WorldWideScience

Sample records for atp7b copper-regulated traffic

  1. Wilson Disease Protein ATP7B Utilizes Lysosomal Exocytosis to Maintain Copper Homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polishchuk, Elena V.; Concilli, Mafalda; Iacobacci, Simona; Chesi, Giancarlo; Pastore, Nunzia; Piccolo, Pasquale; Paladino, Simona; Baldantoni, Daniela; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J.; Amoresano, Angela; Pane, Francesca; Pucci, Piero; Tarallo, Antonietta; Parenti, Giancarlo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea; Polishchuk, Roman S.

    2014-01-01

    Copper is an essential yet toxic metal and its overload causes Wilson disease, a disorder due to mutations in copper transporter ATP7B. To remove excess copper into the bile, ATP7B traffics toward canalicular area of hepatocytes. However, the trafficking mechanisms of ATP7B remain elusive. Here, we

  2. Wilson disease protein ATP7B utilizes lysosomal exocytosis to maintain copper homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Elena V; Concilli, Mafalda; Iacobacci, Simona; Chesi, Giancarlo; Pastore, Nunzia; Piccolo, Pasquale; Paladino, Simona; Baldantoni, Daniela; van IJzendoorn, Sven C D; Chan, Jefferson; Chang, Christopher J; Amoresano, Angela; Pane, Francesca; Pucci, Piero; Tarallo, Antonietta; Parenti, Giancarlo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea; Polishchuk, Roman S

    2014-06-23

    Copper is an essential yet toxic metal and its overload causes Wilson disease, a disorder due to mutations in copper transporter ATP7B. To remove excess copper into the bile, ATP7B traffics toward canalicular area of hepatocytes. However, the trafficking mechanisms of ATP7B remain elusive. Here, we show that, in response to elevated copper, ATP7B moves from the Golgi to lysosomes and imports metal into their lumen. ATP7B enables lysosomes to undergo exocytosis through the interaction with p62 subunit of dynactin that allows lysosome translocation toward the canalicular pole of hepatocytes. Activation of lysosomal exocytosis stimulates copper clearance from the hepatocytes and rescues the most frequent Wilson-disease-causing ATP7B mutant to the appropriate functional site. Our findings indicate that lysosomes serve as an important intermediate in ATP7B trafficking, whereas lysosomal exocytosis operates as an integral process in copper excretion and hence can be targeted for therapeutic approaches to combat Wilson disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ATP7B variants as modulators of copper dyshomeostasis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squitti, Rosanna; Polimanti, Renato; Siotto, Mariacristina; Bucossi, Serena; Ventriglia, Mariacarla; Mariani, Stefania; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Scrascia, Federica; Trotta, Laura; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2013-09-01

    To understand the role of the key copper-regulating gene, ATP7B, in copper dyshomeostasis associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we analyzed the serum levels of copper, ceruloplasmin and 'free' (i.e., non-ceruloplasmin bound) copper in 399 patients with AD and 303 elderly healthy controls. We also performed analyses of informative variants of ATP7B. AD patients had higher levels of copper and free copper than controls. Individuals with free copper levels higher than 1.6 μmol/L (the upper value of the normal reference range) were more frequent among cases (p copper levels, specifically in the AD group (p copper dysfunction' phenotype of sporadic AD which has a genetic basis. They also suggest that free copper is a risk factor for this disorder, modulating additional pathways leading to the disease cascade.

  4. Expression of ATP7B in normal human liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Fanni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ATP7B is a copper transporting P-type ATPase, also known as Wilson disease protein, which plays a key role in copper distribution inside cells. Recent experimental data in cell culture have shown that ATP7B putatively serves a dual function in hepatocytes: when localized to the Golgi apparatus, it has a biosynthetic role, delivering copper atoms to apoceruloplasmin; when the hepatocytes are under copper stress, ATP7B translocates to the biliary pole to transport excess copper out of the cell and into the bile canaliculus for subsequent excretion from the body via the bile. The above data on ATP7B localization have been mainly obtained in tumor cell systems in vitro. The aim of the present work was to assess the presence and localization of the Wilson disease protein in the human liver. We tested immunoreactivity for ATP7B in 10 human liver biopsies, in which no significant pathological lesion was found using a polyclonal antiserum specific for ATP7B. In the normal liver, immunoreactivity for ATP7B was observed in hepatocytes and in biliary cells. In the hepatocytes, immunoreactivity for ATP7B was observed close to the plasma membrane, both at the sinusoidal and at the biliary pole. In the biliary cells, ATP7B was localized close to the cell membrane, mainly concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. The data suggest that, in human liver, ATP7B is localized to the plasma membrane of both hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells.

  5. Prevalence of ATP7B Gene Mutations in Iranian Patients With Wilson Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Narges; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Esteghamat, Sahar; Chiani, Mohsen; Haghighi, Mahdi Montazer; Hosseini-Asl, Seyed Mohammad-Kazem; Derakhshan, Faramarz; Mohammad-Alizadeh, Amir-Houshang; Malek-Hosseini, Seyed-Ali; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Background Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder. The WD gene, ATP7B, encodes a copper-transporting ATPase involved in the transport of copper into the plasma protein ceruloplasmin and in excretion of copper from the liver. ATP7B mutations cause copper to accumulate in the liver and brain. Objectives We examined the ATP7B mutation spectrum in Wilson disease patients in Iran. Patients and Methods Genomic DNA was extracted from patients with Wilson disease. The entire coding re...

  6. Atp7b-/- mice as a model for studies of Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2008-12-01

    Wilson's disease is a severe human disorder of copper homoeostasis. The disease is associated with various mutations in the ATP7B gene that encodes a copper-transporting ATPase, and a massive accumulation of copper in the liver and several other tissues. The most frequent disease manifestations include a wide spectrum of liver pathologies as well as neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. A combination of copper chelators and zinc therapy has been used to prevent disease progression; however, accurate and timely diagnosis of the disease remains challenging. Similarly, side effects of treatments are common. To understand better the biochemical and cellular basis of Wilson's disease, several animal models have been developed. This review focuses on genetically engineered Atp7b(-/-) mice and describes the properties of these knockout animals, insights into the disease progression generated using Atp7b(-/-) mice, as well as advantages and limitations of Atp7b(-/-) mice as an experimental model for Wilson's disease.

  7. Metal-dependent regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in fibroblast cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenartowicz, Malgorzata; Moos, Torben; Ogórek, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD) or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD), respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured...... the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper, and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and 10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency...... for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6-8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A...

  8. Identification of two novel mutations in the ATP7B gene that cause Wilson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Wen Zhu; Yu-Min Li; Zhong-Bin Tao; Gang Su; Qiao-Ying Jin; Liang-Tao Zhao; Jia-Rui Zhu; Jun Yan; Tian-Yu Yu; Jie-Xian Ding

    2017-01-01

    Background:Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by liver disease and/or neurologic deficits due to copper accumulation and is caused by pathogenic mutations in the ATP7B gene.Methods:Two unrelated Chinese patients born to nonconsanguineous parents who were diagnosed with earlyonset Wiison's disease.DNA sequencing and bioinformation analysis were conducted.Results:We have identified four mutations in two family trios,of which two were novel,namely,c.3028A>G(p.K1010E) and c3992T>G (p.Y1331X),in each patient.Conclusions:Gene testing is playing an important role in diagnosis of Wilson's disease.The early-onset of Wilson's disease is apparently not associated with P-ATPase domain in the ATP7B protein.Our findings further widen the spectrum of mutations involving the ATP7B gene.

  9. Interaction between airborne copper exposure and ATP7B polymorphisms on inattentiveness in scholar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, S; Vilor-Tejedor, N; Bustamante, M; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M; Rivas, I; Forns, J; Querol, X; Pujol, J; Sunyer, J

    2017-01-01

    Recent research indicates that airborne copper exposure in scholar children negatively affects brain functioning. These effects are likely to be influenced by the efficiency of copper metabolism, which is partly regulated by the ATPase copper transporting beta (ATP7B) gene. We investigated whether indoor and outdoor airborne copper exposure is differentially associated with child inattentiveness depending on genetic variation within the ATP7B gene in 1645 scholar children from the BREATHE project. Outdoor (courtyard) and indoor (classroom) air pollution levels were measured during class hours in each school. Inattentiveness was assessed through a follow-up with four measurements via the Attentional Network Test (4475 observations). Linear mixed models considering repeated measures were conducted to assess genetic and exposure main and interaction effects. Two interactions were detected indicating that ATP7B-rs1061472 (P for interaction 0.016) and ATP7B-rs1801243 (P for interaction 0.003) polymorphisms modified the association between indoor copper exposure and inattentiveness. Stratified analysis by genotypes revealed that both outdoor and indoor copper exposure increased inattentiveness in rs1061472-CC and rs1801243-CC carriers. These findings suggest that the genetic background promotes the association between airborne copper exposure at school with inattentiveness in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Copper-induced apical trafficking of ATP7B in polarized hepatoma cells provides a mechanism for biliary copper excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H; Wolters, H; Van Luyn, MJA; Miura, N; Kuipers, F; Vonk, RJ

    Background & Aims: Mutations in the ATP7B gene, encoding a copper-transporting P-type adenosine triphosphatase, lead to excessive hepatic copper accumulation because of impaired biliary copper excretion in Wilson's disease. In human liver, ATP7B is predominantly localized to the trans-Golgi network,

  11. Metal-dependent regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in fibroblast cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenartowicz Malgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD, respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency obtained by treatment with the copper chelator led to a downregulation of ATP7A in the control fibroblasts, but surprisingly not in the WD fibroblasts. In contrast, the addition of copper led to an increased expression of ATP7A, but a decreased expression of ATP7B. Thus, whereas similar regulation patterns for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6-8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at high copper concentrations, whereas more surprisingly, cells that express the mutant ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at low copper concentrations. Thus, although the transcription of ATP7A is regulated by copper, clonal growth selection in mosaic cell cultures is affected by the level of copper. Female carriers of MD are rarely affected probably due to a skewed inactivation of the X-chromosome bearing the ATP7A mutation.

  12. Cellular copper levels determine the phenotype of the Arg875 variant of ATP7B/Wilson disease protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arnab; Bhattacharjee, Ashima; Dmitriev, Oleg Y.; Nokhrin, Sergiy; Braiterman, Lelita; Hubbard, Ann L.; Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    In human disorders, the genotype-phenotype relationships are often complex and influenced by genetic and/or environmental factors. Wilson disease (WD) is a monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the copper-transporting P-type ATPase ATP7B. WD shows significant phenotypic diversity even in patients carrying identical mutations; the basis for such diverse manifestations is unknown. We demonstrate that the 2623A/G polymorphism (producing the Gly875→Arg substitution in the A-domain of ATP7B) drastically alters the intracellular properties of ATP7B, whereas copper reverses the effects. Under basal conditions, the common Gly875 variant of ATP7B is targeted to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and transports copper into the TGN lumen. In contrast, the Arg875 variant is located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and does not deliver copper to the TGN. Elevated copper corrects the ATP7B-Arg875 phenotype. Addition of only 0.5–5 μM copper triggers the exit of ATP7B-Arg875 from the ER and restores copper delivery to the TGN. Analysis of the recombinant A-domains by NMR suggests that the ER retention of ATP7B-Arg875 is attributable to increased unfolding of the Arg875-containing A-domain. Copper is not required for the folding of ATP7B-Arg875 during biosynthesis, but it stabilizes protein and stimulates its activity. A chemotherapeutical drug, cisplatin, that mimics a copper-bound state of ATP7B also corrects the “disease-like” phenotype of ATP7B-Arg875 and promotes its TGN targeting and transport function. We conclude that in populations harboring the Arg875 polymorphism, the levels of bioavailable copper may play a vital role in the manifestations of WD. PMID:21406592

  13. The metal chaperone Atox1 regulates the activity of the human copper transporter ATP7B by modulating domain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Corey H; Yang, Nan; Bothe, Jameson; Tonelli, Marco; Nokhrin, Sergiy; Dolgova, Natalia V; Braiterman, Lelita; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Dmitriev, Oleg Y

    2017-11-03

    The human transporter ATP7B delivers copper to the biosynthetic pathways and maintains copper homeostasis in the liver. Mutations in ATP7B cause the potentially fatal hepatoneurological disorder Wilson disease. The activity and intracellular localization of ATP7B are regulated by copper, but the molecular mechanism of this regulation is largely unknown. We show that the copper chaperone Atox1, which delivers copper to ATP7B, and the group of the first three metal-binding domains (MBD1-3) are central to the activity regulation of ATP7B. Atox1-Cu binding to ATP7B changes domain dynamics and interactions within the MBD1-3 group and activates ATP hydrolysis. To understand the mechanism linking Atox1-MBD interactions and enzyme activity, we have determined the MBD1-3 conformational space using small angle X-ray scattering and identified changes in MBD dynamics caused by apo-Atox1 and Atox1-Cu by solution NMR. The results show that copper transfer from Atox1 decreases domain interactions within the MBD1-3 group and increases the mobility of the individual domains. The N-terminal segment of MBD1-3 was found to interact with the nucleotide-binding domain of ATP7B, thus physically coupling the domains involved in copper binding and those involved in ATP hydrolysis. Taken together, the data suggest a regulatory mechanism in which Atox1-mediated copper transfer activates ATP7B by releasing inhibitory constraints through increased freedom of MBD1-3 motions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Dynamics of the metal binding domains and regulation of the human copper transporters ATP7B and ATP7A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Corey H; Dolgova, Natalia V; Dmitriev, Oleg Y

    2017-04-01

    Copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B regulate copper levels in the human cells and deliver copper to the biosynthetic pathways. ATP7A and ATP7B belong to the P-type ATPases and share much of the domain architecture and the mechanism of ATP hydrolysis with the other, well-studied, enzymes of this type. A unique structural feature of the copper ATPases is the chain of six cytosolic metal-binding domains (MBDs), which are believed to be involved in copper-dependent regulation of the activity and intracellular localization of these enzymes. Although the structures of all the MBDs have been solved, the mechanism of copper-dependent regulation of ATP7B and ATP7A, the roles of individual MBDs, and the relationship between the regulatory and catalytic copper binding are still unknown. We describe the structure and dynamics of the MBDs, review the current knowledge about their functional roles and propose a mechanism of regulation of ATP7B by copper-dependent changes in the dynamics and conformation of the MBD chain. Transient interactions between the MBDs, rather than transitions between distinct static conformations are likely to form the structural basis of regulation of the ATP-dependent copper transporters in human cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 69(4):226-235, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Novel mutations of the ATP7B gene in Han Chinese families with pre-symptomatic Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhe-Feng; Wu, Wei; Yu, Yong-Lin; Shen, Jue; Mao, Shan-Shan; Gao, Feng; Xia, Zhe-Zhi

    2015-08-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder of copper metabolism, caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene, resulting in copper accumulation in the liver, brain, kidney, and cornea and leading to significant disability or death if untreated. Early diagnosis and proper therapy usually predict a good prognosis, especially in pre-symptomatic WD. Genetic testing is the most accurate and effective diagnostic method for early diagnosis. The clinical and biochemical features of three unrelated Han Chinese families with pre-symptomatic WD were reported. The molecular defects in these families were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Hundred healthy children with the same ethnic background served as controls. Bioinformatic tools (polymorphism phenotyping-2, sorting intolerant from tolerant, protein analysis through evolutionary relationships, and predictor of human deleterious single nucleotide polymorphisms) were combined and used to predict the functional effects of mutations. We identified 2 novel ATP7B mutations (p.Leu692Pro and p.Asn728Ser) and 3 known mutations (p.Met769fs, p.Arg778Leu and p.Val1216Met) in these Chinese WD families. These mutations were not observed in the 100 normal controls. The bioinformatic method showed that p.Leu692Pro and p.Asn728Ser mutations are pathogenic. Our research enriches the mutation spectrum of the ATP7B gene worldwide and provides valuable information for studying the mutation types and mode of inheritance of ATP7B in the Chinese population. Liver function analysis and genetic testing in young children with WD are necessary to shorten the time to the initiation of therapy, reduce damage to the liver and brain, and improve prognosis.

  16. Mutation analysis of ATP7B gene in Turkish Wilson disease patients: identification of five novel mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek Papur, Ozlenen; Akman, Sezin Asik; Cakmur, Raif; Terzioglu, Orhan

    2013-04-01

    Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene that encodes a P-type copper transporting ATPase. The aim of this study was to screen and detect mutations of the ATP7B gene in unrelated Turkish Wilson disease patients (n = 46) and control group (n = 52). Mutations were screened and detected by DNA sequencing. 30 out of 46 patients had mutations. 24 different Wilson disease related mutations were identified in those patients. The distribution of mutations in ATP7B gene was as follow: 17 missense, 3 nonsense, 1 silent, 3 frameshift (1 insertion, 2 deletion). None of them were not found in the control group. Five out of 24 mutations were found to be novel. Four of them were missense (c.2363C > T, c.3106G > A, c.3451C > T, c.3733C > A). The last one was deletion (c.3111delC). 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) given in the literature were found in both control and patients groups. Moreover one new polymorphism in exon 18 (c.3727G > A) not reported previously was discovered in both groups. It was striking that most of the mutations were found in exons 8, 12-14. This is the first study covering Turkish Wilson disease patients and control groups for mutation screening in all the coding regions of ATP7B gene by DNA sequencing method and adding five new mutations and one polymorphism into the HUGO Wilson disease mutation database. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Wilson's disease in Southern Brazil: genotype-phenotype correlation and description of two novel mutations in ATP7B gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schmitt de Bem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Wilson's disease (WD is an inborn error of metabolism caused by abnormalities of the copper-transporting protein encoding gene ATP7B. In this study, we examined ATP7B for mutations in a group of patients living in southern Brazil. METHODS: 36 WD subjects were studied and classified according to their clinical and epidemiological data. In 23 subjects the ATP7B gene was analyzed. RESULTS: Fourteen distinct mutations were detected in at least one of the alleles. The c.3207C>A substitution at exon 14 was the most common mutation (allelic frequency=37.1% followed by the c.3402delC at exon 15 (allelic frequency=11.4%. The mutations c.2018-2030del13 at exon 7 and c.4093InsT at exon 20 are being reported for the first time. CONCLUSION: The c.3207C>A substitution at exon 14, was the most common mutation, with an allelic frequency of 37.1%. This mutation is the most common mutation described in Europe.

  18. Differential expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ip Virginia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 are metal transporting proteins that control the cellular disposition of copper and platinum drugs, but their expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue and their role in platinum-induced neurotoxicity are unknown. To investigate the DRG expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1, lumbar DRG and reference tissues were collected for real time quantitative PCR, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis from healthy control adult rats or from animals treated with intraperitoneal oxaliplatin (1.85 mg/kg or drug vehicle twice weekly for 8 weeks. Results In DRG tissue from healthy control animals, ATP7A mRNA was clearly detectable at levels similar to those found in the brain and spinal cord, and intense ATP7A immunoreactivity was localised to the cytoplasm of cell bodies of smaller DRG neurons without staining of satellite cells, nerve fibres or co-localisation with phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (pNF-H. High levels of CTR1 mRNA were detected in all tissues from healthy control animals, and strong CTR1 immunoreactivity was associated with plasma membranes and vesicular cytoplasmic structures of the cell bodies of larger-sized DRG neurons without co-localization with ATP7A. DRG neurons with strong expression of ATP7A or CTR1 had distinct cell body size profiles with minimal overlap between them. Oxaliplatin treatment did not alter the size profile of strongly ATP7A-immunoreactive neurons but significantly reduced the size profile of strongly CTR1-immunoreactive neurons. ATP7B mRNA was barely detectable, and no specific immunoreactivity for ATP7B was found, in DRG tissue from healthy control animals. Conclusions In conclusion, adult rat DRG tissue exhibits a specific pattern of expression of copper transporters with distinct subsets of peripheral sensory neurons intensely expressing either ATP7A or CTR1, but not both or ATP7B. The neuron subtype-specific and largely non

  19. A novel ATP7B gene mutation in a liver failure patient with normal ceruloplasmin and low serum alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Li, Xinhua; Zheng, Zhiyong; Lu, Xujiang; Lin, Minghua; Pan, Chen; Liu, Jingfeng

    2014-03-15

    Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare disorder of copper metabolism resulting in accumulation of copper in liver and other organs. We present a liver failure patient, who was misdiagnosed for two years, with normal ceruloplasmin and low serum alkaline phosphatase. Molecular testing revealed a novel p.Ala982Thr mutation within ATP7B gene. The pathology of liver sample showed a large amount of copper deposition in the hepatocytes and confirmed the diagnosis of WD. Our data highlighted the importance of molecular testing in the early diagnosis of atypical WD. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural and metabolic changes in Atp7b-/- mouse liver and potential for new interventions in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is caused by ATP7B mutations and results in copper accumulation and toxicity in liver and brain tissues. The specific mechanisms underlying copper toxicity are still poorly understood. Mouse models have revealed new insights into pathomechanisms of hepatic WD. Mitochondrial damage is observed in livers of WD patients and in mouse models; copper induces fragmentation of mitochondrial membrane lipids, particularly cardiolipin, with deleterious effects on both mitochondrial integrity and function. Copper accumulation also induces chronic inflammation in WD livers, which is followed by regeneration in parts of the liver and occasionally neoplastic proliferation. Gene expression studies using microarrays have aided our understanding of the molecular basis of these changes. Copper overload alters cholesterol biosynthesis in hepatocytes resulting in reduced liver and serum cholesterol. Experiments are currently underway to elucidate the link between copper and cholesterol metabolism. These findings may facilitate the development of specific therapies to ameliorate WD progression. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Role of the P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B in brain copper homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eTelianidis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of copper homeostasis and the pathological consequences of copper dysregulation. Cumulative evidence is revealing a complex regulatory network of proteins and pathways that maintain copper homeostasis. The recognition of copper dysregulation as a key pathological feature in prominent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and prion diseases has led to increased research focus on the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in the brain. The copper-transporting P-Type ATPases (copper-ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are critical components of the copper regulatory network. Our understanding of the biochemistry and cell biology of these complex proteins has grown significantly since their discovery in 1993. They are large polytopic transmembrane proteins with six copper-binding motifs within the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, eight transmembrane domains and highly conserved catalytic domains. These proteins catalyze ATP-dependent copper transport across cell membranes for the metallation of many essential cuproenzymes, as well as for the removal of excess cellular copper to prevent copper toxicity. A key functional aspect of these copper transporters is their copper-responsive trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell periphery. ATP7A- and ATP7B-deficiency, due to genetic mutation, underlie the inherited copper transport disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Their importance in maintaining brain copper homeostasis is underscored by the severe neuropathological deficits in these disorders. Herein we will review and update our current knowledge of these copper transporters in the brain and the central nervous system, their distribution and regulation, their role in normal brain copper homeostasis and how their absence or dysfunction contributes to disturbances in copper homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

  2. Salinity-dependent copper accumulation in the guppy Poecilia vivipara is associated with CTR1 and ATP7B transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Evelise Sampaio; Abril, Sandra Isabel Moreno; Zanette, Juliano; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-07-01

    Copper (Cu) accumulation and regulation of key-genes involved in Cu homeostasis were evaluated in freshwater- and saltwater-acclimated guppies Poecilia vivipara. Fish were exposed (96h) to environmentally relevant concentrations of dissolved Cu (0, 5.0, 9.0 and 20.0μg/L). In freshwater guppies, gill and liver Cu accumulation was dependent on Cu concentration in the exposure medium. In saltwater guppies, this dependence was observed only in the gut. These findings indicate that Cu accumulation was salinity- and tissue-dependent. Key genes involved in Cu metabolism were sequenced for the first time in P. vivipara. Transcripts coding for the high-affinity copper transporter (CTR1) and copper-transporting ATPase (ATP7B) were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. The full-length CTR1 open reading frame (1560bp) and a partial ATP7B (690bp) were discovered. Predicted amino acid sequences shared high identities with the CTR1 of Fundulus heteroclitus (81%) and the ATP7B of Sparus aurata (87%). Basal transcriptional levels addressed by RT-qPCR in control fish indicate that CTR1 and ATP7B was highly transcribed in liver of freshwater guppies while CTR1 was highly transcribed in gut of saltwater guppies. This could explain the higher Cu accumulation observed in liver of freshwater guppies and in gut of saltwater guppies, because CTR1 is involved in Cu uptake. Reduced gill mRNA expression of CTR1 was observed in freshwater guppies exposed to 20.0μg/L Cu and in saltwater guppies exposed to 5.0μg/L Cu. In turn, reduced mRNA expression of gut ATP7B was observed in freshwater and salt water guppies exposed to 9.0 and 20.0μg/L Cu. Liver CTR1 and ATP7B transcription were not affected by Cu exposure. These findings suggest that gill CTR1 and gut ATP7B are down-regulated to limit Cu absorption after exposure to dissolved Cu, while liver CTR1 and ATP7B levels are maintained to allow Cu storage and detoxification. In conclusion, findings reported here

  3. Early gestational gene transfer with targeted ATP7B expression in the liver improves phenotype in a murine model of Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, J L; Endo, M; Radu, A; Gray, L; Todorow, C A; Zoltick, P W; Lutsenko, S; Flake, A W

    2012-11-01

    The ideal gene therapy for metabolical liver disorders would target hepatocytes before the onset of disease and be durable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic. Early gestational gene transfer can achieve such goals. Here, we demonstrate that prenatal gene transfer of human Atp7b reduces liver pathology and improves biochemical markers in Atp7b(-/-) mice, a murine model of Wilson's disease (WD). Following prenatal injection of lentivirus vector containing the human Atp7b gene under the transcriptional control of a liver-specific promoter, the full-length ATP7B was detectable in mouse livers for the entire duration of experiments (20 weeks after birth). In contrast to a marked pathology in non-injected animals, livers from age-matched treated mice consistently demonstrated normal gross and histological morphology. Hepatic copper content was decreased in the majority of treated mice, although remaining copper levels varied. Improvement of hepatic copper metabolism was further apparent from the presence of copper-bound ceruloplasmin in the sera and normalization of the mRNA levels for HMG CoA-reductase. With this approach, the complete loss of copper transport function can be ameliorated, as evident from phenotypical improvement in treated Atp7b(-/-) mice. This study provides proof of principle for in utero gene therapy in WD and other liver-based enzyme deficiencies.

  4. Truncating mutations in the Wilson disease gene ATP7B are associated with very low serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity and an early onset of Wilson disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuma Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the gene ATP7B cause Wilson disease, a copper storage disorder with a high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. We aimed to evaluate whether 'severe' protein-truncating ATP7B mutations (SMs are associated with low serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activities and an early age of onset when compared to missense mutations (MMs. Methods The clinical phenotype of 59 genetically confirmed WD patients was analyzed retrospectively. Serum ceruloplasmin was measured by its oxidase activity with o-dianisidine dihydrochloride as substrate and immunologically. Results Thirty-nine patients had two MMs, 15 had the genotype SM/MM, and 5 patients had two SMs on their ATP7B alleles. Enzymatic and immunologic serum ceruloplasmin levels differed significantly between the three groups (P Conclusions In our German study cohort truncating ATP7B mutations were associated with lower ceruloplasmin serum oxidase levels and an earlier age of onset when compared to MMs. Measurement of serum ceruloplasmin oxidase might help to predict presence of truncating ATP7B mutations and might facilitate the mutation analysis.

  5. Rescue of ATP7B function in hepatocyte-like cells from Wilson's disease induced pluripotent stem cells using gene therapy or the chaperone drug curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiqiang; Chen, Shen; Li, Wen; Guo, Xiangpeng; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Jianyong; Chen, Yan; Pan, Qiong; Liu, Xiaorong; Zychlinski, Daniela; Lu, Hai; Tortorella, Micky D; Schambach, Axel; Wang, Yan; Pei, Duanqing; Esteban, Miguel A

    2011-08-15

    Directed hepatocyte differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) potentially provides a unique platform for modeling liver genetic diseases and performing drug-toxicity screening in vitro. Wilson's disease is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene, whose product is a liver transporter protein responsible for coordinated copper export into bile and blood. Interestingly, the spectrum of ATP7B mutations is vast and can influence clinical presentation (a variable spectrum of hepatic and neural manifestations), though the reason is not well understood. We describe the generation of iPSCs from a Chinese patient with Wilson's disease that bears the R778L Chinese hotspot mutation in the ATP7B gene. These iPSCs were pluripotent and could be readily differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells that displayed abnormal cytoplasmic localization of mutated ATP7B and defective copper transport. Moreover, gene correction using a self-inactivating lentiviral vector that expresses codon optimized-ATP7B or treatment with the chaperone drug curcumin could reverse the functional defect in vitro. Hence, our work describes an attractive model for studying the pathogenesis of Wilson's disease that is valuable for screening compounds or gene therapy approaches aimed to correct the abnormality. In the future, once relevant safety concerns (including the stability of the mature liver-like phenotype) and technical issues for the transplantation procedure are solved, hepatocyte-like cells from similarly genetically corrected iPSCs could be an option for autologous transplantation in Wilson's disease.

  6. Truncating mutations in the Wilson disease gene ATP7B are associated with very low serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity and an early onset of Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Uta; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Eisenbach, Christoph; Tuma, Sabine; Ferenci, Peter; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-18

    Mutations in the gene ATP7B cause Wilson disease, a copper storage disorder with a high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. We aimed to evaluate whether 'severe' protein-truncating ATP7B mutations (SMs) are associated with low serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activities and an early age of onset when compared to missense mutations (MMs). The clinical phenotype of 59 genetically confirmed WD patients was analyzed retrospectively. Serum ceruloplasmin was measured by its oxidase activity with o-dianisidine dihydrochloride as substrate and immunologically. Thirty-nine patients had two MMs, 15 had the genotype SM/MM, and 5 patients had two SMs on their ATP7B alleles. Enzymatic and immunologic serum ceruloplasmin levels differed significantly between the three groups (P SMs (0.0 U/L; IQR, 0.0-0.0 U/L and 0.02 g/L; IQR, 0.01-0.02 g/L, respectively) and the highest in patients with two MMs (17.8 U/L; IQR, 5.8-35.1 U/L and 0.11 g/L; IQR,0.10-0.17 g/L, respectively). The age of onset was also significantly different between the three patient groups (P < 0.05), with SM/SM patients showing the earliest onset (13 years; IQR, 9-13 years) and patients with two MMs showing the latest onset (22 years; IQR, 14-27 years). By ROC curve analysis a ceruloplasmin oxidase level ATP7B mutations were associated with lower ceruloplasmin serum oxidase levels and an earlier age of onset when compared to MMs. Measurement of serum ceruloplasmin oxidase might help to predict presence of truncating ATP7B mutations and might facilitate the mutation analysis.

  7. Altered localisation of the copper efflux transporters ATP7A and ATP7B associated with cisplatin resistance in human ovarian carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reedijk Jan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper homeostasis proteins ATP7A and ATP7B are assumed to be involved in the intracellular transport of cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to assess the relevance of sub cellular localisation of these transporters for acquired cisplatin resistance in vitro. For this purpose, localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells and their cisplatin-resistant variant, A2780cis, was investigated. Methods Sub cellular localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B in sensitive and resistant cells was investigated using confocal fluorescence microscopy after immunohistochemical staining. Co-localisation experiments with a cisplatin analogue modified with a carboxyfluorescein-diacetate residue were performed. Cytotoxicity of the fluorescent cisplatin analogue in A2780 and A2780cis cells was determined using an MTT-based assay. The significance of differences was analysed using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney test as appropriate, p values of Results In the sensitive cells, both transporters are mainly localised in the trans-Golgi network, whereas they are sequestrated in more peripherally located vesicles in the resistant cells. Altered localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B in A2780cis cells is likely to be a consequence of major abnormalities in intracellular protein trafficking related to a reduced lysosomal compartment in this cell line. Changes in sub cellular localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B may facilitate sequestration of cisplatin in the vesicular structures of A2780cis cells, which may prevent drug binding to genomic DNA and thereby contribute to cisplatin resistance. Conclusion Our results indicate that alterations in sub cellular localisation of transport proteins may contribute to cisplatin resistance in vitro. Investigation of intracellular protein localisation in primary tumour cell cultures and tumour tissues may help to develop markers of clinically relevant cisplatin resistance. Detection of resistant tumours

  8. Direct sequencing of mutations in the copper-transporting P-type adenosine triphosphate (ATP7B) gene for diagnosis and pathogenesis of Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D F; Teng, J F

    2016-09-23

    Copper-transporting P-type adenosine triphosphatase (ATP7B) has been identified as the pathogenic gene in hepatolenticular degeneration, or Wilson's disease (WD). The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between genetic mutations and the clinical profile of WD, and to discuss the value of mutation examination in its diagnosis for providing a scientific basis for the development of a method to examine genetic mutations. Sixty-eight Chinese Han patients with WD and 20 controls were included in this study. The ATP7B gene in DNA extracted from patient blood samples was amplified by PCR and sequenced. These sequences were compared against corresponding gene sequences obtained from healthy controls to statistically analyze the genetic mutations. Five of the nineteen mutations in ATP7B were newly detected mutations; moreover, 8 of these mutations were polymorphic (2 were newly identified). The Arg778Leu and Pro992Leu mutations in exons 8 and 13 were detected at the highest mutation frequencies of 25.74 and 16.91%, respectively. The frequencies of all other mutations were below 5%. However, the clinical manifestations of WD did not differ significantly in patients with the Arg778Leu and Pro992Leu mutations. Therefore, these mutations were considered as hotspot mutations in Chinese WD patients. However, we observed no significant correlation between these genetic types and the clinical symptoms of WD. The correlation between the mutation genotype and disease phenotype remains to be elucidated. In conclusion, the highly sensitive and specific direct DNA sequencing method can be used to screen for the causative genes of WD.

