas Preciosas®) was investigated from the potential of toxicological effects when orally administered for 30 days to male and female New Zealand rabbits. The daily oral dose was ten times the prescribed dosage to humans. The general signs of toxicity...
Full Text Available Background & Aim:A new sustainable tissue-based system is presented by plant hairy roots, preserving all of the several specialized types of cell with critical roles in allowing bioactive secondary molecules to be synthesized more consistently as usual. The system is also essential for studying the production of alkaloid in culture. Experimental: The Atropa komarovii leaves were wounded and infected with soil gram-negative bacterium Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834. After three weeks, the transformation roots and control roots without infection, appeared, and for confirming that T-DNA Ri plasmid fragments were transformed and integrated to plant genome, the rolB gene region, was amplified using PCR. HPLC method was then used for assaying how two tropane alkaloids such as atropine (hyosciamine and scopolamine (hyoscine were produced in hairy roots,control roots, leaves and roots of plantlet. Results: The data indicated that diagnostic 500bp rol B product amplification was exhibited to be present by all the transformed hairy roots. Scopolamine content in hairy roots was considerably greater than that in control roots but greatest (Hyoscyamine atropine content was observed in control roots. Analysis of DW, FW and root length showed that fresh and dry root weight increased in hairy roots compared with that in non transformed root. Recommended applications/industries: The present study demonstrated that secondary metabolite production using medicinal plants concerns many researchers worldwide today and hairy root culture is a useful method for producing tropane alkaloids in solanaceae.
Jan, Sumira; Kamili, Azra N; Parray, Javid A; Bedi, Yashbir S; Ahmad, Parvaiz
The aim of current research was to evaluate the physiological adjustment in three medicinal herbs viz., Atropa acuminata, Lupinus polyphyllus and Hyoscyamus niger to the winter period characterised by intense UV flux in Kashmir valley across the North Western Himalaya. Quinolizidine (QA) and tropane alkaloid (TA) concentrations were analysed in these herbs thriving at two different altitudes via GC-MS and correlated by PCA analysis. This study investigated the hypothesis that UV reflectance and absorbance at low temperatures are directly related to disparity in alkaloid accumulation. Among QAs in L. polyphyllus, ammodendrine and lupanine accumulated at higher concentration and exhibited significant variation of 186.36% and 95.91% in ammodendrine and lupanine respectively in both sites. Tetrahydrohombifoline displayed non-significant variation of about 9.60% irrespective of sites. Among tropane alkaloid (TA), hyoscyamine was recorded as the most abundant constituent irrespective of the plant and site while apotropine accumulated in lesser quantity in A. acuminata than H. niger. However, apotropine demonstrated significant variation of 175% among both sites. The final concentration of quinolizidine (QA) and tropane alkaloid (TA) reflects the interplay between reflectance and absorbance of UV radiation response field. These findings suggest that spectral response of UV light contributes directly to alkaloid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mello, Joao Roberto Braga de; de Mello, Fernanda B.; Langeloh, Augusto
A formulação fitoterápica contendo Gentiana lutea, (genciana), Rheum palmatum (ruibarbo), Aloe ferox (aloé), Cynara scolymus (alcachofra), Atropa belladona (beladona), Paumus boldus (boldo) e Baccharis trimera (carqueja) (Gotas Preciosas®) foi investigada quanto aos potenciais efeitos tóxicos em doses repetidas quando administrada por via oral (gavagem) a ratos e ratas Wistar (machos por 30 dias e fêmeas por 44 dias, correspondendo à gestação e lactação). Nos estudos a dosagem diária usada fo...
Diaper dermatitis (DD) is an acute inflammation of the skin in the diaper area and is the most common cutaneous disease among infants and children. Calendula officinalis, Atropa belladonna and Sulphuricum acidum are homeopathic remedies which have been purported to be beneficial in wound healing and conditions ...
Rodionova, O M; Glebov, V V; Artamonova, E V; Butenin, M A; Anikina, E V
We studied the effects of homeopathic monopreparations of plant origin Atropa Belladonna and Rhus toxicodendron in three dilutions (potencies) on interstitial humoral transport in healthy laboratory mice assessed by the rate of excretion of the lymphotropic label from the mesentery according to the Oyvin's method (vital biomicroscopy of intestinal mesentery in small animals). The homeopathic monopreparations exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the interstitial transport and lymphatic drainage in tissues of healthy mice.
Full Text Available Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna. AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura.
Evandro Vagner Tambarussi
Full Text Available The availability of chloroplast genome (cpDNA sequences of Atropa belladonna, Nicotiana sylvestris, N.tabacum, N. tomentosiformis, Solanum bulbocastanum, S. lycopersicum and S. tuberosum, which are Solanaceae species,allowed us to analyze the organization of cpSSRs in their genic and intergenic regions. In general, the number of cpSSRs incpDNA ranged from 161 in S. tuberosum to 226 in N. tabacum, and the number of intergenic cpSSRs was higher than geniccpSSRs. The mononucleotide repeats were the most frequent in studied species, but we also identified di-, tri-, tetra-, pentaandhexanucleotide repeats. Multiple alignments of all cpSSRs sequences from Solanaceae species made the identification ofnucleotide variability possible and the phylogeny was estimated by maximum parsimony. Our study showed that the plastomedatabase can be exploited for phylogenetic analysis and biotechnological approaches.
Full Text Available Melliferous plant species in the forests near Blace (South Serbia were investigated in order to estimate the significance, contribution, quality and ecological characteristics of representatives of the apiflora as potential nectar and pollen sources, the elements of bee pasturage. The significance of melliferous plants was determined on the basis of nectar and pollen production intensity, as well as by following blooming periods. According to adaptations to moisture, light, and temperature, melliferous species can be relegated to eight groups and six subgroups. Out of the total number of melliferous species in the investigated area (223, the forest apiflora accounted for 82 species (36,77%. The species with highest nectar and/or pollen production are: Alnus glutinosa, Corylus avellana, Paulownia tomentosa, Picea abies, Prunus tenella, Robinia pseudoacacia, species of the genera Salix, Tilia, and Campanula, Atropa bella-donna, Calamintha officinalis, Glechoma hederacea, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salvia glutinosa and Valeriana officinalis.
Full Text Available opa belladonna [TAX:33113] Anticholinergic Same as: C01479 ATC code: A03BA01 S01FA01 belladonna alkaloid Ind...ORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES, PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiar
Cristina EL MAHDY
Full Text Available Romania is blessed with a rich spontaneous flora, but some of the plants are toxic by their consumption in cattle, affecting the health, productions and endangering consumer safety. Sometimes even the consumption of small amounts causes poisoning with a broad extension: from mild, moderate to severe and with chronic or acute manifestations. Plant action is not similar. Taxus Buccata, Eupatorium spp. (E. rugosum, E. urticaefolium, E. ogeratoides are cardiotoxic plants, but, Eupatorium spp. also acts through depression of the central nervous system; Datura stramonium (Jimson weed, Solanum spp. (nightshades, Atropa belladonna (belladonna, are plants with cholinergic blocking; haemolytic anemia is caused by Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken fern and Equisetum (horsetail. The poisoning with cyanogenic principles occurs at Sorghum spp (Johnson grass, sudan grass; Elderberry consumption, Senecio spp. and Hypericum (St John’s wort induces liver toxicity. Plants containing alkaloids outside their toxicity also have teratogenic action: Lupinus spp., Nicotiana spp, Conium maculatum, Veratrum album. However, some of these plants can be used in certain cows’ treatments.
Yamada, T.; Ichimura, K.; Doorn, van W.G.
