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Sample records for atra molina bivalvia

  1. Naja atra snakebite in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yan-Chiao; Liu, Po-Yu; Chiang, Liao-Chun; Lai, Chih-Sheng; Lai, Kuo-Lung; Ho, Cheng-Hsuan; Wang, Te-Huo; Yang, Chen-Chang

    2017-08-23

    Naja atra snakebite is uncommon in Taiwan and causes distinct effects on its victims. Although the Taiwan government produces its own specific antivenom, little information on the management of N. atra snakebite is available. We retrospectively evaluated 183 patients admitted to two medical centers. Of these, 45 were identified as definite cases of N. atra snakebite, 86 as suspected cases, and 52 as clinical cases. Demographic data, symptomatology, and management were compared between these case groups. Symptomatology and management were similar in the three groups. Among the 183 patients, 10 (5.5%) were asymptomatic and nine (4.9%) had transient and partial ptosis or body weakness. The principal effects were local tissue swelling and pain in 173 patients (94.5%), followed by clinically suspected wound infection in 148 (80.9%), skin necrosis in 120 (65.6%), necrotizing soft tissue infection in 77 (42.1%), fever in 59 (32.2%), and gastrointestinal effects in 53 (29%). The median total dose of specific antivenom needed to treat N. atra envenoming was 10 vials. In the envenomed patients, debridement was required in 74 patients (42.8%), fasciotomy/fasciectomy in 46 (26.6%), and finger or toe amputation in seven (4%). The first operation was performed at a median of 3.5 days after the bite. Based on these typical manifestations, clinical diagnosis of N. atra snakebites may be feasible and practical. In contrast to other snakes of Elapidae family, N. atra bite did not cause serious neurological effects. Early surgical consultation should be obtained because half of the patients underwent surgery due to infectious complications. Acute compartment syndrome was the surgical indication in rare cases; however, overestimation of the incidence may have occurred. This syndrome should be confirmed by serial intracompartmental pressure monitoring instead of only physical examination, and a sufficient dose of antivenom should be given prior to surgical decompression.

  2. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Avendaño; Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-01-01

    Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimien...

  3. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimiento en las regiones de Antofagasta y Tarapacá, mediante prospecciones realizadas en seis lugares donde se registró su presencia, así como mediante la captación de semilla en colectores suspendidos. Se indica interacción con Aulacomya ater, a la cual ha desplazado a estratos más profundos, mientras que su reestablecimiento, iniciado en las regiones de Atacama y Antofagasta, y que se amplió posteriormente a la región de Tarapacá; permite postular la hipótesis que la dinámica de estos bancos, respondería a una estructura de metapoblación, dado el sistema de corrientes y vientos que predominan en la zona norte, permitiendo la advección larval de poblaciones existentes en la región de Coquimbo.Despite indications of its presence in past ages, until the end of the last century, no records showed Choromytilus chorus north of 23°S. Certain changes related to coastal water masses in the zone could be responsible for the present lack or scarcity of this species in the coastal area. However, a decade ago, this species appeared in northern Chile in the context of fisheries. This study confirms the re-establishment of C. chorus in the Antofagasta and Tarapaca regions through surveys at six sites where the species had been registered and spat collection using suspended collectors. This species has interacted with Aulacomya ater, displacing it towards deeper habitats. The re-establishment of C. chorus began in the Atacama and Antofagasta regions and later extended to the Tarapaca region. Thus, we hypothesize that the dynamics of these shoals correspond to a metapopulation structure that has allowed larval advection, given the current system and predominant winds in the northern zone, from populations existing in the Coquimbo region.

  4. 2016 AMS Mario J. Molina Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Renyi [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-29

    A named symposium to honor Dr. Mario J. Molina was held 10–14 January 2016, as part of the 96th American Meteorological Society (AMS) Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana. Dr. Molina first demonstrated that industrially produced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) decompose in the stratosphere and release chlorine atoms, leading to catalytic ozone destruction. His research in stratospheric chemistry was instrumental to the establishment of the 1987 United Nations Montreal Protocol to ban ozone-depleting substances worldwide. Dr. Molina’s contributions to preserving the planet Earth not only save the atmospheric ozone layer, but also protect the climate by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. He was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his pioneering research in understanding the stratospheric ozone loss mechanism. In 2013, President Barack Obama announced Dr. Molina as a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The 2016 AMS Molina Symposium honored Dr. Molina’s distinguished contributions to research related to atmospheric chemistry. The symposium contained an integrated theme related to atmospheric chemistry, climate, and policy. Dr. Molina delivered a keynote speech at the Symposium. The conference included invited keynote speeches and invited and contributed oral and poster sessions, and a banquet was held on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The symposium covered all aspects of atmospheric chemistry, with topics including (1) Stratospheric chemistry, (2) Tropospheric chemistry, (3) Aerosol nucleation, growth, and transformation, (4) Aerosol properties, (5) Megacity air pollution, and (6) Atmospheric chemistry laboratory, field, and modeling studies. This DOE project supported 14 scientists, including graduate students, post docs, junior research scientists, and non-tenured assistant professors to attend this symposium.

  5. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca - Bivalvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Rafael; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Mollusca-Bivalvia, data from 5 families (Margaritiferidae, Unionidae, Sphaeriidae, Cyrenidae, Dreissenidae) containing 55 species are included in this paper. European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbiculafluminea) and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissenapolymorpha). Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  6. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) en el norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño,Miguel; Cantillánez,Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimien...

  7. Gerardo Molina y el Estado providente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataño , Gonzalo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo Gonzalo Cataño examina la visión del Estado del notable pensador y dirigente socialista colombiano, Gerardo Molina. Ofrece una breve información biográfica y comenta su enfoque sobre las funciones del aparato estatal. Aunque en la exposición predomina un tono crítico, muestra que las limitaciones de un analista inteligente de los asuntos públicos son más instructivas que las consideraciones correctas de un comentarista trivial de la política. En este trabajo se denomina por Estado providente ¿conocido también como asistencial o de bienestar¿ al que garantiza niveles mínimos de ingreso, salud, alimentación, vivienda, educación y trabajo, como derecho político y no como beneficencia.

  8. DANGEROUS GAMES IN CARLOS DENIS MOLINA'S PLAYS

    OpenAIRE

    Braillon-Chantraine, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    International audience; De par son hyper réflexivité, l'oeuvre dramatique de l'écrivain uruguayen Carlos Denis Molina (1916-1983) constitue un témoignage des pratiques théâtrales de son époque et des mutations socio-économiques que traverse son pays, l'Uruguay, au cours du vingtième siècle. Le procédé méta théâtral du jeu, mettant en scène des personnages en train de se divertir et de jouer un rôle, est présent dans plusieurs de ses pièces, à chaque étape de sa production dramatique, et débou...

  9. Bioactive compounds from Holothuria atra of Indian ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinakaran, Devaraj Isaac; Lipton, Aaron Premnath

    2014-01-01

    The sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) extracts have been evaluated for the presence of bioactive compounds and various biological activities. The methanol extracts showed anti proliferative activities against the Hela and MCF-7 cell lines. Similarly the inhibitory effects of Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 cells were detected using the plaque reduction assay. The extracts of H. atra were purified using the silica gel column chromatography. The active fractions collected were observed for antimicrobial activity. The GC-MS analysis showed the availability of 59 compounds. The active bioactive compounds found in the H. atra were analyzed and their structure was identified using the (1)HNMR and (13)C NMR experiments.

  10. De tweekleppigen van het Noordzeekanaal (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaren, van T.; Tempelman, D.

    2006-01-01

    The bivalves of the Noordzeekanaal (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In recent years, the macrobenthos of the Noordzeekanaal area, west of Amsterdam, has been surveyed intensively. The area consists of a main, brackish channel and a set of deep sea harbours. It was discovered that several bivalve species were pr

  11. Cytoprotective Effects of Lysophospholipids from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra.

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    Yoshifumi Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Lysophospholipids are important signaling molecules in animals and metazoan cells. They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids. In this study, two lysophospholipids were detected in Holothuria atra for the first time, lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, with nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses. The lipid fraction of H. atra contained lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, and inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in the macrophage cell line J774A.1. The antioxidant activity of the lysophospholipid-containing lipid fraction of H. atra was confirmed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. Our results suggest that the lysophospholipids from H. atra are potential therapeutic agents for the inflammation induced by oxidative stress.

  12. ATRA AS A POTENTIAL ANTIMETASTATIC AGENT IN COLORECTAL ADENOCARCINOMA

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    Robert Edwards

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The family of Retinoic acid compounds have long been the subject of intense study and interest as chemo prophylactic agents. This dates back to their therapeutic effect in leukoplakia Where ATRA was shown to lead to the reversal of premalignant lesions and Subsequent reports on their use in metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and a vast array of other malignant disorders as well as adjuvant treatment of loco regional head and neck and colorectal adenocarcinoma. All-trans retinoic acid has transformed the treatment and outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia by differentiating leukemic promyelocytes into mature cells. Retinoid Receptor knock out mouse models also serve as excellent proof for the critical role of retinoids in embryogenesis, specifically their vital role in heart and blood vessel development, CNS specification, fetal lung development and proper limb morphogenesis. Here we show the results of our first phase of in vitro studies of the interaction of ATRA with the Gut homing Receptor, CCR9. Hypoxia up regulates CCR9 expression in CCIC, while ATRA down regulates CCR9 expression in hypoxic CCIC. In contrast, HT29 cells express significantly less CCR9 which is up regulated by hypoxia and further enhanced by ATRA treatment. We conclude that CCIC (representing a colon cancer stem-like line respond differently to ATRA treatment Vs. a less stem-like, more differentiated cancer cell line such as HT-29. These results support a potential clinical use of ATRA early in the natural history of CRC in order to abort or slow down the process of metastasis in colorectal adenocarcinoma which is the ultimate killer of such patients. They also signify the critical significance of the time window and intratumoral heterogeneity in the final outcome of our intervention with ATRA in the treatment of CRC.

  13. Biomarkers of environmental stress in gills of ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra (Nuevo Gulf, Northern Patagonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we assessed in gills of native ribbed mussels Aulacomya atra atra from three sites within Nuevo Gulf (Northern Patagonia) several biomarkers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid radicals (LR), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and metallothionein (MT). Furthermore, concentrations of main trace metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) were quantified in mussel tissue. Results showed significant induction of SOD, GST, MT and MDA, as well as, higher concentration of Fe, Al and Cd in winter than in summer. The high MDA content measured in mussels from Folías Wreck seemed to be caused by the very high levels of Fe that would come from the corrosion of the vessel. Mussels from the control site Punta Cuevas presented the lowest levels of Cd and the highest of Al in winter. Despite positive correlations were found between Al and GST and MT, no spatial differentiation was detected in those biomarkers. On the other hand, MT was only related to Al been most likely influenced by environmental variables than by the trace metals. It has to be highlighted that the relationship detected among water temperature, nutrients and antioxidant responses in gills is probably related to the fact that this tissue is in direct contact with water and it is sensitive to its fluctuations. Taking into account that mussel gill is a tissue actively proliferating and the first target of contaminants present in water, so that changes in its antioxidant system can provide an earlier warning signal than in other tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Accelerator-driven transmutation reactor analysis code system (ATRAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasa, Toshinobu; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    JAERI is proceeding a design study of the hybrid type minor actinide transmutation system which mainly consist of an intense proton accelerator and a fast subcritical core. Neutronics and burnup characteristics of the accelerator-driven system is important from a view point of the maintenance of subcriticality and energy balance during the system operation. To determine those characteristics accurately, it is necessary to involve reactions at high-energy region, which are not treated on ordinary reactor analysis codes. The authors developed a code system named ATRAS to analyze the neutronics and burnup characteristics of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor systems. ATRAS has a function of burnup analysis taking account of the effect of spallation neutron source. ATRAS consists of a spallation analysis code, a neutron transport codes and a burnup analysis code. Utility programs for fuel exchange, pre-processing and post-processing are also incorporated. (author)

  15. Effects of varied interferons in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on proliferation and differentiation of ATRA-resistent APL cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Peng-cheng; ZHANG Mei; LI Jing; CAI Rui-bo; LIU Ya-lin; CAO Yun-xin

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects and mechanisms of interferon in combination with alltrans retinoic acid (ATRA) on proliferation and differentiation of ATRA-resistent APL cell. Methods :After MR2 cells (ATRA-resistance cell line) were treated with IFN-α, IFN-γ and ATRA alone or IFN-α and IFN-γ in combination with ATRA respectively. The cell roliferation was tested by MTT test and the cell differentiation was tested through light microscope by NBT test and flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein was observed by indirect immune fluorescent method. Results: Both IFN-α and IFN-γ could inhibit the proliferation and induce the differentiation of MR2 cells to some extent. The effects were more obvious after both interferons in combination with ATRA respectively (P<0. 05). Moreover, the maturation of MR2 cells induced by IFN-γ+ATRA group was more higher than that by IFN-α+ATRA group (P<0.05). Both interferons could induce the expressions of PML protein. Conclusion :Both interferons can inhibit MR2 cells proliferation, which may be related to the expression of PML protein induced by both interferons. The inducing differentiation effects of IFN-γ+ATRA group on MR2 cells are more powerful than those of IFN-α+ATRA group, which may be related to the different signal transduction pathway of both interferons.

  16. Contrast through ironic self-citation in Atra-hasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Sophus

    2015-01-01

    Denne note bemærker kort, at eposet Atra-hasis udtrykker kontrasten mellem sine to spejlende og modsatrettede akter ved en ironisk gentagelse. Tre gange bliver vers fra først akt gentaget ordret i andet akt, men med omvendt betydning....

  17. Variation in phenolic compounds of Ugni molinae populations and their potential use as antioxidant supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Avello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we carried out a comparative study of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz., Myrtaceae (infusion and Soxhlet extracted prepared from continent and Juan Fernández Island samples. The results revealed that total phenol content (TPC, tannins (TTC and flavonoids (TFC for U. molinae extracts (infusion and Soxhlet extracts from island leaves were 38.5, 56.7 and 37.5% higher than those obtained with leaves from the continent, respectively. Also, HPLC profiles showed important differences between U. molinae populations. In vitro antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH radical for 1% infusion and aqueous extract (Soxhlet method of U. molinae from island samples, was 15% greater than from continent samples. Further, in vivo impact of U. molinae intake (1% infusion was studied in plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers. Participants that consumed tea prepared with leaves from island population showed higher TBARS reduction and plasma antioxidant capacity (TEAC-CUPRAC than those who consumed tea prepared with leaves from continental population. The conditions of the territory in which U. molinae populations growth could explain the differences in their composition and activity. According to results, island U. molinae populations could be an important source of study for the development of an antioxidant supplement, and thereby contribute to the use of this species that has becoming an ecological problem in the island.

  18. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

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    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  19. Ultrasonically enhanced extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete-Garretón, L; Vargas-Hernández, Yolanda; Cares-Pacheco, María G; Sainz, Javier; Alarcón, John

    2011-07-01

    A study of ultrasonic enhancement in the extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina (Quillay) is presented. The effects influencing the extraction process were studied through a two-level factorial design. The effects considered in the experimental design were: granulometry, extraction time, acoustic Power, raw matter/solvent ratio (concentration) and acoustic impedance. It was found that for aqueous extraction the main factors affecting the ultrasonically-assisted process were: granulometry, raw matter/solvent ratio and extraction time. The extraction ratio was increased by Ultrasonics effect and a reduction in extraction time was verified without any influence in the product quality. In addition the process can be carried out at lower temperatures than the conventional method. As the process developed uses chips from the branches of trees, and not only the bark, this research contributes to make the saponin exploitation process a sustainable industry.

  20. JEUX DANGEREUX DANS LE THEATRE DE CARLOS DENIS MOLINA?

    OpenAIRE

    Braillon-Chantraine, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    International audience; De par son hyper réflexivité, l'oeuvre dramatique de l'écrivain uruguayen Carlos Denis Molina (1916-1983) constitue un témoignage des pratiques théâtrales de son époque et des mutations socio-économiques que traverse son pays, l'Uruguay, au cours du vingtième siècle. Le procédé méta théâtral du jeu, mettant en scène des personnages en train de se divertir et de jouer un rôle, est présent dans plusieurs de ses pièces, à chaque étape de sa production dramatique, et débou...

  1. Noticia preliminar de los grabados de la Peña Escrita (Canales de Molina, Guadalajara

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    María Luisa CERDEÑO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La Peña Escrita está situada en el término de Canales de Molina, a escasos kilómetrros de Molina de Aragón al noreste de la provincia de Guadalajara. El paraje lo componen una serie de afloramientos de rocas calizas entre las que discurre el arroyo de la Dehesa que poco después, aguas abajo, desemboca en el río Gallo, afluente del Tajo.

  2. La ficción de Iván Molina Jiménez (Science Fiction by Iván Molina Jiménez

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    Roy Alfaro Vargas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El estudio analiza la narrativa de ciencia ficción de Iván Molina Jiménez, a partir de un cuerpo teórico para abordar el análisis y la producción literaria de ciencia ficción, desde una adecuada poiesis. Se plantean los principios alrededor de la noción de novum, para la producción literaria de este tipo. Luego, se analizan algunos textos de ciencia ficción de Molina, y se muestran deficiencias de tal producción para así iniciar la construcción de las bases de la ciencia ficción costarricense. This article analyzes the tales of science fiction by Iván Molina Jiménez using a theoretical framework which makes it possible to address the literary production of science fiction, from the perspective of an adequate poiesis. The necessary principles based on the notion of novum are proposed for this genre. Then, some texts of science fiction by Iván Molina are analyzed, indicating certain deficiencies in order to begin the construction of the basis of the Costa Rican science fiction.

  3. Ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cares, M. G.; Vargas, Y.; Gaete, L.; Sainz, J.; Alarcón, J.

    2010-01-01

    A study of ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina (Quillay) is presented. To address the problem it was studied the effects that could influence the extraction process through a two-level Factorial Design. The effects considered in the Experimental Design were: Granulometry, Extraction time, Acoustic Power and Acoustic Impedance. The production of the quillaja extracts is done with an aqueous extraction and the process is assisted by an ultrasonic field; no other solvents are used in its production. The final product only incorporates natural ingredients and raw materials, authorized for their use in food manufacturing processes. The principal factors affecting the ultrasonic extraction process were: Granulometry and Extraction time. The enhanced of ultrasonic assisted extraction ratio was measuring the increasing yield of extracted components, the extraction ratio was increased by ultrasonic effect and a reduction in extraction time was verified. In addition the process can be carried out at temperatures lower than the traditional way. The influence of ultrasound on the quality of bioactive principles was examined by HPLC technique and no influence of ultrasound on natural components was found.

  4. Assessment of antioxidant responses and trace metal accumulation by digestive gland of ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra from Northern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    Seasonal and spatial variability of trace metal concentrations and of a battery of antioxidant parameters were evaluated in digestive gland of the ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra. Fe, Al and Cu accumulated in tissue exhibited maximum values in winter, coinciding partially with the highest labile concentrations of Fe and Cu in sediment. Metals, as other pollutants, are known to influence the oxidative status of organisms and antioxidant enzymes have been often proposed as biomarkers of contaminant effects. Seasonal variations of trace metals did not appear to influence those of biochemical parameters, which generally showed an opposite trend with higher enzymatic activities in summer when trace metal concentrations were lower. Organisms from Punta Cuevas (control site) showed higher induction of reactive oxygen species production than those from both considered impacted sites, suggesting the possibility of some biochemical adaptation in organisms or a higher modulation of environmental and physiological factors on antioxidant responses than levels of trace metals. This study, which is the first in the area in this matter, showed that seasonal variations of potential biomarkers should be incorporated into interpretation of long-term biomonitoring studies in this marine coastal ecosystem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New records of Protobranchia (Mollusca: Bivalvia in the Peruvian Sea

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    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The following species of Bivalvia have been recorded for the first time for Peruvian waters: Nucula (Nucula iphigenia (Dall, 1908; Ennucula cardara (Dall, 1916; Nuculana (Nuculana extenuata (Dall, 1897; Orthoyoldia panamensis (Dall, 1908. These bivalves were collected in the platform and continental slope down to depths of 864 meters.

  6. Antonio Muñoz Molina entre literatura y periodismo: Las columnas

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    Jean-Pierre Castellani

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Article tradition in Spain lives today in newspaper columns. In this paperwork a selection of Muñoz Molina's columns is studied in order to characterize them. Columns are constructed by using quotations of other authors and stylized anecdotes. Related to fiction works by the same author, they constiíute the basic elements of the stories' narrative matter. Columnism in Muñoz Molina's narrative is no longer a secondary or marginal genre: they are part of the creative ensemble elaborated besides his fiction works, which are enriched with this weekly insight.

  7. Insuficiência renal aguda em paciente tratada com ATRA e anfotericina B: relato de caso

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    Gelcimar Moresco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato apresenta o caso clínico de uma paciente com leucemia promie-locítica aguda tratada com ácido todo-transretinoico (ATRA, que apresentou suspeita de síndrome do ácido transreti-noico (síndrome de ATRA. Com a ocor-rência de leucopenia febril inespecífica, foram associados ao tratamento antimi-crobianos e antifúngicos. A diminuição da função renal, observada inicialmente, contribuiu para a suspeita de síndrome de ATRA, que foi agravada pelos antifúngi-cos. Assim, o uso de ATRA foi suspenso, mas somente 8 dias depois foi caracteriza-da pneumonia e descartada a hipótese de síndrome de ATRA. Nesse contexto, foi discutida a nefrotoxicidade do ATRA e a potencialização desse efeito adverso pelo uso de antifúngicos nefrotóxicos, em par-ticular da anfotericina B, assim como a im-portância do diagnóstico diferencial entre síndrome de ATRA e doença infecciosa.

  8. «Héctor Molina Riaño»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanoy Morejón Mesa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en los campos pertenecientes a la Empresa Azucarera «Héctor Molina Riaño», con el objetivo de desarrollar una metodología que permita realizar una evaluación energética y económica durante la recogida y transportación de los residuos agrícolas cañeros (RAC hasta la industria, partiendo de la determinación de los volúmenes de RAC, en campos cosechados con máquinas CAMECO y en el centro de limpieza. Para esto se utilizaron utensilios e instrumentos reglamentados por las normas de medición y control de la calidad. El valor de los RAC quedados en el campo ascendió a 3,87 t/ha, que pueden ser recogidos y transportados para producir energía y el índice de RAC para estas condiciones fue de 0,11. El volumen total de RAC a transportar desde el campo alcanzó 26 524,74 t y desde el centro de limpieza alcanzó 28 051,70 t. Según criterios planteados por diversos autores se realizó la evaluación energética de la recogida y transportación de los RAC hasta la industria, obteniéndose una energía requerida total de 680 478,34 Mcal y la energía que se puede producir con los RAC recogidos y transportado s es de 256 509 268 Mcal. También se realizó la evaluación económica, obteniéndose un gasto económico total de 411 256,27 pesos, costo de la energía producida de 909 607 pesos, con un costo unitario de 7,53 peso/t de RAC recogido y transportado y 16,66 peso/t de RAC utilizados en la generación de energía. Con estos resultados se evidencia que es factible el uso de los RAC como combustible alternativo en el sector azucarero.

  9. La mujer como sujeto: Josefina Molina en la Escuela Oficial de Cine

    OpenAIRE

    Deltell Escolar, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Josefina Molina es la primera mujer diplomada en Dirección Cinematográfica en la Escuela Oficial de Cine de España (E.O.C.). Fue una de las primeras realizadoras televisivas incorporadas a la T.V.E. Durante toda su carrera artística, ha sido una pione

  10. Toxicity effects of water extracts of Holothuria atra Jaeger in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ridzwan Bin Hashim; Nurul Alia Azizan; Zaitunnatakin Zamli; Farah Hanis Zulkipli; Nurzafirah Mazlan; Osama Yousef Althunibat

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine lethal median dose (LD50) and histopathological toxicity of water extract of Holothuria atra (H. atra) in mice. Methods: The behavioral changes, mortality and histopathology examination on liver were assessed in mice 14 d after the administration (i.p.) of H. atra water extract. Seven doses (10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) of H. atra were used. The control group was treated with normal saline. Results:In the acute study in mice, the water extracts of H. atra caused dose-dependent general behavior adverse affects and mortality. The main behavioral sign of toxicity was hypoactivity, noticed immediately after administration of the extract which was more obvious at the higher doses and persisted until death. Mortality increased with increasing doses, the calculated LD50 was 41 mg/kg in mice. The liver toxicity was confirmed by histopathological examination, which indicated the presence of abnormal hepatocytes with a distorted shape and undefined cell lining as well as enlarged nuclei in low doses groups. High doses groups indicated a more prominent distortion of the polyhedral hepatocytes with undefined cell lining, massive cytoplasm, pyknotic, karyorhexis and karyolytic nuclei (necrosis of hepatocytes). Control group showed polyhedral hepatocytes with defined cell lining arranged in cords and normal round nuclei, with granular cytoplasm. Conclusions: Because of the relatively low LD50 value in the acute study in mice, it may be concluded that the H. atra water extract is toxic.

  11. Territory and territorial behavior of migrating Common Coot (Fulica atra)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-wei; LIU Wei; MA Jian-zhang

    2011-01-01

    Territory and territorial behavior of the Common Coot (Fulica atra) were studied in two breeding sites, Anbanghe Nature Reserve and Daqing Longfeng wetland, in Heilongjiang Province, China from April to October in 2008 and 2009.In the breeding season, the breeding pairs occupied an area and protected it throughout the reproduction, and both interspecific and intraspecific conflicts were observed.Territory activities became severe since early May, the peak of territory behaviors appeared at late May, and then declined gradually.The territorial activities level was higher than that in the nest building period than in the laying and incubation periods.The most adopted behavioral model was expelling,which was the least energy cost.The degree of territorial behavior tended to be descended since the development of breeding phase.The territory size differed from 1 333 m2 to above 5 000 m2.Wintering population was observed in Poyang Lake of Jiangxi Province.The coots gathered in the open water; however, there was no territory behavior both in the interspecies and intraspecies in wintering sites.The hypotheses why there was territory behaviors for coots both in the interspecies and intraspecies were also discussed.

  12. Amores intertextuales y parodias posmodernistas: Vicente Molina Foix y la poesía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gala, Candelas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking as a point of departure the two poetry books, Los espías del realista y Vanas penas de amor, that Vicente Molina Foix published in 1990 and 1998, respectively, this essay analyzes the role of the ironic glance the poetic speaker casts on the literary, artistic and cultural models firmly rooted in the analytical-referential system of tradition. A careful reading of specific poems from both collections reveals Molina Foix’s use of parodic and inter-textual strategies to debunk the monumentality of such discourses, not so much to ridicule or do away with them, but to show their incongruence in the modern context and at the level of the individual person.Tomando como punto de partida los dos libros de poesía, Los espías del realista y Vanas penas de amor, que Vicente Molina Foix publica en 1990 y 1998, respectivamente, este ensayo analiza el papel de la mirada irónica que el hablante poético dirige a los modelos literarios, artísticos y culturales sólidamente establecidos en el sistema analítico y referencial de la tradición. La lectura atenta de poemas específicos procedentes de ambas colecciones revela el uso que hace Molina Foix de estrategias paródicas e intertextuales para desbancar la monumentalidad de dichos discursos con el fin no tanto de descartarlos y ridiculizarlos, sino más bien de mostrar su incongruencia en el contexto moderno y a nivel de la persona individual.

  13. Integrated Use of Biomarkers (O : N Ratio and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition) on Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) as a Criteria for Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führer, Eduardo; Rudolph, Anny; Espinoza, Claudio; Díaz, Rodrigo; Gajardo, Marisol; Camaño, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    The effect of residual concentrations of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E) on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and oxygen : nitrogen ratio in the mussel Aulacomya ater was analyzed. Toxicity tests show a sensitivity to the pesticide in the bivalve estimated at 16 μg L−1 (LC50−96 hours). Concentrations between 0.2 and 1.61 μg L−1 were able to inhibit significantly the AChE activity, and concentrations between 0.8 and 1.61 μg L−1 stimulate ammonia excretion and decrease oxygen : ammonia-N (O : N) ratio, with respect to the control group. A. ater proved to be a species sensitive to pesticide exposure and easy to handle in lab conditions. Thus, it is recommended as a bioindicator for use in programs of environmental alertness in the Eastern South Pacific coastal zone. PMID:22619673

  14. Receptor-mediated delivery of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) to hepatocytes from ATRA-loaded poly(N-p-vinylbenzyl-4-o-{beta}-D-galactopyranosyl-D-gluconamide) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seog-Jin [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of) ; Moon, Hyun-Seuk [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of) ; Guo, Ding-Ding [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of) ; Kim, Sang-Heon [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) ; Akaike, Toshihiro [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Cho, Chong-Su [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of) ]. E-mail: chocs@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2006-01-15

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) plays a role in regulating CYP26 gene expression in hepatocytes. Poly(N-p-vinylbenzyl-4-o-{beta}-D-galactopyranosyl-D-gluconamide) (PVLA) nanoparticles have been used as hepatocyte-specific targeting candidates. The objective of this study was to investigate receptor-mediated delivery of ATRA using PVLA nanoparticles. ATRA-loaded PVLA nanoparticles were confirmed by {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the {sup 1}H-NMR study, the proton signals of ATRA disappeared in the spectrum of ATRA-loaded PVLA nanoparticles in D{sub 2}O, whereas in dimethylsulfoxide-d{sub 6}, the spectrum seemed like an addition of the respective spectrum of each of the pure components. The crystalline peaks of ATRA disappeared in the XRD pattern of ATRA-loaded PVLA nanoparticles after ATRA was loaded into PVLA nanoparticles. In the measurement of size distribution, diameter of PVLA and ATRA-loaded PVLA nanoparticles in aqueous solution was 6.9 and 61.2 nm in number average, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the internalization of FITC-PVLA nanoparticles by hepatocytes in the absence of a competitive inhibitor was larger than preincubated with galactose. In reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, ATRA-loaded PVLA nanoparticles induced CYP26A1 gene in hepatocytes in the absence of a competitive inhibitor but not preincubated with galactose. The results indicate that the ATRA-loaded PVLA nanoparticle can induce CYP26A1 gene in aqueous phase by an asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-mediated delivery system.

  15. ATRA (all-trans-retinoic acid) syndrome in acute promyelocytic leukemia: clinical and radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keon Ha; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi; Chung, Myung Jin; Do, Kyung Hyun; Park, Seon Yang [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom [Gachon Univ. Medical School, Gil Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    To describe the clinical and radiologic findings of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) syndrome in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Among 21 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia who were treated with all-trans-retinoic acid between 1995 and 1998, we retrospectively evaluated the cases of four with ATRA syndrome. Two were male and two were female, and their mean age was 58 years. The clinical and radiologic findings of chest radiography (n=4) and HRCT (n=1) were analyzed. Between seven and 13 days after ATRA treatment, dry cough, dyspnea and high fever developed in all patients. The WBC count in peripheral blood was significantly higher [2.9-25.3(mean, 10.8)-fold] than before ATRA treatment, and in all patients, chest radiography revealed ill-defined consolidation and pleural effusion. Kerley's B line (n=3) and hilar enlargement (n=3) were also seen, and in one patient, HRCT demonstrated septal line thickening. Among four patients treated with prednisolone and Ara-C, three recovered and one died. In acute promyelocytic patients treated with all-trans-retinoic acid, radiologic findings of ill-de-fined consolidation, pleural effusion, hilar prominence and Kerley's B line may suggest ATRA syndrome. The early diagnosis of this will improve the patients' prognosis.

  16. Insuficiência renal aguda em paciente tratada com ATRA e anfotericina B: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    O presente relato apresenta o caso clínico de uma paciente com leucemia promie-locítica aguda tratada com ácido todo-transretinoico (ATRA), que apresentou suspeita de síndrome do ácido transreti-noico (síndrome de ATRA). Com a ocor-rência de leucopenia febril inespecífica, foram associados ao tratamento antimi-crobianos e antifúngicos. A diminuição da função renal, observada inicialmente, contribuiu para a suspeita de síndrome de ATRA, que foi agravada pelos antifúngi-cos. Assim, o uso de ATR...

  17. Intracellular fragment of NLRR3 (NLRR3-ICD) stimulates ATRA-dependent neuroblastoma differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akter, Jesmin [Laboratory of Innovative Cancer Therapeutics, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Takatori, Atsushi, E-mail: atakatori@chiba-cc.jp [Laboratory of Cancer Genetics, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Islam, Md. Sazzadul [Laboratory of Innovative Cancer Therapeutics, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Nakazawa, Atsuko [Department of Pathology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo (Japan); Ozaki, Toshinori, E-mail: tozaki@chiba-cc.jp [Laboratory of DNA Damage Signaling, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Nagase, Hiroki [Laboratory of Cancer Genetics, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Nakagawara, Akira [Saga Medical Centre, 840-8571 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • NLRR3 is a membrane protein highly expressed in favorable neuroblastoma. • NLRR3-ICD was produced through proteolytic processing by secretases. • NLRR3-ICD was induced to be translocated into cell nucleus following ATRA exposure. • NLRR3-ICD plays a pivotal role in ATRA-mediated neuroblastoma differentiation. - Abstract: We have previously identified neuronal leucine-rich repeat protein-3 (NLRR3) gene which is preferentially expressed in favorable human neuroblastomas as compared with unfavorable ones. In this study, we have found for the first time that NLRR3 is proteolytically processed by secretases and its intracellular domain (NLRR3-ICD) is then released to translocate into cell nucleus during ATRA-mediated neuroblastoma differentiation. According to our present observations, NLRR3-ICD was induced to accumulate in cell nucleus of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells following ATRA treatment. Since the proteolytic cleavage of NLRR3 was blocked by α- or γ-secretase inhibitor, it is likely that NLRR3-ICD is produced through the secretase-mediated processing of NLRR3. Intriguingly, forced expression of NLRR3-ICD in neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells significantly suppressed their proliferation as examined by a live-cell imaging system and colony formation assay. Similar results were also obtained in neuroblastoma TGW cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NLRR3-ICD stimulated ATRA-dependent neurite elongation in SK-N-BE cells. Together, our present results strongly suggest that NLRR3-ICD produced by the secretase-mediated proteolytic processing of NLRR3 plays a crucial role in ATRA-mediated neuronal differentiation, and provide a clue to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against aggressive neuroblastomas.

  18. Domestication in Murtilla (Ugni molinae) Reduced Defensive Flavonol Levels but Increased Resistance Against a Native Herbivorous Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Seguel, Ivette; Ceballos, Ricardo; Quiroz, Andres

    2015-06-01

    Plant domestication can have negative consequences for defensive traits against herbivores, potentially reducing the levels of chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against herbivores. We characterized and quantified the defensive flavonols from multiple cultivated ecotypes with wild ancestors of murtilla, Ugni molinae Turcz, an endemic plant from Chile, at different times of the year, and examined their effects on a native insect herbivore, Chilesia rudis Butler (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We hypothesized that domestication results in a decrease in flavonol levels in U. molinae plants, and that this negatively affected C. rudis performance and preference. Ethanolic extracts were made from leaves, stems, and fruit of murtilla plants for flavonol analysis. Flavonols identified were kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, and quercetin 3-D-β-glucoside, the last two being the most abundant. More interestingly, we showed differences in flavonol composition between wild and cultivated U. molinae that persisted for most of the year. Relative amounts of all four flavonols were higher in wild U. molinae leaves; however, no differences were found in the stem and fruit between wild and cultivated plants. In choice and no-choice assays, C. rudis larvae gained more mass on, and consumed more leaf material of, wild as compared with cultivated U. molinae plants. Moreover, when applied to leaves, larvae ate more leaf material with increasing concentrations of each flavonol compound. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduced the amount of flavonols in leaves as well as the performance and preference of C. rudis, indicating that these compounds stimulate feeding of C. rudis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. El “Mundus Subterraneus” de Juan Ignacio Molina o el geólogo como economista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orrego G., Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, the work of the Chilean ex Jesuit Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 has not been studied under the light of history of geology. This article attempts to reconstruct the origin and morphology of the ideas in which the Chilean naturalist developed about the internal structure of the Earth. We will see how the geological ideas elaborated by Molina went beyond the scientific reflection. The development of a particular discipline as political economy during the eighteenth century also influenced Juan Ignacio Molina´s thoughts about the internal organization of the Earth, geological processes and the descriptions of the nature of Chilean kingdom in the late eighteenth century.En general, la obra del ex jesuita chileno Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 no ha sido estudiada con profundidad a la luz de la historia de la geología. Este artículo reconstruye el origen y la morfología de parte de las ideas que el naturalista chileno elaboró sobre la estructura interna de la Tierra. Se verá cómo las ideas geológicas desarrolladas por Molina fueron más allá de la simple reflexión científica. El desarrollo de una disciplina particular y novedosa como la economía política, también influyó en el tipo de reflexiones que Juan Ignacio Molina desarrolló sobre la organización interior de la Tierra, los procesos geológicos y las descripciones sobre la naturaleza del Reino de Chile a fines del siglo XVIII.

  20. Articulismo en democracia. Las columnas de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Corbellini

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The writer's column format related to Muñoz Molina's last novels (Sefarad. Una novela de novelas; Ventanas de Manhattan; Días de diario , where the concept of genre is not clear, they alternate narrative and argumentation, tales and essay. I will analyze the writing of published columns as "Ida y vuelta" in the suplement Babelia of El país, as a format that allows experimentation with the language and the narrator; and simultaneously constructs an ego with the will of style, and for providing a rewatching form of knowledge and thought

  1. Actividad insecticida del polvo de Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae) contra Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Pizarro, Diana; Gonzalo SILVA; Tapia,Maritza; J. Concepción RODRÍGUEZ; Angélica URBINA; Angel LAGUNES; Candelario SANTILLÁN-ORTEGA; Agustín ROBLES-BERMÚDEZ; Sotero AGUILAR-MEDEL

    2013-01-01

    Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de follaje de Peumus boldus Molina para el control de adultos y estados inmaduros de S. zeamais. La mayor toxicidad por contacto y fumigación se obtuvo con las concentraciones iguales o mayores a 1,25% registrando una mortalidad superior a 90%. Los tratamientos con mayor mortalidad mostraron también una baja emergencia de insectos adultos (F 1) y menor pérdida de peso del grano. En el control de estados inmaduros la menor F1 se observó en la...

  2. Ocurrencia de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick (1909 (Lepidoptero: Tortricidae en Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los derivados de las vainas de tara (Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824, presentan crecientes demandas industriales. En octubre del 2015 en la provincia de San Marcos, región Cajamarca, se verificó la ocurrencia de ataque de Argyrotaenia aphaleropa Meyrick (1909 a vainas de tara, produciendo daños directos, interfiriendo en su desarrollo y crecimiento, depreciando comercialmente el producto, generando restricciones en las exportaciones; por lo que esta plaga demanda su manejo integrado para disminuir la incidencia y evitar el ingreso a otras regiones libres de ataques.

  3. Intoxicación por bromuro de metilo en la Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Erazo Ramirez, Arturo; Rodríguez Espinosa, Félix

    2004-01-01

    El 21 de setiembre del presente, el Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Medio Ambiente (CENSOPAS) del INS es notificado por la Dirección General de Salud Ambiental (DIGESA) sobre la fuga de bromuro de metilo, ocurrido el 20 de setiembre en la Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias de la Universidad Nacional Agraria de La Molina. Un equipo conformado por técnicos de CENSOPAS y de DIGESA realizó la investigación de campo, entrevistaron a las autoridades, profesores, trabaja...

  4. Paralelismos y divergencias entre Juan Tenorio de Tirso de Molina y Miguel Páramo, personaje de Juan Rulfo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlinda Ramírez-Barradas.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este breve artículo se presentan algunas características de Miguel Páramo que, primero, permiten incluirlo en la larga lista de personajes donjuanescos derivados de la obra de Tirso de Molina y que, además, hacen posible entender su función trágica.Summary: This article presents some of Miguel Páramo's characteristics that, first, allow including him in the long list of prominent Don Juan figures derived from Tirso de Molina's work and, in addition, make it possible to understand his tragic function.

  5. Intracellular fragment of NLRR3 (NLRR3-ICD) stimulates ATRA-dependent neuroblastoma differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Jesmin; Takatori, Atsushi; Islam, Md Sazzadul; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Ozaki, Toshinori; Nagase, Hiroki; Nakagawara, Akira

    2014-10-10

    We have previously identified neuronal leucine-rich repeat protein-3 (NLRR3) gene which is preferentially expressed in favorable human neuroblastomas as compared with unfavorable ones. In this study, we have found for the first time that NLRR3 is proteolytically processed by secretases and its intracellular domain (NLRR3-ICD) is then released to translocate into cell nucleus during ATRA-mediated neuroblastoma differentiation. According to our present observations, NLRR3-ICD was induced to accumulate in cell nucleus of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells following ATRA treatment. Since the proteolytic cleavage of NLRR3 was blocked by α- or γ-secretase inhibitor, it is likely that NLRR3-ICD is produced through the secretase-mediated processing of NLRR3. Intriguingly, forced expression of NLRR3-ICD in neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells significantly suppressed their proliferation as examined by a live-cell imaging system and colony formation assay. Similar results were also obtained in neuroblastoma TGW cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NLRR3-ICD stimulated ATRA-dependent neurite elongation in SK-N-BE cells. Together, our present results strongly suggest that NLRR3-ICD produced by the secretase-mediated proteolytic processing of NLRR3 plays a crucial role in ATRA-mediated neuronal differentiation, and provide a clue to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against aggressive neuroblastomas.

  6. ATRA inhibits experimental liver metastasis of gastric cancer cells in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qiang Chen; Qiao Wu; Zheng Ming Chen; Fu Chen; Wen Jin Su

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the effects of ATRA on experimental liver metastasis of gastric cancer cells.METHODS MGc80-3 and SGC-7901 cells were injectied into spleen subcapsule of nude mice, who weresubsequently administrated with ATRA every other day. Food-intake and body weight of mice were measuredweekly. After six weeks, the nude mice were executed, tumors in spleen and liver were examinedpathologically, microtumor vessel density (MVD) was accounted by immunohistochemical method and serumCEA was measured by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS Nude mice administrated with ATRA, the growth of spleen tumor and its metastatic ability toliver were inhibited, the metastatic rate was decreased by 33.3% (MGc80-3) and 50.0% (SGC-7901). SpleenMVD and liver MVD were reduced by 28.6% and 22.9% (MGc80-3), 23.7% and 37.6% (SGC-7901),respectively. The serum CEA was lowered by 43.4% (MGc80-3).CONCLUSION ATRA can effectively inhibit the experimental liver metastasis of gastric cancer cells,which is relavant with the decrease of MVD and CEA.

  7. LG-362B targets PML-RARα and blocks ATRA resistance of acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Lin, Q; Lv, F; Liu, N; Xu, Y; Liu, M; Chen, Y; Yi, Z

    2016-07-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a M3 subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) translocation generally occurs in APL patients and makes APL unique both for diagnosis and treatment. However, some conventional drugs like all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), as the preferred ones for APL therapy, induce irreversible resistance and responsible for clinical failure of complete remission. Herein, we screened a library of novel chemical compounds with structural diversity and discovered a novel synthetic small compound, named LG-362B, specifically inhibited the proliferation of APL and induced apoptosis. Notably, the differentiation arrest was also relieved by LG-362B in cultured APL cells and APL mouse models. Moreover, LG-362B overcame the ATRA resistance on cellular differentiation and transplantable APL mice. These positive effects were driven by caspases-mediated degradation of PML-RARα when treated with LG-362B, making it specific to APL and reasonable for ATRA resistance relief. We propose that LG-362B would be a potential candidate agent for the treatment of the relapsed APL with ATRA resistance in the future.

  8. The effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the expression of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... stimulating effect of VEGF165 on the growth of LoVo cells. These results .... rabbit anti-VEGF serum for 1 h at normal tempe peroxidase ..... interest. ATRA is a derivative of vitamin A, and has attracted ... expressed throughout the embryonic vasculature and is limited to ... development (Veikkola et al., 2001).

  9. Discovery of Salamandra atra aurorae (Trevisan, 1982 on the Altopiano di Vezzena, Trentino (Northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Beukema

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Aurora’s Alpine Salamander is a limited distributed subspecies endemic to the Altopiano di Asiago, Veneto. In the current paper the occurrence of Salamandra atra aurorae is described for the Altopiano di Vezzena, Trentino. The aim of this paper is to review the distribution as well as to comment on the conservational status of the subspecies in Trentino.

  10. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  11. Neoclásica y disidente: La Fábula de Polifemo de Francisco Nieto Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Cerezo, Rafael

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article revives the figure of a mid-seventeenth century forgotten ingenious from Cadiz: Francisco Nieto Molina. I try to place him in the central literary debates of the Enlightenment: gongorism trail and Lope de Vega’s tragicomedy. I edit his Fábula de Polifemo («No anuncios de Jano», included in El Fabulero (1764, with a comprehensive analysis. Lastly, I illuminate, through this little romance, both the footsteps of the great poet from Cordoba as well as the keys that make Nieto a «dissident neoclassic».Este artículo resucita la figura de un olvidado ingenio gaditano de mediados del XVIII: Francisco Nieto Molina. Procuro ubicarlo en los principales debates literarios de la Ilustración: la estela del gongorismo y la tragicomedia lopista. Edito con amplio comentario su Fábula de Polifemo («No anuncios de Jano», incluida en El Fabulero (1764. Ilumino, por último, en virtud de este romancillo, tanto las huellas del poeta cordobés como las claves que convierten a Nieto en un «neoclásico disidente».

  12. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of wild and cultivated murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Riquelme Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade a considerable increase in the number of studies addressing the use of antioxidants from natural sources has led to the identification and understanding of the potential mechanisms of biologically active components. This results from the fact that they can be used to replace synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food. Murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz is a native berry grown in Chile, and in the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied. Hydroalcoholic extracts of dehydrated fruits from two genotypes of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. were produced. Extracts of wild murtilla and 14-4 genotype fruits had 19.35 and 40.28mg GAE/g for Total Phenolic Compounds, 76.48, and 134.35μmol TEAC/g for DPPH, and 157.04 and 293.99 μmol TEAC/g for ABTS, respectively. Components such as quercetin, epicatechin, and gallic, benzoic and hydrocaffeic acids were identified by CG/MS analysis. All of them showed antioxidant activity. Therefore, it is possible to say that the hydroalcoholic extracts of murtilla have antioxidant potential to be used in lipidic food.

  13. Toxicity of Boldo Peumus boldus Molina for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum Herbst Toxicidad del Boldo, Peumus boldus Molina, sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y Tribolium castaneum Herbst

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    Margarita Ortiz U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst are two key pests of stored-grain products worldwide. The insecticidal activity of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina powder, liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts against S. zeamais and T. castaneum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The evaluated variables were mortality, emergence of adult insects (F1, and grain weight loss. The experimental design was completely randomized. The mortality in S. zeamais was 100% even at the lowest powder concentration (0.5% w/w, whereas emergence of F1 adult insects was 0% and grain weight loss was El gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y el gorgojo castaño de la harina (Tribolium castaneum Herbst son plagas primarias de productos almacenados a nivel mundial. Se evaluó en laboratorio la actividad insecticida de polvo y extractos líquidos etanólicos y hexánicos del boldo (Peumus boldus Molina sobre S. zeamais y T. castaneum. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos (F1 y pérdida de peso de los granos con un diseño experimental completamente al azar. La mortalidad en S. zeamais fue 100%, incluso con la concentración menor (0,5% p/p mientras que la emergencia de insectos adultos y la pérdida de peso de granos de maíz fue < 0,08%. Para T. castaneum sólo las concentraciones de 8 y 16% p/p de polvo causaron una mortalidad de 100%. Los extractos en agua, etanol, y hexano tuvieron un efecto insecticida de 100% en S. zeamais, mientras que en T. castaneum sólo el extracto en etanol alcanzó este valor. Por lo tanto, el polvo y los extractos evaluados de P. boldus presentan actividad insecticida contra S. zeamais y T. castaneum y son promisorios para utilizarse contra éstas y otras plagas de granos almacenados.

  14. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Betancur R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100% was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea mays L. grain, resulted in 98.7% mortality. Mortality by fumigant action at 6 h was 100% with 35 µL oil in 0.15 L (air volume. Concentrations 1, 2 and 4% of essential oil produced 0% F1 adult emergence. At 10 d of residual effect, the 4% concentration reached 63.7% mortality. All treatments were repellent to adults of S. zeamais and corn grain germination was not affected by any treatment.Los principales agentes que disminuyen la producción en los granos almacenados son los insectos, antes de la cosecha y en el almacenamiento pueden causar pérdidas de 20 a 80%. Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del aceite esencial de hojas frescas de Peumus boldus Molina para el control de adultos de gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky en laboratorio. La mayor mortalidad (100% por contacto con una superficie de vidrio tratada se obtuvo con la concentración de 4%. Esta misma concentración produjo 98,7% de mortalidad en exposición a grano de maíz (Zea mays L. tratado. El efecto fumigante a las 6 h de exposición fue 100% con 35 µL de aceite en 0,15 L (volumen de aire. Con las concentraciones de 1, 2 y 4% de aceite esencial, el porcentaje de emergencia de la F1 fue 0%. A los 10 d de efecto residual se alcanzó 63,7% de mortalidad con la concentración de 4%. Todos los tratamientos fueron repelentes para adultos de S. zeamais y ningún tratamiento afectó la germinación de los granos.

  15. Malignancy: Case Report: Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia in Late Pregnancy. Successful Treatment with All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA) and Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lamas, JOSÉ LUIS; Garcés-Ruiz, OSCAR MIGUEL

    2000-01-01

    The use of all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) in APL is a great advance in the treatment of acute leukemia, driving the maturation steps until adult form. The effect of this medication in pregnant women with APL is being a safe and effective treatment only after the first trimester of pregnancy. If used in the first three months, it can cause fetus malformations due to its potent teratogenicity. The two patients we reported here, gave birth to normal children, yet they received ATRA. After a week with ATRA treatment, fibrinogen level improved and "D" dimers decreased, so as observed slowly maturation of leukemic leucocytes. ATRA used at the same time with chemotherapy; such as Cytarabine and Idarrubicine seems highly useful for induction and long term control of disease. One short discussion about the findings and compare with those found in the literature are presented.

  16. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia in Late Pregnancy. Successful Treatment with All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA) and Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lamas, J L; GarcéS-Ruiz, O M

    1999-01-01

    The use of all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) in APL is a great advance in the treatment of acute leukemia, driving the maturation steps until adult form. The effect of this medication in pregnant women with APL is being a safe and effective treatment only after the first trimester of pregnancy. If used in the first three months, it can cause fetus malformations due to its potent teratogenicity. The two patients we reported here, gave birth to normal children, yet they received ATRA. After a week with ATRA treatment, fibrinogen level improved and "D" dimers decreased, so as observed slowly maturation of leukemic leucocytes. ATRA used at the same time with chemotherapy; such as Cytarabine and Idarrubicine seems highly useful for induction and long term control of disease. One short discussion about the findings and compare with those found in the literature are presented.

  17. Mitogenomics reveals two subspecies in Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xueping; Shen, Xin; Zhao, Nana; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue; Cheng, Hanliang; Yan, Binlun; Dong, Zhiguo; Zhu, Xiaoling

    2013-04-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in Zhangzhou (zz-mtDNA) was fully sequenced and compared with that in Rizhao (rz-mtDNA) in this study. A tRNA (tRNA (Met) ) located between tRNA (Ala) and cox1 genes was identified in zz-mtDNA but not in rz-mtDNA. The largest non-coding region (NCR; MNR) contained 11 copies 99nt tandem repeat sequences exclusively in rz-mtDNA, while the second largest NCR with 400 bp between tRNA (Ala) and tRNA (Met) in zz-mtDNA was absent in rz-mtDNA. Secondary structures of ZZ and RZ C. antiquata rRNAs are significantly different. The mitochondrial genomic characteristics clearly indicate that there are at least two subspecies in C. antiquata.

  18. Tirso de Molina: the Dramatist in the Crisis of the Succession of 1621

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    Alan K.G. Paterson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The crisis is the political upheaval that accompanied the ascent of Olivares to power. Its repercussions on the religious and literary career of Fr. Gabriel Téllez/Tirso de Molina are examined. The primary documents analysed include the two passages in Téllez’s Historia de la Orden de la Merced (one from the early 1630s. the other revised towards the end of the decade containing his hostile criticism of the struggle between the two groups, Lerma’s associates and those of Olivares. This hostility relates to the sentence issued by the Junta de Reformación (1625 and to be meted out as its response to the notorious case of Fr. Gabriel Téllez oka Tirso de Molina, etc. This connection confirms our seeing Tirso as a notable political victim. Yet in the thirties, Tirso’s position is complex. To offset the clear indications of a major if not terminal disruption to his activity as dramatist, the circumstances attendant on the Parte tercera de las comedias (1634 are examined to show how Fr. Gabriel came to the defence of his creation Tirso de Molina, by ensuring his survival in print. The text of the Junta’s sentence informs us of the reason its judges had to silence the dramatist; it concerns his writing plays which are profane and give bad examples. This information invites us to ask to which plays can the harsh sentence of the Junta refer? The reply to this question forms the main theme of the study. It is argued that La venganza de Tamar is a work seriously involved in the turbulent politics of the succession. This argument is preceded by an essential study on the text as authorized by Tirso and subject to the editorial scrutiny of Lucas de Avila. The nexus of images referring to physical hunger that develops into sexual and political hunger is coordinated with the recurring image of the body, presented in a series of progressively morbid pathological states. The human body receives focus in a spectacular way, as a conspicuous object on

  19. Atrações e prazeres visuais em um pornô feminino

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    Mariana Baltar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo correlaciona os conceitos de excesso e atrações como estratégicos para refletir sobre processos de engajamento e afetação no campo da pornografia que desestabilizam morais tradicionais em direção a uma política de gêneros. Nesse sentido, mobiliza-se uma lógica de excesso de atrações que estabelece um jogo ambivalente de recusa e adesão aos códigos genéricos mais básicos da pornografia. Os argumentos são empreendidos a partir da análise de Dirty Diaries, um projeto declaradamente associado ao campo da pornografia feminista empreendido com apoio do Swedish Film Institut.

  20. Toxicity effects of water extracts of Holothuria atra Jaeger in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ridzwan; Bin; Hashim; Nurul; Alia; Azizan; Zaitunnatakin; Zamli; Farah; Hanis; Zulkipli; Nurzafirah; Mazlan; Osama; Yousef; Althunibat

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine lethal median dose(LD50) and histopalhological toxicity of water extract of Hololhuria atra(H,atra) in mice.Methods:The behavioral changes,mortality and histopathology examination on liver were assessed in mice 14 d after the administration(i.p.) of H.atra water extract.Seven doses 110,20,30,50.100.150 and 200 mg/kg) of H.atra were used.The control group was treated with normal saline,Results:In the acute study in mice,the water extracts of H,atra caused dose-dependent general behavior adverse affects and mortality.The main behavioral sign of toxicity was hypoactivity,noticed immediately after administration of the extract which was more obvious at the higher doses and persisted until death.Mortality increased with increasing doses,the calculated LD50was 41 mg/kg in mice.The liver toxicity was confirmed by histopalhological examination,which indicated the presence of abnormal hepatocytes with a distorted shape and undefined cell lining as well as enlarged nuclei in low doses groups.High doses groups indicated a more prominent distortion of the polyhedral hepatocytes with undefined cell lining,massive cytoplasm,pvknotic.karyorhexis and karyolytie nuclei(necrosis of hepatocytes).Control group showed polyhedral hepatocytes with defined cell lining arranged in cords and normal round nuclei,with granular cytoplasm.Conclusions:Because of the relatively low LD50 value in the acute study in mice,it may be concluded that the H.atra water extract is toxic.

  1. Neutron dosimetry and damage calculations for the ATR-A1 irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Neutron fluence measurements and radiation damage calculations are reported for the collaborative US/Japan ATR-A1 irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The maximum total neutron fluence at midplane was 9.4 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (5.5 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} above 0.1 MeV), resulting in about 4.6 dpa in vanadium.

  2. EFFECT OF ARSENIC TRIOXIDE OR ATRA ON PRIMARY APL CELL OR HL-60 CELLS AND THEIR VALUE ANALYSIS IN HYPERLEUKOCYTOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To detect the effect of arsenic trioxide or ATRA on APL cells or HL-60 cells and to investigate the mechanism of the hyperleukocytosis and detect the cross resistance between ATRA and arsenic trioxide. Methods: The number of promyelocytes or more matured granulocytes were counted by regular method, MTT test was used to measure the proliferation of HL-60 cells or APL cells, flow cytometry analysis to measure the apoptosis, NBT method to detect the differentiation of HL-60 cells or APL cells. Results: The proliferation of primary APL cells or HL-60 cells could be inhibited in vitro by either arsenic trioxide or ATRA, which could induce obvious apoptosis or obvious differentiation of primary APL cells or HL-60 cells. Inhibition of proliferation or apoptosis of ATRA resistant HL-60 cells were achieved by exposure toarsenic trioxide in vitro. On the other hand, the results of in vivo treatment showed that arsenic trioxide also induce of hyperleukocytosis. Conclusion: The results indicated that the hyperleukocytosis induced by ATRA is not contributed to the mechanism of more differentiation than apoptosis, there was not cross resistance between ATRA and arsenic trioxide.

  3. ATRA inhibits the proliferation of DU145 prostate cancer cells through reducing the methylation level of HOXB13 gene.

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    Zhiwei Liu

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA has been widely investigated for treatments of many cancers including prostate cancer. HOXB13, silenced in androgen receptor-negative (AR(- prostate cancer cells, plays a role in AR(- prostate cancer cell growth arrest. In this study we intended to elucidate the mechanisms that are involved in the proliferation inhibition of AR(- prostate cancer cells triggered by ATRA. We discovered that ATRA was able to induce the growth arrest and to increase HOXB13 expression in AR(- prostate cancer cells. Both EZH2 and DNMT3b participated in the repression of HOXB13 expression through an epigenetic mechanism involving DNA and histone methylation modifications. Specifically, EZH2 recruited DNMT3b to HOXB13 promoter to form a repression complex. Moreover, ATRA could upregulate HOXB13 through decreasing EZH2 and DNMT3b expressions and reducing their interactions with the HOXB13 promoter. Concurrently, the methylation level of the HOXB13 promoter was reduced upon the treatment of ATRA. Results from this study implicated a novel effect of ATRA in inhibition of the growth of AR(- resistant human prostate cancer cells through alteration of HOXB13 expression as a result of epigenetic modifications.

  4. WNT4 acts downstream of BMP2 to mediate the regulation of ATRA signaling on RUNX1 expression: Implications for terminal differentiation of antler chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Liang; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Duan, Cui-Cui; Geng, Shuang; Wang, Kai; Yu, Hai-Fan; Yue, Zhan-Peng; Guo, Bin

    2017-04-24

    Although ATRA is involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, its underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we showed that ATRA could stimulate the proliferation of antler chondrocytes and expression of COL X and MMP13 which were two well-known markers for hypertrophic chondrocytes. Silencing of CRABP2 prevented the induction of ATRA on chondrocyte terminal differentiation, while overexpression of CRABP2 exhibited the opposite effects. CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 weakened the sensitivity of antler chondrocytes to ATRA. Further analysis evidenced that ATRA might induce chondrocyte terminal differentiation and modulate the expression of BMP2, WNT4, and RUNX1 through RARα/RXRα. Knockdown of BMP2 enhanced the induction of ATRA on the expression of COL X and MMP13, whereas overexpression of BMP2 abrogated this effectiveness. WNT4 might mediate the effects of ATRA and BMP2 on chondrocyte terminal differentiation. Dysregulation of BMP2 impaired the regulation of ATRA on WNT4 expression. Administration of ATRA to antler chondrocytes transfected with RUNX1 siRNA failed to induce the differentiation. Conversely, rRUNX1 strengthened the stimulation of ATRA on the expression of COL X and MMP13. Simultaneously, RUNX1 was a downstream effector of BMP2 and WNT4 in chondrocyte terminal differentiation. Moreover, WNT4 might play an important role in the crosstalk between BMP2 and RUNX1. Attenuation of BMP2 or WNT4 enhanced the interaction between ATRA and RUNX1, while constitutive expression of BMP2 or WNT4 reversed the regulation of ATRA on RUNX1. Collectively, WNT4 may act downstream of BMP2 to mediate the effects of ATRA on the terminal differentiation of antler chondrocytes through targeting RUNX1. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Gateways to Hawai‘i: Genetic Population Structure of the Tropical Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra

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    Derek J. Skillings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Holothuria atra is one of the most common and widest ranging tropical, coral reef sea cucumbers in the world, and here we examine population genetic structure based on mitochondrial COI to aid in determining the appropriate scale for coral reef management. Based on SAMOVA, AMOVA and BARRIER analyses, we show that despite its large range, H. atra has hierarchical, fine-scale population structure driven primarily by between-archipelago barriers, but with significant differences between sites within an archipelago as well. Migrate analyses along with haplotype networks and patterns of haplotype diversity suggest that Hawai‘i and Kingman reef are important centers of the genetic diversity in the region rather than an evolutionary dead-end for migrants from the Indo-Pacific. Finally we show that for H. atra Kingman Reef is the most likely stepping stone between Hawai‘i and the rest of the Pacific, not Japan or Johnston Atoll as previously presumed. Based on our data, Johnston Atoll can instead be seen as an outpost of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands rather than a gateway to the Hawaiian Archipelago.

  6. Catálogo de la obra de Rafael Barco Molina

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    María Concepción Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con este artículo se prentende difundir el catálogo de la obra de Rafael Barco Molina (Fuente Victoria, 1903- Almería, 1995, compositor, profesor, director, y sobre todo la cuna musical almeriense de la postguerra, conocido en Almería como el maestro Barco, obras que pertenecen al patrimonio musical de Almería y que hasta el momento han permanecido refugiadas, en su mayor parte, en archivos privados (familia, amigos y discípulos y/o instituciones de ámbito privado (hermandades y SGAE y en muy pocos casos, en instituciones públicas como es el caso de la Biblioteca Nacional de España, en la que se encuentran seis de los títulos que forma la obra musical de este compositor y el archivo de la Banda Municipal de Almería.

  7. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, Ignacio; Pezoa, Cesar; Scheuermann, Erick; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Romero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27688827

  8. Los realismos en Beatus Ille de Antonio Muñoz Molina.

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    Papa Mamour Diop

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: This work deals with the current debate about reality and its literary and artistic expression: realism. In Beatus Ille, Antonio Muñoz Molina’s first novel, the fictional universe reveals three kinds of realism: the epic and elegiac realism, the historic realismand the magic realism. SPANISH: En este trabajo, abordamos el actual debate sobre la realidad y su expresión literaria y artística: el realismo. En Beatus Ille, primera novela de Antonio Muñoz Molina, eluniverso novelesco permite percibir tres tipos de realismos: el realismo épico elegiaco, el realismo histórico o contrafactual y el realismo mágico.

  9. Diversity in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria - (Molina Standl. Germplasm from peninsular india

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    Sunil N*, Thirupathi Reddy M, Hameedunnisa B, Vinod Someswara Rao P, Sivaraj N, Kamala V, Prasad R B N, Rao B VS K, Chakrabarty S K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of 20 diverse accessions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl., exhibited wide range of variability for qualitative and quantitative traits. The seed oil content ranged from 18.6 % (IC446598 to 28.0 % (IC446592. The fatty acid composition of bottle gourd seed oil also varied. Days to 50% flowering and peduncle length had significant positive correlation with seed oil content, whereas inter nodal length had significant negative correlation. The intermodal length and number of primary branches per plant had high positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant. Based on the traits, the accessions clustered into three distinct clusters. The diversity may be exploited for crop improvement and the potential of bottle gourd as edible oil source further explored.

  10. Effect of ATRA on Contents of liver Retinoids, Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Rat Model of Extrahepatic Cholestasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Haiyan; DAN Zili; WANG Hui; LIN Jusheng

    2007-01-01

    The effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) administration on the concentration of retinoids (RA and vitamin A) in liver, oxidative stress and the hepatic injury in a rat model of com-mon bile duct ligation (CBDL)-induced liver injury were investigated. Female rats were subjected to a sham (n=5) or CBDL (n=48). Two weeks after operation, rats undergoing CBDL were randomized to receive treatment with either ATRA at three different doses (0.1, 1.5, 7.5 mg/kg) dissolved in bean oil or only bean oil every day over a 4-week experimental period. Rats were killed and blood samples were collected from the heart for determination of the serum transaminase. The contents of retinoids in rat liver were detected by using HPLC. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superox-ide dismutase (SOD) levels in liver were determined by a spectrophotometric method according to the instruction of the kits. Liver pathologic changes were observed under the light microscopy and electron microscopy. The results showed that compared with sham-operated group, the levels of reti-noids in the liver tissue were significantly decreased in the CBDL group (P<0.01). ATRA (0.1 mg/kg) administration in CBDL rats partially restored the contents of retinoids (P<0.05). Liver RA and vita-min A contents in CBDL group were significantly increased after ATRA (1.5 and 7.5 mg/kg) sup-plementation as compared with sham-operated group (P<0.05). However, in ATRA-treated CBDL group, hepatic GSH level and SOD activity, depressed by CBDL, and hepatic MDA level, increased by CBDL were returned to those in sham-operated group (P<0.05). The histologic observation of liver tissues indicated that ATRA treatment notably alleviated hepatocellular swelling, steatosis, the swelling of mitochondria and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Treatment with ATRA could reduce levels of serum transaminase as compared with sham-operated group, more greatly in 1.5 and 7.5 mg/kg ATRA-treated groups than in 0.1 mg

  11. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mazutti,M.; Mossi,A. J.; CANSIAN,R.L.; Corazza,M. L.; Dariva,C.; Vladimir Oliveira,J.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC) and pressure (100 to 250 bar) on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, ...