  9. Estimation of Wilson's disease incidence and carrier frequency in the Korean population by screening ATP7B major mutations in newborn filter papers using the SYBR green intercalator method based on the amplification refractory mutation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yang, Jeong Yoon; Park, Jung-Young; Lee, Jin Joo; Kim, Ju Hyun; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2008-09-01

    Wilson's disease (WD), an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport, is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders in Korea. Despite its frequency, the incidence and carrier frequency of WD has not yet been estimated in the Korean population. We therefore screened for four major missense mutations (p.Arg778Leu, p.Ala874Val, p.Leu1083Phe, and p.Asn1270Ser) of the ATP7B gene in 476 newborn filter papers by real-time multiplex PCR and melting curve analysis using the SYBR Green intercalator method based on the amplification refractory mutation system test. Newborn filter papers with abnormal melting curves were subjected to subsequent sequence analysis. Three mutated alleles, one p.Arg778Leu and two p.Ala874Val, were detected among the 476 newborn filter papers (952 alleles). The carrier frequency and incidence of WD in the Korean population were determined as 1 in 88.2 and 30,778, respectively, by reversely calculating based on the Hardy-Weinberg law.

  10. Predictive value of BRCA1, ERCC1, ATP7B, PKM2, TOPOI, TOPΟ-IIA, TOPOIIB and C-MYC genes in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC who received first line therapy with cisplatin and etoposide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Karachaliou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of genes involved in the action of cisplatin-etoposide in Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC. METHODS: 184 SCLC patients' primary tumour samples were analyzed for ERCCI, BRCA1, ATP7B, PKM2 TOPOI, TOPOIIA, TOPOIIB and C-MYC mRNA expression. All patients were treated with cisplatin-etoposide. RESULTS: The patients' median age was 63 years and 120 (65% had extended stage, 75 (41% had increased LDH serum levels and 131 (71% an ECOG performance status was 0-1. Patients with limited stage, whose tumours expressed high ERCC1 (p=0.028, PKM2 (p=0.046, TOPOI (p=0.008, TOPOIIA (p=0.002 and TOPOIIB (p<0.001 mRNA had a shorter Progression Free Survival (PFS. In limited stage patients, high expression of ERCC1 (p=0.014, PKM2 (p=0.026, TOPOIIA (p=0.021 and TOPOIIB (p=0.019 was correlated with decreased median overall survival (mOS while in patients with extended stage, only high TOPOIIB expression had a negative impact on Os (p=0.035. The favorable expression signature expression signature (low expression of ERCC1, PKM2, TOPOIIA and TOPOIIB was correlated with significantly better PFS and Os in both LS-SCLC (p<0.001 and p=0.007, respectively and ES-SCLC (p=0.007 and (p=0.011, respectively group. The unfavorable expression signature was an independent predictor for poor PFS (HR: 3.18; p=0.002 and HR: 3.14; p=0.021 and Os (HR: 4.35; p=0.001and HR: 3.32; p=0.019 in both limited and extended stage, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Single gene's expression analysis as well as the integrated analysis of ERCC1, PKM2, TOPOIIA and TOPOIIB may predict treatment outcome in patients with SCLC. These findings should be further validated in a prospective study.

  11. Structural models of the human copper P-type ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourdon, Pontus Emanuel; Sitsel, Oleg; Karlsen, Jesper Lykkegaard

    2012-01-01

    related to Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively, structural information has only been available for isolated, soluble domains. Here we present homology models based on the existing structures of soluble domains and the recently determined structure of the homologous LpCopA from the bacterium......, allowing protein-specific properties to be addressed. Furthermore, the mapping of known disease-causing missense mutations indicates that among the heavy-metal binding domains, HMBD5 and HMBD6 are the most crucial for function, thus mimicking the single or dual HMBDs found in most copper-specific P...

  12. Deficient copper concentrations in dried-defatted hepatic tissue from ob/ob mice: A potential model for study of defective copper regulation in metabolic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stephanie J; Begley, Paul; Kureishy, Nina; McHarg, Selina; Bishop, Paul N; Bechtold, David A; Unwin, Richard D; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-05-08

    Ob/ob mice provide an animal model for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) in patients with obesity and type-2 diabetes. Low liver copper has been linked to hepatic lipid build-up (steatosis) in animals with systemic copper deficiency caused by low-copper diets. However, hepatic copper status in patients with NAFLD or NASH is uncertain, and a validated animal model useful for the study of hepatic copper regulation in common forms of metabolic liver disease is lacking. Here, we report parallel measurements of essential metal levels in whole-liver tissue and defatted-dried liver tissue from ob/ob and non-obese control mice. Measurements in whole-liver tissue from ob/ob mice at an age when they have developed NAFLD/NASH, provide compelling evidence for factitious lowering of copper and all other essential metals by steatosis, and so cannot be used to study hepatic metal regulation in this model. By marked contrast, metal measurements in defatted-dried liver samples reveal that most essential metals were actually normal and indicate specific lowering of copper in ob/ob mice, consistent with hepatic copper deficiency. Thus ob/ob mice can provide a model useful for the study of copper regulation in NAFLD and NASH, provided levels are measured in defatted-dried liver tissue. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Traffic Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Intelligent Vision Systems, Inc. (InVision) needed image acquisition technology that was reliable in bad weather for its TDS-200 Traffic Detection System. InVision researchers used information from NASA Tech Briefs and assistance from Johnson Space Center to finish the system. The NASA technology used was developed for Earth-observing imaging satellites: charge coupled devices, in which silicon chips convert light directly into electronic or digital images. The TDS-200 consists of sensors mounted above traffic on poles or span wires, enabling two sensors to view an intersection; a "swing and sway" feature to compensate for movement of the sensors; a combination of electronic shutter and gain control; and sensor output to an image digital signal processor, still frame video and optionally live video.

  14. modified traffic s modified traffic signal phasing at traffic warden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    centred' notion in traffic engineering is now being replaced by the new 'human centred' notion which takes all road users into consideration in its planning, design and operations and attaches more importance to vulnerable traffic participants such as the pedestrians [4]. Thus the pedestrian traffic safety management at TWC ...

  15. TrafficTurk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This report summarizes a project undertaken by the University of Illinois on behalf of the Illinois Department of : Transportation to evaluate a smartphone application called TrafficTurk for traffic safety and traffic monitoring : applications. Traff...

  16. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  17. Jamitons: Phantom Traffic Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowszun, Jorj

    2013-01-01

    Traffic on motorways can slow down for no apparent reason. Sudden changes in speed by one or two drivers can create a chain reaction that causes a traffic jam for the vehicles that are following. This kind of phantom traffic jam is called a "jamiton" and the article discusses some of the ways in which traffic engineers produce…

  18. Open traffic : A toolbox for traffic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, G.F.; Knoppers, P.; Van Lint, J.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Open Traffic is an open source software project that provides a transport modeling software environment. While most transport model packages offer ready-to-use modules for end-users, Open Traffic provides open access to a modelling environment for the (further) development of methods and algorithms

  19. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  20. Traffic management simulation development : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, Florida traffic is monitored electronically by components of the Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), which send data to regional traffic management centers and assist management of traffic flows and incident response using software called...

  1. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  2. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point...

  3. Gaussian traffic everywhere?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, R.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2006-01-01

    It is often assumed that Internet traffic exhibits Gaussian characteristics, and this assumption has been validated in various studies of real Internet traffic. Less is known, however, about possible boundaries: at what timescales is traffic Gaussian and how much user aggregation is required for

  4. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...

  5. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...

  6. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Leung Yip

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on one ship or two ships but does not address the issues in marine traffic flow.

  7. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...... assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  8. modified traffic s modified traffic signal phasing at traffic warden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1111, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 3 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, ILORIN, KWARA STATE. NIGERIA. E-mail addresses: 1111 ... centred' notion in traffic engineering is now being replaced by the new 'human centred' ..... Federal Highway Administration, 2009. [5] Alhajyaseen, W. K. M., Asano, ...

  9. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  10. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  12. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Civil and Architectural Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of. Technology, Illinois, Chicago ..... parametric test, i.e., the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, compared between observed and derived densities. ..... istics related to freeway design, vehicle performance, and the traffic stream on passenger-car equivalents for heavy ...

  13. Comsat's TDMA traffic terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M. C.; Bogaert, W. M.

    1985-06-01

    Comsat has installed two traffic terminals in the Etam earth-station and is currently installing a third in the new Roaring Creek earth-station to access the Intelsat TDMA network. This paper describes the Comsat TDMA traffic terminal equipment from the supergroup interface to the antenna. Comsat's 1: N redundancy approach for terrestrial interface equipment and DSI unit back-up is described as well as electrical path length, amplitude and group delay equalization techniques, special on-line RF monitoring and failure reporting facilities and the operation and maintenance center which can operate and perform diagnostic testing on up to four traffic terminals from a central location.

  14. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  15. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  16. Non-Traffic Citations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Non-traffic citations (NTCs, also known as "summary offenses") document low-level criminal offenses where a law enforcement officer or other authorized official...

  17. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  18. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  19. Traffic pollution and countermeasures of urban traffic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhong; Zheng, Chaocheng

    2018-01-01

    Background: Traffic environment has become a serious social problem in China currently, therefore, urban traffic environment governance is the requirement to solve this issue because as an important place in people's social life, urban traffic environment shows a strong city's energy. Objective: Based on analysis on social function of city traffic environment and its influence of traffic on urban environment in this paper, the goal to establish a healthy urban traffic environment must be included under the aim of sustainable development eternally and feasible measures were put forward afterwards. Method, result, conclusion and possible applications.

  20. Traffic camera system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Toshi

    1997-04-01

    The intelligent transportation system has generated a strong need for the development of intelligent camera systems to meet the requirements of sophisticated applications, such as electronic toll collection (ETC), traffic violation detection and automatic parking lot control. In order to achieve the highest levels of accuracy in detection, these cameras must have high speed electronic shutters, high resolution, high frame rate, and communication capabilities. A progressive scan interline transfer CCD camera, with its high speed electronic shutter and resolution capabilities, provides the basic functions to meet the requirements of a traffic camera system. Unlike most industrial video imaging applications, traffic cameras must deal with harsh environmental conditions and an extremely wide range of light. Optical character recognition is a critical function of a modern traffic camera system, with detection and accuracy heavily dependent on the camera function. In order to operate under demanding conditions, communication and functional optimization is implemented to control cameras from a roadside computer. The camera operates with a shutter speed faster than 1/2000 sec. to capture highway traffic both day and night. Consequently camera gain, pedestal level, shutter speed and gamma functions are controlled by a look-up table containing various parameters based on environmental conditions, particularly lighting. Lighting conditions are studied carefully, to focus only on the critical license plate surface. A unique light sensor permits accurate reading under a variety of conditions, such as a sunny day, evening, twilight, storms, etc. These camera systems are being deployed successfully in major ETC projects throughout the world.

  1. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  2. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  3. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death in the United States. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index January 2014 607 14th Street, NW, Suite ... org | 202-638-5944 Title 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index (January 2014) About the Sponsor AAA Foundation ...

  4. Texas traffic thermostat marketing package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  5. Texas traffic thermostat software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  6. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Transportation and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are working to support the development of automated ... USA.gov WhiteHouse.gov National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE Washington, DC 20590 ...

  7. National guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schermers, G

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available and provides a policy framework on traffic calming. It also describes the administrative and management procedures required to meet policy objectives in the implementation and monitoring of traffic calming in urban areas. Related legal requirements, liability...

  8. Youth and Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, H.M.; Mayhew, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of traffic accidents involving young adults: specifically, what is known about the causes of their accidents, and what preventive action seems warranted. In this context, we consider what role the family physician might play in dealing with this major public health problem.

  9. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  10. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or reading and typing text messages (texting). Distraction has negative effects on

  11. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field...

  12. Traffic light intensity meter, TIM®

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leden, N. van der; Varkevisser, J.; Vroom, J. de; Oijen, T van

    2005-01-01

    The intensity of traffic lights decreases over time as a result of pollution and ageing. The Dutch Traffic Research Centre of the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management is searching for a convenient method for measuring the luminous intensity of traffic lights on the road, in order

  13. ITSA: Internet Traffic Statistics Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Motivated by the fact that comprehensive and long term Internet traffic measurements can be hard to obtain, we have proposed and developed the Internet Traffic Statistics Archive (ITSA). Since 2013, ITSA concentrates reports on high-level statistics of Internet traffic worldwide. Examples of

  14. Stochastic Model of Traffic Jam and Traffic Signal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Cui, Cheng-You; Lee, Tae-Hong; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    Traffic signal control is an effective method to solve the traffic jam. and forecasting traffic density has been known as an important part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The several methods of the traffic signal control are known such as random walk method, Neuron Network method, Bayesian Network method, and so on. In this paper, we propose a new method of a traffic signal control using a predicted distribution of traffic jam based on a Dynamic Bayesian Network model. First, a forecasting model to predict a probabilistic distribution of the traffic jam during each period of traffic lights is built. As the forecasting model, the Dynamic Bayesian Network is used to predict the probabilistic distribution of a density of the traffic jam. According to measurement of two crossing points for each cycle, the inflow and outflow of each direction and the number of standing vehicles at former cycle are obtained. The number of standing vehicle at k-th cycle will be calculated synchronously. Next, the probabilistic distribution of the density of standing vehicle in each cycle will be predicted using the Dynamic Bayesian Network constructed for the traffic jam. And then a control rule to adjust the split and the cycle to increase the probability between a lower limit and ceiling of the standing vehicles is deduced. As the results of the simulation using the actual traffic data of Kitakyushu city, the effectiveness of the method is shown.

  15. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  16. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  17. Road Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  18. Physics of Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2015-03-01

    The Texas A&M Transportation Institute estimated that traffic congestion cost the United States 121 billion in 2011 (the latest data available). The cost is due to wasted time and fuel. In addition to accidents and road construction, factors contributing to congestion include large demand, instability of high-density free flow and selfish behavior of drivers, which produces self-organized traffic bottlenecks. Extensive data collected on instrumented highways in various countries have led to a better understanding of traffic dynamics. From these measurements, Boris Kerner and colleagues developed a new theory called three-phase theory. They identified three major phases of flow observed in the data: free flow, synchronous flow and wide moving jams. The intermediate phase is called synchronous because vehicles in different lanes tend to have similar velocities. This congested phase, characterized by lower velocities yet modestly high throughput, frequently occurs near on-ramps and lane reductions. At present there are only two widely used methods of congestion mitigation: ramp metering and the display of current travel-time information to drivers. To find more effective methods to reduce congestion, researchers perform large-scale simulations using models based on the new theories. An algorithm has been proposed to realize Wardrop equilibria with real-time route information. Such equilibria have equal travel time on alternative routes between a given origin and destination. An active area of current research is the dynamics of connected vehicles, which communicate wirelessly with other vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure. These systems show great promise for improving traffic flow and safety.

  19. RAILWAY TRAFFIC OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Kamenický

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analysis of possibilities of operatic control of railway traffic and its automatization and its support by information systems. Conditions, necessary pieces of input information like infrastructure description are discussed. RailML format is mentioned as suitable format for description in railway area. Optimization criterion and use of evolutionary techniques are suggested. The system is modeled in Railway Laboratory of the Faculty of Transportation Sciences, CTU in Prague.

  20. The Physics of Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. Craig

    2006-03-01

    Congestion in freeway traffic is an example of self-organization in the language of complexity theory. Nonequilibrium, first-order phase transitions from free flow cause complex spatiotemporal patterns. Two distinct phases of congestion are observed in empirical traffic data--wide moving jams and synchronous flow. Wide moving jams are characterized by stopped or slowly moving vehicles within the jammed region, which widens and moves upstream at 15-20 km/h. Above a critical density of vehicles, a sudden decrease in the velocity of a lead vehicle can initiate a transition from metastable states to this phase. Human behaviors, especially delayed reactions, are implicated in the formation of jams. The synchronous flow phase results from a bottleneck such as an on-ramp. Thus, in contrast to a jam, the downstream front is pinned at a fixed location. The name of the phase comes from the equilibration (or synchronization) of speed and flow rate across all lanes caused by frequent vehicle lane changes. Synchronous flow occurs when the mainline flow and the rate of merging from an on-ramp are sufficiently large. Large-scale simulations using car-following models reproduce the physical phenomena occurring in traffic and suggest methods to improve flow and mediate congestion.

  1. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  2. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.

  3. Near real-time traffic routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  4. Interdomain traffic engineering with BGP

    OpenAIRE

    Quoitin, Bruno; Uhlig, Steve; Pelsser, Cristel; Swinnen, Louis; Bonaventure, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Traffic engineering is performed by means of a set of techniques that can be used to better control the flow of packets inside an IP network We discuss the utilization of these techniques across interdomain boundaries in the global Internet. We first analyze the characteristics of interdomain traffic on the basis of measurements from three different Internet service providers and show that a small number of sources are responsible for a large fraction of the traffic. Across interdomain bounda...

  5. Traffic Signals in School Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin S Lee; Bullock, Darcy M.

    2003-01-01

    Traffic signals are used to control the right of way at intersections. Strict engineering guidelines are published in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) that engineers use to determine if a traffic signal is “warranted”. The warrants provide consistent national balance between mobility, safety, efficiency, and costs. However, signalized intersections are often viewed by the general public as safer then unsignalized intersections. This belief is often heightened when there a...

  6. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonio Artuñedo; Raúl M del Toro; Rodolfo E Haber

    2017-01-01

    .... The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks...

  7. Economical Video Monitoring of Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, B. C.; Paine, G.; Rubenstein, L. D.; Parham, O. Bruce, Jr.; Graves, W.; Bradley, C.

    1986-01-01

    Data compression allows video signals to be transmitted economically on telephone circuits. Telephone lines transmit television signals to remote traffic-control center. Lines also carry command signals from center to TV camera and compressor at highway site. Video system with television cameras positioned at critical points on highways allows traffic controllers to determine visually, almost immediately, exact cause of traffic-flow disruption; e.g., accidents, breakdowns, or spills, almost immediately. Controllers can then dispatch appropriate emergency services and alert motorists to minimize traffic backups.

  8. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of induced traffic has been theorized for more than 60 years and is now widely accepted among transport researchers, the traffic-generating effects of road capacity expansion are still often neglected in transport modelling. Such omission can lead to serious bias...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...... ways of dealing with congestion and environmental problems in urban areas....

  9. Road traffic noise and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before.......Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  10. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  11. Vessel Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Yorker" articles titled Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1963 produced a unifying effect, "the sort of rallying point of the movement to protect the...6232, 92d Cong., 1st. sess., 1971, p. 2. 15. Carson , Rachel L. , The Sea Around Us, New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 195-, p. IV. 16. U.S., Congress...Government Printing Office, 1974. 63. Buhler, L. and Geiger, J., Vessel Traffic Data Extraction MethodoloqX, Silver Spring , Maryland, O6erFae-tns

  12. Inaccuracy in traffic forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first statistically significant study of traffic forecasts in transportation infrastructure projects. The sample used is the largest of its kind, covering 210 projects in 14 nations worth US$58 billion. The study shows with very high statistical significance...... that forecasters generally do a poor job of estimating the demand for transportation infrastructure projects. The result is substantial downside financial and economic risk. Forecasts have not become more accurate over the 30-year period studied. If techniques and skills for arriving at accurate demand forecasts...

  13. Traffic Infrastructure in the Development of the Croatian Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šimulčik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a long-term traffic policy and of the policyof financing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastructurefacilities, represents a synthesis of numerous unresolvedrelations whose negative effects are felt in the overalleconomic and traffic development and consequently theevaluation of national potentials in the field. Adverse aspectcaused by the lack of a clear and feasible policy of financing thetraffic infrastructure facilities, is also a result of not having definedan adequate traffic policy, programme and strategiccourses of development, nor financing models that would be inaccordance with the market and economy system.This indicates that it is necessary to determine a policy forfinancing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastntcture,which has to be based on scientific development,team work, availability of plans and programmes to scientistsand experts, determined methodology based on marketing andeconomic logic in defining the programme and strategic tasksand assignments so as to make them feasible.In the near future, intensive preparations for investments inthe overall traffic sysiem are necessary, especially regarding thetraffic infrastntcture facilities - the pivotal points in the processof evaluating the traffic in our national tenitory. Croatia needsto define clearly its strategy in constructing and maintaining thegeneral traffic infrastructure, appointing at the same time thosewho will carry out the given tasks.

  14. Steady traffic scheduler for internet video traffic across large delay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steady traffic scheduler for internet video traffic across large delay networks. O.E. Ojo, A.O. Oluwatope, I.T. Arowobusoye. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Computer Networks, Multimedia Networking, TCP and Large-Delay Networks. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  15. Simulation of Traffic on Intersection After Change of Traffic Priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav KŘIVDA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with problem of capacity calculation of intersection after change of traffic priority and with simulation of traffic using simulation software PTV VISSIM. This paper was prepared with financial support for project FRVŠ č. 2206/2011/F1/d “Innovation of Learning of Subjects from the Design of Urban Roads and Intersections”.

  16. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; de Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  17. Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems | Mbam | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are used as the most popular transportation system. The aim of this paper is to introduce the motorbike symbol into the traffic light control system to separate cars/lorries indicator from that of motorbike. This is likely ...

  18. [Drugs and traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravcík, V; Zabranský, T; Vorel, F

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to map the prevalence of alcohol and other psychotropic substances in deceased participants of traffic accidents in the Czech Republic. The studied sample included persons autopsied in the departments of forensic medicine and forensic toxicology that died during traffic accidents and were toxicologically tested in 2003. Case definition involved alcohol cases with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 0,2 g/kg and higher, with cannabis, detections of active THC metabolites only were taken into account; in cases where volatile substances (solvents) were detected we included into the definition only cases with substances not produced post mortem or in some physiological or pathological statuses. We identified 554 cases of whom 440 (79.4%) were males and 114 (20.6%) were females. 35.5% were in the age group 20 - 34 years. The sample has been classified into 4 categories (average age, % of males): pedestrians (45.4, 76.2), bicyclists (51.1, 82.0), drivers (36.3, 91.2) and others (36.1, 66.2). Alcohol was tested in 548 cases, 214 (39.1%) of those were found positive. 380 cases were tested for other psychotropic substances than alcohol; samples taken from 25 bodies (6.6%) were found positive for at least for one of these substances. 8 cases were positive both for alcohol and some other psychotropic substance - i.e. 3.7% out of 214 cases positive for alcohol were positive for other substance and 32.0% out of 25 cases positive at least for any other psychotropic substance were alcohol-positive. When focusing our analysis at the active participants of road traffic accidents only - pedestrians, bicyclists and drivers (altogether 397 cases) - we have found alcohol to be tested in 394 cases, out of which 158 (39.1%) were positive; as for other psychotropic substances, 314 cases were tested and 23 (7.3%) were positive at least for one of them. 7 cases were found positive for alcohol and other psychotropic substance simultaneously; this represents 4.4% out of

  19. Traffic Light Detection at Night

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Bahnsen, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any in- telligent vehicle, it must function both at day and at night. However, the majority of TLR research is focused on day-time scenarios. In this paper we will focus on detection of traffic lights at night and evalu- ate the performance o...

  20. Traffic Safety for Special Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Val; MacKenzie, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    In a 6 weeks' unit on traffic education using flannel graphs, filmstrips and models, 12 special class students (IQ 55-82) ages 7- to 11-years-old learned six basic skills including crossing a road, obeying traffic lights and walking on country roads. (CL)

  1. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics

  2. Safety effects of traffic restraint.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years the effectiveness and acceptability of traffic restraint measures in residential areas has been investigated. Results of accident investigations indicate that a new layout of residential areas has a positive effect on traffic safety. Research into road safety should not be restricted

  3. Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number

  4. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  5. [The pediatrician and traffic safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksman, Renata D; Pirito, Regina M B K

    2005-11-01

    To instruct children and teenagers about safe transportation and about their behavior as cyclists and pedestrians. The MEDLINE and LILACS databases were searched, using the following terms, from 1995 to 2005: traffic accidents, child, adolescent, morbidity, mortality, age, and gender. Scientific articles on morbidity and mortality from traffic accidents, children in a pedestrian situation, as cyclists or as motor vehicle passengers, were selected. More than 300 scientific articles were found, but only the studies that addressed those issues in a broad manner were selected. Traffic-related mortality rates are still very high and show the necessity to intensify educational campaigns for community awareness, in addition to encouraging investments in effective pedestrian safety. The pediatrician s role is to decrease the number of children and adolescents who get involved in traffic accidents by providing them with traffic guidance and education.

  6. Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Hua-pu; Sun, Zhi-yuan; Qu, Wen-cong; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic ...

  7. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  8. Fluctuations in Urban Traffic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Dong; Li, Li; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Jian-Ming; Jin, Xue-Xiang

    Urban traffic network is a typical complex system, in which movements of tremendous microscopic traffic participants (pedestrians, bicyclists and vehicles) form complicated spatial and temporal dynamics. We collected flow volumes data on the time-dependent activity of a typical urban traffic network, finding that the coupling between the average flux and the fluctuation on individual links obeys a certain scaling law, with a wide variety of scaling exponents between 1/2 and 1. These scaling phenomena can explain the interaction between the nodes' internal dynamics (i.e. queuing at intersections, car-following in driving) and changes in the external (network-wide) traffic demand (i.e. the every day increase of traffic amount during peak hours and shocking caused by traffic accidents), allowing us to further understand the mechanisms governing the transportation system's collective behavior. Multiscaling and hotspot features are observed in the traffic flow data as well. But the reason why the separated internal dynamics are comparable to the external dynamics in magnitude is still unclear and needs further investigations.

  9. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber-sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website.

  10. Linearized Theory of Traffic Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Cohan, Tal

    2014-01-01

    The equation of motion of a general class of macroscopic traffic flow models is linearized around a steady uniform flow. A closed-form solution of a boundary-initial value problem is obtained, and it is used to describe several phenomena. Specifically, the scenarios examined involve a smooth velocity field in stop-and-go traffic, a discontinuous velocity field with shock waves in a traffic light problem, and discontinuous displacement fields in a problem where a single platoon of vehicles splits into two, and later merges back into one.

  11. [Comics for traffic education: evaluation of a traffic safety campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfadelli, H

    1989-01-01

    Traffic safety campaigns often are ineffective to change driving behavior because they don't reach the target group or are recognized only by people who are already interested or concerned. The evaluation of a traffic safety campaign called "Leo Lässig", addressed to young new drivers, shows that recognition and acceptance by the target group were stimulated by the age-conform means of comic-strips.

  12. Assessing Vessel Traffic Service Operator Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes my study of situation awareness assessment of Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) operators. VTS operators are the traffic controllers on the water. They are responsible for a safe and efficient handling of vessel traffic. They monitor traffic, provide information on request and

  13. Lagrangian Multi-Class Traffic State Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic is important to everybody in the world. People travel and commute everyday. For those who travel by cars (or other types of road vehicles), traffic congestion is a daily experience. One essential goal of traffic researchers is to reduce traffic congestion and to improve the whole

  14. Modelling traffic congestion using queuing networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Traffic Flow-Density diagrams are obtained using simple Jackson queuing network analysis. Such simple analytical models can be used to capture the effect of non- homogenous traffic. Keywords. Flow-density curves; uninterrupted traffic; Jackson networks. 1. Introduction. Traffic management has become very essential in ...

  15. 49 CFR 1139.2 - Traffic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Traffic study. 1139.2 Section 1139.2... of General Commodities § 1139.2 Traffic study. (a) The respondents shall submit a traffic study for... “base-calendar year—actual.” The study shall include a probability sampling of the actual traffic...

  16. Fastlane : Traffic flow modeling and multi-class dynamic traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiter, T.; Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Yuan, Y.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) aims to improve traffic conditions. DTM usually consists of two steps: first the current traffic is estimated, then appropriate control actions are determined based on that estimate. In order to estimate and control the traffic, a suitable traffic flow model that

  17. Characterization and Modeling of Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Bergheim, Hans; Ragnarsson, Olafur

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to characterize and model backbone network traffic, using a small number of statistics. In order to reduce cost and processing power associated with traffic analysis. The parameters affecting the behaviour of network traffic are investigated and the choice is that inter......-arrival time, IP addresses, port numbers and transport protocol are the only necessary parameters to model network traffic behaviour. In order to recreate this behaviour, a complex model is needed which is able to recreate traffic behaviour based on a set of statistics calculated from the parameters values....... The model investigates the traffic generation mechanisms, and grouping traffic into flows and applications....

  18. Traffic fatalities and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    As countries develop death rates usually fall, especially for diseases that affect the young and result in substantial life-years lost. Deaths due to traffic accidents are a notable exception: the growth in motor vehicles that accompanies economic gr...

  19. Game theory and traffic assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  20. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  1. Estimating Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten W.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources...

  2. Traffic behavior at freeway bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This study examines traffic behavior in the vicinity of a freeway bottleneck, revisiting commonly held : assumptions and uncovering systematic biases that likely have distorted empirical studies of bottleneck : formation, capacity drop, and the funda...

  3. Estimating emissions from railway traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.W.; Sorenson, C.

    1997-07-01

    The report discusses methods that can be used to estimate the emissions from various kinds of railway traffic. The methods are based on the estimation of the energy consumption of the train, so that comparisons can be made between electric and diesel driven trains. Typical values are given for the necessary traffic parameters, emission factors, and train loading. Detailed models for train energy consumption are presented, as well as empirically based methods using average train speed and distance between stop. (au)

  4. Future Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered. An estim......In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered...

  5. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...... with respect to the decibel traffic noise. The model distinguishes between houses and apartments and shows that the ability to include refined accessibility variables have significant impact on estimated prices....

  6. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  7. The Railway Traffic Shunting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Pepevnik

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Economy demands quality peiformance of transport servicesfrom all spheres of the traffic system The shunting systemin railway transport is a part of the traffic system. The fact thatthe railways are an organization of special social interest makesits organization structure the more important for the economicdevelopment. Problems that appear in the development of theeconomic system clearly point out numerous irregularitieswithin the railways. The demand of quality transport servicesrequires rationality of transport which consequently requiresgreat changes in the field of traffic organization structure andexploitation of transport capacities.Elementary parameters of the quality evaluation of thetransport service in all traffic subsystems are: speed, safety andregularity of transport. The same parameters can be implementedas the basis of technical and exploitation characteristicsof traffic.The shunting system in railway traffic is affected by numerouselements which are interconnected and represent a uniformtechnological process. Subsequently, the shunting system isconsidered a uniform technological system. The characteristicsof such a system are apparent in the technical and technologicalprocess, e.g.:- integrality, i. e. characteristic of collective production oftransport services;- homogeneity of transport means;- standardization of means of integral transport.In the process of transport demands, maximum servicequality is incessantly required. However, maximum quality withcertain quantitative dimension in regard to mode, place andtime of the transport process requires engagement of transportmeans, which directly affects the costs. Therefore, it can be assertedthat the optimum lies between the maximum quantitativeand qualitative dimensions of transport services and in thedetermined time of minimum costs of means.

  8. 32 CFR 634.24 - Traffic planning and codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic planning and codes. 634.24 Section 634.24... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.24 Traffic planning and... traffic supervision program includes traffic circulation planning and control of motor vehicle traffic...

  9. The Influence of Sensor-Based Intelligent Traffic Light Control On Traffic Flow In Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Rademacher, Katja

    2017-01-01

    With growing cities and the increased use of vehicles for transportation purposes, there is a demand to make the traffic management in cities smarter. An intelligent traffic light control that dynamically adapts to the existing traffic conditions can help reduce traffic congestion and CO2 emissions. This thesis reviews the popular traffic light control approaches - static, actuated and adaptive – based on their influences on recorded traffic conditions in Dublin. The Irish capital relies heav...