Depending on the species, the end of flower life span is characterized by petal wilting or by abscission of petals that are still fully turgid. Wilting at the end of petal life is due to programmed cell death (PCD). It is not known whether the abscission of turgid petals is preceded by PCD. We
Pathania, Shivalika; Ramakrishnan, Sai Mukund; Bagler, Ganesh
Plant-derived molecules (PDMs) are known to be a rich source of diverse scaffolds that could serve as the basis for rational drug design. Structured compilation of phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants can facilitate prospection for novel PDMs and their analogs as therapeutic agents. Atropa belladonna, Catharanthus roseus, Heliotropium indicum, Picrorhiza kurroa and Podophyllum hexandrum are important Himalayan medicinal plants, reported to have immense therapeutic properties against various diseases. We present Phytochemica, a structured compilation of 963 PDMs from these plants, inclusive of their plant part source, chemical classification, IUPAC names, SMILES notations, physicochemical properties and 3-dimensional structures with associated references. Phytochemica is an exhaustive resource of natural molecules facilitating prospection for therapeutic molecules from medicinally important plants. It also offers refined search option to explore the neighbourhood of chemical space against ZINC database to identify analogs of natural molecules at user-defined cut-off. Availability of phytochemical structured dataset may enable their direct use in in silico drug discovery which will hasten the process of lead identification from natural products under proposed hypothesis, and may overcome urgent need for phytomedicines. Compilation and accessibility of indigenous phytochemicals and their derivatives can be a source of considerable advantage to research institutes as well as industries. Database URL: home.iitj.ac.in/∼bagler/webservers/Phytochemica PMID:26255307
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplast genomes evolve slowly and many primers for PCR amplification and analysis of chloroplast sequences can be used across a wide array of genera. In some cases 'universal' primers have been designed for the purpose of working across species boundaries. However, the essential information on these primer sequences is scattered throughout the literature. Results A database is presented here which assembles published primer information for chloroplast DNA. Additional primers were designed to fill gaps where little or no primer information could be found. Amplicons are either the genes themselves (typically useful in studies of sequence variation in higher-order phylogeny or they are spacers, introns, and intergenic regions (for studies of phylogeographic patterns within and among species. The current list of 'generic' primers consists of more than 700 sequences. Wherever possible, we give the locations of the primers in the thirteen fully sequenced chloroplast genomes (Nicotiana tabacum, Atropa belladonna, Spinacia oleracea, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Oryza sativa, Pinus thunbergii, Marchantia polymorpha, Zea mays, Oenothera elata, Acorus calamus, Eucalyptus globulus, Medicago trunculata. Conclusion The database described here is designed to serve as a resource for researchers who are venturing into the study of poorly described chloroplast genomes, whether for large- or small-scale DNA sequencing projects, to study molecular variation or to investigate chloroplast evolution.
Naumann, Annette; Kurtze, Lukas; Krähmer, Andrea; Hagels, Hansjoerg; Schulz, Hartwig
Plant species of the Solanaceae family (nightshades) contain pharmacologically active anticholinergic tropane alkaloids, e.g., scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Tropane alkaloids are of special interest, either as active principles or as starting materials for semisynthetic production of other substances. For genetic evaluation, domestication, cultivation, harvest and post-harvest treatments, quantification of the individual active principles is necessary to monitor industrial processes and the resulting finished products. Up to now, frequently applied methods for quantification are based on high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography optionally combined with mass spectrometry. However, alternative analytical methods have the potential to replace the established standard methods partly. In this context, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy enabled chemotaxonomical classification of the Solanaceae Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium, Hyoscyamus niger, Solanum dulcamara, and Duboisia in combination with cluster analysis. Also discrimination of genotypes within species was achieved to some extent. The most characteristic scopolamine bands could be identified in attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectra of Solanaceae leaves, which allow a fast characterisation of plants with high scopolamine content. Applying a partial least square algorithm, very good calibration statistics were obtained for the prediction of the scopolamine content (residual prediction deviation = 7.67), and moderate prediction quality could be achieved for the hyoscyamine content (residual prediction deviation = 2.48). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Mebs, Dietrich; Wunder, Cora; Pogoda, Werner; Toennes, Stefan W
Caterpillars of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, feed on milkweed plants, Asclepias spp. (Apocynaceae), and sequester their toxic cardenolides aimed at deterring predators. Nevertheless, Chinese praying mantids, Tenodera sinensis, consume these caterpillars after removing the midgut ("gutting") including its plant content. In the present study, monarch caterpillars raised on A. curassavica, and those of the death's-head hawkmoth, Acherontia atropos, raised on Atropa belladonna containing atropine, were fed to mantids, Hierodula membranacea, which removed the gut of both species discarding about 59% of cardenolides and more than 90% of atropine, respectively. The ingestion of these compounds produced no apparent ill effects in the mantids and both were excreted with faeces. On the other hand, when mantids were fed with larvae of two moth species, Amata mogadorensis and Brahmaea certia, raised on non-poisonous host plants, the mantids showed the same gutting behaviour, thereby discarding indigestible plant material. As polar compounds, e.g. cardenolides and atropine, are not absorbed from the mantids midgut and do not pass the gut membrane, this enables the mantids to feed on toxic prey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Studying explants affected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes shows that in addition to possible formation of hairy roots, it is likely that callogenesis can be induced in these tissues. The T-DNA region of A. rhizogenes codes enzymes that participate in biosynthesis of plants growth hormones. These hormones also affect callogenesis, hence, the formation of various calluses with different morphological properties are possible. It is very likely that the level of biosynthetic growth hormone, the plasmid carried by each bacteria strain, the position of T-DNA, and the level of gene expression contribute to this morphologic variation. In this study, the root explants of four species of the family Solanaceae namely Atropa belladonna, Datura metel, D. stramonium and Hyoscyamus niger were induced by using different strains of A. rhizogenes (A4, A7, AR15834, AR318, AR9402 and AR9543. Some of these explants entered callus phase and formed various calluses with different colors and shapes. Moreover, in some callus samples hairy roots were also appeared. These variations were probably caused by variations in the levels and ratios of auxin and cytokinine hormons after the induction. As shown in previous studies, the amount of secondary metabolites is reduced due to undifferentiated tissue produced in the callogenesis process.
Full Text Available Background: Some species from the Solanaceae family are still the cause of serious poisoning among youth in Slovenia. Usually intoxication is due to abuse of these plants to provoke hallucinations. There is still not enough data about the alkaloid content of these plants growing in Slovenia.Methods: Different plant samples were analyzed for the content of atropine and scopolamine with capillary electrophoresis after solid phase extraction of alkaloids. Plants were gathered from different areas of Slovenia between April and September 2004.Results: Results were compared and possible correlations between the alkaloid content and species, plant parts, growth conditions, and time of harvest were suggested. Atropine and scopolamine contents were assessed in deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna L., thorn apple (Datura stramonium L., scopolia (Scopolia carniolica Jacq. and angel trumpet. The common name angel trumpet is used for Datura inoxia Mill. as well as for different Brugmansia Pers. species. The most intriguing results were the variable alkaloid content in various Brugmansia species and generally great differences in alkaloid content among various plants and their plant parts.Conclusions: All investigated plants have noticeable atropine and/or scopolamine content. The content is variable between various plants and their plant parts and therefore special care should be taken in cases of possible intoxication. It was shown that smaller or greater amounts of ingested drug can cause the same level of intoxication due to the variability in alkaloid content.