  12. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mazutti,M.; A J Mossi; CANSIAN,R.L.; M. L. Corazza; Dariva,C.; J. Vladimir Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC) and pressure (100 to 250 bar) on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, ...

  13. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1995: Paul Crutzen, Sherwood Rowland, and Mario Molina

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houten, Josh

    2002-10-01

    The 1995 Nobel Prize was awarded to Paul Crutzen, Sherwood Rowland, and Mario Molina "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone". Collectively, their work established atmospheric chemistry as a major focus at the end of the twentieth century. The results have drawn attention to significant environmental issues in particular, the threat posed to the ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons.

  14. Detection of Naja atra Cardiotoxin Using Adenosine-Based Molecular Beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yi-Jun; Chen, Ying-Jung; Hu, Wan-Ping; Chang, Long-Sen

    2017-01-07

    This study presents an adenosine (A)-based molecular beacon (MB) for selective detection of Naja atra cardiotoxin (CTX) that functions by utilizing the competitive binding between CTX and the poly(A) stem of MB to coralyne. The 5'- and 3'-end of MB were labeled with a reporter fluorophore and a non-fluorescent quencher, respectively. Coralyne induced formation of the stem-loop MB structure through A₂-coralyne-A₂ coordination, causing fluorescence signal turn-off due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the fluorophore and quencher. CTX3 could bind to coralyne. Moreover, CTX3 alone induced the folding of MB structure and quenching of MB fluorescence. Unlike that of snake venom α-neurotoxins, the fluorescence signal of coralyne-MB complexes produced a bell-shaped concentration-dependent curve in the presence of CTX3 and CTX isotoxins; a turn-on fluorescence signal was noted when CTX concentration was ≤80 nM, while a turn-off fluorescence signal was noted with a further increase in toxin concentrations. The fluorescence signal of coralyne-MB complexes yielded a bell-shaped curve in response to varying concentrations of N. atra crude venom but not those of Bungarus multicinctus and Protobothrops mucrosquamatus venoms. Moreover, N. nigricollis venom also functioned as N. atra venom to yield a bell-shaped concentration-dependent curve of MB fluorescence signal, again supporting that the hairpin-shaped MB could detect crude venoms containing CTXs. Taken together, our data validate that a platform composed of coralyne-induced stem-loop MB structure selectively detects CTXs.

  15. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Chung, H.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperatures the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation was completed on May 5, 1996, as planned, after achieving an estimated neutron damage of 4.7 dpa in vanadium. The capsule has since been kept in the ATR water canal for the required radioactivity cool-down. Planning is underway for disassembly of the capsule and test specimen retrieval.

  16. ÚLCERAS ESCROTALES SECUNDARIAS A TRATAMIENTO CON ÁCIDO TRANSRETINOICO (ATRA)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El ácido trans retinoico es el fármaco de elección en el tratamiento de la Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda. El efecto secundario más grave del fármaco es el síndrome de diferenciación, pero puede ocasionar lesiones en piel y úlceras escrotales. Presentamos el caso de un varón con leucemia promielocítica aguda que recibió ATRA y presentó úlceras escrotales

  17. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca chemosynthetic symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girguis Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

  18. Antifungal effect of Sticophus hermanii and Holothuria atra extract and its cytotoxicity on gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristanti Parisihni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sea cucumber had been acknowledged to have some medical properties Sticophus hermanii and Holothuria atra are species of sea cucumber which has been known to have antifungal properties thus potentially explored as therapeutic agent in oral candidiasis. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the antifungal property Sticophus hermanii and Holothuria atra extract against Candida albicans and its cytotoxicity to human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cell. Methods: The study was an experimental laboratories research with post test only control group design. Methanolic extract of Sticophus hermanii and Holothuria atra in concentrations of 1%, 0.5%; 0.25%; 0.13%, 0.07%; 0.03%, 0.02% and 0.01%; were tested its cytotoxicity on gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cell. Cell viability were measured by MTT assay. The antifungal property against Candida albicans was tested by disk diffusion method. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by LSD. Results: Extract of Sticophus hermanii showed no cytotoxicity in all concentrations (p>0.05, while Holothuria atra showed toxicity in the concentration of 1% and not cytotoxic in the concentrations below (p<0.05. Both sea cucumber extract could inhibit the growth Candida albicans, in vitro, proved by the clear zone around the disc in all concentrations (p<0.05. Conclusion: Stichopus hermanii and Holothuria atra extract had the antifungal effect against Candida albicans. Sea cucumber extract were not cytotoxic togingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cell in the concentration of Sticophus hermanii ≤ 1% and Holothuria atra ≤ 0.5%.Latar belakang: Teripang telah diketahui mempunyai berbagai khasiat medis. Sticophus hermanii dan Holothuria atra adalah spesies teripang yang telah diketahui mempunyai sifat anti jamur sehingga santat potensial untuk diekplorasi sebagai agen terapeutik pada infeksi di rongga mulut. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk meneliti sifat anti jamur ekstrak Sticophus hermanii

  19. Antitumor and antifungal activities of organic extracts of seacucumber Holothuria atra from the southeast coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinakaran, Devaraj Isaac; Lipton, Aaron Premnath

    2015-02-01

    In phylum Echinodermata, the family Holothuridae is distinguished by its capacity of bioactive compounds. Sea cucumber Holothuria atra is commonly known as the lollyfish. The antifungal activity was detected using agar well diffusion method against the various fungal strains such as Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavis, Candida albicans and Penicillium chrysogenum. Relatively high antifungal activity was seen against Candida albicans at 100 μL-1 concentration of extracts. Zone of inhibition was measured at 18 mm of diameter. The anti-tumor activities were detected against the Vero and Hep2 cell lines using MTT assay. The cells were treated with H. atra extract at concentrations 0.078-10mg mL-1. The extract showed high proliferative activity against the Hep2 cells. The body wall extracts of sea cucumber ( H. atra) showed effective antifungal and antitumor activities. All these findings suggest that the extracts could be used for the development of drugs.

  20. Memorial and biographical history of Spain: El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Oliver Fuentes Kraffczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The novel El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina is a highly complex work in which the narrator mixes multiple plotlines in an effort to recreate or remember part of his family past. In the process, the collective memory of the town and people of Mágina (an allegoric space that represents the peasant life of the olive growers of southern Spain appears as a rich and contradictory montage of dreams and failures. And in a third level of discourse, the recent past of Spain also emerges through the main historic al events: the civil war, the protracted military government, and the economic development and current consolidation of democracy. In order to achieve this complex and ambitious narrative project, in El jinete polaco time is not represented as uninterrupted historical timeline but as the rich mixture of the simultaneous experiences of different life courses in terms of both values and cultural patterns in order to understand how the rapid social change affects relations between the various age groups. In other words, time is constructed as a synthesis of the biographical dimension within collective memory and major historical events. This paper seeks to point out the similarities and differences between biographical discourse, collective memory and history.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, P; Fontenla, S B

    2010-01-01

    Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR) and globular short roots (GSR). Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM) and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention.

  2. Morphology of the testes and epididymal ducts in the pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mehanna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782 is a species of the Felidae family, widely distributed in South America, included on CITES Appendix II and classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List, with population trend decreasing. Based on this information, the objective of this study is to describe morphologically the testes and epididymal ducts of pampas cat. The animal, coming from the Federal University of Mato Grosso Zoo, Brazil, had died after anesthesia procedure and the male reproductive system was dissected to collect the testicles. The samples taken were fragmented and histologically examined. From the microscopic analysis of the testes were identified: vaginal and tunica albuginea, formed by dense connective tissue modeled with large amount of collagen fibers. The tunica albuginea fibrous septa emits into the body. The seminiferous tubules are coiled and coated internally by spermatogenic epithelium consisting of Sertoli cells, surrounded by a basement membrane in the presence of myoid cells. The interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules, is composed of loose connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, and Leydig cells in polyhedral shape. The epididymal ducts showed pseudostratified columnar epithelium with secretory cells of which stereocilia design, situated on a basement membrane filled by myoid cells. This epithelium has principal and basal cells, the main cell design stereocilia toward the lumen of the epididymal duct.

  3. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jofré

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  5. Insecticidal activity of powder and essential oil of Cryptocarya alba (Molina Looser against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereals constitute a relevant part of human and domestic animal diet. Under storage conditions, one of the most significant problems of these crops is insect pests as the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. This insect species is usually controlled by means of synthetic insecticides but problems as toxic residues and resistance has led to the search for more friendly control alternatives such as botanical insecticides. The aim of this research was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of the powder and the essential oil of peumo (Cryptocarya alba [Molina] Looser; Lauraceae leaves against S. zeamais. The variables assessed were toxicity by contact and fumigant activity, adult emergence (F1, repellent effect, and impact on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seed germination. A completely randomized design was used with five treatments and 10 replicates. The higher mortality levels were obtained at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain of C. alba; in both cases, the mortality of adult S. zeamais surpassed 80%. The emergence of adults S. zeamais (F1 was reduced by 100% at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain. Germination of wheat seeds treated with C. alba powder and essential oil was not affected. Both, the powder and the oil treatments showed repellent effect, but not fumigant activity.

  6. Inheritance of warty fruit texture and fruit color in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Emina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.] is one of the most interesting species in the plant kingdom, due to the diversity of fruit shapes, sizes and ways of use. Warty genotypes are rare compared to non warty genotypes. Considering unusual external appearance of warty fruits, we focused our research on the investigation of its inheritance patterns. By crossing different bottle gourd phenotypes, we studied the mode of inheritance and identified and verified genes responsible for the fruit skin color and warty phenotype segregation. Two parental lines, LAG 70 (with warty fruit of light green color and LAG 71 (smooth fruit, variegated, F1, F2 and backcrosses populations along with both parents were evaluated. Genetic analysis indicated that warty fruit type is a result of monogenic inheritance, whereby the warty fruit type is dominant (Wt trait over to the non-warty fruit type (wt. The mode of inheritance of fruit color was controlled by recessive epistasis, with a ratio of 9 variegated (A-, B-, 3 dark green colored (aaB- and 4 light green colored (aabb fruits in the F2 generation.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in the Chinese Cobra Naja atra (Elapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ji

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We characterize thirteen polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from Naja atra genomic libraries, which were enriched for AC-motif microsatellites. The thirteen loci were screened on a group of 48 individuals from two populations, one in Yong’an and the other in Ganzhou. These markers revealed a relatively high degree of genetic diversity (4–12 alleles per locus and heterozygosity (Ho ranged from 0.213–0.854 and He ranged from 0.301–0.838. Tests for departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and for linkage disequilibrium were conducted for each of the two populations separately. After sequential Bonferroni correction, none of the 13 loci showed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance indicated that a small but significant (P < 0.001 proportion (16.0% of the total variation in the microsatellite DNA data were attributable to differences among populations, indicating geographical structuring and restricted gene flow. It could be attributable to the Wuyi mountains in the area having a sufficiently isolating effect to significantly reduce gene flow. Our microsatellite data also showed a low Nm (1.31 value in the two populations from mainland China. Thus, the Yong’an and Ganzhou populations could be treated as distinct evolutionarily significant units (ESUs. The high level of polymorphism revealed by these microsatellite markers will be useful for the study of gene flow, population structure and evolutionary history of N. atra.

  8. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the Chinese Cobra Naja atra (Elapidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Long-Hui; Mao, Lu-Xi; Luo, Xia; Qu, Yan-Fu; Ji, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    We characterize thirteen polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from Naja atra genomic libraries, which were enriched for AC-motif microsatellites. The thirteen loci were screened on a group of 48 individuals from two populations, one in Yong'an and the other in Ganzhou. These markers revealed a relatively high degree of genetic diversity (4-12 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (Ho ranged from 0.213-0.854 and He ranged from 0.301-0.838). Tests for departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and for linkage disequilibrium were conducted for each of the two populations separately. After sequential Bonferroni correction, none of the 13 loci showed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance indicated that a small but significant (P < 0.001) proportion (16.0%) of the total variation in the microsatellite DNA data were attributable to differences among populations, indicating geographical structuring and restricted gene flow. It could be attributable to the Wuyi mountains in the area having a sufficiently isolating effect to significantly reduce gene flow. Our microsatellite data also showed a low N(m) (1.31) value in the two populations from mainland China. Thus, the Yong'an and Ganzhou populations could be treated as distinct evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). The high level of polymorphism revealed by these microsatellite markers will be useful for the study of gene flow, population structure and evolutionary history of N. atra.

  9. Low-dose ATRA Supplementation Abolishes PRM Formation in Rat Liver and Ameliorates Ethanol-induced Liver Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zhihong; DAN Zili; FU Yu; TANG Wangxian; LIN Jusheng

    2006-01-01

    The effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in low doses supplementation on concentrations of polar retinoid metabolites (PRM) and retinoids in the ethanol-fed rat liver, and on hepatocyte injury were investigated. The rat model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) was induced by intragastric infusion of ethanol, and then the rats were administrated with ATRA in two different doses (150 μg/kg body weight and 1.5 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Concentrations of retinoids in rat liver and plasma were determined by using HPLC. Liver tissues pathologic changes were observed under the light microscopy and electron microscopy. The serum transaminases concentrations were measured. The results showed that the HPLC analysis of retinoids revealed that retinoids (vitamin A,RA, retinyl palmitate) concentrations in ethanol-fed rat liver and RA concentration in ethanol-fed rat plasma were markedly diminished (P<0.01) after ethanol feeding for 12 weeks. Furthermore, obvious peaks of PRM were formed in livers of ethanol-fed rats. ATRA 150 μg/kg supplementation in ethanol-fed rats for 4 weeks raised RA concentration in both liver and plasma, and also raised vitamin A concentration in liver to control levels, partially restored retinyl palmitate concentration (P<0.05) in liver. ATRA 1.5 mg/kg supplementation raised not only RA concentrations in liver and plasma but also retinyl palmitate concentrations in liver. However, the vitamin A concentration in liver of ATRA-supplemented rats (1.5 mg/kg) was higher than that of controls (P<0.05). The histologic observation of liver tissues indicated that ATRA treatment notably alleviated hepatocellular swelling,steatosis, the swelling of mitochondria and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER).ATRA treatment greatly decreased levels of serum transaminases as compared with the only ethanol-fed group (P<0.05). It was concluded that low-dose ATRA treatment could restore retinoids concentrations and abolish the PRM formation

  10. Robertsonian chromosome polymorphism of Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae: analysis of trivalents in meiotic prophase Polimorfismo cromosómico Robertsoniano de Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL FERNÁNDEZ-DONOSO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Akodon molinae (with 2n = 42-43-44 and an FN = 44 shows a remarkable polymorphism of chromosome 1 in natural and laboratory populations. Specimens 2n = 42, named single homozygotes (SH, have a chromosome pair 1 formed by two large metacentric chromosomes. Specimens 2n = 3, heterozygotes (Ht, have one chromosome 1 and two medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b, which are homologous with the long and short arms of chromosome 1 respectively. Specimens 2n = 44 are double homozygotes (DH, with just two pairs of medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b. Analysis of meiotic metaphases I and II showed that anomalous segregation occurs more frequently in spermatocytes carrying the 1a and 1b chromosomes. This would disturb gametogenesis and other reproductive and developmental processes, producing a marked decrease in viability of DH individuals. There is, as yet, no satisfactory explanation for these phenomena. To investigate structural elements which might explain such segregational anomalies, we have studied bivalent and trivalent synapsis in pachytene spermatocytes from SH, Ht and DH specimens. Of a total of 80 spermatocyte nuclei microspreads, the following results were obtained: of 16 microspreads from two SH individuals, 20 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were observed; of 48 microspreads from three Ht individuals, 19 autosomic bivalents, 1 trivalent and an XY bivalent were seen; and of the 16 microspreads from two DH individuals, 21 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were found. Trivalents analysed showed complete pairing between the short arms of 1a and 1b, and having an apparently normal synaptonemal complex (SC with lengths of 1 and 2.8 µm. The trivalent SC showed three telomeric ends, corresponding to arms: q1 and q1a; p1 and q1b; and p1a and p1b, with attachment plates to the nuclear envelope of normal organisation. None of the trivalents showed asynapsis or desynapsis between p1a and p1b, nor an

  11. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829) naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte...

  12. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-01-01

    The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and la...

  13. Binding of a biosynthetic intermediate to AtrA modulates the production of lidamycin by Streptomyces globisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Yu, Tengfei; He, Qing; McDowall, Kenneth J; Jiang, Bingya; Jiang, Zhibo; Wu, Linzhuan; Li, Guangwei; Li, Qinglian; Wang, Songmei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lifei; Hong, Bin

    2015-06-01

    The control of secondary production in streptomycetes involves the funneling of environmental and physiological signals to the cluster-situated (transcriptional) regulators (CSRs) of the biosynthetic genes. For some systems, the binding of biosynthetic products to the CSR has been shown to provide negative feedback. Here we show for the production of lidamycin (C-1027), a clinically relevant antitumor agent, by Streptomyces globisporus that negative feedback can extend to a point higher in the regulatory cascade. We show that the DNA-binding activity of the S. globisporus orthologue of AtrA, which was initially described as a transcriptional activator of actinorhodin biosynthesis in S. coelicolor, is inhibited by the binding of heptaene, a biosynthetic intermediate of lidamycin. Additional experiments described here show that S. globisporus AtrA binds in vivo as well as in vitro to the promoter region of the gene encoding SgcR1, one of the CSRs of lidamycin production. The feedback to the pleiotropic regulator AtrA is likely to provide a mechanism for coordinating the production of lidamycin with that of other secondary metabolites. The activity of AtrA is also regulated by actinorhodin. As AtrA is evolutionarily conserved, negative feedback of the type described here may be widespread within the streptomycetes.

  14. [Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) resulting in broad cerebral infarction during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Y; Yoshinaga, K; Iki, S; Ohbayashi, Y; Urabe, A

    1994-02-01

    A 27-year-old woman visited Kanto Teishin Hospital complaining of fever and petechiae in September, 1992. Her fetus had suddenly died in the uterus two weeks before (in the sixth month of pregnancy). Total white blood cell (WBC) count was 3.2 x 10(3)/microliters with 80% promyelocytes. Bone marrow was hypercellular with 90% promyelocytes. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was recognized. She was diagnosed as having acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and treatment with daily oral administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) (70 mg/body/day) was begun. On day 4, hemiplegia and aphasia appeared. Broad cerebral infarction was suspected from computed tomography. On day 9, the WBC count increased rapidly, standard chemotherapy was added and she achieved complete remission. ATRA is known to have stimulatory effects on the differentiation of APL cells, but some reports have described thromboembolic events during the administration of ATRA. In this case, ATRA might have affected coagulability resulting in cerebral infarction.

  15. Sirenophila ovis-atra a new species of maritime Teloschistaceae from the Southern Hemisphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Søgaard, Majbrit Zeuthen; Sancho, Leopoldo G.

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Sirenophila ovis-atra is described from maritime rocks of southern Patagonia, the Falkland Islands and Macquarie Island, where it grows in the upper part of the black ‘Verrucaria-zone’, most often on members of the genus Hydropunctaria. It is so far the only known species of Sireno...

  16. Scanning electron microscopic structure of the prismatic layer in the Bivalvia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iwao KOBAYASHI

    2008-01-01

    The shell structure of the Bivalvia has been observed with the use of optical and electron microscopes since the early 1900's. The prismatic structure is one of the more attractive shell structures in bivalved mollusks. This structure is composed of the aggregation of polygonal prisms arranged densely. Each prism is made of small calcite crystallites arranged perpendicular to a growth shell surface. Organic materials, named organic sheaths, accumulate around prisms and stain well with heamatox-ylin-eosin.The Bivalvia, which make prismatic structures, are divided into two groups. One group has the inner shell layer made up of a nacreous structure, and the other has the inner shell layer made up of a foliated structure. The aragonite prismatic layer and the prismatic layer are clo-sely related to each other, as is the aragonite prismatic layer to the composite prismatic one.

  17. Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J; Lagos, P; Rivera, P; Zamorano-Ponce, E

    2009-07-01

    Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae), commonly referred to as 'boldo', is used in traditional Chilean medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal diseases. Its leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, principally alkaloids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the protective effect of a complete boldo leaf infusion on lipoperoxidation (MDA determination at 532 nm) induced by cisplatin in mice liver. To determine if the observed effect can be explained by the action of boldine or catechin, each compound was studied separately. The mice were divided into 8 groups (n = 6): (I) not treated; (II) treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (III) treated with boldo leaf infusion 5%; (IV) pretreated with boldo leaf infusion 5% and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (V) treated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w.; (VI) pretreated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/kg.b.w.; (VII) treated with catechin; and (VIII) pretreated with catechin 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w. As expected, the treatment with cisplatin significantly increased (p < 0.01) lipoperoxidation in comparison with the non-treated group. Pretreatment with boldo leaf infusion significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the animals not pretreated with the infusion. The pretreatments with boldine and catechin significantly diminished (p < 0.05) the lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin with respect to the group treated only with cisplatin. The results suggest that the boldo infusion is acting as a protector with respect to the oxidative hepatic damage caused by cisplatin, and that this protective ability would be due to the presence in the infusion of the natural antioxidants boldine and principally catechin. These findings suggest the potential use of the infusion as a chemoprotector. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina: isolation, characterization and ability to form immuno stimulatory complexes (ISCOMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoang L; Ross, Benjamin P; McGeary, Ross P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Davies, Nigel M

    2006-10-01

    ISCOMs have received much attention as vaccine adjuvants due to their immunostimulatory effects. They are colloidal particles typically comprised of phospholipids, cholesterol and Quil A, a crude mixture of saponins extracted from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. We have previously shown that ISCOMs can be prepared by ether injection wherein an ether solution of phospholipids and cholesterol in a mass ratio of 5:2 is injected into a solution of Quil A at a mass ratio of 7 lipids: 3 Quil A. The aim of this study was firstly to isolate and characterise discrete fractions of Quil A and secondly to investigate which of these fractions were able to form ISCOMs by the method of ether injection. Six fractions of Quil A were isolated by semi-preparative reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterised by analytical HPLC, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the qualitative Liebermann-Burchard and Molisch tests for triterpenoids and carbohydrates respectively. ISCOMs were subsequently prepared from the isolated fractions by the method of ether injection and the resulting preparations characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and negative stain transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The molecular weights of the major compounds in the fractions ranged from approximately 1200 to approximately 2300 Da; all fractions tested positive for triterpenoids and saccharides and four of the fractions were identified as QS-7, QS-17, QS-18 and QS-21 by analysis (LC-MS and analytical HPLC). Injection of ether solutions of lipids into aqueous solutions of QS-17, QS-18 or QS-21 all resulted in homogeneous ISCOM dispersions. The combination of lipids and QS-7 by ether injection produced lamellae and liposomes as the prominent structures and a minor amount of ISCOMs. The remaining two hydrophilic, low molecular weight fractions of Quil A did not produce ISCOMs, instead liposomes and helical structures predominated in the

  19. Alonso Quesada, Agustín Millares Carlo, Argote de Molina y el solar norte de la catedral

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Henríquez Jiménez

    2001-01-01

    Se presentan dos textos: una carta de don Agustín Millares Carlo y una "Crónica de la ciudad" de Alonso Quesada, que no aparece en su Obra Completa, en los que se habla del solar norte de la catedral de Las Palmas y del enterramiento en él del historiador y genealogista sevilano Gonzalo Argote de Molina.Two Texts are presented: A letter from D. Agustín Millares Carlo and a "Crónica de la ciudad" from Alonso Quesasda, that doesn't appear in the Obra Completa from Alonso Quesada in which is spo...

  20. Narrar para contarlo: Labrando la memoria histórica en Beatus ille de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Corbellini

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to analyze Muñoz Molina's discourse as a form of "new memory" of the facts and events prevailing in twentieth-century Spain. In his text, the author confronts the ®heroic history¼ of the Civil War and its poets, with the private life-stories of his characters. Beatus ille narrate a heroic discourse on the biography and works of a dark and forgotten writer of the Generación del 27, but the voice, placed emphatically in 1968, omits the moment in which the novel is written and published.

  1. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo Charrier; Francisco Herv

    2011-01-01

    Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829) naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte...

  2. DIVERSITAS DAN KERAPATAN MANGROVE, GASTROPODA DAN BIVALVIA DI ESTUARI PERANCAK, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  3. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF FIVE FRESHWATER MUSSELS IN GENUS ANODONTA (MOLLUSCA: BIVALVIA) REVEALED BY RAPD ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Unionidae(Bivalvia)are distributed infreshwaters,and represent a significanttaxonof benthic community[1].In China,freshwater mussels are abundant resources[2].Since1949,substantial investigations onthe unionidfau-na had been undertakenin China[3—8].Withreference tooverseas research[9,10],a preliminary reorganization onthe Unionidae was performed accordingtosome classifica-tion characteristics such as shell shape,larvae character-istics,and breeding habit[11].Due tothe serious conver-gence of freshwater muss...

  4. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa,M.C.S.; K.M. da S. Belletti; Corrêa,T.F.; Santos,C.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establ...

  5. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

    OpenAIRE

    M.C.S. Barbosa; Belletti,K.M. da S.; Corrêa,T.F.; C.A. de M. Santos

    2001-01-01

    Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establ...

  6. Status of ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low-activation steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Matsui, H. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The ATR-A1 irradiation experiment was a collaborative U.S./Japan effort to study at low temperature the effects of neutron damage on vanadium alloys. The experiment also contained a limited quantity of low-activation ferritic steel specimens from Japan as part of the collaboration agreement. The irradiation started in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) on November 30, 1995, and ended as planned on May 5, 1996. Total exposure was 132.9 effective full power days (EFPDs) and estimated neutron damage in the vanadium was 4.7 dpa. The vehicle has been discharged from the ATR core and is scheduled to be disassembled in the next reporting period.

  7. Laboratory experiments on membrane filter sampling of airborne mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys atra corda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Nikulin, M.; Tuomainen, M.; Berg, S.; Parikka, P.; Hintikka, E.-L.

    A membrane filter method for sampling of airborne stachybotrystoxins was studied in the laboratory. Toxigenic strains of Stachybotrys atra on wallpaper, grain, hay and straw were used as toxin sources in the experiments. Air samples were collected on cellulose nitrate and polycarbonate membrane filters at air flow rates of 10-20 ℓ min -1. After the filter sampling, the air was passed through methanol. The results showed that stachybotrystoxins (trichothecenes) were concentrated in airborne fungal propagules, and thus can be collected on filters. Polycarbonate filters with a pore size of 0.2 μm collected the highest percentage of toxic samples. The laboratory experiments indicated that polycarbonate filter sampling for the collection of airborne mycotoxins is a promising method for extension to field measurements.

  8. CLONING PROMOTER OF HUMAN SATB1 GENE AND EFFECT OF ATRA AND CoCl2 ON ITS ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the structure and activity of SATB1 promoter in different cells, ATRA and CoCl2 effect on its activity. Methods Using luciferase system to assay the promoter activity of human SATB1 gene, three luciferase reporter vectors were constructed which driven by different regions of 5' untranslated sequence from human SATB1 gene, called pGL3-SP2946-luc, pGL3-SP1718-luc and pGL3-SP751-luc, and transfected into Jurkat T, K562, U937 and Hela cells transiently using lipofectinamine, the expression activity was detected at different dosage of ATRA and CoCl2 treatment for different time course. Results The reporter gene expression from SATB1 promoter were high activity in U937 cell, moderate in Jurkat T cell, low activity in K562 cell and showed no obvious activity in Hela cell, the reporter gene expression from pGL3-SP751-luc kept on the higher lever in Jurkat T, K562 and U937 cells than the other two vectors. We also found that the repressive effect of CoCl2 on SATB1 's mRNA expression and the relative luciferase expression from pGL3-SP751-luc in U937 cell was down-regulated obviously by ATRA and CoCl2 in the concentration- and time-dependent manners. Conclusion SATB1 promoter drives gene expression with cell-specificity and its core promoter region maybe exist in the - 751 ~ - 9bp of 5' untranslated region of human SATB1 gene. Combined with the experiment result we found before that SATB1 was down-regulated by ATRA in U937, the results imply that STAB1 maybe is down-regulated by ATRA and CoCl2 through its promoter in the differentiation of myeloid cell line-U937.

  9. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Lecanora atra and Lecanora muralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the acetone extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Lecanora atra and Lecanora muralis. Methods Antioxidant activity was evaluated by five separate methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds and determination of total flavonoid content. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method against six species of bacteria and ten species of fungi. Anticancer activity was tested against FemX (human melanoma) and LS174 (human colon carcinoma) cell lines using MTT method. Results Of the lichens tested, Lecanora atra had largest free radical scavenging activity (94.7% inhibition), which was greater than the standard antioxidants. Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. The strong relationships between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant effect of tested extracts were observed. Extract of Cladonia furcata was the most active antimicrobial agent with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.78 to 25 mg/mL. All extracts were found to be strong anticancer activity toward both cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 8.51 to 40.22 μg/mL. Conclusions The present study shows that tested lichen extracts demonstrated a strong antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effects. That suggest that lichens may be used as as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents to control various human, animal and plant diseases. PMID:22013953

  10. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Lecanora atra and Lecanora muralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojković Tatjana P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the acetone extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Lecanora atra and Lecanora muralis. Methods Antioxidant activity was evaluated by five separate methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds and determination of total flavonoid content. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method against six species of bacteria and ten species of fungi. Anticancer activity was tested against FemX (human melanoma and LS174 (human colon carcinoma cell lines using MTT method. Results Of the lichens tested, Lecanora atra had largest free radical scavenging activity (94.7% inhibition, which was greater than the standard antioxidants. Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. The strong relationships between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant effect of tested extracts were observed. Extract of Cladonia furcata was the most active antimicrobial agent with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.78 to 25 mg/mL. All extracts were found to be strong anticancer activity toward both cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 8.51 to 40.22 μg/mL. Conclusions The present study shows that tested lichen extracts demonstrated a strong antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effects. That suggest that lichens may be used as as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents to control various human, animal and plant diseases.

  11. ATRA Signaling Regulates the Expression of COL9A1 through BMP2-WNT4-RUNX1 Pathway in Antler Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Liang; Guo, Bin; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Duan, Cui-Cui; Geng, Shuang; Wang, Kai; Yu, Hai-Fan; Yue, Zhan-Peng

    2017-09-01

    Although all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is involved in the regulation of cartilage growth and development, its regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we showed that ATRA could induce the expression of COL9A1 in antler chondrocytes. Silencing of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2) could impede the ATRA-induced upregulation of COL9A1, whereas overexpression of CRABP2 presented the opposite effect. RARα agonist Am80 induced the expression of COL9A1, whereas treatment with RARα antagonist Ro 41-5253 or RXRα small-interfering RNA (siRNA) caused an obvious blockage of ATRA on COL9A1. In antler chondrocytes, CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 weakened the sensitivity of ATRA to COL9A1. Simultaneously, Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and WNT4 mediated the regulation of ATRA on COL9A1 expression. Knockdown of WNT4 could abrogate the inhibitory effect of BMP2 overexpression on COL9A1. Conversely, constitutive expression of WNT4 reversed the upregulation of COL9A1 elicited by BMP2 siRNA. Together these data indicated that WNT4 might act downstream of BMP2 to mediate the effect of ATRA on COL9A1 expression. Further analysis evidenced that attenuation of runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) could prevent the stimulation of ATRA on COL9A1 expression, while exogenous rRUNX1 further enhanced this effectiveness. Moreover, RUNX1 might serve as an intermediate to mediate the regulation of BMP2 and WNT4 on COL9A1 expression. Collectively, ATRA signaling might regulate the expression of COL9A1 through BMP2-WNT4-RUNX1 pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Therapeutic effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (at-RA on an autoimmune nephritis experimental model: role of the VLA-4 integrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio-Cazaña Javier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercuric chloride (HgCl2 induces an autoimmune nephritis in the Brown Norway (BN rats characterized by anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies (anti-GBM Ab deposition, proteinuria and a severe interstitial nephritis, all evident at day 13 of the disease. We assessed the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (at-RA in this experimental model. At-RA is a vitamin A metabolite which has shown beneficial effects on several nephropathies, even though no clear targets for at-RA were provided. Methods We separated animals in four different experimental groups (HgCl2, HgCl2+at-RA, at-RA and vehicle. From each animal we collected, at days 0 and 13, numerous biological samples: urine, to measure proteinuria by colorimetry; blood to determine VLA-4 expression by flow citometry; renal tissue to study the expression of VCAM-1 by Western blot, the presence of cellular infiltrates by immunohistochemistry, the IgG deposition by immunofluorescence, and the cytokines expression by RT-PCR. Additionally, adhesion assays to VCAM-1 were performed using K562 α4 transfectant cells. ANOVA tests were used for statistical significance estimation. Results We found that at-RA significantly decreased the serum levels of anti-GBM and consequently its deposition along the glomerular membrane. At-RA markedly reduced proteinuria as well as the number of cellular infiltrates in the renal interstitium, the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines and VCAM-1 expression in renal tissue. Moreover, we reported here for the first time in an in vivo model that at-RA reduced, to basal levels, the expression of VLA-4 (α4β1 integrin induced by mercury on peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs. In addition, using K562 α4 stable transfectant cells, we found that at-RA inhibited VLA-4 dependent cell adhesion to VCAM-1. Conclusion Here we demonstrate a therapeutic effect of at-RA on an autoimmune experimental nephritis model in rats. We report a significant reduction of the

  13. [Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudu pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer-Delaunoy, W

    1997-06-01

    Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow. A comparison using the corrosion method was made between Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) ventral brain arteries and those of the cow. The Pudú's Rete mirabile epidurale rostrale (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 1994) is ventrally formed by branches of the A. maxillaris, and caudally formed by the A. vertebralis. The Hypophysis is surrounded by the Rete mirabile rostrale. The lateral parts are rostrally joined to that gland by a thin vascular bridge and caudally by thick arteries. The Pudú's Circulus arteriosus cerebri asymmetrical, that is, on the right side the A. cerebri rostralis ends in the A. cerebri media. The left-side A. cerebri rostralis irrigates every rostral portion of the encephalon. In the cow, practically the same arteries come out of the Circulus arteriosus cerebri, which is not asymmetrical. The A. cerebri caudalis comes first out of the A. communicans caudalis and then the branches for the Pons, and finally the A. cerebelli rostralis. In this species, there are arterial blocks that are not present in Pudú.

  14. Feeding habits of Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae in the extreme south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 in the extreme south of Brazil. We analyzed 60 stomachs of road-kills of C. chinga in the extreme south of Brazil. The contents revealed 808 prey parts, including invertebrates (frequency of occurrence - FO = 96.7% and relative abundance - RA = 94.7%, vertebrates (FO = 18.3% and RA = 2.8% and plants (FO = 31.7% and RA = 2.3%. We identified 18 kinds of food, including the invertebrate order Coleoptera which showed the highest FO (86.7% and RA (75.2%. Other important orders were Orthoptera (FO = 35% and RA = 10.4% and Araneae (FO = 41.7% and RA = 4%. The combination of occurrence and abundance of the preys consumed allowed classifying C. chinga as an omnivorous with a predominance of insects, especially Coleoptera, consuming other invertebrates, vertebrates and plants in smaller numbers. Behavioral and morphological adaptations of C. chinga favor the predation of insects, which are preys that offer low physical resistance and are available in all terrestrial environments.

  15. Luis de Molina y la esclavitud de los negros africanos en el siglo XVI. Principios doctrinales y conclusiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Añoveros, Jesús María

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important consequences of Portuguese discoveries was the black slavery business. A most reputed theologist and jurist of the time, Juan de Molina, who had a first-hand knowledge of the subject, made a thorough analysis of the justness of slavery from a Theology and Law perspective, while showing himself opposed to the same. His doctrine set basis for future thought and he must be considered as the first great tratadist on black slavery.

    Una de las consecuencias más importantes de los descubrimientos portugueses en África fue el negocio de los esclavos negros. Luis de Molina, uno de los teólogos y juristas más importantes de su época y con un gran conocimiento del asunto, trató el tema de la licitud de los esclavos negros en amplitud, analizándolo desde la perspectiva de la teología y del derecho, sin omitir su opinión personal contraria a dicha esclavitud. Su doctrina creó escuela y debe ser considerado como el primer gran tratadista de la esclavitud de los negros.

  16. Venom gland transcriptomes of two elapid snakes (Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra) and evolution of toxin genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Kraits (genus Bungarus) and cobras (genus Naja) are two representative toxic genera of elapids in the old world. Although they are closely related genera and both of their venoms are very toxic, the compositions of their venoms are very different. To unveil their detailed venoms and their evolutionary patterns, we constructed venom gland cDNA libraries and genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries for Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra, respectively. We sequenced about 1500 cDNA clones for each of the venom cDNA libraries and screened BAC libraries of the two snakes by blot analysis using four kinds of toxin probes; i.e., three-finger toxin (3FTx), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), kunitz-type protease inhibitor (Kunitz), and natriuretic peptide (NP). Results In total, 1092 valid expressed sequences tags (ESTs) for B. multicinctus and 1166 ESTs for N. atra were generated. About 70% of these ESTs can be annotated as snake toxin transcripts. 3FTx (64.5%) and β bungarotoxin (25.1%) comprise the main toxin classes in B. multicinctus, while 3FTx (95.8%) is the dominant toxin in N. atra. We also observed several less abundant venom families in B. multicinctus and N. atra, such as PLA2, C-type lectins, and Kunitz. Peculiarly a cluster of NP precursors with tandem NPs was detected in B. multicinctus. A total of 71 positive toxin BAC clones in B. multicinctus and N. atra were identified using four kinds of toxin probes (3FTx, PLA2, Kunitz, and NP), among which 39 3FTx-postive BACs were sequenced to reveal gene structures of 3FTx toxin genes. Conclusions Based on the toxin ESTs and 3FTx gene sequences, the major components of B. multicinctus venom transcriptome are neurotoxins, including long chain alpha neurotoxins (α-ntx) and the recently originated β bungarotoxin, whereas the N. atra venom transcriptome mainly contains 3FTxs with cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity (short chain α-ntx). The data also revealed that tandem duplications contributed the most to

  17. Molecular phylogeny and shell microstructure of Fungiacava eilatensis Goreau et al. 1968, boring into mushroom corals (Scleractinia: Fungiidae), in relation to other mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owada, M.; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the evolution of the symbiosis between the boring mussel Fungiacava eilatensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) and its mushroom coral hosts (Scleractinia: Fungiidae), which requires phylogenetic reconstructions of both the Mytilidae and the Fungiidae, contributes to the understanding of the comple

  18. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, born next to Talca, Chile, and dead in Bologna, Italy, is the first Chilean scientist. His education in establishments of the Society of Jesus, in several localities of central Chile, allowed him to learn about its geography, flora, fauna, and population. At 15 years old he entered the Society. In 1767, he left Chile when the Jesuits were expelled from the spanish territories. In Bologna he produced his scientific contribution. Molina published in 1776 the first

  19. Age-related Variation in Snake Venom:Evidence from Two Snakes (Naja atra and Deinagkistrodon acutus) in Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying HE; Jianfang GAO; Longhui LIN; Xiaomei MA; Xiang JI

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explored electrophoretic proifles, enzymatic activities and immunoreactivity of neonate and adult venoms from two snakes (Naja atra and Deinagkistrodon acutus) coexisting in southeastern China. Age-related variation in electrophoretic proifles was found in both species and proteolytic and ifbrinogenolytic activity was higher in neonate than adult venoms. Neonate D. acutus venom had higher 5' nucleotidase, PLA2, hyaluronidase and gelatinolytic activity, but lower esterolytic activity, than adult venom. Neonate and adult D. acutus venoms showed identical phosphomonoesterase, LAO and ifbrinolytic activities. Neonate N. atra venom had higher phosphomonoesterase and LAO activity, but lower 5' nucleotidase, PLA2, hyaluronidase and AchE activities than adult venom. Neonate and adult N. atra venoms showed similar gelatinolytic activity. Further, age-dependent immunoreactivity was found in both species, and cross-reactions between homologous venoms and antiserums were closely related to venom composition. We speculate that age-related variation in venom characteristics is possibly driven by evolutionary forces associated with ontogenetic shifts in dietary habits, competition and predation pressure.

  20. Antitumor and Antifungal Activities of Organic Extracts of SeacucumberHolothuria atra from the Southeast Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devaraj Isaac DHINAKARAN; Aaron Premnath LIPTON

    2015-01-01

    In phylum Echinodermata, the family Holothuridae is distinguished by its capacity of bioactive compounds. Sea cu-cumberHolothuria atra is commonly known as the lollyfish. The antifungal activity was detected using agar well diffusion method against the various fungal strains such asTrichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger,Aspergillus flavis,Candida albicansandPenicillium chrysogenum. Relatively high antifungal activity was seen againstCandida albicans at 100µL−1 concentration of extracts. Zone of inhibition was measured at 18mm of diameter. The anti-tumor activities were detected against the Vero and Hep2 cell lines using MTT assay. The cells were treated withH. atra extract at concentrations 0.078−10mgmL−1. The extract showed high proliferative activity against the Hep2 cells. The body wall extracts of sea cucumber (H. atra)showed effective antifungal and antitumor activities. All these findings suggest that the extracts could be used for the development of drugs.

  1. STUDY ON EFFECTS OF RED ORPIMENT AND ATRA ON PML GENE AND PROTEIN IN LEUKEMIA CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate PML gene and protein expression and localization in leukemia cell lines. Methods Cell morphology was assayed by Wright's stain and fluorescence stain, and PML mRNA ex- pression by RT-PCR, PML protein localization by immuno-fluorescence. Results NB4 and HL-60 cells dif- ferentiated morphologically after treatment with anti-retinoic acid ( ATRA ) while K562 cells did not differenti- ate. Typical apoptosis was found in each cell line after treatment with red orpiment. Immuno-fluorescence analysis showed, after treatment with ATRA, the fusion protein disappeared in NB4 cells and the PML protein relocated, while HL-60 and K562 cells had no difference from control cells. After treatment with red orpiment , the fusion protein disappeared in NB4 cells, then degraded, which was also seen in HL-60 cells and K562 cells. The expression of PML mRNA was not changed in all three cell lines after treatment with ATRA or red orpi- ment. Conclusion PML plays the role of differentiation and apoptosis inducer in leukemia cells at the trans- lational level. PML in POD plays the role of apoptosis inducer and the growth control of leukemia cells.

  2. Decitabine and SAHA-Induced Apoptosis Is Accompanied by Survivin Downregulation and Potentiated by ATRA in p53-Deficient Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Brodská

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While p53-dependent apoptosis is triggered by combination of methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine (DAC and histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA in leukemic cell line CML-T1, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation as well as survivin and Bcl-2 deregulation participated in DAC + SAHA-induced apoptosis in p53-deficient HL-60 cell line. Moreover, decrease of survivin expression level is accompanied by its delocalization from centromere-related position in mitotic cells suggesting that both antiapoptotic and cell cycle regulation roles of survivin are affected by DAC + SAHA action. Addition of subtoxic concentration of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA increases the efficiency of DAC + SAHA combination on viability, apoptosis induction, and ROS generation in HL-60 cells but has no effect in CML-T1 cell line. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors showed no damage induced by DAC + SAHA + ATRA combination. Therefore, combination of ATRA with DAC and SAHA represents promising tool for therapy of leukemic disease with nonfunctional p53 signalization.

  3. Exotic molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia in Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil region: check list and regional spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignacio Agudo-Padrón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty-one exotic mollusc taxa were assessed for Santa Catarina State (SC, fifteen Gastropoda andsix Bivalvia (twelve terrestrial, five limnic/freshwater - three gastropods and two bivalves, and four marinebivalves. Of these, fourteen are confirmed as invasive species (nine terrestrial, three limnic/freshwater, andtwo marine.

  4. L-amino acid oxidase from Naja atra venom activates and binds to human platelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Li; Shaowen Zhu; Jianbo Wu; Wanyu Wang; Qiumin Lu; Kenneth J.Clemetson

    2008-01-01

    An L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO),NA-LAAO,was purified from the venom of Naja atra.Its N-terminal sequence shows great similarity with LAAOs from other snake venoms.NALAAO dose-dependently induced aggregation of washed human platelets.However,it had no activity on platelets in platelet-rich plasma.A low concentration of NA-LAAO greatly promoted the effect of hydrogen peroxide,whereas hydrogen peroxide itself had little activation effect on platelets.NA-LAAO induced tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of platelet proteins including Src kinase,spleen tyrosine kinase,and phospholipase C γ2.Unlike convulxin,Fc receptor γ chain and T lymphocyte adapter protein are not phosphorylated in NA-LAAO activated platelets,suggesting an activation mechanism different from the glycoprotein VI pathway.Catalase inhibited the platelet aggregation and platelet protein phosphorylation induced by NA-LAAO.NA-LAAO bound to fixed platelets as well as to platelet lysates of Western blots.Furthermore,affinity chromatography of platelet proteins on an NA-LAAO Sepharose 4B column isolated a few platelet membrane proteins,suggesting that binding of NA-LAAO to the platelet membrane might play a role in its action on platelets.

  5. Suppression of Inflammation and Arthritis by Orally Administrated Cardiotoxin from Naja naja atra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao-Xin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotoxin (CTX from Naja naja atra venom (NNAV reportedly had analgesic effect in animal models but its role in inflammation and arthritis was unknown. In this study, we investigated the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiarthritic actions of orally administered CTX-IV isolated from NNAV on rodent models of inflammation and adjuvant arthritis. CTX had significant anti-inflammatory effects in models of egg white induced nonspecific inflammation, filter paper induced rat granuloma formation, and capillary osmosis tests. CTX significantly reduced the swelling of paw induced by egg white, the inflammatory exudation, and the formation of granulomas. CTX reduced the swelling of paw, the AA clinical scores, and pathological alterations of joint. CTX significantly decreased the number of the CD4 T cells and inhibited the expression of relevant proinflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-6. CTX significantly inhibited the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and reduced the level of p-STAT3 in FLS. These results suggest that CTX inhibits inflammation and inflammatory pain and adjuvant-induced arthritis. CTX may be a novel therapeutic drug for treatment of arthritis.

  6. Effects of a fraction from Naja naja atra venom on transplanted hepatic carcinoma in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuT; LiuZT

    2002-01-01

    The effects of a fraction from Naja naja atra venom(FNNAV) on inhibiting the growing of hepatic carcinoma and inducing the apoptosis of hepatic carcinoma were studied.It showed that the weight of transplants of hepatic carcinoma was lower both in middle and high concentration FNNAV groups compared with the control group after ten days treatment with FNNAV,and the nude mice of high concentration FNNAV group lived longer than those of the control group.It has been found that the expression of bcl-2 gene in transplants of hepatic carcinoma in FNNAV groups was decreased by using SABC method.By counting the peripheral blood WBC and bone marrow cells it proved that FNNAV did not affect the function of bone marrow in a short period.These results suggest that FNNAV has the anti-tumor effects on transkplanted hepatic carcinoma in nude mice and could prolong the life of mice bearing the tumor.No inhibitory effect of FNNAV on bone marrow was observed.

  7. Tsukamurella serpentis sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of Chinese cobras (Naja atra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Teng, Jade L L; Cheung, Candy L W; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Huang, Yi; Wong, Samson S Y; Yip, Eric K T; Ng, Kenneth H L; Que, Tak-Lun; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-09-01

    Two bacterial strains, HKU54T and HKU55, were isolated from the oral cavity of two Chinese cobras (Naja atra) in Hong Kong. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed 100 % sequence identity between HKU54T and HKU55, and the two strains shared 99.0 % sequence identities with Tsukamurella inchonensis ATCC 700082T. The two strains had unique biochemical profiles distinguishable from closely related species of the genus Tsukamurella. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that they belonged to the same species (≥92.1±7.9 % DNA-DNA relatedness) but were distinct from all other known species of the genus Tsukamurella (≤52.6±5.3 % DNA-DNA relatedness). Chemotaxonomic and morphological analyses of the two strains also demonstrated results consistent with their classification in the genus Tsukamurella. The DNA G+C contents of strains HKU54T and HKU55 were 69.2±1.5 mol% and 69.2±1.3 mol% (mean±sd; n=3) respectively. A novel species, Tsukamurella serpentis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate strains HKU54T and HKU55, with HKU54T (=JCM 31017T=DSM 100915T) designated as the type strain.

  8. The antineoplastic effect of Naja Naja atra venom on S180 bearing mice and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM:To observe the antineoplastic effect of Naja Naja atra venom (NNAV) on S180 bearing mice and to study the possible antineoplastic mechanism. METHODS:We observed the effect of NNAV on tumor weight、plasma nitric oxide content、plasma endothelin content and spleen index in S180 bearing mice with different concentration and different period by means of injecting into abdomen. RESULTS:Treatment with NNAV solution of different concentration could markedly inhibit S180 growth (especially in the low concentration group and by long period) and rate of inhibiting ranged from 21 63% to 49.25%; the plasma nitric oxide content, the plasma endothelin content and NO/ET ratio in tumor bearing mice were obviously higher than those of the normal control group, while after treatment with NNAV solution, the plasma nitric oxide level, the plasma endothelin level and NO/ET ratio could be reduced markedly, and it was noticed that NO/ET ratio in the group with highest inhibiting rate was most close to that of the normal control group. The spleen index was obviously increased after treatment with NNAV solution.CONCLUSION:The antineoplastic effect of NNAV on S180 bearing mice is best in long period by means of injecting into abdomen with low concentration. The mechanism of the antineoplastic effect of NNAV may be related to lowering the plasma nitric oxide and endothelin level, regulating the NO/ET ratio and enhancing the immune response.

  9. Chemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina extracts obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazutti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effects of temperature (20 to 50ºC and pressure (100 to 250 bar on the extraction yield, chemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Peumus boldus Molina obtained by compressed carbon dioxide extraction. Results showed that the extraction variables affect the extraction yield and the chemical distribution of the major compounds present in the extracts. The extracts were chemically analyzed with regard to 1,8-cineole, trans-sabinene, pinocarveol, pinocarvone, 4-terpineol, ascaridole, piperitone oxide, limonene dioxide and n-eicosane in a GC/MSD. Antimicrobial tests demonstrated that the high-pressure CO2 extracts had activity against 13 bacteria and that better action was verified with extracts obtained at a lower CO2 extraction density and a higher temperature.

  10. Angélica y el desencadenamiento de la locura: Lope de Rueda y Tirso de Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermenegildo, Alfredo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La locura, como recurso dramático, aparece en dos obras separadas por unas cuantas décadas: la Mederà, de Lope de Rueda, y La villana de la Sagra, de Tirso de Molina. En la primera, la presencia destructora y conflictiva de unos hermanos gemelos desencadena la locura de unos individuos, los padres de la protagonista, que alteran con sus andanzas la convivencia social del grupo a que pertenecen. La fiesta carnavalesca está también en la base misma de la construcción de los locos. En la obra de Tirso, la locura del galán, de don Luis, es utilizada para detener, con su fondo libresco, el desarrollo previsible de la fábula.…

  11. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S. Barbosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.Samples of boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina commercialized at the metropolitan area of Curitiba/PR were evaluated to establish their quality control patterns. The results showed that all samples are authentic but the data obtained for the physico-chemical parameters differ from those related at the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia IV ed.

  12. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced apoptosis is preceded by G1 arrest in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, R; Danova, M; Alberici, R; Pellicciari, C

    1998-01-01

    In this study the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on cell cycle and apoptosis of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were investigated to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antineoplastic potential of this retinoid in breast cancer. The antiproliferative effect of ATRA was evaluated by DNA content measurements and dual-parameter flow cytometry of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and of the expression of cell cycle-related proteins (Ki-67 as proliferation marker and statin as quiescence marker) vs DNA content. Apoptosis was also studied by flow cytometry of either DNA content or Annexin V labelling. After 10(-6) M ATRA treatment, the fraction of S-phase cells decreased significantly, and cells accumulated in the G0/G1 range of DNA contents. Dual-parameter flow cytograms showed a decrease in the percentage of Ki-67-labelled cells (after 10 days, only 20% of the cells were still positive for Ki-67 compared with 95% in controls), while the fraction of statin-positive cells increased slightly. From 3 days of treatment onwards, apoptosis was found to occur. These results show that ATRA-induced inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth is related to two mechanisms, i.e. the block of cell proliferation, mostly in a pre-S phase, and the induction of apoptosis. These results should be taken into account when attempting to design treatment programmes that associate ATRA with antineoplastic compounds of different cell cycle specificity.

  13. Disease Progression, Response to ACEI/ATRA Therapy and Influence of ACE Gene in IgA Nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keng-Thye Woo; Yeow-Kok Lau; Yi Zhao; Fang-E Liu; Hwee-Boon Tan; Eng-Keng Tan; Fook-Chong Stephanie; Choong-Meng Chan; Kok-Seng Wong

    2007-01-01

    Various studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (ID) polymorphism may play a role in the progression to end stage renal failure (ESRF) in patients with IgA nephritis (IgAN). In this randomized controlled trial, patients were followed up for 5 years to determine their long-term renal outcome to ACEI/ATRA therapy and to ascertain if their ACE gene profile could play a role in determining their response to therapy. Seventy-five patients with IgAN were enlisted. Thirty-seven were on ACEI/ATRA therapy for 62±5 months and thirty-eight were untreated and served as controls. All patients had their ACE gene ID polymorphism genotyped. Compared to controls, treated patients had lower serum creatinine (p<0.001), lower proteinuria (p<0.002) and fewer numbers progressing to ESRF (p<0.002). Among patients with genotype Ⅱ, there were less ESRF in the treatment group when compared to the untreated control group (p<0.02). The advantage of therapy was not seen in patients with ID or DD genotypes. ACEI/ATRA therapy was found to be effective in retarding disease progression in IgAN with years to ESRF significantly extended in patients at all levels of renal function, including patients whose outcome were ESRF. Genotyping showed better response to therapy only for those with genotype Ⅱ.The common mechanism is probably through lower levels of ACE, glomerular pressure and proteinuria resulting in reduced renal damage and retardation of progression to ESRF.

  14. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we develop an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS, that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF, black carbon (BC aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 μm to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins and BC mixing state (10 bins for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module is implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials is about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement is estimated to be 10–20% over northern East Asia and 20–35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast is also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations: NPF increases CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increases CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also shows that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depends strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA

  15. Insecticidal Properties of Peumus boldus Molina Powder Used Alone and Mixed with Lime Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleopter: Curculionidae Propiedades Insecticidas del Polvo de Peumus boldus Molina Solo y en Mezcla con Cal contra Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bustos-Figueroa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina powder used alone and mixed with lime against adults of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Additionally, aeration effects (presence or absence and temperature (room temperature vs. 3 ºC on insecticidal properties were studied over time. A mortality rate of 100% was observed at 20 g kg-1 (w/w of P. boldus powder when used alone and mixed with lime in proportions of 50:50, 60:40, and 80:20. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 for all treatments was Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, solo y en mezcla con cal, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Adicionalmente, se evaluó el efecto de la aeración (presencia vs. ausencia y de la temperatura (temperatura ambiente vs. 3 ºC sobre la mortalidad y emergencia de adultos de la F1. La concentración de 20 g kg-1 (p/p del polvo de boldo ya sea solo o en combinación con cal en las proporciones de 50:50, 60:40 y 80:20 mostraron 100% de mortalidad. La concentración letal 50% (CL50, en todos los tratamientos fue menor a 5 g kg-1 (p/p mientras que la CL90 no superó 11 g kg-1 (p/p. La mezcla del polvo con los granos de maíz tanto solo como en mezcla con cal no afectó la germinación. La temperatura y la aeración no afectaron la mortalidad de los adultos parentales ni la emergencia de adultos de la F1. Cuando se mezcló el maíz con el polvo de boldo molido 24 h antes de la infestación con adultos, la mortalidad de los adultos parentales y la emergencia de adultos de la F1 fue de 100 y de 0%, respectivamente. Los resultados no fueron satisfactorios cuando el polvo de boldo almacenado durante 30, 60 y 90 d fue mezclado con el maíz infestado. La toxicidad del follaje de boldo es alta 24 h después de pulverizarse; si el tiempo es mayor, la toxicidad declina significativamente.

  16. Microstructural examination of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for four heats of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}200 and 300 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment or composition.

  17. Effect of ATRA on the expression of HOXA5 gene in K562 cells and its relationship with cell cycle and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Teng; Guo, Qu-Lian; Liu, Chun-Yan; Bai, Yong-Qi

    2016-05-01

    Leukemia is the most common malignant disease in children with high incidence and mortality rates, and a poor treatment effect. The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in the expression of homeobox (Hox) A5 gene and its relationship with cell cycle and apoptosis through the intervention of human K562 myeloid leukemia cell line by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), to analyze the role of HOXA5 in the pathogenesis and development process of myeloid leukemia. The optimal concentration of ATRA to be used with K562 cells was determined using a cell counting kit‑8 (CCK‑8). After 24, 72 and 48 h following treatment of K562 cells with 10 µmol/l ATRA, cell cycle events and apoptosis were measured using flow cytometry. HOXA5 mRNA and protein expression in K562 cells was assessed by RT‑PCR and western blot analysis, and the relationship between HOXA5 expression and cell cycle and apoptosis was analyzed. The HOXA5 mRNA and protein expression levels were increased following treatment with ATRA in K562 cells. Apoptosis was increased significantly. The cell cycle was inhibited in G0/G1 phase. Cell proliferation was also inhibited. HOXA5 mRNA and protein expression rates positively correlated with cell apoptosis and the increased percentage and cell cycle of the G0/G1 phase. However, HOXA5 negatively correlated with the reduced percentage of S stage. In conclusion, the expression of HOXA5 in cells was increased following treatment with ATRA in K562 cells, in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, ATRA may inhibit the proliferation of K562 cells and promote apoptosis by upregulating the HOXA5 mRNA and protein expression.

  18. Combination of interferon alpha with either Ara-C or ATRA in vitro reduces the selective action of interferon against CML CFU-GM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, S B; Davidson, R J; Goldman, J M; Gordon, M Y

    2000-08-01

    Although interferon (IFN)-alpha has no specific inhibitory effect on the plating efficiency of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) from patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), it does selectively inhibit the replating ability (secondary colony formation) of CML CFU-GM. Thus, amplification of CFU-GM may be a target for IFN-alpha and other agents used in the treatment of CML. Here we examined whether cytarabine (Ara-C) or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) exert similar effects and whether they might in combination with IFN-alpha enhance its efficacy. We found that Ara-C preferentially inhibits the formation of CML CFU-GM compared to normal CFU-GM, but this inhibition was not increased by addition of IFN-alpha. When Ara-C was added to cultures containing IFN-alpha, the inhibition of replating by CML progenitors was abrogated. ATRA increased significantly the plating efficiency of normal CFU-GM. The addition of IFN-alpha to ATRA had no effect on CML or normal colony numbers. However, addition of ATRA to cultures containing IFN-alpha reversed the selective inhibition of CML CFU-GM replating seen in cultures containing IFN-alpha alone. In four IFN-alpha/Ara-C experiments, secondary CML patient-derived colonies were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). All of them were Ph chromosome positive. No significant effects on CFU-GM production were observed when CML primitive haemopoietic progenitor cells were investigated in a delta (delta) assay. Thus we conclude that combining IFN-alpha with Ara-C or ATRA neutralises the effect of IFN-alpha on CML CFU-GM. This observation provides a rationale for treating patients with alternating courses of IFN-alpha and Ara-C or ATRA, rather than giving either of these two agents in combination with IFN-alpha.

  19. Ameliorating Adriamycin-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats by Orally Administrated Cardiotoxin from Naja naja atra Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hui Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported the oral administration of Naja naja atra venom (NNAV reduced adriamycin-induced chronic kidney damage. This study investigated the effects of intragastric administrated cardiotoxin from Naja naja atra venom on chronic kidney disease in rats. Wistar rats were injected with adriamycin (ADR; 6 mg/kg body weight via the tail vein to induce chronic kidney disease. The cardiotoxin was administrated daily by intragastric injection at doses of 45, 90, and 180 μg/kg body weight until the end of the protocol. The rats were placed in metabolic cages for 24 hours to collect urine, for determination of proteinuria, once a week. After 6 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to determine serum profiles relevant to chronic kidney disease, including albumin, total cholesterol, phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine. Kidney histology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Masson’s trichrome staining. The levels of kidney podocin were analyzed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. We found that cardiotoxin reduced proteinuria and can improve biological parameters in the adriamycin-induced kidney disease model. Cardiotoxin also reduced adriamycin-induced kidney pathology, suggesting that cardiotoxin is an active component of NNAV for ameliorating adriamycin-induced kidney damage and may have a potential therapeutic value on chronic kidney disease.

  20. Ameliorating Adriamycin-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats by Orally Administrated Cardiotoxin from Naja naja atra Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhi-Hui; Xu, Li-Min; Wang, Shu-Zhi; Kou, Jian-Qun; Xu, Yin-Li; Chen, Cao-Xin; Yu, Hong-Pei; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Xie, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies reported the oral administration of Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) reduced adriamycin-induced chronic kidney damage. This study investigated the effects of intragastric administrated cardiotoxin from Naja naja atra venom on chronic kidney disease in rats. Wistar rats were injected with adriamycin (ADR; 6 mg/kg body weight) via the tail vein to induce chronic kidney disease. The cardiotoxin was administrated daily by intragastric injection at doses of 45, 90, and 180  μ g/kg body weight until the end of the protocol. The rats were placed in metabolic cages for 24 hours to collect urine, for determination of proteinuria, once a week. After 6 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to determine serum profiles relevant to chronic kidney disease, including albumin, total cholesterol, phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine. Kidney histology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Masson's trichrome staining. The levels of kidney podocin were analyzed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. We found that cardiotoxin reduced proteinuria and can improve biological parameters in the adriamycin-induced kidney disease model. Cardiotoxin also reduced adriamycin-induced kidney pathology, suggesting that cardiotoxin is an active component of NNAV for ameliorating adriamycin-induced kidney damage and may have a potential therapeutic value on chronic kidney disease.

  1. [On the controversial questions of the taxonomy of Bivalvia (Mollusca): too many species or too few characters?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizhinashvili, A L

    2011-01-01

    Problems emerging in the course of taxonomic studies and species diagnostics of freshwater bivalves are discussed by the example of one of the bivalve groups (the family Unionidae). It is shown that one of the causes of the current, diametrically opposing views on specific and generic systematics of Bivalvia is the fact that researchers revising taxonomic groups ignore complex analysis of several independent characters (conchological, anatomical, biochemical, genetic, etc.).

  2. Institución Educativa Técnico Industrial Pedro Antonio Molina: eje de desarrollo y bienestar para la comunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL ALBERTO ÁLVAREZ WATSON

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El caso analiza la situación particular de la Institución educativa Técnico Industrial Pedro Antonio Molina, el liderazgo del rector y el apoyo del sector privado en los procesos de gestión de la calidad. Esto motiva a los integrantes de la institución a trabajar en equipo para lograr la certificación de calidad, mejorando sus resultados académicos año tras año, destacándose a nivel regional y nacional, y generando cambios sociales en su entorno. Metodológicamente, se identificó una institución líder en la ciudad de Cali (Colombia, luego fuentes de información en el contexto local, regional y mundial, consolidándose un caso que muestra las mejores prácticas que una institución educativa realiza para lograr un modelo administrativo susceptible de ser replicado en otras instituciones.

  3. El camino de la biotecnología en la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un relato histórico sobre los cincuenta años que tiene la carrera de biología en la Universidad Na-cional Agraria La Molina y la gestación, inicio, desarrollo y maduración de la biotecnología en esta universidad. Se describen algunos pormenores de las tres grandes estructuraciones curriculares que finalmente derivan al establecimiento del área de biotecnología en el pregrado y en el doctorado así como a los logros alcanzados. El desarrollo de la biotecnología en la UNALM ha influenciado el desarrollo de esta área en el Perú no solo en las adaptaciones curriculares que se han producido en varias universidades del país sino también en las investigaciones biotecnológicas que se llevan a cabo en universidades e institutos de investigación en las diferentes regiones del país. En este devenir histórico se concluye que el balance es muy positivo y que la mejor corriente epistemológica es la que nos lleva mediante la investigación a encontrar verdades usables en la solución de los problemas del país y, también por qué no, del planeta.