  10. Traffic analysis and control using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ellappan, Vijayan; Arun, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper shows the work on traffic analysis and control till date. It shows an approach to regulate traffic the use of image processing and MATLAB systems. This concept uses computational images that are to be compared with original images of the street taken in order to determine the traffic level percentage and set the timing for the traffic signal accordingly which are used to reduce the traffic stoppage on traffic lights. They concept proposes to solve real life scenarios in the streets, thus enriching the traffic lights by adding image receivers like HD cameras and image processors. The input is then imported into MATLAB to be used. as a method for calculating the traffic on roads. Their results would be computed in order to adjust the traffic light timings on a particular street, and also with respect to other similar proposals but with the added value of solving a real, big instance.

  11. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  12. A traffic situation analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Rosner, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic with smart visions systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. For example embedded vision systems built into vehicles can be used as early warning systems, or stationary camera systems can modify the switching frequency of signals at intersections. Today the automated analysis of traffic situations is still in its infancy - the patterns of vehicle motion and pedestrian flow in an urban environment are too complex to be fully understood by a vision system. We present steps towards such a traffic monitoring system which is designed to detect potentially dangerous traffic situations, especially incidents in which the interaction of pedestrians and vehicles might develop into safety critical encounters. The proposed system is field-tested at a real pedestrian crossing in the City of Vienna for the duration of one year. It consists of a cluster of 3 smart cameras, each of which is built from a very compact PC hardware system in an outdoor capable housing. Two cameras run vehicle detection software including license plate detection and recognition, one camera runs a complex pedestrian detection and tracking module based on the HOG detection principle. As a supplement, all 3 cameras use additional optical flow computation in a low-resolution video stream in order to estimate the motion path and speed of objects. This work describes the foundation for all 3 different object detection modalities (pedestrians, vehi1cles, license plates), and explains the system setup and its design.

  13. Structuring of Road Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planko Rožić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic traffic count on the Croatian road network hasbeen carried out for more than three decades in different ways.During this period a large number of automatic traffic countershave been installed, and they operate on different principles.The traffic count has been analyzed from the aspect of vehicleclassification. The count results can be only partly comparedsince they yield different structures of traffic flows. Special analysisrefers to the classification of vehicles by automatic trafficcounters.During the research, a database has been formed with physicalelements of vehicles of over five thousand vehicle types. Theresearch results prove that the vehicle length only is not sufficientfor the classification of vehicles, the way it is used in thepresent automatic traffic counts, but rather the number of axles,the wheelbase as well as the front and rear overhangs needto be considered as well. Therefore, the detector system shouldapply also the detector of axles.The results have been presented that were obtained as partof the program TEST- Technological, research, developmentproject supported by the Minist1y of Science, Education andSport.

  14. Hidden geometry of traffic jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelković, Miroslav; Gupte, Neelima; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2015-05-01

    We introduce an approach based on algebraic topological methods that allow an accurate characterization of jamming in dynamical systems with queues. As a prototype system, we analyze the traffic of information packets with navigation and queuing at nodes on a network substrate in distinct dynamical regimes. A temporal sequence of traffic density fluctuations is mapped onto a mathematical graph in which each vertex denotes one dynamical state of the system. The coupling complexity between these states is revealed by classifying agglomerates of high-dimensional cliques that are intermingled at different topological levels and quantified by a set of geometrical and entropy measures. The free-flow, jamming, and congested traffic regimes result in graphs of different structure, while the largest geometrical complexity and minimum entropy mark the edge of the jamming region.

  15. Distributed Air Traffic Control Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Radovanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During initial training air traffic control students acquire theoretical knowledge in various fields including air traffic management, aircraft performance, air traffic control equipment and systems, navigation and others. This paper proposes a simulator and explains its use and features that allows students to gain a practical insight into their coursework in order to complement their training. The goal of the simulator is to realistically implement all the key functionalities needed to cover the topics that were presented in class. The simulator offers a user friendly, distributed, and multi-role environment that can be deployed on regular PCs. Moreover, this paper discusses and resolves some of the main conceptual and implementational issues that were faced during simulator development.

  16. TrafficGen Architecture Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    v 1. Overview of TrafficGen Application 1 2. Modules 2 3. User Interface 3 3.1 Top-Level MVC Classes 3 3.1.1 TrafficGenView 3 3.1.2...for download on the ARL public web site.4 2. Modules Fig. 2 depicts the various modules that constitute this application. It shows its internal...release; distribution unlimited. 3 A key design concept in use here is the model-view-controller ( MVC ) pattern. In general, the MVC design pattern

  17. Traffic education of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Zupan Velušček, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Pre-school children are involved in road traffic on daily basis, either as pedestrians, cyclists or as passengers in cars; they also belong to the group of most vulnerable road users. It is for this reason that children should be educated to develop safe traffic habits as early as possible. Education on road safety must start at a very young age, primarily within the family and later on in co-operation with kindergarten and school. The first part of the thesis presents the developmental ...

  18. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11

    2013-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  19. Density fluctuations in traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Yukawa, S

    1996-01-01

    Density fluctuations in traffic current are studied by computer simulations using the deterministic coupled map lattice model on a closed single-lane circuit. By calculating a power spectral density of temporal density fluctuations at a local section, we find a power-law behavior, \\sim 1/f^{1.8}, on the frequency f, in non-congested flow phase. The distribution of the headway distance h also shows the power law like \\sim 1/h^{3.0} at the same time. The power law fluctuations are destroyed by the occurence of the traffic jam.

  20. Is freight traffic noise more annoying than passenger traffic noise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, R.G. de; Miedema, H.M.E.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands a new freight-only railway route, the "Betuweroute", is being planned to carry freight traffic from Rotterdam harbour east into Germany. Inhabitants of areas near the future route are concerned about noise and vibration, and question the relevance of current legislation for a

  1. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  2. Buffalo Air Traffic Control Tower Operations Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This report provides a description of the non-surveillance aspects of the FAA air traffic control facility operation at Greater Buffalo International Airport from the air traffic controller's point of view. It includes photographs of all controller c...

  3. Highway and traffic engineering in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O

    1996-01-01

    Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries......Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries...

  4. En route air traffic flow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The report covers the conception, design, development, and initial implementation of an advanced simulation technique applied to a study of national air traffic flow and its control by En Route Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC). It is intende...

  5. Theoretical Considerations of Interdisciplinary Expertise in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Peran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jnterdisciplinwy traffic expertise is being increasingly appliedin road traffic. It is not possible to determine whether anaccident had been intentionally set up without such expertise.The interdisciplinary expertise is the result of mutual work ofseveral different interdisciplinary experts. The paper analysesthe basic characteristics of interdisciplinary investigation ofset-up traffic accidents. Special attention has been paid to interdisciplinwyexpertise of set-up traffic accidents involving injuredpersons or fatalities.

  6. Traffic incidents analysis on Slovenian motorway network

    OpenAIRE

    Jakše, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis we were analysing traffic incidents (such as accidents, congestions, heavy snow, etc.) on Slovenian road network, specifically we focused on incidents on motorways. We were starting from database of incidents provided by Prometno-informacijski center (Traffic information center) and added information about hourly traffic at the moment of incident. We were also researching possible correlations between weather and traffic congestions and accidents as well as behaviour of ...

  7. Navigators’ Behavior in Traffic Separation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of decision support in the navigational ship conduct process is a Traffic Separation Scheme. TSSs are established in areas with high traffic density, often near the shore and in port approaches. The main purpose of these schemes is to improve maritime safety by channeling vessel traffic into streams. Traffic regulations as well as ships behavior in real conditions in chosen TSSs have been analyzed in order to develop decision support algorithms.

  8. Learning to Detect Traffic Signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the performance of sign detection based on synthetic training data to the performance of detection based on real-world training images. Viola-Jones detectors are created for 4 different traffic signs with both synthetic and real data, and varying numbers of training samples...

  9. Probabilistic description of traffic breakdowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Reinhart; Mahnke, Reinhard; Lubashevsky, Ihor; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs

    2002-06-01

    We analyze the characteristic features of traffic breakdown. To describe this phenomenon we apply the probabilistic model regarding the jam emergence as the formation of a large car cluster on a highway. In these terms, the breakdown occurs through the formation of a certain critical nucleus in the metastable vehicle flow, which enables us to confine ourselves to one cluster model. We assume that, first, the growth of the car cluster is governed by attachment of cars to the cluster whose rate is mainly determined by the mean headway distance between the car in the vehicle flow and, maybe, also by the headway distance in the cluster. Second, the cluster dissolution is determined by the car escape from the cluster whose rate depends on the cluster size directly. The latter is justified using the available experimental data for the correlation properties of the synchronized mode. We write the appropriate master equation converted then into the Fokker-Planck equation for the cluster distribution function and analyze the formation of the critical car cluster due to the climb over a certain potential barrier. The further cluster growth irreversibly causes jam formation. Numerical estimates of the obtained characteristics and the experimental data of the traffic breakdown are compared. In particular, we draw a conclusion that the characteristic intrinsic time scale of the breakdown phenomenon should be about 1 min and explain the case why the traffic volume interval inside which traffic breakdown is observed is sufficiently wide.

  10. [Smoking and nonfatal traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buñuel Granados, J M; Córdoba García, R; Castillo Pardo Md, M del; Alvarez Pardo, J L; Monreal Hijar, A; Pablo Cerezuela, F

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the possible associations between smoking and nonfatal traffic accidents, and to evaluate the possible influence of other factors on traffic accidents. Cross-sectional study of associations.Setting. Eight health centers in the city of Zaragoza. 1214 drivers between 25 and 65 years of age, who visited the health center during the months of July to September 2001, and who drove on at least 2 days of the week. MAIN MEASURES. We recorded data on sex, age, marital status, level of education, profession, diseases, use of prescription and nonprescription drugs, drinking, smoking, illegal drug use, accidents and traffic infractions. We found accidents to be most common among unmarried men between 25 and 29 years of age. There were no significant differences in accident rates between drinkers and nondrinkers. The accident rate was 50% higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.49%-3.09%), and there were no significant differences between smokers who smoked while driving and those who refrained from smoking while driving. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of accidents is highest in unmarried men younger than 45 years of age. In statistical terms, smokers have twice as many accidents as nonsmokers. The absence of significant differences between smokers who do and do not smoke while driving suggests that smoking increases the risk of being involved in traffic accidents regardless of whether drivers refrain from smoking at the wheel.

  11. Stochastic control of traffic patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri B.; Gorria, Carlos; Berkemer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic modulation of the safety distance can reduce traffic jams. It is found that the effect of random modulation on congestive flow formation depends on the spatial correlation of the noise. Jam creation is suppressed for highly correlated noise. The results demonstrate the advantage...

  12. Next generation traffic management centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Traffic management centers (TMCs) are critical to providing mobility to millions of people travelling on high-volume roadways. In Virginia, as with most regions of the United States, TMCs were aggressively deployed in the late 1990s and early 2000s. ...

  13. TRAFFIC SIGN RECOGNATION WITH VIDEO PROCESSING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa AYDIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, traffic signs are aimed to be recognized and identified from a video image which is taken through a video camera. To accomplish our aim, a traffic sign recognition program has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The target traffic sign are recognized in the video image with the developed program.

  14. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  15. Light signals for road traffic control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the

  16. ReFlow: Reports on Internet Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the traffic, technologies and main characteristics of today’s networks. For many years Internet2 maintained a public website with statistics about the traffic in the Abilene network. This site was

  17. Capturing Internet Traffic Dynamics through Graph Distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Fu, B.; Jamakovic, A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the Internet have typically focused either on the routing system, i.e. the paths chosen to reach a given destination, or on the evolution of traffic on a physical link. In this paper, we combine routing and traffic, and study for the first time the evolution of the traffic on the Internet

  18. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of self-propelled...

  19. Empirical analysis of heterogeneous traffic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambarwati, L.; Pel, A.J.; Verhaeghe, R.J.; Van Arem, B.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic flow in many developing countries is strongly mixed comprising vehicle types, such as motorcycles, cars, (mini) buses, and trucks; furthermore, traffic flow typically exhibits free inter-lane exchanges. This phenomenon causes a complex vehicle interaction, rendering most existing traffic

  20. Computational intelligence for traffic and mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wuhong

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the new development of computation intelligence for traffic, transportation and mobility, the main contents include traffic safety, mobility analysis, intelligent transportation system, smart vehicle, transportation behavior, driver modeling and assistance, transportation risk analysis and reliability system analysis, vehicle operation and active safety, urban traffic management and planning.

  1. [Bitemporal hemianopia in road traffic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzizok, T; Schwerdtfeger, G

    2006-09-01

    Patients suffering from pituitary adenomas and diseases of the chiasma typically show a bitemporal hemianopia. The residual undisturbed nasal visual fields of both eyes should have an extension of (at least) 120 degrees and are according to the actual German traffic rules (FeVAndV) for cars of the classes A, B, M, L and T. The intact half fields fit geometrically to one virtual normal field, that seems to correspond in the centre of a normal field. Reports on this problem often do not address correctly the questions of suitability for participation in road traffic. The case of a patient with typical bitemporal hemianopia illustrates the sensorial peculiarities: the functioning temporal retinal halves do not correspond. This patient suffered additionally from disturbing diplopia due to a small-angle exotropia. The extent of the performed eye muscle surgery was selected to induce a slight overcorrection, i. e., resulting in 3 to 5 degrees esotropia. This eliminated the diplopia, but resulted in a vertical scotoma of the extension of the esotropia. In bitemporal hemianopia the undisturbed nasal visual half fields do not add up to a "nearly normal field of one eye". Moreover, either diplopia or--much more dangerous in traffic--a central vertical scotoma is the result. The explanation for this is a sliding of the hemifields of each eye without stabilisation by corresponding areas of the retinas of the right and left eyes. The peripheral extension of the visual field is not the key to the problem to imagine how a patient with typical bitemporal hemianopia will visualise daily life and traffic. In bitemporal hemianopia there is substantially no eligibility for driving a car or motor bicycle in road traffic.

  2. Traffic Generator (TrafficGen) Version 1.4.2: Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    specific ports and flows describing the start time, stop time, and specific traffic pattern to send. The variety of patterns MGEN offers enables the... traffic flows are represented by horizontal bars indicating the start time, stop time, and specific traffic pattern that will be sent. Traffic flows can...communication flows overlaid on a topographical map . TrafficGen interacts with SDT3D by sending node link commands via TCP or UDP to the IP address and port

  3. Dynamic Traffic Congestion Simulation and Dissipation Control Based on Traffic Flow Theory Model and Neural Network Data Calibration Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li; Lin, Shimin; Yang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Nanfeng; Yang, Ji; Li, Yong; Zhou, Handong; Yang, Feng; Li, Zhifu

    2017-01-01

    Traffic congestion is a common problem in many countries, especially in big cities. At present, China’s urban road traffic accidents occur frequently, the occurrence frequency is high, the accident causes traffic congestion, and accidents cause traffic congestion and vice versa. The occurrence of traffic accidents usually leads to the reduction of road traffic capacity and the formation of traffic bottlenecks, causing the traffic congestion. In this paper, the formation and propagation of tra...

  4. Simulation Study of Traffic Accidents in Bidirectional Traffic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Najem

    Conditions for the occurrence of bidirectional collisions are developed based on the Simon-Gutowitz bidirectional traffic model. Three types of dangerous situations can occur in this model. We analyze those corresponding to head-on collision; rear-end collision and lane-changing collision. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute the probability of the occurrence of these collisions for different values of the oncoming cars' density. It is found that the risk of collisions is important when the density of cars in one lane is small and that of the other lane is high enough. The influence of different proportions of heavy vehicles is also studied. We found that heavy vehicles cause an important reduction of traffic flow on the home lane and provoke an increase of the risk of car accidents.

  5. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    for traffic classification, which can be used for nearly real-time processing of big amounts of data using affordable CPU and memory resources. Other questions are related to methods for real-time estimation of the application Quality of Service (QoS) level based on the results obtained by the traffic......Traffic monitoring and analysis can be done for multiple different reasons: to investigate the usage of network resources, assess the performance of network applications, adjust Quality of Service (QoS) policies in the network, log the traffic to comply with the law, or create realistic models...... classifier. This thesis is focused on topics connected with traffic classification and analysis, while the work on methods for QoS assessment is limited to defining the connections with the traffic classification and proposing a general algorithm. We introduced the already known methods for traffic...

  6. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... of the project were not previously considered. We define a special inseparable cost function and develop a solution complex capable of using this cost function. In relation to calibration and estimation of statistical models used for dynamic route guidance we worked with generating random number sequences...

  7. Stochastic stability of traffic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Michael

    2012-12-01

    We study the ergodic properties of a family of traffic maps acting in the space of bi-infinite sequences of real numbers. The corresponding dynamics mimics the motion of vehicles in a simple traffic flow, which explains the name. Using connections to topological Markov chains we obtain nontrivial invariant measures, prove their stochastic stability and calculate the topological entropy. Technically these results in the deterministic setting are related to the construction of measures of maximal entropy via measures uniformly distributed on periodic points of a given period, while in the random setting we construct (spatially) Markov invariant measures directly. In distinction to conventional results the limiting measures in the non-lattice case are non-ergodic. The average velocity of individual ‘vehicles’ as a function of their density and its stochastic stability is studied as well.

  8. Crowding effects in vehicular traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Samuel L Combinido

    Full Text Available While the impact of crowding on the diffusive transport of molecules within a cell is widely studied in biology, it has thus far been neglected in traffic systems where bulk behavior is the main concern. Here, we study the effects of crowding due to car density and driving fluctuations on the transport of vehicles. Using a microscopic model for traffic, we found that crowding can push car movement from a superballistic down to a subdiffusive state. The transition is also associated with a change in the shape of the probability distribution of positions from a negatively-skewed normal to an exponential distribution. Moreover, crowding broadens the distribution of cars' trap times and cluster sizes. At steady state, the subdiffusive state persists only when there is a large variability in car speeds. We further relate our work to prior findings from random walk models of transport in cellular systems.

  9. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  10. Software for Simulating Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Bilimoria, Karl; Grabbe, Shon; Chatterji, Gano; Sheth, Kapil; Mulfinger, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) is a system of software for performing computational simulations for evaluating advanced concepts of advanced air-traffic management. FACET includes a program that generates a graphical user interface plus programs and databases that implement computational models of weather, airspace, airports, navigation aids, aircraft performance, and aircraft trajectories. Examples of concepts studied by use of FACET include aircraft self-separation for free flight; prediction of air-traffic-controller workload; decision support for direct routing; integration of spacecraft-launch operations into the U.S. national airspace system; and traffic- flow-management using rerouting, metering, and ground delays. Aircraft can be modeled as flying along either flight-plan routes or great-circle routes as they climb, cruise, and descend according to their individual performance models. The FACET software is modular and is written in the Java and C programming languages. The architecture of FACET strikes a balance between flexibility and fidelity; as a consequence, FACET can be used to model systemwide airspace operations over the contiguous U.S., involving as many as 10,000 aircraft, all on a single desktop or laptop computer running any of a variety of operating systems. Two notable applications of FACET include: (1) reroute conformance monitoring algorithms that have been implemented in one of the Federal Aviation Administration s nationally deployed, real-time, operational systems; and (2) the licensing and integration of FACET with the commercially available Flight Explorer, which is an Internet- based, real-time flight-tracking system.

  11. Traffic Conflict Detection and Resolution (CDR) in ERTMS System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Taomei

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses the conflict problem in railway traffic. Although the railway traffic management nowadays can partly be carried out by a traffic control system (or a traffic management system), the control system is insufficient to make operational decisions once the occurrence of disturbance gets frequent, particularly at the junctions with dense traffic. Traffic conflicts may arise along with the disturbances. The traffic controllers (and dispatchers) are often required to handle thes...

  12. Analysis of vehicular traffic flow in the major areas of Kuala Lumpur utilizing open-traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Saargunawathy; Ali, Muhammad; Yusof, Kamaludin Mohamad; Suhaili, Ramdhan

    2017-09-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion occurs when a large number of drivers are overcrowded on the road and the traffic flow does not run smoothly. Traffic congestion causes chaos on the road and interruption to daily activities of users. Time consumed on road give lots of negative effects on productivity, social behavior, environmental and cost to economy. Congestion is worsens and leads to havoc during the emergency such as flood, accidents, road maintenance and etc., where behavior of traffic flow is always unpredictable and uncontrollable. Real-time and historical traffic data are critical inputs for most traffic flow analysis applications. Researcher attempt to predict traffic using simulations as there is no exact model of traffic flow exists due to its high complexity. Open Traffic is an open source platform available for traffic data analysis linked to Open Street Map (OSM). This research is aimed to study and understand the Open Traffic platform. The real-time traffic flow pattern in Kuala Lumpur area was successfully been extracted and analyzed using Open Traffic. It was observed that the congestion occurs on every major road in Kuala Lumpur and most of it owes to the offices and the economic and commercial centers during rush hours. At some roads the congestion occurs at night due to the tourism activities.

  13. A System for Traffic Violation Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourdine Aliane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the framework and components of an experimental platform for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS aimed at providing drivers with a feedback about traffic violations they have committed during their driving. The system is able to detect some specific traffic violations, record data associated to these faults in a local data-base, and also allow visualization of the spatial and temporal information of these traffic violations in a geographical map using the standard Google Earth tool. The test-bed is mainly composed of two parts: a computer vision subsystem for traffic sign detection and recognition which operates during both day and nighttime, and an event data recorder (EDR for recording data related to some specific traffic violations. The paper covers firstly the description of the hardware architecture and then presents the policies used for handling traffic violations.

  14. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    CERN Document Server

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  15. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Daamen, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  16. Using Visualization Techniques in Multilayer Traffic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Arnold

    We describe visualization techniques for multilayer traffic modeling - i.e., traffic models that span several protocol layers, and traffic models of protocols that cross layers. Multilayer traffic modeling is challenging, as one must deal with disparate traffic sources; control loops; the effects of network elements such as IP routers; cross-layer protocols; asymmetries in bandwidth, session lengths, and application behaviors; and an enormous number of complex interactions among the various factors. We illustrate by using visualization techniques to identify relationships, transformations, and scaling; to smooth simulation and measurement data; to examine boundary cases, subtle effects and interactions, and outliers; to fit models; and to compare models with others that have fewer parameters. Our experience suggests that visualization techniques can provide practitioners with extraordinary insight about complex multilayer traffic effects and interactions that are common in emerging next-generation networks.

  17. Traffic Flow Management Wrap-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon

    2011-01-01

    Traffic Flow Management involves the scheduling and routing of air traffic subject to airport and airspace capacity constraints, and the efficient use of available airspace. Significant challenges in this area include: (1) weather integration and forecasting, (2) accounting for user preferences in the Traffic Flow Management decision making process, and (3) understanding and mitigating the environmental impacts of air traffic on the environment. To address these challenges, researchers in the Traffic Flow Management area are developing modeling, simulation and optimization techniques to route and schedule air traffic flights and flows while accommodating user preferences, accounting for system uncertainties and considering the environmental impacts of aviation. This presentation will highlight some of the major challenges facing researchers in this domain, while also showcasing recent innovations designed to address these challenges.

  18. Weather-responsive traffic management : real solutions for serious traffic problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This flyer describes how weather responsive traffic management (WRTM) can prevent or mitigate the effects of weather on traffic operations and reduce congestion. The three types of WRTM described in the flyer include 1) Advisory strategies that provi...

  19. Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic big data, a dynamic part is added to traffic correlation model. Real-time correction algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network is presented to overcome the nonlinear mapping problems. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling methods.

  20. An assessment of traffic safety culture related to engagement efforts to improve traffic safety : research programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Center for Health and Safety Culture at Montana State University developed a survey to investigate the traffic safety culture related to engagement in traffic safety citizenship behaviors. The development of the survey was based on an augmented f...

  1. Traffic analysis toolbox volume XI : weather and traffic analysis, modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a weather module for the traffic analysis tools program. It provides traffic engineers, transportation modelers and decisions makers with a guide that can incorporate weather impacts into transportation system analysis and mode...

  2. Seat belt, DWI, and other traffic violations among recent immigrants in Florida and Tennessee : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The rapidly changing racial and ethnic composition of the : U.S. population is important to traffic safety specialists : because involvement in fatal traffic crashes varies across : racial and ethnic groups. Some research suggests that certain : mino...

  3. Fractal Analysis On Internet Traffic Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, K. B.; Choo, K. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Fractal behavior and long-range dependence have been observed in tele-traffic measurement and characterization. In this paper we show results of application of the fractal analysis to internet traffic via various methods. Our result demonstrate that the internet traffic exhibits self-similarity. Time-scale analysis show to be an effective way to characterize the local irregularity. Based on the result of this study, these two Internet time series exhibit fractal characteristic with long-range...

  4. THE ORGANIZATION OF AIR TRAFFIC PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Akimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of civil aviation aircraft flights delays, because of the lack of efficiency of the air traffic planning. As a result, airports and airlines have financial losses. Analysis of delays at Moscow aerodromes, Tegel and Munich aerodromes are given. The principles of organization of air traffic planning system in the Russian Federation are described, as well as recommendations the use of which will improve the efficiency of the air traffic planning system in the Russian Federation.

  5. The Technical Issues Of Traffic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Vladimirovich Yegorov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main problem in the analysis of Internet traffic associated with a large number of network applications, complex patterns of communication and a significant amounts of information. The definition of the category of traffic using the analysis of the number of port is irrelevant for P2P applications, streaming data and many other types of network applications. The article describes some of technical issues related to the analysis of Internet traffic.

  6. Traffic Monitoring and Control Using RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Thakur; Ankita Chauhan; Ajay Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Traffic congestion and tidal flow management were recognized as major problems in modern urban areas, which have caused much frustration and loss of man hours. The operation of standard traffic lights which are currently deployed in many junctions, are based on predetermined timing schemes, which are fixed during the installation and remain until further resetting. The timing is no more than a default setup to control what may be considered as normal traffic. Although every road junction by n...

  7. Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rohit; Jain, Raj; Fahmy, Sonia; Vandalore, Bobby; Goyal, Mukul

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "Traffic Management for Satellite-ATM Networks" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Traffic management issues for TCP/IP based data services over satellite-ATM networks; 2) Design issues for TCP/IP over ATM; 3) Optimization of the performance of TCP/IP over ATM for long delay networks; and 4) Evaluation of ATM service categories for TCP/IP traffic.

  8. The negative effects of homogeneous traffic on merging sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Bart; van Berkum, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    Homogeneous traffic flows are believed to be better in absorbing disturbances, raise capacity and stimulate traffic safety. Measures to make traffic more homogeneous are therefore often taken to increase capacity. This paper shows that the ability of a traffic flow to deal with traffic coming from

  9. Traffic light control by multiagent reinforcement learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.; Groen, F.C.A.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  10. Traffic Light Control by Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  11. Modelling of H.264 MPEG2 TS traffic source

    OpenAIRE

    Kľúčik, Stanislav; Lackovič, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with IPTV traffic source modelling. Traffic sources are used for simulation, emulation and real network testing. This model is made as a derivation of known recorded traffic sources that are analysed and statistically processed. As the results show the proposed model causes in comparison to the known traffic source very similar network traffic parameters when used in a simulated network.

  12. GSM Network Traffic Analysis | Ani | Nigerian Journal of Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GSM networks are traffic intensive specifically the signaling traffic. Evolvement of effective and efficient performance management strategy requires accurate quantification of network signaling traffic volume along side with the user traffic volume. Inaccurate quantification may lead to serious network traffic congestion and ...

  13. On traffic modelling in GPRS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Prasad, Ramjee

    2005-01-01

    Optimal design and dimensioning of wireless data networks, such as GPRS, requires the knowledge of traffic characteristics of different data services. This paper presents an in-detail analysis of an IP-level traffic measurements taken in an operational GPRS network. The data measurements reported...... here are done at the Gi interface. The aim of this paper is to reveal some key statistics of GPRS data applications and to validate if the existing traffic models can adequately describe traffic volume and inter-arrival time distribution for different services. Additionally, we present a method of user...

  14. Robust Traffic Flow Management: Coevolutionary Approach Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop a Coevolutionary Decision Support Tool (CDST) that explicitly incorporates weather uncertainty (non-probabilistically) into strategic Traffic Flow...

  15. Dynamic traffic grooming with multigranularity traffic in WDM optical mesh networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zeng, Qingji; Liu, Jimin; Xiao, Pengcheng; Liu, Hua; Xiao, Shilin

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, a traffic-grooming problem for multi-granularity traffic of SDH/SONET in WDM grooming mesh networks is investigated. We propose a path select routing algorithm to solve this problem. The performances of this traffic grooming path select routing algorithm are evaluated in WDM grooming networks. Finally, we presented and compared the simulation results of this algorithm in dynamic traffic grooming WDM mesh networks with that of other algorithms.

  16. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...... signaling. The priority adjustment is based on both the Composite Available Capacity (CAC) and the radio conditions of the candidate layers. Compared to broadcast AP, the proposed scheme achieves better load balancing performance and improves network capacity, given that the User Equipment (UE) inactivity...

  17. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...... of the road network is aggregated. As a result the calculations reveal only what the mass of vehicles are doing and not what a single vehicle is doing. This is the crucial difference to ABIT (Agent Based Individual Trafficguidance). ABIT is based on the fact that information on the destination of each vehicle...

  18. Psychoactive Medication and Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris C. Verster

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Driving a car is important to maintain independence and participate in society. Many of those who use psychoactive medication are outpatients and are thus likely to drive a vehicle. Most common adverse effects that impair driving are reduced alertness, affected psychomotor functioning and impaired vision. This review discusses the effects on driving ability of most commonly prescribed psychoactive drugs, including hypnotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, analgesics and stimulant drugs. Within these categories of medicines significant differences concerning their impact on driving ability are evident. The International Council on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety (ICADTS categorization can help physicians to make a choice between treatments when patients want to drive a car.

  19. Scaling in Computer Network Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-07

    behaviour, measurement .... 29 The Self-Similar Traffic Model Fractional Gaussian Noise (fGn) and Fractional Brownian Motion (fBm) The unique...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADM001750, Wavelets and Multifractal Analysis... Multifractality Wavelet qth order moments: IE|dX(j, k)|q ∼ C 2αqj, j → 0. Estimating the LHS from data using Sq(j) = 1 nj ∑ k |dX(j, k)|q, and measure the slopes

  20. Travelers ability to observe changes in traffic intensities and traffic light settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Do, Michael; Middag, Wilco; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart; ITSC,

    2011-01-01

    Travel choice behavior is an important determinant in traffic and subject to human imperfection and bounded rationality. In decision-making processes travelers seldom act perfectly rational. Traffic models and traffic network management measure could become more realistic and effective, if

  1. Forecasting Multivariate Road Traffic Flows Using Bayesian Dynamic Graphical Models, Splines and Other Traffic Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Queen, Catriona; Albers, Casper J.

    Traffic flow data are routinely collected for many networks worldwide. These invariably large data sets can be used as part of a traffic management system, for which good traffic flow forecasting models are crucial. The linear multiregression dynamic model (LMDM) has been shown to be promising for

  2. Did Chile's traffic law reform push police enforcement? Understanding Chile's traffic fatalities and injuries reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif-Munoz, José Ignacio; Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; van den Berg, Axel

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the current study is to determine to what extent the reduction of Chile's traffic fatalities and injuries during 2000-2012 was related to the police traffic enforcement increment registered after the introduction of its 2005 traffic law reform. A unique dataset with assembled information from public institutions and analyses based on ordinary least square and robust random effects models was carried out. Dependent variables were traffic fatality and severe injury rates per population and vehicle fleet. Independent variables were: (1) presence of new national traffic law; (2) police officers per population; (3) number of traffic tickets per police officer; and (4) interaction effect of number of traffic tickets per police officer with traffic law reform. Oil prices, alcohol consumption, proportion of male population 15-24 years old, unemployment, road infrastructure investment, years' effects and regions' effects represented control variables. Empirical estimates from instrumental variables suggest that the enactment of the traffic law reform in interaction with number of traffic tickets per police officer is significantly associated with a decrease of 8% in traffic fatalities and 7% in severe injuries. Piecewise regression model results for the 2007-2012 period suggest that police traffic enforcement reduced traffic fatalities by 59% and severe injuries by 37%. Findings suggest that traffic law reforms in order to have an effect on both traffic fatality and injury rates reduction require changes in police enforcement practices. Last, this case also illustrates how the diffusion of successful road safety practices globally promoted by WHO and World Bank can be an important influence for enhancing national road safety practices. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. 40 CFR 93.128 - Traffic signal synchronization projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic signal synchronization... synchronization projects. Traffic signal synchronization projects may be approved, funded, and implemented without... include such regionally significant traffic signal synchronization projects. ...