Full Text Available Diaper dermatitis (DD is an acute inflammation of the skin in the diaper area and is the most common cutaneous disease among infants and children. Calendula officinalis, Atropa belladonna and Sulphuricum acidum are homeopathic remedies which have been purported to be beneficial in wound healing and conditions affecting the skin, however, to date, no research has been conducted on the use of these remedies for DD. The aim of this seven-day, double-blind, controlled pilot study was to assess the efficacy of milking cream and a homeopathic complex cream as topical treatments for DD. Forty children between the ages of three to 24 months with DD were recruited. The homeopathic complex cream (n= 20 or unmedicated milking cream (n = 20 was applied after every nappy change for seven days. Efficacy on the severity of symptoms and the percentage of area affected was assessed by means of the 4-Point Grading Scale and the Modified Lund and Browder Charts respectively, on days 1, 2, 4 and 7. The results revealed that both groups showed statistically-significant improvements on rash severity and the percentage of area affected between consecutive visits, as well as over the entire research study period. Trends indicated that the treatment group had a faster resolution of symptoms and outperformed the control in certain affected body regions. Preliminary findings suggest that both milking cream and the homeopathic complex cream may be effective alternative treatment options for DD, and further investigation is warranted.
Full Text Available T AND METABOLISM A03 DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES, PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloid...s, tertiary amines A03BA04 Belladonna total alkaloids D03224 Belladonna root (JP16)
Kuusk, Priit, 1938-
USA-s Colorados toimuva Aspeni suvefestivali 50. aastapäevaks tellitud uudisteostest. Luzerni festivalil ettekantud uudisteostest. J. Levine sõlmis lepingu Müncheni Filharmoonikute muusikadirektori ametikohale. Hannoveri uue muusika biennaali kompositsioonikonkursi tulemustest. Usedomi pidustustest Saksamaal, kus on esindatud ka eesti muusikud
Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R
Throughout the history of humanity, numerous therapeutic agents have been employed for their sedative and hypnotic properties such as opium, henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), but also alcohol and wine. In the 19th century potassium bromide was introduced as a sedative - and antiepileptic drug and chloral hydrate as sedative-hypnotics. A new era was reached by the introduction of barbiturates. The story started with the chemist Adolf von Baeyer. His breakthrough in the synthesis of new agents as barbituric acid and indigo and his education of young chemists was of great importance for the science of organic chemistry and the development of the dye and medicine industry in the late 19th century. The next important step was the development of barbiturates. The pioneers were Josef von Mering and Emil Fischer. Using the Grimaux-method they synthesized various barbiturates. It was von Mering who got the idea of introducing ethyl groups in the inactive barbituric acid to obtain sedatives, but the synthesis was succeeded by the chemist Emil Fischer. Experiments with dogs clearly showed sedative and hypnotic effect of the barbiturates and the oral administration of barbital (Veronal) confirmed the effect in humans. Barbital was commercialized in 1903 and in 1911 phenobarbital (Luminal) was introduced in the clinic, and this drug showed hypnotic and antiepileptic effects. Thereafter a lot of new barbiturates appeared. Dangerous properties of the drugs were recognized as abuse, addiction, and poisoning. An optimum treatment of acute barbiturate intoxication was obtained by the "Scandinavian method", which was developed in the Poison Centre of the Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen. The centre was established by Carl Clemmesen in 1949 and the intensive care treatment reduced the mortality of the admitted persons from 20% to less than 2%. To-day only a few barbiturates are used in connection with anaesthesia and for the treatment of epilepsy
Cupertino de Souza Débora María
Full Text Available A crescente preocupação mundial tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem alternativas consideradas saudáveis e que controlem insetos-praga e doenças. Dentre estas alternativas, destaca-se a utilização de aleloquímicos extraídos de plantas (Jacobson 1989, pois são produtos naturais que reduzem os efeitos negativos ocasionados pela aplicação descontrolada de inseticidas organossintéticos (Medeiros et al 2005, reduzindo o desenvolvimento de populações resistentes do inseto, e o aparecimento de novas pragas ou a ressurgência de outras (Souza 2004. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais faz com que determinados componentes ativos presentes nos vegetais, quando utilizados de forma concentrada, atuem no controle de insetos, inibindo sua alimentação ou prejudicando-os após a ingestão (Costa et al 2004. Muitas apresentam sobre os insetos efeito tóxico, inibição de crescimento, redução de fecundidade, fertilidade e repelência dado os compostos metabólicos secundários que apresentam como alcalóides, terpenos, flavonóides e esteróides com propriedades medicinais comprovadas (Di Stasi 1996, se justificado, portanto, o uso delas no controle de pragas. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito deterrente de extratos de espécies medicinais de Atropa belladonna L. (belladona; Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim; Mikania glomerata Spreng. (guaco; Symphytum officinale L. (confrei; Ruta graveolens L. (arruda; sobre Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae. Na presente pesquisa o destaque deve ser dado ao confrei e nim pelo efeito deterrente apresentado. No presente estudo foi possível determinar que houve deterrência, mas não há como informar se outros efeitos ocorreram somados a esse.
Jaber, Ali; Seraphin, Denis; Guilet, David; Osuga, Junichi; Cheble, Edmond; Ibrahim, Ghassan; Richomme, Pascal; Schinkovitz, Andreas
Alkaloids represent a group of biologically most interesting compounds commonly used in modern medicines but also known for exhibiting severe toxic effects. Therefore, the detection of alkaloids is an important issue in quality control of plants, dietary supplements, and herbal pharmaceutical and mostly facilitated by methods such as GC or LC-MS. However, benefitting from the development of selective matrices as well as requiring very little sample preparation, MALDI-MS may also provide a valuable supplement to these standard analytical methods. With this in mind, the present study highlights recent advances in the development of bithiophenic matrix molecules designed for the selective detection of alkaloids. Overall four new bithiophenic matrix molecules (BMs) were tested on different analytes belonging to various chemical families such as alkaloids, curcuminoids, benzopyrones, flavonoids, steroids, and peptides (I). All BMs were further compared to the commercial matrices α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) in terms of their signal response as well as their matrix noise formation (II). Based on these results the most promising candidate, 3-(5'-pentafluorophenylmethylsulfanyl-[2,2']bithiophenyl-5-ylsulfanyl)propionitrile (PFPT3P), was tested on highly complex samples such as the crude extracts of Colchicum autumnale, RYTMOPASC ® solution (a herbal pharmaceutical containing sparteine and rubijervine), as well as strychnine-spiked human plasma (III). For the latter, an evaluation of the limit of detection was performed. Eventually, a simplified protocol for the direct MALDI detection of major alkaloids from pulverized plant material of Atropa belladonna and Senecio vulgaris is presented (IV). Graphical abstract Selective MALDI MATRICES for Alkaloid Detection.