  4. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit extracts in an oil model system

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    T. R. Augusto-Obara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An oil model system was used to analyze the antioxidant activity of Chilean fruit extracts and to determine their odor sensory effect. Hydroalcoholic extracts from wild and 14-4 genotype murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit were assessed by the Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for producing high total phenolic-content extracts were 49.5% (v/v ethanol at 30 ºC, which yielded 18.39 and 26.14 mg GAE·g-1 dry matter, respectively. The optimized extracts were added to a lipid model system and evaluated via the Schaal Oven Test. After 96 hours, 150 and 200 mg·kg-1 oil of the wild and 14-4 genotype extracts, respectively, showed an antioxidant capacity similar to TBHQ (200 mg·kg-1 oil in terms of peroxide values and odor. Thus, murtilla fruit extracts are a natural source of antioxidants for protecting lipidic foods, such as soybean oil.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. Fruits. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Junqueira-Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic. LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit’s characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives.

  6. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile

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    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.

  7. Identification of Fungus Flora Associated with Lagenaria Siceraria (Molina Standl in Côte d’Ivoire

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    Koffi Ahébé Marie-Hélène

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl is a cucurbit which seeds are consumed by people in rural and urban Africa. This plant is subjected to a strong parasitic and diseases pressure that reduces seeds production. Efficient fight against plant parasite, particularly fungus is a prerequisite for an improved productivity. This study was undertaken in five localities (Alepe, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Divo and Korhogo belonging to three agroecological areas of Côte d’Ivoire. The aim was to identify fungal genera infecting L. siceraria in order to design an efficient control measure. Leaf samples with necrosis and discoloration symptoms were collected throughout the localities and subsequently, fungus were isolated and identified in laboratory. From a total of 750 samples collected, 7 types of symptoms were distinguished. Fungal genera found in all of the localities were Aspergillus, Botryosphaeria, Cochliobolus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia and Phoma. Only Pestalotiopsis was specific to the locality of Divo. An ANOVA test performed on the data showed a significant difference between fungal genera in terms of isolation frequency. Principal components analysis revealed that fungus distribution in each locality was correlated with climatic factors.

  8. Spermatozoa and spermatogenesis in the northern quahaug Mercenaria mercenaria (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xue-Ping; Yang, Wan-Xi; Dahms, Hans-U.; Lin, Zhihua; Chai, Xueliang

    2008-12-01

    We studied the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in the northern quahaug, the clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Spermatogenetic cells gradually elongate. Mitochondria gradually fuse and increase in size and electron density. During spermatid differentiation, proacrosomal vesicles migrate towards the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus and eventually form the acrosome. The spermatozoon of M. mercenaria is of a primitive type. It is composed of head, mid-piece, and tail. The acrosome shows a subacrosomal space with a short conical contour. The slightly curved nucleus of the spermatozoon contains fine-grained dense chromatin. The middle piece consists of a centriolar complex which is surrounded by four mitochondria. The flagellum has a standard “9 + 2” microtubular structure. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of M. mercenaria shares a number of features with other species of the family Veneridae. M. mercenaria may be a suitable model species for further investigations into the mechanisms of spermatogenesis in the Bivalvia.

  9. Distribution patterns of the Jurassic ostreids (Bivalvia) from Tanggula of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙金庚

    2001-01-01

    Distribution of the Jurassic ostreids (Bivalvia) from Tanggula area of China includes three patterns, which are (1) Tethys: containing Liostrea birmanica and Eligmus rollandi, (2) western Europe and northern Tethys: consisting of Gryphaea (Bilobissa) bilobata; and (3) Global: composed of Actinostreon gregareum and Nanogyra nana. However, they are all limited between palaeolatidudes 60° South and North. Actinostreon gregareum originated in the Sinemurian of northern Chile and it entered Kenya and Madagascar in the Toarcian, but there is no reliable Si-nemurian-Toarcian A. gregareum fossil record in continental margins between Chile and Kenya and Madagascar. Such distribution patterns and dispersal processes have demonstrated that (1) during the Jurassic all seas and oceans were connected to each other; (2) the Tethys and the western European epicontinental seas did produce some endemic taxa; (3) the distribution of these ostreids was most likely controlled by latitudes and creature ecology; and (4) A, gr

  10. Diversification of Chilean aquaculture: the case of the giant barnacle Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782 Diversificación de la acuicultura chilena: el caso del cirripedio gigante Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782

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    Daniel A López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is presented supporting the technical and economic possibilities of giant barnacle Austromegabalanuspsittacus (Molina, 1782 culture, one of the main alternatives for diversifying aquaculture in Chile. Spat collection from the wild varied between different sites in the north and south of the country and according to type of artificial collector. Growth also varied between sites (greater in the north, technological systems (greater in tubular systems and depths (greater at 4 m. Average commercial size in the national market was reached over a period between 18 and 24 months. A long-line can produce between 7 to 10 gross ton during this period, therefore average annual fisheries production can be reached with only 10 to 30 long-lines, in an area of 1 to 3 ha. There is demand for this resource in the external market, particularly in the Japanese market, either as product similar to "fujit subo" (Balanus rostratus, or as a new resource; the relationship between production costs and price determines that giant barnacle culture has commercial potential. Economic indicators for cultured giant barnacle were as follows: net present value (NPV: US$ 490,000; internal rate of return (IRR: 32%; discounted payback period (DPBP: 4 years. Results obtained suggest the natural bank repopulation option, and the development of mass cultures. Giant barnacle culture is based on biological characteristics that differentiate it from other crustaceans species, as well as simple and economic production technologies and favourable economic projections on external markets.Se presentan evidencias de las posibilidades técnicas y económicas del cultivo del cirripedio gigante o "picoroco", Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782. Esta especie es una de las principales alternativas para la diversificación de la acuicultura en Chile. La captación de semilla desde el ambiente varió entre distintos sitios del norte y sur del país y según el tipo de colector

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch Infección por micorrizas arbusculares en dos tipos de raíces de Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch

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    P. Diehl

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina. Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR and globular short roots (GSR. Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention.La conífera Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch se encuentra distribuida en los bosques Andino-Patagónicos de Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo se relacionaron las diferentes clases morfológicas de raíces presentes en la especie con el comportamiento micorrícico. Las muestras fueron tomadas en tres sitios del Parque Nacional Lanín (NO de Patagonia, Argentina. Se observaron dos clases diferentes de raíces: raíces finas longitudinales (RFL y raíces cortas globulares (RCG. Ambas clases

  12. Tensile and impact properties of vanadium-base alloys irradiated at low temperatures in the ATR-A1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Nowicki, L.J.; Billone, M.C.; Chung, H.M.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Subsize tensile and Charpy specimens made from several V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys were irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to study the effects of low-temperature irradiation on mechanical properties. These specimens were contained in lithium-bonded subcapsules and irradiated at temperatures between {approx}200 and 300 C. Peak neutron damage was {approx}4.7 dpa. Postirradiation testing of these specimens has begun. Preliminary results from a limited number of specimens indicate a significant loss of work-hardening capability and dynamic toughness due to the irradiation. These results are consistent with data from previous low-temperature neutron irradiation experiments on these alloys.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  14. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS.

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    Adriana Bastías

    Full Text Available Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%, followed by tetranucleotide (26% and trinucleotide motifs (24%. The motif AG/CT (28.4% was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species.

  15. Larvicidal activity of essential oil of Peumus boldus Molina and its ascaridole-enriched fraction against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Débora Silva Borges; da Silva, Denise Brentan; Tibúrcio, Jacqueline Domingues; Sobral, Marcos Eduardo Guerra; Ferraz, Vany; Taranto, Alex Gutterres; Serrão, José Eduardo; de Siqueira, João Máximo; Alves, Stênio Nunes

    2016-12-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), known as the domestic mosquito, is a common and abundant species throughout the world, and a cosmopolitan species. The adults of this mosquito are important in terms of public and animal health since they display adaptability to different hosts. In humans, they are responsible for the transmission of various diseases. One manner of control of this vector is the use of insecticidal or larvicidal products, which may have the drawback of toxicity to mammals and can be harmful to the environment. The present work evaluated the larvicidal potential of the essential oil (EO) and ascaridole-enriched fraction (EF4-5) obtained from the leaves of Peumus boldus Molina (boldo). The EO, obtained by steam distillation, was analyzed by GC/MS and fractionated on silica gel. EO and EF4-5, containing 31.4% and 89.5% ascaridole, respectively, were evaluated against C. quinquefasciatus at concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml on the third and fourth instars. They showed lethal concentrations (LC50) of 82.14 and 41.85 μg/ml, respectively. Larvae treated with the EF4-5 showed morphological changes in the midgut, with cells possessing a cytoplasm that contained small vacuole-like structures, as well as a nucleus with decondensed chromatin and a cell apex with a short brush border. The cells of the fat body showed larger protein granules, which were acidophilic relative to the larvae of the control group. Moreover, the enriched fraction at a dose of 50 μg/ml showed a residual larvicidal effect according to exposure time on C. quinquefasciatus. This residual effect deserves consideration, since a long-term larvicidal product may be a useful tool for vector control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Crenosoma brasiliense sp. n. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) parasitic in lesser grison, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil, with a key to species of Crenosoma Molin, 1861.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luis C; de Souza, Lima Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Gonçalves, Pamela R; Luque, José L

    2012-09-01

    This study describes Crenosoma brasiliense (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), a new species parasitic in bronchi and bronchioles of Galictis cuja (Molina) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil. This species differs from other 11 species of Crenosoma by having a cuticular projection at the distal end of the spicules, forming a prominent blade at the tip of the spicule, a vulval cuticular appendage with a triangular shape and prominent vulval lips. There are no previous records of species of Metastrongyloidea in G. cuja or species of Crenosoma in South America. Therefore, the new species represents the first host record and first geographical record of species of Crenosoma in South America.

  17. El arte, la mirada y la intimidad en Ventanas de Manhattan, de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Entre los relatos de Antonio Muñoz Molina, quizá sea Ventanas de Manhattan (2004) aquel que explora con mayor intensidad un motivo recurrente en su obra: la observación del entorno y de las huellas del pasado. En este texto híbrido, que participa de la crónica periodística, el libro de viajes, el ensayo y la novela, dividido en secuencias que a veces constituyen verdaderos microrrelatos, Nueva York se presenta como el espacio del anonimato y la indiferencia, donde “estar viendo y no mirar ...

  18. What will it take to close the racial and ethnic health disparities gap? A conversation with Michael E. Bird, Reed Tuckson, and Marilyn Aguirre-Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Carmen J; Lathan, Monica J

    2006-07-01

    In the United States, the health of a community is often times determined by poverty and race. As the nation becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, new directives and approaches must be taken to improve health outcomes of minority and underserved communities. Three leading experts in racial and ethnic health share their perspectives regarding where we are and where we need to be in addressing health disparities. Michael E. Bird, MSW, MPH, Reed Tuckson, MPH, and Marilyn Aguirre-Molina, EdD, offer transdisciplinary-focused recommendations that encompass disease prevention, health care, and community mobilization.

  19. Celastrol inhibits lung infiltration in differential syndrome animal models by reducing TNF-α and ICAM-1 levels while preserving differentiation in ATRA-induced acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

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    Li-min Xu

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is a revolutionary agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL treatment via differentiation induction. However, ATRA treatment also increases cytokine, chemokine, and adhesive molecule (mainly ICAM-1 expression, which can cause clinical complications, including a severe situation known as differentiation syndrome (DS which can cause death. Therefore, it is of clinical significance to find a strategy to specifically blunt inflammatory effects while preserving differentiation. Here we report that the natural compound, celastrol, could effectively block lung infiltrations in DS animal models created by loading ATRA-induced APL cell line NB4. In ATRA-treated NB4 cells, celastrol could potently inhibit ICAM-1 elevation and partially reduce TNF-α and IL-1β secretion, though treatment showed no effects on IL-8 and MCP-1 levels. Celastrol's effect on ICAM-1 in ATRA-treated NB4 was related to reducing MEK1/ERK1 activation. Strikingly and encouragingly, celastrol showed no obvious effects on ATRA-induced NB4 differentiation, as determined by morphology, enzymes, and surface markers. Our results show that celastrol is a promising and unique agent for managing the side effects of ATRA application on APL, and suggest that hyper-inflammatory ability is accompanied by, but not necessary for, APL differentiation. Thus we offered an encouraging novel strategy to further improve differentiation therapy.

  20. Terminología botánica indígena en el vocabulario castellano-mexicano (1555 de Fray A. de Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galeote Manuel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Las voces indígenas de la flora americana, que fray Alonso de Molina incluye en la sección castellana de su obra: Aquí comience un vocabulario en la lengua castellana y mexicana (México, Juan Pablos, 1555 se analizan desde el punto de vista histórico y sociolingüístico. Se trata del primer vocabulario de Molina el Nebrija de las Indias y, además, el primer diccionario impreso en México y en América. En las entradas castellanas, los términos indígenas americanos de la flora (plantas y frutas constituyen uno de los campos onomasiológicos más numerosos (maíz, cacao, maguey, chía, ají, etc. De los once términos indígenas hemos contabilizado casi un centenar de ocurrencias. En conclusión, este vocabulario muestra el fondo léxico patrimonial del español y los indoamericanismos que se acomodaron a las estructuras de la lengua castellana.

  1. Terminología botánica indígena en el vocabulario castellanomexicano (1555 de Fray A. De Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Galeote

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Las voces indígenas de la flora americana, que fray Alonso de Molina incluye en la sección castellana de su obra: Aqui comiença vn vocabulario en la lengua castellana y mexicana (México, Juan Pablos, 1555 se analizan desde el punto de vista histórico y sociolingüístico. Se trata del primer vocabulario de Molina —el Nebrija de las Indias — y, además, el primer diccionario impreso en México y en América. En las entradas castellanas, los términos indígenas americanos de la flora (plantas y frutas constituyen uno de los campos onomasiológicos más numerosos (maíz, cacao, maguey, chía, ají, etc. De los once términos indígenas hemos contabilizado casi un centenar de ocurrencias. En conclusión, este vocabulario muestra el fondo léxico patrimonial del español y los indoamericanismos que se acomodaron a las estructuras de la lengua castellana.

  2. LA VOZ NARRATIVA COMO COMPROMISO CON LA VERDAD ANÁLISIS DEL NARRADOR EN LA NOVELA LA NOCHE DE LOS TIEMPOS, DE MUÑOZ MOLINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Arroyas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo consiste en un análisis de la voz narrativa de la novela La noche de los tiempos, según un modelo comunicativo que abarca tanto aspectos sintácticos y semánticos como pragmáticos que permitan arrojar luz sobre el sentido del texto. Desde un enfoque pragmático se analiza la finalidad de la narración como acto comunicativo en la que se plantea la relación del discurso con su contexto y del enunciador con el enunciatario. La elección de la voz narrativa y su focalización es uno de los grandes aciertos de esta novela de Muñoz Molina, puesto que en ella reside su verosimilitud y su carácter ético. Abstract: This article examines the narrative voice of La noche de los tiempos, a novel by Antonio Muñoz Molina, according to a communicative model that treats syntactic, semantic, and pragmatics aspects that shed light on the meaning of the text.From a pragmatic perspective I analyze the purpose of the narrative as a communicative act which establishes a relationship of the discourse to its context and of the narrator to the narratee. The choice of narrative voice and its focalization is one of the great achievements of this novel, since it is the source of the work’s verisimilitude and ethical character.

  3. Biocenosis de Bivalvia y Polyplacophora del intermareal rocoso en playa Tlacopanocha, Acapulco, Guerrero, México Polyplacophora and Bivalvia biocenosis at rocky intertidal Tlacopanocha beach, Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Galeana-Rebolledo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El Estado de Guerrero, México, tiene regiones marinas prioritarias para la conservación de su biodiversidad y la información acerca de la diversidad de moluscos es escasa, por lo que es necesario realizar inventarios de especies, estudios de ecología de poblaciones y comunidades. Este estudio se efectuó en el intermareal rocoso de la playa Tlacopanocha. Los objetivos fueron: determinar la riqueza, densidad y diversidad de especies; analizar la composición de especies y estructura de tallas. El área de muestreo fue de 10 m² y la unidad de muestreó fue de 1 m². Se identificaron 35 especies, de las cuales tres son nuevos registros para el intermareal rocoso de Guerrero: las familias mejor representadas en riqueza de especies fueron Ischnochitonidae y Arcidae, y en abundancia Chitonidae y Chamidae; la densidad fue de 31,60 ind m-2. Polyplacophora presentó 42,9% de especies dominantes y Bivalvia 19,0%. Chama corallina presentó la mayor talla en longitud y Chama sordida en ancho. La riqueza de especies de moluscos registrada se considera alta y corresponde a lo esperado para un sustrato rocoso en zona tropical. Polyplacophora presentó alta composición de especies, que podría ser resultado de la adaptación de los organismos a las condiciones dinámicas del intermareal rocoso. Los nuevos registros indican la importancia de los inventarios de especies y también del conocimiento de las poblaciones y comunidades de la fauna marina de Guerrero.The State of Guerrero, Mexico, has priority marine areas for conservation of its biodiversity, but information concerning diversity of mollusks is limited, so it is convenient to carry out species inventories, studies of populations and community ecology. This study was conducted in the intertidal rocky beach Tlacopanocha. The objectives were to determine richness, density and species diversity, analyze the species composition and size structure. The sampling area was 10 m² and the sampling unit was

  4. A Holistic Approach to Taxonomic Evaluation of Two Closely Related Endangered Freshwater Mussel Species, the Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis) and Tan Riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri) (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jess Walter

    2004-01-01

    A Holistic Approach to Taxonomic Evaluation of Two Closely Related Endangered Freshwater Mussel Species, the Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis) and Tan Riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri) (Bivalvia: Unionidae) by Jess W. Jones Richard J. Neves, Chairperson Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences (ABSTRACT) Primers for 10 polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci were developed and characterized for the endangered oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis from the Clinch River, TN. Microsatellite...

  5. [Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Neogene micromammalian faunas from the Calatayud-Teruel Basin (Spain) / Freudenthal, M. (editor)]: Rodents and lagomorphs from a lower Vallesian fissure filling near Molina de Aragon (Prov. Guadalajara, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anduenza, J.I.L.

    1988-01-01

    A new lower Vallesian micromammalian fauna from a locality near Molina de Aragon is described. Five species of Cricetidae, three species of Sciuridae - including a new one (Heteroxerus molinensis) -, two species of Gliridae, and one lagomorph species are described. Also, the paleoecological

  6. [Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Neogene micromammalian faunas from the Calatayud-Teruel Basin (Spain) / Freudenthal, M. (editor)]: Rodents and lagomorphs from a lower Vallesian fissure filling near Molina de Aragon (Prov. Guadalajara, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anduenza, J.I.L.

    1988-01-01

    A new lower Vallesian micromammalian fauna from a locality near Molina de Aragon is described. Five species of Cricetidae, three species of Sciuridae - including a new one (Heteroxerus molinensis) -, two species of Gliridae, and one lagomorph species are described. Also, the paleoecological implicat

  7. The effects of mercury exposure on the surface morphology of gill filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregory, MA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure on the Surface Morphology of Gill Filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia) M. A. GREGORY *, R. C. GEORGE , D. J. MARSHALL , A. ANANDRAJ and T. P. MCCLURG? Electron Microscope Unit and Department of Zoology, University of Durban... 259, 51?60. Grace A. L.,Ganey, L. F. Jr. (1987) The eC128ects of copper on the heart rate and ?ltration rate of M. edulis. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18, 87?91. 120 Marine Pollution Bulletin Gregory, M. A., George, R. C. and McClurg. (1996...

  8. Upregulation of CD54 and downregulation of HLA‑ABC contribute to the novel enhancement of the susceptibility of HL-60 cells to NK cell-mediated cytolysis induced by ATRA plus VPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huijuan; Li, Lianlian; Han, Yang; Ma, Ruiping; Liao, Qiong; Tian, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Xia; Song, Guanhua; Guo, Qiang; Li, Xia; Ding, Huifang; Jiang, Guosheng

    2017-01-01

    Enhancement of the susceptibility of HL-60 cells to NK cell-mediated cytolysis induced by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) plus valproate (VPA) was evaluated. In addition to the synergistic effect of ATRA plus VPA on HL-60 cells, the optimal concentration of 1 mM VPA plus 0.5 µM ATRA increased the cytotoxic sensitivity of HL-60 cells to NK cells. The expression of the activated receptors NKp30 and NKG2D on NK-92 cells was higher compared with the levels noted for the other receptors, and the expression of NKG2D ligands MICA/B on HL-60 cells was not significantly upregulated in the ATRA plus VPA goup compared with the control. Moreover, it was observed that the ligands of NKp30 on HL-60 cells presented the same variation trend. As to the co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules on NK-92 and their ligands on HL-60 cells post exposure to ATRA and VPA alone or their combination, there was no obvious change in the expression of CD112, CD48 and CD70 on the HL-60 cells. However, the expression of CD54 on HL-60 cells was significantly upregulated. In contrast, the expression of NKG2A ligands HLA-ABC on HL-60 cells was obviously downregulated. In addition, the expression of HLA-E on the HL-60 cells in the group treated with ATRA plus VPA was not significantly increased. In conclusion, the combination of VPA and ATRA not only induced the differentiation of HL-60 cells, but also induced enhancement of the sensitivity of HL-60 cells to NK cells by downregulating the expression of HLA-ABC and upregulating the expression of CD54, but not MICA/MICB. The results provide experimental and theoretical basis for the clinical combination of a low-dose of ATRA plus VPA for the treatment of leukemia.

  9. AGRO-BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAGENARIA (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. IN IMAGES AND SYMBOLS Агро-ботанические характеристики лагенарии (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. в образах и символах

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the agro-botanical characteristics of pumpkin annual plants – lagenaria ( Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. have been consider in article. The task of the analytical study went in search of communication between anatomic-morphological characteristics of plant and use this in the images, the iconography of the cultural traditions of different nation

  10. AGRO-BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LAGENARIA (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) IN IMAGES AND SYMBOLS Агро-ботанические характеристики лагенарии (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) в образах и символах

    OpenAIRE

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the agro-botanical characteristics of pumpkin annual plants – lagenaria ( Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) have been consider in article. The task of the analytical study went in search of communication between anatomic-morphological characteristics of plant and use this in the images, the iconography of the cultural traditions of different nation

  11. The Impact of ATRA on Shaping Human Myeloid Cell Responses to Epithelial Cell-Derived Stimuli and on T-Lymphocyte Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A plays an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis but its interplay with chemokines has not been explored so far. Using an in vitro model system we studied the effects of human colonic epithelial cells (Caco2, HT-29, and HCT116 derived inflammatory stimuli on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. Unstimulated Caco2 and HT-29 cells secreted CCL19, CCL21, and CCL22 chemokines, which could attract dendritic cells and macrophages and induced CCR7 receptor up-regulation by retinoic-acid resulting in dendritic cell migration. The chemokines Mk, CXCL16, and CXCL7 were secreted by all the 3 cell lines tested, and upon stimulation by IL-1β or TNF-α this effect was inhibited by ATRA but had no impact on CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL20 secretion in response to IL-1β. In the presence of ATRA the supernatants of these cells induced CD103 expression on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and when conditioned by ATRA and cocultured with CD4+ T-lymphocytes they reduced the proportion of Th17 T-cells. However, in the macrophage-T-cell cocultures the number of these effector T-cells was increased. Thus cytokine-activated colonic epithelial cells trigger the secretion of distinct combinations of chemokines depending on the proinflammatory stimulus and are controlled by retinoic acid, which also governs dendritic cell and macrophage responses.

  12. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883 and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835

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    Prosper L. Mfilinge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS, foregut (FG, midgut (MG, hindgut (HG, and faecal pellets (FPs indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, and branched fatty acids (BrFAs were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems.

  13. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) based on the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is a useful genomic region for understanding evolutionary and genetic relationships. In the current study, the molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) was performed using the nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ITS region in nine species of this family. The sequences were obtained from the scallop species Argopecten irradians, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, Amusium pleuronectes and Mimachlamys nobilis, and compared with the published sequences of Aequipecten opercularis, Chlamys farreri, C. distorta, M. varia, Pecten maximus, and an outgroup species Perna viridis. The molecular phylogenetic tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS1, ITS2, or their combination always yielded trees of similar topology. The results support the morphological classifications of bivalve and are nearly consistent with classification of two subfamilies (Chlamydinae and Pectininae) formulated by Waller. However, A. irradians, together with A. opercularis made up of genera Amusium, evidences that they may belong to the subfamily Pectinidae. The data are incompatible with the conclusion of Waller who placed them in Chlamydinae by morphological characteristics. These results provide new insights into the evolutionary relationships among scallop species and contribute to the improvement of existing classification systems.

  15. Evolution of sex-dependent mtDNA transmission in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Davide; Plazzi, Federico; Stewart, Donald T; Bogan, Arthur E; Hoeh, Walter R; Breton, Sophie

    2017-05-08

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) describes a mode of mtDNA transmission widespread in gonochoric freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Palaeoheterodonta: Unionida). In this system, both female- and male-transmitted mtDNAs, named F and M respectively, coexist in the same species. In unionids, DUI is strictly correlated to gonochorism and to the presence of the atypical open reading frames (ORFans) F-orf and M-orf, respectively inside F and M mtDNAs, which are hypothesized to participate in sex determination. However, DUI is not found in all three Unionida superfamilies (confirmed in Hyrioidea and Unionoidea but not in Etherioidea), raising the question of its origin in these bivalves. To reconstruct the co-evolution of DUI and of ORFans, we sequenced the mtDNAs of four unionids (two gonochoric with DUI, one gonochoric and one hermaphroditic without DUI) and of the related gonochoric species Neotrigonia margaritacea (Palaeoheterodonta: Trigoniida). Our analyses suggest that rearranged mtDNAs appeared early during unionid radiation, and that a duplicated and diverged atp8 gene evolved into the M-orf associated with the paternal transmission route in Hyrioidea and Unionoidea, but not in Etherioidea. We propose that novel mtDNA-encoded genes can deeply influence bivalve sex determining systems and the evolution of the mitogenomes in which they occur.

  16. Potencial de árvores frutíferas para a atração de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ribeiro Góes-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o potencial atrativo de aves presente em oito espécies de árvores frutíferas: Callicarpa reevesii Wall.ex Walp., Ficus microcarpa L.f., Ficus tomentella Miq., Michelia champaca L., Morus nigra L., Nectandra nitidula Nees, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham. A interação de aves-plantas foi observada no município de Ouro Fino (MG, nos domínios da Serra da Mantiqueira. As referentes árvores foram observadas durante 24 horas nos períodos em que estavam frutificando, entre julho de 2007 a abril de 2008. Com o uso de ferramentas de análise de diversidade biológica, pode-se constatar que as espécies com maiores potenciais de atração de aves foram Ficus microcarpa, Ficus tomentella, Morus nigra, Nectandra nitidula e Schinus terebinthifolius e as espécies de aves que apresentaram alto índice de interação com as árvores foram Dacnis cayana, Elaenia flavogaster, Tangara cayana, Tersina viridis, Thraupis sayaca, Turdus amaurochalinus e Turdus rufiventris.

  17. Control of the biological process through continuous measurement of the sludge age. Experiences in the WWTP Molina de Segura (Murcia, Spain); Control del proceso biologico mediante la medida en continuo de la edad del fango. Experiencias en la EDAr Molina de Segura (Murcia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, F.; Pradas, P.; Lardin, C.; Simon, P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the results obtained when a sludge age based control is incorporated in the biological process of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Greater stability of the biological process is achieved when this control is implemented in WWTP of Molina de Segura. In particular biodiversity has increased and it has been possible to reduce and stabilize the secondary sludge production. An improvement of the sludge decantation and a reduction of the specific volumetric load of secondary clarifiers have also been observed. finally, costs have been reduced dur to the decrease of cationic polyelectrolyte consumption. (Author) 16 refs.

  18. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) and Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) sold in Campinas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana O Rocha; Maria Magali S. R. Soares; Cristiana Leslie Corrêa

    2004-01-01

    A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene) e de Peumus boldus (Molina) Lyons (boldo-do-Chile) comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usa...

  19. Regulation of CD11b transcription by decreasing PRC2 and increased acH4 level during ATRA-induced HL-60 differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huarong Tang; Fangping Chen; Qian Tan; Sanqin Tan; Linxin Liu; Fan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2),which mediates trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (K27me3),plays an important role in many types of stem cell differentiation.Here,we try to reveal how PRC2,PRC2-mediated repressive histone marker H3K27me3,and active histone marker histone H4 acetylation (acH4) regulate the CD11b transcription during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced HL-60 leukemia cell differentiation.By using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis,we found that the mRNA and protein expression levels of two members of PRC2 were decreased during ATRA-induced HL-60 differentiation,respectively.When treated with ATRA for 72 h,the EZH2 and SUZ12 mRNA levels were decreased to 35% and 38% of the control group,respectively.At the same time,the granulocytic mature surface marker CD11b expression was increased significantly at mRNA level detected by qPCR and protein level detected by flow cytometry.By using chromatin immunoprecipita-tion assay,we compared the local changes in SUZ12 binding and PRC2-mediated H3K27me3 at the promo-ter of CD11b during ATRA-induced HL-60 differ-entiation.Both the levels of SUZ12 binding and PRC2-mediated H3K27me3 at the promoter of CD11b were decreased for 4.1 and 3.8 folds,respectively.And we also found the increase in the acH4 level up to 4 folds after 72 h of ATRA treatment.These results suggested that the histone modification including PRC2-mediated repressive histone marker H3K27me3 and active histone marker acH4 may involve in CD11b transcription during HL-60 leukemia cells reprogram-ming to terminal differentiation.

  20. Un Andalou au Pays basque. Ardor guerrero de Muñoz Molina (1995) : problèmes identitaires pendant la Transition espagnole (1975-1982)

    OpenAIRE

    Elvire Diaz

    2007-01-01

    L’écrivain, journaliste et académicien, Antonio Muñoz Molina (Jaén, 1956) retrace dans Ardor guerrero, roman à caractère autobiographique, son expérience militaire en tant qu’appelé, affecté au Pays Basque, entre octobre 1979 et décembre 1980. Dans un contexte de transition politique et idéologique, qui définit les Statuts d’autonomie des anciennes régions « historiques», le narrateur-personnage d’Ardor guerrero décrit et analyse non seulement la rudesse de la vie militaire dans la caserne de...

  1. Un Andalou au Pays basque. Ardor guerrero de Muñoz Molina (1995 : problèmes identitaires pendant la Transition espagnole (1975-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvire Diaz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available L’écrivain, journaliste et académicien, Antonio Muñoz Molina (Jaén, 1956 retrace dans Ardor guerrero, roman à caractère autobiographique, son expérience militaire en tant qu’appelé, affecté au Pays Basque, entre octobre 1979 et décembre 1980. Dans un contexte de transition politique et idéologique, qui définit les Statuts d’autonomie des anciennes régions « historiques», le narrateur-personnage d’Ardor guerrero décrit et analyse non seulement la rudesse de la vie militaire dans la caserne de...

  2. Occurrence of Conepatus chinga (Molina (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae and other terrestrial mammals in the Serra do Mar, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 19 additional mammalian species are reported in the Atlantic forest of the Paranean Serra do Mar, southern Brazil, including threatened and rare species. These findings resulted from a one-year field research in the western slope of the Serra do Mar, Piraquara municipality, with additional review of reports about mammal distribution in the region. Preliminarily mammal richness in the region is round 54 species, but this number could be higher with more systematic surveys, particularly with regards to bats. The occurrence of the hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, is reported for the first time in the eastern portion of Paraná, a State vastly deforested during the last century in Brazil.Neste artigo, 19 espécies adicionais de mamíferos são informadas para a Floresta Atlântica da Serra do Mar paranaense, sul do Brasil, incluindo espécies ameaçadas e raras. Este relato é resultado de uma pesquisa de campo de um ano na vertente oeste da Serra do Mar, município de Piraquara¸ com revisão adicional de relatos sobre a distribuição de mamíferos na região. A riqueza preliminar de mamíferos na Serra do Mar paranaense é de 54 espécies, mas este número poderá aumentar quando mais inventários faunísticos forem realizados, principalmente para morcegos. A ocorrência do cangambá, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, é relatada pela primeira vez na porção leste do Paraná, um Estado altamente desflorestado neste último século no Brasil.

  3. Effect of methanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standley fruits on marble-burying behavior in mice: Implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is the fourth most common mental disorder and is diagnosed nearly as often as asthma and diabetes mellitus. Over the last decade, the inhibition of burying of glass marbles by mice has been used as an index of anti-OCD drug action in the so-called marble-burying test. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standley (LS, commonly known as "bottle gourd" (English, possesses several medicinal properties; little is known about its action as a nerve tonic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the anti-OCD (anti-compulsive activity of the methanolic extract of the fruits of L. siceraria (Molina Standley (LS using the marble-burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in specific animal models of Swiss albino mice to evaluate marble-burying behavior. Results and Conclusions: Intraperitonial administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg of LS extract significantly (P < 0.001 decreased the total number of buried marbles. The effect was comparable to that of the fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.. Fluoxetine and LS fruit extract do not produce any overt motor dysfunction. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of LS showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, sterols, proteins, tannins and carbohydrates. The results of the study for the first time show that the plant possesses anti-compulsive (anti-OCD activity, confirming the traditional claims. Future research should focus on the identification and the mechanism of action of the constituents from this plant.

  4. Combination of nanoparticle-delivered siRNA for Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA): an effective therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Srivastava, Jyoti; Ebeid, Kareem; Gredler, Rachel; Akiel, Maaged; Jariwala, Nidhi; Robertson, Chadia L.; Shen, Xue-Ning; Siddiq, Ayesha; Fisher, Paul B.; Salem, Aliasger K.; Sarkar, Devanand

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a fatal cancer with no effective therapy. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a pivotal role in hepatocarcinogenesis and inhibits retinoic acid-induced gene expression and cell death. Combination of a lentivirus expressing AEG-1 shRNA and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) profoundly and synergistically inhibited subcutaneous human HCC xenografts in nude mice. We now have developed liver-targeted nanoplexes by conjugating poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and lactobionic acid (Gal) (PAMAM-PEG-Gal) which were complexed with AEG-1 siRNA (PAMAM-AEG-1si). The polymer conjugate was characterized by 1H-NMR, MALDI and mass spectrometry, and optimal nanoplex formulations were characterized for surface charge, size and morphology. Orthotopic xenografts of human HCC cell QGY-7703 expressing luciferase (QGY-luc) were established in the livers of athymic nude mice and tumor development was monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Tumor-bearing mice were treated with PAMAM-siCon, PAMAM-siCon+ATRA, PAMAM-AEG-1si and PAMAM-AEG-1si+ATRA. In the control group the tumor developed aggressively. ATRA showed little effect due to high AEG-1 levels in QGY-luc cells. PAMAM-AEG-1si showed significant reduction in tumor growth and the combination of PAMAM-AEG-1si+ATRA showed profound and synergistic inhibition so that the tumors were almost undetectable by BLI. A marked decrease in AEG-1 level was observed in tumor samples treated with PAMAM-AEG-1si. The group treated with PAMAM-AEG-1si+ATRA nanoplexes showed increased necrosis, inhibition of proliferation and increased apoptosis when compared to other groups. Liver is an ideal organ for RNAi therapy and ATRA is an approved anti-cancer agent. Our exciting observations suggest that the combinatorial approach might be an effective way to combat HCC. PMID:26079152

  5. TENSIONES ENTRE LITERATURA, CIENCIA, EXPERIENCIA E HISTORIA EN UN INTELECTUAL DE LA SATTELZEIT HISPANOAMERICANA: LOS PREFACIOS EN LA PROSA CIENTÍFICA DE JUAN IGNACIO MOLINA Tensions between literature, science, experience and history in an intellectual of the Sattelzeit in Spanish America: the prefaces in the scientific prose of Juan Ignacio Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo de Nordenflycht B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se propone una revisión de los prefacios de las principales obras de Juan Ignacio Molina (el Compendio anónimo de 1776, el Saggio de 1782 traducido al español como Compendio en 1788 y el Saggio de 1810 a fin de evidenciar cómo ciertos aspectos literarios de su prosa científica -en particular, los problemas del género (ensayo, compendio la escritura de "historias naturales", el significado del narrar y el sentido de la experiencia del sujeto- ilustran las tensiones inherentes durante el proceso del cambio semántico del concepto de "ciencia" en el marco de la Sattelzeit hispanoamericana.A study which propounds a review of the prefaces of Juan Ignacio Molina's principal works (the anonymous Compendio 1116, the Saggio 1782, translated into Spanish like Compendio in 1788 and the Saggio 1810 in order to demonstrate how certain literary aspects of his scientific prose -in particular, gender issues (essay, compendium, the writing of "Natural History", the meaning of the narrative and the sense of the subject's experience- ¡Ilustrate the tensions inherent in the process of semantic change of the concept of "science" in the frame of the Sattelzeit in Spanish América.

  6. Modulated mechanism of phosphatidylserine on the catalytic activity of Naja naja atra phospholipase A2 and Notechis scutatus scutatus notexin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Yi-Ling; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Hu, Wan-Ping; Chang, Long-Sen

    2014-12-15

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization is a hallmark for apoptotic death of cells. Previous studies showed that Naja naja atra phospholipase A2 (NnaPLA2) and Notechis scutatus scutatus notexin induced apoptosis of human cancer cells. However, NnaPLA2 and notexin did not markedly disrupt the integrity of cellular membrane as evidenced by membrane permeability of propidium iodide. These findings reflected that the ability of NnaPLA2 and notexin to hydrolyze membrane phospholipids may be affected by PS externalization. To address that question, this study investigated the membrane-interacted mode and catalytic activity of NnaPLA2 and notexin toward outer leaflet (phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin/cholesterol, PC/SM/Chol) and inner leaflet (phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylethanolamine/cholesterol, PS/PE/Chol) of plasma membrane-mimicking vesicles. PS incorporation promoted enzymatic activity of NnaPLA2 and notexin on PC and PC/SM vesicles, but suppressed NnaPLA2 and notexin activity on PC/SM/Chol and PE/Chol vesicles. PS incorporation increased the membrane fluidity of PC vesicles but reduced membrane fluidity of PC/SM, PC/SM/Chol and PE/Chol vesicles. PS increased the phospholipid order of all the tested vesicles. Moreover, PS incorporation did not greatly alter the binding affinity of notexin and NnaPLA2 with phospholipid vesicles. Acrylamide quenching studies and trinitrophenylation of Lys residues revealed that membrane-bound mode of notexin and NnaPLA2 varied with the targeted membrane compositions. The fine structure of catalytic site in NnaPLA2 and notexin in all the tested vesicles showed different changes. Collectively, the present data suggest that membrane-inserted PS modulates PLA2 interfacial activity via its effects on membrane structure and membrane-bound mode of NnaPLA2 and notexin, and membrane compositions determine the effect of PS on PLA2 activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mollusca: Bivalvia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-06-05

    Jun 5, 1987 ... membrane of which is thickened, connect the spermatids. (Figure 2) . As the ... vesicle, which is of uniform electron opacity (0,5 f1m diameter) .... macerophyl/a and Spisula solidissima the outer electron- opaque region of the ...

  8. Comparative mitogenomic analysis reveals cryptic species: A case study in Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Meng, Xue Ping; Chu, Ka Hou; Zhao, Na Na; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese surf clam Mactra chinensis Philippi, 1846 is a commercially important marine bivalve belonging to the family Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). In this study, the M. chinensis mitochondrial genomic features are analyzed. The genome has 34 genes on the same strand, lacking atp8 and both trnS (trnS1 and trnS2) as compared with the typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The A+T content of M. chinensis mitochondrial genome is 63.72%, which is slightly lower than that of M. veneriformis (67.59%) and Coelomactra antiquata (64.33% and 64.14% for the samples from Ri Zhao, Shandong Province, and Zhang Zhou, Fujian Province, China, respectively) in the same family. There are 22 NCRs in the M. chinensis mitochondrial genome, accounting for 12.91% of the genome length. The longest NCR (1,075bp in length) is located between trnT and trnQ. A TRS (127bp×8.15) accounts for 96.3% (1,035/1,075) of this NCR. The occurrence of TRS in NCR is shared by the two Mactra mitochondrial genomes, but is not found in the two Coelomactra mitochondrial genomes. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 12 PCGs of 25 bivalve mitochondrial genomes shows that all seven genera (Mactra, Coelomactra, Paphia, Meretrix, Solen, Mytilus, and Crassostrea) constitute monophyletic groups with very high support values. Pairwise genetic distance analyses indicate that the genetic distance of C. antiquata from the two localities is 0.084, which is greater than values between congeneric species, such as those in Mactra, Mytilus, Meretrix, and Crassostrea. The results show that the C. antiquata from the two localities represent cryptic species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors driving changes in freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionida) diversity and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieritz, Alexandra; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Bogan, Arthur E; Sousa, Ronaldo; Walton, Samuel; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Wilson, John-James; Ng, Pei-Yin; Froufe, Elsa; McGowan, Suzanne

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) fulfil important ecosystem functions and are one of the most threatened freshwater taxa globally. Knowledge of freshwater mussel diversity, distribution and ecology in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely poor, and the conservation status of half of the species presumed to occur in the region has yet to be assessed. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of Peninsular Malaysia's freshwater mussels based on species presence/absence and environmental data collected from 155 sites spanning all major river catchments and diverse habitat types. Through an integrative morphological-molecular approach we recognised nine native and one widespread non-native species, i.e. Sinanodonta woodiana. Two species, i.e. Pilsbryoconcha compressa and Pseudodon cambodjensis, had not been previously recorded from Malaysia, which is likely a result of morphological misidentifications of historical records. Due to their restriction to single river catchments and declining distributions, Hyriopsis bialata, possibly endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, Ensidens ingallsianus, possibly already extinct in the peninsula, and Rectidens sumatrensis, particularly require conservation attention. Equally, the Pahang, the Perak and the north-western river catchments are of particular conservation value due to the presence of a globally unique freshwater mussel fauna. Statistical relationships of 15 water quality parameters and mussel presence/absence identified acidification and nutrient pollution (eutrophication) as the most important anthropogenic factors threatening freshwater mussel diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. These factors can be linked to atmospheric pollution, deforestation, oil-palm plantations and a lack of functioning waste water treatment, and could be mitigated by establishing riparian buffers and improving waste water treatment for rivers running through agricultural and residential land.

  10. Unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masteller, E.C.; Maleski, K.R.; Schloesser, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine species composition and relative abundance of unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania 1990-1992. This information was compared with data from the only other extensive survey of unionids in the bay conducted in 1909-1911 (Ortmann 1919) to assess changes over the 80 years preceding the present study. A total of 1,540 individuals representing 18 species were collected in 1990-1992. Five relatively common species (between 7 and 42% of total individuals), six uncommon species (2 and 6%), and seven rare species (<1%) were found. The rare species were Anodontoides ferussacianus, Lasmigona costata, Ligumia recta, Ptychobranchus fasciolaris, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa, Strophitus undaulatus, and Truncilla donaciformis. Five of the species found in Presque Isle Bay (Leptodea fragilis, Ligumia nasuta, Potamilus alatus, Quadrula quadrula, and Truncilla donaciformis) are listed as critically imperiled and one species (Truncilla truncata) as extirpated in the State of Pennsylvania by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. Comparisons between unionid populations in 1909-1911 and 1990-1992 indicate few substantial changes occurred during the past 80 years. A total of 22 species were found; 21 in 1909-1911 and 18 in 1990-1992. Seventeen species were found in both studies, an additional four in 1909-1911 and one in 1990-1992. The relative abundance of 11 of the 17 species found in both studies remained stable (i.e., common or uncommon) over the past 80 years. Only four species listed as uncommon in 1909-1911 were listed as rare in 1990-1992. However, the invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is considered a threat to the continued existence of the entire Unionidae fauna in Presque Isle Bay, a unique habitat of the Great Lakes.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

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    Tëmkin Ilya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts of Solemya velum say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, J. A.; Smith, S W; Cavanaugh, Colleen Marie

    1992-01-01

    The protobranch bivalve Solemya velum Say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) houses chemoautotrophic symbionts intracellularly within its gills. These symbionts were characterized through sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA coding regions and hybridization of an Escherichia coli gene probe to S. velum genomic DNA restriction fragments. The symbionts appeared to have only one copy of the 16S rRNA gene. The lack of variability in the 16S sequence and hybridization patterns within and b...

  13. Determination of protein-carbonyls and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis as biomarkers of oxidative-stress in bivalvia and anthozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Stephen Thomas

    2002-07-01

    This study describes the investigation of biomarkers of oxidative-stress in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Dosinia lupinus, together with host and symbiont tissues of the scleractinian Anthozoa Agaricia agaricites. The biomarkers used were assay of total (via spectrophotometry) and individual (via Western blotting; Oxyblot kit) protein-carbonyls (PC=Os) and content of ubiquitin protein conjugates (UPC) via Western blotting (Bivalvia and Anthozoa) and immunohistochemistry (Anthozoa only). Additional assays for Bivalvia were Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and post {gamma}-irradiation survival rates. Experimental stressors for Bivalvia were increased seawater temperature, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation (latter two were used in vivo and in vitro). Comparisons of clean and polluted marine sites are included. Stressors used for Anthozoa were increased solar irradiation concomitant with elevated seawater temperature. Results and conclusions were as follows: individual samples showed considerable variation, pooling of samples improved consistency. Controls for both biomarkers had detectable background levels in each phylum, against which relatively small differences were assessed. In M. edulis, no measurable differences in PC=Os could be determined when elevated seawater temperature or dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (<30% v/v) stressors were used, nor with between-site comparisons. Concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30% v/v) produced a small difference. {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation produced clearer differences via Oxyblot and spectrophotometric assays. Comparison of four different tissues from the two bivalves found considerable species-specific and tissue-specific differences. Post-irradiation mortality between species was significantly different (<0.001), D. lupinus was more susceptible than M. edulis. TEAC values generally showed a decrease following irradiation (except for digestive gland). UPCs were clearly different between tissues and

  14. Atração e desligamento voluntário de jovens empregados: um estudo de caso no setor jornalístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Barbosa de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo de caso de natureza exploratória, desenvolvido em uma grande empresa do setor jornalístico, o objetivo foi analisar fatores de atração e perda de jovens que voluntariamente optaram por deixar a organização. A fundamentação teórica para a pesquisa foi construída a partir dos seguintes pilares: aspirações de trabalho e carreira da chamada geração Y, fatores de atração e retenção e cultura organizacional, tendo em vista a identificação da necessidade de adaptação da cultura da empresa aos novos desafios estratégicos e competitivos que vem enfrentando. O levantamento de dados foi feito por meio de 17 entrevistas em profundidade com jovens da geração Y que pediram demissão após pelo menos um ano de estágio e/ou trabalho na empresa. Como principais fatores de atração, destacaram-se a imagem e a reputação do principal jornal da empresa, que muito contribui para a construção de sua marca empregadora. Por outro lado, alguns traços da cultura organizacional apresentaram contraste com aspectos valorizados pelos participantes, indicando incongruência de valores, que pode estar levando a organização a perder jovens talentos, considerados importantes ante a necessidade de renovar seu quadro funcional e sua cultura. Com relação às motivações pessoais para deixar a empresa, foram identificados três grupos de jovens – idealistas, carreiristas e imediatistas –, orientados por anseios e perspectivas profissionais distintos.

  15. Actividad de polvo, extractos y aceite esencial de Peumus boldus Molina solos y en mezcla con Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner contra Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) y Helicoverpa zea (Boddie).

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Aguayo, Gonzalo Iván

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron en condiciones de laboratorio e invernadero las propiedades insecticidas del polvo, aceite esencial y extracto en cloruro de metileno de Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), además del alcaloide boldina y el terpeno 1-8-cineol (eucaliptol), solos y en combinación con Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) y Helicoverpa zea Boddie. Se realizaron bioensayos para evaluar mortalidad, efecto en el ciclo de vida y las preferencias alimenticias de l...

  16. The Upper Miocene of the Rostov Dome (Eastern Paratethys: Implication of the chronostratigraphy and bivalvia-based biostratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rostov Dome is located in the south of the Russian Platform. In the Late Miocene this area was embraced by the Eastern Paratethys. The implications of a recently developed Neogene chronostratigraphy to the studied area are discussed. The Sarmatian regional stage corresponds to the upper part of the Langhian, the entire Serravalian and the lower part of the Tortonian global stages; the Maeotian regional stage corresponds to the upper part of the Tortonian and the lowermost horizons of the Messinian global stages; the Pontian regional stage corresponds to most of the Messinian and the lowermost Zanclean global stages. A first Bivalvia-based bio-stratigraphic framework is proposed for the territory of the Rostov Dome. Five biozones were established within the Serravalian-Messinian: Tapes vitalianus, Cerastoderma fittoni-Cerastoderma subfittoni, Congeria panticapaea, Congeria amygdaloides navicula and Monodacna pseudocatillus-Prosodacna schirvanica.

  17. Arquitectura fluvial de las «Areniscas del río Arandilla». Triásico de Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Moya, Y.

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available The outstanding outcrops of Upper Buntsandstein sediments (Middle Triassic in Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara area, allow a detailed study of their characteristics and their associations which are described here. The fluvial architecture of the section indicates four main depositional episodes. The two lowest episodes were laid down by a fluvial system characterized by frequent channel shifting, low sinuosity and wide shallow channels. The drainage basin was controlled by highly seasonal discharge. The middle episode evolved into a more distal systems, with smaller higher sinuosity channels and fine overbank deposits. The uppermost episode is related to an increase of slope in the basin. That increase is probably related to tectonic movements recorded in this area. An attempt has been made to correlate the above events to the global sea level fluctuations (Haq et al., 1987. So, the low stage that have been stated occurred during Early Anisian can be tentatively correlated with the uppermost episode in Areniscas del río Arandilla.Los excelentes afloramientos de la parte superior del Buntsandstein (Triásico medio en Molina de Aragón (Guadalajara, han permitido llevar a cabo un análisis sedimentológico detallado de las facies fluviales y de su arquitectura. Se han distinguido doce diferentes facies cuyas características y asociaciones se describen en este trabajo. La evolución fluvial indica la existencia de cuatro episodios deposicionales. Los dos episodios inferiores son característicos de un sistema fluvial con canales de baja sinuosidad, inestables, de gran amplitud y poca profundidad. El drenaje de la cuenca estaba controlado por importantes descargas estacionales. El episodio intermedio es el resultado de la evolución del sistema hacia facies más distales. En esta etapa los canales son de menor tamaño, la sinuosidad es mayor y existe un mayor porcentaje de depósitos de granulometría fina relacionados con la llanura de inundaci

  18. Juan Ignacio Molina y la comprensión de la naturaleza del Finis Terrae. Un acercamiento desde la Historia (cultural de la Ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orrego González, Francisco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of the work of the Chilean Jesuit Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, especially since the Chilean historiography, has accused an important criticism myopia about of the naturalist that constantly has been considered, with fairly light weight, as the “first Chilean scientist”. The fundamental importance of exile as a scientific vocation, the European controversies about the New World and the institutional conditions and political mechanisms that allowed the development of scientific knowledge in late eighteenth century are elements that have not been integrated into the analysis of the work of the naturalist Chilean who came to integrate the Bologna Academy of Sciences. Therefore, the proposed historical analysis of this article seeks to break the apologetic historiography in order to present the work and figure of the Chilean Jesuit in a broad historical context, in an attempt to provide alternative answers, shows part of the political and epistemological problems that influenced the development of scientific thought of the Chilean naturalist.El estudio de la obra del jesuita chileno Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, especialmente desde la historiografía chilena, ha acusado una importante miopía crítica respecto del naturalista que constantemente ha sido considerado, con bastante ligereza, como el “primer científico chileno”. La importancia fundamental del exilio como vocación científica, las controversias europeas sobre el Nuevo Mundo y las condiciones institucionales y mecanismos políticos que permitieron el desarrollo del conocimiento científico a fines del siglo XVIII son elementos que no han sido integrados en el análisis de la obra del naturalista chileno quien llegó a integrar la Accademia delle Scienze di Bologna. Por tanto, la propuesta de análisis histórico de este artículo busca romper con la historiografía apologética para presentar la obra y la figura del jesuita chileno en un contexto histórico amplio y

  19. Purification, partial characterization, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of a novel cardiotoxin-like basic protein from Naja naja atra (South Anhui) venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Hui; Li, Yan; Lou, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Xio; Gao, Yong-xiang; Teng, Mai-kun, E-mail: mkteng@ustc.edu.cn; Niu, Li-wen, E-mail: mkteng@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Key Laboratory of Structural Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2007-02-01

    A novel cardiotoxin-like basic protein from Naja naja atra was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.35 Å resolution. A novel cardiotoxin-like basic protein was isolated from the venom of the Chinese cobra (Naja naja atra) from the south of Anhui in China. The protein inhibits the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in human lung cancer cell line H1299 and induces the haemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes under low-lecithin conditions. After a two-step chromatographic purification, the resultant 7 kDa protein was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. A complete data set was collected to 2.35 Å resolution using an in-house X-ray diffraction system. The crystal belongs to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 43.2, c = 147.9 Å. There are two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit.

  20. Crystallographic observation of pH-induced conformational changes in the Amyelois transitella pheromone-binding protein AtraPBP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric di Luccio

    Full Text Available The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella is a major agricultural pest causing large losses in a variety of tree crops. Control of this insect pest may be achieved by interfering with olfactory pathways to block detection of female-produced sex pheromones and consequently, disrupt mating. The first component of this pathway is the pheromone-binding protein AtraPBP1, which recognizes the pheromone and presents it to the odorant receptor housed in a sensory neuron of the male antennae. Release of the ligand depends on a pH-induced conformational change associated with the acidity of the membrane surface. To characterize this conformational change and to understand how pheromones bind, we have determined the high resolution crystal structures of AtraPBP1 in complex with two main constituents of the sex pheromone, i.e., (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal and (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienol. Comparison with the structure of the unliganded form demonstrates a large ∼90° movement of the C-terminal helix which is observed in other pheromone- or odorant-binding proteins accompanied by an unpredicted 37° displacement of the N-terminal helix. Molecular dynamic trajectories suggest that the conformational change of the α1 helix facilitates the movement of the C-terminal helix.

  1. AChE and EROD activities in two echinoderms, Holothuria leucospilota and Holoturia atra (Holothuroidea), in a coral reef (Reunion Island, South-western Indian Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, Joanna; Taddei, Dorothée; Cuet, Pascale; Frouin, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    AChE and EROD activities were investigated in two holothurian species, Holothuria leucospilota and Holoturia atra, from a tropical coral reef. These organisms were collected from 3 back-reef stations, where temperature and salinity were homogeneous. The activity levels of both AChE and EROD varied significantly between the two species, but were in the range of values determined in other echinoderm species. AChE activity levels were higher in the longitudinal muscle than in the tentacle tegument. Among the several tissues tested, the digestive tract wall exhibited higher EROD activity levels. Sex did not influence AChE and EROD activity levels in both species. Animal biomass and EROD activity levels were only correlated in the tegument tissue of H. atra, and we hypothesize a possible influence of age. EROD activity did not show intraspecific variability. A significant relationship was found between AChE activity and Cuvierian tubules time of expulsion in Holothuria leucospilota. Individuals collected at the southern site presented both lower AChE activity levels and Cuvierian tubules time of expulsion, indicating possible neural disturbance. More information on holothurians biology and physiology is needed to further assess biomarkers in these key species. This study is the first of its kind performed in the coastal waters of Reunion Island and data obtained represent reference values.

  2. Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches’-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing Presencia de un Fitoplasma Asociado a la Enfermedad de "Escoba de Bruja" en Ugni molinae Turcz. y Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determinado Mediante DAPI, PCR y Secuenciación de ADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolberto Arismendi S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. and common chaura (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer are native species of Chile. Plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. The causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. To verify the presence of these microorganisms, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Positive PCR samples were sequenced to identify the pathogens involved. In individuals of both species with witches’ broom symptoms, DAPI staining showed fluorescent bodies in the phloem tissues, but not in asymptomatic plants. Verification by nested-PCR, phytoplasmatic DNA was amplified from diseased murta and chaura, but not in apparently healthy plants. Sequencing of amplified products allowed locating phytoplasma within the ash yellows group (16SrVII and related to Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini. This is the first report of phytoplasma in Chilean native species. Considering the diversity of plant species infected by the ash yellows group suggests that G. phillyreifolia and U. molinae could be a phytoplasma reservoir for other economically important agricultural crops.La murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. y la chaura común (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer son especies nativas de Chile. En plantas de ambas especies se ha observado una sobre-ramificación de tipo "escoba de bruja". En muchas plantas los agentes causales de esta sintomatología son fitoplasmas. Para verificar la presencia de estos microorganismos se analizaron plantas con y sin síntomas mediante tinciones DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Muestras positivas en la PCR fueron secuenciadas para identificar al fitopatógeno implicado. En individuos de ambas especies con síntomas de escoba de bruja, la tinción DAPI permitió observar cuerpos fluorescentes en los tejidos del floema, situaci

  3. Optimization of the anaerobic digestion through application of ultrasounds in secondary sludge of the wastewater treatment plant of Molina de Segura (Murcia, Spain); Optimizacion de la digestion anaerobia mediante la aplicacion del ultrasonidos en los fangos secundarios de la EDAR Molina de Segura (Murcia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon Andreu, P. J.; Lardin, C.; Andreu, J. a.; Bolinches Sanchez, S.; Garcia, A.; Pinana, L.; Pradas, P.; Gutierrez Garcia, D.

    2007-07-01

    The application of ultrasounds in secondary sludge in the wastewater treatment plant of Molina de Segura produces an instantaneous hydrolysis on the existing cellular walls in secondary sludge, all it in a time of retention of 2 seconds as opposed to the 8 days of minimum time of required retention in any anaerobic digestion. This hydrolysis instantaneously increases the biodegradable matter easily biodegradable accelerating the processes of digestion and allowing to the passage to next the three stages (acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis), providing great amount of benefits, as are, an increase of the yield of elimination of volatile material, an increase in the production of biogas and a reduction in the production of dehydrated sludge. (Author)

  4. Occurrence and settlement of the common shipworm Teredo navalis (Bivalvia: Teredinidae) in Bremerhaven harbours, northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuente, Uda; Piepenburg, Dieter; Spindler, Michael

    2002-06-01

    The shipworm Teredo navalis L. is a xylophagous bivalve mollusc (Bivalvia: Teredinidae) with a long record of being very destructive to wooden ships and harbour buildings. It has been reported from numerous sites at the coasts of both the North and Baltic Seas since the eighteenth century. Here, we document for the first time the occurrence of live adult T. navalis in the harbours of Bremerhaven (Weser estuary, northern Germany). From August to December 1998, various wooden structures (fir floating fenders and pier posts, oak piles) from seven stations in different docks of two harbours (Überseehafen, Fischereihafen) were investigated for the presence and density of live specimens and burrows of T. navalis. The settlement of larval shipworms was studied by exposing experimental fir panels 0.06 m2 in size at 20 stations at water depths between 1 and 2 m for periods of 4 months between July and November. In addition, hydrographic profiles (0-8 m water depth) were obtained at 17 stations in five docks once every month from August to December. Live adult shipworms were found in both fir floating fenders and oak piles at four stations. The largest specimen found was 250 mm long. Shipworm burrows were detected at five stations in almost every wooden structure investigated but their abundances differed significantly: Maximum values were >10,000 m-2 in fir floating fenders, 4,600 m-2 in oak piles and 200 m-2 in fir pier posts. Actual shipworm infestation was detected at three of 16 stations in the exposed fir panels (1-3 burrow holes per panel). Water temperatures and salinities varied considerably during the 4-month investigation period. Temperatures decreased from 19.9°C in August to 0.7°C in December. Salinities ranged from 17.6 in August to 1.1 in November, but only at two lock stations during November and December did value drop below 5, which is regarded as the lethal limit for the larvae of this euryhaline teredinid species. We conclude that T. navalis encounters

  5. TITLE: Tirso de Molina and The Trickster of Seville: The Traditionalist Hypothesis and the State of the Question. TÍTULO: Tirso de Molina y El burlador de Sevilla: la hipótesis tradicionalista y el estado de la cuestión

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    Alfredo Rodríguez López-Vázquez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper analizes the critical and methodological basis of the two recent Studies about the problems on textual priority and authorship between Tan largo me lo fiáis and El burlador de Sevilla: the edition according to William F. Hunter’s text and the book by Laura Dolfi on the relationship between Tirso de Molina and Don Juan. Our study remarks important omissions in both works, both in the bibliographical field and the ecdotical basis regarding the two texts. We claim that both authors, supporters of the traditional hypothesis on authorship and priority, support their points of view in the form of critical opinions formulated in an insufficient way from the critic point of view and in an incomplete and biased way regarding ecdotical possibilities of both texts. RESUMEN: Este artículo analiza las bases críticas y metodológicas de dos recientes estudios sobre los problemas de la prioridad textual y de la autoría entre Tan largo me lo fiáis y El burlador de Sevilla: the edition according to William F. Hunter’s text and the book by Laura Dolfi sobre la relación entre Tirso de Molina y Don Juan. Nuestro estudio constata importantes omisiones en ambas obras, tanto en el campo bibliográfico como en la fundamentación ecdótica de ambos textos. Sostenemos que ambos autores, partidarios de la hipótesis tradicional sobre la autoría y la prioridad, exponen sus puntos de vista en forma de opiniones críticas formuladas de manera insuficiente desde el punto de vista crítico y de forma incompleta y parcial respecto a las posibilidades ecdóticas de ambos textos.

  6. Bioactivity of a water extract of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Gonzalo Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of water-extract of Peumus boldus Molina and its effect on the development cycle and feeding habits of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Helicoverpa zea Boddie were evaluated under laboratory conditions in concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% (w/w. Spodoptera frugiperda was the most susceptible with 75% mortality at 7 d at 8% P. boldus concentration, while H. zea had only 30% mortality. LC50 was 2.31 mL kg-1 for S. frugiperda and 16.05 mL kg¹ for H. zea. When the extract concentration increased in the diet, larval size and weight, percentage of pupation and number of adults decreased, and the time required to reach those states was greater. Neonate larvae fed primarily on the diet with the lower extract concentration and the control was preferred by more than 50% of larvae. Inhibition of feeding, growth, weight gain of 3rd instar larvae as well as new biomass production decreased with concentration of the extract.

  7. Effect of vacuum storage on shelf life of a grain protector based on Peumus boldus Molina foliage powder and lime against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsk

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    Paulina Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a key pest of stored grain maize. As an ecological pest control alternative, the use of botanical insecticides, such as powder from boldus (Peumus boldus Molina foliage singly or mixed with lime, has been evaluated. Unfortunately, its shelf life is very short and does not exceed 15 d. The effectiveness of vacuum storage on insecticidal properties of a natural grain protector produced with boldus powder:lime at proportions of 50:50 and 60:40 against adults of S. zeamais was assessed under laboratory conditions. Treatments were evaluated at 1% and 2% (w/w for 150 d of storage. All treatments based on boldus powder kept the level of mortality by contact activity over 80% at 150 d of storage. The highest toxicity, as a fumigant, was observed in treatments 50:50 at 2% and 60:40 at 1% and 2% with mortality over 60%. The grain weight loss was less than 1% and seed germination was not affected. With the exception of 0:100 at 2% without vacuum storage, all treatments were repellent to S. zeamais. Vacuum storage extended shelf life of the grain protector for 150 d.

  8. Bioactivity of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde (Monimiacea essential oils against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Carmen Herrera-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is one of most important pest of stored seeds worldwide, but its current control method is based on the use of synthetic insecticides, usually leading to undesirable problems such as insecticide residues on treated food, human intoxications, and insect resistance development. Therefore the search of friendly alternative methods is required. The aim of this study was to assess, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul., and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde essential oils against S. zeamais. The phytochemical analysis of the three essential oils showed 1,8-cineole, safrole and methyleugenol as the common components; all of them documented with insecticidal activity from essential oils from other plant species. The highest toxicity (100% mortality of these three oils acting as a contact insecticide was observed at 24 h exposure at 4% concentration. The estimated LC50 values for P. boldus, L. sempervirens, and L. philippiana were 0.37, 1.02, and 0.28 μL g-1, respectively. Peumus boldus exhibited the highest fumigant activity with 100% adult mortality at 30 μL oil L-1 air. At ≥ 0.5% (v/w concentration, all essential oils showed repellent activity. These three essential oils showed a promissory insecticidal activity against the maize weevil.

  9. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  10. Simbiontes associados com Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae na Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente, Santa Catarina, Brasil Symbionts associated with Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae on Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Guisla Boehs

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Berbigões, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, de bancos naturais da Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente (SC, Brasil, foram examinados quanto a presença de simbiontes. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia e poliquetos espionídeos (Polychaeta foram observados macroscopicamente. A análise das secções histológicas evidenciou esporocistos de trematódeos (Digenea, um metacestóide (Cestoda e dois ciliados (Ciliophora.Pointed venus, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, from natural beds of Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region (SE Brazil were examined in respect of symbiotic associations. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia, and polychaete worms (Polychaeta were found by macroscopic diagnosis. By analysis of histological sections, it was noted trematode sporocysts (Digenea, a metacestode (Cestoda and two ciliates (Ciliophora.