  4. Traffic flow characteristic and capacity in intelligent work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Intellgent transportation system (ITS) technologies are utilized to manage traffic flow and safety in : highway work zones. Traffic management plans for work zones require queuing analyses to determine : the anticipated traffic backups, but the predi...

  5. Road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Nordsborg, Rikke B

    2012-01-01

    Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures.......Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures....

  6. Routing Post-Disaster Traffic Floods Heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Nasralla, ZHA; Musa, MOI; El-Gorashi, TEH; Elmirghani, JMH

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present three heuristics for mitigating post-disaster traffic floods. First exploiting the excess capacity, second rerouting backup paths, finally redistributing the whole traffic by rerouting the working and protection paths to accommodate more floods. Using these mitigation approaches can reduce the blocking by up to 30%.

  7. Automatic speech recognition in air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Joakim

    1990-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology and its application to the Air Traffic Control system are described. The advantages of applying ASR to Air Traffic Control, as well as criteria for choosing a suitable ASR system are presented. Results from previous research and directions for future work at the Flight Transportation Laboratory are outlined.

  8. Green Wave Traffic Optimization - A Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warberg, Andreas; Larsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Rene Munk

    The objective of this survey is to cover the research in the area of adaptive traffic control with emphasis on the applied optimization methods. The problem of optimizing traffic signals can be viewed in various ways, depending on political, economic and ecological goals. The survey highlights so...

  9. An analysis of the traffic safety phenomenon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E. & Kranenburg, A.

    1982-01-01

    The lack of traffic safety is a combination of the critical coincidence of circumstances in the traffic of incidents (near-accidents) and accidents with unwanted (permanent) consequences, such as fatalities, injured and disabled persons and material damage. This definition covers the whole of the

  10. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaioannou, S.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Vyrsokinos, K.

    2012-01-01

    . The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce...

  11. Epidemiology o.f· Traffic Accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    almost reached the opposite pavement but had miscalcu- lated the speed of oncoming traffic in relation to his own speed. Of the 521 fatal traffic accidents analysed (Table Ill),. 11,7% were due to persons falling from moving vehides- some were due to passengers attempting to alight from moving buses, while others fell from ...

  12. Neural network system for traffic flow management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Elibiary, Khalid J.; Petersson, L. E. Rickard

    1992-09-01

    Atlanta will be the home of several special events during the next five years ranging from the 1996 Olympics to the 1994 Super Bowl. When combined with the existing special events (Braves, Falcons, and Hawks games, concerts, festivals, etc.), the need to effectively manage traffic flow from surface streets to interstate highways is apparent. This paper describes a system for traffic event response and management for intelligent navigation utilizing signals (TERMINUS) developed at Georgia Tech for adaptively managing special event traffic flows in the Atlanta, Georgia area. TERMINUS (the original name given Atlanta, Georgia based upon its role as a rail line terminating center) is an intelligent surface street signal control system designed to manage traffic flow in Metro Atlanta. The system consists of three components. The first is a traffic simulation of the downtown Atlanta area around Fulton County Stadium that models the flow of traffic when a stadium event lets out. Parameters for the surrounding area include modeling for events during various times of day (such as rush hour). The second component is a computer graphics interface with the simulation that shows the traffic flows achieved based upon intelligent control system execution. The final component is the intelligent control system that manages surface street light signals based upon feedback from control sensors that dynamically adapt the intelligent controller's decision making process. The intelligent controller is a neural network model that allows TERMINUS to control the configuration of surface street signals to optimize the flow of traffic away from special events.

  13. Gaussian queues in light and heavy traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dębicki, K.; Kosiński, K.M.; Mandjes, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate Gaussian queues in the light-traffic and in the heavy-traffic regime. Let $Q^{(c)}_{X}\\equiv\\{Q^{(c)}_{X}(t):t\\ge0\\}$ denote a stationary buffer content process for a fluid queue fed by the centered Gaussian process X≡{X(t):t∈ℝ} with stationary increments, X(0)=0,

  14. GPS queues with heterogeneous traffic classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Sem; Mandjes, M.R.H.; van Uitert, Miranda

    2002-01-01

    We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic classes are served in accordance with the generalized processor sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as weighted fair queueing (WFQ), have emerged as an important mechanism for

  15. Will Automated Vehicles Negatively Impact Traffic Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Calvert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With low-level vehicle automation already available, there is a necessity to estimate its effects on traffic flow, especially if these could be negative. A long gradual transition will occur from manual driving to automated driving, in which many yet unknown traffic flow dynamics will be present. These effects have the potential to increasingly aid or cripple current road networks. In this contribution, we investigate these effects using an empirically calibrated and validated simulation experiment, backed up with findings from literature. We found that low-level automated vehicles in mixed traffic will initially have a small negative effect on traffic flow and road capacities. The experiment further showed that any improvement in traffic flow will only be seen at penetration rates above 70%. Also, the capacity drop appeared to be slightly higher with the presence of low-level automated vehicles. The experiment further investigated the effect of bottleneck severity and truck shares on traffic flow. Improvements to current traffic models are recommended and should include a greater detail and understanding of driver-vehicle interaction, both in conventional and in mixed traffic flow. Further research into behavioural shifts in driving is also recommended due to limited data and knowledge of these dynamics.

  16. Uppaal Stratego for Intelligent Traffic Lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Andreas Berre; Huang, Chao; Kildebogaard, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Modern traffic lights use information from induction loops and to some extend radar information. Recent developments in radar technology has made it possible to obtain more detailed information relevant to the control mechanism of the traffic light. Unfortunately much of the current controllers d...

  17. Floating car data for traffic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses Floating Car Data (FCD) for both automatic and manual detection of queues in traffic. The system is developed under EU’s Tempo program. The systems consists of small hardware units placed in mobile traffic report units (we use taxis...

  18. Traffic calming schemes : opportunities and implementation strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van (ed.)

    2003-01-01

    Commissioned by the Swedish National Road Authority, this report aims to provide a concise overview of knowledge of and experiences with traffic calming schemes in urban areas, both on a technical level and on a policy level. Traffic calming refers to a combination of network planning and

  19. Environmental protection and traffic regulation in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaš Plevnik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises the proposed chapter on traffic in the National programme for environmental protection. The main theme focuses on the suggested goals and measures to reach sustainable development in Slovenia. The goals and measures are derived from the current situation and traffic development trends and their influence on the environment, from international guidelines and the current Slovene policies.

  20. Traffic load effects in prestrssed concrete bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Allaix, D.L.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The traffic load effect of a two-span prestressed concrete bridge with two traffic lanes is analyzed in this paper. The design value of the result-ing bending moment in some prescribed sections is estimated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. The model for the vehicular loads is derived from a set

  1. Traffic safety facts 1995 : large trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, 376,000 large trucks (gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 pounds) were involved in traffic crashes in the United States; 4,453 were involved in fatal crashes. A total of 4,903 people died (12 percent of all the traffic fatalities...

  2. Traffic safety facts 1993 : large trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In 1994, 4,615 large trucks (gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 pounds) were involved in fatal traffic crashes in the United States. A total of 5,112 people died in those crashes-13 percent of the 40,676 traffic fatalities reported in 19...

  3. Traffic safety facts 1996 : large trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, 393,000 large trucks (gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 pounds) were involved in traffic crashes in the United States; 4,740 were involved in fatal crashes. A total of 5,126 people died (12 percent of all the traffic fatalities...

  4. Traffic safety facts 1994 : large trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, 4,615 large trucks (gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 pounds) were involved in fatal traffic crashes in the United States. A total of 5,112 people died in those crashes-13 percent of the 40,676 traffic fatalities reported in 19...

  5. Traffic safety facts 1999 : large trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, 475,000 large trucks (gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 lb) were involved in traffic crashes in the United States; 4,898 were involved in fatal crashes. A total of 5,362 people died (13% of all the traffic fatalities reported i...

  6. Evaluating Performances of Traffic Noise Models | Oyedepo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic noise in decibel dB(A) were measured at six locations using 407780A Integrating Sound Level Meter, while spot speed and traffic volume were collected with cine-camera. The predicted sound exposure level (SEL) was evaluated using Burgess, British and FWHA model. The average noise level obtained are 77.64 ...

  7. Road traffic emission monitoring on motorways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Beek, P.J.G. van

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic noise is one of the major environmental noise sources that is known to cause health problems. Despite existing noise reception items, the continuing growth of traffic causes higher levels than the lims allow. Consequently, excessive costs are incurred for noise barriers along roads and

  8. Traffic flow dynamics data, models and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This textbook provides a comprehensive and instructive coverage of vehicular traffic flow dynamics and modeling. It makes this fascinating interdisciplinary topic, which to date was only documented in parts by specialized monographs, accessible to a broad readership. Numerous figures and problems with solutions help the reader to quickly understand and practice the presented concepts. This book is targeted at students of physics and traffic engineering and, more generally, also at students and professionals in computer science, mathematics, and interdisciplinary topics. It also offers material for project work in programming and simulation at college and university level. The main part, after presenting different categories of traffic data, is devoted to a mathematical description of the dynamics of traffic flow, covering macroscopic models which describe traffic in terms of density, as well as microscopic many-particle models in which each particle corresponds to a vehicle and its driver. Focus chapters on ...

  9. Traffic and Granular Flow ’03

    CERN Document Server

    Luding, Stefan; Bovy, Piet; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the ...

  10. The Analysis of Rail Traffic Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Gaidelis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The systems used for rail traffic control are compared. Their advantages and disadvantages are analysed. The present and future development of rail traffic control systems in various countries is considered. The possibility of adapting these microprocessor-based traffic control systems to the conditions of Lithuania is analysed. For this purpose, the analysis of goods transported by Lithuanian railways is made, and the non-uniform amount of goods transported on different road sections is evaluated. The number of the delayed trains due to the failure of traffic control systems in recent years is determined, the cost of installing a new microprocessor-based traffic control system at the railway station, as well as its repay time and the demand for employees are calculated. Article in Lithuanian

  11. Evaluation of traffic pollution on Moscow network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukanin, V.N.; Buslaev, A.P.; Yashina, M. [Moscow State Automobile and Road Technical University, MADI-TU, Mscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The Moscow vehicle fleet grows each year and traffic is a major source of air pollutants in Moscow. We have developed a model for air quality evaluation and management in a megalopolis in order to improve ecological parameters of vehicles. We have received estimations of traffic influence on human health. These analytical methods allow to regulate traffic flows on road network and structure of car fleet in order to minimise damage to the environment in large cities. Simulation methods are tested on traffic data of Moscow City. The purpose of the research is development of principles, modelling and experimental methods of air quality management in a large city in order to improve ecological parameters of vehicles, to regulate traffic flows on road network and structure of car fleet. (authors)

  12. Visual Analysis in Traffic & Re-identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas

    Automated analysis of traffic situations - be it cars, signs, or pedestrians - is becoming increasingly relevant and feasible with the advent of powerful sensors, computers, and algorithms. This PhD thesis tackles three themes within this realm: Traffic sign detection, pedestrian detection...... and analysis, and person re-identification. In traffic sign detection, the work comprises a thorough survey of the state of the art, assembly of the worlds largest public dataset with U.S. traffic signs, and work in machine learning based detection algorithms. It was shown that detection of U.S. traffic signs....../SVM has been put forth, which gives the speed advantage of Viola-Jones and the detection performance of HOG/SVM. Work has also been done in tracking the gaze of drivers to determine which pedestrians a driver may have missed. Finally, pedestrian tracking has been performed in an attempt to predict...

  13. Review on Driverless Traffic from Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tingting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The move towards automated driving is gaining ground. This paper reviews the development process of self-driving technology and discusses the safety and efficiency advantages of autonomous vehicles. The discussion shows that the existing traffic management system, including transport infrastructures and regulations, should be changed accordingly to maximize the advantages of autonomous driving. Thus, this paper subsequently gives an insight of the traffic management from three aspects: fully self-driving traffic infrastructures, mixed traffic infrastructures and regulations. First, it is summarized in detail what should be adjusted in intersections, parking lots, pedestrian crossings, ramps, signs and markings. With the transformation of traffic infrastructures, the advantages of driverless car will be more pronounced on account of increased capacity, reduced delay and land use. Also, this paper indicates that the implementations of strict product liability for self-driving car manufacturers and no-fault tort liability for users are applicable to automated vehicle accidents.

  14. Modeling Network Traffic in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discovers that although network traffic has the complicated short- and long-range temporal dependence, the corresponding wavelet coefficients are no longer long-range dependent. Therefore, a "short-range" dependent process can be used to model network traffic in the wavelet domain. Both independent and Markov models are investigated. Theoretical analysis shows that the independent wavelet model is sufficiently accurate in terms of the buffer overflow probability for Fractional Gaussian Noise traffic. Any model, which captures additional correlations in the wavelet domain, only improves the performance marginally. The independent wavelet model is then used as a unified approach to model network traffic including VBR MPEG video and Ethernet data. The computational complexity is O(N for developing such wavelet models and generating synthesized traffic of length N, which is among the lowest attained.

  15. An assessment of a traffic monitoring system for a major traffic generator to improve regional planning : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The opening of a major traffic generator in the San Antonio area provided an opportunity to develop and : implement an extensive traffic monitoring system to analyze local, area, and regional traffic impacts from the : generator. Researchers reviewed...

  16. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  17. Research on the Method of Traffic Organization and Optimization Based on Dynamic Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern transportation system is becoming sluggish by traffic jams, so much so that it can harm the economic and society in our country. One of the reasons is the surging vehicles day by day. Another reason is the shortage of the traffic supply seriously. But the most important reason is that the traffic organization and optimization hardly met the conditions of modern transport development. In this paper, the practical method of the traffic organization and optimization used in regional area is explored by the dynamic traffic network analysis method. Firstly, the operational states of the regional traffic network are obtained by simulation method based on the self-developed traffic simulation software DynaCHINA, in which the improved traffic flow simulation model was proposed in order to be more suitable for actual domestic urban transport situation. Then the appropriated optimization model and algorithm were proposed according to different optimized content and organization goals, and the traffic simulation processes more suitable to regional optimization were designed exactly. Finally, a regional network in Tai’an city was selected as an example. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible. It can provide strong scientific and technological support for the traffic management department.

  18. Traffic forecaster for MPLS multimedia data streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Barry; Lin, Freddie

    2006-05-01

    Contemporary high performance data networks carry a wide range of multimedia services (voice, video, audio, text, sensor data, etc.) that require an outstanding Quality of Service (QoS) to provide performance guarantees in priority delivery, latency, bandwidth utilization, load balancing, etc. With the advent of recent Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) network standards, the QoS has made significant progress in performance to provide these performance guarantees. Right now, attention has turned to the task of managing these QoS networks more efficiently through the handling of network traffic. We have investigated a novel Network Traffic Forecasting Assisted QoS Planner technology that will provide constantly updated forecasts of data traffic and server loads to any application that needs this information. Using source models of voice, video and data traffic based on empirical studies of TCP/IP data traffic carried out by Paxson and Floyd in the 1990's, our studies have shown that the system may provide up to 43% bandwidth savings for MPLS data streams, by predicting future traffic flows and reserving network resources to accommodate the predicted traffic. The system additionally provides a means to submit bandwidth reservation requests for those applications that need assured service guarantees for data delivery. The technology essentially increases the efficiency and effectiveness of multimedia information and communication network infrastructure that supports multiple or adaptive QoS levels for multimedia data networking and information system applications.

  19. A First Look at Modern Enterprise Traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Ruoming; Mark Allman, Mark; Bennett, Mike; Lee, Jason; Paxson, Vern; Tierney, Brian

    2005-06-01

    While wide-area Internet traffic has been heavily studied for many years, the characteristics of traffic inside Internet enterprises remain almost wholly unexplored. Nearly all of the studies of enterprise traffic available in the literature are well over a decade old and focus on individual LANs rather than whole sites. In this paper we present a broad overview of internal enterprise traffic recorded at a medium-sized site. The packet traces span more than 100 hours, over which activity from a total of several thousand internal hosts appears. This wealth of data--which we are publicly releasing in anonymized form--spans a wide range of dimensions. While we cannot form general conclusions using data from a single site, and clearly this sort of data merits additional in-depth study in a number of ways, in this work we endeavor to characterize a number of the most salient aspects of the traffic. Our goal is to provide a first sense of ways in which modern enterprise traffic is similar to wide-area Internet traffic, and ways in which it is quite different.

  20. Remotely Accessed Vehicle Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Raida

    2010-06-01

    The ever increasing number of vehicles in most metropolitan cities around the world and the limitation in altering the transportation infrastructure, led to serious traffic congestion and an increase in the travelling time. In this work we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System (TMS) that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. The system is based on utilizing Embedded Web Servers (EWS) technology to design a web-based TMS. The EWS located at each intersection uses IP technology for communicating remotely with a Central Traffic Management Unit (CTMU) located at the traffic department authority. Friendly GUI software installed at the CTMU will be able to monitor the sequence of operation of the traffic lights and the presence of traffic at each intersection as well as remotely controlling the operation of the signals. The system has been validated by constructing a prototype that resembles the real application.

  1. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  2. A statistical approach to vehicular traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Jan; Pöschel, Thorsten

    1995-02-01

    A two-dimensional cellular automaton is introduced to model the flow and jamming of vehicular traffic in cities. Each site of the automaton represents a crossing where a finite number of cars can wait approaching the crossing from each of the four directions. The flow of cars obeys realistic traffic rules. We investigate the dependence of the average velocity of cars on the global traffic density. At a critical threshold for the density the average velocity reduces drastically caused by jamming. For the low-density regime we provide analytical results which agree with the numerical results.

  3. Elevator traffic handbook theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Barney, Gina

    2015-01-01

    This second edition of this well-respected book covers all aspects of the traffic design and control of vertical transportation systems in buildings, making it an essential reference for vertical transportation engineers, other members of the design team, and researchers. The book introduces the basic principles of circulation, outlines traffic design methods and examines and analyses traffic control using worked examples and case studies to illustrate key points. The latest analysis techniques are set out, and the book is up-to-date with current technology. A unique and well-established book, this much-needed new edition features extensive updates to technology and practice, drawing on the latest international research.

  4. Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, A

    2011-01-01

    Although web standards-based websites can scale effectively - and basic CSS will give you basic results - there are considerations and obstacles that high traffic websites must face to keep your development and hosting costs to a minimum. There are many tips and tricks, as well as down-to-earth best practice information, to make sure that everything runs quickly and efficiently with the minimum amount of fuss or developer intervention. Targeted at "high traffic" websites - those receiving over 10,000 unique visitors a day - Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites gives you inside informati

  5. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  6. Delay of Vehicle Motion in Traffic Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bando, M; Nakanishi, K; Nakayama, A; Bando, Masako; Hasebe, Katsuya; Nakanishi, Ken; Nakayama, Akihiro

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that in Optimal Velocity Model (OVM) delay times of vehicles coming from the dynamical equation of motion of OVM almost explain the order of delay times observed in actual traffic flows without introducing explicit delay times. Delay times in various cases are estimated: the case of a leader vehicle and its follower, a queue of vehicles controlled by traffic lights and many-vehicle case of highway traffic flow. The remarkable result is that in most of the situation for which we can make a reasonable definition of a delay time, the obtained delay time is of order 1 second.

  7. Graph Wavelets for Spatial Traffic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-15

    Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM ’95, 1995, pp. 100–113. [5] J. Levy-Vehel and R. Riedi, “Fractional Brownian motion and data traffic modeling: the other end of...similarity and long-range dependence, [3, 4]; and multifractality and local scaling [5, 6]. Many of the key results in traffic time scaling analysis have...as cascades: Investigating the multifractal nature of Internet WAN traffic,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM ’98, October 1998, pp. 42–55. [7] P. Abry and

  8. Stationarity Testing of Accumulated Ethernet Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stationarity property of the accumulated Ethernet traffic series. We applied several widely used stationarity and unit root tests, such as Dickey-Fuller test and its augmented version, Phillips-Perron test, as well as the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test and some of its generalizations, to the assessment of the stationarity of the traffic traces at the different time scales. The quantitative results in this research provide evidence that when the time scale increases, the accumulated traffic series are more stationary.

  9. Calculating Distribution and Intensity of Agricultural Traffic for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, A.; Louwsma, M.A.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.; Kuiper, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Land from many holdings is dispersed, which compels farmers to use public roads to access distant parcels. Agricultural traffic is different from other traffic with its large and heavy vehicles. When agricultural traffic mixes with other traffic, safety issues may arise. Another issue of

  10. 32 CFR 634.40 - General off installation traffic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reports received from civil authorities on serious traffic violations, accidents, and intoxicated driving... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General off installation traffic activities. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision...

  11. 32 CFR 634.32 - Traffic violation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.32 Traffic violation... Government vehicle at the time of the violation. (2) A Federal Magistrate is either not available or lacks... refer violations of State traffic laws made applicable to the installation (Assimilative Crimes Act (18...

  12. ON THE RELEVANCE OF ON-LINE TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, B.; Uhlig, S.P.W.G.

    The evaluation of dynamic Traffic Engineering (TE) algorithms is usually carried out using some specific network(s), traffic pattern(s) and traffic engineering objective(s). As the behavior of a TE algorithm is a consequence of the interactions between the network, the traffic demand and the

  13. Application of advanced sampling for efficient probabilistic traffic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvert, S.C.; Taale, H.; Snelder, M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    In probabilistic traffic models, consideration of stochasticity in the dynamics of traffic gives a closer representation of a traffic system in comparison to that of a deterministic approach. Monte Carlo simulation is a broadly accepted method to consider variations in traffic within modelling. In

  14. Delays at signalized intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  15. Spatio-temporal propagation of traffic jams in urban traffic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yinan; Kang, Rui; Li, Daqing; Guo, Shengmin; Havlin, Shlomo

    2017-01-01

    Since the first reported traffic jam about a century ago, traffic congestion has been intensively studied with various methods ranging from macroscopic to microscopic viewpoint. However, due to the population growth and fast civilization, traffic congestion has become significantly worse not only leading to economic losses, but also causes environment damages. Without understanding of jams spatio-temporal propagation behavior in a city, it is impossible to develop efficient mitigation strateg...

  16. An efficient method to detect periodic behavior in botnet traffic by analyzing control plane traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AsSadhan, Basil; Moura, José M F

    2014-07-01

    Botnets are large networks of bots (compromised machines) that are under the control of a small number of bot masters. They pose a significant threat to Internet's communications and applications. A botnet relies on command and control (C2) communications channels traffic between its members for its attack execution. C2 traffic occurs prior to any attack; hence, the detection of botnet's C2 traffic enables the detection of members of the botnet before any real harm happens. We analyze C2 traffic and find that it exhibits a periodic behavior. This is due to the pre-programmed behavior of bots that check for updates to download them every T seconds. We exploit this periodic behavior to detect C2 traffic. The detection involves evaluating the periodogram of the monitored traffic. Then applying Walker's large sample test to the periodogram's maximum ordinate in order to determine if it is due to a periodic component or not. If the periodogram of the monitored traffic contains a periodic component, then it is highly likely that it is due to a bot's C2 traffic. The test looks only at aggregate control plane traffic behavior, which makes it more scalable than techniques that involve deep packet inspection (DPI) or tracking the communication flows of different hosts. We apply the test to two types of botnet, tinyP2P and IRC that are generated by SLINGbot. We verify the periodic behavior of their C2 traffic and compare it to the results we get on real traffic that is obtained from a secured enterprise network. We further study the characteristics of the test in the presence of injected HTTP background traffic and the effect of the duty cycle on the periodic behavior.

  17. An efficient method to detect periodic behavior in botnet traffic by analyzing control plane traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil AsSadhan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Botnets are large networks of bots (compromised machines that are under the control of a small number of bot masters. They pose a significant threat to Internet’s communications and applications. A botnet relies on command and control (C2 communications channels traffic between its members for its attack execution. C2 traffic occurs prior to any attack; hence, the detection of botnet’s C2 traffic enables the detection of members of the botnet before any real harm happens. We analyze C2 traffic and find that it exhibits a periodic behavior. This is due to the pre-programmed behavior of bots that check for updates to download them every T seconds. We exploit this periodic behavior to detect C2 traffic. The detection involves evaluating the periodogram of the monitored traffic. Then applying Walker’s large sample test to the periodogram’s maximum ordinate in order to determine if it is due to a periodic component or not. If the periodogram of the monitored traffic contains a periodic component, then it is highly likely that it is due to a bot’s C2 traffic. The test looks only at aggregate control plane traffic behavior, which makes it more scalable than techniques that involve deep packet inspection (DPI or tracking the communication flows of different hosts. We apply the test to two types of botnet, tinyP2P and IRC that are generated by SLINGbot. We verify the periodic behavior of their C2 traffic and compare it to the results we get on real traffic that is obtained from a secured enterprise network. We further study the characteristics of the test in the presence of injected HTTP background traffic and the effect of the duty cycle on the periodic behavior.

  18. Interaction between socio-demographic characteristics: traffic rule violations and traffic crash history for young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Y; Demirel, M C; Mutlu, M M

    2014-11-01

    Young drivers' high traffic violation involvement rate and significant contribution to traffic crashes compared to older drivers creates the need for detailed analyses of factors affecting young drivers' behaviors. This study is based on survey data collected from 2,057 18-29 year old young adults. Data were collected via face-to-face questionnaire surveys in four different cities in Turkey. The main objective of this study is to identify the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, traffic rule violations, and traffic crashes among young drivers. Four main traffic rule violations are examined: red light violations, seat belt violations, speeding, and driving under the influence of alcohol, which are decisive in determining driving behavior and traffic crashes. The survey investigates the socio-demographic characteristics, traffic rule violation behavior and traffic crash histories of young adults. Four hypothetical scenarios were prepared for each traffic rule violation and data from the scenarios were modeled using the ordered probit model. Significant variables affecting each traffic rule violation are stated. Finally, significant variables that interact with crash involvements were investigated with binary logit models. According to the data analysis, 23.9% of drivers stated that they were involved in at least one traffic crash within the last three years. This crash rate increases to 38.3% for those who received at least one traffic citation/violation in last three years and peaks to 47.4% for those who were fined for seat belt violations in last three years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A rapid appraisal of traffic policemen about auditory effects of traffic noise pollution from Ambala city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Traffic policemen are at an increased risk of suffering from hazards of noise pollution because they are engaged in controlling traffic noise, particularly at heavy traffic junctions. The effect is more in this subgroup because they are continuously exposed to it. Aim: The present study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices of traffic policemen regarding auditory effects of traffic noise pollution in Ambala city. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional workplace survey. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was carried out in different traffic zones of Ambala city during April-June 2013. The study population consisted of 100 traffic policemen working in different traffic intersections of Ambala city. Statistical Analysis Used: Structured interview schedule was used to collect the data. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Interpretation of data was performed using percentages and proportions. Results: Majority (75% of the study subjects were exposed to traffic noise pollution for more than 5 years. Of the total subjects, 5% of respondents reported below-average hearing on self-assessment of hearing ability. Seventeen percent of the study population accepted that while hearing over phone they do miss some conversation. Most (98% of the traffic police did not use any personal protective equipment (PPEs like earplugs/earmuffs, and the non-availability of these PPEs (90% is the common reason for the hearing loss. Conclusions: The study concludes that traffic policemen are not much aware regarding impending auditory effects of traffic noise pollution. Duty rotation, duty scheduling and other forms of preventive modalities for exposure limitation are suggested.

  20. Caltrans Average Annual Daily Traffic Volumes (2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — [ from http://www.ehib.org/cma/topic.jsp?topic_key=79 ] Traffic exhaust pollutants include compounds such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates (fine...

  1. Transport Traffic Analysis for Abusive Infrastructure Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    spam. Contemporary techniques for obtaining and using such infrastructure for abusive purposes are becoming increasingly sophisticated and economically...driven. For instance, spammers receive monetary compensation for driving traffic to sites that sell knock-off jewelry , pornography, or pharmaceuticals

  2. Assessment program for Kentucky traffic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    During 2013, the Kentucky Transportation Center identified 117 potential performance metrics for the ten databases in : the Kentucky Traffic Records System. This report summarizes the findings of three main tasks completed in 2014: (1) : assessment o...

  3. Dynamic traffic assignment : genetic algorithms approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real-time route guidance is a promising approach to alleviating congestion on the nations highways. A dynamic traffic assignment model is central to the development of guidance strategies. The artificial intelligence technique of genetic algorithm...

  4. Innovative contracting methods and construction traffic congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Increasing travel demand and lack of sufficient highway capacity are serious problems in most : major metropolitan areas in the United States. Large metropolitan cities have been experiencing : increased traffic congestion problems over the past seve...

  5. Uninhabited Traffic Management System Evaluator (UTME) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of this effort is the development of an Uninhabited Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Manager Evaluator (UTME) specifically targeted at evaluating...

  6. Regional Traffic Incident Management Programs : implementation guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to assist organizations and their leaders in implementing and sustaining regional traffic incident management programs, both by examining some successful models, and by considering some of the lessons learned by early ...

  7. Information sharing for traffic incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...

  8. ROAD TRAFFIC ESTIMATION USING BLUETOOTH SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika N. BUGDOL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bluetooth standard is a low-cost, very popular communication protocol offering a wide range of applications in many fields. In this paper, a novel system for road traffic estimation using Bluetooth sensors has been presented. The system consists of three main modules: filtration, statistical analysis of historical, and traffic estimation and prediction. The filtration module is responsible for the classification of road users and detecting measurements that should be removed. Traffic estimation has been performed on the basis of the data collected by Bluetooth measuring devices and information on external conditions (e.g., temperature, all of which have been gathered in the city of Bielsko-Biala (Poland. The obtained results are very promising. The smallest average relative error between the number of cars estimated by the model and the actual traffic was less than 10%.

  9. Air Traffic Management Cost Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Robust Analytics air traffic management cost assessment tool provides the comprehensive capability to analyze the impacts of NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP)...

  10. Louisiana traffic sign inventory and management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD), like many state highway agencies in the United States, lacks a comprehensive system for inventorying and maintaining records of traffic signs. To address this problem, state highway d...

  11. Traffic Predictive Control: Case Study and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    This project developed a quantile regression method for predicting future traffic flow at a signalized intersection by combining both historical and real-time data. The algorithm exploits nonlinear correlations in historical measurements and efficien...

  12. Traffic control device evaluation program : FY 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report presents findings on three different activities conducted in the Traffic Control Device Evaluation Program during the 2016 fiscal year. The first two activities are evaluations of full-matrix color light-emitting diode changeable message ...

  13. Management of Traffic Congestion in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilibald Premzl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of road vehicles is increasing, the benefits they affordhave been progressively diminished by external costs.Whereas traffic increases as we approach the centre, the roadand open space decreases. The greater specialisation allows thecity growth in size and in traffic attraction. In this way urbangrowth feeds itself !mer-urban transp011 facilities also becomemore extensive. Growth in size of the city generates greateramounts of traffic and can eventually give rise to agglomerationdiseconomies. Higher transport costs, offices and shops, attractedby the accessibility of central locations, gradually replaceresidential uses, people being forced to seek housing inthe suburbs. As the urban area expands and offices in the citycentre are built denser and highe1; traffic congestion increases.This may result in the fall in centra/land values, since accessibilitydiminishes with the saturation of transport network. Increasedpollution takes various forms as noise, smoke andovercrowded housing in the centre, urban decay in the transitionalzone as commercial development is anticipated.

  14. Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic fl...

  15. Detecting Target Data in Network Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    packets, such as unauthorized connections to services like FTP and SSH connections, as well as RDP and MSSQL. Stateful firewalls are designed to...Hashdb can also be used to analyze network traffic and embedded content in other documents. There are hashdb libraries for the Python and C...amount of data that it logs. Bro will look at to DNS traffic, HTTP requests, and if any other connections attempted to be made over FTP, SSH and other

  16. Visual Analysis of Air Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, George Hans; Pang, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present visual analysis tools to help study the impact of policy changes on air traffic congestion. The tools support visualization of time-varying air traffic density over an area of interest using different time granularity. We use this visual analysis platform to investigate how changing the aircraft separation volume can reduce congestion while maintaining key safety requirements. The same platform can also be used as a decision aid for processing requests for unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  17. Aplikasi Traffic Monitoring Server Menggunakan SMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona, Clarissa

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to build traffic monitoring application that can help network administrator to monitor server anytime and anywhere, by using SMS. Things to be monitored are data traffic and server network connection. Literature study, and field study were done before designing the application.The result is application that can send and receive SMS to / from network administrator, check the connection to the server, and respond to network administrator in a relatively fast time when the connec...