Full Text Available PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA03 Hyoscyamine D01648 Hyoscyamine methylbromide (JAN... DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES,
Full Text Available PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA01 Atropine D07477 Atropine oxide (INN) USP drug clas...DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES,
Full Text Available E00008 Belladonna extract (JP17) Belladonna (USP) Crude drug Hyoscyamine [CPD:C020...13] Same as: D03069 Solanaceae (nightshade family) Belladonna root extract Major component: Hyoscyamine [DR:D00147] CAS: 8007-93-0
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the cardinal principles of homeopathy is the "law of similarities", according to which patients can be treated by administering substances which, when tested in healthy subjects, cause symptoms that are similar to those presented by the patients themselves. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the number of pre-clinical (in vitro and animal studies aimed at evaluating the pharmacological activity or efficacy of some homeopathic remedies under potentially reproducible conditions. However, in addition to some contradictory results, these studies have also highlighted a series of methodological difficulties. The present study was designed to explore the possibility to test in a controlled way the effects of homeopathic remedies on two known experimental models of acute inflammation in the rat. To this aim, the study considered six different remedies indicated by homeopathic practice for this type of symptom in two experimental edema models (carrageenan- and autologous blood-induced edema, using two treatment administration routes (sub-plantar injection and oral administration. Methods In a first phase, the different remedies were tested in the four experimental conditions, following a single-blind (measurement procedure. In a second phase, some of the remedies (in the same and in different dilutions were tested by oral administration in the carrageenan-induced edema, under double-blind (treatment administration and measurement and fully randomized conditions. Seven-hundred-twenty male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 170–180 g were used. Six homeopathic remedies (Arnica montana D4, Apis mellifica D4, D30, Atropa belladonna D4, Hamamelis virginiana D4, Lachesis D6, D30, Phosphorus D6, D30, saline and indomethacin were tested. Edema was measured using a water-based plethysmometer, before and at different times after edema induction. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student t test. Results In the first phase
Full Text Available ETABOLISM A03 DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES, PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tert...iary amines A03BA01 Atropine D02069 Atropine sulfate (JP16/USP) S SENSORY ORGANS S0
Ornamental flower bulbs (including true bulbs, bulbils, corms, tubers and rhizomes) are increasingly important floriculture crops. Amaryllis is a small genus of flowering bulbs, with two species. The South African native, Amaryllis belladonna, also known as belladonna lily, Jersey lily, naked lady,...
Full Text Available nces producing significant alignments: (bits) Value AY691322_1( AY691322 |pid:none) Ochlerotatus atropa...lpus vitellogen... 33 5.4 >AY691322_1( AY691322 |pid:none) Ochlerotatus atropalpus vit
Julio A. Hurrell
Full Text Available Este trabajo incluye el estudio de las Amaryllidaceae adventicias para la Argentina, representadas por 4 géneros: Amaryllis, Crinum, Leucojum y Narcissus y 6 especies, 3 de ellas son nuevas citas: Crinum asiaticum , Leucojum aestivum y Narcissus poeticus ; y se actualizan los datos disponibles sobre Amaryllis belladonna , Crinum x powellii y Narcissus tazetta .This paper includes an abstract for adventive Amaryllidaceae for Argentina, 4 genera are represented: Amaryllis, Crinum, Leucojum and Narcissus, with 6 species; 3 of them are new records: Crinum asiaticum, Leucojum aestivum and Narcissus poeticus ; and updated observations of the previously cited: Amaryllis belladonna , Crinum x powellii and Narcissus tazetta.
Cepeda Romero, Julie Catherine
Este trabajo de tesis es requisito parcial para optar al título de Magister en Homeopatía de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bajo la modalidad de producto para docencia y pedagogía, esta tesis suple en parte la necesidad de material didáctico para el aprendizaje de la Homeopatía. Desde la óptica del constructivismo pedagógico, se desarrolla la materia médica de seis solanáceas comúnmente utilizadas como materia prima en la elaboración de seis remedios homeopáticos: Atropa bellad...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.
Chen, Lin; Yeung, Joseph C; Anderson, Dennis R
A 70-year-old-woman developed anisocoria after applying homeopathic eye drops (Similasan Pink Eye Relief) to her left eye. Her pupil was dilated for two weeks and did not respond to light or near stimuli for one week. Both 0.1 % and 1% pilocarpine failed to constrict her left pupil, and magnetic resonance imaging of her brain did not reveal any abnormality. The eye drops she had used contain belladonna extracts, which have a natural atropine component. This case demonstrates the importance, when evaluating a patient presenting with anisocoria, of knowing the chemical ingredients of the homeopathic eye drops, which often are not listed. © 2017 Marshfield Clinic.
Full Text Available Datura stramonium, known as devils apple or tatula by the people of Turkey, is a plant known member of a belladonna alkaloid family contains atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine having hallucinogenic and anticholinergic effects. 19 years old male patient admitted to emergency department (ED by his relatives with the complaints of altered mental status, and meaningless speech. History revealed that patient consumed %u201CDatura stramonium%u201D for entertainment about 4 hours before the development of symptoms. In our study we described a case presented by delirium to our emergency department later diagnosed as Datura stramonium poisoning.
Full Text Available The effect of high dilution preparations on the movement and foraging activities of Atta sexdens piriventris was evaluated. Five colonies of ants were located on each of the five experimental areas using a randomized complete block design. Three main forage trails from each colony were selected from where evaluations were made. Ten mL of high dilution preparation of Atta sexdens piriventris nosodes and Belladonna homeopathy solution were sprayed over 0.5 m of each selected trail, 1.0 m far from the nest. The controls were pure water and non treated trails. Applications were made daily during 10 days. The total number of ants moving on each trail one meter away from the nest, carrying or not plant fragments, were assessed before the daily application. Dilution preparations at 30CH (thirtieth centesimal Hahnemannian dilution of A. sexdens piriventris nosodes and Belladonna reduced the activities of ants from the fifth day after the first application. The treatment effect lasted more than 20 days after the last application. The use of preparation at 30CH dilution order to reduce the foraging activity of leaf-cutting ants is a potential non residual method to manage leaf-cutting ants.
Full Text Available A major problem in flower bulb cultivation is weed control. Synthetic herbicides are mainly used, although they cause a range of problems, and integrated weed control through application of naturally occurring allelochemicals would be highly desirable. Flower bulb production creates large amounts of leftover biomass. Utilizing this source for weed control may provide new applications of the bulb crops. We therefore screened 33 flower bulb extracts for allelochemical activity against weeds. Several methanol and chloroform extracts were observed to inhibit germination and growth of Senecio vulgaris L. and Lolium perenne L., as representatives of di- and mono-cotyledonous weeds, respectively. Narciclasine was identified as the bioactive compound in Narcissus. The extract of Amaryllis belladonna L. was equally active, but did not contain any narciclasine. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the A. belladonna extract resulted in the identification of lycorine as the bio-active compound. The IC50 measured for radicle growth inhibition was 0.10 µM for narciclasine and 0.93 µM for lycorine, compared to 0.11 mM of chlorpropham, a synthetic herbicide. Therefore, the leftover biomass from the spring bulb industry represents an interesting potential source for promising allelochemicals for further studies on weed growth inhibition.
Passeti, Tânia Aguiar; Bissoli, Leandro Ribeiro; Macedo, Ana Paula; Libame, Registila Beltrame; Diniz, Susana; Waisse, Silvia
Resistance to antibiotics is a major public health concern worldwide. New treatment options are needed and homeopathy is one such option. We sought to assess the effect of the homeopathic medicine Belladonna (Bell) and a nosode (biotherapy) prepared from a multi-drug resistant bacterial species, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), on the same bacterium. Bell and MRSA nosode were prepared in 6cH and 30cH potencies in 30% alcohol and sterile water, according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopeia and tested on MRSA National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC) 10442. We assessed in vitro bacterial growth, deoxyribonuclease (DNAase) and hemolysin activity, and in vitro bacterial growth in combination with oxacillin (minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC). All values were compared to control: 30% alcohol and water. In vitro growth of MRSA was statistically significantly inhibited in the presence of Bell and nosode 6cH and 30cH compared to controls (p MRSA treated with Belladonna or MRSA nosode exhibited reduced growth in vitro, reduced enzymatic activity and became more vulnerable to the action of the antibiotic oxacillin. Further studies are needed on the biomolecular basis of these effects. Copyright © 2016 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wahyuni, Dinar S C; van der Kooy, Frank; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Verpoorte, Rob; Leiss, Kirsten
A major problem in flower bulb cultivation is weed control. Synthetic herbicides are mainly used, although they cause a range of problems, and integrated weed control through application of naturally occurring allelochemicals would be highly desirable. Flower bulb production creates large amounts of leftover biomass. Utilizing this source for weed control may provide new applications of the bulb crops. We therefore screened 33 flower bulb extracts for allelochemical activity against weeds. Several methanol and chloroform extracts were observed to inhibit germination and growth of Senecio vulgaris L. and Lolium perenne L., as representatives of di- and mono-cotyledonous weeds, respectively. Narciclasine was identified as the bioactive compound in Narcissus. The extract of Amaryllis belladonna L. was equally active, but did not contain any narciclasine. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the A. belladonna extract resulted in the identification of lycorine as the bio-active compound. The IC₅₀ measured for radicle growth inhibition was 0.10 µM for narciclasine and 0.93 µM for lycorine, compared to 0.11 mM of chlorpropham, a synthetic herbicide. Therefore, the leftover biomass from the spring bulb industry represents an interesting potential source for promising allelochemicals for further studies on weed growth inhibition.