  11. Atração e distração na publicidade externa dos candidatos à eleição em 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Trein

    2015-01-01

    Em 2014, em função de uma série de limitações impostas pela legislação eleitoral, a publicidade externa foi muito usada pelos candidatos. O problema é que as principais avenidas e cruzamentos das cidades foram tomadas por estes cavaletes, gerando uma enorme poluição visual. A partir desta questão é que surge o nosso problema de pesquisa: este acúmulo de quase um cavalete sobre o outro cria uma sensação de atração ou de distração em relação às propagandas políticas dos candidatos? Para isso, c...

  12. El valor adaptativo de la emoción: ¿Por qué nos atrae la información negativa?

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    Fernando Gordillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuamente estamos sometidos a un enorme flujo de información a la que no podemos prestar atención en su totalidad, y que debe ser filtrada por un mecanismo básico. El contenido emocional de la información es clave en este proceso, de manera que aquello que es potencialmente peligroso atrae nuestra atención para poder ser afrontado con prontitud, al mismo tiempo que nos permite un mejor recuerdo de la información que nos será de utilidad en situaciones similares. En este sentido, podríamos decir que la atracción por lo negativo es un requerimiento adaptativo de alerta y prevención.

  13. Effect of cyclic AMP and acridine orange on the enzymatic reduction of usnic acid in the lichen Usnea aurantiaco-atra (Jacq. Bory

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    C. Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescence-detection HPLC procedure has been applied to identify and quantify acridine orange in lichen samples. The dye accumulates in thalli of the lichen Usnea aurantiaco-atra and, in part, it is recovered from protamine-precipitated nucleic acids extracted from the samples. A supply of exogenous cyclic AMP reverses the uptake of acridine orange by thallus samples and its binding to nucleic acids. The dye impedes neither the loss of endogenously-produced cyclic AMP by thallus samples nor inhibits the uptake of that exogenously supplied. However, part of the endogenously produced cyclic AMP is secreted to the incubation medium in which phosphodiesterase activity has never been detected. Since the synthesis of D-usnic acid: NAD+(H oxido-reductase is impeded by acridine orange, oxidative catabolism of usnic acid is inhibited in thalli floated on the dye. Cyclic AMP reverses this effect.

  14. Extrusion of the C-terminal helix in navel orangeworm moth pheromone-binding protein (AtraPBP1) controls pheromone binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Xu, Xianzhong; Leal, Walter S; Ames, James B

    2011-01-07

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is an agricultural insect pest that can be controlled by disrupting male-female communication with sex pheromones, a technique known as mating disruption. Insect pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) provide fast transport of hydrophobic pheromones through aqueous sensillar lymph and promote sensitive delivery of pheromones to receptors. Here we present a mutational analysis on a PBP from A. transitella (AtraPBP1) to evaluate how the C-terminal helix in this protein controls pheromone binding as a function of pH. Pheromone binds tightly to AtraPBP1 at neutral pH, but the binding is much weaker at pH below 5. Deletion of the entire C-terminal helix (residues 129-142) causes more than 100-fold increase in pheromone-binding affinity at pH 5 and only a 1.5-fold increase at pH 7. A similar pH-dependent increase in pheromone binding is also seen for the H80A/H95A double mutant that promotes extrusion of the C-terminal helix by disabling salt bridges at each end of the helix. The single mutants (H80A and H95A) also exhibit pheromone binding at pH below 5, but with ∼2-fold weaker affinity. NMR and circular dichroism data demonstrate a large overall structural change in each of these mutants at pH 4.5, indicating an extrusion of the C-terminal helix that profoundly affects the overall structure of the low pH form. Our results confirm that sequestration of the C-terminal helix at low pH as seen in the recent NMR structure may serve to block pheromone binding. We propose that extrusion of these C-terminal residues at neutral pH (or by the mutations in this study) exposes a hydrophobic cleft that promotes high affinity pheromone binding.

  15. Metabolic characterization of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA-induced craniofacial development of murine embryos using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

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    Feifei Qin

    Full Text Available AIM: To characterize the abnormal metabolic profile of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA-induced craniofacial development in mouse embryos using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS. METHODS: Timed-pregnant mice were treated by oral gavage on the morning of embryonic gestation day 11 (E11 with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA. Dosing solutions were adjusted by maternal body weight to provide 30, 70, or 100 mg/kg RA. The control group was given an equivalent volume of the carrier alone. Using an Agilent 7.0 T MR system and a combination of surface coil coils, a 3 mm×3 mm×3 mm 1H-MRS voxel was selected along the embryonic craniofacial tissue. 1H-MRS was performed with a single-voxel method using PRESS sequence and analyzed using LCModel software. Hematoxylin and eosin was used to detect and confirm cleft palate. RESULT: 1H-MRS revealed elevated choline levels in embryonic craniofacial tissue in the RA70 and RA100 groups compared to controls (P<0.05. Increased choline levels were also found in the RA70 and RA100 groups compared with the RA30 group (P<0.01. High intra-myocellular lipids at 1.30 ppm (IMCL13 in the RA100 group compared to the RA30 group were found (P<0.01. There were no significant changes in taurine, intra-myocellular lipids at 2.10 ppm (IMCL21, and extra-myocellular lipids at 2.30 ppm (EMCL23. Cleft palate formation was observed in all fetuses carried by mice administered 70 and 100 mg/kg RA. CONCLUSIONS: This novel study suggests that the elevated choline and lipid levels found by 1H-MRS may represent early biomarkers of craniofacial defects. Further studies will determine performance of this test and pathogenetic mechanisms of craniofacial malformation.

  16. c-myc but not Hif-1α-dependent downregulation of VEGF influences the proliferation and differentiation of HL-60 cells induced by ATRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guanhua; Li, Yanmei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ren, Xia; Li, Hongjiang; Zhang, Wen; Wei, Ruoying; Pan, Sufei; Shi, Lulu; Bi, Kehong; Jiang, Guosheng

    2013-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in solid tumor growth, progression and metastasis as well as in the proliferation and differentiation of hematological malignancies. However, the molecular mechanism that modulates VEGF expression and secretion in leukemia cells has not yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of the signal pathway in modulating the expression of VEGF in HL-60 cells. Specific siRNAs targeting VEGF were transfected into HL-60 cells and the VEGF expression was measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assay. The cell proliferation of HL-60 cells was detected by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and the differentiation of HL-60 cells induced by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) was detected by the RT-PCR assay and flow cytometry assay for CD11b. The upstream transcription factors that were related to VEGF expression such as P53, SP-1, c-jun, VHL, cox-2, c-myc and stat3 were detected by RT-PCR assay. In addition, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to reveal the role of c-myc by binding the target gene VEGF. The results demonstrated the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-related signaling pathway, not the same as in solid tumors, might not play a key role in modulating VEGF expression. c-myc contributes to the modulation of VEGF expression by targeting the promoter of VEGF, which was indicated by the ChIP assay. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that VEGF plays an important role in the differentiation and proliferation of HL-60 cells; c-myc-dependent downregulation of VEGF induced by ATRA contributes to the differentiation of HL-60 cells.

  17. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) Sevinç KAPAN, Sinem KABASAKAL, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department sevinckapan_yesilyurt@hotmail.com In this study, paleontology and stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary units around south of the Dardanelles have been examined using Gastropoda and Bivalvia fauna. In the investigation area, the base of the sediments that belongs to Neogene, consist of the volcanics which are formed with basalts, andesites and tuff. Neogene begins unconformity with basal conglomerate which are formed with basalt and tuff gravels. The measurable thickness of the Neogene sediments is approximately 200meters in total. First fossiliferius level which consist of Lymnocardium (Euxinicardium) nobile Sabba has showed similarities with the Pontian (Late Miocene) fauna of the Eastern Paratethys. The existence of Melanopsis and Psidium species indicate that the basin has been brackish water feeding by fresh water in the Early Pliocene. Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linne), Theodoxus (Calvertia) aff. imbricata Brusina, Theodoxus (Calvertia) licherdopoli scriptus (Stefanescu), Viviparus mammatus (Stefanescu), Valvata (Valavata) sulekiana Brusina, Valvata (Cincinna) crusitensis Fontannes, Hydrobia cf grandis Cobalcescu, Hydrobia ventrosa Monfort, Melanopsis (Melanopsis) cf. bergeroni Stefanescu, , Melanopsis (Melanopsis) sandbergeri rumana Tournouer, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma anili Taner, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma amaradica Fontannes, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) lanceolata Neumayr, Amphimelania fossariformis (Tournouer), Melanoides tuberculata monolithica (Bukowski), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller), Planorbarius thiollierei (Michaud), Potamida (Potamida) craiovensis craiovensis (Tournouer), Potamida (Potamida) berbestiensis (Fontannes), Unio pristinus davilai Porumbaru, Unio subexquisitus Jatzko, Anadonta zmaji

  18. Caracterización de los suelos de usos agrícolas e industrial de la comarca de Molina de Segura (Murcia) para una planificación racional del territorio

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez García, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende conocer la situación actual de los suelos de la comarca de Molina de Segura (Murcia) así como ver si presentan una planificación racional del territorio ya que no había estudios anteriores que caracterizaran tan detalladamente los tipos y usos de los suelos de esta comarca. Los dos principales tipos de suelos presentes son Regosoles calcáricos (suelos poco evolucionados con un horizonte A ócrico en superficie como único horizonte diagnóstico y con abundante car...

  19. AVES DEL CAMPUS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AGRARIA LA MOLINA (LIMA-PERÚ) - UNA REVISIÓN DE SU ABUNDANCIA, DISTRIBUCIÓN Y DIVERSIDAD DESDE 1992 AL 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Palacios, Lucía; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Castañeda Córdova, Liz; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Quinteros Carlos, Zulema; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2014-01-01

    El campus de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM) Lima – Perú, se presenta como un ecosistema variado y complejo con áreas agrícolas, urbanas y naturales. El presente trabajo es una compilación de tres estudios publicados en los años 1992, 2007 y 2010; y observaciones mensuales realizadas en el año 2010, con el fin de tener un panorama general sobre el cambio de la abundancia, distribución y diversidad de la comunidad de aves presente en la UNALM (1989-2010). Para el año 2010 se ...

  20. FLUCTUACIÓN POBLACIONAL INVIERNO – PRIMAVERA DE Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret), Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni Tozzetti), Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus) (HEMIPTERA: DIASPIDIDAE) Y SUS PARASITOIDES, EN PALTO. LA MOLINA, LIMA – PERÚ

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Se realizaron observaciones sobre la fluctuación poblacional de Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret), Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni Tozzetti), Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus) y sus parasitoides en el cultivo de palto en el área agrícola de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. El campo se dividió en 5 sectores y se tomaron 5 árboles al azar por cada sector, donde se evaluaron semanalmente 200 hojas (haz y envés) en estratos (tercio medio e inferior) desde el 16 de julio hasta el 17 de diciem...

  1. Comparative studies on the morphometry and physiology of European populations of the lagoon specialist Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia

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    Katarzyna Tarnowska

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in the morphometric and physiological parameters of the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia from the Baltic Sea (GD, the North Sea (LV, and the Mediterranean Sea (BL were investigated. The cockles from GD were much smaller than those from other populations due to osmotic stress. The female to male ratios did not differ significantly from 1:1. The northern populations (GD, LV had a monocyclic reproductive pattern, whereas the southern population (BL seemed to reproduce throughout the year. Seasonal changes in the contents of biochemical components appeared to be correlated with changes in trophic conditions and the reproductive cycle. Protein content was the highest in spring for all the populations. The highest lipid contents and lowest carbohydrate contents were noted in GD and BL in spring, while no marked differences were noted among seasons in LV (probably because the data from both sexes were pooled. Respiration rates in GD were the highest among the populations, which could have been due to osmotic stress. High metabolic rates expressed by high respiration rates in GD and LV in spring and autumn could have resulted from gamete development (in spring and phytoplankton blooms (in spring and autumn.

  2. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Daniel L; Jones, Hugh; Geneva, Anthony J; Pfeiffer, John M; Klunzinger, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    The freshwater mussel family Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) has a disjunct trans-Pacific distribution in Australasia and South America. Previous phylogenetic analyses have estimated the evolutionary relationships of the family and the major infra-familial taxa (Velesunioninae and Hyriinae: Hyridellini in Australia; Hyriinae: Hyriini, Castaliini, and Rhipidodontini in South America), but taxon and character sampling have been too incomplete to support a predictive classification or allow testing of biogeographical hypotheses. We sampled 30 freshwater mussel individuals representing the aforementioned hyriid taxa, as well as outgroup species representing the five other freshwater mussel families and their marine sister group (order Trigoniida). Our ingroup included representatives of all Australian genera. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from three gene fragments (nuclear 28S, COI and 16S mtDNA) using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference, and we applied a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with fossil dates to estimate node ages. Our analyses found good support for monophyly of the Hyriidae and the subfamilies and tribes, as well as the paraphyly of the Australasian taxa (Velesunioninae, (Hyridellini, (Rhipidodontini, (Castaliini, Hyriini)))). The Hyriidae was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of all other Recent freshwater mussel families. Our molecular date estimation supported Cretaceous origins of the major hyriid clades, pre-dating the Tertiary isolation of South America from Antarctica/Australia. We hypothesize that early diversification of the Hyriidae was driven by terrestrial barriers on Gondwana rather than marine barriers following disintegration of the super-continent.

  3. The influence of fish cage culture on δ13C and δ15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, E; Figueroa, L; Takeda, A M; Manetta, G I

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ13C and δ15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filterer C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ13C and δ15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ13C and δ15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem.

  4. Thermal dependency of shell growth, microstructure, and stable isotopes in laboratory-reared Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Isono, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Irie, Takahiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Mori, Chiharu; Sato, Mizuho; Sato, Kei; Sasaki, Takenori

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally examined the growth, microstructure, and chemistry of shells of the bloody clam, Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia), reared at five temperatures (13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) with a constant pCO2 condition (˜450 μatm). In this species, the exterior side of the shell is characterized by a composite prismatic structure; on the interior side, it has a crossed lamellar structure on the interior surface. We previously found a negative correlation between temperature and the relative thickness of the composite prismatic structure in field-collected specimens. In the reared specimens, the relationship curve between temperature and the growth increment of the composite prismatic structure was humped shaped, with a maximum at 17°C, which was compatible with the results obtained in the field-collected specimens. In contrast, the thickness of the crossed lamellar structure was constant over the temperature range tested. These results suggest that the composite prismatic structure principally accounts for the thermal dependency of shell growth, and this inference was supported by the finding that shell growth rates were significantly correlated with the thickness of the composite prismatic structure. We also found a negative relationship between the rearing temperature and δ18O of the shell margin, in close quantitative agreement with previous reports. The findings presented here will contribute to the improved age determination of fossil and recent clams based on seasonal microstructural records.

  5. Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 (Bivalvia: origin of the Polish population and GenBank data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Soroka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DDNA sequences of the mitochondrial cox1 gene were analysed in 4 new local populations of Sinanodonta woodiana (Bivalvia in Poland, in the first reported Polish population, and in a population from Hungary. The gene sequences of Polish specimens were identical to those of specimens from Hungary, Italy and Ukraine, but different from those of Romanian specimens (data from GenBank. According to fish farm documentation, S. woodiana had spread in Poland by 2 routes: i direct import of fish infected by glochidia of S. woodiana from Hungary; and ii indirectly, by the major distributor of thermophilous fish in Poland, Gosławice Fish Farm, which started to import Hungarian fish in the 1960s. The genetic analysis and available documentation unambiguously confirm that Polish populations of S. woodiana derive from a source population in Hungary. In addition, we noticed doubtful identification of this species in GenBank data and further research is needed to resolve this problem. 

  6. The effect of temperature and body size on filtration rates of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae under laboratory conditions

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    Débora Pestana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei, Mollusca: Bivalvia is an invasive species that has been causing considerable environmental and economic problems in South America. In the present study, filtration rates of L. fortunei were determined in the laboratory under different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 28, and 30 ºC and two types of food (Algamac-2000® and the chlorophycean alga Scenedesmus sp.. There was a statistically significant relationship between time and filtration rates in the experiment using Scenedesmus sp., regardless of temperature. However, this pattern was absent in the experiment using Algamac, suggesting that the relationship between filtration rates and temperature might depend on the size of the filtered particles. In addition, there was no correlation between filtration rates and either shell size or condition index (the relationship between the weight and the length of a mussel. The filtration rate measured in the present study (724.94 ml/h was one of the highest rates recorded among invasive bivalves to date. Given that the colonies of the golden mussel could reach hundreds of thousands of individuals per square meter, such filtration levels could severely impact the freshwater environments in its introduced range.

  7. Reproductive biology of blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Munawar; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-02-01

    A study on the reproductive cycle of the blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) was conducted at three different areas in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca. A total of 1,920 samples of adult A. granosa (38-71 mm length) were collected from June 2009 until September 2010. Qualitative techniques (gonadal microscopic fresh smear test and histology analysis) as well as quantitative techniques (analysis of condition index and gonadal index) were used to predict monthly gonadal development stages of A. granosa. The gonadal index of A. granosa from Banda Aceh (Indonesia) (r = 0.469, P > 0.05) and Pulau Pinang (Malaysia) (r = 0.123, P > 0.05) did not show any correlation to their condition index, whereas the gonadal index of A. granosa from Lhokseumawe (Indonesia) (r = 0.609, P management and to improve the sustainability practices of the fisheries industry. These findings will provide basic information on the biology of the blood cockle A. granosa for stock management in the region.

  8. Reproductive biology of blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Munawar; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-03-01

    A study on the reproductive cycle of the blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) was conducted at three different areas in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca. A total of 1,920 samples of adult A. granosa (38-71 mm length) were collected from June 2009 until September 2010. Qualitative techniques (gonadal microscopic fresh smear test and histology analysis) as well as quantitative techniques (analysis of condition index and gonadal index) were used to predict monthly gonadal development stages of A. granosa. The gonadal index of A. granosa from Banda Aceh (Indonesia) ( r = 0.469, P > 0.05) and Pulau Pinang (Malaysia) ( r = 0.123, P > 0.05) did not show any correlation to their condition index, whereas the gonadal index of A. granosa from Lhokseumawe (Indonesia) ( r = 0.609, P principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that A. granosa reproduction was affected by interaction between internal physiological factors and indigenous environmental factors. In all sampling areas, phytoplankton density played a key role in the reproductive cycle in A. granosa. Information on the reproductive biology of this species is essential for species management and to improve the sustainability practices of the fisheries industry. These findings will provide basic information on the biology of the blood cockle A. granosa for stock management in the region.

  9. COMPARAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE SANITÁRIA ENTRE AMOSTRAS DE Peumus boldus Molina INDUSTRIALIZADAS E ARTESANAIS DO MUNICÍPIO DE CURRAIS NOVOS, RN.

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    Fabio Gonçalves Macêdo de Medeiros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais, embora constituam válida vertente da Medicina Tradicional, quando mal utilizadas representam risco potencial a saúde humana. O consumo de produtos contaminados pode gerar intoxicações diversas por subprodutos advindos de microrganismos patogênicos. O presente trabalho objetivou a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de amostras de Peumus boldus Molina artesanais, comercializadas na feira popular, e compará-la com a qualidade microbiológica de amostras da mesma espécie industrializadas, comercializadas no comércio varejista local. Foram quantificados: aeróbios mesófilos (ágar Padrão de Contagem, 35±1°C/24h, coliformes totais/Escherichia coli (teste presuntivo: caldo LST, 35±0,5°C/24-48±2; CT: caldo VB, 35±0,5°C/24-48±2; E. coli: caldo EC, 44,5±0,2°C/24±2h; ágar L-EMB, 35±0,5°C/24±2h, bolores e leveduras (ágar Batata Dextrosado Acidificado, 25±1°C/5 dias e Staphylococcus aureus (ágar Baird-Parker, 35-37°C/24±2h. Para a confirmação de E. coli, colônias foram submetidas às provas bioquímicas da série IMViC. A E. coli estava presente em 10% das amostras, o S. aureus em 50%, bolores e leveduras em 80% e aeróbios mesófilos em 100% das amostras analisadas. O estudo revelou que a tanto amostras industrializadas quanto artesanais não estavam de acordo com as recomendações de padrões sanitários e microbiológicos adequados para o comércio, caracterizando-se como riscos potenciais à Saúde Pública.

  10. Conchological Variability of Anadara Inaequivalvis (Bivalvia, Arcidae In the Black–Azov Sea Basin

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    Anistratenko V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Конхологическая изменчивость Anadara inaequivalvis (Bivalvia, Arcidae в Азово-Черноморском бассейне. Анистратенко В. В., Анистратенко О. Ю., Халиман И. А. - Показан широкий диа- пазон изменчивости раковины Anadara inaequivalvis (Bruguiere, 1789 - вида-вселенца в Азово- Черноморском бассейне. В изученном материале (более 900 створок выделены 6 основных форм комиссурального просвета раковины, которые, однако, не являются дискретными состояниями. Наличие промежуточных вариантов свидетельствует о плавной (непрерывной изменчивости и принадлежности всех изученных популяций к одному виду. Обсуждается варьирование некото- рых других признаков раковины Anadara: количество и скульптированность рёбер на поверхно- сти створок, количество шевронов на лигаментной площадке, форма замочного края и количество зубов замка. Сопоставление морфологических характеристик раковины Anadara из Чёрного и Азовского морей и A. inaequivalvis из юго-восточной Индии подтверждает, что границы и харак- тер изменчивости моллюсков рода Anadara, обитающих в азово-черноморском бассейне, вполне соответствуют изменчивости A. inaequivalvis из типовой

  11. 全反式维甲酸治疗急性早幼粒细胞白血病耐药机制的研究进展%Advancement about the drug resistance of ATRA in curing acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐善浩; 裴仁治

    2009-01-01

    全反式维甲酸(ATRA)治疗急性早幼粒细胞白血病(APL)的耐药机制至今还未完全清楚,它涉及到很多方面的学说,其中基因、蛋白质以及细胞信号传导途径等方面的研究目前越来越成为科学家们研究的热点.%The mechanism of drug resistance about ATRA curing acute promyelocytic leukemia involves many aspects and was not understood completely now. Among them, gene, protein and cell signal conduction way have become hot points that scientists are focusing on recently.

  12. Transient dilated cardiomyopathy in a newborn exposed to idarubicin and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) early in the second trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, B L; Alonzo, M R; Vargo, T A; Fenrich, A L

    2002-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia was diagnosed in a 28-year-old pregnant woman at 13 gestational weeks. She was immediately started on idarubicin and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and achieved remission after her fourth cycle of treatment. Serial fetal ultrasonograms throughout pregnancy did not reveal any intrauterine growth retardation or other obvious malformations. The mother delivered a term (36.7 gestational weeks), 2720-gram female neonate. The infant was admitted to the intermediate care nursery for observation due to transient mild respiratory distress during the peripartum period. Because of right ventricular hypertrophy on an electrocardiogram, an echocardiogram was performed on the first day of life which showed moderate dilation of the right atrium and right ventricle with mildly depressed function, two small secundum atrial septal defects, and a small patent ductus arteriosus. The neonate remained hemodynamically stable and no arrhythmias were detected. The remainder of the hospital course was uneventful. When reassessed 1-1/2 months later, she was doing well and did not show any signs of congestive heart failure. A repeat echocardiogram at that time demonstrated complete resolution of the right heart enlargement and closure of the ductus arteriosus with persistence of the small and hemodynamically insignificant secundum atrial septal defects.

  13. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz during fruit development and maturation in Central Chile Contenidos de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante de maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz durante el desarrollo y maduración de frutos en Chile Central

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    Carolina Fredes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benefits of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (by ferric reducing ability of plasma FRAP assay of maqui fruits harvested at different fruit maturity stages from two wild populations located in Central Chile. Each maturity stage was determined by days from fruit set, berry size, and soluble solids. Total phenol content declined while total anthocyanin content increased from the green to light red stage. Nevertheless, both total phenol and anthocyanin content increased from the light red to dark purple stage. The highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity was found in the late maturity stage (dark purple. The results show that ripening in maqui fruit can be expected with 1100 growing degree-days (91 d after fruit set in Central Chile. At this moment of harvest, fruits with 18-19 °Brix have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (FRAP. This study constitutes the first advances in the understanding of maqui fruit ripening and corresponding antioxidant activity.El maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae es una especie nativa de Chile que produce unas bayas pequeñas que se recolectan principalmente de individuos silvestres. Los beneficios para la salud atribuidos a los frutos de maqui se deben a sus altos contenidos de polifenoles, así como a la gran variedad de antocianos y flavonoles. Uno de los principales factores que afectan el contenido de polifenoles en frutos es el estado de madurez a la cosecha. El objetivo de este estudio fue

  14. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil

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    Liliana de O. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e de Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos.The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20 (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile (20, that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum

  15. Population dynamics of freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae in the Pendjari River (Benin-Western Africa

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    Akélé G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae is the only freshwater oyster occurring in Africa. The current study provides the first data on the population structure, growth, age, mortality and exploitation status of this species in the Pendjari River. E. elliptica length-frequency data were collected monthly from January to December 2009 and analyzed with FiSAT software. Population parameters including the asymptotic length (L∞ and growth coefficient (K were assessed to evaluate the stock status. The recruitment pattern was modeled with a FiSAT routine. The asymptotic length (L∞ was 14.75 cm, while the growth coefficient (K was 0.38 year-1. The growth performance index (ø′ reached 1.92. Specimens of Etheria elliptica reached a mean size of 4.66 cm and 6.41 cm at the end of one year and 1.5 years, respectively. We estimated total mortality (Z, natural mortality (M and fishing mortality (F to be 2.90 year-1, 1.16 year-1 and 1.74 year-1, respectively. The recruitment pattern was continuous over the year with one major peak event during the rainy season (July. The exploitation rate (E = 0.60 revealed that the freshwater oyster was probably facing overexploitation due to lack of a minimum limit size and also due to an increase in the harvesting effort. Therefore, efficient management methods were urgently required to conserve the species. The return of empty shells into the water to increase the recruitment surface, rotation planning among harvesting sites and the imposition of a minimum limit size were recommendations made in order to ensure the sustainable exploitation of wild stocks.

  16. Mitochondrial genomes and Doubly Uniparental Inheritance: new insights from Musculista senhousia sex-linked mitochondrial DNAs (Bivalvia Mytilidae

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    Milani Liliana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI is a fascinating exception to matrilinear inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Species with DUI are characterized by two distinct mtDNAs that are inherited either through females (F-mtDNA or through males (M-mtDNA. DUI sex-linked mitochondrial genomes share several unusual features, such as additional protein coding genes and unusual gene duplications/structures, which have been related to the functionality of DUI. Recently, new evidence for DUI was found in the mytilid bivalve Musculista senhousia. This paper describes the complete sex-linked mitochondrial genomes of this species. Results Our analysis highlights that both M and F mtDNAs share roughly the same gene content and order, but with some remarkable differences. The Musculista sex-linked mtDNAs have differently organized putative control regions (CR, which include repeats and palindromic motifs, thought to provide sites for DNA-binding proteins involved in the transcriptional machinery. Moreover, in male mtDNA, two cox2 genes were found, one (M-cox2b 123bp longer. Conclusions The complete mtDNA genome characterization of DUI bivalves is the first step to unravel the complex genetic signals allowing Doubly Uniparental Inheritance, and the evolutionary implications of such an unusual transmission route in mitochondrial genome evolution in Bivalvia. The observed redundancy of the palindromic motifs in Musculista M-mtDNA may have a role on the process by which sperm mtDNA becomes dominant or exclusive of the male germline of DUI species. Moreover, the duplicated M-COX2b gene may have a different, still unknown, function related to DUI, in accordance to what has been already proposed for other DUI species in which a similar cox2 extension has been hypothesized to be a tag for male mitochondria.

  17. De novo assembly and characterization of two transcriptomes reveal multiple light-mediated functions in the scallop eye (Bivalvia: Pectinidae.

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    Autum N Pairett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The eye has evolved across 13 separate lineages of molluscs. Yet, there have been very few studies examining the molecular machinary underlying eye function of this group, which is due, in part, to a lack of genomic resources. The scallop (Bivalvia: Pectinidae represents a compeling molluscan model to study photoreception due to its morphologically novel and separately evolved mirror-type eye. We sequenced the adult eye transcriptome of two scallop species to: 1 identify the phototransduction pathway components; 2 identify any additional light detection functions; and 3 test the hypothesis that molluscs possess genes not found in other animal lineages. RESULTS: A total of 3,039 contigs from the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians and 26,395 contigs from the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus were produced by 454 sequencing. Targeted BLAST searches and functional annotation using Gene Ontology (GO terms and KEGG pathways identified transcripts from three light detection systems: two phototransduction pathways and the circadian clock, a previously unrecognized function of the scallop eye. By comparing the scallop transcriptomes to molluscan and non-molluscan genomes, we discovered that a large proportion of the transcripts (7,776 sequences may be specific to the scallop lineage. Nearly one-third of these contain transmembrane protein domains, suggesting these unannotated transcripts may be sensory receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available from a single molluscan eye type. Candidate genes potentially involved in sensory reception were identified, and are worthy of further investigation. This resource, combined with recent phylogenetic and genomic data, provides a strong foundation for future investigations of the function and evolution of molluscan photosensory systems in this morphologically and taxonomically diverse phylum.

  18. Importance and practices of Egusi crops (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv. 'Aklamkpa' in sociolinguistic areas in Benin

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    Coulibaly O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance et culture de Egusi (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv ' Aklamkpa ' dans les régions sociolinguistiques du Bénin. Les légumes traditionnels africains sont considérés comme potentiellement utiles pour contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire et à la génération de revenu au niveau des communautés locales. Cependant, Egusi (Citrullus lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, Cucumeropsis mannii et Lagenaria siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa ' a rarement fait l'objet de recherche et de promotion alors que sa culture persiste dans les systèmes de production de plusieurs pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Cette étude met l'accent sur le rôle social des cultures de Egusi et leur importance dans le système de production des groupes sociolinguistiques au Bénin. En 2005, une investigation des systèmes de production et de culture de cinq régions socioculturelles prédominantes indique que la culture de Egusi est classée parmi les dix premières spéculations, selon la perception des ménages interrogés. Le rang attribué aux cultures de Egusi est relatif au genre mais pas à l'âge. Les agriculteurs allouent en moyenne 0,74 ha pour la production de Egusi, avec une différence significative d'une région sociolinguistique à une autre. Dans la communauté Mahi-Fon du centre Bénin, par exemple, nous avons observé des champs de production de Egusi allant jusqu'à 5 ha. L'espèce la plus cultivée est C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus. Cependant, dans la communauté Adja du sud Bénin, la préférence des agriculteurs est pour L. siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa '. Egusi se cultive au champ et en jardin de case, soit en association ou en monoculture. C. mannii est généralement cultivée en association et joue un rôle social très important dans les communautés Nagot-Yoruba. Bien que Egusi ne soit pas une culture réservée aux femmes, ces dernières réalisent la plupart des activit

  19. El túnel viario de María de Molina en Madrid. Optimización en el diseño y descripción de las soluciones estructurales adoptadas

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    Granda San Segundo, Laura

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria de Molina tunnel which will join paseo de la Castellana and Velázquez street with the N-II highway (Madrid - Barcelona will be the largest municipal underground work in Spain. The tunnel is 1171 meters long and it will absorbe a traffic of 30000 vehicles going out every day. The initial part of the tunnel has been designed as false tunnels made with foundation walls and slabs. The concrete has been cast over the ground and the tunnel has been excavated afterwards in order to minimize the effect of the work on Madrid traffic. Once a sufficient depth has been reached, two different construction systems have been proposed, depending on the conditions the tunnel finds in each case. The project presents some singular points in which the solutions adopted are structurally extraordinary.El túnel viario de María de Molina, que unirá el Paseo de la Castellana y la calle Velázquez con la N-II de Madrid a Barcelona, constituirá la mayor obra municipal de pasos subterráneos. El túnel de un total de 1.171 m de longitud va a absorber una salida de tráfico de 30.000 vehículos diarios. En los tramos iniciales se han proyectado falsos túneles con pantallas y losas hormigonadas sobre el terreno y excavadas a posteriori, para minimizar los efectos tráfico. Cuando se alcanza una profundidad adecuada se ha planteado la ejecución de un túnel con dos sistemas constructivos diferentes, dependiendo de los condicionantes que se encuentran en cada momento. El proyecto presenta una serie de puntos singulares en los que las soluciones adoptadas son estructuralmente extraordinarias

  20. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

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    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts of Solemya velum say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, J A; Smith, S W; Cavanaugh, C M

    1992-05-01

    The protobranch bivalve Solemya velum Say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) houses chemoautotrophic symbionts intracellularly within its gills. These symbionts were characterized through sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA coding regions and hybridization of an Escherichia coli gene probe to S. velum genomic DNA restriction fragments. The symbionts appeared to have only one copy of the 16S rRNA gene. The lack of variability in the 16S sequence and hybridization patterns within and between individual S. velum organisms suggested that one species of symbiont is dominant within and specific for this host species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S sequences of the symbionts indicates that they lie within the chemoautotrophic cluster of the gamma subdivision of the eubacterial group Proteobacteria.

  2. Spatial patterns of Pisidium chilense (Mollusca Bivalvia and Hyalella patagonica (Crustacea, Amphipoda in an unpolluted stream in Navarino island (54° S, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

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    Patricio De Los Ríos Escalante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The southern South American inland waters have many endemic species and some of them are considered as endangered for IUCN, that inhabits in unpolluted ecosystems, one of these ecosystems are the sub-Antarctic perennial forests located in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve at 54° S. The aim of the present study is to analyze the spatial patterns of Pisidium chilense Ituarte, 1999 (Mollusca Bivalvia and Hyalella patagonica (Cunningham, 1871 (Crustacea, Amphipoda in an unpolluted stream. Both species had aggregated spatial distribution, both have a negative binomial distribution pattern, and both are associated. The present results would agree with similar patterns in Patagonian rivers where both species coexist.

  3. On some Indo-Pacific boring endolithic Bivalvia species introduced into the Mediterranean Sea with their host – spread of Sphenia rueppelli A. Adams, 1850

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    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the endolithic molluscs found on/in living alien Spondylusshells collected in the Gulf of Iskenderun (Turkey brought to light three more alien bivalvia species namely Petricola hemprichi, Gastrochaena cymbium and Sphenia rueppelli. The presence of Sphenia rueppellideserves attention as it constitutes the first record of this species as living in the Mediterranean Sea. The definitive establishment and spreading of these bivalves in the basin seems to be also attested by careful analysis of specimens sampled in other southern Turkish localities and previously retained in local private collections. The present records raise some questions on the vector of arrival of the species in the Mediterranean Sea that could be strictly connected with their hosts.

  4. Avaliação da qualidade de amostras comerciais de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. e ginco (Ginkgo biloba L. Control quality evaluation of commercial samples of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. de Melo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procurou avaliar a qualidade de produtos comercializados à base de boldo, pata-de-vaca e ginco, através dos parâmetros contidos na Farmacopéia Brasileira e na literatura específica. Foram analisadas oito amostras de boldo, nove de pata-de-vaca e sete de ginco, adquiridas em farmácias na cidade do Recife. A metodologia consistiu em avaliar: os rótulos e bulas dos produtos verificando se estavam de acordo com a RDC n o 17 de 24/02/2000 e a portaria 110/97 da ANVISA; realizar análise sensorial; verificar a autenticidade das amostras e sua pureza. Todas as embalagens de boldo, pata-de-vaca e seis de ginco continham erros ou ausência de informações científicas, além da falta de bula. Na verificação de impurezas, todas as de boldo, cinco de pata-de-vaca, e uma amostra de ginco foram reprovadas. Todos os produtos analisados apresentaram alguma irregularidade segundo os códigos oficiais, sendo necessário uma maior intensificação na vigilância de produtos à base de plantas medicinais no Brasil.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of commercial products prepared with boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia spp. and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L. by using parameters from the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and specific literature. Eight samples of "boldo", nine of "pata-de-vaca", and seven of ginkgo were analyzed, all bought from pharmacies in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil. The methodology consisted in evaluating the products’ labels and instructions to verify their accordance to RDC n o 17 of 02/24/2000 and ANVISA (National Sanitary Surveillance Agency decree 110/97, undertaking a sensorial analysis, and verifying the authenticity and purity of the samples. All of the packages of "boldo" and "pata-de-vaca" and six of the packages of ginkgo contained mistakes or lacked scientific information; instructions were also missing. After analyzing for impurities, all samples of "boldo", five of "pata-de-vaca", and one of

  5. Effect of ATRA and ATO on the expression of tissue factor in NB4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and regulatory function of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunoyer-Geindre, Sylvie; Rivier-Cordey, Anne-Sophie; Tsopra, Olga; Lecompte, Thomas; Kruithof, Egbert K O

    2017-03-25

    The characteristic hemorrhages of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) are caused in part by the high expression of tissue factor (TF) on leukemic cells, which also produce TNF and IL-1β, proinflammatory cytokines known to increase TF in various cell types. Exposure of NB4 cells, an APL cell line, to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or arsenic trioxide (ATO) rapidly and strongly reduced TF mRNA. Both drugs also reduced TNF mRNA, but later, and moreover increased IL-1β mRNA. The effect on procoagulant activity of cells and microparticles, as measured with calibrated automated thrombography, was delayed and only partial at 24 h. TNF and IL-1β inhibition reduced TF mRNA and activity only partially. Inhibition of the inflammatory signaling intermediate p38 reduced TF mRNA by one third but increased TNF and IL-1β mRNA. NF-κB inhibition reduced, within 1 h, TF and TNF mRNA but did not change IL-1β mRNA, and rapidly and markedly reduced cell survival, with procoagulant properties still being present. In conclusion, although we provide evidence that TNF, IL-1β, and their signaling intermediates have a regulatory function on TF expression by NB4 APL cells, the effect of ATRA and ATO on TF can only partially be accounted for by their impact on these cytokines.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia): The first representative from the family Mactridae with novel gene order and unusual tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xueping; Zhao, Nana; Shen, Xin; Hao, Jue; Liang, Meng; Zhu, Xiaolin; Cheng, Hanliang; Yan, Binlun; Liu, Zhaopu

    2012-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome plays an important role in the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships among metazoans. Mactridae, also known as trough shells or duck clams, is an important family of marine bivalve clams in the order Veneroida. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xishishe Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia), which is the first representative from the family Mactridae. The mitochondrial genome of C. antiquata is of 17,384bp in length, and encodes 35 genes, including 12 protein-coding, 21 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Compared with the typical gene content of animal mitochondrial genomes, atp8 and tRNAS(2) are missing. Gene order of the mitochondrial genome of C. antiquata is unique compared with others from Veneroida. In the mitochondrial genome of the C. antiquata, a total of 2189bp of non-coding nucleotides are scattered among 26 non-coding regions. The largest non-coding region contains one section of tandem repeats (99 bp×11), which is the second largest tandem repeats found in the mitochondrial genomes from Veneroida. The phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial genomes support the monophyly of Veneridae and Lucinidae, and the relationship at the family level: ((Veneridae+Mactridae)+(Cardiidae+Solecurtidae))+Lucinidae. The phylogenetic result is consistent with the morphological classification. Meanwhile, bootstrap values are very high (BP=94-100), suggesting that the evolutionary relationship based on mitochondrial genomes is very reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of fish cage culture on δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: eva@nupelia.uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  8. A nova crise dos refugiados na Europa: o modelo de repulsão-atração revisitado e os desafios para as políticas migratórias

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Catarina Reis de; Peixoto, João; Góis, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é refletir sobre os desafios que se colocam perante os novos fluxos de refugiados dirigidos à Europa desde o início da segunda década do século XXI. Com o intuito de explicar a nova crise dos refugiados, revisita-se o modelo de repulsão-atração e confronta-se o desígnio da agência – motivos individuais que induzem à migração – com a interferência da estrutura – fatores económicos, sociais e políticos que explicam o aumento dos fluxos, atendendo...

  9. Estilos de enseñanza de los docentes universitarios de la facultad de educación de la Universidad Nacional Federico Villareal, Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo y del Departamento de Matemática de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Collantes Hidalgo, José Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    La tesis busca identificar los estilos de enseñanza de los docentes universitarios de las Facultades de Educación de la Universidad Nacional Federico Villareal, de la Facultad de Ciencias Históricos Sociales y Educación de la Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo y del Departamento de Matemática de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. La metodología de investigación se enmarca dentro de un paradigma positivista, cuantitativo y descriptivo. Para lo cual, se aplicó el cuestionario de Esti...

  10. 全反式维甲酸联合顺铂对A549细胞增殖及PDCD5和TP53 mRNA表达的影响%Effects of ATRA combined with cisplatin on A549 cell proliferation and expression of PDCD5 and TP53 mRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 李海燕; 李伟国; 康燕; 陈红杰; 黄永杰; 王静

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察全反式维甲酸(ATRA)联合顺铂对肺癌A549细胞增殖的影响,探索ATRA应用的最适浓度,研究各组肺癌A549细胞PDCD5、TP53基因表达情况.方法 以不同浓度的ATRA(10-5 mol/L、10-6 mol/L、10-7 mol/L)与顺铂(10-2 μmol/L)联合作用于肺癌A549细胞,采用MTT法检测细胞增殖情况.利用RT-PCR检测ATRA、顺铂作用于肺癌细胞A549细胞后,凋亡相关基因PDCD5、TP53 mRNA的表达.结果 ①MTT研究可观察到,在24 h、48 h、72 h各时间点,ATRA组、顺铂组及两药联合组A549细胞增殖率与阴性对照组比较明显降低(P<0.05);在同一时间点,ATRA不同的浓度间,抑制率随浓度的增加而增加(P<0.05).②与阴性对照组相比,药物干预组PDCD5、TP53mRNA含量明显增加(P<0.05).结论 ATRA对肺癌A549的生长具有抑制作用,有明显的浓度和时间依赖性;ATRA及其与顺铂联用,可以诱导PDCD5及TP53的mRNA的表达.PDCD5与TP53的表达呈正相关.%Objective To observe the functions of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) combined with cisplatin on proliferation of A549 cells and to explore the optimal concentration of ATRA and the expressions of PDCD5,TP53 genes of A549 cells in different groups.Methods A549 cells were treated by different concentrations of ATRA (10-5 mol/L,10-6 mol/L,10-7 mol/L) and cisplatin (10-2 μmol/L).MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation in different groups.The expressions of PDCD5 and TP53 mRNA were detected by RT-PCR.Results ①MTT assay showed the cell proliferation rate in ATRA group,cisplatin group,and two-drug group was lower than that in control group (P <0.05) in 24 h,48 h,and 72 h after treatment.At the same time-point,cell inhibition rate increased with the increase of the concentration of ATRA (P <0.05).②Compared with control group,mRNA of PDCD5 and TP53 in groups treated with drugs increased (P <0.05).Conclusions The growth of lung cancer A549 cells can be inhibited by ATRA in a concentration

  11. 全反式维甲酸和5-Fu对胃癌细胞端粒酶活性和细胞生长的影响%The effects of ATRA and 5-Fu on telomerase activity and cell growth of gastric cancer cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱兆华; 夏忠胜; 何守搞

    2000-01-01

    目的观察ATRA,5-Fu单独和联合应用对体外培养的胃癌细胞端粒酶活性及细胞生长的影响.方法分别用ATRA,5-Fu单独和联合处理胃癌MGC-803细胞,采用MTT法测定细胞活力,采用端粒重复序列扩增法测定端粒酶活性.结果胃癌细胞活力随ATRA,5-Fu浓度增高、作用时间的延长其细胞活力逐渐下降,ATRA d1,d3,d 5的IC50分别为>40μmol/L,(20~40)μmol/L,(10~20)μmol/L;5-Fu d1,d3,d5的IC50分别为>25μmol/L,(2~5)μmol/L,(2~5)μmol/L;40μmol/L ATRA,5μmol/L 5-Fu及40μmol/LATRA+5μmol/L 5-Fu处理胃癌细胞3 d其细胞活力分别为46%,47%,8%(P<0.01),端粒酶活性分别为45.68%(P<0.01),100.00%,46.10%(P<0.01).结论ATRA,5-Fu均能抑制胃癌细胞的生长,其抑制作用具有时间和浓度依赖性,且二者合用具有协同抑制作用;ATRA能抑制胃癌细胞端粒酶活性,而5-Fu对胃癌细胞端粒酶活性无影响,二者合用对胃癌细胞端粒酶活性无协同抑制作用.抑制端粒酶活性可能是ATRA抗癌机制之一.

  12. (Born, 1778) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-27

    May 27, 1988 ... Most populations had a unimodal size distribution in which small individuals ... exploited areas, suggesting that size distribution was unrelated to human explOitation. ... abundant on the east coast of southern Africa, where it.

  13. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca - Bivalvia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, R.; de Jong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The

  14. The linked units of 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA of razor shells (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierna, J; Jensen, K T; Martínez-Lage, A; González-Tizón, A M

    2011-08-01

    The linkage between 5S ribosomal DNA and other multigene families has been detected in many eukaryote lineages, but whether it provides any selective advantage remains unclear. In this work, we report the occurrence of linked units of 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) and U1 small nuclear DNA (U1 snDNA) in 10 razor shell species (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae) from four different genera. We obtained several clones containing partial or complete repeats of both multigene families in which both types of genes displayed the same orientation. We provide a comprehensive collection of razor shell 5S rDNA clones, both with linked and nonlinked organisation, and the first bivalve U1 snDNA sequences. We predicted the secondary structures and characterised the upstream and downstream conserved elements, including a region at -25 nucleotides from both 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA transcription start sites. The analysis of 5S rDNA showed that some nontranscribed spacers (NTSs) are more closely related to NTSs from other species (and genera) than to NTSs from the species they were retrieved from, suggesting birth-and-death evolution and ancestral polymorphism. Nucleotide conservation within the functional regions suggests the involvement of purifying selection, unequal crossing-overs and gene conversions. Taking into account this and other studies, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which both multigene families could have become linked in the Pharidae lineage. The reason why 5S rDNA is often found linked to other multigene families seems to be the result of stochastic processes within genomes in which its high copy number is determinant.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the clam Mactra veneriformis (Bivalvia: Mactridae): has a unique non-coding region, missing atp8 and typical tRNA Ser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xueping; Shen, Xin; Zhao, Nana; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue; Cheng, Hanliang; Yan, Binlun; Dong, Zhiguo; Zhu, Xiaoling

    2013-12-01

    Mactra veneriformis (Bivalvia: Mactridae) is one commonly cultured bivalve species in the western Pacific Ocean. In the current study, the complete mitrochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the clam M. veneriformis was determined. The M. veneriformis mt genome is 16,854 bp in length and encodes 34 genes on the same strand, including 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 20 transfer RNA genes. The length of 12 PCGs is 11,358 bp, which accounts for 67.4% in whole mt genome. The proportion is similar to other clams' mt genomes and within those of bivalves mt genomes. Gene order (which is the same as that of RZ C. antiquata) of M. veneriformis mt genome is compared with that of other veneroids. Compared with the typical gene content of animal mt genomes, atp8 and two tRNA(Ser) genes are missing in the mt genome. All non-coding regions are 1978 bp in length, among them the longest one is speculated as the control region, which is located between the tRNA(His) and tRNA(Arg). The secondary largest non-coding region (NCR(664)) between the tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Thr) in the M. veneriformis mt genome contains one section of tandem repeats (125 nt × 5.2 or 249 nt × 2.6). The tandem repeats account for 97.89% (650/664) of the NCR(664), which is a unique characteristic of the M. veneriformis mt non-coding regions compared with those of other veneroids.

  16. Verspreiding en habitats van Unio caffer Krauss, 1848 (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Unionidae in Suid-Afrika gebaseer op die rekords in die databasis van die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die kosmopolities-verspreide Unionoida bereik hul grootste diversiteit in Noord-Amerika. In Suid-Afrika word twee genera van die familie Unionidae, naamlik Unio en Coelatura wat vier spesies insluit, aangetref. Hierdie artikel handel oor die verspreiding en habitats van Unio caffer Krauss, 1848 gebaseer op die rekords in die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling (NVWSV van Suid-Afrika. Alhoewel dit elders in Suid-Afrika sporadies aangetref is, is die Wes-Kaap die enigste provinsie waarvan geen monster op rekord in die databasis van die NVWSV is nie. Van die 58 monsters wat op rekord is, is die meerderheid in riviere (32.8% en damme (20.7% versamel en in watertoestande wat as standhoudend, staande, helder en vars beskryf is. ’n Temperatuur-indeks wat vir hierdie spesie bereken is, het dit vyfde in rangorde geplaas van die 12 Bivalvia-spesies wat in die databasis verteenwoordig word op grond van ’n assosiasie met lae omgewingstemperature. ’n Besluitnemingsboom-analise het aangedui dat temperatuur, substratum en waterbronne die mees betekenisvolle bydrae gelewer het tot die daarstelling van die gedokumenteerde geografiese verspreiding van U. caffer. Omdat omvattende opnames van varswater Mollusca deur staatsinstansies reeds in die tagtigerjare van die vorige eeu uitgefaseer is en die meerderheid versamelpunte sedertdien nie weer gemonster is nie, is kennis oor hul huidige stand van bewaring en spesiediversiteit gebrekkig. Negatiewe resultate by drie voormalige lokaliteite van U. caffer wat wel intussen deur die outeurs besoek is, dui egter daarop dat die voortbestaan daarvan, soos van sommige verwante spesies elders in die wêreld, bedreig word. Dit word bepleit dat opnames van varswater Mollusca met die gedokumenteerde verspreiding in die databasis van die NVWSV as riglyn, beplan en uitgevoer behoort te word. Die resultate van sulke opnames behoort ’n groot bydrae te lewer om die huidige stand van die verspreiding en spesiediversiteit van

  17. 眼镜蛇毒对大鼠脊髓Nestin和BDNF表达的影响%Effects of naja naja atra venom on nestin and BDNF expression in spinal cor d of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继胜; 丁见; 吴锋; 熊克仁

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects of naja naja atra venom on the expression of nestin and brain-derived Neorotrophin factors(BDNF)in the spinal cord of rats.Metho ds: Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into groups of normal controls,administration of either normal saline or snake venom( n=8 for each) .Poisoning rat models were developed by in-jection of the crude venom of cobra at dosage of 0 .5 μl/kg via left poste-rior limb,and killed in 30 min.Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the expression of nestin and BDNF in lumbar spinal cord . Results:The number of nestin and BDNF positive cells were increased significantly in the anterior horn and posterior horn of the gray matter in lumbar spinal cord in rats treated with the naja naja atra venom as com-pared with the controls and saline management group(P<0.05),and the cells presented with darker coloration,whereas the average gray value of nestin and BDNF was notably decreased in the snake venom treated ani-mals than the normal controls and saline groups(P<0.05).Conclusion:The nestin and BDNF expression were upregulated in the gray matter in spinal cord of rats treated with naja naja atra venom,suggesting that this protein and the factor may be involved in compensatory repair of the in-jured spinal cord.%目的:观察眼镜蛇毒对大鼠脊髓Nestin和BDNF表达的影响。方法:24只大鼠随机分为正常对照组、生理盐水组和眼镜蛇毒组,每组8只。眼镜蛇粗毒以0.5μl/kg注入左后肢内侧复制蛇伤模型,30 min后处死动物,采用免疫组织化学方法,检测脊髓腰段Nestin 和BDNF的表达。结果:眼镜蛇毒组大鼠脊髓腰段前角和后角Nestin和BDNF阳性神经元数量较正常对照组、生理盐水组均明显增多(P <0.05),且着色较深,眼镜蛇毒组脊髓Nestin和BDNF平均灰度值较正常对照组、生理盐水组表达均明显降低(P <0.05)。结论:眼镜蛇毒致伤后,脊髓灰质Nestin

  18. The Effects of All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) on the Expression of Ski in Cultured Rat Mesangial Cells Treated by TGF-β1%Ski在全反式维甲酸抑制TGF-β1诱导的系膜细胞增殖中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏宝凤; 王晓花; 张莉; 于莹; 陈晓岚

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨全反式维甲酸(ATRA)对转化生长因子(TGF)-β1诱导的大鼠系膜细胞增殖及Ski表达的影响.方法 不同浓度ATRA预处理大鼠HBZY-I系膜细胞(为各剂量ATRA组)24 h后再加TGF-β1(10 μg/L)培养24 h.CCK-8法检测细胞增殖情况;Real-time PCR法检测Ski mRNA的表达;Western blot检测Ski蛋白的表达;激光共聚焦荧光显微镜检测Ski蛋白的亚细胞定位.并与正常对照组及TGF-β1组比较.结果 与正常对照组相比,TGF-β1组系膜细胞增殖明显,且Ski mRNA及蛋白表达升高(P<0.05);与TGF-β1组相比,ATRA能够呈剂量依赖性地抑制TGF-β1的促增殖作用,ATRA 10 μmol/L组Ski mRNA及蛋白表达量明显增高.ATRA组Ski蛋白主要定位于大鼠系膜细胞核,其细胞核荧光信号强度较TGF-β1组明显增强,细胞浆中荧光信号强度较TGF-β1组减弱.结论 ATRA可通过上调大鼠系膜细胞Ski表达,抑制其向核外转位,从而抑制TGF-β1诱导的系膜细胞增殖.%Objective To investigate the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the expression of Ski in cultured rat mesangial cells treated by transforming growth factor (TGF-β1).Methods The mesangial cells were pre-treated with different concentrations of ATRA for 24 h, and then stimulated with TGF-β1 (10 μg/L) for 24 h.The cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 method.The Ski mRNA expression was determined by real time-PCR.The protein expression of Ski was determined by Western blot analyses.The localization of Ski was observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy.Results Compared with the control group, TGF-β1 significantly enhanced the proliferation and the expression of Ski mRNA and protein in rat mesangial cells (P < 0.05).ATRA significantly inhibited mesangial cell proliferation induced by TGF-β1 in a dose-dependent manner.In ATRA groups, Ski mRNA and protein were increased significantly.Additionally, Ski protein was mainly localized in nucleus, and fluorescence intensity was

  19. ATRA对三阴性乳腺癌细胞CDH1表达的影响%Effect of ATRA on CDH1 Expression in Triple-negative Breast Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓荣; 沈三弟; 黄湛; 赵欣; 雷睿文

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨全反式维甲酸(ATRA)对三阴性乳腺癌(TNBC)细胞系MDA-MB-231的CDH1表达的影响及可能机制.方法 实验分空白对照组(control)、5-杂氮-2'-脱氧胞苷(5-Aza-CdR)组及ATRA组,分别用甲基化特异性PCR(MSP)、逆转录PCR(RT-PCR)方法检测MDA-MB-231细胞CDH1基因启动子区甲基化状态及mRNA表达情况.结果 空白对照组MDA-MB-231细胞CDH1基因启动子区处于甲基化状态,CDH1mRNA无表达,而5-Aza-CdR组与ATRA组CDH1基因启动子区处于非甲基化状态,CDH1 mRNA表达明显上调,且两组之间无明显差别.结论 ATRA能够通过去甲基化机制上调MDA-MB-231细胞CDH1基因的表达.

  20. Tirso de Molina, Indios y Encomenderos

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    Caro López, Ceferino

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In the text of Tirso's Trilogía de los Pizarro elements are to be found which allow to affirm that the playwright availed himself of an occasional commission to make an instrument of political criticism aiming at false advisers and validos. Tirso fought against the novelties in the government and policy of the Inidies and stood for the abolition of the humanitarian measures of the Leyes Nuevas and the strengthening of the encomenderos' power. Thus the Trilogy presents itself as a telling instance of the mental shift between Renaissance erasmism and the crisis of the Counter-Reformation.

    En la Trilogía de los Pizarro hay elementos que permiten afirmar que el dramaturgo usó un encargo ocasional para hacer un instrumento de crítica de la política de su tiempo, poniendo en evidencia la figura de los validos y de los malos consejeros. Contra las novedades introducidas en el gobierno y en la política indiana Tirso proponía la abolición de las medidas humanitarias incluidas en las Leyes Nuevas y el fortalecimiento de la autoridad de los encomenderos. La Trilogía se presenta por lo tanto como un ejemplo del cambio cultural entre el erasmismo del Renacimiento y la crisis de la Contrarreforma.

  1. A Gestão de Pessoas e as Estratégias de Atração, Desenvolvimento e Retenção de Profissionais: O Caso Petrobras

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    Nildes Pitombo Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo de caso, ancorado na abordagem qualitativa e com nível de análise organizacional, investigou a gestão de pessoas dentro de unidades com estruturas organizacionais remotas (i.e., longe dos centros urbanos e não remotas da PETROBRAS – Petróleo Brasileiro S/A. A pesquisa foi realizada em três plataformas marítimas, três bases e na unidade operacional da selva Amazônica, envolvendo 31 respondentes, entre diretores, gerentes, profissionais de RH, supervisores e coordenadores. Esses respondentes são representativos para o nível de análise escolhido, bem como para a estratégia de pesquisa. Seu foco esteve voltado para dois problemas principais, considerados igualmente relevantes: Como gerenciar pessoas em unidades distantes das principais sedes da organização? Como gerenciar essas pessoas de modo a assegurar os objetivos estratégicos de atrair, desenvolver e reter o capital humano valorizado nessas unidades? A coleta dos dados primários foi feita por meio de entrevistas em profundidade e observações; a dos dados secundários, por meio de análise de documentos. Trabalhou-se com as estratégias das análises de conteúdo, documental e reflexiva. Seus resultados indicaram as especificidades de políticas e práticas de gestão de pessoas, oriundas das estratégias de atração, desenvolvimento e retenção de profissionais nessas unidades, especificidades essas que representam contribuição para a área de gestão de pessoas. DOI:10.5585/riae.v12i4.2043

  2. Variación estacional de la composición proximal del mejillón Tagelus peruvianus (Bivalvia: Solecurtidae del Golfo de Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

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    Cristian Fonseca Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La extracción del mejillón Tagelus peruvianus representa una actividad económica complementaria de los pescadores artesanales, es una de las especies de mayor pesca y consumo ya que son una fuente importante de proteína, minerales y vitaminas esenciales para la población humana. Por lo tanto, se estudió la variación estacional de su composición proximal, índice de condición y contenido energético. Mensualmente, entre noviembre de 2007 y octubre de 2008, se recolectaron de 35 a 40 especímenes. La composición proximal se determinó siguiendo la metodología recomendada por la AOAC. Los resultados mostraron que el índice de condición disminuyó en los meses de diciembre, enero y mayo, lo que indica que hay dos periodos de desove y una fase de reposo gonadal. El componente principal del mejillón es la proteína (61.9±4.3%, seguido de carbohidratos (15.7±2.4%, cenizas (14.0±1.9% y lípidos (8.5±1.7%. El contenido calórico promedio fue de 5.0±0.1kcal/g. La disminución en los valores de proteínas, lípidos y calorías coinciden con los periodos de desove. Se puede concluir que T. peruvianus presenta valores nutricionales óptimos para el consumo humano, por su bajo contenido de grasa y su aceptable contenido proteico.Seasonal variation in proximate composition of mussels Tagelus peruvianus (Bivalvia: Solecurtidae from the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Marine bivalves are a very important food source for human consumption, and species that has not been of traditional use as a fishery resource are gaining interest. Seasonal variation in proximate composition, condition index and energy or caloric content of the mussel Tagelus peruvianus were studied in the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. From November 2007 to October 2008, a total of 35 to 40 specimens per month were collected. The proximate composition using the AOAC methods was determined. Results showed that the condition index during December, January and May

  3. Efecto de bacterias probióticas en el cultivo larvario del ostión de placer Crassostrea corteziensis (Bivalvia: Ostreidae

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    Angel Isidro Campa-Córdova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El ostión de placer u ostra del Cortés (Crassostrea corteziensis se considera como una especie con potencial para ser cultivada en gran escala. Sin embargo, al igual que en otros bivalvos, la alta mortalidad que se presenta durante la etapa larvaria y juvenil, es el principal problema que limita el desarrollo del cultivo en el laboratorio. Un método que está ganando aceptación en la acuicultura es el uso de bacterias probióticas para controlar patógenos microbianos. Este estudio analiza el efecto de estas bacterias en la supervivencia y talla final de larvas de ostión de placer Crassostrea corteziensis. Se utilizó una cepa de bacterias ácido lácticas (cepa NS61 aisladas N. subnodosus, así como de bacilos aislados de L. vannamei (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cepa YC58 y de C. corteziensis (Burkholderia cepacia, cepa Y021. Las cepas se evaluaron por inmersión en cultivos larvarios de C. corteziensis a dos concentraciones diferentes, hasta completar el estadio pediveliger. Los organismos se trataron con bacterias ácido lácticas (Lb, una mezcla de bacilos (Lb en proporción 1:1 y un grupo control. La concentración de 1x10(4UFC/ml registró una mayor supervivencia con Lb y Mb respecto al grupo control. La supervivencia con Mb a una concentración de 1x10(5UFC/ml fue mayor que la del grupo control y del grupo tratado con Lb. Los resultados mostraron que las larvas de C. corteziensis tratadas con probióticos no incrementaron significativamente su talla respecto a las larvas del grupo control. Mientras que las tratadas con Lb a la concentración mayor, 1x10(5UFC/ml, mostraron una disminución de la supervivencia respecto a las tratadas con 1x10(4UFC/ml. Este estudio demostró el efecto benéfico de cepas probióticas utilizadas individualmente o en mezcla en el cultivo larvario de C. corteziensis.Effect of probiotic bacteria on survival and growth of Cortez oyster larvae, Crassostrea corteziensis (Bivalvia: Ostreidae. Disease control

  4. Seasonal variation in larval density of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae in the Iguaçu and Paraná rivers, in the region of Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Southern Brazil

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    Débora Pestana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The larval density of the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae was monitored from January 2005 to February 2006 at two points along the Paraná and the Iguaçu Rivers, near Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brazil. The results indicated two density peaks in the Paraná River: a lower peak between March and June and a higher peak in October. In the Iguaçu River, the values were much lower, yet they also showed a peak between September and October. A reduction in the reproductive activity was observed in both the rivers between July and August. The average larval density at the collection point in the Paraná reached 948.5 larvae/m³, with a peak of 2,999.5 larvae/m³ in October. The present study represented the first quantification of the larval density of L. fortunei in the lower reaches of the Iguaçu River, downstream of the Iguaçu falls.A densidade larval do molusco invasor Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae foi monitorada entre janeiro de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006 em dois pontos dos rios Paraná e Iguaçu, na região de Foz do Iguaçu, PR. Os resultados registraram dois picos de densidade no rio Paraná: entre março e junho e um maior em outubro. No rio Iguaçu, os valores foram muito inferiores, mas também com um pico entre setembro-outubro. Em ambos os rios foi verificada uma pausa reprodutiva entre os meses de julho-agosto. A densidade média de larvas de L. fortunei no ponto amostrado no rio Paraná chegou a 948.5 larvas/m³, com pico de 2.999,5 larvas/m³ em outubro. O presente estudo representa a primeira quantificação da densidade larval de L. fortunei no rio Iguaçu, a jusante das Cataratas do Iguaçu.

  5. Ciclo reproductivo del ostión de manglar Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae en la Bahía de Camamu, Bahia, Brasil

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    Tiago Lenz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El ostión de manglar es un importante recurso pesquero que se distribuye por toda la costa brasileña y una de las especies nativas con mayor potencial para maricultura. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer las características reproductivas del ostión de manglar Crassostrea rhizophorae en el estero del Río Maraú, Bahía de Camamu, Bahia, Brasil. Las muestras fueran recolectadas mensualmente, entre agosto de 2006 y septiembre de 2007, en dos sitios. Las metodologías utilizadas fueron el análisis histológico de las gónadas y el cálculo de rendimiento de carne. La temperatura del agua durante el período de estudio varió de 23.5°C a 30°C y la salinidad osciló entre 15 y 35ups. La altura de los ostiones examinados varió de 27 a 102mm (n=437. Hubo predominancia de hembras en las poblaciones de ambos sitios. Los análisis de estadios gonádicos demostraron que el proceso de reproducción de C. rhizophorae en el estero del Río Maraú es continuo durante el año, sin período de reposo sexual. El rendimiento de carne (R fue de 8.0% a 17.7% (n=669. Los resultados de este estudio proveen informaciones para la captación de semilla e implantación de la ostricultura en la Bahía de Camamu.Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson’s solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7μm thick and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE

  6. Case 3058. Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 and Callorhinus Gray, 1859 (Mammalia, Pinnipedia): proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca pusilla Schreber, [1775] as the type species of Arctocephalus; and Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866: proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 as the type species of Otaria

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    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the accustomed understanding and usage of the fur seal name Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 by the designation of Phoca pusilia Schreber, [1775] as the type species, thus conserving also the name Callorhinus Gray, 1859. At present Phoca ursina Linnaeus, 1758 is the valid type species of both Arctocephalus and Callorhinus. The name Arctocephalus relates to a genus of some seven fur seals from the southern hemisphere, while Callorhinus is used for the single species C. ursinus (Linnaeus) from the northern hemisphere. It is also proposed that the universal understanding of the names Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866 should be conserved for the southern and northern sea lions respectively by designating Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 (for which the valid specific name is P. byronia de Blainville, 1820) as the type species of Otaria. At present Phoca jubata Schreber, [1776] is the type species of Otaria and the name Otaria is a senior subjective synonym of Eumetopias. The four genera Arctocephalus, Callorhinus, Otaria and Eumetopias are all placed in the family OTARIIDAE Gray, 1825.