  18. PSNR Evaluation of Media Traffic over TFRC

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda S. Sorour; Magdi A. Koutb; Mohammad A. Talaat

    2009-01-01

    Due to the remarkable increase in media traffic overthe existing best-effort IP Internet, the Internet congestion stateis expected to worsen. TCP-friendly rate control protocol TFRCis one of the most promising congestion control techniquesdeveloped so far. Those techniques have been thoroughly testedin terms of being TCP-friendly and fair. Yet, their impact on thevisual quality of the media traffic traversing Internet is stillquestionable. This paper investigates, in a simulatedenvironment, t...

  19. Models of Weather Impact on Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Flight delays have been a serious problem in the national airspace system costing about $30B per year. About 70 of the delays are attributed to weather and upto two thirds of these are avoidable. Better decision support tools would reduce these delays and improve air traffic management tools. Such tools would benefit from models of weather impacts on the airspace operations. This presentation discusses use of machine learning methods to mine various types of weather and traffic data to develop such models.

  20. Human Factors in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    knowlodg of the world from our experience, undverstanding, end acquisition of’ information. These divisions do not fit practical considerations nuatly...Clearly in air tra.ffic control the coan-troller relies liavily on long term memory for hei general knowlodge of the principles, methods and techniques of...air traffic control and for his specific knowledge about the way those prinoiples are translated into practice in a partioalar air space under his own

  1. Traffic, diesel and asthma : a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    This article details the major pollutants from motor vehicle exhaust, mainly particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The emphasis is on motor vehicle emissions from diesel powered engines, which have become a significant source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact of motor vehicle pollutants on respiratory health is explored, and the major studies relating asthma to high volume of traffic and proximity to major traffic arteries are reviewed.

  2. Intelligent traffic control system using PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Todea, C.; Latinovic, T.; Preradovic, D. M.; Deaconu, S.; Berdie, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the traffic control system controlled through a PLC which takes the signals from different sensors on roads. The global system developed ensures the coordination of four intersections, setting a path that respects coordination type green light, the integration of additional sensors, the implementation of probes radar to inform traffic participants about recommended speed for accessing the green state located in the intersection that will follow to cross.

  3. Road traffic noise and children's inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Stansfeld, Stephen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Vrijheid, Martine; de Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-11-21

    An increasing number of children are exposed to road traffic noise levels that may lead to adverse effects on health and daily functioning. Childhood is a period of intense growth and brain maturation, and children may therefore be especially vulnerable to road traffic noise. The objective of the present study was to examine whether road traffic noise was associated with reported inattention symptoms in children, and whether this association was mediated by sleep duration. This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Parental reports of children's inattention at age 8 were linked to modelled levels of residential road traffic noise. We investigated the association between inattention and noise exposure during pregnancy (n = 1934), noise exposure averaged over 5 years (age 3 to 8 years; n = 1384) and noise exposure at age 8 years (n = 1384), using fractional logit response models. The participants were children from Oslo, Norway. An association with inattention at age 8 years was found for road traffic noise exposure at age 8 years (coef = .0083, CI = [.0012, .0154]; 1.2% point increase in inattention score per 10 dB increase in noise level), road traffic noise exposure average for the last 5 years (coef = .0090, CI = [.0016, .0164]; 1.3% point increase/10 dB), and for pregnancy road traffic noise exposure for boys (coef = .0091, CI = [.0010, .0171]), but not girls (coef = -.0021, CI = [-.0094, .0053]). Criteria for doing mediation analyses were not fulfilled. Results indicate that road traffic noise has a negative impact on children's inattention. We found no mediation by sleep duration.

  4. Optimizing Traffic Operation in Designing Specific Upgrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Sangsefidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport forms one of the primary needs in all categories of the population in modern society; it is of paramount concern for traffic engineers, transport planners, and policy makers to understand and evaluate the quality of service being provided by the transport facilities designed by them. This paper presents an investigation in profile geometric design and traffic flow operation on two-lane two-way highways and provides analyses that will help in a better understanding of traffic operation on these facilities to select the optimum profile configuration. The effects of influencing parameters consisting of grade, length of grade, traffic composition, and traffic volume are evaluated and finally a systematic procedure to evaluate flow rate under the base condition is presented. Finally, based on these achievements an algorithm is introduced to select optimum Finished Ground of profile view. Results show that the percentage of heavy vehicles has a contributing effect on traffic operation so that the optimum profile configuration is incredibly affected by this factor. Source data have been obtained from Highway Capacity Manual (HCM as a pioneer document in respect of quantifying the concept of capacity for a transport facility.

  5. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  6. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  7. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  8. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Ferrell, Regina K.; Kercel, Stephen W.; Abston, Ruth A.

    1995-01-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a traffic flow wide-area surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  9. Modelling of H.264 MPEG2 TS Traffic Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Klucik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with IPTV traffic source modelling. Traffic sources are used for simulation, emulation and real network testing. This model is made as a derivation of known recorded traffic sources that are analysed and statistically processed. As the results show the proposed model causes in comparison to the known traffic source very similar network traffic parameters when used in a simulated network.

  10. Evaluation of Deterministic and Stochastic Components of Traffic Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bošnjak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic counts or statistical evidence of the traffic processare often a characteristic of time-series data. In this paper fundamentalproblem of estimating deterministic and stochasticcomponents of a traffic process are considered, in the context of"generalised traffic modelling". Different methods for identificationand/or elimination of the trend and seasonal componentsare applied for concrete traffic counts. Further investigationsand applications of ARIMA models, Hilbert space formulationsand state-space representations are suggested.

  11. System and method for traffic signal timing estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Dumazert, Julien

    2015-12-30

    A method and system for estimating traffic signals. The method and system can include constructing trajectories of probe vehicles from GPS data emitted by the probe vehicles, estimating traffic signal cycles, combining the estimates, and computing the traffic signal timing by maximizing a scoring function based on the estimates. Estimating traffic signal cycles can be based on transition times of the probe vehicles starting after a traffic signal turns green.

  12. Fuzzy cellular model of signal controlled traffic stream

    OpenAIRE

    Płaczek, Bartłomiej

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic traffic models have recently gained considerable importance as a mean of optimising traffic control strategies. Computationally efficient and sufficiently accurate microscopic traffic models have been developed based on the cellular automata theory. However, the real-time application of the available cellular automata models in traffic control systems is a difficult task due to their discrete and stochastic nature. This paper introduces a novel method of traffic streams modelling,...

  13. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  14. Impacts of Traffic Noise and Traffic Volume on Birds of Roadside Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roadside habitats are important for a range of taxa including plants, insects, mammals, and birds, particularly in developed countries in which large expanses of native vegetation have been cleared for agriculture or urban development. Although roadside vegetation may provide suitable habitat for many species, resident animals can be exposed to high levels of traffic noise, visual disturbance from passing vehicles, and the risk of collision with cars and trucks. Traffic noise can reduce the distance over which acoustic signals such as song can be detected, an effect known as acoustic interference or masking. Studies from the northern hemisphere show that the singing behavior of birds changes in the presence of traffic noise. We investigated the impact of traffic noise and traffic volume on two species of birds, the Grey Shrike-thrush (Colluricincla harmonica and the Grey Fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa, at 58 roadside sites on the Mornington Peninsula, southeastern Australia. The lower singing Grey Shrike-thrush sang at a higher frequency in the presence of traffic noise, with a predicted increase in dominant frequency of 5.8 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 209 Hz. In contrast, the higher singing Grey Fantail did not appear to change its song in traffic noise. The probability of detecting each species on a visit to a site declined substantially with increasing traffic noise and traffic volume, with several lines of evidence supporting a larger effect of traffic noise. Traffic noise could hamper detection of song by conspecifics, making it more difficult for birds to establish and maintain territories, attract mates and maintain pair bonds, and possibly leading to reduced breeding success in noisy roadside habitats. Closing key roads during the breeding season is a potential, but untested, management strategy to protect threatened bird species from traffic noise and collision with vehicles at the time of year when they are most

  15. Criminal Liability for Serious Traffic Offences : Essays on Causing Death, Injury and Danger in Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Alwin; Wolswijk, Hein

    2015-01-01

    The criminal law on serious traffic offences is a fascinating area. The traffic context presents legislators with numerous controversial issues. One such issue is when severe consequences are matched with low moral culpability. How should the law deal with a driver who kills someone because she

  16. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  17. Monitoring road traffic congestion using a macroscopic traffic model and a statistical monitoring scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Zeroual, Abdelhafid

    2017-08-19

    Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.

  18. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  19. SOME EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TRAVEL SPEED, TRAFFIC VOLUME AND TRAFFIC COMPOSITION IN URBAN ARTERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni I. VLAHOGIANNI, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traffic mix (the percentage of cars, trucks, buses and so on are of particular interest in the speed-volume relationship in urban signalized arterials under various geometric and control characteristics. The paper presents some empirical observations on the relation between travel speed, traffic volume and traffic composition in urban signalized arterials. A methodology based on emerging self-organizing structures of neural networks to identify regions in the speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition and Bayesian networks to evaluate the effect of different types of motorized vehicles on prevailing traffic conditions is proposed. Results based on data from a large urban network indicate that the variability in traffic conditions can be described by eight regions in speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition. Further evaluation of the effect of motorized vehicles in each region separately indicates that the effect of traffic composition decreases with the onset of congestion. Moreover, taxis and motorcycles are the primary affecting parameter of the form of the speed-volume relationship in urban arterials.

  20. Traffic flow behavior at a single lane roundabout as compared to traffic circle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H., E-mail: ezahamid@fsr.ac.ma; Benyoussef, A.

    2014-09-05

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic Cellular Automata (CA) model to study traffic flow at a single-lane urban roundabout (resp. traffic circle) of N entry points (resp. exit points), the entry points are controlled by rates α{sub 1} and α{sub 2} while the removal rates from the exit points are denoted by β. The traffic is controlled by a self-organized scheme. Based on computer simulation, density profiles, global density and current are calculated in terms of rates. Furthermore, the phase diagrams for roundabout as well as traffic circle are constructed. It has turned out that the phase diagrams consist essentially of two phases namely free flow and jamming. It is noted that the typology of the phase diagrams of the roundabout is not similar to it in the traffic circle. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of the two systems in terms of the geometrical properties and the number of entry points. - Highlights: • Simulations are conducted to study traffic flow at a single-lane urban roundabout as well as traffic circle. • Phase diagrams for roundabout as well as traffic circle are constructed. • The performance of the two systems are compared in terms of the geometrical properties and the number of entry points.

  1. Analysis of traffic accidents in Romania, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călinoiu, Geovana; Minca, Dana Galieta; Furtunescu, Florentina Ligia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to underline the main consequences of traffic accidents in Romania 2009 and their associated causes or circumstances. We identified some problematic geographic areas, some critical months or moments of the day and also the most frequent causes; all these should become targets for the future planning. The current analysis provides some priority criteria for public health interventions. So, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Romania is far away from the average EU target for 2010 of halving the death by traffic accidents registered in 2001. To describe the circumstances and the consequences related to traffic accidents registered in Romania, for the year 2009. An ecological study was conducted. The traffic accidents circumstances were analyzed in terms of magnitude, geographic space, time and cause. The consequences were analyzed as affected people and damaged cars. A total of 28,627 traffic accidents were registered in Romania during the year 2009. 2,796 people were killed and 27,968 were hospitalized and 42,443 cars were damaged. 3 of 4 accidents were caused by violations on behalf of the car drivers. Most common violations in car drivers were excess of speed and priority violations (52.4%). Among the pedestrians, 7 of 10 accidents were caused by illegal crossing. A higher number of accidents occurred during the summer months and during the evening hours (from 5.00 pm till 8.00 pm). The traffic accidents represent a real public health problem in Romania and a serious burden for the health system. The gap between Romania and the other EU member states needs to be diminished in the next decade. In this purpose, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Research is needed to understand the causes and the socio-economical impact of traffic accidents and to define appropriate national

  2. Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow with consideration of the traffic interruption probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chuan; Sun, Di-Hua

    2010-12-01

    Considering the effects that the probability of traffic interruption and the friction between two lanes have on the car-following behaviour, this paper establishes a new two-lane microscopic car-following model. Based on this microscopic model, a new macroscopic model was deduced by the relevance relation of microscopic and macroscopic scale parameters for the two-lane traffic flow. Terms related to lane change are added into the continuity equations and velocity dynamic equations to investigate the lane change rate. Numerical results verify that the proposed model can be efficiently used to reflect the effect of the probability of traffic interruption on the shock, rarefaction wave and lane change behaviour on two-lane freeways. The model has also been applied in reproducing some complex traffic phenomena caused by traffic accident interruption.

  3. TRAFFIC SIGN DETECTION BASED ON BIOLOGICALLY VISUAL MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Hu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available TSR (Traffic sign recognition is an important problem in ITS (intelligent traffic system, which is being paid more and more attention for realizing drivers assisting system and unmanned vehicle etc. TSR consists of two steps: detection and recognition, and this paper describe a new traffic sign detection method. The design principle of the traffic sign is comply with the visual attention mechanism of human, so we propose a method using visual attention mechanism to detect traffic sign ,which is reasonable. In our method, the whole scene will firstly be analyzed by visual attention model to acquire the area where traffic signs might be placed. And then, these candidate areas will be analyzed according to the shape characteristics of the traffic sign to detect traffic signs. In traffic sign detection experiments, the result shows the proposed method is effectively and robust than other existing saliency detection method.

  4. Bound Maxima as a Traffic Feature under DDOS Flood Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a novel traffic feature for identifying abnormal variation of traffic under DDOS flood attacks. It is the histogram of the maxima of the bounded traffic rate on an interval-by-interval basis. We use it to experiment on the traffic data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA in 1999. The experimental results profitably enhance the evidences that traffic rate under DDOS attacks is statistically higher than that of normal traffic considerably. They show that the pattern of the histogram of the maxima of bounded rate of attack-contained traffic greatly differs from that of attack-free traffic. Besides, the present traffic feature is simple in mathematics and easy to use in practice.

  5. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  6. Occupant traffic estimation through structural vibration sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Mirshekari, Mostafa; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2016-04-01

    The number of people passing through different indoor areas is useful in various smart structure applications, including occupancy-based building energy/space management, marketing research, security, etc. Existing approaches to estimate occupant traffic include vision-, sound-, and radio-based (mobile) sensing methods, which have placement limitations (e.g., requirement of line-of-sight, quiet environment, carrying a device all the time). Such limitations make these direct sensing approaches difficult to deploy and maintain. An indirect approach using geophones to measure floor vibration induced by footsteps can be utilized. However, the main challenge lies in distinguishing multiple simultaneous walkers by developing features that can effectively represent the number of mixed signals and characterize the selected features under different traffic conditions. This paper presents a method to monitor multiple persons. Once the vibration signals are obtained, features are extracted to describe the overlapping vibration signals induced by multiple footsteps, which are used for occupancy traffic estimation. In particular, we focus on analysis of the efficiency and limitations of the four selected key features when used for estimating various traffic conditions. We characterize these features with signals collected from controlled impulse load tests as well as from multiple people walking through a real-world sensing area. In our experiments, the system achieves the mean estimation error of +/-0.2 people for different occupant traffic conditions (from one to four) using k-nearest neighbor classifier.

  7. Interdependence of Tourism and Traffic in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic characteristics of tourism as stimulating factorof economic development of individual counties are reflectedin the expansion of economic relations with foreign count1ies,in stimulating regional development, in opening of new workplaces,in additional marketing of products on the domesticmarket, in evaluation of cultural and hist01ical resources, etc.The interrelation between the traffic system and tourism resultsfrom the complexity of characteristics and functions ofthese two economic activities. Although traffic system regularlyappears as the factor of improving or limiting the developmentof tourism, their relation needs to be considered in fact in theirmutual interaction.Defining of the Croatian traffic policy regarding tourism requirements,can be considered according to certain trafficbranches but also according to specific requirements the touristdemand has on the traffic system. However, tourist demandneeds to be understood as a part of the overall demand on thetraffic system so that it can and has to be satisfied by the trafficsupply formed according to the overall traffic demand.

  8. Road traffic injuries in Thailand: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadbunchachai, Witaya; Suphanchaimaj, Weraphan; Settasatien, Anuchar; Jinwong, Thanapong

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem in Thailand. The number of mortalities, morbidities and disabilities are huge, greatly affecting the individual victims, the families, society and the nation as a whole. To study the current situation regarding traffic injuries in Thailand. Retrospective study from multiple national data sources For over ten years, the annual death toll due to road accidents has been more than ten thousand Thais. The situation remains critical with a higher mortality and morbidity than many other low or middle income countries. Two-thirds of the victims were males: 80% were under 40 years of age. Most (80%) of the injured and dead were motorcyclists. The large number of traffic crashes, injuries, disabilities and deaths resulted in more than 168 thousand million Baht in economic losses in 2002. These losses are trending to increase. Traffic injuries are a persistent major public health concern primarily because of a lack of adherence to the use of safety restraints and obedience of traffic laws. The nation must not hesitate to increase efforts to address these problems, as they are costing life and limb of Thais every hour of every day, as well as adding a huge economic burden.

  9. Distraction-related road traffic collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to prospectively study distraction-related road traffic collision injuries, their contributory factors, severity, and outcome. Data were prospectively collected on all hospitalized road traffic collision trauma patients in Al-Ain City who were drivers at the collision time over one and half years. Driver's inattentive behaviors preceding the collision were collected by interviewing the admitted drivers. There were 444 drivers, 330 of them were fully oriented patients, out of them only 44 (13%) were distracted. Nineteen (5.8%) drivers were distracted by using mobile phones, 12 (3.6%) were pre-occupied with deep thinking, six (1.8%) were talking with other passengers, four (1.2%) were picking things in the vehicle, and three (0.9%) were using entertainment systems. The maximum distraction occurred during the time of 6 am - 12 noon when the traffic was crowded. There were no significant differences between distracted and non-distracted drivers in demographical and physiological factors, injured regions, and outcomes. Distraction of alert drivers causes 13% of road traffic collisions in Al-Ain city. About 40 percent of the distracted drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports the ban of use of cell phones while driving.

  10. The design of traffic signal coordinated control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueting; Sun, Hongsheng; Wang, Xifu

    2017-05-01

    Traffic as the tertiary industry is an important pillar industry to support the normal development of the economy. But now China's road traffic development and economic development has shown a great imbalance and fault phenomenon, which greatly inhibited the normal development of China's economy. Now in many large and medium-sized cities in China are implementing green belt construction. The so-called green band is when the road conditions to meet the conditions for the establishment of the green band, the sections of the intersection of several planning to a traffic coordination control system, so that when the driver at a specific speed can be achieved without stopping the continuous Through the intersection. Green belt can effectively reduce the delay and queuing length of vehicle driving, the normal function of urban roads and reduce the economic losses caused by traffic congestion is a great help. In this paper, the theoretical basis of the design of the coordinated control system is described. Secondly, the green time offset is calculated by the analytic method and the green band is established. And then the VISSIM software is used to simulate the traffic system before and after the improvement. Finally, the results of the two simulations are compared.

  11. Transportation, road and traffic; Yuso / doro / kotsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneda, K.; Oshita, T.; Kimura, K.; Ishikura, T. [Ministry of Construction Ibaragi (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Road transportation of cargos and passengers is increasing recently. Securing funds for road construction projects is under severe condition due to retrenchment in finance. The number of four-wheel vehicles possessed by users totaled to 65.18 million at the end of March, 1996, showing 3.0% increase compared with that of the previous year. The number of motorcycles increased by 40 thousand in the area of two-wheel vehicles. The number of light two-wheeled vehicles showed no marked fluctuations. No statistic was made public concerning motor-bicycles. Outlines of the budget for road construction and road maintenance situation are given. The traffic density was much heavier than the increasing rate of the road extension at the end of March, 1996. The advanced road traffic system is a new road traffic system which utilizes most advanced information communication technology to decrease traffic snarls and traffic accidents and to improve the riding comfort of users, and 9 development fields and 20 user service systems are being developed currently. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Eigen-Gradients for Traffic Sign Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Esmeralda Gonzalez-Reyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign detection and recognition systems include a variety of applications like autonomous driving, road sign inventory, and driver support systems. Machine learning algorithms provide useful tools for traffic sign identification tasks. However, classification algorithms depend on the preprocessing stage to obtain high accuracy rates. This paper proposes a road sign characterization method based on oriented gradient maps and the Karhunen-Loeve transform in order to improve classification performance. Dimensionality reduction may be important for portable applications on resource constrained devices like FPGAs; therefore, our approach focuses on achieving a good classification accuracy by using a reduced amount of attributes compared to some state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method was tested using German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark, reaching a dimensionality reduction of 99.3% and a classification accuracy of 95.9% with a Multi-Layer Perceptron.

  13. Traffic Management for Next Generation Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao

    their network capacities. However, in order to provide more advanced video services than simply porting the traditional television services to the network, the service provider needs to do more than just augment the network capacity. Advanced traffic management capability is one of the relevant abilities...... slacken the steps of some network operators towards providing IPTV services. In this dissertation, the topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is proposed to tackle the problem addressed. The scheme simplifies the deployment process by placing an intelligent switch with centralized traffic...... management functions at the edge of the network, scheduling traffic on behalf of the other nodes. The topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is able to provide outstanding flow isolation due to its centralized scheduling ability, which is essential for providing IPTV services. In order to reduce...

  14. Application of Internet in Road Traffic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dadić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the implementation of Internet in trafficengineering with the purpose of improving the professionaland scientific research development of the traffic system in theRepublic of Croatia.Fast growth of the world computer network, Internet, andits applications in almost all the fields of human activities,change the picture of the modern world. The current exchangeof data in all their forms and the daily growth of the network,supplemented by almost incredible amounts of data that can bealmost instantly accessible, indicates that Internet is not just theinfomwtion technology revolution, but that it is a revolutionper se. More than 100 million computers are estimated to benetworked beginning of the 21" century.Internet seems almost as if it were created for the purposesof knowledge and expe1ience exchange in traffic, a relativelyyoung scientific branch. 11 can be concluded that the presenceof traffic engineers in Internet is today's reality and tomon·ow'snecessity.

  15. Machine learning for identifying botnet network traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    . Due to promise of non-invasive and resilient detection, botnet detection based on network traffic analysis has drawn a special attention of the research community. Furthermore, many authors have turned their attention to the use of machine learning algorithms as the mean of inferring botnet......-related knowledge from the monitored traffic. This paper presents a review of contemporary botnet detection methods that use machine learning as a tool of identifying botnet-related traffic. The main goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on the field by summarizing current scientific efforts....... The contribution of the paper is three-fold. First, the paper provides a detailed insight on the existing detection methods by investigating which bot-related heuristic were assumed by the detection systems and how different machine learning techniques were adapted in order to capture botnet-related knowledge...

  16. Fuzzy Logic Based Autonomous Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad ABBAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and implement fuzzy logic based traffic light Control system to solve the traffic congestion issues. In this system four input parameters: Arrival, Queue, Pedestrian and Emergency Vehicle and two output parameters: Extension in Green and Pedestrian Signals are used. Using Fuzzy Rule Base, the system extends or terminates the Green Signal according to the Traffic situation at the junction. On the presence of emergency vehicle, the system decides which signal(s should be red and how much an extension should be given to Green Signal for Emergency Vehicle. The system also monitors the density of people and makes decisions accordingly. In order to verify the proposed design algorithm MATLAB simulation is adopted and results obtained show concurrency to the calculated values according to the Mamdani Model of the Fuzzy Control System.

  17. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  18. Rail-induced Traffic in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of China’s railway has exerted an enormous influence on the intercity passenger transport structure in recent years. However, it has not satisfied the passengers’ travel demand due to induced traffic. This paper is committed to solving such issue, with the aim of satisfying the current travel demand, and of anticipating the demand of the predicted traffic growth over the next 20 to 30 years. The paper has considered the increase in rail passenger kilometres caused by the growth of rail kilometres as rail-induced traffic. Based on the concept and former research of induced traffic, the panel data of 26 provinces and 3 municipalities of China between the year 2000 and 2014 were collected, and the elasticity models (including elasticity-based model, distributed lag model, high-speed rail (HSR elasticity model and rail efficiency model have been constructed. The results show the importance of model formation incorporation of rail-induced traffic. It is better to get the correct value in divided zones with different train frequencies or incorporation rail efficiency in cities or provinces. The lag time and rail types also need to be considered. In summary, the results analysis not only confirms the existence of rail-induced traffic, but also provides substantial recommendations to train operation planning.

  19. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  20. TRAFFIC ACCIDENT-RELATED OPEN GLOBE INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshifumi; Morikawa, Shohei; Okamoto, Fumiki; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Ueda, Tetsuo; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sugitani, Kazuhiko; Sawada, Osamu; Mori, Junya; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and visual outcomes of patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries, and to examine preoperative factors influencing the visual prognosis after pars plana vitrectomy, as compared with common open globe injuries. Patients with open globe injuries, who underwent pars plana vitrectomy, were identified. Patients' demographic and clinical data were entered into a computerized database for review and analysis; data included age, sex, initial visual acuity, duration between onset of injury and surgery, information about the type and cause of injury, wound location and length, presence of ocular complications, and final visual acuity. Of the 355 open globe injuries, 14 were sustained during a traffic-related accident; the average age was 50.4 years (range: 20-85) and most (78.6%) were men. Of these 14 patients, 9 (64.3%) presented with rupture and 5 (35.7%) with laceration. Injuries were caused while driving (6 eyes; 42.9%), riding a bicycle (5 eyes; 35.7%), involved in car accident while walking (2 eyes; 14.3%), and riding a motorbike (1 eye; 7.1%). Initial visual acuity was significantly related to final visual acuity (P = 0.003, R = 0.80). The final visual acuity in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries was significantly better than that of the total group (P = 0.01). Traffic accident-related open globe injuries had better visual outcomes than common open globe injuries. Visual outcomes in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries were related to the initial visual acuity. No eyes developed endophthalmitis in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries.

  1. Stormwater Management: Calculation of Traffic Area Runoff Loads and Traffic Related Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Huber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metals such as antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can be highly relevant pollutants in stormwater runoff from traffic areas because of their occurrence, toxicity, and non-degradability. Long-term measurements of their concentrations, the corresponding water volumes, the catchment areas, and the traffic volumes can be used to calculate specific emission loads and annual runoff loads that are necessary for mass balances. In the literature, the annual runoff loads are often specified by a distinct catchment area (e.g., g/ha. These loads were summarized and discussed in this paper for all seven metals and three types of traffic areas (highways, parking lots, and roads; 45 sites. For example, the calculated median annual runoff loads of all sites are 355 g/ha for copper, 110 g/ha for lead (only data of the 21st century, and 1960 g/ha for zinc. In addition, historical trends, annual variations, and site-specific factors were evaluated for the runoff loads. For Germany, mass balances of traffic related emissions and annual heavy metal runoff loads from highways and total traffic areas were calculated. The influences on the mass fluxes of the heavy metal emissions and the runoff pollution were discussed. However, a statistical analysis of the annual traffic related metal fluxes, in particular for different traffic area categories and land uses, is currently not possible because of a lack of monitoring data.

  2. Numerical study of traffic flow considering the probability density distribution of the traffic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. M.; Zhu, H. B.; Zhang, N. X.

    The probability density distribution of the traffic density is analyzed based on the empirical data. It is found that the beta distribution can fit the result obtained from the measured traffic density perfectly. Then a modified traffic model is proposed to simulate the microscopic traffic flow, in which the probability density distribution of the traffic density is taken into account. The model also contains the behavior of drivers’ speed adaptation by taking into account the driving behavior difference and the dynamic headway. Accompanied by presenting the flux-density diagrams, the velocity evolution diagrams and the spatial-temporal profiles of vehicles are also given. The synchronized flow phase and the wide moving jam phase are indicated, which is the challenge for the cellular automata traffic model. Furthermore the phenomenon of the high speed car-following is exhibited, which has been observed in the measured data previously. The results set demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in detecting the complicated dynamic phenomena of the traffic flow.

  3. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area.

  4. [Research progress in health impact of traffic noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    Traffic noise pollution problem is increasingly emerging with the rapid development of urban traffic. Researchers have paid close attention to the health effects of traffic noise. This review has summarized the recent research progress in the health effects of traffic noise both at home and abroad. Traffic noise can have various adverse health effects, and most of them are extra-auditory effects. The main aspects include that traffic noise can affect the cardiovascular system, which is verified by the evidence that exposure to traffic noise significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases, such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, and so on. In addition, traffic noise can induce adverse effects on nervous system, leading to the increasing levels of anxiety, noise annoyance, and occurrence of insomnia. Furthermore, traffic noise is significantly associated with adverse pregnant outcomes, and can affect the endocrine system and digestive system. As traffic noise and traffic related air pollutants co-exist in the traffic environment, whether there are joint effects between these two factors have become areas of research focus nowadays. Although there is sufficient evidence that traffic noise has adverse health effects, inadequacies still existe. Analysis of the shortages of current studies and the prospects of the future studies are pointed out in this review.

  5. Impact of air traffic on the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stief, G. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Agrometeorologia

    1997-12-31

    Though emission from world-wide air traffic may seem to be relatively small in comparison to that from all other anthropogenic sources, the deleterious effect on the climate of the gases and particles emitted by planes is disproportionately large. It is thought that air traffic, working together with pollutants that have already accumulated at critical heights, and depending on humidity and temperature, plays a decisive role in helping to cause the changes, presented below, in global radiation, sunshine duration, rainfall and maximum and minimum temperatures which are taking place. (author) 7 refs.

  6. Service scheduling for WWW traffic in GPRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingguo

    2004-04-01

    Transmission scheduling algorithm for WWW traffic in GPRS needs to be optimized according to characteristics of Temporary Block Flow, TCP/IP and mobile access behavior. We analyze the radio resource allocation problem in GPRS and design a new scheduling algorithm FIFO-with-flow. It is simple and can adapt to temporal flows, and allocate bandwidth among temporal flows fairly. Based on the characteristics of mobile user access behavior, we determine the wireless WWW traffic model and its parameters reflecting TCP congest control. We simulate and compare the performance of FIFO-with-flow and FIFO. The FIFO-with-flow can support more WWW users than FIFO.

  7. Road traffic safety on the roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Степанчук

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth of automobilization and the noncompliance of the city central parts with the modern vehicles requirements create the preconditions for the increase of the road traffic accidents. the intersections, of the main streets of the district value are the most accidental. It is noted that to develop a set of measures to improve road safety at the intersections it is necessary to know the degree of their security. it is found that that the intersections of highways significantly reduce the capacity, creating significant delay of traffic flows, as a result of which they become places of high concentration of automobile emissions, noise and other adverse effects on the environment

  8. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  9. Analyses of Real Email Traffic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Malinka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform an empirical analysis of email traffic logs obtained from a large university to better understand its impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of anonymous mix remailers. We analyzed data containing records of almost 790,000 emails sent over a period of forty days – the largest dataset we are aware of. The initial analysis of data is followed by an exploration of how variance in message arrival time and size impact the anonymity and efficiency provided by timed and threshold mixes, respectively. The analysis results are subsequently explored for their possible impact on traffic analysis.

  10. Development in Danish international air traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    The paper is describing the development in international air traffic made by Danes and for all travellers out of Denmark in the period 2002 - 2012. Development in passengers, destination countries and prices is illustrated. The person kilometres by Danes have increased 80% or 7.2% per year in mean...... during the 10 years. This increase has been analysed by a panel data model. The conclusion found by modelling is the increasing travel activity first of all is driven by increasing income and to less extent by decreasing prices. The paper is furthermore showing how the international air traffic has got...

  11. Broadband Traffic Forecasting in the Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Radojičić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modification of traffic forecast model generated by residential and small business (SOHO, Small Office Home Office users. The model includes forecasted values of different relevant factors and competition on broadband market. It allows forecasting the number of users for various broadband technologies and interaction impact of long-standing technologies as well as the impact of the new technology entrant on the market. All the necessary parameters are evaluated for the Serbian broadband market. The long-term forecasted results of broadband traffic are given. The analyses and evaluations performed are important inputs for the transport network resources planning.

  12. Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition using SURF Descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Htet Wai Kyu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For road safety traffic sign is essential for drivers by giving valuable safety and navigation information pedestrians and even for the development of autonomous driver assistance system. Traffic sign can be classified by two methods can be approached. First approach is color base segmentation which is the region of traffic sign by using HSV color space Hue Saturation and Value and the next approach is shape base segmentation using Hough Circle Detection. In thissystem we use circle shape base detection for every traffic sign. At first keypoints descriptor is extracted from each standard traffic sign image in database and then keypoints descriptor is taken from region of traffic sign extracted from Hough circle detection. After that the nearest distance is matched keypoints descriptor between in each standard traffic sign image in database and extracted traffic sign image.