Full Text Available The effect of homeopathic preparations on the activities of the leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex spp. was studied. A field experiment involving ant nests in six experimental areas was performed using a randomised complete block design. Within each block, every ant nest was considered to represent one repetition. The treatments consisted of the following: Belladonna homeopathic preparations of macerated or triturated Acromyrmex spp. adults, homeopathic preparations of macerated or triturated ant nest fungus (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus collected from Acromyrmex laticeps and Acromyrmex heyeri nests, a homeopathy Belladonna, and dynamised water. All of the homeopathic treatments were tested at the 30 CH (thirtieth centesimal Hahnemannian dynamisation. An untreated nest served as the control. The total number of ants from each trail was counted, including both those carrying or not-carrying green plant fragments, immediately before the daily homeopathic applications. All of the tested homeopathic preparations, except for the water, significantly reduced the activity level of Acromyrmex spp. The homeopathic preparations of Belladonna and the macerated nosodes of Acromyrmex spp. reduced the activity level of the ants beginning with the sixth day after the first treatment application; the activity level reduction effect lasted more than 20 days after the last application.O efeito de preparados homeopáticos sobre as atividades de formigas cortadeiras Acromyrmex spp. foi estudado. O experimento foi realizado no campo, utilizando formigueiros distribuídos em seis diferentes áreas. Em cada área cada, formigueiro foi considerado uma repetição. Os tratamentos consistiram de preparados homeopáticos obtidos da tintura-mãe dos triturados e macerados de adultos de Acromyrmex spp. e do fungo Leucoagaricus gongylophorus de formigueiros de Acromyrmex laticeps e Acromyrmex heyeri. A homeopatia Belladonna e água dinamizada também foram testados. Todos os
Full Text Available Through experimentation with several leaves it has been possible for us to point out the existance of two different acid phosphatases. We have studied in more detail the phosphatases of belldon a leaves (Atropa Belladona L. Solanacees. The great part of the phosphatase activity is water extractable. We have compared the activity of the soluble fraction with that not directly extractable by means of water. The insoluble fraction could not be solubilized in a satisfaetC'fY m.anner.The digestion by papaine produced a slight solubilizing effect; on the other hand salt solutions, neutral or alkaline, or water glycerol mixtures had no solubilizing effect on the enzyme, It has been possible to demonstrate the existence of two different phosphatases in the insoluble fraction: the first of the type II,
Daniell, Henry; Lee, Seung-Bum; Grevich, Justin; Saski, Christopher; Quesada-Vargas, Tania; Guda, Chittibabu; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Jansen, Robert K
Despite the agricultural importance of both potato and tomato, very little is known about their chloroplast genomes. Analysis of the complete sequences of tomato, potato, tobacco, and Atropa chloroplast genomes reveals significant insertions and deletions within certain coding regions or regulatory sequences (e.g., deletion of repeated sequences within 16S rRNA, ycf2 or ribosomal binding sites in ycf2). RNA, photosynthesis, and atp synthase genes are the least divergent and the most divergent genes are clpP, cemA, ccsA, and matK. Repeat analyses identified 33-45 direct and inverted repeats >or=30 bp with a sequence identity of at least 90%; all but five of the repeats shared by all four Solanaceae genomes are located in the same genes or intergenic regions, suggesting a functional role. A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of all coding sequences and intergenic spacer regions was done for the first time in chloroplast genomes. Only four spacer regions are fully conserved (100% sequence identity) among all genomes; deletions or insertions within some intergenic spacer regions result in less than 25% sequence identity, underscoring the importance of choosing appropriate intergenic spacers for plastid transformation and providing valuable new information for phylogenetic utility of the chloroplast intergenic spacer regions. Comparison of coding sequences with expressed sequence tags showed considerable amount of variation, resulting in amino acid changes; none of the C-to-U conversions observed in potato and tomato were conserved in tobacco and Atropa. It is possible that there has been a loss of conserved editing sites in potato and tomato.
Sershen; Varghese, Boby; Pammenter, N W; Berjak, Patricia
Oxidative stress is a major component of cryoinjury in plant tissues. This study investigated the ability of recalcitrant (i.e. desiccation sensitive) Amaryllis belladonna L. and Haemanthus montanus Baker zygotic embryos to survive cryopreservation, in relation to oxidative stress. The study also investigated whether glycerol cryoprotection promoted embryo post-cryo survival by protecting enzymic antioxidant activities. Zygotic embryos excised from hydrated stored seeds were subjected to various combinations of rapid dehydration (to 0.4 g g⁻¹ [dmb]), cryoprotection (with sucrose or glycerol), and cooling (either rapidly or slowly), and were thereafter assessed for viability, extracellular superoxide (·O₂⁻) production, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and antioxidant enzyme activities. Short-term hydrated storage of whole seeds was accompanied by ·O₂⁻ production and lipid peroxidation, but ·O₂⁻ levels were lower than in dehydrated and cooled embryos and viability was 100%, possibly associated with the high activities of certain antioxidant enzymes. Partial dehydration and cryoprotection (in H. montanus only) increased ·O₂⁻ production (especially in cryoprotected-dried embryos) and was associated with some viability loss, but this was not correlated with enhanced lipid peroxidation. Cooling was generally accompanied by the greatest increase in ·O₂⁻ production, and with a decline in viability. In A. belladonna only, post-cryo TBARS levels were generally higher than for fresh and pre-conditioned embryos. Partial dehydration and cooling decreased antioxidant activities, but these were consistently less severe in glycerol cryoprotected-dried, as opposed to non-cryoprotected-dried embryos. Post-cryo viability retention for glycerol cryoprotected-dried embryos was significantly higher than for non-cryoprotected-dried embryos, possibly facilitated by relatively low post-drying TBARS levels and high post-drying and post-rewarming activities of some
Sanchez-Puerta, M. Virginia; Abbona, Cinthia Carolina
The tribe Hyoscyameae (Solanaceae) is restricted to Eurasia and includes the genera Archihyoscyamus, Anisodus, Atropa, Atropanthe, Hyoscyamus, Physochlaina, Przewalskia and Scopolia. Even though the monophyly of Hyoscyameae is strongly supported, the relationships of the taxa within the tribe remain unclear. Chloroplast markers have been widely used to elucidate plant relationships at low taxonomic levels. Identification of variable chloroplast intergenic regions has been developed based on comparative genomics of chloroplast genomes, but these regions have a narrow phylogenetic utility. In this study, we present the chloroplast genome sequence of Hyoscyamus niger and make comparisons to other solanaceous plastid genomes in terms of gene order, gene and intron content, editing sites, origins of replication, repeats, and hypothetical open reading frames. We developed and sequenced three variable plastid markers from eight species to elucidate relationships within the tribe Hyoscyameae. The presence of a horizontally transferred intron in the mitochondrial cox1 gene of some species of the tribe is considered here a likely synapomorphy uniting five genera of the Hyoscyameae. Alternatively, the cox1 intron could be a homoplasious character acquired twice within the tribe. A homoplasious inversion in the intergenic plastid spacer trnC-psbM was recognized as a source of bias and removed from the data set used in the phylogenetic analyses. Almost 12 kb of plastid sequence data were not sufficient to completely resolve relationships among genera of Hyoscyameae but some clades were identified. Two alternative hypotheses of the evolution of the genera within the tribe are proposed. PMID:24851862