  7. Atração de miracídios de Schistosoma mansoni por hospedeiros invertebrados: comportamento de miracídios frente a girinos de Hyla fuscovaria Miracidia attraction to invertebrate hosts: miracidia behavior in the presence of Hyla fuscovaria girina

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    Beatriz de C. Brasio

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a atração de miracídios de Schistosoma mansoni das linhagens BH e SJ frente a seus vetores simpátricos e alopátricos tendo-se em consideração a possibilidade da presença de substâncias quimiotáxicas emanadas dos moluscos. Estudou-se também o comportamento desses miracídios frente a girinos de Hyla fuscovaria. Foi verificado que houve atração dos miracídios pelos moluscos vetores e que essa atração foi mais evidente quando a larva era colocada frente ao seu hospedeiro simpátrico.As observações realizadas no decorrer da experiência demonstraram a presença de substâncias miraxonais emanadas pelos moluscos.Miracidia tropism to suitable hosts is a subject of much controversy. In this work, we try to determine the possible specificity of Schistosoma mansoni miracidia attraction and also the degree of this specificity. To this end an experiment was carried out to determine the probability of attraction in a given experimental set up, to H. fuscovaria girina or to one of two susceptible snail species. Two strains of S. mansoni were employed and also the corresponding snail species. A specially designed apparatus consisting of two circular glass chambers joined by an open channel was used. One of the girina or a snail was placed in one of the chambers (randomly chosen. In the channel a known number of miracidia were deposited and the count of miracidia in each of the three compartments (the two chambers and the channel was recorded. The experiment was carried out under strong or subdued lighting. Statistical and ad-hoc exploratory data analysis have shown that: a the miracidia, when exposed to only one species of snail, show more attraction to the sympatric snail host; bone strain of miraciadia showed more attraction under strong lighting; the other strain behaved the opposite way, with stronger attraction under weak liht; c the girina did not attract the miracidia; this seems to imply that sone chemiotropism is present

  8. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

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    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  9. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

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    Rafael Araujo

    2015-07-01

    European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha. Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  10. Atração miraxonal exercida por Biomphalaria straminea, Lymnaea columella e Physa sp, sobre miracídios de Schistosoma mansoni da linhagem BH The miraxonal attraction exercised by Biomphalaria straminea, Lymnaea columella and Physa sp over miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Luiz A. Magalhães

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se um artefato de vidro composto de duas câmaras unidas por um canal, testamos a atração miraxonal exercida por Biomphalaria straminea, Lymnaea columella e Physa sp, sobre larvas de Schistosoma mansoni da linhagem BH. Os moluscos, ou suas águas de condicionamento (SCW, foram colocados aleatoriamente em uma das câmaras, contendo o restante do artefato somente água declorada. Dez miracídios foram depositados no centro do canal. O comportamento dos miracídios foi observado por 15 min. Foram feitas dez replicações de cada experimento, utilizando-se espécimens de moluscos e miracídios diferentes. Verificou-se que todos os moluscos e suas SCW exerceram atração miraxonal, sendo que Physa sp atraiu mais que Lymnaea columella. Foi isolado um único exemplar de B. straminea que exerceu efeito repulsivo sobre os miracídios de S. mansoni.The attraction exercised over Schistosoma mansoni miracidia by Biomphalaria straminea, Lymnaea columella and Physa sp using a specially designed apparatus consisting of two circular glass chambers joined by an open channel were studied. The molluscs or their snail-conditioned water (SCW was placed in one of the chambers (randomly chosen. In the channel ten miracidia was deposited and the count of miracidia in each of the three compartments (the two chambers and the channel was recorded during fifteen minutes. Ten replications of each experiment with different specimens of molluscs and miracidia were made. Statistical and ad-hoc exploratory data analysis showed that: a the three species of molluscs and their SCW attract the miracidia; b Physa sp attract more miracidia then L. columella. There was an isolated single B. straminea specimen that had a repulsive effect to the miracidia.

  11. Aproximación a la confrontación jurídico-económica entre María de Molina y las aljamas castellanas a finales del siglo XIII y principios del siglo XIV

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    Rica AMRAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail a été conçu dans une perspective bien précise : l’aspect historiographique de la question, introduit par les chroniques. Toutefois, à cause du laconisme de ces textes, et bien que la base de notre étude soit le récit historiographique des règnes de Sanche IV et de Ferdinand IV, nous avons aussi utilisé la documentation des cortès et celle de la collection Burriel. D’autres documents, relatifs à des conciles et à des synodes, proviendront de la jurisprudence ecclésiastique. Nous évoquerons d’abord les communautés juives castillanes dans leur situation interne (sociale et spirituelle et analyserons la situation économique à laquelle la majorité de leurs membres fut soumise, avant de passer au coeur de notre propos : les relations de Marie de Molina avec les juifs (points communs avec les époques antérieures, changements provoqués par la reine et enfin signification de sa politique envers cette minorité et impact de celle-ci au XIVe siècle.El presente trabajo ha sido concebido bajo una visión bien dirigida : la vertiente historiográfica que introducen las crónicas. Sin embargo y debido a la parquedad de las mismas, y aunque las bases serán estas, las del periodo de Sancho IV y Fernando IV, me he permitido también utilizar los documentos de Cortes, al mismo tiempo que algunos sobre el periodo insertos en la colección Burriel ; otros provendrán de la jurisprudencia eclesiástica, relativos a concilios y sínodos. Y ya en un segundo plano trabajaremos sobre las aljamas castellanas (situación social y espiritualidad desde un punto de vista interno ; analizaremos desde la óptica de la mayoría la situación económica a los que estos se vieron sometidos y por último, lo que será el centro de nuestro estudio, la relación de María de Molina con la comunidad judía : los puntos comunes con épocas anteriores, los cambios que esta realiza en su relación con la comunidad, para concluir con lo que

  12. Pacientes adultos con recidiva de leucemia promielocítica aguda (LPA) o leucemia promielocítica aguda refractaria después de haber sido tratados con ácido trans retinóico total (ATRA) y trióxido de arsénico (ATO) (en combinación o secuencialmente). | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aroteno en pacientes con leucemia promielocítica aguda que hayan recibido terapia previa con ATRA y trióxido...ondition(s) being investigated Pacientes adultos con recidiva de leucemia promielocítica aguda (LPA) o leucemia...dultos con recidiva de LPA o LPA refractaria. E.2.2Secondary objectives of the trial Determinar las tasas de estado libre de leucemia...nicamente significativa y que se considera que no guarda relación con la leucemia

  13. Comunidad de moluscos asociados al mejillón verde Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia y sus relaciones tróficas en la costa norte de la Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

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    Sioliz Villafranca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Perna viridis es un bivalvo procedente del Indo-Pacífico que habita en la zona intermareal y ha invadido varios ecosistemas de la costa norte del estado Sucre, Venezuela. Con la finalidad de realizar un estudio sobre las comunidades de moluscos asociadas a esta especie y sus relaciones tróficas, se llevaron a cabo muestreos bimensuales entre octubre/97 y agosto/98, en un banco natural de mejillones a dos metros de profundidad en la costa norte de la península de Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W. Los organismos fueron recolectados delimitando el área con una cuadrícula de 0.25 m². Se identificaron los organismos hasta la categoría de especies utilizando claves específicas para moluscos y bibliográficamente se les determinó categoría trófica.Se capturó un total de 1 235 individuos de P. viridis y asociados a la especie 3 163 especímenes pertenecientes al phylum Mollusca, contenidos en tres clases: Bivalvia,Gastropoda y Polyplacophora. Éstas estuvieron representadas por 50 especies correspondientes a 10 órdenes, 24 familias; para los gasterópodos se contabilizaron 25 especies, para los bivalvos 22 y tres para los poliplacóforos. Del total de las especies, 40% fueron filtradoras, 26% carnívoras, 24% herbívoras y el 10% restante presentó dos categorías.De las filtradoras las más representativas fueron: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Ostrea equestris; en el grupo de los carnívoros dominaron tres especies de la familia Columbellidae:Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa y Nitidella ocellata y para el grupo de los herbívoros destacaron dos especies de la familia Fisurellidae: Diodora cayenensis y D. minuta. Se registraron dos especies filtradoras-detritívoras, y tres especies herbívoras-filtradoras representantes del género C repidula. El alto porcentaje de filtradores sería un indicativo de que dentro de este sistema probablemente hay una mayor disponibilidad de fracciones alimenticias para este grupo

  14. A história da ciência na formação do professor de física: subsídios para um curso sobre o tema atração gravitacional visando às mudanças de postura na ação docente History of Science in teaching education: suggestions for a course plan on gravitational attraction aiming to change teachers' attitudes

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    Sandra Regina Teodoro Gatti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar como a evolução histórica dos modelos de atração entre corpos, tendo como pano de fundo a evolução dos modelos de mundo, pode auxiliar na formação inicial do docente de Física. Para tanto, sugerimos um planejamento de curso sobre o tema atração gravitacional, destinado principalmente a docentes de Física que atuam no ensino médio. O planejamento do curso foi baseado: em dados sobre a evolução dos modelos de mundo, buscando evidenciar como o conceito de atração gravitacional desenvolveu-se historicamente; nas concepções alternativas mais comuns encontradas na literatura, incluindo um breve esboço de noções diagnosticadas em uma amostra de docentes de Física de ensino médio; e em sugestões de leituras de resultados de pesquisas recentes sobre os processos de ensino e aprendizagem de ciências. Pretende-se fornecer aos docentes elementos de reflexão que lhes proporcionem mudanças de postura, através do questionamento da visão de ciência enquanto processo de construção e sobre sua própria prática de ensino. Partindo de resultados recentes da pesquisa em Ensino de Ciências, a metodologia sugerida privilegia o trabalho coletivo, com a realização de debates e sínteses. As atividades mencionadas são acompanhadas de justificativas sobre a escolha do tema e objetivos.The main purpose of this research was to study how the attraction among bodies, having as background the evolution of models of the world, can help prospective teachers' education. To reach this goal, we suggest a course plan on gravitational attraction, addressed mainly to High School Physics teachers. This course was based: on data about world models' evolution, searching to make clear how the concept of gravitational attraction was historically developed; on the most common alternative conceptions found in the literature, including a brief outline of notions found among in-service High School Physics teachers

  15. Between-season attraction of cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae adults by its aggregation pheromone Atração de adultos do bicudo do algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae por seu feromônio de agregação na entressafra

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    Wedson Desidério Fernandes

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the attractiveness of boll weevil adults by its aggregation pheromone under winter field conditions. Two experimental fields were utilized at "Casa Branca", SP, Brazil. For each one, three areas were established near the refuge vegetation, sparated 500 m from each other. Each area was divided in three sub-areas or blocks of 100 m² to receive pheromone applications (2.5 g per block. In addition to the pre-application counting, five additional evaluations were carried out after the pheromone applicaton. Ten randomized sampling points per block were considered in each evaluation process. A. grandis adults responded immediately to the pheromone applications, and were captured for 14 days . The highest level of attractiveness was observed 24 hours after application. The application of the boll weevil aggregation pheromone during winter could increase the predation by natural enemies, due to the increase of prey availability. Chemical control can be recommended 24 hours after pheromone applications in small plots as a between-season strategy for the suppression of boll weevil adults.O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a atratividade do bicudo do algodoeiro ao seu feromônio de agregação em período de inverno. Foram utilizados dois campos experimentais no município de Casa Branca, SP. Em cada um destes, foram estabelecidas três áreas separadas de aproximadamente 500 metros, sempre próximas à vegetação de refúgio. Cada área foi dividida em três sub-áreas ou blocos de 100 m² para receber a aplicação do feromônio (2,5 g por bloco. Foi realizada uma contagem de bicudos adultos no solo antes, e mais cinco após a aplicação de feromônio. Em cada bloco, foram observadas dez parcelas aleatórias, para a avaliação dos bicudos. Os adultos de A. grandis foram atraídos imediatamente após a aplicação do feromônio, sendo capturados por mais de 14 dias após. O índice mais

  16. 全反式维甲酸与紫杉醇、阿霉素联合诱导HL-60细胞凋亡的研究%Studies on the apoptosis using ATRA in combination with taxol and ADR in HL-60 cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤学芬; 丁润生; 谢玉娟; 姚登福; 陆德炎

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨全反式维甲酸(ATRA)分别与紫杉醇(Taxol)、阿霉素(ADR)单独或联合孵育HL-60细胞株能否增强凋亡诱导作用,并进一步研究bcl-2基因及家族bax、bcl-x基因在此过程中的作用.方法:①用台盼兰拒染法观察细胞生长活力;②在光镜和电镜下观察细胞形态变化;③用流式细胞仪(FCM)检测药物孵育前后细胞凋亡率(AP)的变化;④用RT-PCR法检测药物孵育前后bcl-2基因及其家族bax、bcl-x基因的表达水平.结果:①ATRA能增强Taxol和ADR对HL-60细胞的生长抑制作用;②ATRA能增强HL-60细胞对Taxol和ADR诱导的细胞凋亡;③在ATRA与Taxol、ADR联合诱导的HL-60细胞凋亡中,bcl-2、bcl-xl基因表达下降,bax、bcl-xs基因表达增加.结论:ATRA能增加Taxol和ADR对HL-60细胞的生长抑制作用及凋亡诱导作用,bcl-2基因及家族bax、bcl-x基因参与了ATRA与Taxol、ADR联合诱导细胞凋亡的调控.

  17. Effect of Atra on the Expression of CyclinD3 and Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in injury nidus of carotid endothelium in rabbits%ARTA对兔颈动脉内膜损伤病灶CydinD3及LP-PLA2的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡真真; 董果雄; 张社华; 张滨; 姚如永

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察全反式维甲酸(ARTA)对兔颈动脉内膜损伤与修复病灶内膜增生和细胞周期素CyclinD3及炎性相关因子LP-PLA2表达的影响和机制.方法 将54只健康新西兰大白兔随机分为9组(n=6):正常对照组(A、B、C)、高脂饮食组(A、B、C)、治疗组(A、B、C).普通饮食后正常对照组仅暴露颈动脉;高脂饮食组,暴露颈动脉并损伤内膜;治疗组用ARTA灌胃,其他操作同高脂饮食组.术后1周、2周、4周处死A、B、C组动物,对病变血管行形态学观察和测定,分别用ELISA和免疫组化方法检测颈动脉内膜损伤与修复病灶中LP-PLA2和CyclinD3的表达水平.结果 ①正常对照组LP-PLA2仅有微量表达.CyclinD3胞浆呈弱阳性表达,胞核呈阴性表达.②高脂饮食组在术后7天内膜开始增生,28天后明显增生,出现泡沫细胞、脂质条纹、管腔狭窄.LP-PLA2和CyclinD3表达水平较正常组显著增高.③治疗组LP-PLA2和CyclinD3表达水平明显低于高脂饮食组(P<0.05).内膜的增生和管腔的狭窄显著减轻(P<0.05).结论 ARTA可以通过抑制LP-PLA2和CyclinD3的表达,抑制内膜的炎症反应和血管平滑肌细胞的增生,从而抑制颈动脉内膜损伤病灶的过度增生和管腔狭窄.%Objective To observe the influence of all-trans retinoic acid( ATRA) on the process of neointimal formation and the expression of CyclinD3 and Lipoprotein-associated phos pholipase A2 in injury nidus of carotid endothelium in rabbits. Methods Fifty-six healthy male New-Zealand rabbits were randomly divided in to 9 groups(=6): normal control groups(A, B, C), high-fat groups(A, B, C), treatment groups(A, B, C). There were 6 rabbits in each group. The normal control groups were fed with conventional chow, and underwent surgery without endothelium injury. The high-fat groups were fed with high cholesterol chowand. subjected to the carotid endothelial injury by air desiccation. The treatment groups were administered ATRA

  18. [Demonstration of papillomatosis in nutrias (Myocastor coypus Molina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, P; Valícek, L; Smíd, B; Halouzka, R

    1978-02-01

    The occurrence of the papillomatous disease of the coypu having a contagious character was recorded for the first time in Czechoslovakia in 1975. The papillomatous lesions of the size of a pea to bean occurred on the skin of the extremities, tail head and in the oral and nasal cavities. The females were affected first, followed by their young and then by the young borne by healthy mothers after contact with the diseased animals. On the whole the disease affected 57 animals (60%). The disease spontaneously disappeared within 2.5 to 3.5 months of the occurrence of the papillomatous lesions. The virus etiology of the disease was demonstrated by means of the electron-microscopic detection of virus particles the structure of which corresponded to that of the papillomatous viruses.

  19. SPECIES DIVERSITY OF LONG GOURD LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL

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    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of international spread of fruits of long gourd lagenaria and the introduction of it in culture are considered in the article. We have shown how to use it as a vegetable crop and considered varietal diversity of this species. The biological characteristics of lagenaria cultivation as vegetable plants, including peculiarities of the reproductive system have been marked. We have also considered the issues of cultivation and distribution of long gourd lagenaria (zycca for food

  20. 西藏札达地区早侏罗世双壳类Lithiotis生物岩礁的发现及其地质意义%Discovery of the early Juassic Lithiotis(Bivalvia) bioherm in Zhada area in Tibet and its geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金和; 孙苑迪; 夏祥

    2013-01-01

    西藏札达地区首次发现了早侏罗世Lithiotis生物岩礁,赋存于聂聂雄拉组的下部,属进积礁类型。 Lithiotis和相邻层位化石的发现,证明聂聂雄拉组的时代下限可以延伸到早侏罗世土阿辛期,此时札达地区的古地理条件处于能够适应Lithiotis大量繁衍的低纬度碳酸盐岩台地环境。%The discovery of the early Jurassic Lithiotis(Bivalvia) bioherm, for the first time in Zhada area in Tibet, is saved in the Nieniexiongla Formation's lower part and belong to the type of prograded reef. The discovery of the Lithiotis bioherm and the close horizon fossils proof the age of Nieniexiongla Formation's lower part extend to the Toarcian of the Early Jurassic time. The term of palaeogeograph of the this time Zhada area be placed in and can adapt to the low degree of latitude carbonate platform environment that Lithiotis multiply greatly.

  1. Perfil de lípidos y ácidos grasos de Perna viridis, mejillón verde (Mollusca: Bivalvia en el oriente venezolano y la costa oeste de Trinidad

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    Tamar Koftayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos totales fueron extraídos, identificados y cuantificados por gravimetría, mediante TLC/FID (sistema Iatroscan. Los ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales, fosfolípidos y triacilgliceroles fueron identificados y cuantificados por cromatografía de gases. Las mayores concentraciones de lípidos totales se presentaron en las muestras de Los Cedros, La Brea y Chaguaramas con valores de 7.92, 7.74 y 7.53%; respectivamente y los valores mínimos en las de La Restinga (6.08%. En la composición lípidica, las muestras de Chacopata presentaron la menor concentración de fosfolípidos (48.86% y los máximos valores de colesterol (38.87% y triacilgliceroles (12.26%, y las muestras de La Esmeralda y Río Caribe exhibieron concentraciones máximas de fosfolípidos (88.71-84.93%, respectivamente y mínimas de colesterol (6.50-4.42%. En los lípidos totales, los ácidos grasos saturados se encontraron entre 15.04 y 65.55%, con máximos en muestras de La Esmeralda y mínimos en Chacopata y los poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 7.80 y 37.18%, con máximos valores en la Brea y mínimos en la Esmeralda. En los fosfolípidos, la concentración de ácidos grasos saturados estuvo entre 38.81 y 48.68% para las muestras de Chaguaramas y Chacopata, respectivamente; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados se encontraron entre no detectado y 34.51%, con altas concentraciones en muestras de Los Cedros (27.97% y Chaguaramas (34.51%. En los triacilgliceroles, la composición de ácidos grasos saturados variaron entre 14.27 y 53.80%, con baja concentración en Chacopata y alta concentración en La Restinga; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 4.66 y 35.55%, con valores menores en las muestras de Chacopata (4.66% y mayores en Chaguaramas. El consumo frecuente de Perna viridis es recomendable, debido a su alto contenido de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos insaturados.Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, Green Mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia in

  2. Composição e diversidade de Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera atraídos por armadilha de luz em área rural no norte do Paraná, Brasil Composition and diversity of Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera attracted by light trap in the rural areas of Northern Paraná

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    Daniele C. Ronqui

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No Estado do Paraná, as áreas mais devastadas são aquelas com potencial agrícola e as ações de inferência no meio raramente são precedidas do estudo faunístico que permitam avaliar a diversidade e abundância dos animais das áreas atingidas. Este trabalho objetivou catalogar a escarabeoideofauna atraída por armadilha de luz na área rural do município de Tamarana, Paraná e contribuir com o conhecimento ecológico de espécies deste grupo. As coletas foram realizadas em duas propriedades, utilizando armadilha de luz modelo Luiz de Queiroz modificada. Estas tiveram periodicidade quinzenal de março de 2002 a abril de 2001. Foram capturados 2.447 espécimens, distribuídos em 10 famílias, 24 gêneros e 67 espécies. As três espécies mais abundantes também foram as mais freqüentes: Aphodius lividus (Olivier, 1789, Melolonthidae sp. 1 e Ataenius sp. 5. A maior abundância de A. lividus ocorreu no outono, durante o mês de abril, enquanto que Melolonthidae sp. 1 e Ataeucus sp. 5 foram mais abundantes em outubro e novembro. A maioria das espécies foram representadas por poucos indivíduos (H'=1,74 e as espécies apareceram de maneira uniforme (J'=0,95; S=0,20. Ocorreu um maior número de famílias que estavam representadas por poucos indivíduos. Houve predominância das famílias que apresentam hábitos alimentares detritívoros - Aphodiidae, Scarabaeidae, Hybosoridae e fitófagos - Melolonthidae, Dynastidae e Rutelidae. Para os grupos de hábito detritívoro, foram coletados 25 espécies, num total de 1.422 espécimes.The most devastated environments in the State of Paraná are those with great agricultural potential, and most human interference actions on the environment are seldom preceded by a careful study of the fauna, which would reveal the diversity and abundance of animals in these areas. This study aimed to describe the Scarabaeoidea fauna attracted by light traps in rural areas of the Tamarana County, Paraná, Brazil, and

  3. The adhesive protein of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782) and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782): a proline-rich and a glycine-rich polyphenolic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzio, L A; Saéz, C; Pardo, J; Waite, J H; Burzio, L O

    2000-06-15

    The adhesive polyphenolic proteins from Aulacomya ater and Choromytilus chorus with apparent molecular masses of 135000 and 105000, respectively, were digested with trypsin and the peptides produced resolved by reversed phase liquid chromatography. About 5 and 12 major peptides were obtained from the protein of A. ater and C. chorus, respectively. The major peptides were purified by reverse-phase chromatography and the amino acid sequence indicates that both polyphenolic proteins consisted of repeated sequence motifs in their primary structure. The major peptides of A. ater contain seven amino acids corresponding to the consensus sequence AGYGGXK, whereas the tyrosine was always found as 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa), the X residue in position 6 was either valine, leucine or isoleucine, and the carboxy terminal was either lysine or hydroxylysine. On the other hand, the major peptides of C. chorus ranged in size from 6 to 21 amino acids and the majority correspond to the consensus sequence AKPSKYPTGYKPPVK. Both proteins differ markedly in the sequence of their tryptic peptides, but they share the common characteristics of other adhesive proteins in having a tandem sequence repeat in their primary structure.

  4. [Parasite nematodes from Dusycion griseus (Gray, 1837), D. culpaeus (Molina, 1782) and Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) (Mammalia:Carnivora) in Neuquén, Argentina. Systematics and ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M; Suriano, D M; Novaro, A J

    1994-01-01

    Four nematode species (Physaloptera clausa Rudolphi, 1819; Ph. maxillaris Molin, 1860; Protospirura numidica criceticola Quentin, Karimi and Rodrigues De Almeida, 1968; Toxascaris leonina (Von Linstow, 1902) were collected from D. griseus, D. culpaeus and C. chinga in Neuquen Province, Argentina. These hosts were captured from April to August in 1990 and 1991. Ph. clausa and Ph. maxillaris ar redescribed. The systematic position of Ph. clausa is discussed and the authors conclude that this species could be considered the type species of the genus. The possibility that D. griseus and D. culpaeus could be the accidental hosts for P. n. criceticola is discussed. Prevalence, mean intensity and frequency of each species are given. These parameters were related with the diets of the hosts and the parasite life cycles. There was no relationship between parasitic burden of each host and their nutritional condition (Kendall Tau Test). Significant differences exist among the diet of each host and among prevalence values of each parasite species (Homogeneity Test SYSTAT Program).

  5. Branch whorls of juvenile Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch: are they formed annually? Los verticilos de juveniles de Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch: ¿son formados anualmente?

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    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Araucaria araucana, like that of many other conifers, is characterised by the production of a monopodial stem with branch whorls. However, the periodicity of whorl formation in this species has not been subjected to systematic study. We used growth ring counts to determine the frequency of whorl formation in sun- and shade-grown juvenile A. araucana in a montane forest in the Chilean coast range. Whorls were not annual in any of the 35 individuals studied, growth rings outnumbering whorls by a factor of 1.8 to 3.9. The mean interval between successive whorls was significantly shorter in sun-grown (2.1 yrs whorl -1 than in shade-grown trees (2.6 yrs whorl-1, suggesting a relationship with plant carbon balance. Mean distance between whorls was also sensitive to light environment. The overall result of this effect of light environment on both whorl spacing and production rate was that mean height growth rates were > 50% higher in sun-grown trees (169 mm yr-1 than in shade-grown individuals (111 mm yr-1. Despite the non-annual nature of whorls in the study population, whorl counts may have some potential as a non-invasive method of age estimation in juvenile A. araucana. In both shade- and sun-grown subpopulations, whorl number was a better predictor of stem age than were stem diameter or heightEl crecimiento de A. araucana, al igual que el de muchas otras coníferas, se caracteriza por la producción de un fuste monopódico y ramas en verticilos. Sin embargo, en esta especie, no se ha investigado sistemáticamente la periodicidad de la formación de los verticilos. Esta nota documenta el conteo de anillos de crecimiento para determinar la frecuencia de formación de verticilos, en árboles juveniles de A. araucana. Se muestrearon 17 árboles en ambientes soleados y otros 18 bajo sombra, en un bosque montano de la Cordillera de la Costa, Chile. Ninguno de los 35 individuos estudiados mostró evidencias de formación anual de verticilos, puesto que el número de anillos de crecimiento excedió al número de verticilos en 1,8 a 3,9 veces. El intervalo promedio entre la producción de verticilos sucesivos fue significativamente menor en individuos expuestos a pleno sol (2,1 años verticilo-1 que en aquellos que crecieron bajo sombra (2,6 años verticilo-1, sugiriendo cierta relación con el balance de carbono de la planta. La distancia promedio entre verticilos también se mostró sensible al ambiente lumínico. El resultado de este efecto del ambiente lumínico sobre tanto la tasa de producción de verticilos, como la distancia entre éstos, fue que la tasa promedio de crecimiento en altura de los individuos soleados (169 mm año-1 excedió en > 50% a la de los individuos sombreados (111 mm año-1. A pesar de la naturaleza no anual de los verticilos en la población estudiada, los recuentos de verticilos pueden tener potencial como un método no invasivo de estimación de edad para juveniles de A. araucana. Tanto dentro de las subpoblaciones soleadas como sombreadas, el número de verticilos fue mejor indicador de la edad que el diámetro o la altura del fuste

  6. Orchid bee baits attracting bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera, Halictidae in Bauru region, São Paulo, Brazil: abundance, seasonality, and the importance of odors for dim-light bees Abelhas do gênero Megalopta (Hymenoptera, Halictidae atraídas por iscas químicas usadas para euglossíneos na região de Bauru, SP: abundância, sazonalidade e importância de odores para abelhas crepusculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima R. N. Knoll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal bees in the genus Megalopta Smith, 1853 are generally collected using artificial light sources. However, between 1993 and 2000, a total of 946 females (no males were captured were captured using aromatic baits commonly used for orchid bees (Euglossini in five localities in Bauru region, São Paulo, Brazil. Aromatic compounds used in bait traps were: benzyl acetate, eucalyptol, eugenol, skatole, methyl salicylate, and vanillin. The Megalopta species collected were: M. guimaraesi (71.2% of total number of specimens, M. amoena (28.1%, and M. aegis (0.6%. Using the data from these traps, we showed that there was a positive and significant correlation between the abundance of individuals and meteorological factors, rainfall and temperature. Bees were more commonly collected in the spring (September to December and summer (December to March than in the autumn and winter, the latter characterized for being a drier and colder period. Variations in the abundance were also detected among localities and years. The most attractive compounds were eugenol (54%, methyl salicylate (22%, and eucalyptol (16%. The ability to detect smells may have an important role in searching for flowers during dim-light conditions. We suggest the use of aromatic compounds in future studies on the biology of Megalopta in the Neotropical region.Abelhas noturnas do gênero Megalopta (Smith, 1853 são geralmente coletadas usando fontes artificiais de luz. Porém entre os anos de 1993 e 2000, um total de 946 fêmeas de Megalopta foram capturadas (machos não foram capturados usando iscas aromáticas frequentemente usadas para atração de machos de Euglossini, em cinco localidades na região de Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil. Os compostos aromáticos utilizados foram: acetato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, escatol, salicilato de metila e vanilina. As espécies encontradas foram M. guimaraesi (71.2% do total de indivíduos, M. amoena (28.1% and M. aegis (0.6%. De modo geral

  7. Morphometry, growth and reproduction of an Atlantic population of the razor clam Ensis macha (Molina, 1782

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    Pedro J. Barón

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensis macha is a razor clam distributed throughout the coasts of southern Argentina and Chile. Even though it represents a valuable fishery resource, the exploitation of its Atlantic populations has begun only in recent years. This study provides the first estimates of growth rate, an interpretation of the reproductive cycle on the coast of the northern Argentine Patagonia and an analysis of the species morphometry. Growth was estimated by direct observation of growth rings on the valves by two observers. The reproductive cycle was interpreted by the analysis of temporal change of oocyte size frequency distributions. Parameter estimations for the von Bertalanffy equations respectively obtained by observers 1 and 2 were 154 and 153.7 mm for L?, 0.25 and 0.20 yr-1 for k, and -0.08 and -0.72 yr for t0. Two spawning peaks were detected: September-November 1999 and May-June 2000. However, mature females were found all year round. An abrupt change in the relationship between shell length and height was detected at 11.2 mm length.

  8. Mi Confesión. Revelaciones de un criminal de guerra (Mauricio Aranguren Molina

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    Herminia Gonzálvez Torralbo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hablar de un libro como el que paso a reseñar, implica comentar en un primer momento, qué es aquello que entendemos por confesión. Señalo esto porque cuando vemos la carátula del libro y leemos su título, el lector puede pensar que el protagonista del mismo revela voluntariamente acontecimientos de su propia vida, pero no sólo eso sino que además el lector puede pensar también que ésto s acontecimientos son relatados con el ánimo, no sólo de la revelación de una verdad, la verdad de Carlos Castaño, sino también con la intención de buscar una reconciliación (no sabría muy bien con quién pues son muchos los que han sufrido su falta de piedad por todos los crímenes cometidos. Es cierto, que cualquier tipo de confesión de un paramilitar que busque el perdón nunca se sostendrá,pero una confesión de un paramilitar es algo que llama la atención, sea esta del calibre que sea y sea cual sea el motivo de la misma.

  9. Tirso de Molina's comedy «Las Quinas de Portugal» and Salazar's censorship

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    António Apolinário Lourenço

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In March 1968, Portuguese censors stopped the broadcast on public television —which was the only television network at the time— of Tirso de Molina’s comedy Las quinas de Portugal. This play stages the most important creation myth for the Portuguese nation: on the eve of the battle of Ourique, a crucified Christ appeared and offered Count Afonso Henriques his five holy wounds as a symbol for the Portuguese coat of arms. In this article, I intend to understand the ethical and political reasoning of the censors who read this play, written by one of the most important playwrights of the Spanish Golden Age

  10. Recuerdo e imaginación en Beltenebros de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2004-01-01

    Nueva narrativa, novela, sujeto, búsqueda de identidad, den nye spanske roman, subjekt, identitet......Nueva narrativa, novela, sujeto, búsqueda de identidad, den nye spanske roman, subjekt, identitet...

  11. Uso de saponina de quilaia (Quillaja saponaria Molina) em juvenis de pacu

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Rosangela do Nascimento [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The quillaja saponin (QS) is present in the bark of Chilean and Brazilian trees of the same family, Rosaceae and, it´s able to promote performance and the immune system of animals. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of consuming diets containing increasing levels of QS (0,0; 100,0; 200,0; 300,0; 400,0 mg kg-1) by pacu. Three distinct steps in different consumption diets periods compound by seven, 15, and 30 days. At each step, was used a total of 350 fish, totaling 1050 fishes. These fishe...

  12. LAS CIENCIAS SOCIALES EN LA UCT EN 1971, POR VÍCTOR RAVIOLA MOLINA

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    Victor Raviola Molina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el golpe de Estado, nuestro país se perfilaba como una «cosmópolis intelectual», exhibiendo condiciones como estabilidad política, modernización del sistema educacional universitario y gestión de redes internacionales tejidas desde algunas universidades. Esto propicia el florecimiento de centros académicos de investigación y formación, constituyendo un polo para intelectuales latinoamericanos, europeos y americanos que se insertan en estas instituciones con el objetivo de fortalecer dichas iniciativas, y analizar los procesos sociopolíticos que estaban teniendo lugar. En este contexto, y aun cuando en una condición periférica que implica sobre todo precariedad de recursos, las instituciones regionales buscaron afianzar su posición, se pensaron no sólo como instancias formativas, sino también de investigación, contribuyendo a través de la ciencia al desarrollo en el plano local.En la década de los setenta, la sede regional de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, hoy Universidad Católica de Temuco, abría un panorama auspicioso para el desarrollo de las ciencias sociales. Desde el Centro de Estudios de la Realidad Regional (CERER, y con el propósito de formar investigadores locales, se da apertura en 1971 a un programa de especialización denominado «Carrera de Investigadores en Ciencias Sociales», el que fue antesala de la fundación de la carrera de Licenciatura en Antropología en 1973, la tercera en el país y la segunda regional.Consideramos relevante este discurso pronunciado por el entonces director de Sede, don Víctor Raviola, en la inauguración anual de actividades académicas, en tanto deja testimonio de un estilo de universidad, a saber: regionalista, comprometida con la investigación científica aplicada, y vinculada con el medio local. Las palabras del profesor Raviola resultan señeras respecto del desarrollo de las ciencias sociales a nivel regional, proyecto que decae paulatinamente a partir de 1973 y que concluye con el cierre de la carrera de Antropología en 1978. En 1970 se da inicio a un proyecto que quedará inconcluso y que sólo volverá a cobrar fuerza en la década de los noventa con la apertura de las carreras de Antropología y Trabajo Social y la posterior creación de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales en el primer decenio del siglo XXI.Agradecemos a Gloria Vergara Segura la transcripción de este texto (Héctor Mora Nawrath.

  13. Morfología del aparato reproductor del picoroco Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782 (Cirripedia, Balanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Contreras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Descripción morfológica de las estructuras reproductivas de Austromegabalanus psittacus en dos periodos de maduración sexual. Se determinó que es un organismo hermafrodita que transfiere sus espermatozoides mediante un órgano intromitente o pene. El aparato reproductor masculino consta de testículos organizados en acinos que se distribuyen arboriformemente, dos conductos deferentes que se unen en la base del pene para formar el conducto eyaculador. El aparato reproductor femenino consiste principalmente en un ovario sacular que rodea al resto del cuerpo y se encuentra adherido a través de musculatura a la base de las placas operculares. Se organiza internamente en sacos acinares elongados que contienen ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos adheridos a su pared y vitelogénicos y maduros libres dentro del lumen. Se observaron diferencias notorias en los ovarios entre los organismos recolectados en septiembre y octubre. En septiembre presentaron coloración amarillenta y en su interior se encontraron dos estructuras compactas denominadas lamelas ovígeras en cuyo interior se observaron ovocitos fecundados, embriones en diferentes estados de desarrollo y nauplius libres en la cavidad corporal; en octubre los ovarios son gruesos, blanquecinos y con gran cantidad de fluido lechoso en su interior.

  14. Morfología del aparato reproductor del picoroco Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782) (Cirripedia, Balanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Contreras; Nicolás Luna; Enrique Dupré

    2015-01-01

    Descripción morfológica de las estructuras reproductivas de Austromegabalanus psittacus en dos periodos de maduración sexual. Se determinó que es un organismo hermafrodita que transfiere sus espermatozoides mediante un órgano intromitente o pene. El aparato reproductor masculino consta de testículos organizados en acinos que se distribuyen arboriformemente, dos conductos deferentes que se unen en la base del pene para formar el conducto eyaculador. El aparato reproductor femenino consiste pri...

  15. Organisation of autonomic nervous structures in the small intestine of chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, E

    2014-08-01

    Using histochemical, histological and immunocytochemical methods, organisation of the autonomic nerve structures in small intestine of chinchilla was investigated. Myenteric plexus was localised between circular and longitudinal layers of the smooth muscles. Forming network nodes, the small autonomic, cholinergic ganglia were linked with the bundles of nerve fibres. Adrenergic structures were visible as specific varicose, rosary-like fibres forming bundles of parallel fibres connecting network nodes. Structures of the submucosal plexus formed a finer network than those of the myenteric plexus. Moreover, in 'whole-mount' specimens, fibres forming thick perivascular plexuses were also observed. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed the cholinergic and adrenergic character of the investigated structures. VAChT-positive neurones were found only in myenteric plexus, and numerous VAChT-positive and DBH-positive fibres were found in both plexuses.

  16. Fibrinolytic activity of kaempferol isolated from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, M S; Mathur, Vineet; Agrawal, Purti; Chandrawanshi, H K; Pilaniya, Urmila

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to isolate a flavonol, kaempferol, from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) as a sole compound and to explore the fibrinolytic potential of the methanolic extract of the fruits of L. siceraria and the isolated compound using their in vitro activity. The fibrinolytic activity in terms of percentage of plasma clot liquefaction was determined by plasma clot lysis at 37°C in 24 h. The fibrinolytic activity of both substances was compared to the well-known thrombolytic agent streptokinase (30,000 IU). The percentage of fibrinolytic activity of the extract and isolated compound were found to be 54.72 ± 0.7210 and 77.37 ± 1.3010, respectively. Streptokinase was considered as the standard fibrinolytic enzyme for comparative purposes and had 91.46 ± 0.7625% fibrinolytic activity. The conclusion drawn in our study after testing the hypothesis by experimental procedures is that in vitro fibrinolytic activity on plasma clots is an inherent property of kaempferol isolated from the fruits of L. siceraria, and its comparison with streptokinase is a new aspect for further study.

  17. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDLEY FRUITS AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HAPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

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    C.V. Panchal*, Jyotiram A. Sawale , B. N. Poul and K.R. Khandelwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: Fruit juice of Lagenaria siceraria (LS belonging to Cucurbitaceae family, has been used traditionally to treat jaundice and to cure certain liver disorders. Antioxidants are well known for their hepatoprotective effect and in curing liver disorders. In this study, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of fruits were investigated. Materials and Methods: The coarsely powdered plant material was extracted successively with petroleum ether (PE and ethanol (ETH using soxhlet. PE & ETH, were then evaluated for their hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity and different in vitro assays respectively. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated at three oral dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Results: Both extracts, PE and ETH exhibited a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. The ETH (1000 mg/kg showed maximum hepato-protection. ETH also showed better antioxidant activity, in comparison to PE, in all the antioxidant assays. Conclusions: ETH has shown better hepatoprotective activity than PE, which could be due to its better antioxidant activity. Moreover, better activity can also be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds as these were absent in the PE.

  18. NETSUKE AS A RESOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT SPECIES DIVERSITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article, with a descriptive method and a method of analysis and synthesis, we have conducted a study of species diversity of Lagenaria on the basis of a miniature sculpture of netsuke. In Japan and China, in the period from the 17th to the 20th century, the most common was 9 species. The biological peculiarities of some rare species of lagenaria has been described

  19. Digenean larvae parasitizing Ruditapes decussatus (Bivalvia from Tunisianan coasts

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    Dhrif E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven species of trematode larvae (sporocysts and cercariae of Bucephalus labracis Paggi et Orecchia, 1965 and Cercaria lata Lespes, 1857 and metacercariae of Acanthoparyphium sp. Dietz , 1909, Caecincola parvulus Marshall et Gilbert, 1905, Curtuteria australis Allison, 1979, Gymnophallus fossarum Bartoli, 1965, Gymnophallus rebecqui Bartoli, 1983, Lepocreadium pegorchis Stossich, 1901, Parazoogonus sp. Looss, 1901, Psilostomum brevicolle Creplin, 1829 and Robphildollfusium fractum Rudolphi, 1819 were found in the clam (Ruditapes decussatus from Tunisian coasts. A part from B. labracis and Cercaria lata, the other trematode species were recorded for the first time in Tunisia. The examination of the frequency of recorded parasites reveals some monthly variation. This variation is statistically significant by comparing the sampling sites. These results indicate that more frequent parasites (G. fossarum, Cercaria lata, Curtuteria australis and Acanthoparyphium sp. could be considered as biological indicators making it possible to predict the capture localities of the clams.

  20. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and Minn

  1. The behaviour of giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae: Tridacninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Pamela; Todd, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Giant clams, the largest living bivalves, live in close association with coral reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. These iconic invertebrates perform numerous important ecological roles as well as serve as flagship species-drawing attention to the ongoing destruction of coral reefs and their associated biodiversity. To date, no review of giant clams has focussed on their behaviour, yet this component of their autecology is critical to their life history and hence conservation. Almost 100 articles published between 1865 and 2014 include behavioural observations, and these have been collated and synthesised into five sections: spawning, locomotion, feeding, anti-predation, and stress responses. Even though the exact cues for spawning in the wild have yet to be elucidated, giant clams appear to display diel and lunar periodicities in reproduction, and for some species, peak breeding seasons have been established. Perhaps surprisingly, giant clams have considerable mobility, ranging from swimming and gliding as larvae to crawling in juveniles and adults. Chemotaxis and geotaxis have been established, but giant clams are not phototactic. At least one species exhibits clumping behaviour, which may enhance physical stabilisation, facilitate reproduction, or provide protection from predators. Giant clams undergo several shifts in their mode of acquiring nutrition; starting with a lecithotrophic and planktotrophic diet as larvae, switching to pedal feeding after metamorphosis followed by the transition to a dual mode of filter feeding and phototrophy once symbiosis with zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp.) is established. Because of their shell weight and/or byssal attachment, adult giant clams are unable to escape rapidly from threats using locomotion. Instead, they exhibit a suite of visually mediated anti-predation behaviours that include sudden contraction of the mantle, valve adduction, and squirting of water. Knowledge on the behaviour of giant clams will benefit conservation and restocking efforts and help fine-tune mariculture techniques. Understanding the repertoire of giant clam behaviours will also facilitate the prediction of threshold levels for sustainable exploitation as well as recovery rates of depleted clam populations.

  2. Reproduction and sperm structure in Galeommatidae (Bivalvia, Galeommatoidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Åse; Lützen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Reproduction and/or sperm structure was studied in 18 species belonging to five genera of Galeommatidae from Phuket Island, Andaman Sea, Thailand, and Hong Kong. Incubation of the ova occurs in the inner and outer demibranchs of both gills, and sperm is most probably transferred to the ctenidial...... brood chamber as masses of agglutinated and non-encapsulated spermatozoa. The smallest specimens are males, but change into the female sex and there is a strong indication that some of the species are alternate hermaphrodites. Dwarf males occur in one species (Galeomma layardi). The sperm of all 18...... species studied are of the ent-aquasperm type with a more or less hemispherical acrosome that is tilted with respect to the long axis of the moderately elongated nucleus. It is suggested that this type of sperm affords the best autapomorphy for the family Galeommatidae....

  3. Shipwrecks, ascidians and modiolarca subpicta (Bivalvia, Mytildae, Musculinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, A.; Schrieken, N.; Coolen, J.W.P.; Gittenberger, E.

    2013-01-01

    The ovulid gastropod Xandarovula patula (Pennant, 1777) was found 14.vi.2011 on the soft coral Alcyonium digitatum Linnaeus, 1758 (Dead man’s fingers) during a dive in the central North Sea on the wreck ‘Jeanette Kristina’ on the Dutch Dogger Bank. Later on additional specimens were found, sometimes

  4. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and Minn

  5. Genus Donax in the Peruvian coast (Bivalvia: Telllnoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the species of Donax Linnaeus, 1758 in Peru are reviewed. The presence of 7 out of the 11 species is confirmed: D. asper Hanley. 1845; D. caelatus rothi Coan, 1983; D. obesulus Reeve, 1854; D. carinatus Hanley, 1843; D. transversus Sowerby 1,1825; D. californicus Conrad, 1837 and D. marincovichi Coan, 1983; in addition, one is recorded for the first time (D. punctatostriatus Hanley, 1843 in Peruvian waters. Information on the distribution geographical and some ecological relations is presented.

  6. Mollusca (terrestrial and marine Gastropods et Bivalvia from Morocco

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    Atanas Irikov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen samples with molluscs are collected from various habitats and regions of Morocco, located in the seashore zone, as well as the central and the eastern parts of the country. We recorded 21 terrestrial and 15 marine species of molluscs. New localities and new species for the fauna of Morocco and the African continent are reported for the first time.

  7. Carbonate-associated sulfate in lucinid (Bivalvia) shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Bao, H.; Anderson, L.; Engel, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    Symbiosis is a fundamental driver of evolution, with examples ranging from mitochondria in eukaryotic cells to barnacle-whale commensalism. The association between sulfur-oxidizing (thiotrophic) bacteria and the lucinid bivalve clade is particularly intriguing because the inferred antiquity of the relationship (>400 m.y.) seems at odds with the relatively loose ecologic linkage of living members. Because only half of genus-level lucinid taxa are extant, and the δ13C of shell carbonate exhibits no systematic difference between symbiotic and non- symbiotic bivalves, a new morphologically-independent proxy to determine whether fossil taxa possessed thiotrophic endosymbionts is needed. The δ34S of carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) in bivalve shells may hold promise because biogenic carbonate incorporates sulfate into its crystal structure during biomineralization. Incorporation of bacterially derived SO42- (with a more negative δ34S value due to its reduced sulfur origin) into the lucinid-shell crystal lattice would, therefore, impart a distinctly lower δ34SCAS value than that from seawater SO42-, and would be distinguishable from CAS values of co- occurring heterotrophic bivalves. We measured CAS contents, δ34SCAS and δ18OCAS values of 15 sets of lucinid and co-occurring infaunal and epifaunal heterotrophic bivalve shells collected from modern and Cenozoic shallow marine sites. The modern bivalve shells had variable CAS content, from 100 to 2600 ppm. Epifauna often had the highest concentrations relative to the other ecological groups. The δ34SCAS and δ18OCAS clustered at values corresponding to modern seawater sulfate, but with significant scatter. There was no systematic isotope- compositional difference among all bivalves in the same habitat, or among the same lucinid, infaunal, or epifaunal groups across different sites. The fossil bivalve shells tended to preserve lower CAS concentrations and the isotope compositions further deviated from seawater values. These data suggest that 1) pore-water sulfate in shallow sediments is highly heterogeneous in its concentration and isotope composition, probably due to active microbial sulfate reduction, bioturbation, and water-pumping by bivalves and other infaunal filter feeders; 2) CAS is derived from ambient porewater or pumped-in seawater for infauna or epifauna, as well as for lucinids; and 3) CAS concentration and isotope compositions are vulnerable to later diagenetic processes.

  8. Morphological and molecular diversity of Unionidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia from Portugal

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    Reis, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater mussels from the family Unionidae are known to exhibit a high level of ecological phenotypic plasticity that is reflected in their shell shape. This variation has caused uncertainty on systematics and taxonomy of the group. Several naiad populations from nine river basins from Portugal were analyzed genetically, using two mitochondrial gene fragments (16SrRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I and morphologically, using ANOVA analyses of shell dimmensions. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were used to revise the systematics and to infer an evolutionary hypothesis for the family at the western-most Atlantic Iberian Peninsula. Genetic and morphological data were in agreement and supported the occurrence of 5 species in the region: Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Potomida littoralis, Unio tumidiformis and Unio delphinus. The differentiation of all these species, except A. cygnea, is thought to have taken place during the isolation of the Iberian Peninsula and formation of the current river basins in the Tertiary. The possibility of A. cygnea being a relatively recent introduction is discussed. Basic morphometric measures of the shell proved to be useful to separate Unio species, but also seem to be strongly affected by environmental conditions. The high intra-specific morphologic variation was partially related to the species’ high level of phenotypic plasticity, but seems to have an important role in evolutionary processes.Las náyades de la familia Unionidae tienen gran plasticidad fenotípica, lo que se refleja en la forma de su concha. Esta variabilidad morfológica ha sido causa de gran confusión en la taxonomía y sistemática del grupo. Se han estudiado, genética y morfológicamente, numerosas poblaciones de náyades provenientes de nueve cuencas hidrográficas portuguesas. Para ello se han analizando dos fragmentos de genes mitocondriales (ARNr 16S y Citocromo Oxidasa I así como diferentes variables morfológicas de la concha. Se han realizado además análisis filogenéticos para conocer la sistemática de la familia e inferir una hipótesis evolutiva de su distribución en el oeste de la península Ibérica. Los datos genéticos y morfológicos sugieren la existencia de cinco especies: Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Potomida littoralis, Unio tumidiformis y Unio delphinus. La diferenciación de estas especies, con la excepción de A. cygnea, ha ocurrido durante el aislamiento de la península Ibérica y posterior formación de las actuales cuencas hidrográficas en el Terciario. Se discute la posibilidad de que la presencia de A. cygnea se deba a una introducción reciente. Los datos morfométricos analizados pueden ser útiles para separar las especies del género Unio, pero son también dependientes de las condiciones ambientales. La elevada variabilidad morfológica dentro de cada especie está relacionada con su plasticidad fenotípica, pero tiene a su vez un importante papel en el proceso evolutivo.

  9. Anatomia funcional de Perna perna (Linné (bivalvia, Mytilidae Functional anatomy of Perna perna (Linné (bivalvia, Mytilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Narchi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Perna perna (Linné, 1758 occurs on the Atlantic littoral from Venezuela to Uruguay. The main organ systems were studied in the living animais, particular attention being paid to the ciliary feeding and cleansing mechanisms in the mantle cavity. The anatomy, functioning of the stomach and the ciliary sorting mechanisms are described. The siphons belong to type A (Yongf. 1948b, the ctenidia to type B( 1 (Atkins 1936c and the stomach is of type III (Purchon 1957 or Section I (Dinamani 1967 with sorting mecanisms of type A and B (Reid 1965. A general comparison was made between the genera of the Mytilidae known and some features of Mytella Soot-Ryen, 1955.

  10. Anatomia funcional de Protothaca (Leukoma pectorina (Lamarck (Bivalvia, Veneridae Functional anatomy of Protothaca (Leukoma pectorina (Lamarck (Bivalvia, Veneridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordélia de Oliveira Castro Guerón

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Protothaca (Leukoma pectorina (Lamarck, 1818 lives from the West Indies to Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in soft muddy beaches in quiet waters of protected bays with little amounts of suspended material. A study of the functional anatomy of P. pectorina and its ecological aspects were undertaken. The anatomy and functioning of the stomach and the mechanisms for selection of particles were observed. The siphons, ctenidia, labial palps and stomach were analised and related to the animal's natural environment. The siphons belong to type B (Yonge 1948, the ctenidia to type C (1a (Atkins 1937. The ctenidia are homorhabdic (Ridewood 1903 and the stomach belongs to type V (Purchon 1960.

  11. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia in the ATRA and ATO era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Safaa M; Di Veroli, Ambra; Camboni, Agnese; Breccia, Massimo; Iori, Anna Paola; Aversa, Franco; Cupelli, Luca; Papayannidis, Cristina; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Arcese, William; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    The role of allogeneic stem cell transplant in advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia patients who received standard first- and second-line therapy is still unknown. We report the outcome of 31 acute promyelocytic leukemia patients (median age 39 years) who underwent allogeneic transplant in second remission (n=15) or beyond (n=16). Sixteen patients were real-time polymerase chain reaction positive and 15 negative for PML/RARA pre-transplant. The 4-year overall survival was 62% and 31% for patients transplanted in second remission and beyond, respectively (P=0.05), and 64% and 27% for patients with pre-transplant negative and positive real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively (P=0.03). The 4-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 32% and 44% for patients transplanted in second remission and beyond, respectively (P=0.37), and 30% and 47% for patients transplanted with negative and positive real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively (P=0.30). Transplant-related mortality was 19.6%. In conclusion, allogeneic transplant is effective in advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia in the all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide era, and should be considered once relapse is diagnosed.

  12. Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Junfeng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST.

  13. Unhatched and Hatched Eggshells of the Chinese CobraNaja atra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng WANG; Longhui LIN; Xiang JI

    2014-01-01

    Changes in structure and composition of the eggshell resulting from embryonic mobilization of minerals from the eggshell are found in all oviparous reptiles studied thus far. In this study, we measured samples of unhatched and hatched eggshells of the Chinese cobraNaja atrato determine the percentage of ash and the phase composition of calcium carbonate. The mean percentage of ash was signiifcantly higher in unhatched eggshells (24.6%) than in hatched eggshells (22.3%). The dominant phase in unhatched eggshells was the calcite form of calcium carbonate. In addition to the peaks of calcite, a few small peaks were found to be caused by the aragonite and vaterite phases of calcium carbonate, implying that there are small amounts of aragonite and vaterite in the eggshell. The concentration of the various phases calculated from the intensity of the X-ray diffraction spectra allowed the estimation that percentages of calcite, aragonite and vaterite were about 92%, 4% and 4%, respectively. Hatched eggshells produced similar spectral characteristics as unhatched eggshells, with one exception. The dominant phase composition in the hatched eggshell was also calcite, but the amount of the aragonite phase had a marked increase. Our study adds evidence that embryonic mobilization of minerals from the eggshell may result in changes in structure of the eggshell.

  14. Sügis 2012. Haridusteadus seab atra vaole / Virve Liivanõmm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivanõmm, Virve

    2012-01-01

    Tartu ülikoolis saavad alates 2018. a. lektoritena tööd ainult doktoritöö kaitsnud. Lektorite praegusest haridusseisust TLÜ kasvatusteaduste instituudis ja psühholoogiaprofessor Mati Heidmetsa visioon lektorite kvalifikatsiooninõuetest. TLÜ kasvatusteaduste instituudi algõpetuse osakonna juhataja, didaktika aluste ja matemaatikadidaktika lektor on oma instituudi värskeim doktor

  15. Sügis 2012. Haridusteadus seab atra vaole / Virve Liivanõmm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivanõmm, Virve

    2012-01-01

    Tartu ülikoolis saavad alates 2018. a. lektoritena tööd ainult doktoritöö kaitsnud. Lektorite praegusest haridusseisust TLÜ kasvatusteaduste instituudis ja psühholoogiaprofessor Mati Heidmetsa visioon lektorite kvalifikatsiooninõuetest. TLÜ kasvatusteaduste instituudi algõpetuse osakonna juhataja, didaktika aluste ja matemaatikadidaktika lektor on oma instituudi värskeim doktor

  16. ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low activation steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasi, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Hins, A.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    To study the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys under neutron irradiation at low temperatures, an experiment was designed and constructed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment contained Charpy, tensile, compact tension, TEM, and creep specimens of vanadium alloys. It also contained limited low-activation ferritic steel specimens as part of the collaborative agreement with Monbusho of Japan. The design irradiation temperatures for the vanadium alloy specimens in the experiment are {approx}200 and 300{degrees}C, achieved with passive gap-gap sizing and fill gas blending. To mitigate vanadium-to-chromium transmutation from the thermal neutron flux, the test specimens are contained inside gadolinium flux filters. All specimens are lithium-bonded. The irradiation started in Cycle 108A (December 3, 1995) and is expected to have a duration of three ATR cycles and a peak influence of 4.4 dpa.

  17. Seasonal variation in food supply and breeding success in European Coots Fulica atra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, M.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    Chick survival in the European Coot typically shows a convex seasonal pattern. Previous experiments revealed that this pattern is directly linked to hatching date and that food supply within the first ten days after hatching is a causal factor in this relationship. However, the precise mechanism

  18. Variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional del tunicado Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, en la costa de Chile Genetic variability and population structure in tunicate Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, in the coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA P ASTORGA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El tunicado Pyura chilensis se ha considerado una especie de importancia ecológica, por concentrar una gran diversidad biológica en sus agregaciones y de importancia económica por ser un recurso de extracción por pescadores artesanales. Sin embargo, se han detectado cambios en la distribución y abundancia de sus poblaciones adjudicados a su sobreexplotación. Para llegar a establecer medidas de conservación de un recurso, es necesario entre otras cosas, conocer su variabilidad genética y su estructura poblacional, estimando los patrones y sus causas. Por lo tanto, en el presente trabajo se determinó el grado de variabilidad genética aloenzimática del piure P. chilensis y su estructura poblacional en base a tres localidades (Antofagasta, Talcahuano y Puerto Montt en la costa chilena. Los loci polimórficos obtenidos fueron Mdh-1 y Pgi-1. Los valores de Fst mostraron leve estructuración poblacional entre localidades (Fst 0,019 al igual que la prueba exacta de diferenciación genética (P = 0,031. Se observó diferenciación para la localidad de Puerto Montt en relación a las otras dos localidades en algunos de los dos loci. Los niveles de variabilidad observados en esta especie corresponden a lo esperados para otras ascidias. La estructuración genética poblacional puede ser explicada por una combinación de diferentes factores, entre los que destacan: (i el tiempo del periodo larval de 12 a 24 h, lo cual no facilitaría una amplia dispersión a lo largo de 2.500 km de costa y (ii las condiciones oceanográficas diferenciales entre localidades, junto a patrones de circulación cerrados que podrían llegar a restringir el flujo génico. Por último, proponemos que un conocimiento adecuado del grado de variabilidad, estructura y dinámica genética de las poblaciones son aspectos esenciales para tomar medidas de conservación de recursos explotados, tanto en ambientes abiertos como en áreas de manejoThe ascidian Pyura chilensis is an ecologically important species due to its aggregates, providing habitat for other species. In addition, it is an economically important species being commercially exploited along the coast of Chile. Here, changes in distribution and abundance have been observed during the last decade that have been linked to overfishing. Patterns of genetic variation and population structure are important to understand biodiversity, management and conservation of species. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the genetic variability and population structure of Pyura chilensis in three localities along the Chilean coast (Antofagasta, Talcahuano, Puerto Montt. The polymorphic loci obtained were: Mdh-1 and Gpi-1 for P. chilensis. The Fst values showed slight population structure (Fst = 0.019, and the genetic differentiation showed statistically significant values (P = 0.031. The Puerto Montt locality was significantly different from the other two sites in the pairwise comparison in some loci. The genetic differentiation among localities of P. chilensis could be explained by a combination of different causes: (i low larval dispersion capacity associated to the larval life time of this species (12 to 24 h, and (ii differences in oceanographic conditions between localities and a closed circulation pattern that restrict dispersion. We conclude that monitoring of genetic diversity levels are essential to establish conservation and management plans of exploited marine resources

  19. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP, ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile. Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la región Pampeana. Esto confirma la información morfológica y de ADN antiguo que indicaba la presencia de Vicugna vicugna en la Patagonia meridional chilena. Se discuten los resultados en términos taxonómicos, biogeográficos y paleoecológicos sugiriendo que la presencia de este taxón fuera de su rango actual de distribución se debió a las condiciones ambientales compartidas entre la Puna y Patagonia austral durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno. La extinción de V. vicugna se habría debido al impacto de los cambios climáticos ocurridos al inicio del Holoceno producto de su dieta pastadora y etología no migratoria y territorial, a lo que se habría sumado una caza por parte de depredadores humanos y no humanos.Palabras clave: género Vicugna, osteometría, Pleistoceno, Patagonia AbstractThis contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP, Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed the metrics for the pampean pleistocenic specimens of Vicugna gracilis. This confirms the morphological and ancient DNA data that indicated the presence of vicuña in southern Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic, biogeographic and palaeoecologic discussion of these results, suggests that the presence of this species outside its current distribution range was due to shared environmental conditions between the Puna and Patagonia during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The extinction of this form is, most likely, due to the impact of climatic change during the begining of the Holocene over its pasturing diet and its territorial and non migratory habits. It is added to this, a hunting pressure by human and non-human predators.Keywords: Vicugna genus, osteometry, Pleistocene, Patagonia 

  20. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La fragmentación que ha sufrido el bosque nativo de Chile debido a la fuerte presión antrópica ha causado, además de la grave pérdida de habitat, la modificación del microclima de los parches de bosque remanente que alguna vez constituyeron un bosque continuo de especies nativas. Estos cambios generarían respuestas morfológicas, químicas y fisiológicas en plantas capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar respuestas a nivel de las hojas ante el aumento de radiación solar y disminución de agua en el suelo que ocurre al interior de los fragmentos. Para esto utilizamos a Aristotelia chilensis, especie que crece tanto en fragmentos como en bosque continuo, y comparamos parámetros relacionados a su morfología foliar en bosque y fragmentos y medimos su repercusión en la capacidad fotosintética de A. chilensis. En términos morfológicos, se observó una disminución del área foliar y del área foliar específica en los fragmentos, siendo 1,2 veces menor que en el bosque continuo. En los fragmentos, el grosor de la epidermis y del parénquima esponjoso son más de 1,3 veces mas gruesos que en el bosque continuo. El grosor del parénquima en empalizada, en cambio, no se vio modificado. La cantidad de nitrógeno en las hojas es 1,2 veces mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, mientras que el contenido de carbono no varía. La conductancia estomática en el bosque continuo fue 1,5 veces mayor que en los fragmentos. Aristotelia chilensis responde morfológica y fisiológicamente ante los cambios abióticos generados por la fragmentación de los bosques, lo que le permite sobrevivir tanto en ambientes de baja luminosidad como el bosque continuo y en ambientes de alta luminosidad y bajo contenido hídrico como los fragmentos de bosque, manteniendo tasas fotosintéticas semejantes en ambos ambientesFragmentation of the Maulino forest implies significant habitat loss, as well as the modification of the microclimatic conditions of the remaining forest patches. Fragments are drier, hotter and receive more light than the continuous forest. These changes might induce morphological, chemical and physiological responses on individuals inhabiting forest patches. This study aims to identify morpho and physiological changes in Aristotelia chilensis, an evergreen tree that grows both in forest fragments and continuous forest. Leaves were 1.2 times smaller in forest fragments than in the continuous forest. Similar reduction was observed on specific leaf area (SLA. In forest fragments, the thickness of epidermis and of the spongy mesophyll was more than 1.3 times larger than that on the continuous forest, whereas the thickness of the palisade mesophyll did not differ. The amount of foliar nitrogen was 1.2 times larger in the continuous forest than in fragments, whereas the carbon content did not differ. Stomatal conductance in the continuous forest was 1.5 fold higher than that in forest fragments. Changes depicted by A. chilensis allows it to survive in environments of low luminosity as the continuous forest, and in environments of low water content as the forest fragments, maintaining similar photosynthetic rates in both environments

  1. Isolation and characterization of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruits. Assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Junqueira-Gonçalves, Maria Paula; Yáñez, Lina; Morales, Carolina; Navarro, Muriel; A Contreras, Rodrigo; Zúñiga, Gustavo E

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well...

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBVI CCD photometry of Carina region stars (Molina-Lera+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Lera, J. A.; Baume, G.; Gamen, R.; Costa, E.; Carraro, G.

    2016-08-01

    Photometric parameters for 62730 stars in the carina region covering 6 stellar clusters (NGC 3752, Trumpler 18, NGC 3590, Hogg 10, 11 and 12) and the surrounding field. The photometry was secured in March 2006 and March 2009 with the Y4KCAM camera attached to the Cerro Tololo Inter American Observatory (CTIO, Chile) 1.0-m telescope. (1 data file).