  13. Traffic Infrastructure and Economics Development in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šimulčik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic infrastructure makes an integral pwt of the trafficand economic system in each country. The traffic policy makershave a task, that their policy must be based on scientific developmentsand synchronised activity of all economic systemsegments.

  14. Traffic incident management in hazardous materials spills in incident clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous materials spills provide unique challenges to traffic incident clearance. When hazardous materials are present, not only do response personnel have to deal with typical traffic incident issues, they also must deal with potential chemical ha...

  15. Data mining the Kansas traffic-crash database : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Traffic crashes results from the interaction of different parameters which includes highway geometrics, traffic : characteristics and human factors. Geometric variables include number of lanes, lane width, median width, shoulder : width, roadway sect...

  16. Data mining the Kansas traffic-crash database : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Traffic crashes results from the interaction of different parameters which includes highway geometrics, traffic characteristics and human factors. Geometric variables include number of lanes, lane width, median width, shoulder width, roadway section ...

  17. Traffic accident mapping in Bangkok metropolis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    Results from an analysis of traffic accidents from a study of the police records of four police stations in the Bangkok metropolis are presented. The main emphasis in this study was put on the development of a measure for traffic accident density. The traffic flow was estimated at the various study locations by trained experts. By relating the frequency of traffic accidents found in the police records to the independently estimated traffic flow, a measure for traffic accident occurrence, the traffic accident density, was constructed and estimated for the 47 areas in four study locations. The spatial risk structure was estimated and three risk groups were identified. Each area was classified into its associated risk group, and traffic accident maps for the four study locations in the Bangkok metropolis are provided here. The implication for prevention strategies is discussed.

  18. 49 CFR 1248.4 - Originating and connecting line traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., shall be reported as freight terminated by respondent. (g) Import and export traffic received from or... or exit. (h) Traffic interchanged with connecting rail lines operating in Canada and Mexico shall be...

  19. Game-theoretic analysis of dynamic traffic equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic traffic assignment has grown steadily in popularity and use since its inception. It has become an : important and permanent tool in transportation agencies across the country. However, the exact nature of : dynamic traffic equilibrium, includ...

  20. Fixed Point Learning Based Intelligent Traffic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongyao, Wang; Cong, Sui; Cheng, Shao

    2017-10-01

    Fixed point learning has become an important tool to analyse large scale distributed system such as urban traffic network. This paper presents a fixed point learning based intelligence traffic network control system. The system applies convergence property of fixed point theorem to optimize the traffic flow density. The intelligence traffic control system achieves maximum road resources usage by averaging traffic flow density among the traffic network. The intelligence traffic network control system is built based on decentralized structure and intelligence cooperation. No central control is needed to manage the system. The proposed system is simple, effective and feasible for practical use. The performance of the system is tested via theoretical proof and simulations. The results demonstrate that the system can effectively solve the traffic congestion problem and increase the vehicles average speed. It also proves that the system is flexible, reliable and feasible for practical use.

  1. Breakdown in traffic networks fundamentals of transportation science

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed investigation of breakdowns in traffic and transportation networks. It shows empirically that transitions from free flow to so-called synchronized flow, initiated by local disturbances at network bottlenecks, display a nucleation-type behavior: while small disturbances in free flow decay, larger ones grow further and lead to breakdowns at the bottlenecks. Further, it discusses in detail the significance of this nucleation effect for traffic and transportation theories, and the consequences this has for future automatic driving, traffic control, dynamic traffic assignment, and optimization in traffic and transportation networks. Starting from a large volume of field traffic data collected from various sources obtained solely through measurements in real world traffic, the author develops his insights, with an emphasis less on reviewing existing methodologies, models and theories, and more on providing a detailed analysis of empirical traffic data and drawing consequences regarding t...

  2. Tire-pavement and environmental traffic noise research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In response to an interest in traffic noise, particularly tirepavement noise, CDOT elected to conduct tirepavement : noise research. Following a rigid set of testing protocols, data was collected on highway traffic : noise characteristics along wi...

  3. Improving traffic safety culture in Iowa : phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Phase II of Improving Traffic Safety Culture in Iowa focuses on producing actions that will improve the traffic safety culture across the state, and involves collaboration among the three large public universities in Iowa: Iowa State University, Univ...

  4. Factors associated with road traffic injuries in Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boniface, Respicious; Museru, Lawrence; Kiloloma, Othman; Munthali, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    .... Tanzania is among the countries with high rates of road traffic crashes. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern, associated factors and management of road traffic injury patients in Tanzania...

  5. Traffic flow simulation for an urban freeway corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a realistic and operational macroscopic traffic flow simulation model which requires relatively less data collection efforts. Such a model should be capable of delineating the dynamics of traffic flow created...

  6. Computer-Assisted Traffic Engineering Using Assignment, Optimal Signal Setting, and Modal Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    Methods of traffic assignment, traffic signal setting, and modal split analysis are combined in a set of computer-assisted traffic engineering programs. The system optimization and user optimization traffic assignments are described. Travel time func...

  7. Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, J.; Reuter, U. [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology

    1995-12-31

    The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

  8. The effects of redundancy and information manipulation on traffic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Özel, Berk; Ozel, Berk

    2014-01-01

    Traffic congestion is one of the most frequently encountered problems in real life. It is not only a scientific concern of scholars, but also an inevitable issue for most of the individuals living in urban areas. Since every driver in traffic networks tries to minimize own journey length, and volume of the traffic prevents coordination between individuals, a cooperative behavior will not be provided spontaneously in order to decrease the total cost of the network and the time spent on traffic...

  9. Self-Organizing Traffic at a Malfunctioning Intersection

    OpenAIRE

    Sujai Kumar; Sugata Mitra

    2006-01-01

    Traffic signals and traffic flow models have been studied extensively in the past and have provided valuable insights on the design of signalling systems, congestion control, and punitive policies. This paper takes a slightly different tack and describes what happens at an intersection where the traffic signals are malfunctioning and stuck in some configuration. By modelling individual vehicles as agents, we were able to replicate the surprisingly organized traffic flow that we observed at a ...

  10. Algorithms and tools for anonymization of the internet traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Farah, Tanjila

    2013-01-01

    Collecting network traffic traces from deployed networks is one of the basic steps in under-standing communication networks and ensuring adequate quality of service. Traffic traces may be used for network management, traffic engineering, packet classification, and for analyzing user behavior. They may also be used for identifying and tracking network anomalies and for maintaining network security. For privacy and security reasons, monitored traffic traces should be anonymization before they m...

  11. Multimodale trafiknet i GIS (Multimodal Traffic Network in GIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Brems, Camilla Riff

    1996-01-01

    The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example.......The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example....

  12. Traffic Management for Emergency Vehicle Priority Based on Visual Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kapileswar Nellore; Gerhard P. Hancke

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is endlessly increasing everywhere in the world and can cause terrible traffic congestion at intersections. Most of the traffic lights today feature a fixed green light sequence, therefore the green light sequence is determined without taking the presence of the emergency vehicles into account. Therefore, emergency vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, fire engines, etc. stuck in a traffic jam and delayed in reaching their destination can lead to loss of property and val...

  13. A Survey of Modern Air Traffic Control. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    oceanic traffic would use combined hyperbolic-inertial navigation systems. System I could be implemented to meet the demanda for air traffic services...but one of great importance if the projected gro~th in air traffic occurs and the current trend in labor osts c ontinue. Satellite-aided systems...control <>fair traffic through increased use of automated facilities, then a less labor intensive syst e m may be feas i ble with attendant long term

  14. Level of neurotic disorders among drivers causing traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Đurić Predrag; Filipović Danka

    2007-01-01

    Different aspects of driver personality may affect traffic safety. Extended driver reaction time causes deceleration of the reflexes, which is a major cause of traffic accidents. Cornell index was used in 30 drivers responsible for traffic accidents, with the aim to measure their level of neurotic disorder and compare them with results of controls (drivers not responsible for traffic accidents). Reaction time was measured and compared among subjects with normal results of Cornell test and tho...

  15. Estimating Traffic and Anomaly Maps via Network Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Mardani, Morteza; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2014-01-01

    Mapping origin-destination (OD) network traffic is pivotal for network management and proactive security tasks. However, lack of sufficient flow-level measurements as well as potential anomalies pose major challenges towards this goal. Leveraging the spatiotemporal correlation of nominal traffic, and the sparse nature of anomalies, this paper brings forth a novel framework to map out nominal and anomalous traffic, which treats jointly important network monitoring tasks including traffic estim...

  16. Design of Automatic Comprehensive Traffic Data Management System for Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Goulias, Konstadinos G.

    1998-01-01

    With the highway infrastructure under strain, there is a need to collect and analyze traffic volume, vehicle classification, and weight data in an integrated manner. Most research focuses on collection and quality of data with little emphasis on an integrated traffic data management system. Design of an integrated traffic data management system that allows for editing, storage, and reporting of traffic volumes, vehicle classification, and vehicle weight along with quality assurance of data is...

  17. POINT COORDINATION FUNCTION WLAN TRAFFIC LOADINGS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNN

    DCF function is contention based and is supported by carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol [7, 8]. The CSMA/CA media access control (MAC) protocol of IEEE WLAN is a unique way of avoiding the collision of the user packets when the traffic sources transmit bursty packets [3, 4, 5, 6].

  18. CYCLISTS TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ON ROUNDABOUT (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena BELIKOVA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth of motorization level leads to the necessity of crossroads modernization and this is reflected in the other movement participants. This article discusses and compares the methods of cyclists traffic management on roundabout in terms of security, efficiency of implementation, simplicity of organization and cost.

  19. Identifying MMORPG Bots: A Traffic Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chin Chen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs have become extremely popular among network gamers. Despite their success, one of MMORPG's greatest challenges is the increasing use of game bots, that is, autoplaying game clients. The use of game bots is considered unsportsmanlike and is therefore forbidden. To keep games in order, game police, played by actual human players, often patrol game zones and question suspicious players. This practice, however, is labor-intensive and ineffective. To address this problem, we analyze the traffic generated by human players versus game bots and propose general solutions to identify game bots. Taking Ragnarok Online as our subject, we study the traffic generated by human players and game bots. We find that their traffic is distinguishable by 1 the regularity in the release time of client commands, 2 the trend and magnitude of traffic burstiness in multiple time scales, and 3 the sensitivity to different network conditions. Based on these findings, we propose four strategies and two ensemble schemes to identify bots. Finally, we discuss the robustness of the proposed methods against countermeasures of bot developers, and consider a number of possible ways to manage the increasingly serious bot problem.

  20. Traffic gridlock on a honeycomb city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, L. E.; Muñoz, J. D.

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by an old and almost in oblivion urban plan, we report the behavior of the Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) model—a paradigm for studying phase transitions of traffic flow—on a hypothetical city with a perfect honeycomb street network. In contrast with the original BML model on a square lattice, the same model on a honeycomb does not show any anisotropy or intermediate states, but a single continuous phase transition between free and totally congested flow, a transition that can be completely characterized by the tools of classical percolation. Although the transition occurs at a lower density than for the conventional BML, simple modifications, like randomly stopping the cars with a very small probability or increasing the traffic light periods, drives the model to perform better on honeycomb lattices. As traffic lights and disordered perturbations are inherent in real traffic, these results question the actual role of the square gridlike designs and suggest the honeycomb topology as an interesting alternative for urban planning in real cities.

  1. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  2. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  3. Second-order continuum traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C.; Hoffmann, C.; Sollacher, R.; Wagenhuber, J.; Schürmann, B.

    1996-11-01

    A second-order traffic flow model is derived from microscopic equations and is compared to existing models. In order to build in different driver characteristics on the microscopic level, we exploit the idea of an additional phase-space variable, called the desired velocity originally introduced by Paveri-Fontana [Trans. Res. 9, 225 (1975)]. By taking the moments of Paveri-Fontana's Boltzmann-like ansatz, a hierachy of evolution equations is found. This hierarchy is closed by neglecting cumulants of third and higher order in the cumulant expansion of the distribution function, thus leading to Euler-like traffic equations. As a consequence of the desired velocity, we find dynamical quantities, which are the mean desired velocity, the variance of the desired velocity, and the covariance of actual and desired velocity. Through these quantities an alternative explanation for the onset of traffic clusters can be given, i.e., a spatial variation of the variance of the desired velocity can cause the formation of a traffic jam. Furthermore, by taking into account the finite car length, Paveri-Fontana's equation is generalized to the high-density regime eventually producing corrections to the macroscopic equations. The relevance of the present dynamic quantities is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  4. Traffic safety effects of navigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.J.; Hogema, J.H.; Vonk, T.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract— To investigate effects of navigation systems on traffic safety, a literature search, a damages database analysis, a user survey and an instrumented car study were conducted. This paper presents the instrumented car study to investigate the effects of a navigation system on driving behavior

  5. Causes of road traffic accidents in Juba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-02

    May 2, 2017 ... Introduction: Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of death and disability in South Sudan. The purpose ... Most accidents were caused by male .... Accidents statistics, Nairobi: Ministry for Public works,. Government of Kenya, 1983 – 1990, 1992. 5. Filani and Gbadamosi. Identification of cycles and.

  6. Rerouting algorithms solving the air traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacher, Ludovica; Flamini, Marta; Romano, Elpidio

    2017-06-01

    Congestion in the air traffic network is a problem with an increasing relevance for airlines costs as well as airspace safety. One of the major issue is the limited operative capacity of the air network. In this work an Autonomous Agent approach is proposed to solve in real time the problem of air traffic congestion. The air traffic infrastructures are modeled with a graph and are considered partitioned in different sectors. Each sector has its own decision agent dealing with the air traffic control involved in it. Each agent sector imposes a real time aircraft scheduling to respect both delay and capacity constrains. When a congestion is predicted, a new aircraft scheduling is computed. Congestion is solved when the capacity constrains are satisfied once again. This can be done by delaying on ground aircraft or/and rerouting aircraft and/or postponing the congestion. We have tested two different algorithms that calculate K feasible paths for each aircraft involved in the congestion. Some results are reported on North Italian air space.

  7. Highway traffic noise prediction based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianghua; Qin, Qiming

    2014-05-01

    Before building a new road, we need to predict the traffic noise generated by vehicles. Traditional traffic noise prediction methods are based on certain locations and they are not only time-consuming, high cost, but also cannot be visualized. Geographical Information System (GIS) can not only solve the problem of manual data processing, but also can get noise values at any point. The paper selected a road segment from Wenxi to Heyang. According to the geographical overview of the study area and the comparison between several models, we combine the JTG B03-2006 model and the HJ2.4-2009 model to predict the traffic noise depending on the circumstances. Finally, we interpolate the noise values at each prediction point and then generate contours of noise. By overlaying the village data on the noise contour layer, we can get the thematic maps. The use of GIS for road traffic noise prediction greatly facilitates the decision-makers because of GIS spatial analysis function and visualization capabilities. We can clearly see the districts where noise are excessive, and thus it becomes convenient to optimize the road line and take noise reduction measures such as installing sound barriers and relocating villages and so on.

  8. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of accidents experienced with railway transportation involve collision with automobiles or other vehicles and collision with other trains. These collisions can be averted by putting safety measures in place. Part of the measures can be achieved by using computerized railway station traffic control systems that use ...

  9. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulati...

  10. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  11. Trip-timing decisions with traffic incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Lindsey, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes traffic bottleneck congestion when drivers randomly cause incidents that temporarily block the bottleneck. Drivers have general scheduling preferences for time spent at home and at work. They independently choose morning departure times from home to maximize expected utility w...

  12. resource allocation methodology for internet heterogeneous traffic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    RESOURCE ALLOCATION METHODOLOGY FOR INTERNET. HETEROGENEOUS TRAFFIC. Cosmas I Ani. Department of Electronic Engineering. University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. The mode of operation of internet can lead to congestion which, in turn, leads to degradation in the quality of service. (QoS).

  13. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is a sprouting serious road safety issue that causes a pro- portion of preventable deaths4,5. Pre-crash driver's dis- traction was reported to be responsible for about 80% of collisions and 65% of near-collisions6. We aimed to pro- spectively study distraction-related road traffic collision injuries, their contributory factors, ...

  14. Overtaking as Indicator of Road Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Topolnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Overtaking is presemed as one of the indicators of roadtraffic flow. The possibility of overtaking depends on the existenceof an intetval in the opposing traffic flow sufficient to performovertaking. It also analyses the probability of overtakingby applying adequate equations and graphical presentations

  15. What kinds of traffic forecasts are possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    hardly possible to make exact, quantitative predictions about the impact of implementing a specific infrastructure project, compared to ‘doing nothing’. Instead of relying on traffic model simulations as the general forecasting and assessment tool in transport planning, we propose to separate the so...

  16. Probability in traffic : A challenge for modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvert, S.C.; Taale, H.; Snelder, M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade an increase in research regarding stochasticity and probability in traffic modelling has occurred. The realisation has grown that simple presumptions and basic stochastic elements are insufficient to give accurate modelling results in many cases. This paper puts forward a strong

  17. Probability in traffic: a challenge for modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvert, S.C.; Taale, H.; Snelder, M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade an increase in research regarding stochasticity and probability in traffic modelling has occurred. The realisation has grown that simple presumptions and basic stochastic elements are insufficient to give accurate modelling results in many cases. This paper puts forward a strong

  18. Smartphone Based Traffic Sign Inventory and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Road signs are an important part of the infrastructure and are needed to ensure smooth and : safe traffic flow. Faded, occluded, damaged or vandalized signs can confuse or misinform : drivers and lead to unsafe driving behavior. E.g. if a driver is n...

  19. Representing the road infrastructure in open traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, G.; Knoppers, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the design of network objects for all types of assignment methods, varying from macroscopic assignments to micro simulation models. The basic idea is that the model environment should allow the simulation of traffic at multiple scales, based on standardized data formats. We

  20. South Carolina traffic collision fact book, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The number of traffic fatalities decreased from 921 in 2008 to 894 in : 2009, a 2.9% decrease. There was also a decrease in the mileage : death rate (MDR) as well. It fell to an all time low of 1.84 deaths per : hundred million vehicle miles of trave...

  1. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  2. Road traffic noise, sleep and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygna, Karin; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Aamodt, Geir; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun Hjertager

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the relationship between road traffic noise, self-reported sleep quality and mental health. The study is cross-sectional and based on data from a survey conducted in Oslo, Norway, in 2000. Psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, HSCL-25) was measured along with self-reported somatic health, sleep quality, noise sensitivity and socioeconomic variables. Questionnaire data were combined with modeled estimates of noise exposure. The total study sample consisted of 2898 respondents. After adjustment for potential confounders and stratifying for sleep quality, we found a positive, but not statistically significant association between noise exposure and symptoms of psychological distress among participants with poor sleep quality (slope=0.06, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.13, per 10 dB increase in noise exposure). In the same sleep quality group, we found a borderline statistically significant association between noise exposure and a symptom level indicating a probable mental disorder (HSCL≥1.55) (odds ratio=1.47, 95% CI: 0.99-1.98, per 10 dB increase in noise exposure). We found no association between road traffic noise and mental health among subjects reporting good and medium sleep quality. The results suggest that road traffic noise may be associated with poorer mental health among subjects with poor sleep. Individuals with poor sleep quality may be more vulnerable to effects of road traffic noise on mental health than individuals with better sleep quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; De Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, August). Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control. Meeting of the EARLI SIG6/7 Instructional Design and Learning and Instruction with Computers, Ulm, Germany.

  4. Traffic Engineering of Cellular Wireless Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2002-01-01

    protection mechanisms to guarantee the Quality of Service for all services. We study cellular systems with hierarchical cells, and the effect of overlapping cells, and we show that by call packing we obtain a very high utilisation. The models are generalisations of the Erlang-B formula, and include general...... arrival processes, and multi-rate (multi-media) traffic for third generation systems....

  5. Model Predictive Control for Integrating Traffic Control Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic traffic control measures, such as ramp metering and dynamic speed limits, can be used to better utilize the available road capacity. Due to the increasing traffic volumes and the increasing number of traffic jams the interaction between the control measures has increased such that local

  6. Optimization of traffic light control system of an intersection using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of traffic light control system of an intersection using fuzzy inference system. ... This clearly demonstrates the efficacy and potential of our solution strategy to address the traffic scheduling problem. Keywords: Fuzzy Logic; Traffic Control Systems; Dynamic Phase Scheduling; Static Phase Scheduling, Fuzzy Sets ...

  7. Introduction to Traffic Flow Theory : An introduction with exercises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.

    Traffic processes cause several problems in the world. Traffic delay, pollution are some of it. They can be solved with the right road design or traffic management (control) measure. Before implementing these designs of measures, though, their effect could be tested. To this end, knowledge of

  8. Prediction of traffic fatalities and prospects for mobility becoming ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    road traffic fatalities for developing countries is used, based on the relationships of income level per capita with road traffic mortality. Also this model implies that at some point in time road traffic deaths will start declining for ever, also worldwide. After empirically derived corrections for missing or incomplete data and police.

  9. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Routing strategy; network traffic flow; hysteretic loop; phase transition from free flow state to congestion state; scale-free network; bi-stable state; traffic dynamics. PACS Nos 89.75.Hc; 89.20.Hh; 05.10.-a; 89.75.Fb. 1. Traffic dynamics based on local routing strategy on scale-free networks. Communication networks such as ...

  10. Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A Public Health Problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, road traffic accidents lead to death and disability as well as financial cost to both society and the individual involved. The causes of road traffic accidents are not just human error or driver negligence. Unfortunately,. Nigerian highways are arguably one of the worst and most dangerous in the world. Road traffic ...

  11. Factors Influencing Road Traffic Delay: Drivers' Perspectives And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined drivers' perception of road traffic delay attributes and factors influencing road traffic delay with a view to assessing loss of man hours along Lagos-Abeokuta Expressway. This view translated to policy statements that can tremendously reduce the road traffic delay in the study area. Primary data were ...

  12. 41 CFR 109-40.301 - Traffic management functions administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic management functions administration. 109-40.301 Section 109-40.301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Management § 109-40.301 Traffic management functions administration. The DOE traffic management functions are...

  13. Bayesian Data Assimilation for Improved Modeling of Road Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the optimal use of existing models that predict certain phenomena of the road traffic system. Such models are extensively used in Advanced Traffic Information Systems (ATIS), Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) or Model Predictive Control (MPC) approaches in order to improve the

  14. The development of area wide traffic management scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zuylen, H.J.; Lu, S.; Li, J.; Yusen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic management in cities with congestion is a big challenge with still unused opportunities. Intersection control is a corner stone but this should be done in an area-wide context. The dominant traffic process on urban roads is the traffic flow on the intersections. Spill back is a most

  15. assessment of traffic flow on enugu highways using speed density

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    effectively if traffic behaviours under all conditions are modeled accurately [2]. Traffic flow in engineering is the study of interaction between vehicles, commuters and infrastructure. (including the highways, signage and traffic control devices) with the aim of understanding and developing an optimal road network with efficient ...

  16. An information strategy for the traffic control-chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seignette, P.; Dijkman, J.J.; Grijpink, J.H.A.M.; Plomp, M.G.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of the chain analysis of the traffic control chain according to the method of Chain-computerisation. The traffic control chain co-operation aims at maintaining car mobility with minimal delay. Car mobility is threatened by disruptions of traffic flows that are

  17. Pedestrian traffic injuries among school children in Kawempe, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traffic injuries are an important problem in low income countries. In Uganda road traffic is the largest single cause of injury in Kampala; pedestrians, and children are most affected. Pedestrian injury affects school children in Uganda. Objective: To determine the overall risk of pedestrian traffic injury among ...

  18. Efficiency of Roundabouts as Compared to Traffic Light Controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    light especially when the electric power consumption, fuel consumption and emission by the vehicles stopped by red light at the entrance of signalized intersection are taken into consideration. When traffic density exceeds this value, however, it is recommended for the traffic to be regulated with traffic light at a part time basis ...

  19. Load characterization and anomaly detection for voice over IP traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel); I. Saniee; A. Stolyar

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of traffic anomaly detection in IP networks. Traffic anomalies typically arise when there is focused overload or when a network element fails and it is desired to infer these purely from the measured traffic. We derive new general formulae for the variance of the

  20. Epidemiology of Deaths from Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the epidemiology of deaths from Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) in Nigeria using Lagos State as a baseline study and to suggest preventive and corrective safety measures towards reducing the traffic accidents in the study area. The reported number of deaths from road traffic accidents ...

  1. The Pseudo-Self-Similar Traffic Model: Application and Validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Abdouni Khayari, Rachid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Sadre, R.; Ost, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, a variety of studies have shown that network traffic, both for local- and wide-area networks, has self-similar properties. This led to new approaches in network traffic modelling because most traditional traffic approaches result in the underestimation of performance measures

  2. Busy hour traffic congestion analysis in mobile macrocells | Ozovehe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, real live traffic data from integrated GSM/GPRS network was used for traffic congestion analysis. The analysis was carried out on 10 congesting cells using network management system (NMS) statistics data span for three years period. Correlation test showed that traffic channel (TCH) congestion depend only ...

  3. busy hour traffic congestion analysis in mobile macrocells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    In this work, real live traffic data from integrated GSM/GPRS network was used for traffic congestion analysis. The analysis was carried out on 10 congesting cells using network management system (NMS) statistics data span for three years period. Correlation test showed that traffic channel (TCH) congestion depend only.

  4. Effect of violating the traffic light rule in the Biham-Middleton-Levine traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Jun; Jiang, Rui; Li, Ming; Li, Qi-Lang; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-09-01

    This paper studies the effect of violating the traffic light rule in the Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) traffic flow model. It is assumed that there are two kinds of drivers: normal drivers obey the traffic light rule and violators disobey it. Simulation results show that although the existence of violators increases the average velocity in the free-flowing phase, it decreases the threshold from free-flowing phase to jam. With the presence of violators, a new kind of configuration with stripe slopes -2 and -1/2 has been found in the free-flowing phase. We have developed an analytical investigation which successfully predicts the average velocity in the free-flowing phase. A phase separation phenomenon, where jams and freely flowing traffic coexist, has been found in the intermediate car density range. The mechanism of the phase separation has been illustrated.

  5. Pilot visual acquisition of traffic : operational communications from air traffic control operational communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Avionics devices designed to provide pilots with graphically displayed traffic information will enable pilots to acquire and verify the identity of any intruder aircraft within the general area, either before or in accordance with a controller-issued...

  6. Road traffic and cardiovascular health effects - Road traffic noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to both environmental noise and air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until now, few studies have considered both stressors simultaneously. Two large studies were carried out investigating the relationship between road traffic noise and several cardiovascular

  7. Design and evaluation of impact of traffic light priority for trucks on traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Current traffic light control systems treat all vehicles the same. Trucks however have : different dynamics than passenger vehicles. They take a longer distance to stop, have : lower acceleration rates, have bigger turning rates that cause bigger tra...

  8. Traffic intensity monitoring using multiple object detection with traffic surveillance cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, H. G. Muhammad; Khalifah, O. O.

    2017-11-01

    Object detection and tracking is a field of research that has many applications in the current generation with increasing number of cameras on the streets and lower cost for Internet of Things(IoT). In this paper, a traffic intensity monitoring system is implemented based on the Macroscopic Urban Traffic model is proposed using computer vision as its source. The input of this program is extracted from a traffic surveillance camera which has another program running a neural network classification which can identify and differentiate the vehicle type is implanted. The neural network toolbox is trained with positive and negative input to increase accuracy. The accuracy of the program is compared to other related works done and the trends of the traffic intensity from a road is also calculated. relevant articles in literature searches, great care should be taken in constructing both. Lastly the limitation and the future work is concluded.

  9. Design and Operational Evaluation of the Traffic Management Advisor at the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-19

    NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have designed and developed an automation tool known as the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and ...

  10. FPGA Based Efficient Design of Traffic Light Controller using Frequency Scaling for Family of HSTL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Shivani; Khan, Sadiq; Das, Bhagwan

    2016-01-01

    Traffic blockage is one of the major issues faced by world today. That can be road traffic or air traffic or even water traffic .Traffic Controllers provide the right direction by providing a rule for any kind of Vehicles. The idea goes around designing traffic light controller system which...... are studied for the purpose of making Light Controller Efficient using VHDL....

  11. Impact analysis of traffic-related air pollution based on real-time traffic and basic meteorological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Yao, Enjian; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization and motorization in China, traffic-related air pollution has become a major component of air pollution which constantly jeopardizes public health. This study proposes an integrated framework for estimating the concentration of traffic-related air pollution with real-time traffic and basic meteorological information and also for further evaluating the impact of traffic-related air pollution. First, based on the vehicle emission factor models sensitive to traffic status, traffic emissions are calculated according to the real-time link-based average traffic speed, traffic volume, and vehicular fleet composition. Then, based on differences in meteorological conditions, traffic pollution sources are divided into line sources and point sources, and the corresponding methods to determine the dynamic affecting areas are also proposed. Subsequently, with basic meteorological data, Gaussian dispersion model and puff integration model are applied respectively to estimate the concentration of traffic-related air pollution. Finally, the proposed estimating framework is applied to calculate the distribution of CO concentration in the main area of Beijing, and the population exposure is also calculated to evaluate the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health. Results show that there is a certain correlation between traffic indicators (i.e., traffic speed and traffic intensity) of the affecting area and traffic-related CO concentration of the target grid, which indicates the methods to determine the affecting areas are reliable. Furthermore, the reliability of the proposed estimating framework is verified by comparing the predicted and the observed ambient CO concentration. In addition, results also show that the traffic-related CO concentration is higher in morning and evening peak hours, and has a heavier impact on public health within the Fourth Ring Road of Beijing due to higher population density and higher CO

  12. A computerized traffic control algorithm to determine optimal traffic signal settings. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldner, K.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to optimally control the traffic signals at each intersection using a discrete time traffic model applicable to heavy or peak traffic. Off line optimization procedures were applied to compute the cycle splits required to minimize the lengths of the vehicle queues and delay at each intersection. The method was applied to an extensive traffic network in Toledo, Ohio. Results obtained with the derived optimal settings are compared with the control settings presently in use.

  13. Traffic process control. Automation of road- and rail traffic; Verkehrsleittechnik. Automatisierung des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnieder, Eckehard (ed.) [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verkehrssicherheit und Automatisierungstechnik

    2007-07-01

    Traffic control aims the comprehensive guidance of complex traffic flows. The book provides a solid foundation, from design to realization with highly detailed technical systems. It presents a functionally oriented traffic process control strategy as its main topic, valuable for further technology change. Four main topics treat tasks and structures of traffic process control systems: single vehicle control and information management; traffic flow control; node control; operation and network management. The book addresses students and specialists of traffic science, who already have basic knowledge of the road- and rail sector and control engineering in relation systems theory. (GL) [German] Ziel der Verkehrsleittechnik ist die Beherrschung komplexer Verkehrsstroeme des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs. Vom Entwurf bis zur Realisierung mit technischen Einrichtungen, die eine grosse Detailfuelle aufweisen, wird eine solide Grundlage vermittelt. Das vorliegende Buch stellt dafuer eine funktional orientierte Verkehrsleittechnik in den Mittelpunkt, die ueber den Technologiewandel hinaus gilt. Vier Abschnitte behandeln die Aufgaben und Strukturen von Verkehrsleitsystemen: Einzelfahrzeugsteuerung und -informationsmanagement; Verkehrsflusssteuerung; Knotensteuerung; Betriebs- und Netzmanagement. Das Buch richtet sich an Studierende und Fachleute des Verkehrswesens. Voraussetzungen sind Kenntnisse des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs und der Regelungstechnik bzw. Systemtheorie. (orig.)