Bieńkowski, Andrzej O; Orlova-Bienkowskaja, Marina J
The genus Epitrix Foudras, 1860a has a worldwide distribution. Some species of Epitrix are major pests of potato, tomato, eggplant, tobacco and other plants in North America and Europe. Some pest species have been inadvertently introduced from North America to Europe, from Europe to North America and from both continents to some islands in Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Therefore, a key for the identification of all Holarctic species is necessary for plant quarantine and protection services. We have compiled the key for distinguishing Epitrix from genera that could be confused with it and a key for all Holarctic species of Epitrix with the figures of spermathecae and aedeagi and the checklist with a review of the geographical distribution, host plants and history of invasions. The following species are included: E. abeillei (Bauduer), E. allardii (Wollaston), E. atropae Foudras, E. brevis Schwarz, E. caucasica (Heikertinger), E. cucumeris (Harris), E. dieckmanni (Mohr), E. ermischi (Mohr), E. fasciata Blatchley, E. flavotestacea Horn, E. fuscula Crotch, E. hirtipennis (Melsheimer), E. humeralis Dury, E. intermedia Foudras, E. krali Döberl, E. lobata Crotch, E. muehlei Döberl, E. priesneri (Heikertinger), E. pubescens (Koch), E. ogloblini (Iablokov-Khnzorian), E. robusta Jacoby, E. setosella (Fairmaire), E. similaris Gentner, E. solani (Blatchley), E. subcrinita (LeConte), E. tuberis Gentner, E. warchalowskii (Mohr) and E. papa Orlova-Bienkowskaja.
Full Text Available Zebrafish mutant belladonna (bel carries a mutation in the lhx2 gene (encoding a Lim domain homeobox transcription factor that results in a defect in retinotectal axon pathfinding, which can lead to uncrossed optic nerves failing to form an optic chiasm. Here, we report on a novel swimming behavior of the bel mutants, best described as looping. Together with two previously reported oculomotor instabilities that have been related to achiasmatic bel mutants, reversed optokinetic response (OKR and congenital nystagmus (CN, involuntary conjugate oscillations of both eyes, looping opens a door to study the influence of visual input and eye movements on postural balance. Our result shows that looping correlates perfectly with reversed OKR and CN and is vision-dependent and contrast sensitive. CN precedes looping and the direction of the CN slow phase is predictive of the looping direction, but is absent during looping. Therefore, looping may be triggered by CN in bel. Moreover, looping in wild-type fish can also be evoked by whole-field motion, suggesting that looping in a bel mutant larvae is a result of self-motion perception. In contrary to previous hypotheses, our findings indicate that postural control in vertebrates relies on both direct visual input (afference signal and eye-movement-related signals (efference copy or reafference signal.
Full Text Available In 1817, Dr. James Parkinson firstly described the concept, duration, and clinical characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD. However, it was widely known until 1877 when it was named "Parkinson's disease" by Dr. Jean-Martin Charcot. In 1912, Frederic Henry Lewy, a neuropathologist, found a special abnormal protein in nerve cells of PD patients. Medical profession began to learn about the pathology of PD only when Konstantin Tretiakoff named the special abnormal protein "Lewy body (LB" in 1919 and believed the main lesion of PD was in substantia nigra. In 1867, the German psychiatrist Leopold Ordenstein found that PD patients had symptoms of excitement of parasympathetic nerve, such as salivation, and treated them with belladonna alkaloids, thus creating a precedent for medical treatment of PD. After 1950's, the researchers gradually found that Lewy body was common in substantia nigra and locus coeruleus of PD patients and then gradually determined the pathological features of PD. The Swedish scientist Arvid Carlsson and Japanese neurologist Isamu Sano found dopamine abnormalities in the brain of PD patients, and thus researched and developed levodopa. PD has a history of 200 years, and we expect new research of PD studies. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.01.002
Full Text Available Background: Alcohol dependence is a common social problem which may be associated with other risk factors and co-morbidities. Abrupt cessation of alcohol intake may provoke an acute alcohol withdrawal phase with varying degrees of signs and symptoms. In conventional medical system, specific pharmacological interventions are used for management of Acute Alcohol Withdrawal (AAW. There exists a need to explore safe and holistic treatment of AAW. The present work reports the results of a prospective, observational, exploratory, multicentre trial (2008-2011 to assess the role of Homoeopathy in AAW. Materials and Methods: Individualised Homoeopathy was given to 112 patients reporting with AAW. The clinical assessment was done for 05 days using Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment Scale of Alcohol-Revised (CIWA-Ar. Post-withdrawal phase, quality of life of patients was assessed at end of 01 st , 03 rd and 06 th month using World Health Organisation quality of life (WHOQOL- BREF. Results and Analysis: There was a significant decrease in CIWA-Ar mean scores and increase in quality of life score (P < 0.001. The most common remedies used were Arsenicum album, Lycopodium clavatum, Belladonna, Nux vomica and Pulsatilla. Conclusion: The results of current observational pilot study suggest the promising use of Homoeopathy in the management of acute alcohol withdrawal. Further studies with large sample size and rigorous design are warranted.
Amini, Mahnaz; Khosrojerdi, Hamid; Afshari, Reza
Datura Stramonium (DS) is a common weed along roadsides, in cornfields and pastures and in waste areas. It belongs to the family Solanaceae and its toxic components are tropane belladonna alkaloids. It has been used voluntarily by teenagers for its hallucinogenic effect. The plant is named in Iran as Tatoore. Symptoms and signs of acute D. Stramonium poisoning usually are similar to anticholinergic syndrome. This study is done in order to clarify the status of this poisoning in our region. This study is a case series on all patients admitted to Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, with acute D. Stramonium poisoning between 2008 and 2011. We observed their symptoms, signs, routine laboratory test results and treatment used to control their symptoms. There were 19 patients included in our study. Children were poisoned more commonly than teenagers and poisoning in adults was rare. All of the children ingested the plant accidentally. The most presenting symptom was irritability and the most common sign was sinus tachycardia. There was not any presentation of seizure or coma. Most of the symptoms were controlled by parenteral benzodiazepines and there were no need to use of cholinergic agents such as physostigmine. Our study showed most of D. Stramonium poisoned population in our region are children. We suggest decreasing accessibility to the plant in order to decrease the incidence of its poisoning.