  3. Institución Educativa Técnico Industrial Pedro Antonio Molina: eje de desarrollo y bienestar para la comunidad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Álvarez Watson, Daniel Alberto; Bolaños Burbano, Henry Orlando; Velásquez Vásquez, Francisco Orlando

    2012-01-01

    ... educativa. Aleyda Castano, la lider del proceso de implementacion de un sistema de calidad, recibia la noticia con Alexander Ramirez y los demas miembros del grupo de trabajo con los que habia compartido esas largas jornadas de trabajo y la vision de que algun dia este momento llegaria. Desde que llego a la institucion hacia veinte anos, Aleyda not...

  4. La mujer por fuerza, El condenado por desconfiado y El burlador de Sevilla, tres comedias atribuidas a Tirso de Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez López-Vázquez,Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Planteamos tres problemas de atribución de obras autoría dudosa en el teatro del Siglo de Oro: El condenado por desconfiado y La mujer por fuerza, editadas a nombre de Tirso en la problemática Segunda parte, y El burlador de Sevilla, editada a nombre de Tirso en el volumen de Doze comedias de Lope de Vega y otros autores (circa 1630). Aplicamos una metodología de análisis de metáforas y de léxico poco usual, y cotejamos con varias obras de los dos dramaturgos implicados en su atribución, Tirs...

  5. La mujer por fuerza, El condenado por desconfiado and El burlador de Sevilla, Three Comedies Attributed to Tirso de Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodríguez López-Vázquez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We expose three attribution problems in several cases of doubtful authorship in the theater of the Siglo de Oro: El condenado por desconfiado and La mujer por fuerza, both edited as Tirso’s works in the problematic Segunda parte and El burlador de Sevilla, edited under the name of Tirso in the volume Doze comedias de Lope de Vega y otros autores (about 1630. We have applied a methodology concerning the analysis of metaphors and inusual lexical items, and we have comparated it with several works by the two dramaturgians concerned by its attributions, Tirso and Claramonte, and also with several others, as reference group. We conclude that La mujer por fuerza is a work by Tirso, El burlador de Sevilla is a Claramonte’s work, and El condenado por desconfiado is also a work by Claramonte, perhaps with a collaboration from Mira de Amescua.

  6. Morphological and allozyme variation in a collection of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. from Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi KK.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the intraspecific variation of 30 edible-seed Lagenaria siceraria germplasm accessions from the University of Abobo-Adjamé. These accessions were collected from three (Centre, East and South geographical zones of Côte d’Ivoire. Selection based on seed size by the farmers has resulted in subdividing the species into two cultivars: large-seeded and smallseeded. The morphological diversity study of the collection included 18 accessions and 24 traits. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed a significant difference between the two groups of cultivars. Principal component analysis on 13 traits pointed out variations among individuals, mainly on the basis of flower, fruit, and seed size. Dendrogram with UPGMA method allowed clustering of the cultivars. The genetic structure analysis among accessions using allozyme markers showed the following values: 18.95% for the proportion of polymorphic loci (P, 1.21 for the number of alleles (A and 0.053 for observed heterozygosity (Ho. The level of the within accessions genetic diversity (HS = 0.188 was higher than the genetic variation among accessions (DST = 0.082. The estimates of F-statistics indicated a low level of genetic differentiation between accessions (FST = 0.298. Such a value suggested that L. siceraria maintains about 30% of its genetic variation among accessions. Nei genetic distances between the two cultivars were also low (0.002, indicating that cultivars were genetically similar enough to belong to the same genetic group.

  7. ANALYSIS OF FRUIT POLYMORPHISM IN THE BOTTLE LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA STANDL. ON THE BASIS OF IMAGES OF ART WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of international spread the fruits of bottled gourd. Analysis of polymorphism of lagenaria fruits have been made on the basis of images of the paintings and sculpture, marked characteristic features of each country. Issues of selection on the basis of the trait of fruit form have considered

  8. 中国商业经济学会储运研究分会章程%ATRA Constitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 第一章 总则 第一条 本会名称为:中国商业经济学会储运研究分会(英文名:Warehousing and Transportation Research Association of China Commercial Economy Sociery,缩写:WTRA).

  9. ¿Estan los paises europeos dando pasos atras? El caso de España y las politicas neoinjustas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Garcia Quero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la crisis económica actual desde la óptica de sus consecuencias sobre la pérdida de derechos humanos en las sociedades supuestamente más desarrolladas del mundo. Situándose en el caso concreto de España, el objetivo principal del trabajo es mostrar y analizar el enorme retroceso que como resultado de la implantación paulatina de unas políticas neoinjustas, se está produciendo en los derechos humanos de segunda generación. Para ello se diferencian dos periodos históricos con implicaciones muy distintas para los derechos de la ciudadanía: el de consolidación de los Estados de Bienestar europeos (1945-1975; y el que abarca de mediados de los años 70 hasta la actualidad. Mediante un análisis documental y bibliográfico, el principal hallazgo al que se llega en este trabajo es la existencia de una relación bidireccional de retroalimentación entre un Estado de Bienestar fuerte y el cumplimiento de los derechos humanos, siendo imposible, como manifiesta la coyuntura actual española, un Estado cada vez más débil y una mejora en los derechos humanos. Se concluye que la dinámica seguida durante las últimas décadas está llevando a España a un escenario muy precario, que solo puede ser revertido a través de una ciudadanía activa que recupere su poder en las decisiones estatales.

  10. First report of long term measurements of the MGGL laboratory in the M\\'atra mountain range

    CERN Document Server

    Barnaföldi, G G; Cieslar, M; Dávid, E; Dobróka, M; Fenyvesi, E; Gráczer, Z; Hamar, G; Huba, G; Kis, Á; Kovács, R; Lemperger, I; Lévai, P; Molnár, J; Nagy, D; Novák, A; Oláh, L; Pázmándi, P; Piri, D; Rosinska, D; Starecki, T; Suchenek, M; Surányi, G; Szalai, S; Varga, D; Vasúth, M; Ván, P; Vásárhelyi, B; Wesztergom, V; Wéber, Z

    2016-01-01

    Matra Gravitational and Geophysical Laboratory (MGGL) has been established near Gy\\"ongy\\"osoroszi, Hungary in 2015, in the cavern system of an unused ore mine. The Laboratory is located at 88~m below the surface, with the aim to measure and analyse the advantages of the underground installation of third generation gravitational wave detectors. Specialized instruments have been installed to measure seismic, infrasound, electromagnetic noise, and the variation of the cosmic muon flux. In the preliminary (RUN-0) test period, March-August 2016, data collection has been accomplished. In this paper we describe the research potential of the MGGL, list the installed equipments and summarize the experimental results of RUN-0. A novel theoretical framework of noise damping in rock masses is also introduced. Here we report RUN-0 data, that prepares systematic and synchronized data collection of the next run period.

  11. Ocorrência do bivalve exótico Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, no Brasil Occurrence of exotic bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. B. de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O molusco Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831, natural da América do Norte, foi localizado no litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, em 2004, trazido provavelmente por água de lastro de navios. Na região, sua distribuição atualmente abrange zonas estuarinas adjacentes ao Porto do Recife. Os organismos foram encontrados restritos à região entre-marés, formando agregados densos com até 176.800 ind./m².The mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831 is native to North America. It was found at Pernambuco Coast, northeastern Brazil, in 2004, probably brought by ships' ballast water. The distribution of this species has been now spread to estuarial area near Recife Harbour. They showed a clumped distribution with a maximum of 176,800 ind./m² only in the intertidal zone.

  12. Life history and propagation of the endangered dromedary pearlymussel (Dromus dromas) (Bivalvia:Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Neves, R.J.; Ahlstedt, S.A.; Mair, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The reproduction, demography, and propagation of the endangered dromedary pearlymussel (Dromus dromas) (Lea, 1834) were studied in the Clinch and Powell rivers, Tennessee. Viable populations of the dromedary pearlymussel now occur only in the Clinch and Powell rivers; the species has been extirpated from the remaining portions of its range in the Cumberland and Tennessee river drainages. Females are long-term winter brooders, and they are gravid from October to June. Glochidia are contained in conglutinates that are red to white and resemble freshwater leeches or flatworms. Conglutinates are 20 to 40 mm long and are released through the excurrent aperture. Estimates of fecundity based on 7 gravid females collected from the Clinch River were 55,110 to 253,050 glochidia/mussel. The ages of 66 valves of D. dromas were determined by thin-sectioning and ranged from 3 to 25 y. Annual growth averaged 5 mm/y until age 10 and decreased to ???1.2 mm/ y thereafter. Nineteen fish species were tested for suitability as hosts for glochidia. Ten were confirmed as hosts through induced infestations of glochidia: black sculpin (Cottus baileyi), greenside darter (Etheostoma blennioides), fantail darter (Etheostoma flabellare), snubnose darter (Etheostoma simoterum), tangerine darter (Percina aurantiaca), blotchside logperch (Percina burtoni), logperch (Percina caprodes), channel darter (Percina copelandi), gilt darter (Percina evides), and Roanoke darter (Percina roanoka). Juveniles produced from these hosts were cultured in dishes held in nonrecirculating aquaculture systems containing fine sediment (<105 ??m) and were fed the green alga Nannochloropsis oculata every 2 d. Survival of 2810 newly metamorphosed juveniles was 836 (29.7%) after 1 to 2 wk.

  13. Copepoda (Crustacea) associated with commercial and non-commercial Bivalvia in the East Scheldt, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1993-01-01

    Six species of Copepoda Poecilostomatoida of the families Myicolidae, Sabelliphilidae, Lichomolgidae, and Mytilicolidae are recorded from six different species of intertidal bivalves in the East Scheldt (The Netherlands), a branch of the southern bight of the North Sea. One bivalve species may harbo

  14. [Population dynamic of Donax denticulatus (Bivalvia: Donacidae) at Carenero Beach, Southeastern Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Frank A; Apín, Yanet C; Cala, Yuself R

    2013-12-01

    Bivalve molluscs of Donax genus are a very important component of macro-invertebrate assemblages of sandy beaches, and some species are of commercial value in different countries. Although in Cuba Donax denticulatus is not a currently exploited species, the information concerning a stock assessment is a basic step for future use of this resource. With the aim to generate new data on this species structure, growth and secondary production, monthly samples of D. denticulatus were taken from a beach of the Southeastern coast of Cuba, from February to December 2008. Samples were taken from four stations located along the beach; three strata were marked (P1, P2 and P3) per station across the intertidal zone. Three replicated samples of sediments were taken from each stratum with a 0.025 m2 PVC core and were posteriorly sieved with a 1 mm mesh. Histograms of shell length were constructed based on 1 mm intervals and growth parameters were estimated using ELEFAN I routine of FISAT. Mean density ranged from 146.67-855.55 ind./m2 and no differences were found among months (ANOVA, p > 0.05) but among strata (Scheffé, p < 0.05). An association of recruits, young and adults abundances with the strata (chi2, p < 0.01) was found. Most of the recruits were found in the upper strata while young and adult individuals were abundant in the mid-lower strata. Size frequency histograms of this population showed recruitment between March-June. Growth parameters estimated by Von Bertalanffy were Linfinity = 27.5 mm and K = 1.5/year; and the life spam was estimated in 1.5 years. Using the length-converted catch curve, the mortality rate (Z) was estimated in 4.97/year. Based in terms of Ash free dry mass (AFDM), mean biomass was estimated in 0.47 g/m2.year and the somatic production in 12.4 g/m2.year. The renewal rate (P/B) estimated for this population was 26.38, the highest among other Donax populations. High densities, fast growth and high somatic production indicate that this population can be exploited for fishing purposes for which some management measures are proposed.

  15. Description of a new species of Glycymeris (Bivalvia: Arcoidea) from Madeira, Selvagens and Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.; Gulden, G.

    2009-01-01

    After revision of the Glycymerididae in the collection of the National Museum of Natural history, a new species, Glycymeris vanhengstumi is described here. It occurs off the coast of Madeira, the Selvagens and the Canary Islands.

  16. Molecular Cytogenetics in Trough Shells (Mactridae, Bivalvia: Divergent GC-Rich Heterochromatin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García-Souto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The family Mactridae is composed of a diverse group of marine organisms, commonly known as trough shells or surf clams, which illustrate a global distribution. Although this family includes some of the most fished and cultured bivalve species, their chromosomes are poorly studied. In this work, we analyzed the chromosomes of Spisula solida, Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum by means of fluorochrome staining, C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization using 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA, 5S rDNA, H3 histone gene and telomeric probes. All three trough shells presented 2n = 38 chromosomes but different karyotype compositions. As happens in most bivalves, GC-rich regions were limited to the nucleolus organizing regions in Spisula solida. In contrast, many GC-rich heterochromatic bands were detected in both Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum. Although the three trough shells presented single 5S rDNA and H3 histone gene clusters, their chromosomal locations differed. Regarding major rDNA clusters, while Spisula subtruncata presented a single cluster, both Spisula solida and Mactra stultorum showed two. No evidence of intercalary telomeric signals was detected in these species. The molecular cytogenetic characterization of these taxa will contribute to understanding the role played by chromosome changes in the evolution of trough shells.

  17. Lifespan, growth rate, and body size across latitude in marine Bivalvia, with implications for Phanerozoic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, David K; Ivany, Linda C; Judd, Emily J; Cummings, Patrick W; Bearden, Claire E; Kim, Woo-Jun; Artruc, Emily G; Driscoll, Jeremy R

    2016-08-17

    Mean body size in marine animals has increased more than 100-fold since the Cambrian, a discovery that brings to attention the key life-history parameters of lifespan and growth rate that ultimately determine size. Variation in these parameters is not well understood on the planet today, much less in deep time. Here, we present a new global database of maximum reported lifespan and shell growth coupled with body size data for 1 148 populations of marine bivalves and show that (i) lifespan increases, and growth rate decreases, with latitude, both across the group as a whole and within well-sampled species, (ii) growth rate, and hence metabolic rate, correlates inversely with lifespan, and (iii) opposing trends in lifespan and growth combined with high variance obviate any demonstrable pattern in body size with latitude. Our observations suggest that the proposed increase in metabolic activity and demonstrated increase in body size of organisms over the Phanerozoic should be accompanied by a concomitant shift towards faster growth and/or shorter lifespan in marine bivalves. This prediction, testable from the fossil record, may help to explain one of the more fundamental patterns in the evolutionary and ecological history of animal life on this planet.

  18. Molecular Cytogenetics in Trough Shells (Mactridae, Bivalvia): Divergent GC-Rich Heterochromatin Content

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel García-Souto; Concepción Pérez-García; Jack Kendall; Pasantes, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    The family Mactridae is composed of a diverse group of marine organisms, commonly known as trough shells or surf clams, which illustrate a global distribution. Although this family includes some of the most fished and cultured bivalve species, their chromosomes are poorly studied. In this work, we analyzed the chromosomes of Spisula solida, Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum by means of fluorochrome staining, C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization using 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)...

  19. The complete mitogenome of the marine bivalve Lutraria rhynchaena Jonas 1844 (Heterodonta: Bivalvia: Mactridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Thai, Binh Thanh; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the commercially important snout otter clam Lutraria rhynchaena was obtained from low-coverage shotgun sequencing data on the MiSeq platform. The L. rhynchaena mitogenome has 16,927 base pairs (69% A + T content) and made up of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 953 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first mitogenome to be sequenced from the genus Lutraria, and the seventh to be reported for the family Mactridae.

  20. Oocyte Degeneration Associated with Follicle Cells in Female Mactra chinensis (Bivalvia: Mactridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Han; Chung, Ee-Yung; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-12-01

    Ultrastructural studies of oocyte degeneration in the oocyte, and the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are described to clarify the reproductive mechanism on oocyte degeneration of Mactra chinensis using cytological methods. Commonly, the follicle cells are attached to the oocyte. Follicle cells play an important role in oocyte degeneration. In particular, the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are associated with phagocytosis and the intracellular digestion of products. In this study, morphologically similar degenerated phagosomes (various lysosomes), which were observed in the degenerated oocytes, appeared in the follicle cells. After the spawning of the oocytes, the follicle cells were involved in oocyte degeneration through phagocytosis by phagolysosomes. Therefore, it can be assumed that follicle cells reabsorb phagosomes from degenerated oocytes. In this study, the presence of lipid granules, which occurred from degenerating yolk granules, gradually increased in degenerating oocytes. The function of follicle cells can accumulate reserves of lipid granules and glycogen in the cytoplasm, which can be employed by the vitellogenic oocyte. Based on observations of follicle cells attached to degenerating oocytes after spawning, the follicle cells of this species are involved in the lysosomal induction of oocyte degeneration for the reabsorption of phagosomes (phagolysosomes) in the cytoplasm for nutrient storage, as seen in other bivalves.

  1. Embryonic and larval development of Spisula solidissima similis (Say, 1822) (Bivalvia: Mactridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, R.L.; O Beirn, F. X.

    1996-01-01

    Larvae of the southern surf clam, Spisula solidissima similis (Say, 1822), were reared in the laboratory at a salinity of 25 ppt and a temperature of 20-22°C through the embryonic and early larval development period. Unfertilized eggs averaged 58.5 ± 0.32 (SE) μm, with the size-frequency of eggs being normal. First polar body was observed 22 minutes after fertilization with 50% of eggs exhibiting polar bodies after 26 minutes. Ciliated blastula and trochophore stages occurred at 6 hours an...

  2. Effects of water temperature change on immune function in surf clams, Mactra veneriformis (Bivalvia: Mactridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin Ha; Song, Jae Hee; Choi, Min Chul; Park, Sung Woo

    2009-09-01

    Surf clam, Mactra veneriformis is one of the crucial fishery resources in Korea. This study was performed to examine the immune functions of the surf clam under the stress of water temperature changes at 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C for 24h. Viable bacterial counts (VBC), total haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity, NRR times and SOD activity were assessed in three different water temperature groups. Clams held at 10 degrees C decreased in THC, lysozyme activity and NRR times, but phagocytic activity was increased. The highest temperature (30 degrees C) significantly increased in THC, whereas it decreased in phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity and NRR times. In clams maintained at 20 degrees C, phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity and NRR times were increased whereas THC was somewhat decreased with respect to clams held at 30 degrees C. However, water temperature changes did not elicit any alteration of VBC and SOD activity. The present study demonstrates that acute water temperature change affects the haemocytic and haemolymphatic functions, reducing immunosurveillance in stressed surf clam, M. veneriformis.

  3. Oocyte Degeneration Associated with Follicle Cells in Female Mactra chinensis (Bivalvia: Mactridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Han; Chung, Ee-Yung; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of oocyte degeneration in the oocyte, and the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are described to clarify the reproductive mechanism on oocyte degeneration of Mactra chinensis using cytological methods. Commonly, the follicle cells are attached to the oocyte. Follicle cells play an important role in oocyte degeneration. In particular, the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are associated with phagocytosis and the intracellular di...

  4. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1977-01-01

    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian

  5. Molecular Cytogenetics in Trough Shells (Mactridae, Bivalvia): Divergent GC-Rich Heterochromatin Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Souto, Daniel; Pérez-García, Concepción; Kendall, Jack; Pasantes, Juan J

    2016-08-16

    The family Mactridae is composed of a diverse group of marine organisms, commonly known as trough shells or surf clams, which illustrate a global distribution. Although this family includes some of the most fished and cultured bivalve species, their chromosomes are poorly studied. In this work, we analyzed the chromosomes of Spisula solida, Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum by means of fluorochrome staining, C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization using 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), 5S rDNA, H3 histone gene and telomeric probes. All three trough shells presented 2n = 38 chromosomes but different karyotype compositions. As happens in most bivalves, GC-rich regions were limited to the nucleolus organizing regions in Spisula solida. In contrast, many GC-rich heterochromatic bands were detected in both Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum. Although the three trough shells presented single 5S rDNA and H3 histone gene clusters, their chromosomal locations differed. Regarding major rDNA clusters, while Spisula subtruncata presented a single cluster, both Spisula solida and Mactra stultorum showed two. No evidence of intercalary telomeric signals was detected in these species. The molecular cytogenetic characterization of these taxa will contribute to understanding the role played by chromosome changes in the evolution of trough shells.

  6. Isolation by distance and low connectivity in the peppery furrow shell Scrobicularia plana (Bivalvia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Silvia; Cruzeiro, Catarina; Olsen, Jeanine L.; van der Veer, Henk W.; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.

    2012-01-01

    Scrobicularia plana da Costa, 1778, a commercially important bivalve species in southern Europe, is commonly found along the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. Like other intertidal mollusk species, it has a wide distributional range and high potential for larval dispersal. However, S. plana has

  7. The biology and functional morphology of Macoma biota (Bivalvia: Tellinidae: Macominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ribeiro Piffer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005, is a recently described species known only from the intertidal zone of Praia da Cidade, Caraguatatuba Bay, in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main purpose of the present paper is to describe the biology of M. biota, beginning with a detailed analysis of its anatomy and functional morphology and how these attributes are correlated with its habitat and life history. The morphology of the organs in the pallial cavity and their sorting devices indicate that this species has efficient mechanisms to process large amounts of particles that enter this cavity via the inhalant current. M. biota can rapidly select the material suitable for ingestion and direct the undesired excess to the rejection mantle tracts. These characteristics along with the siphon's behavior and the digestive tract configuration reveal that this species can be classified primarily as a deposit feeder, like other species of the genus; however, it can also behave as a suspension feeder, depending on the environmental conditions.

  8. The Complete Maternally and Paternally Inherited Mitochondrial Genomes of a Freshwater Mussel Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dan; Xu, Pao; Ma, Xue Y.; Jin, Wu; Yuan, Xin H.; Gu, Ruo B.

    2017-01-01

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA, found only in some bivalve families and characterized by the existence of gender-associated mtDNA lineages that are inherited through males (M-type) or females (F-type), is one of the very few exceptions to the general rule of strict maternal mtDNA inheritance in animals. M-type sequences are often undetected and hence still underrepresented in the GenBank, which hinders the progress of the understanding of the DUI phenomenon. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete M and F mitogenomes of a freshwater mussel, Potamilus alatus. The M-type was 493 bp longer (M = 16 560, F = 16 067 bp). Gene contents, order and the distribution of genes between L and H strands were typical for unionid mussels. Candidates for the two ORFan genes (forf and morf) were found in respective mitogenomes. Both mitogenomes had a very similar A+T bias: F = 61% and M = 62.2%. The M mitogenome-specific cox2 extension (144 bp) is much shorter than in other sequenced unionid mitogenomes (531–576 bp), which might be characteristic for the Potamilus genus. The overall topology of the phylogenetic tree is in very good agreement with the currently accepted phylogenetic relationships within the Unionidae: both studied sequences were placed within the Ambleminae subfamily clusters in the corresponding M and F clades. PMID:28068380

  9. Crecimiento del callo de hacha Atrina maura (Sowerby, 1835 (Bivalvia: Pinnidae cultivado a diferentes densidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Góngora-Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el crecimiento de Atrina maura cultivado a diferentes densidades durante 15 meses en la Isla Los Redos, Navolato, Sinaloa, México. El experimento se realizó utilizando el sistema de canastas en suspensión para los primeros cuatro meses de cultivo ajustando la densidad a 50, 100 y 200 organismos/canasta; y la siembra en parques de arena durante los once meses restantes, a una densidad de 4.5, 9 y 18 pinas/ m2 (50/canasta-4.5/m2, 100/canasta-9/m2 y 200/canasta-18/m2. Los juveniles (16.19 ± 6.66 mm de longitud total y 0.3 ± 0.16 g de peso total de promedio inicial se obtuvieron de un laboratorio comercial. Los parámetros físicos (oxígeno disuelto, salinidad, temperatura y pH y químicos (amonio total, nitritos, fosfatos y clorofila "a" fueron obtenidos cada 15 días y cada mes, respectivamente; mientras que 50 organismos seleccionados al azar de cada densidad, fueron medidos y pesados mensualmente. No se observaron diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 para la longitud y el peso entre las densidades en la etapa de canastas. Al final del cultivo, el grupo 200/canasta-18/m2 presentó el mayor peso promedio (284.26 ± 54.45 g. La supervivencia final fluctuó desde 28.15% para el grupo 50/canasta-4.5/m2, hasta 53.69% registrada para la mayor densidad (200/canasta- 18/m2. Los resultados indican que es posible sembrar A. maura a una densidad de 200/canasta-18/m2.

  10. Parasites of the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G

    2012-08-01

    This contribution reports the parasites found in the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from September 2006 through October 2007. A total of 460 individuals were collected, fixed in Davidson's solution, and processed by standard histological techniques, and the sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The water temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.6 ºC, and the salinity from 25 to 37‰. Microscopic analysis showed Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs), Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa), and Platyhelminthes, including a turbellarian, sporocysts of Bucephalus sp., metacercariae, and metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. Parasites were observed mainly in the gills, mantle, and digestive gland. The prevalence of Nematopsis sp. was 100%, and in heavily infected mussels the tissues of the labial palps were damaged. RLOs occurred in high prevalence and intensity of infection in some periods. The digenean sporocysts showed moderate prevalence but high intensity of infection, and caused parasitic castration. In general, there was no significant spatial or temporal variation (p > 0.05) of the parasites, which is probably attributable to the small variations of temperature and salinity in the region.

  11. Parasites of the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LO. Ceuta

    Full Text Available This contribution reports the parasites found in the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from September 2006 through October 2007. A total of 460 individuals were collected, fixed in Davidson's solution, and processed by standard histological techniques, and the sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.6 ºC, and the salinity from 25 to 37‰. Microscopic analysis showed Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs, Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa, and Platyhelminthes, including a turbellarian, sporocysts of Bucephalus sp., metacercariae, and metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. Parasites were observed mainly in the gills, mantle, and digestive gland. The prevalence of Nematopsis sp. was 100%, and in heavily infected mussels the tissues of the labial palps were damaged. RLOs occurred in high prevalence and intensity of infection in some periods. The digenean sporocysts showed moderate prevalence but high intensity of infection, and caused parasitic castration. In general, there was no significant spatial or temporal variation (p > 0.05 of the parasites, which is probably attributable to the small variations of temperature and salinity in the region.

  12. [Effect of probiotic bacteria on survival and growth of Cortez oyster larvae, Crassostrea corteziensis (Bivalvia: Ostreidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa-Córdova, Angel Isidro; Luna-González, Antonio; Mazón-Suastegui, José Manuel; Aguirre-Guzmán, Gabriel; Ascencio, Felipe; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2011-03-01

    Disease control problems have major constraints in aquaculture production, and the use of probiotics in larviculture is a valid alternative to antibiotics. This study analyzed the effect of probiotic bacteria on survival and final size of Cortez oyster larvae Crassostrea corteziensis. Two different probiotic concentrations were evaluated, 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml of Lactic acid bacteria (strain NS61) isolated from Nodipecten subnodosus, and bacilli isolated from the white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain YC58) and C. corteziensis (Burkholderia cepacia, strain Y021). Bacteria were added directly into culture tanks, starting the bioassays from veliger to pediveliger stages as follows: (1) Control, without probiotics; (2) lactic acid bacteria (Lb); (3) bacilli mix (Mb) in a proportion 1:1. Results showed a higher larval survival with Lb and Mb at a dose of 1 x 10(4) CFU/ml compared to the control group. Larvae exposed to Mb at 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml showed higher survival than Lb and control. Larval final size was not significantly increased with the tested probiotics, but larvae treated with Lb at 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml showed less survival rate than those treated at 1 x 10(4) CFU/ml. This study showed the beneficial effect of these probiotics, added individually or mixed in C. corteziensis larvae culture.

  13. Effects of salinity on biomarker responses in Crassostrea rhizophorae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) exposed to diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Angela Zaccaron; Zanette, Juliano; Fernando Ferreira, Jaime; Guzenski, João; Marques, Maria Risoleta Freire; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias

    2005-11-01

    Crassostrea rhizophorae is a euryhaline oyster that inhabits mangrove areas, which are widely distributed along the Brazilian coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salinity (9, 15, 25, and 35ppt) on the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), catalase (CAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the digestive gland of this species after exposure to diesel oil for 7 days at nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1mlL(-1) and after depuration for 24h and 7 days. GST activity increased in a diesel oil concentration-dependent manner at salinities 25 and 15ppt and remained slightly elevated even after depuration periods of 24h and 7 days. No changes were observed in the activities of G6PDH, CAT, and AChE in the oysters exposed to diesel and depurated. Based on these results, GST activity in the digestive gland of C. rhizophorae might be used as a biomarker of exposure to diesel oil in sites where the salinity is between 15 and 25ppt, values usually observed in mangrove ecosystems.

  14. [Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Tiago; Boehs, Guisla

    2011-03-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II) in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson's solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7 microm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Additionally, 30 oysters were sampled, at each point, for a condition index analysis. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 degrees C to 30 degrees C and the salinity from 15 to 25 ups at Point I (Maraú) and from 25 to 35 at Point II (Tanque Island). The oyster's height ranged from 30 to 92 mm at Point I and from 27 to 102 mm at Point II, with an average of 49.0 mm +/- 9.1 (n = 230) and 49.9 mm +/- 9.9 (n = 237), respectively. Among the sampled oysters at Point I, 59.1% were females, 31.3% males, 1.3% hermaphrodites and 8.2% of the oysters of undetermined sex. At Point II, 66.2% were females, 30.4% males, 0.8% hermaphrodites and 2.5% (n = 237) of undetermined sex. The gonadic stage analysis indicated that the reproduction period of the C. rhizophorae in the Maraú Peninsula was continuous all year, without any regressive phase. The condition index (R) ranged from 8.0% to 17.7%. The peak periods of R coincided with the expressive oyster's percentage in the maturation and liberation gametic stages. The results of these findings will contribute information for the oyster spat collection and to the process installation of the oyster culture in Camamu Bay.

  15. The sensorial structures of Spondylus americanus Hermann,1781 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Spondylidae

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    Marina Gomes Viana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult animals of Spondylus americanus were analyzed and specialized sensorial structures, the sensorial papillae and the eyes, were characterized. The sensorial papillae were projections on the edge of the mantle in form of light brown fingers which had function of percepting stimulus coming from the medium. They were constituted by loose conjunctive tissues with longitudinal muscular fibers and externally covered by ciliated cubic epithelium, which presented high amount of melanocytes that gave the coloration of the papillae. The eyes were more complex, being on small stalks histologically similar to the papillae. They exhibited a circular formate and had a metallic blue color. Theses structures were constituted by a corneo epithelium, cornea, lens, retina, basal stalk, periocular band and optical nerve. The eyes were distributed asymmetrically to both valves related with the sedentarism of the species. Right valve presented a smaller number of eyes when compared to left one.Foram examinados exemplares adultos de Spondylus. americanus Hermann, 1781 e estruturas especializadas na percepção de estímulos foram caracterizadas: as papilas sensoriais e os ocelos. As papilas sensoriais são projeções do bordo manto em forma de dedos de cor castanha e com a função de perceber estímulos vindo do meio, são constituídas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo contendo fibras musculares longitudinais e revestidas externamente por epitélio cúbico ciliado, o qual apresenta grande quantidade de melanócitos, que dão a coloração das papilas. Os ocelos são mais complexos, estando sobre pequenos pedúnculos histologicamente semelhante às papilas, têm formato circular e possui cor azul metálica. Constituí-se por um epitélio córneo, córnea, lente, retina, pedúnculo basal, banda periocular e nervo óptico. Os ocelos distribuem-se assimetricamente por ambas as valvas, o que está relacionado com o sedentarismo da espécie. A valva direita apresenta menor número de ocelos quando comparada a esquerda.

  16. Vertical transmission of chemoautotrophic symbionts in the bivalve Solemya velum (Bivalvia: Protobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, D M; Gustafson, R G; Cavanaugh, C M

    1996-04-01

    Adults of the bivalve species Solemya velum live in symbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria in specialized gill bacteriocytes. The bacteria play an essential nutritional role in the mature association, fixing CO2 via the Calvin cycle with energy obtained through the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. To understand how the continuity of this partnership is maintained between host generations, we investigated the mode of symbiont transfer in S. velum. A diagnostic assay using the polymerase chain reaction and primers specific for the S. velum symbiont ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) gene consistently detected bacterial sequence in female gonad tissue, suggesting the presence of symbiont cells in host ovaries and a vertical mode of symbiont transmission from mother to offspring. Furthermore, intracellular bacteria were present in the developing gills of juveniles that had not yet hatched from the gelatinous capsule in which larval development occurs (11 days after fertilization). By 64 days postfertilization, the typical adult gill ultrastructure of alternating bacteriocytes and symbiont-free-intercalary cells was apparent. Knowledge about the mode of symbiont transfer in S. velum allows further study into the dynamics of host-symbiont interactions in chemoautotrophic associations.

  17. Growth and production of Donax striatus(Bivalvia: Donacidae from Las Balsas beach, Gibara, Cuba

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    Frank A Ocaña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Clams of the genus Donaxare worldwide the dominating group of the invertebrate community on sandy beaches. They are primary consumers that provide a significant abundance and biomass to the ecosystem. In the Caribbean, Donax striatushas an important role for nature and human, nonetheless studies on the population dynamics of this beach clam are scarce and no information exists on secondary production of this species. Growth parameters and secondary production of D. striatuswere estimated from February 2008 to November 2009 at Las Balsas beach, Northeastern Cuba, in order to provide basic information for management purposes. In each month 45 samples were taken by means of a PVC corer of 0.025 m2 area and sieved with a 1 mm mesh. Animals were measured and weighted with and without shell. A total of 5 471 specimens were collected during the sampling period. Shell length ranged from 2.7-33.3 mm. Growth parameters estimated from length frequency data were Lm = 36.1 mm, K= 0.8/yr and t0 = 0.2/yr. The growth performance resulted in values of 0'= 3.02. Life span was 2.4 yrs and mortality rate was 3.07 /yr. In 2008, mean abundance of D. striatusranged between 17.1770.7 ind./m2. In 2009 the lowest mean abundance was 34.4 and the highest was 892.5 ind./m2. During 2009 biomass and production was more than twice higher in comparison with 2008. Individual production showed highest values in the 24 mm shell size (3.74 g/m2.yr and 25 mm (0.71 g/m2.yr, considering mass with shell and without shell, respectively. During 2009 abundance of individuals with 15 mm shell length or more increased resulting in higher biomass and production, compared to 2008. Using the conversion factor of wet mass to ash free dry mass (AFDM, annual production ranged between 2.87-6.11 g AFDM/m2.yr, resulting in a turnover rate (P/B between 5.11 and 3.47 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The rapid growth and high turnover rate of D. striatussuggest a rapid recovery of the population. These results support the idea that this beach clam is an important resource at Las Balsas beach. Thus its exploitation must continue with caution, and only at the level of a recreational fishery.

  18. Habitat Preferences and Growth of Ruditapes bruguieri (Bivalvia: Veneridae at the Northern Boundary of Its Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Silina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is the first attempt to study growth and some morphological parameters of the clam Ruditapes bruguieri, as well as its habitat preferences. It is found that R. bruguieri lives on bottom sediments including pebble and coarse- and medium-grained sand with a slight admixture of silt. At the study area, this bivalve inhabits sea waters with good aeration, stable oceanic water salinity, and a high oxygen concentration. The annual fluctuations of the water temperature from 13-14°C (in winter to 22–29°C (in summer are close to the threshold temperature values, within which the species can exist. Near the boundary of the species range, along the Jeju Island coasts, south of Republic of Korea, 83.8% of all clams die during the coldest period of the year. Here, annual rings are formed on R. bruguieri shells during winter. The maximum age of R. bruguieri, determined during the study, is 6.5 years, but the clam samples contain mainly individuals at 3.0–3.5 years of age (34%. The largest clam dimensions are 36.0 × 26.5 mm (length × height of shell. At the study area, a usual shell length is 20.0–32.0 mm (75% of all the collected individuals.

  19. Submarine canyons as the preferred habitat for wood-boring species of Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, C.; Voight, J. R.; Company, J. B.; Plyuscheva, M.; Martin, D.

    2013-11-01

    Submarine canyons are often viewed as natural “debris concentrators” on the seafloor. Organic substrates may be more abundant inside than outside canyon walls. To determine the effects of the presence these substrates in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) and its adjacent western open slope, we deployed wood to study colonizing organisms. Three replicate pine and oak cubes (i.e. most common trees inland) were moored at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months. Wood from inside the canyon was significantly more heavily colonized by the five morphotypes of wood-boring bivalves than was wood on the adjacent open slope. Xylophaga sp. A dominated all wood types and locations, with peak abundance at 900 and 1200 m depth. Its growth rate was highest (0.070 mm d-1) during the first three months and was faster (or it recruits earlier) in pine than in oak. Size distribution showed that several recruitment events may have occurred from summer to winter. Xylophaga sp. B, appeared first after 9 months and clearly preferred pine over oak. As the immersion time was the same, this strongly supported a specific association between recruiters and type of substrate. Three morphotypes, pooled as Xylophaga spp. C, were rare and seemed to colonize preferentially oak inside the canyon and pine in the adjacent open slope. Individuals of Xylophaga were more abundant inside the canyon than in nearby off-canyon locations. Blanes Canyon may serve as a long-term concentrator of land-derived vegetal fragments and as a consequence sustain more animals. Are the species richness and abundance of wood-boring bivalves higher inside the canyon than on the adjacent open slope? Do the composition and density of the wood-boring bivalves change with deployment time and depth, as well as on the type of the sunken wood? What is the growth rate of the dominant wood-boring species?

  20. External morphology of spermatozoa and spermatozeugmata of the freshwater mussel Truncilla truncata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Lasee, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Truncilla truncata males release spherical aggregates of spermatozoa, called spermatozeugmata, at spawning. Sperm aggregates from other bivalve species have been described, but few detailed studies exist of the morphology of unionid spermatozeugmata and spermatozoa. We provide the first description of the external morphology of spermatozeugmata and spermatozoa of T. Truncata. The spermatozeugmata had an inside diameter of 76 mu m and contained 8000-9000 spermatozoa. Heads of spermatozoa were directed toward the center of the sphere into a translucent shell; tails were arranged radially and caused the spermatozeugmata to rotate. Spermatozoa of T. Truncata measured 3.3 mu m in length (excluding tail) and each had a head, a midpiece and a flagellum. We also documented the release of spermatozeugmata in two additional unionid species, Lampsilis cardium and Amblema plicata plicata.

  1. Taxonomic implications of molecular studies on Northern Brazilian Teredinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Lima Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The current taxonomy of the Teredinidae (shipworms is wholly based on morphology and up to now no molecular studies of the phylogeny of this group have been published. In the present study the relationships between four genera of the subfamilies Teredininae and Bankiinae were established and the efficiency of the 16S rRNA gene in characterizing four Teredinidae species was tested. Phylogenetic trees support the grouping of Bankia fimbriatula with Nausitora fusticula and of Neoteredo reynei with Psiloteredo healdi, but the genetic distances do not justify the classification of these species into two distinct subfamilies. The results show that B. fimbriatula, N. reynei and P. healdi specimens from the coast of the Brazilian state of Pará have five distinct 16S rRNA haplotypes, with one N. reynei haplotype differing from the other haplotypes in respect to at least seven sequences sites, indicating the existence of two very distinct sympatric lineages.

  2. Clarifying phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of the bivalve order Arcida (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combosch, David J; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The systematics of the bivalve order Arcida constitutes an unresolved conundrum in bivalve systematics. The current definition of Arcida encompasses two superfamilies: Limopsoidea, which includes the recent families Philobryidae and Limopsidae, and Arcoidea, which encompasses the families Arcidae, Cucullaeidae, Noetiidae, Glycymerididae and Parallelodontidae. This classification, however, is controversial particularly with respect to the position and taxonomic status of Glycymerididae. Previous molecular phylogenies were limited either by the use of only a single molecular marker or by including only a few limopsoid and glycymeridid taxa. The challenging nature of Arcida taxonomy and the controversial results of some of the previous studies, prompted us to use a broad range of taxa (55 species), three nuclear markers (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and histone H3) and a wide range of algorithmic approaches. This broad but stringent approach led to a number of results that differ significantly from previous studies. We provide the first molecular evidence that supports the separation of Arcoidea from Limopsoidea, although the exact position of Glycymerididae remains unresolved, and the monophyly of Limopsoidea is algorithm-dependent. In addition, we present the first time-calibrated evolutionary tree of Arcida relationships, indicating a significant increase in the diversification of arcidan lineages at the beginning of the Cretaceous, around 140Ma. The monophyly of Arcida, which has been supported previously, was confirmed in all our analyses. Although relationships among families remain somehow unresolved we found support for the monophyly of most arcidan families, at least under some analytical conditions (i.e., Glycymerididae, Noetiidae, Philobryidae, and Limopsidae). However, Arcidae, and particularly Arcinae, remain a major source of inconsistency in the current system of Arcida classification and are in dire need of taxonomic revision.

  3. Epibiotic relationships on Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) increase biodiversity in a submarine canyon in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia

    2014-06-01

    The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35‧S to 59°33‧W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon : Part 6. Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    During the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition (1990) to Ambon 17 Pectinidae species were collected, nine of which were described by Rumphius (1705) and five illustrated by Rumphius. One species, viz. Decatopecten plica (Linnaeus, 1758), illustrated in Rumphius (1705: pl. 44, fig. O), has not been ref

  5. Size-differential feeding in Pinna nobilis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Exploitation of detritus, phytoplankton and zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, John; Ezgeta-Balić, Daria; Peharda, Melita; Skejić, Sanda; Ninčević-Gladan, Živana; Matijević, Slavica

    2011-04-01

    The endangered fan shell Pinna nobilis is a large bivalve mollusc (<120 cm shell length) endemic to the Mediterranean that lives one-third buried in soft substrata, generally in shallow coastal waters. We hypothesised that P. nobilis of different sizes would ingest different food sources, because small fan shells will inhale material from closer to the substratum than do large fan shells. We studied stomach contents and faeces of 18 fan shells, 6 small (mean 23.0 cm length), 6 medium-sized (mean 41.5 cm length) and 6 large (mean 62.7 cm length) living in a small area of a low-energy coastal detritic bottom characterised by mud, sand and macroalgae at Mali Ston Bay, Croatia. We found that all P. nobilis ingested copious quantities of undetermined detritus (probably at least 95% of ingested material), phytoplankton, micro and mesozooplankton and pollen grains. Large P. nobilis stomach contents showed a preponderance of water column calanoid copepods, while small fan shells had higher numbers of bivalve larvae. All fan shells took in high numbers of harpacticoid copepods that are benthonic, feeding on microbial communities of detritus and benthic vegetation. There was also a significant selection of phytoplankton species, some apparently occurring between inhalation and ingestion. The stomach contents of small P. nobilis had a higher organic matter content than either medium-sized or large fan shells; this indicated that small fan shells ingested detritus of higher organic content than did larger P. nobilis. As the faeces of all P. nobilis had similar organic matter content, this also indicates higher assimilation efficiencies in small fan shells. The demonstration of differential dietary selectivity by different sized animals has implications for future trophic studies of this endangered species. This study also provides the first demonstration of predation on zooplankton by P. nobilis.

  6. Phylogeny and evolution of ontogeny of the family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutikov, O. A.; Temkin, I. E.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2010-08-01

    We described ontogenies and reconstructed morphogeneses of hinges in some supraspecific taxa of the bivalve family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 from the Mesozoic of Russia. The phylogeny of the family is reconstructed using evolutionary and cladistic methods. The appearance of the endemic genus Arctotis Bodylevsky, 1960 in the epicontinental seas of Siberia can be explained in terms of gradual transformations of the ligament and byssal apparatus in the Northern Siberian members of Praemeleagrinella Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009 and Praearctotis Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009.

  7. [Energy metabolism and body mass ratio in bivalves mollusca (Mollusca: Bivalvia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Radzinskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of experimental and published data, the interspecific and intraspecific (ontogenetic) dependence of energy metabolism on body weight in bivalves was calculated. Changes in the parameters of intraspecific allometric dependence under the effect of environmental factors were analyzed. The rate of comparable standard metabolism (coefficient a at k = 0.76) was shown to vary in different taxonomic and zoogeographic groups of bivalves.

  8. Cytogenetics of Anodonta cygnea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) as possible indicator of environmental adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, J.; Leitão, A.; Vicente, C.; Malheiro, I.

    2008-11-01

    Anodonta cygnea is a freshwater clam, belonging to the Unionidae family, which can be found in rivers and lagoons all over Europe and Northern America. As they appear as important case studies for ecological damage assessments, the various species of the Unionidae family have been submitted to a sort of recent studies on their chromosomal or cytogenetic status. In this study we confirmed the diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38 for this species, and established for the first time the karyotype, which comprised six metacentric, 12 submetacentric and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs. We also found a high percentage of cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes. Considering that karyotype disturbances in Unionids have been previously related with exposure to chemicals, either natural or produced by human activity, we determined the aneuploidy index for our population. The aneuploidy index is an excellent marker for pollutant presence/effect. The animals acclimatized in tap water and in natural water from the lake where the individuals were collected showed different levels of aneuploidy. The higher values were found in tap water. Chromosome analysis techniques seem a suitable tool to study the impact of contaminants referred above, and making A. cygnea a suitable organism for assessment of an eugenic damage in aquatic systems. On the other hand, our results also point out to the importance of doing the acclimatizing process of the collected animals in their own natural water.

  9. Multi-species generalist predation on the stochastic harvested clam Tivela mactroides (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, Alexander; Fernandez, Wellington S.; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flavia B.; Denadai, Márcia R.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down control is an important force modulating the abundance of prey and structuring marine communities. The harvested trigonal clam Tivela mactroides is hypothesized to be part of the diet of a variety of marine organisms, with its stock influencing predator abundance and being influenced by them. Here we analyzed the diet of potential predators of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay, northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil, to identify the main consumers of this marine resource, and also to address the importance of this clam in the diet of each predator. Samples were taken year-round by trawls; all specimens collected were identified and measured and the food items identified and quantified. Twenty-one species consumed T. mactroides, whose importance in the diet varied greatly in both the volume ingested and the frequency of occurrence (pompano Trachinotus carolinus > blue crab Callinectes danae > starfish Astropecten marginatus). Top-down influence on T. mactroides was also dependent on the abundance of consumers (yellow catfish Cathorops spixii > rake stardrum Stellifer rastrifer > barred grunt Conodon nobilis > A. marginatus). Considering the mean volume ingested, the frequency of occurrence of T. mactroides in the diet, and the relative abundance of consumers, the predators that most influenced T. mactroides were T. carolinus, A. marginatus, and C. danae, in decreasing order. Large numbers of small-sized individuals of T. mactroides (<10 mm) were generally preyed upon by A. marginatus, which may have a stronger effect on clam abundance in comparison to C. danae and T. carolinus, which preyed upon larger clams. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that predators' consumption of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay can influence its stocks, mainly due to the type and/or abundance of predator species, the volume and number of individuals of T. mactroides preyed upon, and the temporal variations in the abundance of predators.

  10. Life on wood - the carnivorous deep-sea mussel Idas argenteus (Bathymodiolinae, Mytilidae, Bivalvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ockelmann, Kurt W.; Dinesen, Grete E.

    2011-01-01

    of suspension-feeding mytilids, with no abfrontal tissue adaptation for symbiotic chemo-autotrophic bacteria. The adaptations in I. argenteus to capture prey as well as the reproductive pattern of the prey, Xyloredo, and its functional dwarf males are described. The population dynamics and adaptation...

  11. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography amid shifting continents in the cockles and giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Nathanael D; Ter Poorten, Jan Johan; Bieler, Rüdiger; Mikkelsen, Paula M; Strong, Ellen E; Jablonski, David; Steppan, Scott J

    2015-12-01

    Reconstructing historical biogeography of the marine realm is complicated by indistinct barriers and, over deeper time scales, a dynamic landscape shaped by plate tectonics. Here we present the most extensive examination of model-based historical biogeography among marine invertebrates to date. We conducted the largest phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses to date for the bivalve family Cardiidae (cockles and giant clams) with three unlinked loci for 110 species representing 37 of the 50 genera. Ancestral ranges were reconstructed using the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis (DEC) method with a time-stratified paleogeographic model wherein dispersal rates varied with shifting tectonics. Results were compared to previous classifications and the extensive paleontological record. Six of the eight prior subfamily groupings were found to be para- or polyphyletic. Cardiidae originated and subsequently diversified in the tropical Indo-Pacific starting in the Late Triassic. Eastern Atlantic species were mainly derived from the tropical Indo-Mediterranean region via the Tethys Sea. In contrast, the western Atlantic fauna was derived from Indo-Pacific clades. Our phylogenetic results demonstrated greater concordance with geography than did previous phylogenies based on morphology. Time-stratifying the DEC reconstruction improved the fit and was highly consistent with paleo-ocean currents and paleogeography. Lastly, combining molecular phylogenetics with a rich and well-documented fossil record allowed us to test the accuracy and precision of biogeographic range reconstructions.

  12. Age and growth in three populations of Dosinia exoleta (Bivalvia: Veneridae) from the Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Paula; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Gaspar, Miguel B.

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed at estimating the age and growth in three populations of Dosinia exoleta from the Portuguese coast (Aveiro in the north, Setúbal in the southwest and Faro in the south). Two techniques were compared to ascertain the most suitable method for ageing D. exoleta. Growth marks on the shell surface and acetate peel replicas of sectioned shells were the techniques applied. Two hypotheses were tested: growth parameters present latitudinal variation along the Portuguese coast; growth parameters are influenced by the fishing exploitation. Shell surface rings proved inappropriate for ageing this species, whereas acetate peels provided realistic estimates of the von Bertalanffy growth parameters ( K, L ∞ and t 0). A latitudinal gradient in growth rate was detected, with a clear southward increase in the growth coefficient ( K) of D. exoleta (Faro > Setúbal and Aveiro) indicating that warmer waters in southern Portugal provide optimal conditions for the growth of this species. Fishing exploitation in northern Portugal targets larger individuals and leaves behind a younger population of smaller individuals, decreasing the asymptotic shell length ( L ∞ ) of D. exoleta from Aveiro. The overall growth performance was compared among populations of D. exoleta and with other venerid species worldwide.

  13. Molecular insights into the taxonomy of Hypanis (Bivalvia, Cardiidae, Lymnocardiinae) in the Black Sea lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Luis; Popa, Oana; Iorgu, Elena; Kelemen, Beatrice; Murariu, Dumitru

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we used data from morphology and three DNA markers to assess the taxonomic status of the putative bivalve species Hypanis colorata and Hypanis angusticostata in a Black Sea lagoon, the Razelm Lake in Romania. The morphological data (the shape of shell ribs and the multivariate analysis of morphometric variance of three variables constructed as the ratios between the main dimensions of the shell) confirmed that the two analyzed species are distinct morphological entities. Three molecular markers, one from the nuclear genome (18S rRNA) and two from the mitochondrial genome (16S rRNA and COI), showed extremely reduced sequence divergence (0-0.1%) between the two putative species. Based on these results, we suggest that H. angusticostata and H. colorata are morphotypes of a single species.

  14. Intraspecific phylogeography of Lasmigona subviridis (Bivalvia: Unionidae): Conservation implications of range discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Gjetvaj, B.; Hoeh, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    A nucleotide sequence analysis of the first internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) between the 5.8S and 18S ribosomal DNA genes (640 bp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (576 bp) was conducted for the freshwater bivalve Lasmigona subviridis and three congeners to determine the utility of these regions in identifying phylogeographic and phylogenetic structure. Sequence analysis of the ITS-1 region indicated a zone of discontinuity in the genetic population structure between a group of L. subviridis populations inhabiting the Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers and more southern populations. Moreover, haplotype patterns resulting from variation in the COI region suggested an absence of gene exchange between tributaries within two different river drainages, as well as between adjacent rivers systems. The authors recommend that the northern and southern populations, which are reproductively isolated and constitute evolutionarily significant lineages, be managed as separate conservation units. Results from the COI region suggest that, in some cases, unionid relocations should be avoided between tributaries of the same drainage because these populations may have been reproductively isolated for thousands of generations. Therefore, unionid bivalves distributed among discontinuous habitats (e.g. Atlantic slope drainages) potentially should be considered evolutionarily distinct. The DNA sequence divergences observed in the nuclear and mtDNA regions among the Lasmigona species were congruent, although the level of divergence in the COI region was up to three times greater. The genus Lasmigona, as represented by the four species surveyed in this study, may not be monophyletic.

  15. Reproductive ecology of Actinonaias ligamentina (Bivalvia:Unionidae) in a regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, K.R.; Layzer, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Factors affecting the reproductive success of freshwater mussels in lotic systems are poorly understood. Gravidity, fecundity, and fertilization success of Actinonaias ligamentina were examined at 4 sites along a 63-km reach of the Green River immediately below the Green River Dam, Kentucky. No gravid females were collected at the site closest to the dam, and the percentage of gravid females at downstream sites ranged from 20 to 36%. Not all females became gravid, despite the presence of early stages of ova in the gonadal fluid. This observation suggests that female A. ligamentina undergo a resting stage and, therefore, might not become gravid every year. Fecundity differed among sites and increased with distance from the dam. Fertilization rates ranged from 32 to 97% among sites and increased with distance from the dam. Fertilization rate was independent of local mussel density and position in the mussel bed. The high fertilization rates observed in the upstream portions of mussel beds indicate that freshwater mussel sperm have the ability to travel to distant females in lotic systems. Therefore, females are not necessarily dependent upon nearby males for fertilization. Successful fertilization of A. ligamentina at low mussel densities in the Green River suggests that natural recovery of rare endangered species might be possible if host fish and suitable conditions for juvenile survival and growth are present. ?? 2008 by The North American Benthological Society.

  16. Diversity of Edible Mollusc (Gastropoda and Bivalvia at Selected Divison of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of edible mollusc was studied at eight divisions of Sarawak from August 2010 to May 2011. At each division, diversity and number of species were collected from road site selling out lets and local wet markets. Total number of mollusc was comprised of 29 species namely  Solen regularies, S. lamarckii,  Pharella acutidens, Anadara granosa, Pholas orientalis, Gluconome virens, Circe scripta, Anodonta woodina, Paphia undulata, Amusium pleuronectes, Meretrix meretrix, M. lyrata, Polymesoda bengalensis, P. erosa and P. expansa  for bivalve and  Cerithidea rizophorarum, C. obtusa, Telescopium telescopium, Clithon retropictus, Nerita articulate, N. chamaeleon, N. albicilla, Ellobium aurisjuda, Trochus radiates, Planaxis sulcatus, Monodonta labio, Turbo crasus, Thais aculate  and Melo melo  for gastropod. The species number of bivalve was recorded highest (15 species in mollusc group from Sarawak. Mollusc diversity was found highest (14 species in Bintulu and lowest (1 species in the division of Sarikei. From this study, there is a wide chance of research to further explore both on the possibility of commercial value and ecosystem conservation.

  17. Biochemical changes in relation to the breeding cycles of Nausitora hedleyi Schepman (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswathy, M.; Nair, N.B.

    The biochemical changes in relation to the breeding cycles of Nausitora hedleyi - a typical estuarine boring bivalve were studied. The systematic variations in the annual reproductive cycle were also determined. Samples were collected from Cochin...

  18. Effects of stocking density on intermediate culture of the razor clam Ensis arcuatus (Pharidae: Bivalvia)

    OpenAIRE

    Da Costa Gonzalez, Fiz; Barreiro, Berta; Ojea, Justa; Novoa, Susana; Martinez-patino, Dorotea

    2015-01-01

    Commercial production of most bivalve species involves a phase of intermediate cultivation during which juveniles are grown under protected conditions until they can be transferred to the final grow-out location. Consequently, the aim of this study was investigating the effect of density on growth and survival in the intermediate culture of the razor clam Ensis arcuatus in raft. Two series of experiments were performed, using in the first experiment two holding systems: 5-L plastic bottles an...

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian green mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia, Mytilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoling; Wu, Xiangyun; Yu, Ziniu

    2012-10-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Asian green mussel Perna viridis (16,627 bp), an economically important bivalve, was newly sequenced and annotated. P. viridis is the shortest and has a comparatively highest overall A+T content (68%) among six available genomes of marine mussels to date. The atp8 gene's length (49 a.a.) of the green mussel is unexpectedly greatly shorter than that of other marine mussels (87 a.a.). Comparison of the gene order demonstrated that the six marine mussels share no identical gene blocks although they belong to the same family, which indicates that this group should be a good model to study mtDNA evolution and mitochondria inheritance.

  20. [Metallothioneins in Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae): seasonal variation and its relation to reproductive biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus, Mairin; Rojas, Nilis; Rojas-Astudillo, Luisa; Chung, Kyung

    2013-06-01

    Metallothionein is a cytosolic protein found in a variety of tissues and have been involved in the regulation of essential trace metals such as copper and zinc, and in the detoxification of essential and nonessential metals. With the aim to study their seasonal variation and their possible role in reproductive behavior, we evaluated metallothioneins (Mts) in Perna viridis, taken from Rio Caribe and Chacopata localities in the North coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. A total of 325 samples were obtained from February to December 2003. We determined the following biometric indices in bivalves: Condition Index (CI), meat yield (RC) and dry weight-length relationship (PSL). Besides, Mts in whole tissue were separated by molecular exclusion chromatography, Sephadex G-50 and quantified by saturation with cadmium. Our results showed that the biometric indices (RC and PSL) had seasonal variations between localities and maturity stages, with the exception of IC. No significant differences were found between sexes. Mts showed seasonal variations between localities, with the highest concentrations between February and March, and minimum ones between September and December, coinciding with the respectively high and low productivity periods in the area. The mussels from Rio Caribe had higher Mts concentration than those from Chacopata. Furthermore, immature mussels showed the highest Mts concentration while the lowest was found in spawned specimens. We found a significant negative relationship between Mts and CI. Our results demonstrated that MTs in Perna viridis are influenced by the condition index and reproductive status, as well as physico-chemical factors in the marine environment.

  1. Pollution monitoring in Southeast Asia using biomarkers in the mytilid mussel Perna viridis (Mytilidae: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, S; Lam, P K S

    2005-01-01

    Mytilid mussels have been extensively used in marine pollution monitoring programmes in temperate regions of the world although widespread subtropical representatives such as Perna viridis have only comparatively recently been utilised to monitor the sublethal effects of pollution in Southeast Asia. P. viridis is considered a subtropical equivalent of the temperate Mytilus sp. and has considerable potential for pollution monitoring throughout its geographical range. This paper reviews the current status of biomarkers in P. viridis and provides some recommendations on biological-effects monitoring to facilitate the assessment of coastal pollution in Southeast Asia.

  2. Physiological effects of hypercapnia in the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata (Fabricius, 1779) (Bivalvia; Limidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karen M.; Kristiansen, Erlend; Zachariassen, Karl Erik

    2011-01-01

    The option of storing CO(2) in subsea rock formations to mitigate future increases in atmospheric CO(2) may induce problems for animals in the deep sea. In the present study the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata was subjected to environmental hypercapnia (pHSW 6.35, P(CO2), =33,000 mu atm) corresp......The option of storing CO(2) in subsea rock formations to mitigate future increases in atmospheric CO(2) may induce problems for animals in the deep sea. In the present study the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata was subjected to environmental hypercapnia (pHSW 6.35, P(CO2), =33,000 mu atm......) corresponding to conditions reported from natural CO(2) seeps. Effects on acid base status and metabolic rate were related to time of exposure and subsequent recovery. During exposure there was an uncompensated drop in both hemolymph and intracellular pH. Intracellular pH returned to control values, while...... extracellular pH remained significantly lower during recovery. Intracellular non-bicarbonate buffering capacity of the posterior adductor muscle of hypercapnic animals was significantly lower than control values, but this was not the case for the remaining tissues analyzed. Oxygen consumption initially dropped...

  3. Convergent and parallel evolution in life habit of the scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandrino, Alvin; Puslednik, Louise; Serb, Jeanne M

    2011-06-14

    We employed a phylogenetic framework to identify patterns of life habit evolution in the marine bivalve family Pectinidae. Specifically, we examined the number of independent origins of each life habit and distinguished between convergent and parallel trajectories of life habit evolution using ancestral state estimation. We also investigated whether ancestral character states influence the frequency or type of evolutionary trajectories. We determined that temporary attachment to substrata by byssal threads is the most likely ancestral condition for the Pectinidae, with subsequent transitions to the five remaining habit types. Nearly all transitions between life habit classes were repeated in our phylogeny and the majority of these transitions were the result of parallel evolution from byssate ancestors. Convergent evolution also occurred within the Pectinidae and produced two additional gliding clades and two recessing lineages. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that byssal attaching gave rise to significantly more of the transitions than any other life habit and that the cementing and nestling classes are only represented as evolutionary outcomes in our phylogeny, never as progenitor states. Collectively, our results illustrate that both convergence and parallelism generated repeated life habit states in the scallops. Bias in the types of habit transitions observed may indicate constraints due to physical or ontogenetic limitations of particular phenotypes.

  4. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1977-01-01

    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian mus

  5. ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL DE DONAX STRIATUS (BIVALVIA, DONACIDAE EN PLAYA LAS BALSAS, GIBARA, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. Ocaña Borrego

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Donax striatus Linné 1767 es una de las dos especies de almejas de playa que se encuentra en el Caribe. Pocas investigaciones se han centrado en describir aspectos sobre la estructura poblacional de esta especie. Una población de D. striatus fue muestreada mensualmente desde febrero del 2008 hasta enero del 2009 en playa Las Balsas, Gibara, Cuba. La población mostró fluctuaciones estacionales de la densidad, presentando los mayores valores en los meses de mayo y octubre del 2008 y enero del 2009. Se encontraron tres picos de reclutamiento: abril-mayo, agosto del 2008 y enero del 2009. Se observó una distribución estratificada por grupos de tallas: los reclutas fueron registrados en los estratos superiores de la playa y los adultos, fundamentalmente, en los estratos bajos. La mayor abundancia se localizó en el estrato intermedio. No hubo correlación entre los cambios mensuales de densidad con las temperaturas, ni con las precipitaciones, sin embargo, parece que los cambios en el régimen habitual del oleaje y la elevación del nivel medio del mar tienen influencia sobre el comportamiento de la abundancia de esta especie. Se propone una hipótesis que combina parámetros morfodinámicos para explicar la distribución vertical de los diferentes componentes de la población. Donax striatus Linné 1767 is one of the two beach clam species that inhabits in the Caribbean. Few investigations have focused on describing aspects related with the population structure of this species. A population of D. striatus was surveyed from February 2008 to January 2009 in Las Balsas beach, Gibara, Cuba. The population showed seasonal fluctuations of the density presenting the higher values on May and October 2008 and January 2009. There were peaks of recruitment: April-May, August 2008 and January 2009. A stratified distribution by size classes was observed: recruits were found in the higher strata of the beach while adults occur mainly in the lowest strata. The higher abundance was found in the middle strata. There was no correlation between monthly changes in density and temperatures, nor with the rainfall however, changes in the normal wave’s regimen and mid sea level rise seems to have some influence over the behaviour of this species abundance. A hypothesis that combines morphodynamics parameters to explain the across shore distribution of the components of the population, is proposed.

  6. Characteristics of a refuge for native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Lake St. Clair

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, D.J.; Metcalfe-Smith, J. L.; Arts, M.T.; Schloesser, D.W.; Newton, T.J.; Mackie, G.L.; Monroe, E.M.; Biberhofer, J.; Johnson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Lake St. Clair delta (??? 100??km2) provides an important refuge for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) wherein 22 of the ??? 35 historical species co-occur with invasive dreissenids. A total of 1875 live unionids representing 22 species were found during snorkeling surveys of 32 shallow (??? 1??m) sites throughout the delta. Richness and density of unionids and zebra mussel infestation rates varied among sites from 3 to 13 unionid species, 0.02 to 0.12 unionids/m2, and < 1 to 35 zebra mussels/unionid, respectively. Zebra mussel infestation of unionids in the delta appears to be mitigated by dominant offshore currents, which limit densities of zebra mussel veligers in nearshore compared to offshore waters (13,600 vs. 28,000/m3, respectively). Glycogen concentrations in the tissues of a common and widespread species in the delta (Lampsilis siliquoidea) suggest that zebra mussels may be adversely affecting physiological condition of unionids in a portion of the Lake St. Clair delta. Physiological condition and community structure of unionids within the delta may also be influenced by differences in food quantity and quality resulting from the uneven distribution of water flowing from the St. Clair River. The delta likely supports the largest living unionid community in the lower Great Lakes and includes several species that have been listed as Endangered or Threatened in Canada and/or the state of Michigan, making it an important refuge for the conservation of native unionids. Crown Copyright ?? 2009.

  7. Troponin-like regulation in muscle thin filaments of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Bivalvia: Mytiloida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyatchin, Ilya G; Shevchenko, Ulyana V; Lazarev, Stanislav S; Matusovsky, Oleg S; Shelud'ko, Nikolay S

    2015-10-01

    Muscles of bivalve molluscs have double calcium regulation--myosin-linked and actin-linked. While the mechanism of myosin-linked regulation is sufficiently studied, there is still no consensus on the mechanism of actin-linked regulation. Earlier we showed a high degree of Ca2+-sensitivity of thin filaments from the adductor muscle of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Mytiloida). In order to elucidate the nature of this regulation, we isolated the fraction of minor proteins from the mussel thin filaments, which confers Ca2+-sensitivity to reconstituted actomyosin-tropomyosin. Proteins of this fraction, ABP-19, ABP-20, and ABP-28, were chromatographically purified and identified. According to the results of mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis, as well as by their functional properties, these mussel actin-binding proteins appeared to correspond to the troponin components from the skeletal muscles of vertebrates (TnC, TnI and TnT). The reconstituted mussel troponin complex confers to actomyosin-tropomyosin more than 80% Ca2+-sensitivity. The in vivo molar ratio of actin/tropomyosin/troponin was calculated to be 7:1:0.5, i.e., the content of troponin in mussel thin filaments is two times lower than in thin filaments of skeletal muscles of vertebrates. These data demonstrate that troponin-like regulation found in the catch muscle of the mussel C. grayanus is present at least in two suborders of bivalves: Pectinoida and Mytiloida.