  14. FAST DRAWING OF TRAFFIC SIGN USING MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign provides road users with the specified instruction and information to enhance traffic safety. Automatic detection of traffic sign is important for navigation, autonomous driving, transportation asset management, etc. With the advance of laser and imaging sensors, Mobile Mapping System (MMS becomes widely used in transportation agencies to map the transportation infrastructure. Although many algorithms of traffic sign detection are developed in the literature, they are still a tradeoff between the detection speed and accuracy, especially for the large-scale mobile mapping of both the rural and urban roads. This paper is motivated to efficiently survey traffic signs while mapping the road network and the roadside landscape. Inspired by the manual delineation of traffic sign, a drawing strategy is proposed to quickly approximate the boundary of traffic sign. Both the shape and color prior of the traffic sign are simultaneously involved during the drawing process. The most common speed-limit sign circle and the statistic color model of traffic sign are studied in this paper. Anchor points of traffic sign edge are located with the local maxima of color and gradient difference. Starting with the anchor points, contour of traffic sign is drawn smartly along the most significant direction of color and intensity consistency. The drawing process is also constrained by the curvature feature of the traffic sign circle. The drawing of linear growth is discarded immediately if it fails to form an arc over some steps. The Kalman filter principle is adopted to predict the temporal context of traffic sign. Based on the estimated point,we can predict and double check the traffic sign in consecutive frames.The event probability of having a traffic sign over the consecutive observations is compared with the null hypothesis of no perceptible traffic sign. The temporally salient traffic sign is then detected statistically and automatically as the rare

  15. Fast Drawing of Traffic Sign Using Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.; Tan, B.; Huang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Traffic sign provides road users with the specified instruction and information to enhance traffic safety. Automatic detection of traffic sign is important for navigation, autonomous driving, transportation asset management, etc. With the advance of laser and imaging sensors, Mobile Mapping System (MMS) becomes widely used in transportation agencies to map the transportation infrastructure. Although many algorithms of traffic sign detection are developed in the literature, they are still a tradeoff between the detection speed and accuracy, especially for the large-scale mobile mapping of both the rural and urban roads. This paper is motivated to efficiently survey traffic signs while mapping the road network and the roadside landscape. Inspired by the manual delineation of traffic sign, a drawing strategy is proposed to quickly approximate the boundary of traffic sign. Both the shape and color prior of the traffic sign are simultaneously involved during the drawing process. The most common speed-limit sign circle and the statistic color model of traffic sign are studied in this paper. Anchor points of traffic sign edge are located with the local maxima of color and gradient difference. Starting with the anchor points, contour of traffic sign is drawn smartly along the most significant direction of color and intensity consistency. The drawing process is also constrained by the curvature feature of the traffic sign circle. The drawing of linear growth is discarded immediately if it fails to form an arc over some steps. The Kalman filter principle is adopted to predict the temporal context of traffic sign. Based on the estimated point,we can predict and double check the traffic sign in consecutive frames.The event probability of having a traffic sign over the consecutive observations is compared with the null hypothesis of no perceptible traffic sign. The temporally salient traffic sign is then detected statistically and automatically as the rare event of having a

  16. Movements of molecular motors: Ratchets, random walks and traffic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Stefan; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2005-10-01

    Processive molecular motors which drive the traffic of organelles in cells move in a directed way along cytoskeletal filaments. On large time scales, they perform motor walks, i.e., peculiar random walks which arise from the repeated unbinding from and rebinding to filaments. Unbound motors perform Brownian motion in the surrounding fluid. In addition, the traffic of molecular motors exhibits many cooperative phenomena. In particular, it faces similar problems as the traffic on streets such as the occurrence of traffic jams and the coordination of (two-way) traffic. These issues are studied here theoretically using lattice models.

  17. Traffic State Estimation Using Connected Vehicles and Stationary Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen F. Grumert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic state estimation is of importance for efficient traffic management. This is especially the case for traffic management systems that require fast detection of changes in the traffic conditions in order to apply an effective control measure. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the traffic state and speed and density, by using connected vehicles combined with stationary detectors. The aim is to allow fast and accurate estimation of changes in the traffic conditions. The proposed method does only require information about the speed and the position of connected vehicles and can make use of sparsely located stationary detectors to limit the dependence on the infrastructure equipment. An evaluation of the proposed method is carried out by microscopic traffic simulation. The traffic state estimated using the proposed method is compared to the true simulated traffic state. Further, the density estimates are compared to density estimates from one detector-based method, one combined method, and one connected-vehicle-based method. The results of the study show that the proposed method is a promising alternative for estimating the traffic state in traffic management applications.

  18. Development of a mobile application for manual traffic counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanim Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of technology in performing traffic counts has become widely used by many transportation agencies and private sectors. Different technologies have been employed to perform such counts, such as inductive loops, image processing, Bluetooth technologies, and laser and infrared technologies. However, the use of these advanced technologies come with extra cost to develop, install, and maintain. While the use of advanced technologies provide reliable traffic counts and vehicle classifications data, the use of manual traffic is an inevitable task. Manual traffic counts can serve different purposes, such as performing quality control or conducting short-term traffic survey. Manual traffic counts are usually conducted with the use of the traditional paper-and-pencil approach or the use of hand-held devices that are specifically developed to assess performing manual traffic counts. In this paper, the development of a mobile app that can be used to assist those who need to perform manual traffic counts. The app can be used by many public agencies, private sectors, and college students to collect their traffic data. It also provides users with the capabilities of sharing their traffic counts instantly, where traffic counts can be extracted and processed quickly by other parties.

  19. Mobile agent based online integration modeling for traffic information services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Gao, Dequan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Lianying

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid development of urban economy and urbanization construction in China, traffic load rises sharply because of the larger vehicle occupancy within many urban areas, which has already led to serious traffic congestion problem. GIS-T is an efficient technological solution and core information infrastructure for solving modern urban transportation problems. High-level traffic systems must integrate real-time traffic information and spatial data of road to supply timely and efficient public services and guarantee a better orderly transportation. However, for traffic information is multisource, complex and massive, traffic information service must have fast, powerful capabilities for online integration processing. Online integration of traffic information emphasizes the traffic resources share and services optimization, and solve assignment, scheduling, monitoring and feedback of integration computing tasks in dynamic and distributed network. This paper firstly analyzes traffic data and existing problems of online integration, and then discusses mobile agent technology, and finally proposes a mobile agent based unified online integration model of traffic information. This model will achieve cooperative computing and more accessible, flexible and reliable traffic information services.

  20. INVESTIGATION ON NORTH AMERICAN TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICE SELECTION PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana RAHMAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic calming provides a process for identifying and addressing existing problems related to speeding, excessive traffic volume, and pedestrian safety concerns on residential streets. Although several traffic calming devices have been installed in Asian countries for example in Japan and Korea; they have no distinct and methodical process for the device selection. The objective of this research is to illustrate a comprehensive review of North American traffic calming device selection process practices. The aim is to establish traffic calming device selection process guiding principles to be introduced in Japan. This research reveals that speeding is the most significant issue for installing a traffic calming device. The result explores that community support is the most important factor for the selection of a traffic calming device. The result shows that speed humps and speed tables or raised crosswalks are the most widely practiced devices.

  1. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  2. The turning point in the number of traffic fatalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüde, Ulf; Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The number of traffic fatalities reached a peak in many highly motorised countries around 1970. Some previous studies have suggested that the turning point in the number of traffic fatalities was inevitable and did not reflect a change in the underlying trends influencing the number of traffic...... fatalities. Other studies suggest that trends in traffic growth and fatality rate changed from before to after the turning point. This paper proposes two hypotheses about the turning point in the number of traffic fatalities. One hypothesis is that the long-term trends in traffic growth and fatality rate...... were the same before and after the turning point. The other hypothesis is that the long-term trends in traffic growth and fatality rate were different before and after the turning point was reached, in particular that the annual percentage decline in fatality rate became greater after the turning point...

  3. Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Matthias; Ivina, Olga; von Klot, Stephanie; Babisch, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration. parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function. the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50). road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

  4. Imitation dynamics in a game of traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paissan, Gabriel; Abramson, Guillermo

    2013-04-01

    We study a model of traffic where drivers adopt different behavioral strategies. These can be cooperative or defective according to a driver abiding or not by a traffic rule. Drivers can change their strategy by imitating the majority, with a rule that depends on the strategies with which they have interacted. These interactions occur at intersections, where vehicles pay a temporal cost according to their strategy. We analyze the conditions under which different strategy compositions represent an advantage in the system velocity. We found that the cooperators' mean speed is higher than the defectors' even when the vehicle density is large. However, defectors can obtain benefits in their mean speed when they are a minority in an essentially cooperative population. The presence of a core of educated drivers, who persist firmly in a cooperative behavior, optimizes the speed in the system, especially for intermediate values of vehicular density and higher temporal costs.

  5. Effects of extraordinary snowfall on traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeherman, Joshua; Liu, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Snowfall affects traffic safety by causing changes in roadway surface and visibility that result in crashes, spinouts, and breakdowns. Using data collected at a site that regularly receives nearly 1000 cm of snow during the snow season, this study examines the impact of snowfall quantity, gap between snow events, and weather conditions on crash and incident frequencies. Estimation results from regression analysis show that snowfall severity significantly impacts crashes and incidents but the impact diminishes marginally with each additional centimeter of snow. Gap has a significant fixed effect on crashes but its impact on incidents varies significantly across observations. The effect of the mixed precipitation condition is smaller in comparison to an all-snow condition. These results will help inform policy for snow removal and traffic enforcement in areas of high snowfall. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    Metro became operational in autumn 2002. We observed that forecasts from the demand sub-models agree well with the data from the 2000 national travel survey, with the mode choice forecasts in particular being a good match with the observed modal split. The results of the 2000 car assignment model...... the model’s base trip matrices. Second, a dialog between researchers and the Ministry of Transport has been initiated to discuss the need to upgrade the Copenhagen model, e.g. a switching to an activity-based paradigm and improving assignment procedures.......The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...

  7. Automatic Data Traffic Control on DSM Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We study data traffic on distributed shared memory machines and conclude that data placement and grouping improve performance of scientific codes. We present several methods which user can employ to improve data traffic in his code. We report on implementation of a tool which detects the code fragments causing data congestions and advises user on improvements of data routing in these fragments. The capabilities of the tool include deduction of data alignment and affinity from the source code; detection of the code constructs having abnormally high cache or TLB misses; generation of data placement constructs. We demonstrate the capabilities of the tool on experiments with NAS parallel benchmarks and with a simple computational fluid dynamics application ARC3D.

  8. A hierarchical framework for air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik

    Air travel in recent years has been plagued by record delays, with over $8 billion in direct operating costs being attributed to 100 million flight delay minutes in 2007. Major contributing factors to delay include weather, congestion, and aging infrastructure; the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) aims to alleviate these delays through an upgrade of the air traffic control system. Changes to large-scale networked systems such as air traffic control are complicated by the need for coordinated solutions over disparate temporal and spatial scales. Individual air traffic controllers must ensure aircraft maintain safe separation locally with a time horizon of seconds to minutes, whereas regional plans are formulated to efficiently route flows of aircraft around weather and congestion on the order of every hour. More efficient control algorithms that provide a coordinated solution are required to safely handle a larger number of aircraft in a fixed amount of airspace. Improved estimation algorithms are also needed to provide accurate aircraft state information and situational awareness for human controllers. A hierarchical framework is developed to simultaneously solve the sometimes conflicting goals of regional efficiency and local safety. Careful attention is given in defining the interactions between the layers of this hierarchy. In this way, solutions to individual air traffic problems can be targeted and implemented as needed. First, the regional traffic flow management problem is posed as an optimization problem and shown to be NP-Hard. Approximation methods based on aggregate flow models are developed to enable real-time implementation of algorithms that reduce the impact of congestion and adverse weather. Second, the local trajectory design problem is solved using a novel slot-based sector model. This model is used to analyze sector capacity under varying traffic patterns, providing a more comprehensive understanding of how increased automation

  9. Application of Changeable Message Signs in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dadić

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia, changeable message signs arebeing introduced on high-serviceability roads in order to improvethe flow management in the network and increase thetraffic safety leveL The equipment installed in the past was notset according to the unique criteria, thus resulting in the installationof relatively incompatible equipment set in a disorganisedmanner. The work presents the basic guidelines in applyingchangeable message signs, primarily on the Croatian motorways.The types and levels of influence on the traffic are described,and the traffic and weather criteria for the applicationof changeable message signs are defined. The paper also analysesthe principles of installing the changeable message signs onroads and road facilities, recommending priorities in presentingthe changeable signs.

  10. Traffic- Croatia Facing the Global Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mahalec

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic today is an indispensable part of our lives and oneof the basic preconditions of what is called social progress. Likeblood in our body it circulates across the whole globe and allowsfor the necessary flow of people and materials. This workconsiders the impact of traffic on the lives of people and on theenvironment, analyses the available energy sources and vehiclepropulsion systems and illustrates global climatic issues. Thepaper presents the methodology created by EU for monitoringof harmful emissions at the national/eve! and gives data on differencesin emissions of individualtransp01t modes. The trafficcondition in the Republic of Croatia is analysed and a thesis isgiven regarding possible solution of the stated problems.

  11. Traffic Flow Optimization Using a Quantum Annealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Neukart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum annealing algorithms belong to the class of metaheuristic tools, applicable for solving binary optimization problems. Hardware implementations of quantum annealing, such as the quantum processing units (QPUs produced by D-Wave Systems, have been subject to multiple analyses in research, with the aim of characterizing the technology’s usefulness for optimization and sampling tasks. In this paper, we present a real-world application that uses quantum technologies. Specifically, we show how to map certain parts of a real-world traffic flow optimization problem to be suitable for quantum annealing. We show that time-critical optimization tasks, such as continuous redistribution of position data for cars in dense road networks, are suitable candidates for quantum computing. Due to the limited size and connectivity of current-generation D-Wave QPUs, we use a hybrid quantum and classical approach to solve the traffic flow problem.

  12. Traffic measurement for big network data

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shigang; Xiao, Qingjun

    2017-01-01

    This book presents several compact and fast methods for online traffic measurement of big network data. It describes challenges of online traffic measurement, discusses the state of the field, and provides an overview of the potential solutions to major problems. The authors introduce the problem of per-flow size measurement for big network data and present a fast and scalable counter architecture, called Counter Tree, which leverages a two-dimensional counter sharing scheme to achieve far better memory efficiency and significantly extend estimation range. Unlike traditional approaches to cardinality estimation problems that allocate a separated data structure (called estimator) for each flow, this book takes a different design path by viewing all the flows together as a whole: each flow is allocated with a virtual estimator, and these virtual estimators share a common memory space. A framework of virtual estimators is designed to apply the idea of sharing to an array of cardinality estimation solutions, achi...

  13. SOLVING TRAFFIC CONGESTION FROM THE DEMAND SIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-En Ge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is nowadays widely accepted that solving traffic congestion from the demand side is more important and more feasible than offering more capacity or facilities for transportation. Following a brief overview of evolution of the concept of Travel Demand Management (TDM, there is a discussion on the TDM foundations that include demand-side strategies, traveler choice and application settings and the new dimensions that ATDM (Active forms of Transportation and Demand Management bring to TDM, i.e. active management and integrative management. Subsequently, the authors provide a short review of the state-of-the-art TDM focusing on relevant literature published since 2000. Next, we highlight five TDM topics that are currently hot: traffic congestion pricing, public transit and bicycles, travel behavior, travel plans and methodology. The paper closes with some concluding remarks.

  14. Modeling Spatially Unrestricted Pedestrian Traffic on Footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zivanovic, Stana; Pavic, Aleksandar; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2010-01-01

    restricted movement of pedestrians, has kept attracting attention of researchers. However, it is the normal spatially unrestricted pedestrian traffic, and its vertical dynamic loading component, that are most relevant for vibration serviceability checks for most footbridges. Despite the existence of numerous...... design procedures concerned with this loading, the current confidence in its modelling is low due to lack of verification of the models on as-built structures. This is the motivation behind reviewing the existing design procedures for modelling normal pedestrian traffic in this paper and evaluating...... their performance against the experimental data acquired on two as-built footbridges. Additionally, the use of Monte Carlo simulations is also investigated. Possible factors that cause discrepancies between measured and calculated vibration responses, including possibility of existence of pedestrian...

  15. Road traffic congestion a concise guide

    CERN Document Server

    Falcocchio, John C

    2015-01-01

    This book on road traffic congestion in cities and suburbs describes congestion problems and shows how they can be relieved. The first part (Chapters 1 - 3) shows how congestion reflects transportation technologies and settlement patterns. The second part (Chapters 4 - 13) describes the causes, characteristics, and consequences of congestion. The third part (Chapters 14 - 23) presents various relief strategies - including supply adaptation and demand mitigation - for nonrecurring and recurring congestion. The last part (Chapter 24) gives general guidelines for congestion relief and provides a general outlook for the future. The book will be useful for a wide audience - including students, practitioners and researchers in a variety of professional endeavors: traffic engineers, transportation planners, public transport specialists, city planners, public administrators, and private enterprises that depend on transportation for their activities.  

  16. CQ Switch Analysis under Traffic Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Maljević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of 2x2 crossbar packet switch with buffers at crosspoints and round robin scheduling algorithm is presented in this paper. The analysis is performed for a non-admissible traffic pattern, where output ports are overloaded. The case of full offered load is observed and output ports are loaded with packets that have different arrival probabilities. In addition to the parameters that are commonly observed in such an analysis (throughput and average packet delay, memory requirements for the implementation of the buffer, as well as fair representation when servicing the buffer - the so-called fairness are also analyzed. The results show that even for a switch with a small number of ports very large buffers should be implemented, if we want to achieve satisfactory performance under traffic overload.

  17. Network traffic model using GIPP and GIBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Duk; Van de Liefvoort, Appie; Wallace, Victor L.

    1998-10-01

    In telecommunication networks, the correlated nature of teletraffic patterns can have significant impact on queuing measures such as queue length, blocking and delay. There is, however, not yet a good general analytical description which can easily incorporate the correlation effect of the traffic, while at the same time maintaining the ease of modeling. The authors have shown elsewhere, that the covariance structures of the generalized Interrupted Poisson Process (GIPP) and the generalized Interrupted Bernoulli Process (GIBP) have an invariance property which makes them reasonably general, yet algebraically manageable, models for representing correlated network traffic. The GIPP and GIBP have a surprisingly rich sets of parameters, yet these invariance properties enable us to easily incorporate the covariance function as well as the interarrival time distribution into the model to better matchobservations. In this paper, we show an application of GIPP and GIBP for matching an analytical model to observed or experimental data.

  18. Problem of Information Security Traffic on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet information traffic becomes greater and moreimportant. With increasing growth of information importancerequirement for its security becomes indispensable. Theinformation security problem especially affect large and smallcompanies whose prosperity is depending on Internet presence.This affecting the three areas of Internet commerce: credit cardtransactions, virtual private networks and digital certification.To ensure information traffic it is necessary to find a solution,in a proper way, for three major problems: frontier problem,market problem and government problem. While the eventualemergence of security standards for Internet transactions isexpected, it will not automatically result in secure Internettransactions. In future, there is a wealth of security issues thatwill continue to require attention: internal security, continuedhacking, social engineering, malicious code, reliability andperformance, skills shortages and denial of se1vice attacks.

  19. What is required to guarantee data quality for regional traffic management. Implementation of traffic data quality management in the Middle Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seelen, P.A.G.; Vrancken, J.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    VERDER, a partnership of different governmental organizations in the Middle Netherlands, initiated different projects for regional traffic management to better use existing road capacity and safeguard mobility in the Middle Netherlands. This active form of traffic management requires traffic data

  20. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  1. Trajectories for Novel and Detailed Traffic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    to analyzing individual intersections that enables traffic analysts to compute queue lengths and estimated time to pass an intersection. Finally, the paper uses associative rule mining for evaluating green waves on road stretches. Such information can be used to verify that signalized intersections......, extracting this information requires no expensive changes to the road-network infrastructure, which is a problem with the technologies currently used....

  2. Membrane Traffic Within the Golgi Apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Glick, Benjamin S.; Nakano, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Newly synthesized secretory cargo molecules pass through the Golgi apparatus while resident Golgi proteins remain in the organelle. However, the pathways of membrane traffic within the Golgi are still uncertain. Most of the available data can be accommodated by the cisternal maturation model, which postulates that Golgi cisternae form de novo, carry the secretory cargoes forward, and ultimately disappear. The entry face of the Golgi receives material that has been exported from transitional E...

  3. Analyzing Worms and Network Traffic using Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Wehner, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Internet worms have become a widespread threat to system and network operations. In order to fight them more efficiently, it is necessary to analyze newly discovered worms and attack patterns. This paper shows how techniques based on Kolmogorov Complexity can help in the analysis of internet worms and network traffic. Using compression, different species of worms can be clustered by type. This allows us to determine whether an unknown worm binary could in fact be a later version of an existin...

  4. Networks and their traffic in multiplayer games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Andrés Melo López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer games called multiplayer real-time, or (MCG are at the forefront of the use of the possibilities of the network. Research on this subject have been made for military simulations, virtual reality systems, computer support teamwork, the solutions diverge on the problems posed by MCG. With this in mind, this document provides an overview of the four issues affecting networking at the MCG. First, network resources (bandwidth, latency and computing capacity, together with the technical limits within which the MCG must operate. Second, the distribution concepts include communication architectures (peer-to-peer, client / server, server / network, and data and control architectures (centralized, distributed and reproduced .Thirdly, scalability allows the MCG to adapt to changes in parameterization resources. Finally, security is intended to fend off the traps and vandalism, which are common in online games; to check traffic, particularly these games we decided to take the massively multiplayer game League of Legends, a scene corresponding to a situation of real life in a network of ADSL access network is deployed has been simulated by using NS2 Three variants of TCP, it means SACK TCP, New Reno TCP, and TCP Vegas, have been considered for the cross traffic. The results show that TCP Vegas is able to maintain a constant speed while racing against the game traffic, since it avoids the packet loss and the delays in the tail caused by high peaks, without increasing the size of the sender window. SACK TCP and TCP New Reno, on the other hand, tend to increase continuously the sender window size, which could allow a greater loss of packages and also to cause unwanted delays for the game traffic.

  5. EMT knowledge of ambulance traffic laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, J D; Dunn, K; March, J A; Brown, L H

    1998-01-01

    The safe operation of ambulances using warning lights and siren requires both the public and emergency medical technician (EMT) drivers to understand and obey relevant traffic laws. However, EMTs may be unfamiliar with these laws. The purpose of this study was to evaluate EMTs' knowledge of traffic laws related to the operation of ambulances with warning lights and sirens. North Carolina EMTs participating in a statewide EMS conference October 6-8, 1995, completed a five-question survey. Knowledge of ambulance speed limits, yielding at intersections, yielding in roadways, and following distances was assessed using a multiple-choice format. Demographic data pertaining to EMT age, years of experience, paid vs volunteer status, driver's education courses, and past accident involvement were also obtained. Proportions were compared using chi-square analysis, alpha = 0.05. Two-hundred ninety-three of 308 (95%) EMTs attending the conference completed questionnaires. The median number of correct responses to the five knowledge questions was 1 (range 0-4). Thirty-three percent of the EMTs knew that other vehicles are required by law to yield while either approaching or being overtaken by an ambulance with warning lights and sirens; 2% knew that due regard for safety is the only requirement of an ambulance approaching a red light at an intersection; 14% knew that the minimum following distance behind an ambulance is one city block; and 28% knew that there is no speed limit on ambulances with warning lights and sirens. Respondents were more likely to score above the median if they had taken one or more emergency driver's education courses or had nine years or more of EMS experience. In this sample, EMT knowledge of basic traffic laws pertaining to ambulance operation is poor. Emergency driver's education courses and increased experience appear to be related to increased knowledge scores. Increased training for EMTs about traffic laws may improve the safe operation of

  6. BFS Human Behaviour Model for Traffic Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Molan; Gregor Molan

    2011-01-01

    The Butterfly Flower Shower (BFS) Human Behaviour Model describes human behaviour in each demanding, possible accidental situation. The BFS human behaviour model is presented for a traffic situation. The key elements (perception, cognition, reaction) of the human behaviour are identified. Also possible limitations and errors in all elements of human behaviour are presented. The model is presented as the butterfly on the flower under the shower of interventions. The flower is environment descr...

  7. The importance of spatial orientation and knowledge of traffic signs for children's traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunović, Aleksandar; Pešić, Dalibor; Čičević, Svetlana; Antić, Boris

    2017-05-01

    Pre-school children, as well as children from lower grades in primary school, who although rarely, completely independently participate in traffic, represent a vulnerable population from the standpoint of traffic safety. The greatest number of children were injured or killed in road traffic crashes on their way from home to kindergarten or school. Mostly due to lack of experience, children's behavior is confusing and often reckless and hasty. Safe behavior in the traffic environment demands certain cognitive skills. Unlike adults, children have less than fully developed peripheral vision. Also, changes occur in color perception, i.e. discrimination. All this leads to the conclusion that the stage of physical and mental development of the child is very important for safe participation in traffic. So, to estimate if they are sufficiently equipped to participate safely in traffic, a sensitive test for young children that may be suitable for their level of cognitive development is required. Accordingly, road safety education should be arranged in such a way that considers the child's level of development, as has been shown to be more effective when started at younger ages. Play is the most natural and easiest way of learning because it is the lens through which children experience their world, and the world of others. Having this in mind, if we want to measure the abilities of a child, and their preparedness for safety participation in traffic, unavoidable is to use non-verbal tests. The purpose of this study is to explore primary schooler's spatial, and abilities of color perception and memorization, as well as their performances in interpreting the meaning of traffic signs. In addition, neighborhood environmental correlates (rural-urban) and possible individual differences influences on the relationship among these abilities was examined. Knowledge about these factors affecting children's safety can be applied to improve relevant intervention measures for promoting

  8. Traffic Management as a Service: The Traffic Flow Pattern Classification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos T. Calafate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transportation System (ITS technologies can be implemented to reduce both fuel consumption and the associated emission of greenhouse gases. However, such systems require intelligent and effective route planning solutions to reduce travel time and promote stable traveling speeds. To achieve such goal these systems should account for both estimated and real-time traffic congestion states, but obtaining reliable traffic congestion estimations for all the streets/avenues in a city for the different times of the day, for every day in a year, is a complex task. Modeling such a tremendous amount of data can be time-consuming and, additionally, centralized computation of optimal routes based on such time-dependencies has very high data processing requirements. In this paper we approach this problem through a heuristic to considerably reduce the modeling effort while maintaining the benefits of time-dependent traffic congestion modeling. In particular, we propose grouping streets by taking into account real traces describing the daily traffic pattern. The effectiveness of this heuristic is assessed for the city of Valencia, Spain, and the results obtained show that it is possible to reduce the required number of daily traffic flow patterns by a factor of 4210 while maintaining the essence of time-dependent modeling requirements.

  9. Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Hearing Impairment Among Traffic Policemen in Surat, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, B. N.; Macwan, J. E. M.

    2017-06-01

    Among all of the sources responsible for noise pollution, traffic related sources are of great environmental concern and increasing level of discomfort in urban areas with increasing traffic concentration. It will be a larger and serious problem in the future, if effective precautions are not taken addressed and attended to. Hence, a study was undertaken to measure the levels of road traffic noise at major intersections of Surat city, located in Western India and assess the hearing impairment among the exposed group of population i.e. the traffic policemen. Manual noise measurements and vehicle counts were performed at three of the busiest traffic intersections in the city for a period of 12 h. Audiometric screening was done on 46 policemen working at these intersections to determine the occurrence of hearing impairment. At all the three intersections, Leq measured was well above the permissible levels of 65 dBA for daytime. The Lmax recorded for three intersections were 84.6 dBA (07:36 pm), 87.3 dBA (06:32 pm) and 85.6 dBA (11:41 am). Audiometric screening showed that only 10 policemen (22%) had normal hearing. Slight, moderate and severe hearing impairment was recorded among 13 (28%), 18 (39%) and 5 (11%) policemen respectively. Of the total 46 policemen, none had profound impairment (deafness, hearing loss >81 dB). Of the 36 policemen having hearing impairment, 27 had bilateral impairment.

  10. FPGA Based Real-time Network Traffic Analysis using Traffic Dispersion Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, F; Gokhale, M; Chuah, C N

    2010-03-26

    The problem of Network Traffic Classification (NTC) has attracted significant amount of interest in the research community, offering a wide range of solutions at various levels. The core challenge is in addressing high amounts of traffic diversity found in today's networks. The problem becomes more challenging if a quick detection is required as in the case of identifying malicious network behavior or new applications like peer-to-peer traffic that have potential to quickly throttle the network bandwidth or cause significant damage. Recently, Traffic Dispersion Graphs (TDGs) have been introduced as a viable candidate for NTC. The TDGs work by forming a network wide communication graphs that embed characteristic patterns of underlying network applications. However, these patterns need to be quickly evaluated for mounting real-time response against them. This paper addresses these concerns and presents a novel solution for real-time analysis of Traffic Dispersion Metrics (TDMs) in the TDGs. We evaluate the dispersion metrics of interest and present a dedicated solution on an FPGA for their analysis. We also present analytical measures and empirically evaluate operating effectiveness of our design. The mapped design on Virtex-5 device can process 7.4 million packets/second for a TDG comprising of 10k flows at very high accuracies of over 96%.

  11. Sensor Location Problem Optimization for Traffic Network with Different Spatial Distributions of Traffic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xu; Li, Haijian; Qin, Lingqiao; Xu, Dongwei; Ran, Bin; Rong, Jian

    2016-10-27

    To obtain adequate traffic information, the density of traffic sensors should be sufficiently high to cover the entire transportation network. However, deploying sensors densely over the entire network may not be realistic for practical applications due to the budgetary constraints of traffic management agencies. This paper describes several possible spatial distributions of traffic information credibility and proposes corresponding different sensor information credibility functions to describe these spatial distribution properties. A maximum benefit model and its simplified model are proposed to solve the traffic sensor location problem. The relationships between the benefit and the number of sensors are formulated with different sensor information credibility functions. Next, expanding models and algorithms in analytic results are performed. For each case, the maximum benefit, the optimal number and spacing of sensors are obtained and the analytic formulations of the optimal sensor locations are derived as well. Finally, a numerical example is proposed to verify the validity and availability of the proposed models for solving a network sensor location problem. The results show that the optimal number of sensors of segments with different model parameters in an entire freeway network can be calculated. Besides, it can also be concluded that the optimal sensor spacing is independent of end restrictions but dependent on the values of model parameters that represent the physical conditions of sensors and roads.

  12. Bangkok: Anatomy of a traffic disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poboon, C.; Kenworthy, J.; Barter, P.

    1995-12-31

    Traditional urban and transport policy which relies on road-base planning has been proven inadequate for tackling Bangkok`s traffic chaos. After employing such policy for more than three decades Bangkok traffic has become a disaster and the city has become notorious world-wide for its traffic congestion and air pollution. The simplistic application of theses largely American models took little consideration if any of the walking city and transit city structure of Bangkok. The policies recommended by the authors rely on the awareness of Bangkok`s unique characteristics and also encompass social and environmental aspects. The worldwide comparison has contributed substantially to more insight in selecting the appropriate measures for Bangkok. The introduction of a mass rapid transit system, water transport improvement, control of car use, provision of infrastructure for walking and cycling, improvement in paratransit together with transit-oriented land use development are believed to be able to work effectively in Bangkok. Nevertheless, institutional improvement including public participation is very necessary to achieve these urban planning and transport strategies. With the combination of these sustainable urban and transport policies, it is possible for Bangkok to be converted into a city for people again, though it will take probably 10 to 20 years or more for substantial improvements.

  13. Automated Traffic Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J. (Inventor); Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor); McDermott, William J. (Inventor); Reisman, Ronald J. (Inventor); Gibson, James (Inventor); Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A data management system and method that enables acquisition, integration, and management of real-time data generated at different rates, by multiple heterogeneous incompatible data sources. The system achieves this functionality by using an expert system to fuse data from a variety of airline, airport operations, ramp control, and air traffic control tower sources, to establish and update reference data values for every aircraft surface operation. The system may be configured as a real-time airport surface traffic management system (TMS) that electronically interconnects air traffic control, airline data, and airport operations data to facilitate information sharing and improve taxi queuing. In the TMS operational mode, empirical data shows substantial benefits in ramp operations for airlines, reducing departure taxi times by about one minute per aircraft in operational use, translating as $12 to $15 million per year savings to airlines at the Atlanta, Georgia airport. The data management system and method may also be used for scheduling the movement of multiple vehicles in other applications, such as marine vessels in harbors and ports, trucks or railroad cars in ports or shipping yards, and railroad cars in switching yards. Finally, the data management system and method may be used for managing containers at a shipping dock, stock on a factory floor or in a warehouse, or as a training tool for improving situational awareness of FAA tower controllers, ramp and airport operators, or commercial airline personnel in airfield surface operations.

  14. Assistance System for Traffic Signs Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Zídek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We can see arising trend in the automotive industry in last years – autonomous cars that are driven just by on-board computers. The traffic signs tracking system must deal with real conditions with data that are frequently obtained in poor light conditions, fog, heavy rain or are otherwise disturbed. Completely same problem is solved by mapping companies that are producing geospatial data for different information systems, navigations, etc. They are frequently using cars equipped with a wide range of measuring instruments including panoramic cameras. These measurements are frequently done during early morning hours when the traffic conditions are acceptable. However, in this time, the sun position is usually not optimal for the photography. Most of the traffic signs and other street objects are heavily underexposed. Hence, it is difficult to find an automatic approach that can identify them reliably. In this article, we focus on methods designed to deal with the described conditions. An overview of the state-of-the-art methods is outlined. Further, where it is possible, we outline an implementation of the described methods using well-known Open Computer Vision library. Finally, emphasis is placed on the methods that can deal with low light conditions, fog or other situations that complicate the detection process.