Full Text Available Objectives: Datura Stramonium (DS is a common weed along roadsides, in cornfields and pastures and in waste areas. It belongs to the family Solanaceae and its toxic components are tropane belladonna alkaloids. It has been used voluntarily by teenagers for its hallucinogenic effect. The plant is named in Iran as Tatoore. Symptoms and signs of acute D. Stramonium poisoning usually are similar to anticholinergic syndrome. This study is done in order to clarify the status of this poisoning in our region. Materials and Methods: This study is a case series on all patients admitted to Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, with acute D. Stramonium poisoning between 2008 and 2011. We observed their symptoms, signs, routine laboratory test results and treatment used to control their symptoms. Results: There were 19 patients included in our study. Children were poisoned more commonly than teenagers and poisoning in adults was rare. All of the children ingested the plant accidentally. The most presenting symptom was irritability and the most common sign was sinus tachycardia. There was not any presentation of seizure or coma. Most of the symptoms were controlled by parenteral benzodiazepines and there were no need to use of cholinergic agents such as physostigmine. Conclusion: Our study showed most of D. Stramonium poisoned population in our region are children. We suggest decreasing accessibility to the plant in order to decrease the incidence of its poisoning.
Belcaro, G; Gizzi, G; Pellegrini, L; Corsi, M; Dugall, M; Cacchio, M; Feragalli, B; Togni, S; Riva, A; Eggenhoffner, R; Giacomelli, L
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, gastrointestinal disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation or changes in bowel habits. Its multifactorial pathophysiology leads to a variety of available treatments, mainly aimed at controlling symptoms. The management of IBS patients could be optimized by individualized strategies, including non-pharmaceutical approaches. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a novel delivery form of Boswellia serrata extracts (BSE) (Casperome®) in patients with IBS. 71 otherwise healthy subjects with idiopathic IBS were recruited. Participants were assigned to the following management strategies: hyoscine butylbromide; papaverine hydrochloride + A. belladonna extract; supplementation with Casperome®. Predominant IBS symptoms were evaluated at inclusion and at the end of the observational period (4 weeks). The numbers of subjects who needed rescue medication or medical attention/hospital admission were recorded. Adverse events were also evaluated. In all groups, the IBS symptoms investigated, namely abdominal pain, altered bowel movements, meteorism and cramps improved during the observational period. Of note, the number of subjects who needed medical attention significantly decreased only in Casperome®-supplemented group. In addition, Casperome® supplementation was related to a lower incidence of side effects (mainly stypsis). This preliminary study suggests that Casperome® supplementation could represent a promising alternative approach to manage symptoms associated with IBS in otherwise healthy subjects.
Jaremicz, Zbigniew; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Kisiel, Mariusz; Zárate, Rafael; El Jaber-Vazdekis, Nabil; Migas, Piotr
Hyoscyamine and scopolamine, anti-cholinergic agents widely used in medicine, are typically obtained from plants grown under natural conditions. Since field cultivation entails certain difficulties (changeable weather, pests, etc.), attempts have been made to develop a plant in vitro culture system as an alternative source for the production of these compounds. During experiments to locate the limiting steps in the biotechnological procedure, it is important to monitor not only the levels of the final products but also the changes in the concentration of their precursors. To develop a HPTLC method for the separation and quantitation of the main tropane alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine, their respective direct precursors littorine and anisodamine, and cuscohygrine, a product of a parallel biosynthetic pathway that shares a common precursor (N-methyl-∆(1) -pyrrolium cation) with tropane alkaloids. Using alkaloid extracts from Atropa baetica hairy roots, different TLC chromatographic systems and developing procedures were investigated. Full separation of all compounds was obtained on HPTLC Si60 F254 plates preconditioned with mobile phase vapours (chloroform:methanol:acetone:25% ammonia ratios of 75:15:10:1.8, v/v/v/v). The chromatograms were developed twice (at distances of 4.0 and 3.0 cm) in a Camag twin trough chamber and visualised with Dragendorff's reagent. Densitometric detection (λ = 190 and 520 nm) was used for quantitative analyses of the different plant samples. This method can be recommended for quantitation of hyoscyamine, scopolamine, anisodamine, littorine and cuscohygrine in different plant material (field grown vs. in vitro cultures). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mulder, Patrick P J; von Holst, Christoph; Nivarlet, Noan; van Egmond, Hans P
Tropane alkaloids (TAs) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by plants of, inter alia, the genera Datura (thorn apple) and Atropa (deadly nightshade). The most relevant TAs are (-)-L-hyoscyamine and (-)-L-scopolamine, which act as antagonists of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors and can induce a variety of distinct toxic syndromes in mammals (anti-cholinergic poisoning). The European Union has regulated the presence of seeds of Datura sp. in animal feeds, specifying that the content should not exceed 1000 mg kg(-1) (Directive 2002/32/EC). For materials that have not been ground, visual screening methods are often used to comply with these regulations, but these cannot be used for ground materials and compound feeds. Immunological assays, preferably in dipstick format, can be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitor feedstuffs in an HACCP setting in control laboratories. So far no reports have been published on immunoassays that are capable of detecting both hyoscyamine and scopolamine with equal sensitivity and that can be used, preferably in dipstick format, for application as a fast screening tool in feed analysis. This study presents the results obtained for the in-house and inter-laboratory validation of a dipstick immunoassay for the detection of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in animal feed. The target level was set at 800 µg kg(-1) for the sum of both alkaloids. By using a representative set of compound feeds during validation and a robust study design, a reliable impression of the relevant characteristics of the assay could be obtained. The dipstick test displayed similar sensitivity towards the two alkaloids and it could be concluded that the test has a very low probability of producing a false-positive result at blank level or a false-negative result at target level. The assay can be used for monitoring of TAs in feedstuffs, but has also potential as a quick screening tool in food- or feed-related poisonings.
Martín-Araguz, A; Bustamante-Martínez, C; Fernández-Armayor Ajo, V; Moreno-Martínez, J M
Since the application of technical medicine by the Greeks, modern neurology has been based on a body of knowledge and cultural heritage from ancient times. In this paper we review the contribution made by Al Andalus to neuroscience during the Middle Ages and its repercussions on modern neurology. Following the death of Mohammed in the vii century AD, Islam enjoyed one of the most spectacular periods of expansion in the history of mankind. Occupation of the cities of Alexandria and Gundishapur put the Arabs into contact with original Greco Latin manuscripts, which were assimilated and divulged by Islamic scientists in the middle eastern caliphates of Damascus and Bagdad as well as the western caliphates of Al Andalus (Spain) and Kairwan (Tunis). This classical hippocratico galenico medicine was refashioned into the so called arabized galenism, which markedly influenced the Scholastics and the cultured world of the lower Middle Ages and became the basis of European medicine until well into the Renaissance period. There was a first Spanish cultural Renaissance in Al Andalus during the ix xii centuries, which led to a flowering unheard of in the Middle Ages before then. Andalusian doctors made major contributions to the body of knowledge about neuroscience and developed major philosophical concepts of human understanding. Thus, Abulcasis (936 1013), the father of modern surgery, developed material and technical designs which are still used in neurosurgery. Averroes suggested the existence of Parkinson s syndrome and attributed photoreceptor properties to the retina. Avenzoar described meningitis, intracranial thrombophlebitis, mediastinal tumours and made contributions to modern neuropharmacology. Maimonides wrote about neuropsychiatric disorders and described rabies and belladonna intoxication. Aside from the political, religious and cultural differences between Al Andalus and the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula, the historical Andalusian period (711 1492
Varshney, J P; Naresh, R
Mastitis is the major problem of dairy animals despite a number of preventive and therapeutic approaches. Treatment is costly and out of reach of farmers of developing countries like India. The treatment cost of bovine mastitis with conventional treatment has been calculated. Good results have been claimed with homeopathic treatment however, treatment costs are not available. This article reports the treatment economics of homeopathic drugs conventional drugs for the management of bovine mastitis. Ninety-six mastitic quarters (non-fibrosed 67 and fibrosed 29) were treated with a homeopathic combination medicine. Another 96 quarters with acute mastitis (non-fibrosed) treated with different antibiotics were included in the study. The animals were selected from dairy farm of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute and from private dairy farms. The overall effectiveness of homeopathic combination medicine in the treatment of acute non-fibrosed mastitis was 86.6% with a mean recovery period of 7.7 days (range 3-28), and total cost of therapy as Indian Rupees 21.4 (0.39 Euros, US$ 0.47). The corresponding cure rate for the antibiotic group was 59.2% with a mean recovery period of 4.5 days (range 2-15) and an average treatment cost of Rs.149.20 (2.69 Euros, US$ 3.28). We conclude that the combination of Phytolacca, Calcarea fluorica., Silica, Belladonna, Bryonia, Arnica, Conium and Ipecacuanha (Healwell VT-6) was effective and economical in the management of mastitis in lactating dairy cows.