  8. Sperm structure and sperm transfer in Pseudopythina subsinuata (Bivalvia, Galeommatoidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Åse

    2009-01-01

    -thick paraspermatozoa have a terminally placed irregularly cork-screw-shaped acrosome and a bundle of ca. 16 flagella emerging from behind the nucleus. The role of the paraspermatozoa is obscure. Euspermatozoa are transferred to the seminal receptacles of the females and attach with the tip of the acrosome...... the gill tissue to swell around the stem and some of the nearest filaments to coalesce. All branches are densely coated with euspermatozoa that are attached by means of their acrosomes. It is conjectured that the syncytial and multinucleate trees arise from seminal receptacle cells that detach from...... the receptacle and thereupon fuse. A similar process is known in the allied P. tsurumaru, but the resulting structure ("sperm-carrying body") is not attached to the gills....

  9. Direct evidence for maternal inheritance of bacterial symbionts in small deep-sea clams (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranski, Kamil M.; Gaudron, Sylvie M.; Duperron, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial symbiont transmission is a key step in the renewal of the symbiotic interaction at each host generation, and different modes of transmission can be distinguished. Vesicomyidae are chemosynthetic bivalves from reducing habitats that rely on symbiosis with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, in which two studies suggesting vertical transmission of symbionts have been published, both limited by the imaging techniques used. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that bacterial symbionts of Isorropodon bigoti, a gonochoristic Vesicomyidae from the Guiness cold seep site, occur intracellularly within female gametes at all stages of gametogenesis from germ cells to mature oocytes and in early postlarval stage. Symbionts are completely absent from the male gonad and gametes. This study confirms the transovarial transmission of symbionts in Vesicomyidae and extends it to the smaller species for which no data were previously available.

  10. Survival of male and female Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia) during aerial exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnowska, Katarzyna; Verney, A.; Wolowicz, Maciej; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Chenuil, Anne

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The lagoon cockle, Cerastoderma glaucum (Poiret, 1789) usually inhabits small, often isolated, water basins. Dispersal among these basins can take place overland (human mediated) or by migratory birds, when cockles are attached to their bodies. It requires the capacity of the cockle to survive aerial exposure. The time of survival of cockles in air was tested. The LT50 was of 80 h at 15 °C and 43 h at 22 °C. There was no significant difference in survival time neither ...

  11. Winter distribution, density and size of Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia, Mactracea in Monte Hermoso beach (Argentina

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    Sandra Marcela Fiori

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Deshayes, 1854 is a seasonal migrant that moves in spring to the sandy upper intertidal level. In this paper we analyze the spatial distribution of density and mean shell size of the yellow clam population in Monte Hermoso beach (Argentina in winter 1995, i.e., three months before the mass mortality occurred in November 1995. Sampling covered 32 km of beach, with a regular design of 22 transects. The major environmental gradient in the beach was determined using principal component analysis (PCA on the correlation matrix of the environmental data (beach morphology, slope, and sand granulometry. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between the score of a site (transect on the first and second principal component, and clam mean density and mean shell size. Most of the beach seems to be habitable for clams, their spatial heterogeneity not having been explained by the measured variables since, although the first axis of the PCA has demonstrated an E-W physical gradient, clam density was not in correlation with it. Density was maximum near the piers, even though these are points with high tourist activity. It seems that non-extractive touristic activities do not affect population density but rather mean shell size, probably due to reduction of growth rates. The abundance of the winter population, as compared with the assessment done after the mass mortality of November, strongly suggests that a great part of the population was overwintering in the intertidal fringe.O molusco Mesodesma mactroides (Deshayes, 1854 é uma espécie migrante sazonal que na primavera move-se para o nível entremarés superior da praia. Neste estudo, analisamos a distribuição espacial da densidade e o tamanho médio da população do bivalve na praia de Monte Hermoso (Argentina no inverno de 1995, i. é, três meses antes da mortalidade massiva desses moluscos, acontecida em novembro de 1995. A amostragem cobriu 32 km da praia, utilizando-se 22 transectos distribuídos regularmente. O gradiente ambiental principal na praia foi determinado mediante Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP a partir da matriz de correlação dos dados ambientais (morfologia e declividade da praia, e granulometria da areia. A análise da correlação foi utilizada para avaliar a relação entre o escore de um local (transecto no primeiro e segundo componentes principais, a densidade média dos moluscos e tamanho médio da concha. A maior parte da praia parece ser um habitat apropriado para esses moluscos e sua heterogeneidade espacial não foi explicada pelas variáveis medidas, uma vez que, embora o primeiro eixo da PCA tenha demonstrado um gradiente físico no sentido L-O, a densidade dos moluscos não apresentou correlação com o mesmo. A densidade apresentou o máximo valor próximo aos molhes, pontos de grande fluxo turístico, atividade esta que quando não acarreta coleta de moluscos parece não afetar a densidade da população, mas sim o tamanho médio da concha através de uma redução da taxa de crescimento. A abundância da população no inverno, em comparação com a avaliação feita após a mortalidade em massa de novembro, sugere que a maior parte da população passa o inverno na faixa entremarés.

  12. Ultrastructure of the spermatogenesis of the cockle Anadara granosa L. (Bivalvia: Arcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanjarat, J.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper spermatogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of the cockle Anadara granosa are studied using transmission electron microscopy. The spermatocyte presents electron-dense vesicles and the arising axoneme that begins to form the flagellum. During spermatid differentiation, proacrosomal vesicles appear to migrate towards the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus; eventually these vesicles become acrosome. The spermatozoon of Anadara granosa is of the primitive type. The acrosome, situated at the apex of the nucleus, is cap-shaped and deeply invaginated at the inner side. The spherical nucleus of the spermatozoon contains dense granular chromatin and shows invagination at the posterior poles. The centriole shows the classic nine triplets of microtubules. The middle piece consists of the centriolar complex surrounded by five giant mitochondria. It is shown that the ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermiogenesis of Anadara granosa reveals a number of features that are common among bivalves.

  13. Genetic diversity of European populations of the invasive soft-shell clam Mya arenaria (Bivalvia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasota, R.; Hummel, H.; Wolowicz, M.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria from seven locations in Europe (two stations in the southern Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Gdansk) and two in the North Sea (Veerse Meer and Oosterschelde), and three additional stations in the Denmark Straits and Bay of Biscay) was determined usin

  14. On the identity of broad-shelled mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilus) from the Dutch delta region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Rajagopal, S.; Jansen, J.M.; Bos, M.M.; Velde, van der G.; Gittenberger, E.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Raad, H.; Hummel, H.

    2011-01-01

    Late Quaternary (Eemian) deposits of the Netherlands contain shells that resemble those of living Mytilus galloprovincialis. Similar broad-shelled mytilids also occur in estuaries of the southwestern Netherlands together with slender individuals typical of M. edulis. We sampled living mussels along

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the grooved carpet shell, Ruditapes decussatus (Bivalvia, Veneridae

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    Fabrizio Ghiselli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of animal complete mitochondrial genomes currently available in public databases, knowledge about mitochondrial genomics in invertebrates is uneven. This paper reports, for the first time, the complete mitochondrial genome of the grooved carpet shell, Ruditapes decussatus, also known as the European clam. Ruditapes decussatus is morphologically and ecologically similar to the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, which has been recently introduced for aquaculture in the very same habitats of Ruditapes decussatus, and that is replacing the native species. Currently the production of the European clam is almost insignificant, nonetheless it is considered a high value product, and therefore it is an economically important species, especially in Portugal, Spain and Italy. In this work we: (i assembled Ruditapes decussatus mitochondrial genome from RNA-Seq data, and validated it by Sanger sequencing; (ii analyzed and characterized the Ruditapes decussatus mitochondrial genome, comparing its features with those of other venerid bivalves; (iii assessed mitochondrial sequence polymorphism (SP and copy number variation (CNV of tandem repeats across 26 samples. Despite using high-throughput approaches we did not find evidence for the presence of two sex-linked mitochondrial genomes, typical of the doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria, a phenomenon known in ∼100 bivalve species. According to our analyses, Ruditapes decussatus is more genetically similar to species of the Genus Paphia than to the congeneric Ruditapes philippinarum, a finding that bolsters the already-proposed need of a taxonomic revision. We also found a quite low genetic variability across the examined samples, with few SPs and little variability of the sequences flanking the control region (Largest Unassigned Regions (LURs. Strikingly, although we found low nucleotide variability along the entire mitochondrial genome, we observed high levels of length polymorphism in the LUR due to CNV of tandem repeats, and even a LUR length heteroplasmy in two samples. It is not clear if the lack of genetic variability in the mitochondrial genome of Ruditapes decussatus is a cause or an effect of the ongoing replacement of Ruditapes decussatus with the invasive Ruditapes philippinarum, and more analyses, especially on nuclear sequences, are required to assess this point.

  16. Recent distribution of Sphaerium nucleus (Studer, 1820 (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae in the Czech Republic

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    Tereza Kořínková

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent data about the distribution of Sphaerium nucleus in the Czech Republic are summarized and used in an attempt to evaluate its conservation status. During the last ten years, this species was found at 40 sites, mostly shallow small water bodies situated in lowland river alluviums. These types of habitats are generally endangered due to the huge human impact and exploration of these areas. The revision of voucher specimens of Sphaerium corneum s.lat. deposited in museum collections yielded a further 22 old records of S. nucleus.

  17. Some reproductive parameters of populations of Macoma calcarea (Bivalvia, Tellinidae in the Barents and Pechora Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noskovich A. E.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Macoma calcarea is a boreal-arctic species widespread in all the northern seas of Russia. Like all bivalve molluscs M. calcarea plays an important role in marine ecosystems. Despite the widespread use many aspects of the biology of this species have not been adequately studied. The aim of the work is to establish a number of reproductive parameters (the sexual composition, the size of sexual maturity, breeding time, the size of the embryonic shell, the size of oocytes and spermatozoa in the Barents Sea bivalve Macoma calcarea in areas with different hydrological regimes. Molluscs of the populations localized in the area of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, in the Varandey, Ivanovskaya, Drozdovka and Ura Bays have been investigated. The material for the study has been samples of molluscs harvested in the mouths of the Barents and Pechora Seas in the period from 2006 to 2011 by the researchers of the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute. 680 samples have been studied all in all. As a result it has been found that makoms from the Novaya Zemlya population significantly differ from molluscs of other populations in the size structure, the ratio of mature and immature individuals. Also, apparently, spawning takes place in other periods than in the southern part of the Barents Sea. The abundance of young molluscs in the Ivanovskaya, Drozdovka, Ura and Varandey Bays indicates the more successful breeding in these areas, however there is also an increased elimination of large individuals. In all areas of the study among the sexually mature molluscs the dominance of males is widespread.

  18. New bathyal species and records of Pectinoidea (Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae and Pectinidae) from Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Maestrati, P.

    2009-01-01

    New species: Parvamussium liaoi n. sp., Scaeochlamys squamea n. sp. New records for Taiwan: Propeamussium siratama, Parvamussium aldeynzeri, Parvamussium cristatellum, Parvamussium undisonum, Parvamussium vesiculatum, Cic/opecten fluctuatus, Delectopecten musorstomi

  19. Thyasira ockelmanni (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Veneroidea, A new species of Thyasiridae from the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozemarijn Keuning

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A new species of Thyasiridae, Thyasira ockelmanni n.sp. is described from the abyssal depths of the Norwegian Sea. The generic assignment is tentative and possible alternatives are discussed. The new species has some resemblance to Thyasira subovata (Jeffreys, 1881 and Adontorhina similis Barry & McCormack, 2007, but the posterior outline is rounded and not angulate or truncate as in these species.

  20. Sinanodonta woodiana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae: Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Iulia Iorgu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 is a large Unionid species with a real invasion success. It colonized Europe, Central America, the Indonesian Islands and recently North America. The species life cycle involves a larval parasitic stage on freshwater fish species which contributes to the spread of the mussel. In this paper we describe, for the first time, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the species Sinanodonta woodiana. The genetic screening of individuals confirmed that all loci were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 14 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.650 to 0.950. These loci should prove useful to study the species population genetics which could help to infer important aspects of the invasion process.

  1. REVIEW: Symbiosis between the Giant Clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae and Zooxanthellae (Dinophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDHI EKO HERNAWAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant clams are the largest bivalves in the world that maintain a mutual relationship with zooxanthellae. Individual giant clam can harbor heterogeneous zooxanthellae, at least four taxa in genus Symbiodinium. The Symbiodinium lives in the zooxanthellal tubular system, a tube structure arising from one of the diverticular duct of the clam’s stomach. Since the numbers of zooxanthellae is the one of some significant factors contributing to the clams growth and survival, the giant clams need to adjust the number of zooxanthellae for physiological reason with unclear mechanism. The important role of the symbiotic relationship to the clams can be seen on the survival, growth and nutrition of the clams. There are at least two significant factors determining the symbiosis, i.e. water temperature in related with level of light intensities and ammonium-phosphate rate. Some topic is still unclear, i.e. the determination of species in genus Symbiodinium, the mechanism for adjusting the population numbers of the algae and what kind of environmental factors determining the symbiosis. Thereby further research is still needed to clarify those missing.

  2. A review of North American Recent Radiolucina (Bivalvia, Lucinidae with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Garfinkle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available North American members in the genus Radiolucina are reviewed. A lectotype for the type species, Radiolucina amianta, is designated and descriptions and illustrations are provided. A description of a new species, Radiolucina jessicae, from the west coast of Mexico is presented. Key diagnostic species characteristics are outlined and compared among members of the genus.

  3. Toxicological aspects associated with the ecology of Donax trunculus (Bivalvia, Mollusca) in a polluted environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishelson, L.; Manelis, R. [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bresler, V.; Zuk-Rimon, Z.; Dotan, A.; Yawetz, A. [Institute for Nature Conservation Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hornung, H. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, National Institute of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)

    1999-02-09

    This study provides data on the ecology and toxicology observed in the population of Donax trunculus, a sand dwelling mussel, in the shallow subtidal of Haifa Bay (Mediterranean Sea, Israel). The studied population of the mussel forms a dominant fraction in a community of sand-dwelling molluscs in a zone located 5-25 m from the shoreline, and at depths of 20-120 cm, numbering up to 2000 per m{sup 2}. Samples of the mussel were collected from three sites, located within 9 km of shore in Haifa Bay. These included a clean site (Akko), a site polluted by a chemical PVC-polymer industry (Frutarom), and a site polluted with oil and waste from the petrochemical industry (Qiryat Yam). Metal analysis indicated site-dependent variations in levels of cadmium, lead, copper and mercury in the mussel soft tissues. Copper levels were similar in the bivalves collected from all the sites. Levels of mercury were significantly higher in specimens from the PVC-polluted site (Frutarom) while levels of cadmium were higher in Akko and Qiryat Yam compared to Frutarom. Lead residues were found only in Donax from Akko. The residual contents of mercury, copper and cadmium were relatively high in the young and noticeably low in Donax of medium body size. The main site of deposition of metals was in the soft tissues of the bivalve, but bioaccumulation of metals was also found in the shells. A marked increase in permeability of gills and mantle to the fluorescent anionic dye-fluorescein (FLU) was detected in Donax from Qiryat Yam and especially Frutarom, compared to the bivalves sampled from Akko. Multiple foci of enhanced permeability (multiple fluorescent spots) were detected in all the individuals sampled from Frutarom but none in the bivalve samples from Akko. Lysosomal accumulation of the metachromatic fluorescent cationic probe, acridine orange - (AO), was significantly decreased in the tissues of D. trunculus from polluted sites, especially polluted by the PVC factory. This decrease correlated with lysosomal enlargement and the formation of secondary lysosomes. D. trunculus appears to possess the most effective biochemical and physiological defense mechanisms enabling it to survive in habitats of polluted shallow waters, where other sand dwelling mollusc species were absent or found only in waters deeper then 2.5 m. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. The aquatic molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda and Bivalvia of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILIAN GEORGIEV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Till now 13 species of aquatic molluscs are known to inhabit the park area: 11 species of snails and 2 species of clams. Even included in the list the species of Grossuana and Radix balthica has to be studied anatomically for sure identification. Nine species are of conservation statute classified as "Least Concern" or "Vulnerable", and four does not have any statute. Three stygobiotic snail species are local endemics.

  5. Abnormal features of Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) in the Baltic Sea: alerting symptoms of environmental adversity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Adam; Wolowicz, Maciej; Hummel, Herman; Smolarz-Gorska, Katarzyna; Fichet, Denis; Radenac, Gilles; Thiriot-Quievreux, Catherine; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the southern Baltic (the Gulf of Gdansk) have revealed striking morphological, histological and cytogenetic features. Strong deformation of the shell, including elongation of the posterior end and the appearance of an easily visible flexure in this part, has been recorded. The population contribution of the deformed blunt shelled ('irregular') clams ranged from 0% to 65% and tended to increase with depth. The morphologically 'irregular' clams had higher accumulated tissue concentrations of trace metals (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn), indicating a different metal handling ability. Adverse conditions in deeper water regions of the Gulf (e.g. hypoxia, hydrogen sulphide, elevated bioavailability of contaminants) have been suggested as inducers of the phenotypical changes (morphological deformation) in part of the population and, in parallel, of the specific physiological adaptations that result in higher metal accumulation in the 'irregular' clams. Cytogenetic and histological analyses showed the presence of tumours in gill cells and digestive system of the affected clams, the prevalence of disseminated neoplasia ranging from 0% to 94% depending on the site. The disease was manifested by a modified karyotype (i.e. an abnormal number and morphology of chromosomes), a higher activity of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), and tissue lesions (enlarged cells, actively proliferative with pleomorphic nuclei). Bottom sediments showed acute toxicity and have been proposed as a source of an initialising carcinogenic factor. However, none of the ecotoxicological studies provided was successful in the clear demonstration of a single (or multifactorial) agent that can account for the disseminated neoplasia.

  6. Low Genetic Diversity and High Invasion Success of Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae (Muller, 1774 in Portugal.

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    Cidália Gomes

    Full Text Available The Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, is an invasive alien species (IAS originally from Asia that has spread worldwide causing major ecological and economic impacts in aquatic ecosystems. Here, we evaluated C. fluminea genetic (using COI mtDNA, CYTb mtDNA and 18S rDNA gene markers, morphometric and sperm morphology variation in Portuguese freshwater ecosystems. The COI marker revealed a single haplotype, which belongs to the Asian FW5 invasive lineage, suggesting a common origin for all the 13 Portuguese C. fluminea populations analysed. Morphometric analyses showed differences between the populations colonizing the North (with the exception of the Lima River and the Centre/South ecosystems. The sperm morphology examination revealed the presence of biflagellate sperm, a distinctive character of the invasive androgenetic lineages. The low genetic variability of the Portuguese C. fluminea populations and the pattern of sperm morphology have been illuminating for understanding the demographic history of this invasive species. We hypothesize that these populations were derived from a unique introductory event of a Corbicula fluminea FW5 invasive androgenic lineage in the Tejo River, which subsequently dispersed to other Portuguese freshwater ecosystems. The C. fluminea asexual reproductive mode may have assisted these populations to become highly invasive despite the low genetic diversity.

  7. Microbial distribution and abundance in the digestive system of five shipworm species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae.

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    Meghan A Betcher

    Full Text Available Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes of the gills (ctenidia. These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis. These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose.

  8. Novel Microsatellite Markers of Meretrix petechialis and Cross-species Amplification in Related Taxa (Bivalvia: Veneroida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Sook Ko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Asian hard clam, Meretrix petechialis, is an economically important bivalve, but its catch and population sizes are decreasing rapidly, owing to many factors, including large-scale reclamation of its natural habitat on the western coast of the Korean peninsula. Attempts to restore the resources and production of this species require genetic structure and diversity information. In this study, we developed 15 microsatellite markers from a partial genomic library enriched in GT repeats. Nine of these markers were polymorphic, with an average allele number of six, and six were monomorphic in 95 tested individuals. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci (p > 0.05, and deviations from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE test showing excess of heterozygotes was observed in only one of nine loci. In addition, no null alleles or genetic differentiation between two tested populations were detected. A cross-species amplification in 12 species of four families resulted in two M. petechialis-specific loci and three possible universal markers. This information will be useful in the future development of high-quality artificial seedlings and sustainable resource management.

  9. Die verspreiding en habitat van Chambardia wahlbergi en Chambardia petersi (Bivalvia: Iridinidae in Suid-Afrika

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    Kenné N. de Kock

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die verspreiding en habitat van Chambardia wahlbergi en C. petersi, soos weerspieël deur data in die databasis van die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling (NVWSV word weergegee en bespreek. Alhoewel die verspreiding van hierdie twee spesies grootliks in die Limpopo- en Mpumalangaprovinsie oorvleuel, kom C. wahlbergi, anders as wat in die literatuur gerapporteer is, ook in die Noordwes- en Vrystaatprovinsie in die wesvloeiende Vaalrivier en in verskeie lokaliteite in die Gautengprovinsie voor. Die meerderheid monsters van beide spesies is in riviere en damme en in watertoestande wat as standhoudend, staande, helder en vars beskryf is, versamel. Multivariansie-analises het temperatuur, hoogte bo seevlak en waterliggame as faktore uitgewys wat betekenisvol tot hul geografiese verspreiding bygedra het. Min is oor die bewaringstatus van hierdie twee spesies bekend, maar die opgedateerde IUCN Rooidata-lys (Seddon et al. 2011 dui albei as nie-bedreig aan. Die meerderheid rekords van beide spesies in die databasis van die NVWSV spruit uit werk tydens die vorige eeu in die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin (NKW. Meer onlangse versamelings deur die outeurs in die NKW dui egter op ‘n afname in die aantal plekke van voorkoms, asook die getalle per versamelpunt wat aan die hand doen dat daar tog rede tot kommer oor hul voortbestaan mag wees. Die feit dat besonder groot eksemplare van C. wahlbergi tot so onlangs soos 2007 meestal toevallig in die Vaalrivier aangetref is, beklemtoon die behoefte om weer omvattende opnames van varswater Mollusca, soortgelyk aan dié van die vorige eeu, van stapel te stuur om die gedokumenteerde verspreiding op te dateer en ook die vordering van eksotiese indringerspesies te moniteer.

  10. Cytogenetic analysis in two scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae) by PRINS and PI banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed for the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians Lamarck 1819) and the Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis Jay 1857) by primed in situ labeling (PRINS) and propidium iodide (PI) banding techniques. The PRINS analysis revealed that major rRNA genes were clustered in two loci on the telomeric regions of the short arms on two acrocentric chromosome pairs in A. irradians and on two submetacentric pairs in P. yessoensis. The histone H3 gene sites differed in number and location between these two species. The C-band-like patterns revealed by PI staining varied considerably between these two species. A. irradians displayed terminal bands at long arms on all chromosomes, centromeric bands on some pairs and interstitial bands on five pairs. P. yessoensis exhibited only centromeric bands on all chromosomes. These results would contribute to the better understanding of karyotype evolution in A. irradians and P. yessoensis.

  11. The unionid (Bivalvia) fauna of the Sipsey River in northwestern Alabama, an aquatic hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, W.H.; Williams, J.D.; McGregor, S.W.; Pierson, J.M.; Lydeard, C.

    2002-01-01

    Recent surveys for unionid bivalves were conducted in the mainstem of the Sipsey River and headwater tributaries (Tombigbee River drainage) during the summer and autumn of 1996-1999. A total of 35 species and 22 genera were found. Museum records from the upper Sipsey, based largely on the efforts of H. H. Smith during 1910-11, raised the total number of recorded unionids in the Sipsey to 42. Smith documented 25 species in the river; however, most of his collections were made in the mid- to upper-Sipsey, which has lower diversity. The three most common recently observed species in descending order of abundance were Quadrula asperata (I. Lea, 1861), Pleurobema decisum (I. Lea, 1831), and Tritogonia verrucosa (Rafinesque, 1820). Federally listed species observed recently include Lampsilis perovalis (Conrad, 1834) (threatened), Medionidus acutissimus (I. Lea, 1831) (threatened), P. decisum (endangered), P. perovatum (Conrad, 1834) (endangered), and Potamilus inflatus (I. Lea, 1831) (threatened). Species not observed recently but recorded in prior surveys include Anodontoides radiatus (Conrad, 1834), Arcidens confragosus (Say, 1829), Plectomerus dombeyanus (Valenciennes, 1827), Q. metanevra (Rafinesque, 1820), Q. stapes (I. Lea, 1831) (federally endangered), P. taitianum (I. Lea, 1834) (federally endangered), and Toxolasma parvus (Barnes, 1823). Many, species are known recently or historically by only five or fewer recorded specimens including: A. radiatus, Elliptio arctata (Conrad, 1834), Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819), P. taitianum, P. inflatus, Q. aspera (Lea, 1831), Q. metanevra, Q. stapes, T. parvus, Truncilla donaciformis (I. Lea, 1828), Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831), Utterbackia imbecillis (Say, 1829), A. confragosus, and P. dombeyanus. Unlike the mussel fauna of most Alabama streams, that of the Sipsey River is still relatively intact in terms of species richness despite impacts from mining, silvicultural, and agricultural activities. A concerted effort should be made to provide guidelines to manage floodplain and watershed activities to avoid future adverse impacts on this aquatic hotspot.

  12. Population dynamics of Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae) at Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweers, Tanja; Wolff, Matthias; Koch, Volker; Duarte, Francisco Sinsel

    2006-09-01

    The population dynamics of an intertidal population of Megapitaria squalida was studied from September 2002 to February 2003 in Bahia Magdalena, Mexico. To obtain information about the artisanal and recreational fishery of M. squalida, local fishermen at different parts of the bay were interviewed. Clam densities were determined at one unexploited and two exploited sites along perpendicular transects from the shore line. Average clam density was 2.01+/-1.41 ind/m2, densities did not differ significantly between the three sampling sites. The length-total mass relation was Mtot = 0.0001*SL3.1644 (r2 = 0.9804, n = 92) and the length-tissue mass relation was Mtis = 0.0002*SL2.7144 (r2 = 0.945, n = 92). Von Bertalanffy-growth parameters were determined using marked individuals. Strong interindividual and also seasonal differences in growth were observed. Average annual values were: K = 0.655, Linfinity = 83 mm. Since M. squalida can reach a shell length of more than 135 mm in deeper waters, it is necessary to consider intertidal and subtidal populations separately. Average total mortality (Z) was 1.61 y(-1). No fishing mortality was calculated because total mortality Z at the unexploited control site was higher than Z at the exploited sites. It appears that M. squalida migrates into deeper water with increasing shell length, as average shell length increased at lower tidal levels and marked specimens showed a clear migration towards deeper waters. As yet no overexploitation could be found in the study area.

  13. Byssogenesis in the juvenile pink heelsplitter mussel, Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hai B; Hua, Dan; Ma, Xue Y; Jin, Wu; Zhuang, Yan B; Gu, Ruo B; Yuan, Xin H; Du, Xin W; Xu, Pao

    2015-11-01

    The North American pink heelsplitter (Potamilus alatus) differs from most freshwater mussels in China by the ability to secrete an ephemeral byssus during its juvenile stage. In the present study, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate this ephemeral byssal structure, and amino acid composition was analyzed and compared with that of other species. The results revealed that the byssus consists of a long byssal thread and a few adhesive plaques which are randomly set up along the thread and assembled by petioles. There is a thin but distinctive cuticle with a continuous homogeneous matrix surrounding the byssal thread. Structural variation occurred when the byssal thread was differentially stretched. Four-stranded helical primary fasciculi, which form a stable rope-like structure, become evident after removal of the cuticle. The primary fasciculi consist of bundles of hundreds of parallel secondary fasciculi, each measuring about 5 μm in diameter. All evidence indicates that the byssus of the pink heelsplitter has a significantly different macrostructure and microstructure than the permanent byssus of the marine mussel Mytilus. Byssogenesis ceases when juveniles exceed 30 mm in length, although it varies greatly even among juveniles of similar size. Byssus formation is influenced by substrate type. The unique characteristics of the byssus have important advantages for survival, transition, and aggregation during the early life history. This study not only provides first insight into the structure of the ephemeral byssus and its relationship to freshwater mussel development and growth, but also suggests possibilities for the synthesis of novel biopolymer materials particularly useful in freshwater ecosystems.

  14. The families Carditidae and Condylocardiidae in the Magellan and Perú-Chile provinces (Bivalvia: Carditoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güller, Marina; Zelaya, Diego G

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of available types and extant collections, this paper provides a systematic revision of the living species of Carditoidea occurring in the Magellan and Perú-Chile Provinces. Out of the 19 nominal species reported for the area, eight species are recognized as valid: Cyclocardia compressa, C. spurca, C. thouarsii, C. velutina, Carditella naviformis, C. semen, C. tegulata and Carditopsis flabellum. Other eight nominal species are regarded as synonyms: Cardita magellanica of Cyclocardia velutina; Carditella pallida of C. tegulata; Cardita australis and Actinobolus philippi of Carditella naviformis; Cardium pygmaeum of Carditella semen; Cardita paeteliana of Cyclocardia spurca; Carditella pallida duodecimcostata of Carditopsis flabellum; and Cardita congelascens of Cyclocardia thouarsii. Furthermore, Cardita malvinae and Cardium parvulum are nomina dubia, and the occurrence of Carditella exulata in Magellanic waters is doubtful.

  15. NUCINELLA ALIBRANDI (CONTI, 1864 AND N. SEGUENZAE (DALL, 1898,THE LAST EUROPEAN NUCINELLIDS (BIVALVIA, PROTOBRANCHIA

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    RAFAEL LA PERNA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The revision of the genus Nucinella Wood, 1851 from the Italian Pleistocene led to the identification of two species, Nucinella alibrandi (Conti, 1864 and N. seguenzae (Dall, 1898. The former is from the continental shelf deposit of Monte Mario (Rome, the latter from upper slope deposits in Southern Italy (Calabria and Messina. The two species are very similar to each other and differ mainly in the anterior features of hinge. The peculiar hinge of Nucinella is examined in detail and its ontogenetic changes are reported. The Tertiary to Quaternary palaeobiogeographic history of Nucinella in the European area proves the Tethyan origins of this genus. Since the closure of the seaway to the Indo-Pacific in the Early Miocene, Nucinella survived in the European waters as a Tethyan relict until the Plio-Pleistocene, when cooling caused its definitive disappearance. N. alibrandi and N. seguenzae are the last representatives of the genus in the European waters.

  16. The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae, Pectinidae and Spondylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Dijkstra; B.A. Marshall

    2008-01-01

    The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region are reviewed. Eight new species are described from the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone: Parvamussium cancellorum, Cyclochlamys austrina, Cc. delli, Cc. irregularis, Cc. munida, Cc. pileolus, Cyclopecten fluctuosus, and Catillopecten tasmani. Nine

  17. The anatomy and functional morphology of Diplodon rhombeus fontainianus (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca Bivalvia, Hyriidae

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    WEP. Avelar

    Full Text Available Diplodon rhombeus fontainianus (Orbigny, 1835, belongs to the family Hyriidae Swainson 1840, the distribution of which is restricted to South America and Australasia. This species, endemic to Brazil, occurs in the central-southern geographical region, Upper Paraná Basin and Atlantic Microbasins Espirito Santo to Paraná states. The mollusk lives buried in muddy substrata, has similar sized adductor muscles, and is dioecious, lacking sexual dimorphism. The apertures are simple (type AII of Yonge, 1948, 1957 as in Diplodon rotundus gratus, Castalia undosa martensi, Castalia undosa undosa and mantle fusion is present only in the base of the exalant aperture. The inhalant aperture exhibits tentacles originating from the inner fold while the exhalant aperture has no tentacles. The ctenidia are type D (of Atkins, 1937. A well-developed marsupium is present in the inner demibranch. The association between the ctenidia and the labial palps belongs to category I (of Stasek, 1963. The stomach constitutes a type IV structure (of Purchon, 1958. The posterior sorting area (psa presents two pouches in Diplodon rhombeus fontainianus. Among the Hyriidae, the presence of these pouches has also been described in several species of Hyriidae from South America. The organization of the gut in the visceral mass follows the same pattern seen in the Hyriidae already studied: Castalia undosa martensi, Castalia undosa undosa, Diplodon.rotundus gratus,Diplodon charruanus and Diplodon pilsbryi.

  18. Growth and production of Donax striatus (Bivalvia: Donacidae) from Las Balsas beach, Gibara, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Frank A

    2015-09-01

    Clams of the genus Donax are worldwide the dominating group of the invertebrate community on sandy beaches. They are primary consumers that provide a significant abundance and biomass to the ecosystem. In the Caribbean, Donax striatus has an important role for nature and human, nonetheless studies on the population dynamics of this beach clam are scarce and no information exists on secondary production of this species. Growth parameters and secondary production of D. striatus were estimated from February 2008 to November 2009 at Las Balsas beach, Northeastern Cuba, in order to provide basic information for management purposes. In each month 45 samples were taken by means of a PVC corer of 0.025 m2 area and sieved with a 1 mm mesh. Animals were measured and weighted with and without shell. A total of 5 471 specimens were collected during the sampling period. Shell length ranged from 2.7-33.3 mm. Growth parameters estimated from length frequency data were L∞ = 36.1 mm, K= 0.8/yr and t0= 0.2/yr. The growth performance resulted in values of Φ'= 3.02. Life span was 2.4 yrs and mortality rate was 3.07 /yr. In 2008, mean abundance of D. striatus ranged between 17.1 - 770.7 ind./m2. In 2009 the lowest mean abundance was 34.4 and the highest was 892.5 ind./m2. During 2009 biomass and production was more than twice higher in comparison with 2008. Individual production showed highest values in the 24 mm shell size (3.74 g/m2.yr) and 25 mm (0.71 g/m2.yr), considering mass with shell and without shell, respectively. During 2009 abundance of individuals with 15 mm shell length or more increased resulting in higher biomass and production, compared to 2008. Using the conversion factor of wet mass to ash free dry mass (AFDM), annual production ranged between 2.87-6.11 g AFDM/m2.yr, resulting in a turnover rate (P/B) between 5.11 and 3.47 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The rapid growth and high turnover rate of D. striatus suggest a rapid recovery of the population. These results support the idea that this beach clam is an important resource at Las Balsas beach. Thus its exploitation must continue with caution, and only at the level of a recreational fishery.

  19. Early development, survival and growth rates of the giant clam Tridacna crocea (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae

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    Miguel Mies

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tridacnid clams are conspicuous inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and are traded and cultivated for the aquarium and food industries. In the present study, daily growth rates of larvae of the giant clam Tridacna crocea were determined in the laboratory during the first week of life. Adults were induced to spawn via intra-gonadal serotonin injection through the byssal orifice. After spawning oocytes were collected, fertilized and kept in 3 L glass beakers and raceways treated with antibiotics to avoid culture contamination. Larvae were fed twice with the microalga Isochrysis galbana and zooxanthellae were also offered twice during the veliger stage (days 4 and 6. Larval length was measured using a digitizing tablet coupled to a microcomputer. Larval mortality was exponential during the first 48 hours of life declining significantly afterwards. Mean growth rate was 11.3 μm day-1, increasing after addition of symbionts to 18.0 μm day-1. Survival increased to ca. 75% after the addition of zooxanthellae. The results describe the growth curve for T. crocea larvae and suggest that the acquisition of symbionts by larvae may be useful for larval growth and survival even before larvae have attained metamorphosis.Bivalves tridacnídeos são habitantes conspícuos dos recifes da região do Indo-Pacífico e são cultivados e comercializados para os mercados alimentício e aquarista. No estudo apresentado foram determinadas as taxas de crescimento diário durante a primeira semana de vida da larva do bivalve ornamental Tridacna crocea. As matrizes foram induzidas à desova por meio de uma injeção intragonadal de serotonina realizada através do orifício bissal. Após desova, ovócitos foram coletados, fertilizados e mantidos em béqueres de vidro e tanques de fluxo contínuo tratados com antibióticos para evitar contaminação. Larvas foram alimentadas em duas ocasiões com a microalga Isochrysis galbana e zooxantelas foram oferecidas também por duas vezes. O comprimento larval foi medido através de mesa digitalizadora conectada em um microcomputador. A mortalidade larval foi exponencial durante as primeiras 48 horas de vida, diminuindo em seguida. A taxa média de crescimento foi de 11,3 μm dia-1, aumentando para 18,0 μm dia-1 após a adição de simbiontes. A sobrevivência aumentou para 75% após a adição de zooxantelas. Os resultados apresentam a curva de crescimento para a larva de T. crocea e sugerem que a aquisição de simbiontes pela larva pode ser importante para o crescimento larval e sobrevivência mesmo antes delas completarem a metamorfose.

  20. Pectinoidea (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Propeamussiidae, Cyclochlamydidae n. fam., Entoliidae and Pectinidae) from the Vanuatu Archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Maestrati, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the species of Pectinoidea Rafinesque, 1815 collected in Vanuatu during the SANTO 2006 expedition. A total of 49 species (13 Propeamussiidae Abbott, 1954, 4 Cyclochlamydidae n. fam., 1 Entoliidae Teppner, 1922, and 31 Pectinidae Rafinesque, 1815) are represented, of which 70% ar

  1. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1977-01-01

    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian mus

  2. The Chamidae family (Bivalvia: Venerida in Peru, with the addition of five new records

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    Franz Cardoso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The family Chamidae in Peru is revised, which includes eleven species, distributed in the genus Arcinella Schumacker, 1817 and Chama Linnaeus, 1758. Chama frondosa Broderip, 1835, Chama granti (Strong, 1934, Chama hicksi Valentich-Scott & Coan, 2010, Chama janus Reeve, 1847 and Chama producta Broderip, 1835 are recorded for the first time. Descriptions and data about distribution, ecology and other remarks are given for all species.

  3. Anatomy of Phyllodina persica (Bivalvia: Tellinidae, and its first occurrence in southeastern Brazilian waters

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    Rodrigo Cesar Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a detailed anatomy of a rare Western Atlantic tellin, Phyllodina persica, under a comparative scenario. Some characters are shared with other tellinids such as the large hemipalps compared to gills; gills with outer demibranch with a single lamella absent from the pericardial region; the type-V stomach associated with the style sac conjoined with the proximal intestine, and distal intestine presenting a dorsal and ventral group of loops, separated by the transverse muscle. The stomach presents a laterally enlarged typhlosole, although shallow, without flange in the margins. This feature is not found in other tellinid species. Another noteworthy feature in the stomach is the aperture of both caeca, which are larger than the left pouch aperture, and as wide as the style sac aperture. Furthermore, there is an interesting small process in the anterior hinge, and a pair of oblique protractor muscles placed posteriorly to the anterior foot retractor muscle, being a new type of intrinsic muscle described in bivalves. In addition to anatomy, this study presents the southernmost record of P. persica, expanding its distribution to the southeastern region of Brazil.

  4. Redescription and anatomy of Diplodonta portesiana (d’Orbigny, 1846 (Bivalvia, Ungulinidae from Brazil

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    Bárbara Romera

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present redescription of Diplodonta portesiana (d’Orbigny, 1846 is the first part of the revision of this genus in the East Atlantic. This species, despite being common in the Atlantic coast, remains poorly known. A detailed shell and anatomical study was conducted based not only on specimens from the type locality’s vicinities but also on samples from other regions. Diagnostic characters for D. portesiana includes: rounded shell with a small ligament; triangular, short and deep nymph; external micro ornamentation composed of small concavities in a concentric pattern; small adductor muscles; reduced pedal gape; pair of long hemipalps with a large area covered by folds; stomach with four ducts leading to digestive diverticula; and long intestine length. Our study suggests at least two new diagnostic characters to the genus: the two pair of muscles that controls the incurrent and excurrent openings and a residual ring-like tissue surrounding the anterior half of the posterior foot retractor muscle.

  5. Desarrollo embrionario y larval temprano de Gari solida (Gray, 1828 (Bivalvia: Psammobiidae

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    Ramiro Contreras

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo temprano del culengue (Gari solida (Gray, 1828 hasta el estado inicial de larva velígera, a partir de dos desoves efectuados en el verano de 2009. El desove se indujo a 80 ejemplares maduros, entre 50-60 mm de longitud valvar, mediante desecación a temperatura ambiente por aproximadamente media hora y posterior choque térmico (12-14°C y 23-25°C. Los reproductores fueron previamente acondicionados durante 90 días a 14°C en promedio, alimentados con Isochrysis aff galbana (T-Iso, Chaetoceros calcitrans y Tetraselmis suecica en proporción 1:1:1, a una concentración de 300.000 cel mL-1. Los ovocitos se fertilizaron en proporción de 10:1 espermatozoide/ovocito y se incubaron en estanques de 50 L, a 15 ± 0,8°C, sin aireación, con agua de mar filtrada a 1 μm e irradiada con luz ultravioleta. Se efectuaron observaciones y mediciones de los estados de embriogénesis y larva velígera tipo D, registrándose el tiempo de duración de cada fase. La embriogénesis se completó entre 23-24 h post- fecundación (pf y el estado de larva velígera tipo D se alcanzó en 36-37 h pf, midiendo 78 ± 4,7 μm de longitud. Una cubierta gelatinosa rodea al ovocito y se mantiene hasta que se desarrolla completamente la larva D libre nadadora, en 50-52 h pf. Este trabajo constituye un primer reporte sobre el desarrollo temprano de G. solida. Para profundizar en este conocimiento sería deseable incluir técnicas de microscopía electrónica en futuros estudios.

  6. Immunological and biochemical responses in Mya arenaria (Mollusca Bivalvia) exposed in vivo to estradiol-17beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Clerc, S; Pellerin, J; Fournier, M; Amiard, J-C

    2006-11-01

    Soft-shell clams Mya arenaria were injected with 10, 20 or 40 nmol of estradiol 17beta (E2). We observed a significant inhibiting effect of E2 on phagocytic activity of hemocytes from clams exposed to 10 and 20 nmol. A dose-response increase of the glycogen phosphorylase in the gonad tended to show a remobilisation of glycogen reserves involved in vitellogenesis although the exposure time must have been too short to observe a decrease in glycogen reserves or an increase in RNA concentration. Both results corroborate those of other studies about estrogen involvement in controlling immune capacity and energy metabolism related to vitellogenesis in bivalves. We can assume that immune parameters should now be taken into consideration in assessing endocrine disruption in bivalves. Nevertheless further studies are needed to understand the controlling pathways of E2 with a special regard on its interactions with other effectors involved in bivalve immunity and reproduction as well.

  7. Reproductive Features of Indigenous and the Invasive Chinese Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Anodontinae in Ukraine

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    Yanovych L. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Процессы размножения аборигенных видов беззубок из водоемов и водотоков Украины протекают неполноценно. Среди Anodonta anatinа (Linnaeus, 1758 примерно только в 60 % пунктов сбора размножаются 100 % самок, в остальных пунктах «беременными» оказываются лишь 17-90 % самок, у A. cygnea (Linnaeus, 1758 - 50 % самок. Примерно в 70 % пунктов сбора самки A. cygnea и Pseudanodonta complanata Rossmassler, 1835 имеют не полностью (от . до . заполненные половыми продуктами марсупии. Зато вид-вселенец китайская беззубка, Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834, имеет многократные кладки в течение всего года. Полужабры половыми продуктами заполнены полностью.

  8. Temporal dynamics of amino and fatty acid composition in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Narciso, Luis; Marques, António; Bandarra, Narcisa; Rosa, Rui

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the temporal dynamics of both amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in marine bivalves. We investigated the seasonal variation of these compounds in the pod razor clam Ensis siliqua in relation to food availability, salinity, water temperature and reproductive cycle. AA content varied between 46.94 and 54.67 % dry weight (DW), and the AAs found in greater quantity were glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. FA content varied between 34.02 and 87.94 mg g-1 DW and the FAs found in greater quantity were 16:0 and 22:6 n-3. Seasonal trends were observed for AAs and FAs. FAs increased with gametogenesis and decreased with spawning while AA content increased throughout spawning. The effect of increasing temperature and high food availability during the spawning season masked the loss of AAs resulting from gamete release. Still, a comparatively greater increase in the contents of glutamic acid and leucine with spawning indicate their possible involvement in a post-spawning gonad recovery mechanism. A post-spawning decrease in 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 is indicative of the importance of these FAs in bivalve eggs. An increase in 18:3 n-3, 18:4 n-3, 20:1 n-9 and 20:2 n-6 during gametogenesis suggests their involvement in oocyte maturation. The FA 22:4 n-6, while increasing with spawning, appears to play a role in post-spawning gonad recovery. Salinity did not have an effect on the AA composition. None of the environmental parameters measured had an effect on FA composition.

  9. Reproductive cycle of Glycymeris nummaria (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Mali Ston Bay, Adriatic Sea, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Crnčević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of the dog cockle, Glycymeris nummaria (Glycymerididae, was studied using specimens collected monthly from Mali Ston Bay, southeastern Adriatic Sea over the period from January to December 2010. We analysed sex ratios, gonad developmental stages, and oocyte diameters using standard histological techniques. There were no differences in the overall sex ratio and no difference in shell length with respect to sex. Results of a size-frequency analysis of oocyte diameters agreed with a qualitative analysis of gonadal developmental stages, confirming the occurrence of one annual spawning peak from May to July. A significant correlation was identified between mean gonad indices of males and females and condition index. This study provides the first data on the reproductive characteristics of G. nummaria, providing necessary information for the future sustainable management of its potential fishery.

  10. Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

  11. New insights into diversity and evolution of deep-sea Mytilidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorion, Julien; Buge, Barbara; Cruaud, Corinne; Samadi, Sarah

    2010-10-01

    Bathymodiolinae mussels have been used as a biological model to better understand the evolutionary origin of faunas associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Most studies to date, however, have sampled with a strong bias towards vent and seep species, mainly because of a lack of knowledge of closely related species from organic falls. Here we reassess the species diversity of deep-sea mussels using two genes and a large taxon sample from the South-Western Pacific. This new taxonomic framework serves as a basis for a phylogenetic investigation of their evolutionary history. We first highlight an unexpected allopatric pattern and suggest that mussels usually reported from organic falls are in fact poorly specialized with regard to their environment. This challenges the adaptive scenarios proposed to explain the diversification of the group. Second, we confirm that deep-sea mussels arose from organic falls and then colonized hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in multiple events. Overall, this study constitutes a new basis for further phylogenetic investigations and a global systematic revision of deep-sea mussels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Note on the type series of Parvamussium liaoi and Scaeochlamys squamea (Bivalvia: Pectinoidea) from Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, C.; Cheng, S.; Dijkstra, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Pectinoidea is a superfamily of marine bivalve mollusks. Type series of the two new Pectinoidea species, Parvamussium liaoi (Propeamussiidae) and Scaeochlamys squamea (Pectinidae), collected during deep-sea cruises off south and northeastern Taiwan in 2000 and 2001, respectively, were relocated from

  13. Taxonomy of some Galeommatoidea (Mollusca, Bivalvia associated with deep-sea echinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Oliver

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The type species of Axinodon ellipticus Verrill & Bush, 1898 and Kellia symmetros Jeffreys, 1876 are re-described. It is concluded that the two species are not conspecific and that K. symmetros cannot be placed in the genus Axinodon. The family affinity of Axinodon is not resolved, although it is probable that this genus belongs to the Thyasiridae. Kellia symmetros is the type species of Kelliola and is placed in the Montacutidae. Kelliola symmetros is most probably associated with the echinoid Aeropsis rostrata and is not the species previously recorded from North Atlantic Pourtalesia echinoids under the name of Axinodon symmetros. This commensal associated with the North Atlantic Pourtalesia is here described as new and placed in the new genus as Syssitomya pourtalesium gen. nov. sp. nov., Syssitomya gen. nov. differs from all other genera in the Montacutidae by having laminar gill filaments modified for harbouring symbiotic bacteria and it is thus assumed to be chemosymbiotic. A montacutid associated with the hadal Pourtalesia heptneri is described as Ptilomyax hadalis gen. nov. sp. nov.

  14. Redescription of Hiatella meridionalis d'Orbigny, 1846 (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hiatellidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The redescription of Hiatella meridionalis (d’Orbigny, 1846 is provided as first attempt to improve the systematics of the genus in the regions of Atlantic and western Pacific. This reanalysis is based on specimens collected in the vicinity of the type localities and is based on detailed morphology of samples that some researches consider a single, wide ranging species. From the morphological characters, the more interesting are: a high quantity of papillae at incurrent siphon; the retractor muscles of siphon divided in two bundles; the small size of the palps; the muscular ring in the stomach; and the zigzag fashion of the short intestinal loops. These characters distinguish the species from the other hiatellids so far examined. Type material of the species was examined, by first time illustrated, and the lectotype is designated.A redescrição de Hiatella meridionalis (d’Orbigny, 1846 é realizada como primeiro passo na melhoria da sistemática do gênero das regiões atlântica e pacífica oeste. Esta re-análise é baseada em espécimes coletados nas vizinhanças da localidade tipo e em morfologia detalhada de amostras que alguns pesquisadores consideram pertencer a uma única espécie de ampla distribuição. Dos caracteres anatômicos, os mais interessantes são: uma grande quantidade de papilas no sifão inalante; o músculo retrator dos sifões dividido em duas porções; o tamanho pequeno dos palpos; um anel muscular transversal no estomago; e um padrão em zigzag no curto intestino. Estes caracteres distinguem a espécie dos demais hiatelídeos até então examinados. Os sintipos da espécie foram também examinados e pela primeira vez ilustrados; o lectótipo é designado.

  15. Reassessment of morphology and historical distribution as factors in conservation efforts for the Endangered Patagonian Huemul Deer Hippocamelus bisulcus (Molina 1782

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    H.T. Force

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To assist with conservation of Endangered Patagonian Huemul Deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus, the Huemul Task Force (HTF reassessed information on appendicular morphology, paleobiogeography, and historical distribution as potential factors in recovery efforts. Traditional claims of being a mountain specialist of the Andes were refuted by empirical evidence showing huemul morphology to coincide with other cervids rather than the commonly implied homology to rock-climbing ungulates. It thus supports historical evidence of huemul in treeless habitat and reaching the Atlantic coast, which cannot be dismissed as past erroneous observations. Instead, pre- and post-Columbian anthropogenic impacts resulted in huemul displacement from productive sites and in survival mainly in remote and marginal refuge areas. The process of range contraction was facilitated by easy hunting of huemul, energetic incentives from seasonal fat cycles and huemul concentrations, the change from hunting-gathering to a mobile equestrian economy, and colonization with livestock. However, areas used presently by huemul, as supposed mountain specialists, are also used by wild and domestic ungulates that clearly are not considered mountain specialists, whereas the only other Hippocamelus successfully uses areas homologous to tree-less Patagonia. Rigid application of modern habitat usage to infer past habitat use and ignoring historic extra-Andean accounts is unwarranted; these conclusions reached by the HTF indicate new opportunities for recovery efforts by considering morphological and historical evidence. For instance, reintroductions to other portions of the landscape used formerly by huemul, which tend to be more productive sites than those currently occupied by many huemul groups, would present a promising avenue.

  16. El Código vital detrás de los espejos en “Con tal de no morir” de Vicente Molina Foix

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón-García, E. (Emilio)

    2013-01-01

    Con tal de no morir presenta doce mundos aparentemente inconexos llenos de ansiedades contemporáneas. Gracias a la numerología pitagórica, esta colección se muestra como el espejo de una serie de frustraciones y de intertextos culturales que se agrupan en triadas y que va más allá de lo aparente. Según la Gestalt, podríamos aceptar una lectura superficial, la tendencia de la experiencia perceptiva más común, pero al ahondar en los intertextos y en sus reagrupamientos descubrimos, siguiendo el...

  17. Escherbothrium molinae n. gen. et n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Triloculariidae) in Urotrygon chilensis (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Urolophidae) from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, R; Brooks, D R

    1994-10-01

    Cestodes collected in spiral valves of the stingray Urotrygon chilensis from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica represent an undescribed species of Tetraphyllidea. By possessing more than 2 loculi as well as an apical sucker on each bothridium, the new species is diagnosably distinct from all other tetraphyllidean genera; therefore, a new genus is proposed for it. The new species also possesses globular structures irregularly arranged on the surface of the bothridia. We found similar structures on the bothridial faces of Trilocularia acanthiaevulgaris, possibly indicating phylogenetic relationships with the new species. This possibility is enhanced by the observation that the bothridia of T. acanthiaevulgaris comprise 2 loculi and an apical sucker, rather than 3 loculi.

  18. The physical, chemical and functional characterization of starches from Andean tubers: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, olluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches isolated from the Andean tubers oca (Oxalis tuberosa M., olluco (Ullucus tuberosus C. and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P. were studied. The tubers were obtained from a local grocery. The morphology of the starch granules (size and shape was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, which revealed ellipsoid, oval, conical, pear-shaped and prismatic forms: ellipsoids and oval granules with lengths up to 54.30 µm in oca; with lengths up to 32.09 µm for olluco starch granules; and with predominantly truncated spherical or oval forms and smaller dimensions (up to 16.29 um for mashua starch granules. Amylose contents were similar among the samples: 27.60% (oca, 26.49% (olluco and 27.44% (mashua. Olluco starch had less swelling power, forming opaque, less firm gels. All three starch gels showed the same stability on refrigeration and presented high syneresis under freezing temperatures, with a variation of 40.28 to 74.42% for olluco starch. The starches cooked easily, with high peak viscosity. The low gelatinization temperatures and high stability during cooling make these starches suitable feedstock for use in formulations that require milder processing temperatures and dispense freezing storage.

  19. Avaliação farmacognostica e da rotulagem das drogas vegetais boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina e camomila (Matricaria recutita L. comercializadas em Fortaleza, CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. SOARES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus e camomila (Matricaria recutita são plantas empregadas na fitoterapia principalmente para o tratamento de desordens hepáticas e intestinais, atuando também como anti-inflamatório e antiespasmódico, respectivamente. Por isso, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade farmacognostica dessas drogas vegetais comercializadas em Fortaleza (CE, além das informações de suas rotulagens. Quarenta e duas amostras de boldo, e quarenta e cinco amostras de camomila, procedentes de farmácias, de lojas de produtos naturais e de bancas de raizeiros, foram analisadas quanto à autenticidade, à pureza e às informações contidas na rotulagem desses produtos conforme legislação vigente. Na verificação de impurezas, 35,7% das amostras de boldo e 57,7% das amostras de camomila excederam o teor máximo de matéria estranha; no teor de cinzas totais, 33,3% das amostras de boldo foram reprovadas; rotulagens das amostras de boldo (100% e de camomila (96,6% apresentaram erros ou ausência de informações. Os resultados das análises confirmam, portanto, a necessidade urgente de melhor fiscalização e intervenção na produção e venda dessas e de outras drogas vegetais para adequação às normas vigentes.

  20. Las salinas de Atienza, Medinaceli y Molina de Aragón en la Baja Edad Media: propiedad, comercio y fiscalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ortego Rico

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global study of the saltworks in the bishopric of Sigüenza between XIIIth and XVth centuries based on economic and political aspects such as the evolution of the property in the context of formation and consolidation of the royal monopoly over their exploitation; the management system and the prescriptive regulation that enabled price fixation, the establishment of exclusive sale areas for the salt produced, and the creation of forms of smuggling control; and the financial performance for the crown.

  1. Avaliação farmacognostica e da rotulagem das drogas vegetais boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina) e camomila (Matricaria recutita L.) comercializadas em Fortaleza, CE

    OpenAIRE

    F.P. SOARES; N.M. FREIRE; SOUZA, T. R. de

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus) e camomila (Matricaria recutita) são plantas empregadas na fitoterapia principalmente para o tratamento de desordens hepáticas e intestinais, atuando também como anti-inflamatório e antiespasmódico, respectivamente. Por isso, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade farmacognostica dessas drogas vegetais comercializadas em Fortaleza (CE), além das informações de suas rotulagens. Quarenta e duas amostras de boldo, e quarenta e cinco amostras de ca...

  2. In vitro activity on human gut bacteria of murta leaf extracts (Ugni molinae Turcz. ), a native plant from southern chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, C.; Canquil, N.; Jorquera, M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that murta infusions have been used to treat gut/urinary infections by native Chileans for centuries, the mechanisms promoting such effects still remain unclear. As a first attempt to unravel these mechanisms, human fecal samples were incubated in a medium containing water extrac...

  3. Educando a Estudiantes con Diversidades Linguisticas y Culturales (Educating Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students). Que Ningun Nino se Quede Atras (No Child Left Behind).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (ED), Washington, DC.

    The brochure, written in Spanish, briefly outlines the U.S. Department of Education's most recent policy on educating students with diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. It states the Department's mission, describes today's student population, and outlines the role of the Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement and…

  4. Recent Progress in Visible-Light Photoredox-Catalyzed Intermolecular 1,2-Difunctionalization of Double Bonds via an ATRA-Type Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Thibaut; Masson, Géraldine

    2016-08-19

    Radical difunctionalizations of alkenes constitute an efficient method for the construction of complex organic molecules. This synopsis focuses on visible-light catalysis, a recent and very promising technological refinement of this class of transformations. Examples taken from the literature illustrate the use of a variety of (metallic or nonmetallic) systems, which allow us to leverage the energy of readily available visible-light radiation to efficiently create some of the most commonly looked for types of bonds (C-X, C-O, C-N, and C-C) under mild conditions and starting from unsaturated substrates.

  5. Turismo e Idosos: o patrimônio imaterial como fator de atração para o turismo cultural no espaço rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Morais Garcia Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa tem por objetivo investigar e analisar as formas pelas quais propriedades rurais históricas paulistas se preocupam em proporcionar atividades voltadas para idosos, trabalhando o turismo cultural com uma preocupação voltada à educação patrimonial não-formal e sob um enfoque qualitativo. O método biográfico ou da História Oral é utilizado tanto para a coleta de informações sobre o patrimônio imaterial, como para levantar as demandas do público idoso. Ela é sempre acompanhada da realização de um diário de campo em associação com registros fotográficos das atividades educacionais e turísticas observadas em duas fazendas selecionadas. Para melhor avaliar programas para o público idoso é necessário uma efetiva conexão entre os elementos encontrados em cada fazenda participante, visando à articulação de ações efetivas para o turismo cultural no espaço rural e às diretrizes da Gerontologia.

  6. Atração e desenvolvimento de Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabr. (Hemiptera: Coreidae em cultivares de abóbora e moranga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldin Edson Luiz Lopes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas da família Cucurbitaceae são seriamente prejudicadas pelo ataque de insetos, sendo que os danos ocorrem desde a germinação até a colheita e podem ser observados em todas as partes da planta. Dentre os insetos sugadores que atacam a abóbora (Cucurbita moschata e a moranga (C. maxima, as formas jovens e adultas do percevejo Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabr. (Hemiptera: Coreidae merecem destaque por sugarem a seiva das folhas, ramos e frutos novos, nos quais causam necroses, reduzindo a produção. Visando comparar a atratividade de plântulas de cultivares de abóbora e moranga a adultos deste percevejo e os efeitos desses materiais sobre a biologia de ninfas dessa espécie, realizaram-se ensaios sob condições de laboratório. Em teste de atratividade, o cultivar de abóbora BRA015113 destacou-se como o menos atrativo em relação ao cultivar de moranga Exposição, enquanto que o cultivar de abóbora BRA003531 foi o mais atrativo. Todos os cultivares provocaram 100% de mortalidade das ninfas, indicando a presença de componentes antibióticos, adversos ao desenvolvimento de L. gonagra.

  7. Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowski, Łukasz J; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Szarek, Józef; Strzyżewska, Emilia; Felsmann, Mariusz

    2013-04-15

    Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n=60) and Coot (n=50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006-2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n=5) and high concentrations (Mallards n=18 and Coots n=17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions.

  8. Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkowski, Łukasz J., E-mail: ljbinkowski@gmail.com [Institute of Biology, Pedagogical University of Cracow, Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland); Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.sawicka-kapusta@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Strzyżewska, Emilia, E-mail: emijel@wp.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Felsmann, Mariusz, E-mail: felsmann.mariusz@wp.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n = 60) and Coot (n = 50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006–2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n = 5) and high concentrations (Mallards n = 18 and Coots n = 17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions. - Highlights: ► High levels of Cd and Pb were found in liver and kidneys of Mallard and Coot. ► Lower concentrations were found in young birds. ► Amount of metals exceeded the safety threshold established for edible poultry. ► Histopathological alterations were found in studied tissues. ► Lesions in birds with the highest concentrations of metals were numerous.

  9. Branding de países e atração de investimento direto estrangeiro : o papel do soft power

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Cristina Leitão

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing Nas últimas décadas, deu-se uma mudança no paradigma internacional e na maneira como os países se interrelacionam. Estas relações, cada vez mais económicas, exigem uma nova abordagem por parte dos países. Neste sentido, o conceito de soft power de Joseph Nye, enquanto poder de atracção de um país e que pode ser encontrado na sua cultura, valores e políticas externas, ao invés de hard power, considerado como poder de coerção e que pode ser económico ou militar, ganha u...

  10. Atração e distração na publicidade externa dos candidatos à eleição em 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Trein

    2015-12-01

    CÉSAR, Newton. Direção de arte em propaganda. São Paulo: Futura, 2004. COLLARO, Antonio Celso. Projeto Gráfico Teoria e Prática da Diagramação. São Paulo: Summus Editorial, 1987.  DONDIS, Donis A.. Sintaxe da linguagem visual. 2. ed. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2003.  HILLMAN, James. Cidade & alma. São Paulo: Studio Nobel, 1993. HURLBURT, Allen. Layout o design da página impressa. São Paulo: Nobel, 2002. MOLES, Abraham Antoine. O cartaz. São Paulo: Perspectiva, 1974. MÜLLER, Josef Brockmann. History of visual communication. Teufen: Nigli, 1971. PÈNINOU, Georges. Semiótica de la publicidad. Barcelona: Gustavo Gili, 1976.   Site consultado: Outdoor.com. Acessado em: 26 de março de 2015.   Disponível em:  Url: http://opendepot.org/2703/   Abrir em (para melhor visualização em dispositivos móveis - Formato Flipbooks: Issuu / Calameo

  11. Uji Sitotoksik Ekstrak Etanol dan Fraksi n-Heksana serta Etil Asetat Teripang Jenis Holothuria atra Jaeger Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT)

    OpenAIRE

    Gultom, Ester Lia

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are one of marine invertebrate animals that are consumed by Asian and used in traditional Chinese medicine to enhance the body's immunity against various diseases. Therapeutic effects and benefits of medication of sea cucumber such as antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antitumor, and other activities are associated by the bioactive compounds in sea cucumbers, particularly triterpene glycosides. The purpose of this study was testing and assessing the LC50 o...

  12. Encontro às escuras: sobre a atração entre as pessoas. O que mantém as pessoas unidas? (em um Projeto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mendes Silva Filho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Em toda história humana, nunca houve período com demanda tão elevada por profissionais qualificados como o atual. Os rumos da economia mundial não são, unicamente, ditados pelas nações desenvolvidas. O século 21 é centrado no conhecimento e respectiva capacidade de inovação promovida pelas pessoas, i.e., organizações (afinal, uma organização é feita de pessoas. Este é fator determinante no destino da humanidade. O futuro e respectivo domínio dependerão, primariamente, do conhecimento e a capacidade de inovação tem sido o principal propulsor deste avanço. Entretanto, para que isso aconteça numa escala maior, as pessoas são esperadas trabalharem juntas, em equipe, como um time. Mas, o que mantém as pessoas juntas perseguindo e trabalhando em pró de uma meta comum? O que poderia mover pessoas diferentes se unirem após um ‘encontro às escuras’? Este artigo discute essas questões que são determinantes ao cotidiano das pessoas e organizações, especulando e apontando respostas.

  13. Representação social de sujeitos alcoolistas acerca da atração e da dependência do uso de álcool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Eder Dias da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O consumo de álcool está relacionado a vários fatores sendo considerados fatores de risco, sem restrição de classe, idade ou sexo. A família, o meio de interação social e as propagandas são três de vários fatores que podem influenciar o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas. O risco familiar e grupo de envolvimentos são considerados importantes critérios de vulnerabilidade ao alcoolismo. Este estudo objetivou conhecer a representação social do alcoolista sobre a de sua dependência química e analisar as implicações dessa representação social para o cuidado de si. Metodologia: É um estudo é do tipo descritivo e exploratório, com base na Teoria das Representações Sociais, realizado em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial - Álcool e Drogas, em Belém-PA, com 31 sujeitos que estavam em tratamento por dependência química. Resultados: Com a análise dos dados obtivemos resultados de duas unidades temáticas: A influência parental no interesse pelo alcoolismo que mostra o meio familiar como importante influenciador para que o sujeito inicie a beber e Fatores que influenciaram o alcoolismo na adolescência em que se mostram as características da adolescência como influenciador da experimentação do álcool. Conclusão: Durante as entrevistas, pôde-se entender que, desde o início de suas vidas, os sujeitos que se tornaram alcoólatras estiveram expostos a um meio social com integrantes alcoolista, que gerou entusiasmo para uma vida cotidiana voltada para o uso do álcool; os depoimentos expressam que a família e o período da adolescência configuraram importantes fatores para sua realidade atual.