  15. Green supply chain: Simulating road traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Muhammad Zulqarnain Hakim Abd; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Laailatul Hanim Mat Desa, Wan; Khalid, Ruzelan; Khalid Abduljabbar, Waleed; Ramli, Razamin

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing awareness of the consumers about environmental issues, businesses, households and governments increasingly want use green products and services which lead to green supply chain. This paper discusses a simulation study of a selected road traffic system that will contribute to the air pollution if in the congestion state. Road traffic congestion (RTC) can be caused by a temporary obstruction, a permanent capacity bottleneck in the network itself, and stochastic fluctuation in demand within a particular sector of the network, leading to spillback and queue propagation. A discrete-event simulation model is developed to represent the real traffic light control (TLC) system condition during peak hours. Certain performance measures such as average waiting time and queue length were measured using the simulation model. Existing system uses pre-set cycle time to control the light changes which is fixed time cycle. In this research, we test several other combination of pre-set cycle time with the objective to find the best system. In addition, we plan to use a combination of the pre-set cycle time and a proximity sensor which have the authority to manipulate the cycle time of the lights. The sensors work in such situation when the street seems to have less occupied vehicles, obviously it may not need a normal cycle for green light, and automatically change the cycle to street where vehicle is present.

  16. Abstract Description of Internet Traffic of Generalized Cauchy Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    . Therefore, there is a limitation for fGn to accurately model traffic. Recently, the generalized Cauchy (GC process was introduced to model traffic with the flexibility to separately measure the fractal dimension DGC and the Hurst parameter HGC of traffic. However, there is a fundamental problem whether or not there exists the generality that the GC model is more conformable with real traffic than single parameter models, such as fGn, irrelevant of traffic traces used in experimental verification. The solution to that problem remains unknown but is desired for model evaluation in traffic theory or for model selection against specific issues, such as queuing analysis relating to the autocorrelation function (ACF of arrival traffic. The key contribution of this paper is our solution to that fundamental problem (see Theorem 3.17 with the following features in analysis. (i Set-valued analysis of the traffic of the fGn type. (ii Set-valued analysis of the traffic of the GC type. (iii Revealing the generality previously mentioned by comparing metrics of the traffic of the fGn type to that of the GC type.

  17. City traffic flow breakdown prediction based on fuzzy rough set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Da-wei, Hu; Bing, Su; Duo-jia, Zhang

    2017-05-01

    In city traffic management, traffic breakdown is a very important issue, which is defined as a speed drop of a certain amount within a dense traffic situation. In order to predict city traffic flow breakdown accurately, in this paper, we propose a novel city traffic flow breakdown prediction algorithm based on fuzzy rough set. Firstly, we illustrate the city traffic flow breakdown problem, in which three definitions are given, that is, 1) Pre-breakdown flow rate, 2) Rate, density, and speed of the traffic flow breakdown, and 3) Duration of the traffic flow breakdown. Moreover, we define a hazard function to represent the probability of the breakdown ending at a given time point. Secondly, as there are many redundant and irrelevant attributes in city flow breakdown prediction, we propose an attribute reduction algorithm using the fuzzy rough set. Thirdly, we discuss how to predict the city traffic flow breakdown based on attribute reduction and SVM classifier. Finally, experiments are conducted by collecting data from I-405 Freeway, which is located at Irvine, California. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to achieve lower average error rate of city traffic flow breakdown prediction.

  18. Using temporal detrending to observe the spatial correlation of traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermagun, Alireza; Chatterjee, Snigdhansu; Levinson, David

    2017-01-01

    This empirical study sheds light on the spatial correlation of traffic links under different traffic regimes. We mimic the behavior of real traffic by pinpointing the spatial correlation between 140 freeway traffic links in a major sub-network of the Minneapolis-St. Paul freeway system with a grid-like network topology. This topology enables us to juxtapose the positive and negative correlation between links, which has been overlooked in short-term traffic forecasting models. To accurately and reliably measure the correlation between traffic links, we develop an algorithm that eliminates temporal trends in three dimensions: (1) hourly dimension, (2) weekly dimension, and (3) system dimension for each link. The spatial correlation of traffic links exhibits a stronger negative correlation in rush hours, when congestion affects route choice. Although this correlation occurs mostly in parallel links, it is also observed upstream, where travelers receive information and are able to switch to substitute paths. Irrespective of the time-of-day and day-of-week, a strong positive correlation is witnessed between upstream and downstream links. This correlation is stronger in uncongested regimes, as traffic flow passes through consecutive links more quickly and there is no congestion effect to shift or stall traffic. The extracted spatial correlation structure can augment the accuracy of short-term traffic forecasting models.

  19. Using temporal detrending to observe the spatial correlation of traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ermagun

    Full Text Available This empirical study sheds light on the spatial correlation of traffic links under different traffic regimes. We mimic the behavior of real traffic by pinpointing the spatial correlation between 140 freeway traffic links in a major sub-network of the Minneapolis-St. Paul freeway system with a grid-like network topology. This topology enables us to juxtapose the positive and negative correlation between links, which has been overlooked in short-term traffic forecasting models. To accurately and reliably measure the correlation between traffic links, we develop an algorithm that eliminates temporal trends in three dimensions: (1 hourly dimension, (2 weekly dimension, and (3 system dimension for each link. The spatial correlation of traffic links exhibits a stronger negative correlation in rush hours, when congestion affects route choice. Although this correlation occurs mostly in parallel links, it is also observed upstream, where travelers receive information and are able to switch to substitute paths. Irrespective of the time-of-day and day-of-week, a strong positive correlation is witnessed between upstream and downstream links. This correlation is stronger in uncongested regimes, as traffic flow passes through consecutive links more quickly and there is no congestion effect to shift or stall traffic. The extracted spatial correlation structure can augment the accuracy of short-term traffic forecasting models.

  20. Detecting Anomaly in Traffic Flow from Road Similarity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xinran

    2016-06-02

    Taxies equipped with GPS devices are considered as 24-hour moving sensors widely distributed in urban road networks. Plenty of accurate and realtime trajectories of taxi are recorded by GPS devices and are commonly studied for understanding traffic dynamics. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in traffic volume, especially the non-recurrent traffic anomaly caused by unexpected or transient incidents, such as traffic accidents, celebrations and disasters. It is important to detect such sharp changes of traffic status for sensing abnormal events and planning their impact on the smooth volume of traffic. Unlike existing anomaly detection approaches that mainly monitor the derivation of current traffic status from history in the past, the proposed method in this paper evaluates the abnormal score of traffic on one road by comparing its current traffic volume with not only its historical data but also its neighbors. We define the neighbors as the roads that are close in sense of both geo-location and traffic patterns, which are extracted by matrix factorization. The evaluation results on trajectories data of 12,286 taxies over four weeks in Beijing show that our approach outperforms other baseline methods with higher precision and recall.

  1. Measuring and Modelling of the Traffic Flow at Microscopic Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Čop

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The traffic flow theory is dealing with the better understandingof the traffic flow and its improvement. Most often, the researchedsubject was been the road traffic. It is namely thatheavy traffic and traffic jams are the frequent phenomena onthe roads.The traffic flow theory incorporates the different areas ofknowledge necessary to establish a successful traffic-flow simulationmodel. Good correlation between the simulation modelresults and data collected in the open road conditions are notthe only conditions which are necessary to approve the simulationmodel as accurate. The obtained simulation results may beused for the improvement of traffic conditions, only if themodel obeys the classical laws of physics.This paper is dealing with the simple microscopic model fortwo-vehicle-platoon behaviour in the traffic flow. The model isbased on solving of the delay differential equations. The simulationmodel results have been compared with the measurementresults. The comparison has enabled assessment of the selectedsimulation model to check whether it would be goodchoice for further traffic-flow researches at the microscopiclevel.

  2. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  3. A shared data environment for the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, D.L.; Wheeler, V.V. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In September 1991, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed tasking to assist the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic (MTIT) in the analysis of a potential Shared Data Environment (SDE) for MTIT automated cargo traffic systems. This analysis was a preliminary effort with emphasis on documentation of requirements, examination of design alternatives, and identification of specific MTIT systems` data sharing problems. This report records the results of the ORNL analysis. The SDE envisioned by ORNL at this point in the analysis is not merely a repository of information; it is also a system that allows processing of distributed data. To provide high-level access to and control over international cargo processes, ORNL recommends a loosely coupled, replicated database design with high-speed communications among all sites.

  4. A shared data environment for the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, D.L.; Wheeler, V.V. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Truett, L.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    In September 1991, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed tasking to assist the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic (MTIT) in the analysis of a potential Shared Data Environment (SDE) for MTIT automated cargo traffic systems. This analysis was a preliminary effort with emphasis on documentation of requirements, examination of design alternatives, and identification of specific MTIT systems' data sharing problems. This report records the results of the ORNL analysis. The SDE envisioned by ORNL at this point in the analysis is not merely a repository of information; it is also a system that allows processing of distributed data. To provide high-level access to and control over international cargo processes, ORNL recommends a loosely coupled, replicated database design with high-speed communications among all sites.

  5. Studies of Next Generation Air Traffic Control Specialists: Why Be an Air Traffic Controller?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    example, the job security and stability that appealed to “ Baby Boomers ” might be less important to “Gen-X” and “ Millennials ,” who are said to be looking...controllers, recruited from Gen-X and Millennials , than to the “Post-Strike” generation (largely Baby Boomers ) and non-material factors such as the...air traffic coNtrol SpecialiStS: Why Be aN air traffic coNtroller? “Gen-X,” “Gen-Y,” “ Baby Boomer ,” “ Millennial ,” “The Greatest Generation”: Labels

  6. Social dilemma structure hidden behind traffic flow with route selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Nakamura, Kousuke

    2016-10-01

    Several traffic flows contain social dilemma structures. Herein, we explored a route-selection problem using a cellular automaton simulation dovetailed with evolutionary game theory. In our model, two classes of driver-agents coexist: D agents (defective strategy), which refer to traffic information for route selection to move fast, and C agents (cooperative strategy), which are insensitive to information and less inclined to move fast. Although no evidence suggests that the social dilemma structure in low density causes vehicles to move freely and that in high density causes traffic jams, we found a structure that corresponds to an n-person (multiplayer) Chicken (n-Chicken) game if the provided traffic information is inappropriate. If appropriate traffic information is given to the agents, the n-Chicken game can be solved. The information delivered to vehicles is crucial for easing the social dilemma due to urban traffic congestion when developing technologies to support the intelligent transportation system (ITS).

  7. Public transportation development and traffic accident prevention in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Soehodho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have long been known as an iceberg for comprehending the discrepancies of traffic management and entire transportation systems. Figures detailing traffic accidents in Indonesia, as is the case in many other countries, show significantly high numbers and severity levels; these types of totals are also evident in Jakarta, the highest-populated city in the country. While the common consensus recognizes that traffic accidents are the results of three different factor types, namely, human factors, vehicle factors, and external factors (including road conditions, human factors have the strongest influence—and figures on a worldwide scale corroborate that assertion. We, however, try to pinpoint the issues of non-human factors in light of increasing traffic accidents in Indonesia, where motorbike accidents account for the majority of incidents. We then consider three important pillars of action: the development of public transportation, improvement of the road ratio, and traffic management measures.

  8. Traffic Speed Data Imputation Method Based on Tensor Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS; however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS. In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC, an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches.

  9. Synchronization of Traffic Light Systems for Maximum Efficiency along Jalan Bukit Gambier, Penang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Rafidi M.A.; Abdul Hamid A.H.

    2014-01-01

    The synchronization of traffic light systems is one of the best solutions in order to avoid problematic traffic jams. Traffic timing is a major concern when it comes to traffic management. One of the common causes of traffic jams is because of nonsynchronized traffic light systems. Once a light turns green, traffic begins to move, but by the time the moving traffic reaches the next light, the signal is still red. This will disrupt the continuity of the traffic flow, especially for large main ...

  10. Traffic modifications on Routes Rutherford, Democrite and Fermi

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The GS Department would like to inform you that until the end of December, the construction of Building 245 will result in the following traffic modifications: Traffic on Route Rutherford will be partially restricted in front of the construction site, Traffic on Route Democrite will be one-way towards Route Rutherford. Also, please note that due to construction work in front of Building 377, Route Fermi will be closed from Wednesday, 10 June until Friday, 7 August. Thank you for your understanding.

  11. Towards a Statistical Characterization of the Interdomain Traffic Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Mikians, Jakub; Dhamdhere, Amogh; Dovrolis, Constantine; Barlet-Ros, Pere; Solé-Pareta, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Part 3: Interdomain; International audience; Identifying the statistical properties of the Interdomain Traffic Matrix (ITM) is fundamental for Internet techno-economic studies but challenging due to the lack of adequate traffic data. In this work, we utilize a Europe-wide measurement infrastructure deployed at the GÉANT backbone network to examine some important spatial properties of the ITM. In particular, we analyze its sparsity and characterize the distribution of traffic generated by diff...

  12. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  13. Youth traffic-related injuries: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Grivna, Michal; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Traffic-related injuries are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality of the youth. Our aim was to study epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of hospitalized youth patients injured in road traffic collisions in order to give recommendations for prevention. Methods We prospectively studied all youth (15?24?years) patients having traffic-related injuries who were admitted to Al Ain or Tawam Hospitals, Al Ain City, or who died after arrival to these hospitals during an 18?mo...

  14. THE QUESTION OF DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED SYSTEMS FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shirin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current systems and methods for automated traffic management in cities are analyzed. The management in cities is analyzed. The management levels are specified. There were fermulated the general requirements, objectives and funnctions of the automated sistems for traffic management with regard to the modern transport problems as well as proposed their aditional managemrnt and infor-maton functions. A phased approach to the implementation of projects on creation of automated sys-tems of traffic management is offered.

  15. Online Gaming Traffic Generator for Reproducing Gamer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kwangsik; Kim, Jinhyuk; Sohn, Kangmin; Park, Changjoon; Choi, Sangbang

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we proposed an online gaming traffic generator reflecting user behavior patterns. We analyzed the packet size and inter departure time distributions of a popular FPS game (Left4Dead) and MMORPG (World of Warcraft) for regenerating gaming traffic. The proposed traffic generator generates an inter departure time and gaming packetbased on analytical model of the gamer behaviors, then transmits the packet according to the inter departure time. Packet generat...

  16. Best Practices Handbook: Traffic Engineering in Range Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    accommodate an offered load or if traffic streams are inefficiently mapped onto available resources, causing subsets of network resources to become over...access equipment and video encoding equipment. 3. A response system, consisting of protocols and access mechanisms that allow the flow of traffic ...Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) that enable the predictable traffic flow across the MRTFBs. A detailed description of network elements relevant to the

  17. Snapshot Provisioning of Cloud Application Stacks to Face Traffic Surges

    OpenAIRE

    Pewo Fouomene, Daniel; Rouvoy, Romain; Seinturier, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Traffic surges, like the Slashdot effect, occur when a web application is overloaded by a huge number of requests, potentially leading to unavailability. Unfortunately, such traffic variations are generally totally unplanned, of great amplitude, within a very short period, and a variable delay to return to a normal regime. In this report, we introduce PeakForecast as an elastic middleware solution to detect and absorb a traffic surge. In particular, PeakForecast can, from a trace of queries r...

  18. An extended lattice model accounting for traffic jerk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhu, Poonam; Siwach, Vikash

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a flux difference lattice hydrodynamics model is extended by considering the traffic jerk effect which comes due to vehicular motion of non-motor automobiles. The effect of traffic jerk has been examined through linear stability analysis and shown that it can significantly enlarge the unstable region on the phase diagram. To describe the phase transition of traffic flow, mKdV equation near the critical point is derived through nonlinear stability analysis. The theoretical findings have been verified using numerical simulation which confirms that the jerk parameter plays an important role in stabilizing the traffic jam efficiently in sensing the flux difference of leading sites.

  19. Traffic and related self-driven many-particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk

    2001-10-01

    Since the subject of traffic dynamics has captured the interest of physicists, many surprising effects have been revealed and explained. Some of the questions now understood are the following: Why are vehicles sometimes stopped by ``phantom traffic jams'' even though drivers all like to drive fast? What are the mechanisms behind stop-and-go traffic? Why are there several different kinds of congestion, and how are they related? Why do most traffic jams occur considerably before the road capacity is reached? Can a temporary reduction in the volume of traffic cause a lasting traffic jam? Under which conditions can speed limits speed up traffic? Why do pedestrians moving in opposite directions normally organize into lanes, while similar systems ``freeze by heating''? All of these questions have been answered by applying and extending methods from statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics to self-driven many-particle systems. This article considers the empirical data and then reviews the main approaches to modeling pedestrian and vehicle traffic. These include microscopic (particle-based), mesoscopic (gas-kinetic), and macroscopic (fluid-dynamic) models. Attention is also paid to the formulation of a micro-macro link, to aspects of universality, and to other unifying concepts, such as a general modeling framework for self-driven many-particle systems, including spin systems. While the primary focus is upon vehicle and pedestrian traffic, applications to biological or socio-economic systems such as bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, panics, and stock market dynamics are touched upon as well.

  20. Strobe Traffic Lights Warn of Approaching Emergency Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Strobe-enhanced traffic signals have been developed to aid in the preemption of road intersections for emergency vehicles. The strobe-enhanced traffic signals can be incorporated into both new and pre-existing traffic-control systems in which the traffic-signal heads are of a relatively new type based on arrays of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The strobe-enhanced traffic signals offer a less expensive, less complex alternative to a recently developed system of LED-based warning signs placed next to traffic signals. Because of its visual complexity, the combination of traffic signals and warning signs is potentially confusing to motorists. The strobe-enhanced traffic signals present less visual clutter. In a given traffic-signal head, the strobe-enhanced traffic signal is embedded in the red LED array of the stop signal. Two strobe LED strips one horizontal and one vertical are made capable of operating separately from the rest of the red LED matrix. When no emergency vehicle is approaching, the red LED array functions as a normal stop signal: all the red LEDs are turned on and off together. When the intersection is to be preempted for an approaching emergency vehicle, only the LEDs in one of the strobe strips are lit, and are turned on in a sequence that indicates the direction of approach. For example (see figure), if an emergency vehicle approaches from the right, the strobe LEDs are lit in a sequence moving from right to left. Important to the success of strobe-enhanced traffic signals is conformance to city ordinances and close relation to pre-existing traffic standards. For instance, one key restriction is that new icons must not include arrows, so that motorists will not confuse new icons with conventional arrows that indicate allowed directions of movement. It is also critical that new displays like strobe-enhanced traffic signals be similar to displays used in traffic-control systems in large cities. For example, Charleston, South Carolina uses horizontal

  1. On Movement of Emergency Services amidst Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Bode

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing traffic in urban areas is a complex affair. The same becomes more challenging when one needs to take into account the prioritized movement of emergency vehicles along with the normal flow of traffic. Although, mechanisms have been proposed to model intelligent traffic management systems, a concentrated effort to facilitate the movement of emergency services amongst urban traffic is yet to be formalized. This paper proposes a distributed multi-agent based mechanism to create partial green corridors for the movement of emergency service vehicles such as ambulances, fire brigade and police vans, amidst urban traffic. The proposed approach makes se of a digital network of traffic signal nodes equipped with traffic sensors and an agent framework to autonomously extend, maintain and manage partial green corridors for such emergency vehicles. The approach was emulated using Tartarus, an agent framework over a LAN. The results gathered under varying traffic conditions and also several emergency vehicles, validate the performance of this approach and its effects on the movement of normal traffic. Comparisons with the non-prioritized and full green corridor approaches indicate that the proposed partial corridor approach outperforms the rest.

  2. System And Method For Monitoring Traffic While Preserving Personal Privacy

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward

    2015-08-06

    A traffic monitoring system and method for mapping traffic speed and density while preserving privacy. The system can include fixed stations that make up a network and mobile probes that are associated with vehicles. The system and method do not gather, store, or transmit any unique or identifying information, and thereby preserves the privacy of members of traffic. The system and method provide real-time traffic density and speed mapping. The system and method can further be integrated with a complementary flood monitoring system and method.

  3. Real-time Detection of Road Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pero Škorput

    2010-07-01

    KEY WORDS: intelligent transport system, incident management system, traffic model in the status space, theory of estimation, extended Kalman filter, automatic incident detection, decision support system

  4. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Bassil, K.; Morgan, C.; Lalani, M.; Macfarlane, R.; Bienefeld, M. [Toronto Public Health, ON (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Noise as an external effect of traffic and transportation

    OpenAIRE

    STARCEVIC SLOBODAN M.; BOJOVIC NEBOJSA J.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the basic concepts and characteristics of external effects of traffic and transport, with an emphasis on the impact of traffic noise as one of the main external effects of transport nowadays. The main negative impacts of traffic noise on human life and social activities are given as well as the causes of elevated levels of noise from road, rail and tram traffic. In addition, the paper provides a review of the common measures that can be applied to reduce the impact of noi...

  6. A Wavelet Analysis Approach for Categorizing Air Traffic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael; Sheth, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper two frequency domain techniques are applied to air traffic analysis. The Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), like the Fourier Transform, is shown to identify changes in historical traffic patterns caused by Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs) and weather with the added benefit of detecting when in time those changes take place. Next, with the expectation that it could detect anomalies in the network and indicate the extent to which they affect traffic flows, the Spectral Graph Wavelet Transform (SGWT) is applied to a center based graph model of air traffic. When applied to simulations based on historical flight plans, it identified the traffic flows between centers that have the greatest impact on either neighboring flows, or flows between centers many centers away. Like the CWT, however, it can be difficult to interpret SGWT results and relate them to simulations where major TMIs are implemented, and more research may be warranted in this area. These frequency analysis techniques can detect off-nominal air traffic behavior, but due to the nature of air traffic time series data, so far they prove difficult to apply in a way that provides significant insight or specific identification of traffic patterns.

  7. Analysis of factors temporarily impacting traffic sign readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khalilikhah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign readability can be affected by the existence of dirt on traffic sign faces. However, among damaged signs, dirty traffic signs are unique since their damage is not permanent and they just can be cleaned instead of replaced. This study aimed to identify the most important factors contributing to traffic sign dirt. To do so, a large number of traffic signs in Utah were measured by deploying a vehicle instrumented with mobile LiDAR imaging and digital photolog technologies. Each individual daytime digital image was inspected for dirt. Location and climate observations obtained from official sources were compiled using ArcGIS throughout the process. To identify contributing factors to traffic sign dirt, the chi-square test was employed. To analyze the data and rank all of the factors based on their importance to the sign dirt, Random forests statistical model was utilized. After analyzing the data, it can be concluded that ground elevation, sign mount height, and air pollution had the highest effect on making traffic signs dirty. The findings of this investigation assist transportation agencies in determining traffic signs with a higher likelihood of sign dirt. In this way, agencies would schedule to clean such traffic signs more frequently.

  8. [Traffic accidents associated with emotional stress after divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Juan; Yi, Xu-Fu; Chen, Xiao-Gang

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, the traffic accidents increased gradually, especially those caused by the drivers daily emotional abnormality and in which the drivers were liable. This article reviewed the traffic accidents caused by divorced driver's emotional abnormality, illustrated the features of those accidents from the gender, age, occupation and mileage of drivers. It was considered that the major cause of those accidents was excessive drinking due to drivers' emotional stress. Suggestions about preventing the traffic accidents caused by emotional abnormality were put forward so as to make the corresponding rules and finally decrease the emotional abnormality traffic accidents.

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Congested Marine Traffic Environment – An Application Using Marine Traffic Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Hasegawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty of sailing is quite subjective matter. It depends on various factors. Using Marine Traffic Simulation System (MTSS developed by Osaka University this challenging subject is discussed. In this system realistic traffic flow including collision avoidance manoeuvres can be reproduced in a given area. Simulation is done for southward of Tokyo Bay, Strait of Singapore and off-Shanghai area changing traffic volume from 5 or 50 to 150 or 200% of the present volume. As a result, strong proportional relation between near-miss ratio and traffic density per hour per sailed area is found, independent on traffic volume, area size and configuration. The quantitative evaluation index of the difficulty of sailing, here called risk rate of the area is defined using thus defined traffic density and near-miss ratio.

  10. Cubesat Constellation Design for Air Traffic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph Lucio; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu

    2015-01-01

    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. The ADS-B signal, emitted from the aircraft's Mode-S transponder, is currently tracked by terrestrial based receivers but not over remote oceans or sparsely populated regions such as Alaska or the Pacific Ocean. Lack of real-time aircraft time/location information in remote areas significantly hinders optimal planning and control because bigger "safety bubbles" (lateral and vertical separation) are required around the aircraft until they reach radar-controlled airspace. Moreover, it presents a search-and-rescue bottleneck. Aircraft in distress, e.g. Air France AF449 that crashed in 2009, take days to be located or cannot be located at all, e.g. Malaysia Airlines MH370 in 2014. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring and provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data has been obtained from the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), developed at NASA Ames Research Center, simulated over the Alaskan airspace over a period of one day. The simulation is driven by MATLAB with satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite ToolKit(STK10).

  11. New Zealand traffic and local air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Since 1996 the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (MOT) has been investigating the effects of road transport on local air quality. The outcome has been the government's Vehicle Fleet Emissions Control Strategy (VFECS). This is a programme of measures designed to assist with the improvement in local air quality, and especially in the appropriate management of transport sector emissions. Key to the VFECS has been the development of tools to assess and predict the contribution of vehicle emissions to local air pollution, in a given urban situation. Determining how vehicles behave as an emissions source, and more importantly, how the combined traffic flows contribute to the total emissions within a given airshed location was an important element of the programme. The actual emissions output of a vehicle is more than that determined by a certified emission standard, at the point of manufacture. It is the engine technology's general performance capability, in conjunction with the local driving conditions, that determines its actual emissions output. As vehicles are a mobile emissions source, to understand the effect of vehicle technology, it is necessary to work with the average fleet performance, or "fleet-weighted average emissions rate". This is the unit measure of performance of the general traffic flow that could be passing through a given road corridor or network, as an average, over time. The flow composition can be representative of the national fleet population, but also may feature particular vehicle types in a given locality, thereby have a different emissions 'signature'. A summary of the range of work that has been completed as part of the VFECS programme is provided. The NZ Vehicle Fleet Emissions Model and the derived data set available in the NZ Traffic Emission Rates provide a significant step forward in the consistent analysis of practical, sustainable vehicle emissions policy and air-quality management in New Zealand.

  12. Automated Conflict Resolution For Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and resolve conflicts automatically is considered to be an essential requirement for the next generation air traffic control system. While systems for automated conflict detection have been used operationally by controllers for more than 20 years, automated resolution systems have so far not reached the level of maturity required for operational deployment. Analytical models and algorithms for automated resolution have been traffic conditions to demonstrate that they can handle the complete spectrum of conflict situations encountered in actual operations. The resolution algorithm described in this paper was formulated to meet the performance requirements of the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC). The AAC, which was described in a recent paper [1], is a candidate for the next generation air traffic control system. The AAC's performance objectives are to increase safety and airspace capacity and to accommodate user preferences in flight operations to the greatest extent possible. In the AAC, resolution trajectories are generated by an automation system on the ground and sent to the aircraft autonomously via data link .The algorithm generating the trajectories must take into account the performance characteristics of the aircraft, the route structure of the airway system, and be capable of resolving all types of conflicts for properly equipped aircraft without requiring supervision and approval by a controller. Furthermore, the resolution trajectories should be compatible with the clearances, vectors and flight plan amendments that controllers customarily issue to pilots in resolving conflicts. The algorithm described herein, although formulated specifically to meet the needs of the AAC, provides a generic engine for resolving conflicts. Thus, it can be incorporated into any operational concept that requires a method for automated resolution, including concepts for autonomous air to air resolution.

  13. The classic. Review article: Traffic accidents. 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherne, H

    2013-09-01

    This Classic Article is a translation of the original work by Prof. Harald Tscherne, Der Straßenunfall [Traffic Accidents]. An accompanying biographical sketch of Prof. Tscherne is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3011-x . An online version of the original German article is available as supplemental material. The Classic Article is reproduced with permission from Brüder Hollinek & Co. GesmbH, Purkersdorf, Austria. The original article was published in Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966;116:105-108. (Translated by Dr. Roman Pfeifer.).

  14. CCN Traffic Optimization for IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Francois J; Cholez T.; Engel T

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Content-Centric Networking (CCN) recently received a lot of attention thanks to its elegant way to optimize content diffusion at the scale of Internet. However, communications occurring at the edge of Internet, in particular the Internet of Things (IoT), are also a vivid research topic. Even if CCN was not initially designed to optimize the specific traffic pattern of the IoT, it can be improved to better support these new applications. In this paper, we propose to opt...

  15. Vision for Looking at Traffic Lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the challenges that researchers must overcome in traffic light recognition (TLR) research and provides an overview of ongoing work. The aim is to elucidate which areas have been thoroughly researched and which have not, thereby uncovering opportunities for further improvement...... and ease comparison. To provide a shared basis for comparing TLR systems, we publish an extensive public data set based on footage from U.S. roads. The data set contains annotated video sequences, captured under varying light and weather conditions using a stereo camera. The data set, with its variety...

  16. Scheduling Network Traffic for Grid Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    This thesis concerns scheduling of network traffic in grid context. Grid computing consists of a number of geographically distributed computers, which work together for solving large problems. The computers are connected through a network. When scheduling job execution in grid computing, data...... transmission has so far not been taken into account. This causes stability problems, because data transmission takes time and thus causes delays to the execution plan. This thesis proposes the integration of job scheduling and network routing. The scientific contribution is based on methods from operations...

  17. Bi-Directional ANT Traffic on Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-Wei

    We study the non-stationary traffic flow of the ant-trail model. The nontrivial boundary conditions are adopted. The fundamental diagram is distinctly different from that of a closed system. A shock wave is generated when the first ant reaches the food source. The shock wave propagates backward to the nest long before the first ant returns. We revise the pheromone mechanism to ensure that the ants follow the leader on a complex network. The breaking of following-the-leader is also discussed.

  18. Taking Over Control From Highly Automated Vehicles in Complex Traffic Situations: The Role of Traffic Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Körber, Moritz; Lechner, David; Bengler, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of traffic density and verbal tasks on takeover performance in highly automated driving. In highly automated vehicles, the driver has to occasionally take over vehicle control when approaching system limits. To ensure safety, the ability of the driver to regain control of the driving task under various driving situations and different driver states needs to be quantified. Seventy-two participants experienced takeover situations requiring an evasive maneuver on a three-lane highway with varying traffic density (zero, 10, and 20 vehicles per kilometer). In a between-subjects design, half of the participants were engaged in a verbal 20-Questions Task, representing speaking on the phone while driving in a highly automated vehicle. The presence of traffic in takeover situations led to longer takeover times and worse takeover quality in the form of shorter time to collision and more collisions. The 20-Questions Task did not influence takeover time but seemed to have minor effects on the takeover quality. For the design and evaluation of human-machine interaction in takeover situations of highly automated vehicles, the traffic state seems to play a major role, compared to the driver state, manipulated by the 20-Questions Task. The present results can be used by developers of highly automated systems to appropriately design human-machine interfaces and to assess the driver's time budget for regaining control. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  19. 77 FR 55439 - Vessel Traffic Service Updates, Including Establishment of Vessel Traffic Service Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... SOLAS Convention since 2004. Because AIS carriage is required by regulation under 33 CFR 164.46 for... Waterway Safety Assessment PAWSS Port and Waterways Safety System PWSA Ports and Waterways Safety Act SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea U.S.C. United States Code VTM Vessel Traffic Management...

  20. Development of Road Traffic Assignment and Assessment Sub-Model Applied in the Traffic Study ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Topolnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The described sub-model is just one small segment of theTraffic Study of the City of Zagreb, in the development of whichnumerous foreign and national experts and institutions tookpart. After comprehensive collection and processing of inputdata, the traffic experts, using the software package "MVATRIPS" for the analysis and search for optimal solutions to theproblem of traffic system, provided the models of public urbantransit for the future.This paper describes the analysis and assessment of sub-models in road traffic assignment for the morning peak, afternoonpeak and average off-peak hours. The principles of assignmentprocedure have been described as well as the convergencetests. The following has been specified: the users categories,the public transit pre-load, and the passenger car unit(PC U. The key guideline in selecting the route is a generalisedformulation of costs presented in the paper. The procedures ofcalibration and the assessment of the finite model have alsobeen defined according to the screenline flows, link flows, andtravelling times. In the end, the summary is given of the basiccharacteristics of the finite travelling matrices.