Abdel-Halim M. Ismail
Full Text Available The present work is the 1st part of 3-part study carried out at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt to evaluate the pollen species collected by honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies during two successive years, 2009 and 2010. Obtained results showed that, in 2009, total amount of trapped pollen (fresh weight was 2354.89 g/colony/year (mean 588.72 g/colony/season, with peaks in summer and spring, while declined in autumn and winter. Correlation between mean maximum and minimum temperatures and weekly pollen weights was highly positive, while it was insignificant for relative humidity. In 2010, total amount of trapped pollen decreased to 1635.36 g/colony/year (mean 408.84 g/colony/season. The largest amounts were collected in summer followed by winter then spring, while least ones were in autumn. Correlation was highly positive between weekly mean of pollen weights and maximum temperature, while it was insignificant for minimum temperature or relative humidity. There were 24 plant species of 16 botanical families from which bees collected pollen. These sources were ranked according to their predominant quantities in the 1st and 2nd years by two numbers, respectively as the following: sesame 1 and 1, maize 2 and 2, clover 3 and 7, sunflower 4 and 8, wild mustard 5 and 3, casuarina 6 and 13, olive 7 and 11, eucalyptus 8 and 4, pumpkin 9 and 9, cocklebur 10 and 5, date palm 11 and 10, chamomile 12 and 12, field bindweed 13 and 6, pepper 14 and 20, coriander 15 and 16, acacia 16 and 24, citrus 17 and 0, marigold 18 and 0, common red 19 and 17, Christ’s thorn 20 and 22, tooth pick 21 and 21, brood bean 22 and 15, belladonna 23 and 23, pea 0 and 14, marjoram 0 and 18 and fennel 0 and 19. The 1st five plants seem to be the main pollen sources for honey bee colonies and consequently pollen producing during the whole year in the tested region. These sources represented 75.61% and 66.95% of the total annual yield in the two surveyed years, respectively.
It is not clear whether parkinsonism as it is now defined - a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia characterized by sharply reduced striatal dopamine levels - has always affected a significant minority of aged persons, but suggestive evidence to this effect is reviewed. THe major discussion commences, however, with the administration of various plant alkaloids to parkinsonism patients in the second half of the 19th century. Antiparkinsonian therapy since this time can be divided into a number of phases: 1. Employment of alkaloids derived from solanaceous plants: initially hyoscyamine, then hyoscien/scopolamine. 2. With the outbreak of encephalitis lethargica during the First World War, parkinsonian patient numbers increased dramatically, leading to a multiplicity of new directions, including high dose atropine and harmala alkaloid therapies. 3. The "Bulgarian treatment", popularized in western Europe in the mid-1930s, was also a belladona alkaloid-based therapy, but associated with greater efficacy and few side effects. This approach, whether as actual plant extracts or as defined combinations of belladona alkaloids, remained internationally dominant until the end of the 1940s. 4. Following the Second World War, synthetic antiparkinsonism agents were developed with the aim of overcoming the deficiencies of belladonna alkaloid therapy. These agents fell into two major classes: synthetic anticholinergic agents, such as benzhexol, and antihistaminergic drugs, including diphenhydramine. 5. A complete change in direction was heralded by the discovery in 1960 of the striatal dopamine deficit in parkinsonism. This led to the introduction of L-DOPA therapy, the first approach directed against an identified physiological abnormality in the disorder. 6. Subsequent developments have thus far refined of supplemented the L-DOPA effect. Recent attempts to develop neuroprotective or -restorative approaches are also briefly discussed. The history of
Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N; Butler, David M; Fennimore, Steven A; Holzinger, John
Steam and soil solarization were investigated for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in 2 yr of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if preplant steam treatments in combination with solarization, or solarization alone effectively controlled nematodes compared to methyl bromide (MeBr). Trials were conducted in a field with naturally occurring populations of M. arenaria. Treatments were solarization alone, steam treatment after solarization using standard 7.6-cm-diameter perforated plastic drain tile (steam 1), steam treatment following solarization using custom-drilled plastic drain tile with 1.6-mm holes spaced every 3.8 cm (steam 2), and MeBr applied at 392 kg/ha 80:20 MeBr:chloropicrin. Drain tiles were buried approximately 35 cm deep with four tiles per 1.8 by 30 m plot. Steam application followed a 4-wk solarization period concluding in mid-October. All steam was generated using a Sioux propane boiler system. Plots were steamed for sufficient time to reach the target temperature of 70°C for 20 min. Solarization plastic was retained on the plots during steaming and plots were covered with a single layer of carpet padding to provide additional insulation. The floriculture crops larkspur (Delphinium elatum and Delphinium × belladonna), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were produced according to standard commercial practices. One month after treatment in both years of the study, soil populations of M. arenaria were lower in both steam treatments and in MeBr compared to solarization alone. At the end of the season in both years, galling on larkspur, snapdragon, and sunflowers was lower in both steam treatments than in solarization. Both steam treatments also provided control of M. arenaria in soil at the end of the season comparable to, or exceeding that provided by MeBr. Both steam treatments also reduced M. arenaria in snapdragon roots comparable to, or exceeding
Full Text Available By the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century a new era began in medicine, pharmaceutics and chemistry that was strongly connected with alkaloids and alkaloid drugs. Even before that it was known that certain drugs administered in limited doses were medicines, and toxic if taken in larger doses (opium, coke leaves, belladonna roots, monkshood tubers crocus or hemlock seeds. However, the identification, isolation and structural characterization of the active ingredients of the alkaloid drugs was only possible in the mid 20th century by the use of modern extraction equipment and instrumental methods (NMR, X-ray diffraction and others.In spite of continuing use over a long time, there is still great interest in investigating new drugs, potential raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the more detailed investigation and definition of bio-active components and the indication of their activity range, and the partial synthesis of new alkaloid molecules based on natural alkaloids. The scope of these investigations, especially in the field of semi-synthesis is to make better use of the bio-active ingredients of alkaloid drugs, i.e. to improve the pharmacological effect (stronger and prolonged effect of the medicine, decreased toxicity and side effects, or to extend or change the applications. A combined classification of alkaloids was used, based on the chemical structure and origin, i.e. the source of their isolation to study alkaloid structure. For practical reasons, the following classification of alkaloids was used: ergot alkaloids, poppy alkaloids, tropanic alkaloids purine derivative alkaloids, carbon-cyclic alkaloids, and other alkaloids. The second part of this report presents a table of general procedures for alkaloid isolation from plant drugs (extraction by water non-miscible solvents, extraction by water-miscible solvents and extraction by diluted acid solutions. Also, methods for obtaining chelidonine and