  14. Marketing Digital e Turismo: Uso de Websites para Atração de Turistas nos Municípios do Rio Grande Do Sul/ Brasil

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    Dalva Maria Righi Dotto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a utilização cada vez mais frequente da internet na busca de informações para a escolha dentre as opções de turismo disponíveis, a otimização dos websites turísticos por parte dos municípios pode ser uma ferramenta importante para o desenvolvimento do turismo. Informações  claras sobre os atrativos turísticos facilitam aos turistas escolher o destino, assim como informações sobre a disponibilidade de hotéis e, também, a gastronomia que o local oferece. Com o objetivo de analisar qualitativamente os websites de municípios do Rio Grande do Sul, este estudo, através de uma pesquisa exploratória, pretende disponibilizar aos gestores um diagnóstico comparativo, no intuito de auxiliar na visibilidade do atrativo turístico e sensibilização dos turistas potenciais, para incremento do setor e da economia local.

  15. Ontogenetic variation in light interception, self-shading and biomass distribution of seedlings of the conifer Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch Variación ontogenética en la intercepción lumínica, autosombramiento y distribución de biomasa en plántulas de la conífera Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch

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    CHRISTOPHER H LUSK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors thought to contribute to ontogenetic declines in plant growth rates is diminishing light interception efficiency, as a result of the difficulties of avoiding self-shading among a growing number of leaves, and by stems. The effects of plant size on self-shading and light interception have rarely been quantified, however. We used a three-dimensional digitising system to construct virtual models of the architecture of Araucaria araucana seedlings 71 to 358 mm tall, and modelled their light interception in the forest understorey using the program YPLANT. We also analyzed seedling allometry, to determine the combined effects of biomass distribution and self-shading on total light interception. Average light interception efficiencies calculated for A. araucana (29 % were the lowest reported for rainforest tree seedlings, reflecting the limitations imposed by short leaves, lack of petioles and an inability to develop planar foliage geometry on branches. Total light interception was related to seedling leaf area by an exponent of 0.735, reflecting increasing self-shading as seedlings grew bigger. However, because leaf area was related to seedling mass by an exponent of 1.24, light interception scaled nearly isometrically (0.91 power with seedling mass. This resulted from taller plants having proportionally thinner stems, and a smaller fraction of their biomass in roots. Thus, an ontogenetic increase in self-shading in A. araucana is largely offset by allocation changes which increase leaf area ratio as seedlings grow bigger. These mechanisms conserving the relationship of light interception with plant mass seem likely to be restricted to species with long-lived leaves, growing in humid situations protected from wind stress. In open habitats, where wind and drought stress likely make such allocation patterns less feasible, the role of self-shading in ontogenetic declines in relative growth rate may be more evidentLa caída en la eficiencia de intercepción de la luz es considerada como uno de los factores responsables del declive ontogenético en las tasas de crecimiento relativo de las plantas, debido a la dificultad de evitar el autosombramiento entre un creciente número de hojas. Sin embargo, rara vez se ha cuantificado el efecto de tamaño de las plantas sobre el autosombramiento y la eficiencia en intercepción de la luz. Utilizamos un sistema de digitalización para construir modelos virtuales tridimensionales de la arquitectura de plántulas 71-358 mm de alto de la conífera Araucaria araucana, y modelamos su intercepción de la luz en el sotobosque mediante el programa YPLANT. Analizamos además la alometría de las plántulas para determinar los efectos combinados de la distribución de biomasa y el autosombramiento sobre la intercepción total de luz a nivel de la planta entera. La eficiencia promedio de intercepción de la luz de A. araucana (29 % fue la más baja documentada para plántulas de especies de bosques húmedos, reflejando las limitaciones impuestas por hojas cortas, carencia de pecíolos, y la incapacidad de desarrollar follaje plagiotrópico. La intercepción total de luz por las plántulas fue proporcional al área foliar0,735, producto de un aumento en el autosombramiento en función del tamaño. Sin embargo, debido a la relación del área foliar con la potencia 1,24 de la masa de las plántulas, la intercepción de luz se acercó a la proporcionalidad directa (exponente 0,91 con la masa. Este patrón fue producto de la relativa delgadez de los tallos de las plántulas grandes, y su baja proporción de biomasa radicular. Por tanto, el declive ontogenético en la eficiencia de intercepción de la luz fue en gran medida compensada por cambios de asignación que aumentaron la superficie foliar de las plántulas grandes. Estos mecanismos que conservaron la relación de la ganancia potencial de carbono con la masa de las plántulas probablemente serán vistos solamente en especies con hojas muy longevas, en hábitats húmedos con poco viento. En ambientes abiertos, donde los estrés por sequía y viento podrían seleccionar en contra tales patrones de asignación, es probable que se evidencie más claramente el rol del autosombramiento en los declives ontogenéticos en la tasa de crecimiento relativo

  16. Indicadores de condición larvaria aplicados al camarón de río del norte Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782, en condiciones de cultivo controlado Larval condition indicators applied to the northern river shrimp Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782, under condition of controlled cultivation

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    María C Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el desarrollo larvario del camarón de río del norte de Chile, Cryphiops caementarius, desde el estado de zoea 1 hasta el primer juvenil, caracterizando y analizando criterios que verificaron la aplicación de indicadores de tipo morfológico y de comportamiento para la evaluación de la condición larvaria de la especie, en condiciones de cultivo. Las larvas, se mantuvieron en cultivo, en un tanque de 250 L con agua a 20 psu y temperatura de 25 ± 1°C, controlada con termostato y con un recambio del 100% diariamente. La alimentación consistió en microalgas (Nannochloris sp. e Isochrysis sp., rotíferos (Brachionus plicatilis, nauplios de Artemia franciscana y alimento formulado. Se utilizaron cinco indicadores de carácter morfológico y de comportamiento aplicados a las larvas de C. caementarius: llenado intestinal, estado de la glándula digestiva, desarrollo branquial, comportamiento natatorio y respuesta fototáctica. Estos indicadores, permitieron determinar el estado de condición y calidad de las larvas de C. caementarius, logrando un efectivo seguimiento y asociación de cada uno de ellos, con cada estado de desarrollo larvario, estandarizando características deseables en las larvas y evidenciando resultados verificables, que permitan establecer un adecuado plan de seguimiento del cultivo, optimizar los protocolos de manejo y de alimentación de las larvas. Además de cada indicador, fue posible desglosar una amplia gama de potenciales estudios a realizar, basados en las relaciones que la morfología y el comportamiento larvario mantienen con las capacidades fisiológicas de las larvas en desarrollo.The larval development of the Chilean northern river shrimp Cryphiops caementarius was studied, from the condition of zoea 1 up to the condition of juvenile stage, analyzing and characterizing diverse criteria that allowed checking the application of morphological and behavioral indicators for the evaluation of the larval quality of the species, under conditions of culture. The larvae, were cultured, in a tank of 250 L with water at 20 psu, at a constant temperature (25° ± 1°C, controlled with a thermostat and with 100% refill every day. The diet consisted of microalgae (Nannochloris sp. and Isochrysis sp., rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, nauplii of Artemia franciscana and formulated food. Five indicators were used, considering morphologic and behavior aspects: intestinal fill, midgut gland condition, gill development, swimming behavior and phototactic response. The indicators selected in the present work, were feasible of being used for the determination of the condition and quality of the larvae of C. caementarius, being able to make an effective follow-up and association with every condition of larval development, standardize desirable characteristics in the larvae and demonstrate verifiable results, using a protocol for culture and food supply. Moreover, it was possible to identify an extensive range of potential studies, based on the relationships that the morphology and the larval behavior support with the physiological capacities of the larvae in development.

  17. TITLE: La mujer por fuerza, El condenado por desconfiado and El burlador de Sevilla, Three Comedies Attributed to Tirso de Molina. TÍTULO: La mujer por fuerza, El condenado por desconfiado y El burlador de Sevilla, tres comedias atribuidas a Tirso de Molina

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    Alfredo Rodríguez López-Vázquez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:We expose three attribution problems in several cases of doubtful authorship in the theater of the Siglo de Oro: "El condenado por desconfiado" and "La mujer por fuerza", both edited as Tirso’s works in the problematic "Segunda parte" and "El burlador de Sevilla", edited under the name of Tirso in the volume "Doze comedias de Lope de Vega y otros autores" (about 1630. We have applied a methodology concerning the analysis of metaphors and inusual lexical items, and we have comparated it with several works by the two dramaturgians concerned by its attributions, Tirso and Claramonte, and also with several others, as reference group. We conclude that "La mujer por fuerza" is a work by Tirso, "El burlador de Sevilla" is a Claramonte’s work, and "El condenado por desconfiado" is also a work by Claramonte, perhaps with a collaboration from Mira de Amescua. RESUMEN: Planteamos tres problemas de atribución de obras autoría dudosa en el teatro del Siglo de Oro: "El condenado por desconfiado" y "La mujer por fuerza", editadas a nombre de Tirso en la problemática "Segunda parte", y "El burlador de Sevilla", editada a nombre de Tirso en el volumen de "Doze comedias de Lope de Vega y otros autores" (circa 1630. Aplicamos una metodología de análisis de metáforas y de léxico poco usual, y cotejamos con varias obras de los dos dramaturgos implicados en su atribución, Tirso y Claramonte, y varios autores más como grupo de referencia. Concluimos que "La mujer por fuerza" es obra de Tirso, "El burlador de Sevilla" es obra de Claramonte, y que "El condenado por desconfiado" es obra de Claramente, tal vez en colaboración con Mira de Amescua.

  18. Descripción histológica y caracterización de los estados de madurez gonadal de hembras de Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae Histological description and characterization of the ovarian cycle of Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae

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    Jorge E Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La extracción indiscriminada y alteraciones del medio natural, han puesto en peligro de extinción al único Palaemónido dulceacuícola de interés comercial, presente en aguas continentales chilenas. Aun cuando esta situación, ha despertado el interés en estudios que permitan su reproducción controlada en cautiverio, actualmente es escaso el conocimiento acerca de aspectos reproductivos básicos de esta especie. Dada su importancia, este trabajo describe y caracteriza el proceso completo de maduración gonadal en hembras de Cryphiops caementarius, en base a cambios en la morfología externa e interna del ovario. Hembras adultas extraídas del río Limarí, fueron disectadas y sus ovarios removidos y preparados para análisis histológicos. Tejido fibromuscular divide el tejido gonadal de cada lóbulo en sacos ováricos de forma semicónica (conos de maduración, al interior del los cuales se encuentran ovocitos en diferentes estados de desarrollo de acuerdo a observaciones microscópicas de tamano, morfología y tinción con H-E, las células reproductoras femeninas se clasificaron en seis tipos, ovogonias (Ov, ovocitos previtelogénicos tempranos (O1, ovocitos previtelogénicos tardíos (O2, ovocitos vitelogénicos tempranos (O3, ovocitos vitelogénicos tardíos (O4 y ovocitos Maduros (OM. El ciclo de madurez gonadal se dividió en cinco estados según la cantidad y tipo de ovocitos presentes. Los estados 0 y I, corresponden a desovado y previtelogénesis. Los estados II y III a vitelogénesis temprana y vitelogénesis intermedia, mientras el estado IV corresponde a madurez avanzada. La presencia de ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos junto a ovocitos completamente maduros en el estado de madurez avanzada, refleja la capacidad de esta especie de realizar ciclos consecutivos de madurez en intervalos cortos de tiempo.Its indiscriminate extraction and alterations of its natural environment, has put in danger of extinction the only commercial freshwater Palemonid present in Chilean inland waters. Even though this situation has awakened interest in studies which allow its controlled reproduction in captivity, currently little is known regarding basic reproductive aspects of this species. Given its relevance, this work describes and characterizes the whole ovarian cycle of Cryphiops caementarius, based on changes in external and internal ovarian morphology. Adult C. caementarius females, obtained from Limarí River, were dissected and its ovaries removed and prepared for histological examinations. Fibromuscular tissue divides the ovarian tissue of each lobe into cone-shaped ovarian pouches (Maturation cones, each one containing various steps of oocytes according to the stages of ovarian development. Based on light microscopic observations of cells' sizes, morphology, and staining with H-E, the female germ cells could be classified into six different types, which include oogonia (Ov, early previtellogenic oocytes (O1, late previtellogenic oocytes (O2, early vitellogenic oocytes (O3, late vitellogenic oocytes (O4 and mature oocytes (OM. The ovarian cycle is divided into five stages based on the amount and types of oocytes present in each stage. Stage 0 and I are spawned and previtellogenesis stages. Stage II and III are early and intermediate vitellogenesis stages, while stage IV is maturity advanced stage. The presence of oogonia and previtellogenic oocytes among fully mature oocytes in stage IV reflect the capacity of the ovary of C. caementarius females to start a new full maturity cycle in a short time period.

  19. Instructions and Manuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gigone, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Kindergarten and Nursery (Giancarlo de Carlo associati) Inner city arts (Michael Maltzan Architecture) Colegio Gerardo Molina (Giancarlo Mazzanti arquitectos)......Kindergarten and Nursery (Giancarlo de Carlo associati) Inner city arts (Michael Maltzan Architecture) Colegio Gerardo Molina (Giancarlo Mazzanti arquitectos)...

  20. Cambios en el uso de la ostra perlera Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan Changes in the use of the pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

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    Adrián Velázquez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La concha del bivalvo panámico Pinctada mazatlanica fue ampliamente utilizada por las antiguas sociedades del México prehispánico; en las ofrendas enterradas en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan se han encontrado alrededor de 600 objetos elaborados con ella, la mayor parte de los cuales proceden de la etapa constructiva IV (1440-1481, lo que llama la atención, ya que para entonces los mexicas no habían logrado conquistar emplazamientos en la costa del Pacífico. En los sucesivos agrandamientos arquitectónicos es notable el descenso en los objetos de la referida ostra, lo cual en principio se explicó por la mayor destrucción que éstos habían sufrido; sin embargo, el hallazgo de varios ricos depósitos en el predio conocido como Casa de las Ajaracas, correspondientes al reinado de Moctezuma II (1502-1521, en los que prácticamente se encuentra ausente la Pinctada mazatlanica, da lugar a nuevas interpretaciones. En el presente trabajo se presentan 2 posibles hipótesis para explicar el hecho anterior.The nacreous shell of the tropical Pacific mollusc Pinctada mazatlanica was widely used by the ancient inhabitants of Mexico. Around 600 pieces made of this shell have been found in offerings buried in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Most of these objects come from the IVth construction stage (1440-1481, prior to the conquest of the Pacific Coast by the Aztecs. It was previously thought that the considerably smaller numbers found in the following stages were due to the greater degree of destruction suffered by the temple. Nevertheless, the almost complete absence of this material in nine offerings found recently corresponding to the VIIth construction stage (1502-1521, raise other possibilities. In this work two different hypotheses are presented to explain this observation.

  1. Gloquídio de Diplodon martensi (lhering (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae e seu ciclo parasitário The glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae and its parasitic cycle

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    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Conchological and anatomical studies of the glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering, 1893 were performed on samples collected in a small river, tributary from the Caí River, that belong to the Jacuí River sub-basin in south-eastern Brazil. The parasitic development of the glochidium was observed in laboratory on a small cichlid fish Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel, 1870.

  2. Biologia e anatomia funcional de Donax gemmula Morrison (Bivalvia, Donacidae do litoral de São Paulo, Brasil Biology and functional anatomy of Donax gemmula Morrison (Bivalvia, Donacidae from the littoral of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Flávio Dias Passos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Donax gemmula Morrison, 1971 ocorre em praias arenosas da costa sudeste-sul do Brasil até o Uruguai. Espécimes foram coletados na Praia de Barequeçaba, São Sebastião, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O comportamento do animal foi registrado "in situ" e em aquários e a morfologia funcional a partir de espécimes dissecados sob estereomicroscópio; detalhes da anatomia foram obtidos a partir de cortes histológicos. A concha pequena, lisa, subglobosa, e o pé grande, muscular, provido de um par de músculos elevadores bem desenvolvidos, permitem escavação rápida, vital em praias sujeitas à intensa ação de ondas onde a espécie vive. Aparato bissal vestigial ocorre desde a fase juvenil à adulta e este donacídeo de vida livre, infaunal, não migra acompanhando o ritmo das marés. As margens do manto possuem prega mediana duplicada; além de tentáculos captados, as pregas medianas possuem tentáculos sensoriais filiformes, longos, estes últimos restritos à região posterior do animal. A espécie tem hábito alimentar suspensívoro seletivo, o qual é revelado pela presença de ctenídios grandes, completos e homorhábdicos, palpos labiais pequenos e muito seletivos, intestino curto, fracamente sinuoso, separado do saco do estilete cristalino, e tentáculos ramificados formando um crivo em torno da abertura inalante.Donax gemmula Morrison, 1971 is a small bivalve occurring on sandy beaches throughout the Southeastern Brazilian coast to Uruguai. Live specimens were collected from Barequeçaba Beach, São Sebastião, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The animal's behaviour was recorded in situ as well as in aquaria, and its functional morphology registered from specimens dissected under stereomicroscope; details of the anatomy were obtained from histological sections. The minute, smooth subglobose shell, and the large, muscular foot provided with a pair of well-developed elevator muscles allow fast burrowing, vital in the disturbed beach environment where the species lives. A vestigial byssal apparatus is present from juvenile through the adult form and this free-living infaunal donacid does not migrate following the rising and ebbing tides. The mantle margins have the middle fold duplicated; besides captate tentacles, the middle folds bear long, filiform, sensory tentacles, the latter restricted to the rear end of the animal. The presence of complete, large, homorhabdic ctenidia; small but very selective labial palps; short and few convoluted intestine, separated from the style sac; and straining tentacles encircling the inhalant aperture reveal the selective suspension feeding habit of the species.

  3. Metalotioninas en Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: variación estacional y su relación con la biología reproductiva Metallothioneins in Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: seasonal variation and its relation to reproductive biology

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    Mairin Lemus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las metalotioninas (Mts son proteínas de baja masa molecular que juegan un rol importante en la detoxificación de metales, en vista de su papel ecotoxicológico se evaluaron las metalotioneínas (MTs en 350 ejemplares del bivalvo Perna viridis en dos localidades de la costa norte del estado Sucre, desde febrero hasta diciembre 2003. Se determinaron los índices biométricos: índice de condición (IC, rendimiento de carne (RC y relación peso seco-talla (PSL. Las Mts fueron separadas por cromatografía de exclusión molecular, Sephadex G-50 y se cuantificaron por saturación con cadmio. Los índices biométricos (RC y PSL mostraron variaciones estacionales, entre localidades y estados de madurez, con la excepción del CI. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre sexos. Las Mts mostraron variaciones estacionales, con concentraciones más elevadas entre febrero y marzo y mínimos entre septiembre y diciembre, que coincidieron con los períodos de alta y baja productividad en el área, respectivamente. Los mejillones de Río Caribe presentaron una mayor concentración de Mts que los de Chacopata. Los mejillones inmaduros mostraron la mayor concentración de Mts y la más baja en los desovados. Se encontró una relación negativa y significativa entre Mts y CI. Los resultados demuestran que las Mts de Perna viridis están influidas por el índice de condición y la condición reproductiva, asi como también pot los factores físico-químicos del ambiente marino.Metallothionein is a cytosolic protein found in a variety of tissues and have been involved in the regulation of essential trace metals such as copper and zinc, and in the detoxification of essential and nonessential metals. With the aim to study their seasonal variation and their possible role in reproductive behavior, we evaluated metallothioneins (Mts in Perna viridis, taken from Rio Caribe and Chacopata localities in the North coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. A total of 325 samples were obtained from February to December 2003. We determined the following biometric indices in bivalves: Condition Index (CI, meat yield (RC and dry weight-length relationship (PSL. Besides, Mts in whole tissue were separated by molecular exclusion chromatography, Sephadex G-50 and quantified by saturation with cadmium. Our results showed that the biometric indices (RC and PSL had seasonal variations between localities and maturity stages, with the exception of IC. No significant differences were found between sexes. Mts showed seasonal variations between localities, with the highest concentrations between February and March, and minimum ones between September and December, coinciding with the respectively high and low productivity periods in the area. The mussels from Rio Caribe had higher Mts concentration than those from Chacopata. Furthermore, immature mussels showed the highest Mts concentration while the lowest was found in spawned specimens. We found a significant negative relationship between Mts and CI. Our results demonstrated that MTs in Perna viridis are influenced by the condition index and reproductive status, as well as physicochemical factors in the marine environment.

  4. Ciclo gonadal del chorito Mytilus chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en dos localidades del sur de Chile Gonadal cycle of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae at two localities in southern of Chile

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    Pablo A Oyarzún

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó de forma cualitativa y cuantitativa el ciclo gonadal del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis en las localidades de Chaihuín y bahía Yal, sur de Chile, entre octubre 2007 y junio 2008. Por medio de análisis histológico gonadal se determinaron cuatro estadios gametogénicos y a su vez se estimó en forma cuantitativa, el Volumen de la Fracción Gamética (VFG, el porcentaje de tejido interfolicular y el índice gonadal. El análisis cuantitativo (VFG fue el mejor indicador para determinar los desoves. En los ejemplares de Chaihuín se observaron dos eventos de emisión gamética en forma simultánea en ambos sexos, que ocurrieron en octubre y marzo. Sin embargo, en los ejemplares de bahía Yal se registraron cuatro desoves, principalmente de marzo a junio (otoño, cuando la temperatura del agua disminuyó. Se determinó una escasa relación entre el Índice Gonadosomático (IG y los estadios gametogénicos, al igual que entre el IG y el porcentaje de ovocitos maduros, por ende el IG no sería un indicador apropiado para los desoves en esta especie. Se sugiere la revisión del periodo de veda de Mytilus chilensis (1 noviembre a 31 diciembre, ya que la mayor parte de los individuos de las poblaciones estudiadas, maduran principalmente en octubre. En ambas localidades, el porcentaje de tejido conjuntivo de los especímenes estudiados fluctúo entre 15 y 70% de cobertura gonadal. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron diferencias en los ciclos reproductivos de Mytilus chilensis entre las localidades analizadas, las que se podrían atribuir a diferencias ambientales (e.g. temperatura causadas por el gradiente latitudinal.A qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out of the gonadal cycle of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis from Chaihuín and Yal bay, southern Chile, between October 2007 and June 2008. Four gametogenic stages were determined using histological analysis of the gonads, and quantitative estimates were made of the Gametic Volume Fraction (VFG, percentage of inter follicular connective tissue, and the Gonadosomatic Index (IG. The quantitative analysis (VFG was the best indicator of spawning. Two spawning events, one in October and one in March, were observed simultaneously in both sexes of mussels from Chaihuín. However, for specimens from bahía Yal, four spawning events were registered, principally from March to June (autumn, when the water temperature decreased. The relationship between the IG and the gametogenic stages was very low, as was that between the IG and the percentage of mature oocytes. Therefore, the IG is not a good indicator of spawning in this species. A re-evaluation of the ban period established for Mytilus chilensis (1 November to 31 December is suggested since most individuals from the populations studied mature mainly in October. At both sites, the percentage of connective tissue for the analyzed mussel individuals ranged between 15 and 70% of gonadal coverage. The results obtained in the present study showed differences in the reproductive cycles of Mytilus chilensis between the sites sampled. These differences could be due to environmental differences (e.g. temperature caused by the latitudinal gradient.

  5. Características histológicas del ciclo reproductivo de Euvola ziczac (Linnaeu (Pectinidae, Bivalvia del litoral sur-sudeste del Brasil Histological characteristics of the reproductive cycle of Euvola ziczac (Pectinidae, Bivalvia from south-southern Brazil

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    Carlos Alberto Borzone

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Scallops were collected from beds at 30 to 40 m depth on the south-southern inner continental shelf of Brazil for histological gonadal characterization of the reproductive cycle. This hermaphroditic scallop was an important shellfish resource during 70-80 decade, with maximal annual landings of 8,845 tons, but now is depleted. Results shows that reproduction is continuous, with two major spawning periods, the first during end of summer and throughout autumn, and the second during winter and beginning of spring. A characteristic phenomenon of oocyte atresia, with maximal incidences in September is described. This phenomenon, followed by the mature oocyte resorption and new oocyte proliferation and maturation, was related to the lack of spawning stimulation. A semi-annual thermal cycle on the bottom water due to the South Atlantic Central Water intrusion seems to be the principal reproductive cycle controller. Fluctuations in landings registered since the beginning of the fishery may be partly related to oceanographic variations.

  6. The interference of methods in the collection of teredinids (Mollusca, Bivalvia in mangrove habitats Interferência de métodos na coleta de teredinídios (Mollusca, Bivalvia em habitats de manguezais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. V. Leonel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the estuary of the Mamanguape River (Paraíba, Brazil, a new collection technique was developed and applied with virgin poles of mangrove trees Avicennia schaueriana (Verbenaceae, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae, and Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, taking into account wood preference, water salinity and depth influence during teredinid larval settlement. Sets of poles were vertically fixed in the riverbed at three sites along a decreasing salinity gradient, where they stayed for four months. The poles were collected and divided into upper, median, and lower segments, in agreement with different immersion regimes. An increase of 239% was obtained in the number of individuals when compared to a previous study in the same area using a different methodology. The species Teredo bartschi (Clapp, 1923, Nausitora fusticula (Jeffreys, 1860 and Bankia fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931 were registered in both studies, and the species Psiloteredo healdi (Bartsch, 1931 is here registered for the first time as occurring in that estuary. The species Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, previously registered on tree branches of the mangrove habitat, was not found in the present work. Bankia fimbriatula, the most abundant species, did not show preference for any substratum but occurred significantly on the lower segment of the poles. N. fusticula, second in abundance, preferred to settle on poles of A. schaueriana and on any of the three segments. Aiming to assess the habitat variations, a more accurate study on teredinids diversity in mangrove ecosystems should be performed through a concomitant analysis from tree branches of the mangrove habitat, as well as from poles of mangrove trees or panels made of pine wood or mangrove trees wood. These collection devices should be maintained along a decreasing salinity gradient exposed to different tide levels.Contemplando a preferência pelo tipo de madeira, a influência da profundidade e da salinidade durante assentamento larval de teredinídeos, uma nova técnica de coleta foi aplicada e desenvolvida no estuário do rio Mamanguape (Paraíba, Brasil, utilizando varas virgens de três espécies de árvores do manguezal: Avicennia schaueriana (Verbenaceae, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae. Em três estações demarcadas ao longo do gradiente decrescente de salinidade, conjuntos de varas foram verticalmente fixados nas margens do rio. Após quatro meses, as varas eram coletadas e divididas em três segmentos (superior, médio e inferior, de acordo com os regimes de imersão a que foram submetidas. Comparativamente aos dados obtidos por um estudo anterior na mesma área, com outras metodologias de coleta, foi obtido um aumento de 239% no número de indivíduos coletados com a nova técnica. Embora as espécies Teredo bartschi (Clapp, 1923, Nausitora fusticula (Jeffreys, 1860 e Bankia fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931 tenham ocorrido nos dois estudos, o teredinídeo Psiloteredo healdi (Bartsch, 1931 tem sua presença registrada pela primeira vez neste estuário. Tendo sido previamente registrada em ramos de árvores do manguezal, Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920 não foi coletada no presente trabalho. Sendo a espécie mais abundante, B. fimbriatula não mostrou preferência de assentamento em nenhum dos substratos, ocorrendo significativamente associada ao segmento inferior das varas. Como segunda espécie mais abundante, N. fusticula mostrou preferência significativa de assentamento em A. schaueriana, ocorrendo indistintamente nos três segmentos das varas. Visando contemplar as variações do habitat e obter maior precisão de resultados, é recomendável que em estudos sobre a diversidade de teredinídeos, sejam incluídas análises concomitantes de troncos e ramos das árvores, com o uso de varas de árvores do manguezal ou de coletores artificiais feitos com pinho ou madeira de árvores do manguezal. Os coletores devem ser mantidos ao longo do gradiente de salinidade e expostos aos diferentes níveis das marés.

  7. Cambios en el uso de la ostra perlera Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae) en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan Changes in the use of the pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae) in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adrián Velázquez; Belem Zúñiga-Arellano; John Joseph Temple Sánchez-Gavito

    2007-01-01

    ...; en las ofrendas enterradas en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan se han encontrado alrededor de 600 objetos elaborados con ella, la mayor parte de los cuales proceden de la etapa constructiva IV (1440-1481...

  8. Functional morphology, biology and sexual strategy of the circumboreal, adventitious crypt-building, Crenella decussata (Bivalvia: Mytiloidea: Crenellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Brian; Dinesen, Grete E.; Ockelmann, Kurt W.

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of Crenella decussata (Mytiloidea) is described. Individuals of this circumboreal species occupy granular crypts composed of sand grains held in place by mucus. The swollen basal region of the tubule is occupied by an individual, which connects to the sediment surface by two posterior...

  9. Evolutionary ecology of the Pachydontinae (Bivalvia, Corbulidae) in the Pebas lake/wetland system (Miocene, western Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    Miocene deposits in western Amazonia and adjacent areas of South America harbour a diverse suite of endemic corbulid bivalves, commonly referred to as Pachydontinae, that show a wide variety of morphologies. Especially in the Miocene Pebas Formation (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), this group diversifie

  10. Non-target trials with Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A, a lethal control agent of dreissenid mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae

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    Daniel P. Molloy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop an efficacious and environmentally safe method for managing zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and quaggamussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, we initiated a research project investigating the potential use of bacteria and their naturalmetabolic products as biocontrol agents. This project resulted in the discovery of an environmental isolate lethal to dreissenid mussels,Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A. In previous published reports we have demonstrated that: 1 Pf-CL145A’s mode ofaction is intoxication (not infection; 2 natural product within ingested bacterial cells lyse digestive tract epithelial cells leading to dreisseniddeath; and 3 high dreissenid kill rates (>90% are achievable following treatment with Pf-CL145A cells, irrespective of whether thebacterial cells are dead or alive. Investigating the environmental safety of Pf-CL145A was also a key element in our research efforts, andherein, we report the results of non-target trials demonstrating Pf-CL145A’s high specificity to dreissenids. These acute toxicity trials weretypically single-dose, short-term (24-72 h exposures to Pf-CL145A cells under aerated conditions at concentrations highly lethal todreissenids (100 or 200 mg/L. These trials produced no evidence of mortality among the ciliate Colpidium colpoda, the cladoceran Daphniamagna, three fish species (Pimephales promelas, Salmo trutta, and Lepomis macrochirus, and seven bivalve species (Mytilus edulis,Pyganodon grandis, Pyganodon cataracta, Lasmigona compressa, Strophitus undulatus, Lampsilis radiata, and Elliptio complanata. Lowmortality (3-27% was recorded in the amphipod Hyalella azteca, but additional trials suggested that most, if not all, of the mortality couldbe attributed to some other unidentified factor (e.g., possibly particle load or a water quality issue rather than Pf-CL145A’s dreissenidkillingnatural product. In terms of potential environmental safety, the results of these invertebrate and vertebrate non-target trials areencouraging, but it would be unrealistic to think that dreissenids are the only aquatic organisms sensitive to Pf-CL145A’s dreissenid-killingnatural product. Additional testing is needed to better define Pf-CL145A’s margin of safety by identifying the sensitivity of other susceptibleorganisms. The results of these non-target safety trials – in combination with equally promising mussel control efficacy data – have now ledto Pf-CL145A’s commercialization under the product name Zequanox®, with dead cells as the product’s active ingredient. The commercialavailability of only dead-cell Zequanox formulations will eliminate the risk of any possible non-target infection by Pf-CL145A, furtherreducing environmental concerns. During the non-target project reported herein, the limited quantities of Pf-CL145A cells that we were ableto culture severely restricted the number and size of our trials. In contrast, the availability of Zequanox will now greatly expand theopportunities for non-target testing. The trials reported herein – exposing non-target organisms under aerated conditions to unformulated,laboratory-cultured cells – clearly point to Pf-CL145A’s potential for high host specificity, but non-target trials with Zequanox – using Pf-CL145A cells cultured, killed, and formulated using industrial-scale protocols – will be even more important as they will define the nontargetsafety limits of the actual commercial products under a wide range of environmental conditions.

  11. Seasonal abundance of the shipworm Neoteredo reynei (Bivalvia, Teredinidae in mangrove driftwood from a northern Brazilian beach

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    Carlos S. Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Shipworms are important decomposers of wood, especially in mangrove forests where productivity is high. However, little emphasis has been given to the activity of shipworms in relation to the export of nutrients from mangroves to adjacent coastal areas. As a first step to obtaining such information, the frequency of colonized mangrove driftwood as well as shipworm density and length were studied by collecting washed up logs during a year at Ajuruteua beach, state of Pará, northern Brazil. A single species, Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, was found colonizing driftwood. Although large colonized logs were most common on the beach, shipworm density was higher in small logs, especially during the dry season. In general, however, density was higher during the wet season (January to April and lowest in July. Overall shipworm mean length was 9.66cm. In large logs, mean length increased between the wet and dry seasons. However, there was no difference in length among log size categories. Mean shipworm length was similar throughout most of the year but tended to be greater in July. Although salinity varied between 10.9 and 40 during the year, no relationship was found between salinity and density or length. The results suggest that shipworm activity in driftwood logs is relatively constant throughout the year. Increased air humidity and rainfall may promote survival during the wet season. Large logs may take longer to colonize and thus have lower densities than small ones which are scarce probably because they are destroyed rapidly by shipworm activity. However, data on the disintegration of logs would be necessary to test this hypothesis. Larger size of shipworms in the dry season may be related to growth after an earlier recruitment period. Shipworms in large logs during the dry season may be better protected from dessication and high temperatures by the insulating properties of the larger volume of wood.

  12. Polidorídeos (Polychaeta: spionidae) em Crassostrea rhizophorae (Mollusca: bivalvia) de cinco rios da costa pernambucana

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique de Oliveira Bonifácio, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    A ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae ocorre ao longo da costa do Brasil servindo como alimento para comunidades litorâneas e sua produção ajuda no desenvolvimento sócio-econômico local. Polidiariose é uma das diversas doenças presentes em ostreiculturas do mundo. É causada por poliquetas da família Spionidae que perfuram a concha e habitam uma bolha de lodo no interior da ostra, causando perda de valor comercial considerável. Oito gêneros de espionídeos podem ser responsáveis por...

  13. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L Simone

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823, a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, extending about a half of it total length beyond visceral mass; palps proportionally small, several furrows in its outer surface; stomach without esophageal transversal ridjp, dorsal hood and gastric shield poorly developed, major typhlosole entering in ddd , posterior pouch of sa³ very-long; style sac reduced, without crystalline style; distal region of intestine and rectum with a well developed typhlosole, "T" in section, other intestinal regions without folds; gonad gonochoristic.

  14. Strict sex-specific mtDNA segregation in the germ line of the DUI species Venerupis philippinarum (Bivalvia: Veneridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiselli, Fabrizio; Milani, Liliana; Passamonti, Marco

    2011-02-01

    Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI) is one of the most striking exceptions to the common rule of standard maternal inheritance of metazoan mitochondria. In DUI, two mitochondrial genomes are present, showing different transmission routes, one through eggs (F-type) and the other through sperm (M-type). In this paper, we report results from a multiplex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis on the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum (formerly Tapes philippinarum). We quantified M- and F-types in somatic tissues, gonads, and gametes. Nuclear and external reference sequences were used, and the whole experimental process was designed to avoid any possible cross-contamination. In most male somatic tissues, the M-type is largely predominant: This suggests that the processes separating sex-linked mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) in somatic tissues are less precise than in other DUI species. In the germ line, we evidenced a strict sex-specific mtDNA segregation because both sperm and eggs do carry exclusively M- and F-types, respectively, an observation that is in contrast with a previous analysis on Mytilus galloprovincialis. More precisely, whereas two mtDNAs are present in the whole gonad, only the sex-specific one is detected in gametes. Because of this, we propose that the mtDNA transmission is achieved through a three-checkpoint process in V. philippinarum. The cytological mechanisms of male mitochondria segregation in males and degradation in females during the embryo development (here named Checkpoint #1 and Checkpoint #2) are already well known for DUI species; a Checkpoint #3 would act when primordial germ cells (PGCs) are first formed and would work in both males and females. We believe that Checkpoint #3 is a mere variation of the "mitochondrial bottleneck" in species with standard maternal inheritance, established when their PGCs separate during embryo cleavage.

  15. Early replication dynamics of sex-linked mitochondrial DNAs in the doubly uniparental inheritance species Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia Veneridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, D; Ghiselli, F; Milani, L; Breton, S; Passamonti, M

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy, which is maintained by strictly maternal inheritance and a series of bottlenecks, is thought to be an adaptive condition for metazoans. Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) is a unique mode of mitochondrial transmission found in bivalve species, in which two distinct mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) lines are present, one inherited through eggs (F) and one through sperm (M). During development, the two lines segregate in a sex- and tissue-specific manner: females lose M during embryogenesis, whereas males actively segregate it in the germ line. These two pivotal events are still poorly characterized. Here we investigated mtDNA replication dynamics during embryogenesis and pre-adulthood of the venerid Ruditapes philippinarum using real-time quantitative PCR. We found that both mtDNAs do not detectably replicate during early embryogenesis, and that the M line might be lost from females around 24 h of age. A rise in mtDNA copy number was observed before the first reproductive season in both sexes, with the M mitochondrial genome replicating more than the F in males, and we associate these boosts to the early phase of gonad production. As evidence indicates that DUI relies on the same molecular machine of mitochondrial maternal inheritance that is common in most animals, our data are relevant not only to DUI but also to shed light on how differential segregations of mtDNA variants, in the same nuclear background, may be controlled during development.

  16. Embrionary and larval development of the marine clam Tivela mactroides (Bivalvia:Veneridaein Zulia State,Venezuela

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    Yinett M Reverol

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The marine clam,Tivela mactroides ,from Caño Sagua beach,Venezuela,was spawned and reared under laboratory conditions to monitor its early development.Spawning was spontaneous but in some cases it had to be induced by the additon of eggs and sperm.After fertilization,the embryonic development occurred at 5 hr approximately. Trochophore larvae were observed between eight and ten hours later.Straight-hinged veliger stage appeared 15 hr after fertilization.Transition from veliger stage to the umbo stage occurred about eight days after fertilization.Pediveliger stage was observed 22 days after fertilization.Metamorphosis of T.mactroides was not successful under our laboratory conditions;probably the bacterial contamination and subsequent mortalities were important factors constraining the final phase of the larval cycle.However,in a few cases young individuals were observed.We suspect that this was due to unfavorable conditions (e.g.:bacterial contamination, unsuitable food availability,etc.and the broad variation in developmental times,suggesting that these stages might be particularly sensitive to environmental changes.These results may not necessarily reflect what happens under natural conditions.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:903-909.Epub 2005 Jun 24.La almeja Tivela mactroides ,de la playa Caño Sagua, Venezuela,fue desovada y cultivada bajo condiciones de laboratorio,monitoreando su desarrollo embrionario y larvario.El desove fue espontáneo,sin embargo,en algunos casos se indujo adicionando óvulos y espermatozoides. El desarrollo embrionario se produjo en cinco horas, aproximadamente.La larva trocófora fue observada a las diez horas,mientras que la prodisoconcha aparece a las 15 horas después de la fertilización.La larva disoconcha aparece ocho días después de la fecundación y la veliconcha,aproximadamente a los 20 días.La metamorfosis de T.mactroides no fue satisfactoria bajo estas condiciones, ya que la contaminación bacterial fue uno de los principales factores que provocó la mortalidad de las larvas durante la fase final del ciclo,sin embargo,en algunos casos, se observaron juveniles.Las condiciones no favorables (contaminación bacteriana,disponibilidad de alimentos, etc.y la variación en los tiempos de desarrollo,sugieren que estos estadios son muy sensibles a los cambios ambientales. Estos resultados no necesariamente reflejan lo que ocurre en el medio natural.

  17. Morphology of the larval shell of three oyster species of the genus Crassostrea Sacco, 1897 (Bivalvia: Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SW. Christo

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the morphology of the larval shell of three oyster species of Crassostrea genus. Two species, C. rhizophorae and C. brasiliana, are native to the Brazilian coast, and C. gigas is an introduced species. Samples of laboratory reared larvae, obtained through artificial fertilisation, were collected at intervals during the cultivation process for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Prodissoconch morphology was observed in relation to the presence, position, form and number of teeth in the three larval stages: D-shaped larva, umbo larva and pediveliger. Characteristic of D-shaped larvae of C. rhizophorae was the total absence of teeth in the provinculum area while C. brasiliana and C. gigas had two anterior and two posterior teeth in each valve. In the umbo larval phase, the three species had the same number of teeth in each valve: two posterior and two anterior teeth in the right valve and three posterior and three anterior in the left valve. In the pediveliger stage the three species could be differentiated by the number of anterior teeth of the right valve: C. rhizophorae had two teeth, C. brasiliana one tooth and C. gigas three teeth.

  18. First record of parasitism in the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae at Jaguaribe River estuary - Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Sabry

    Full Text Available Mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae were sampled monthly in the estuary of Jaguaribe River, on the east coast of Ceará State, Brazil, between August, 2000 and December, 2001, making up 170 individuals. The water temperature varied from 26 to 30 °C and salinity from 21 to 42‰. The animals' size ranged from 3.4 to 7.2 cm height. Macroscopical and histopathological analyses were carried out in the oysters' tissues. The histological exams showed protozoans and metazoans of genera Nematopsis and Tylocephalum, respectively. Nematopsis prevalence varied from 60 to 100% and it was higher in the gills and mantle. The oocysts presented a mean size of 11.5 µm (±1.32 length and 9.1 µm (±1.06 width (n = 30, up to 3 oocysts/phagocyte having been observed. Several animals presented focal hemocitical reaction. The percentage of Tylocephalum was 1.7%. In spite of the high infection prevalence by Nematopsis, infected animals did not have their reproductive cycle impaired.

  19. Differences in the rDNA-bearing chromosome divide the Asian-Pacific and Atlantic species of Crassostrea (Bivalvia, Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongping; Xu, Zhe; Guo, Ximing

    2004-02-01

    Karyotype and chromosomal location of the major ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) were studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in five species of CRASSOSTREA: three Asian-Pacific species (C. gigas, C. plicatula, and C. ariakensis) and two Atlantic species (C. virginica and C. rhizophorae). FISH probes were made by PCR amplification of the intergenic transcribed spacer between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes, and labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP. All five species had a haploid number of 10 chromosomes. The Atlantic species had 1-2 submetacentric chromosomes, while the three Pacific species had none. FISH with metaphase chromosomes detected a single telomeric locus for rDNA in all five species without any variation. In all three Pacific species, rDNA was located on the long arm of Chromosome 10 (10q)--the smallest chromosome. In the two Atlantic species, rDNA was located on the short arm of Chromosome 2 (2p)--the second longest chromosome. A review of other studies reveals the same distribution of NOR sites (putative rDNA loci) in three other species: on 10q in C. sikamea and C. angulata from the Pacific Ocean and on 2p in C. gasar from the western Atlantic. All data support the conclusion that differences in size and shape of the rDNA-bearing chromosome represent a major divide between Asian-Pacific and Atlantic species of CRASSOSTREA: This finding suggests that chromosomal divergence can occur under seemingly conserved karyotypes and may play a role in reproductive isolation and speciation.

  20. First record of parasitism in the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) at Jaguaribe River estuary--Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, R C; Gesteira, T C V; Boehs, G

    2007-11-01

    Mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae were sampled monthly in the estuary of Jaguaribe River, on the east coast of Ceará State, Brazil, between August, 2000 and December, 2001, making up 170 individuals. The water temperature varied from 26 to 30 degrees C and salinity from 21 to 42. The animals' size ranged from 3.4 to 7.2 cm height. Macroscopical and histopathological analyses were carried out in the oysters' tissues. The histological exams showed protozoans and metazoans of genera Nematopsis and Tylocephalum, respectively. Nematopsis prevalence varied from 60 to 100% and it was higher in the gills and mantle. The oocysts presented a mean size of 11.5 microm (+/-1.32) length and 9.1 microm (+/-1.06) width (n = 30), up to 3 oocysts/phagocyte having been observed. Several animals presented focal hemocitical reaction. The percentage of Tylocephalum was 1.7%. In spite of the high infection prevalence by Nematopsis, infected animals did not have their reproductive cycle impaired.

  1. Morphology of the larval shell of three oyster species of the genus Crassostrea Sacco, 1897 (Bivalvia: Ostreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, S W; Absher, T M; Boehs, G

    2010-08-01

    In this study we describe the morphology of the larval shell of three oyster species of Crassostrea genus. Two species, C. rhizophorae and C. brasiliana, are native to the Brazilian coast, and C. gigas is an introduced species. Samples of laboratory reared larvae, obtained through artificial fertilisation, were collected at intervals during the cultivation process for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Prodissoconch morphology was observed in relation to the presence, position, form and number of teeth in the three larval stages: D-shaped larva, umbo larva and pediveliger. Characteristic of D-shaped larvae of C. rhizophorae was the total absence of teeth in the provinculum area while C. brasiliana and C. gigas had two anterior and two posterior teeth in each valve. In the umbo larval phase, the three species had the same number of teeth in each valve: two posterior and two anterior teeth in the right valve and three posterior and three anterior in the left valve. In the pediveliger stage the three species could be differentiated by the number of anterior teeth of the right valve: C. rhizophorae had two teeth, C. brasiliana one tooth and C. gigas three teeth.

  2. [Abundance and morphometry of tuberculosa Anadara and A. similis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Manglar de Purruja, Dulce Gulf, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Benavides, A M; Bonilla Carrión, R

    2001-12-01

    The density, population, length, yield and sex proportion of the mollusks Anadara tuberculosa and A. similis were studied in Bahía de Golfito, Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica from February 1998 to February 1999. A. tuberculosa was more abundant (0.9 units m(-2)), than A. similis (0.2 units m(-2)); the highest abundance was found at the canal mouths. The average lengths were 43.3 mm for A. tuberculosa and 42.8 mm for A. similis (both under the Costa Rican legal minimal length for exploitation: 47 mm). Maximum lengths were measured in the middle and upstream Canal Mayor, respectively: 43.0 mm and 43.4 mm. The correlation between length and fresh weight was 0.81 (Pearson). The average total weights were 26.2 g for A. tuberculosa and 19.1 g for A. similis. The condition index (a meat yield measurement) was higher in A. similis (21.2%) than in A. tuberculosa (17.2%). The maximum yield for both species lies in the 31-35 mm range. The male ratio was 43.7%. A species recovery plan is urgent because these results suggest both a decrease in density and illegal exploitation.

  3. Differences in sperm ultrastructure between Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Bivalvia, Mytilidae: could be used as a taxonomic trait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A Oyarzún

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sperm ultrastructure has been used to solve several systematic and phylogenetic problems in marine invertebrates. The sperm ultrastructure of the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis corresponds to the ect-aquasperm type. Sperm from both taxa measured 55-60 μm between head (acrosome + nucleus, midpiece (only 5 mitochondria and the flagellum which in its end piece has a smaller diameter tail. The differences between both taxa are clearly shown, in the structure of the acrosome and nucleus. Therefore, according to our results and those reported in the literature, we indicate that Chilean native mussel sperm is different from other species of the Mytilus complex (M. trossulus, M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis. These differences in sperm ultrastructure found in M. chilensis, are another trait that can be used to validate the taxonomic status of the species. Differences in sperm morphology are related with reproductive isolation, and probably will be useful to understand future data on speciation. Finally, we discussed the finding that Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm from Chile have an acrosome notoriously smaller than those reported for specimens from Europe and Africa, though they have a great similarity with specimens from Japan, as reported in the literature.

  4. Phage particles infecting branchial Rickettsiales-like organisms in banded carpet shell Polititapes virgineus (Bivalvia) from Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darriba, S; Ruiz, M; López, C

    2012-09-12

    Basophilic intracellular prokaryotic-like colonies were observed in the gills of banded carpet shell Polititapes virgineus (= Tapes rhomboides) (Linnaeus, 1767) from a natural bed in Galicia (NW Spain). Light microscope observations suggested the presence of 2 types of colonies, but transmission electron microscopy revealed that these were the same Rickettsiales-like colonies, one infected and the other uninfected by phage particles. This is the first report of the presence of phage particles in Rickettsiales-like organisms in the gills of P. virgineus.

  5. Evidence for accumulation of Synechococcus elongatus (Cyanobacteria: Cyanophyceae) in the tissues of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Torres-Ariño, Alejandra; Girón-Cruz, Diego Ademir; Cuevas-Aguirre, Angel

    2014-10-01

    Cyanobacteria appear to have direct relations with mollusks in several aspects. This is the first time, distinguishing Gram-negative cyanoprokaryotic Synechococcus elongatus as bright yellow-gold autofluorescence by Lillie's and Hiss' staining methods on paraffin-embedded tissues of Crassostrea gigas. Three diets: cyanoprokaryotes, cyanoprokaryotes with microalgae, and only microalgae were evaluated. Cyanoprokaryotes were intact, densely bundled, and immersed in the cytosol of the digestive gland, connective tissue, mantle, and gonad of C. gigas, revealing an accumulation systemic without tissue damage observed by histology. Unexpectedly, cyanoprokaryotes were slightly most accumulated with microalgae diet by each of the tissues of the C. gigas than with any other diets. Cyanoprokaryotes tend to be in mean slightly higher in the digestive gland than in any other tissues respectively for each diet, although these values are closely similar to connective tissue. A possible order of exposure of the oyster tissues to accumulation of cyanoprokaryotes was digestive gland, connective tissue, mantle, and gonad. Thereby, the digestive gland could be the major target tissue for the accumulation. Our observations provide a valuable insight regarding the ability of cyanoprokaryotes to penetrate, spread, and remain inside the oyster tissues, suggesting for S. elongatus: (1) a pre-accumulation in oyster tissues from the natural environment, (2) a phagocytosis and/or endocytosis process rather than ingestion and extracellular digestion, (3) an apparent cellular division in the cytosol of oyster tissues, (4) an apparent inter-tissue movement, and (5) a possible endosymbiosis between C. gigas and S. elongatus. Hereby, it is possible that S. elongatus have a well-developed host-endobiont relationship with oysters, and thereby support future work toward a description of the escape and spreading mechanisms of S. elongatus inside the tissues of mollusks, and put forward questions as why it is there? and are the cells active or inactive?

  6. Immunochemical localization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in the symbiont-containing gills of Solemya velum (Bivalvia : Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavanaugh, Colleen M.; Abbott, Marilyn S.; Veenhuis, Marten

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RbuP2Case; EC 4.1.1.39) was examined by using two immunological methods in tissues of Solemya velum, an Atlantic coast bivalve containing putative chemoautotrophic symbionts. Antibodies elicited by the purified large

  7. A new genus and species of Thyasiridae (Mollusca, Bivalvia from deep-water, Beaufort Sea, northern Alaska

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    Paul Valentich-Scott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve mollusk shells were collected in 2350 m depth in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean off northern Alaska. Initial identification suggested the specimens were a member of the bivalve family Thyasiridae, but no known eastern Pacific or Arctic living or fossil thyasirid resembled these deep-water specimens. Comparisons were made with the type of the genera Maorithyas Fleming, 1950, Spinaxinus Oliver & Holmes, 2006, Axinus Sowerby, 1821, and Parathyasira Iredale, 1930. We determined the Beaufort Sea species represents a new genus, herein described as Wallerconcha. These specimens also represent a new species, herein named Wallerconcha sarae. These new taxa are compared with known modern and fossil genera and species of thyasirds.

  8. Differences in absolute and relative growth between two shell forms of Pinna nobilis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) along the Tunisian coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaoui, Lotfi; Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Belgacem, Walid; Hassine, Oum Kalthoum Ben

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the absolute and relative growth patterns of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis along the Tunisian coastline, taking into consideration both the variability among different areas and between the two shell forms "combed" and "straight and wide". Five subpopulations of the species were sampled, one from northern, two from eastern and two from southern Tunisia. Various assumptions on the growth patterns were tested based on an information theory approach and multi-model inference. For absolute growth, the assumption of different growth patterns between the two shell forms of P. nobilis and no difference among subpopulations was the most supported by the data. For the same age, "straight and wide" individuals gained on average greater lengths than the "combed" individuals. The absolute growth of the species was found to be asymptotic and the logistic model was the one most supported by the data. As for the relative growth, apart from the classical allometric model Y = aXb, more complicated models of the form ln Y = f(ln X) that either assumed non-linearities or breakpoints were tested in combination with assumptions for possible differences between the two forms and among subpopulations. Among the eight studied relationships between morphometric characters, the classical allometric model was supported in only two cases, while in all other cases more complicated models were supported. Moreover, the assumption of different growth patterns between the two forms was supported in three cases and the assumption of different growth patterns among subpopulations in four cases. Although precise relationships between the morphometric plasticity of the fan mussel and environmental factors have not been proven in this paper, local small scale constraints might be responsible of the different growth patterns observed in the same locality. A possible co-action of genetic factors should be evaluated in the future.

  9. Mytilus antiquorum J. Sowerby, 1821 and other Pliocene mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Southern North Sea Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoenen, M.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Nieulande, van F.A.D.

    2000-01-01

    Mytilus antiquorum J. Sowerby, 1821, is recorded from the Coralline Crag Formation of East Anglia (UK) and the Lillo Formation (Oorderen, Kruisschans and Merksem members) of the Antwerp area (Belgium). The species is diagnosed on the basis of newly collected material and differentiated from modern E

  10. Occurrence of the invasive species Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae in the Sapucaí River (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marina Peixoto Vianna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are gaining increasing importance due to the ecological damage and economic impacts caused by the invaders. Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 is an invasive exotic bivalve introduced into Brazil in the 1970’s, and it has colonized the major rivers of the south and southeast. This species, owing to its adaptations to the environment, speed of colonization and reproductive success among others parameters, quickly occupies the substrates preferred by the natives. The present study registers its occurrence in Sapucaí River, São Paulo State. Samples were taken at two different sites of the river with different substrates, one sandy and another muddy. Granulometric analysis and determination of the organic matter content of the sediment were then conducted. The individuals captured in sandy sediment showed higher densities, higher average size, and therefore higher average biomass.

  11. MARMARONIA ANGIOLINII, NEW GENUS AND NEW SPECIES OF BAKEVELLIIDAE (PTERIOIDA, BIVALVIA FROM THE MIDDLE PERMIAN OF CHIOS (GREECE

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    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalupian (Middle Permian "Gymnocodiacean Limestones" cropping out in the north-eastern part of the Greek island of Chios (eastern Aegean Sea are amongst the most fossiliferous in the western Tethys. They contain rich assemblages of corals, brachiopods, molluscs, calcareous algae, foraminifers and ostracods. Scant attention was given till now to mollusc faunas compared with brachiopods and foraminifers. In the present paper the new genus Marmaronia, with type-species M. angiolinii n. sp., is established to distinguish some bivalves of the Bakevelliidae King, 1850, from the middle Guadalupian successions of the Marmaro locality in Chios Island. M. angiolinii n. gen. n. sp. is strongly inequivalve, with valves differing in convexity, umbo development and ornamentation. The left valve shows a radial furrow running from the anterior part of the umbonal region anteroventrally and is ornamented by strong radial costae; the right valve is ornamented by concentric sculpture and by thin rugae in the first growth stages of the posterior part of the shell. Both valves have a wide posterior wing. Two hypotheses concerning the epi- or endobyssate adaptation of Marmaronia are also discussed briefly in the present paper.   

  12. [Seasonal variation in proximate composition of mussels Tagelus peruvianus (Bivalvia: Solecurtidae) from the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Rodríguez, Cristian; Marín-Vindas, Carolina; Chavarría-Solera, Fabián; Agüero Pedro, Toledo

    2011-12-01

    Marine bivalves are a very important food source for human consumption, and species that has not been of traditional use as a fishery resource are gaining interest. Seasonal variation in proximate composition, condition index and energy or caloric content of the mussel Tagelus peruvianus were studied in the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. From November 2007 to October 2008, a total of 35 to 40 specimens per month were collected. The proximate composition using the AOAC methods was determined. Results showed that the condition index during December, January and May decreased, indicative of two spawning periods and one gonadal resting phase. Soft tissues were respectively characterized by protein (61.9 +/- 4.3%), carbohydrates (15.7 +/- 2.4%), ash (14.0 +/- 1.9%) and lipids (8.5 +/- 1.7%). The average caloric content was 5.0 +/- 0.1 kcal/g. The results showed that the decrease in protein and fat percentage, and calories content, occurred during the spawning seasons. We suggest that T. peruvianus has an optimal nutritional value for human consumption because of the low-fat and moderate protein content.

  13. Frequency, Magnitude, and Possible Causes of Stranding and Mass-Mortality Events of the Beach Clam Tivela mactroides (Bivalvia: Veneridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, Alexander; Pombo, Maíra; Petracco, Marcelo; Siegle, Eduardo; Fonseca, Mariana; Denadai, Márcia R.

    2016-01-01

    Stranding combined with mass-mortality events of sandy-beach organisms is a frequent but little-understood phenomenon, which is generally studied based on discrete episodes. The frequency, magnitude, and possible causes of stranding and mass-mortality events of the trigonal clam Tivela mactroides were assessed based on censuses of stranded individuals, every four days from September 2007 through December 2008, in Caraguatatuba Bay, southeastern Brazil. Stranded clams were classified as dying (closed valves did not open when forced) or dead (closed valves were easily opened). Information on wave parameters and the living intertidal clam population was used to assess possible causes of stranding. This fine-scale monitoring showed that stranding occurred widely along the shore and year-round, with peaks interspersed with periods of low or no mortality. Dead clams showed higher mean density than dying individuals, but a lower mean shell length, attributed to a higher tolerance to desiccation of larger individuals. Wave height had a significant negative relationship to the density of dying individuals, presumed to be due to the accretive nature of low-energy waves: when digging out, clams would be more prone to be carried upward and unable to return; while larger waves, breaking farther from the beach and with a stronger backwash, would prevent stranding in the uppermost areas. This ecological finding highlights the need for refined temporal studies on mortality events, in order to understand them more clearly. Last, the similar size structure of stranded clams and the living population indicated that the stranded individuals are from the intertidal or shallow subtidal zone, and reinforces the ecological and behavioral components of this process, which have important ecological and socioeconomic implications for the management of this population. PMID:26745804

  14. Integrative study of a new cold-seep mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) associated with chemosynthetic symbionts in the Marmara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritt, Bénédicte; Duperron, Sébastien; Lorion, Julien; Sara Lazar, Cassandre; Sarrazin, Jozée

    2012-09-01

    Recently, small Idas-like mussels have been discovered living on carbonate crusts associated with cold-seeps in the Marmara Sea. These mussels, here referred to as Idas-like nov. sp., differ morphologically and genetically from another species identified as Idas aff. modiolaeformis, living in the same type of ecosystem in the Nile Deep-Sea Fan (eastern Mediterranean Sea). A phylogenetic analysis confirms the distinction between the two species, which belong to highly divergent lineages. Carbon stable isotope values, as well as the detection of thiotroph-related bacteria in the gill tissue, support the presence of a symbiotic, thiotroph-derived nutrition. In contrast, Idas aff. modiolaeformis displays six different types of symbionts. Finally our size-frequency data suggest that the recruitment is continuous in the examined area. The present study extends the documented distribution of symbiont-bearing mussels to the Marmara Sea, and contributes to the characterisation of biological communities in this recently explored area.

  15. Effect of zinc and benzene on respiration and excretion of mussel larvae (Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca; Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADLVC. Jorge

    Full Text Available The presence of pollutants in the ocean may affect different physiological parameters of animals. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were evaluated in D-shaped larvae of mussels (Perna perna exposed to zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 and benzene (C6H6. When compared to the control group, both pollutants presented a significant reduction in oxygen consumption. A reduction in the ammonia excretion was also observed, both for ZnSO4 and C6H6 and also in the oxygen consumption. The results indicate that anaerobic metabolism may occur at the beginning of P. perna mussels development, as observed in veliger larvae. The O:N ratio under experimental conditions showed low values indicating that catabolism in veliger larvae was predominantly proteic.

  16. Bivalvia (Mollusca) of Nansha Islands, China%中国南沙群岛的双壳纲贝类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡英亚; 刘桂茂

    2004-01-01

    报道了中国南沙群岛的双壳纲贝类141种,分隶于5亚纲8目36科77属.从种类的组成中,帘蛤科有18种,蚶科15种,扇贝科11种,鸟蛤科10种,锉蛤科8种,贻贝科、海菊蛤科和樱蛤科各7种,砗磲科6种,其他各科的种类均在5种以内.按种的性质而论,大多数属于和珊瑚礁有密切联系的热带种或亚热带种,区系性质为印度-西太平洋区的印尼-马来亚区.

  17. Deep-water Thyasiridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the Oman Margin, Arabian Sea, new species and examples of endemism and cosmopolitanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, P Graham

    2015-08-05

    Seven species of Thyasiridae are reported from the Oman Margin of the Arabian Sea at depths between 688 m and 3356 m. Hypoxic conditions exist at depths between 400 and 1200 m and three species are restricted to this zone and to the Arabian Sea. Leptaxinus indusarium has also been recorded from the Indus Fan and Channelaxinus investigatoris from off Sri Lanka. A new species Thyasira anassa sp. nov. is described from the hypoxic zone. Another four species are recorded from the abyssal zone where oxygen levels are typical for the deep ocean. Here another new species is described, Parathyasira bamberi sp. nov. but the other species could not be conclusively identified because of close affinity with populations from other oceans.  Deep water Atlantic species Axinulus croulinensis and Mendicula ferruginosa are apparently present in the abyssal Indian Ocean while another thyasirid shell is very close to Channelaxinus excavatus from the Eastern Pacific and C. perplicata from the Atlantic. Accompanying these abyssal thyasirids were other bivalve species, Deminucula atacellana, Limopsis pelagica and Bentharca asperula that cannot be distinguished by morphology from their Atlantic populations. It is concluded that using morphology alone that the abyssal species may well be cosmopolitan in distribution.

  18. A new species of Pulvinites (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the upper Paleocene Paspotansa Member of the Aquia Formation in Virginia ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L.W.; Waller, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Pulvinites lawrencei n.sp. is described from the upper Paleocene (Landenian Stage) Paspotansa Member of the Aquia Formation in Stafford County, Virginia. This is the first report of a member of the pteriacean family Pulvinitidae in the Tertiary on either side of the Atlantic, the only other post-Mesozoic records of Pulvinites being in the Paleocene of California and the present-day Pacific off southeast Australia. The stratigraphic setting and co-occurring molluscan assemblage of the new species indicate shallow-shelf, open-marine conditions with near normal salinities. -Authors

  19. Cytogenetic characterisation of the razor shells Ensis directus (Conrad, 1843) and E. minor (Chenu, 1843) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tizón, Ana M.; Rojo, Verónica; Vierna, Joaquín; Jensen, K. Thomas; Egea, Emilie; Martínez-Lage, Andrés

    2013-03-01

    The European razor shell Ensis minor (Chenu 1843) and the American E. directus (Conrad 1843) have a diploid chromosome number of 38 and remarkable differences in their karyotypes: E. minor has four metacentric, one metacentric-submetacentric, five submetacentric, one subtelocentric and eight telocentric chromosome pairs, whereas E. directus has three metacentric, two metacentric-submetacentric, six submetacentric, six subtelocentric and two telocentric pairs. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using a major ribosomal DNA probe located the major ribosomal genes on one submetacentric chromosome pair in both species; FISH with a 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) probe rendered one chromosomal (weak) signal for E. minor and no signal for E. directus, supporting a more dispersed organisation of 5S rDNA compared to the major ribosomal genes. The vertebrate telomeric sequence (TTAGGG) n was located on both ends of each chromosome, and no interstitial signals were detected. In this work, a comparative karyological analysis was also performed between the four Ensis species analysed revealing that the three European species studied so far, namely E. minor, E. siliqua (Linné 1758) and E. magnus Schumacher 1817 show more similarities among them than compared to the American species E. directus. In addition, clear karyotype differences were found between the morphologically similar species E. minor and E. siliqua.

  20. Numerical Quantification of Perkinsus Marinus in the American Oyster Crassostrea virginicata (Gmelin 1791) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) by Modern Stereology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Perkinsus are responsible for high mortalities of bivalve molluscs world-wide. Techniques to accurately estimate parasites in tissues are required to improve understanding of perkinsosis. This study quantifies the number and tissue distribution of Perkinsus marinus in ...