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Sample records for atp-dependent potassium channel

  1. Mitochondria from rat uterine smooth muscle possess ATP-sensitive potassium channel

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    Olga B. Vadzyuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to detect ATP-sensitive K+ uptake in rat uterine smooth muscle mitochondria and to determine possible effects of its activation on mitochondrial physiology. By means of fluorescent technique with usage of K+-sensitive fluorescent probe PBFI (potassium-binding benzofuran isophthalate we showed that accumulation of K ions in isolated mitochondria from rat myometrium is sensitive to effectors of KATP-channel (ATP-sensitive K+-channelATP, diazoxide, glibenclamide and 5HD (5-hydroxydecanoate. Our data demonstrates that K+ uptake in isolated myometrium mitochondria results in a slight decrease in membrane potential, enhancement of generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial swelling. Particularly, the addition of ATP into incubation medium led to a decrease in mitochondrial swelling and ROS production, and an increase in membrane potential. These effects were eliminated by diazoxide. If blockers of KATP-channel were added along with diazoxide, the effects of diazoxide were removed. So, we postulate the existence of KATP-channels in rat uterus mitochondria and assume that their functioning may regulate physiological conditions of mitochondria, such as matrix volume, ROS generation and polarization of mitochondrial membrane. Keywords: ATP-sensitive potassium channel, Diazoxide, 5-hydroxydecanoate, Myometrium, Mitochondria, Mitochondrial swelling, Mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS

  2. Ligand binding and conformational changes of SUR1 subunit in pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

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    Wu, Jing-Xiang; Ding, Dian; Wang, Mengmeng; Kang, Yunlu; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Lei

    2018-06-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ) are energy sensors on the plasma membrane. By sensing the intracellular ADP/ATP ratio of β-cells, pancreatic K ATP channels control insulin release and regulate metabolism at the whole body level. They are implicated in many metabolic disorders and diseases and are therefore important drug targets. Here, we present three structures of pancreatic K ATP channels solved by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), at resolutions ranging from 4.1 to 4.5 Å. These structures depict the binding site of the antidiabetic drug glibenclamide, indicate how Kir6.2 (inward-rectifying potassium channel 6.2) N-terminus participates in the coupling between the peripheral SUR1 (sulfonylurea receptor 1) subunit and the central Kir6.2 channel, reveal the binding mode of activating nucleotides, and suggest the mechanism of how Mg-ADP binding on nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) drives a conformational change of the SUR1 subunit.

  3. Effect of Potassium Channel Modulators on Morphine Withdrawal in Mice

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    Vikas Seth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of potassium channel openers and blockers on morphine withdrawal syndrome. Mice were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of morphine; four hours later, withdrawal was induced by using an opioid antagonist, naloxone. Mice were observed for 30 minutes for the withdrawal signs ie, the characteristic jumping, hyperactivity, urination and diarrhea. ATP-dependent potassium (K + ATP channel modulators were injected intraperitoneally (i.p. 30 minutes before the naloxone. It was found that a K + ATP channel opener, minoxidil (12.5–50 mg/kg i.p., suppressed the morphine withdrawal significantly. On the other hand, the K + ATP channel blocker glibenclamide (12.5–50 mg/kg i.p. caused a significant facilitation of the withdrawal. Glibenclamide was also found to abolish the minoxidil's inhibitory effect on morphine withdrawal. The study concludes that K + ATP channels play an important role in the genesis of morphine withdrawal and K + ATP channel openers could be useful in the management of opioid withdrawal. As morphine opens K + ATP channels in neurons, the channel openers possibly act by mimicking the effects of morphine on neuronal K + currents.

  4. Potassium channels in brain mitochondria.

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    Bednarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Potassium channels are the most widely distributed class of ion channels. These channels are transmembrane proteins known to play important roles in both normal and pathophysiological functions in all cell types. Various potassium channels are recognised as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, brain/spinal cord ischaemia and sepsis. In addition to their importance as therapeutic targets, certain potassium channels are known for their beneficial roles in anaesthesia, cardioprotection and neuroprotection. Some types of potassium channels present in the plasma membrane of various cells have been found in the inner mitochondrial membrane as well. Potassium channels have been proposed to regulate mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, matrix volume and Ca(+) ion homeostasis. It has been proposed that mitochondrial potassium channels mediate ischaemic preconditioning in various tissues. However, the specificity of a pharmacological agents and the mechanisms underlying their effects on ischaemic preconditioning remain controversial. The following potassium channels from various tissues have been identified in the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated (mitoK(ATP)) channel, large conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoBK(Ca)) channel, intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoIK(Ca)) channel, voltage-gated (mitoKv1.3 type) channel, and twin-pore domain (mitoTASK-3) channel. It has been shown that increased potassium flux into brain mitochondria induced by either the mitoK(ATP) channel or mitoBK(Ca) channel affects the beneficial effects on neuronal cell survival under pathological conditions. Recently, differential distribution of mitoBK(Ca) channels has been observed in neuronal mitochondria. These findings may suggest a neuroprotective role for the mitoBK(Ca) channel in specific brain structures. This minireview summarises current data on brain mitochondrial potassium channels and the efforts to identify

  5. Modulation of nucleotide sensitivity of ATP-sensitive potassium channels by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase.

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    Shyng, S L; Barbieri, A; Gumusboga, A; Cukras, C; Pike, L; Davis, J N; Stahl, P D; Nichols, C G

    2000-01-18

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels) regulate cell excitability in response to metabolic changes. K(ATP) channels are formed as a complex of a sulfonylurea receptor (SURx), a member of the ATP-binding cassette protein family, and an inward rectifier K(+) channel subunit (Kir6.x). Membrane phospholipids, in particular phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), activate K(ATP) channels and antagonize ATP inhibition of K(ATP) channels when applied to inside-out membrane patches. To examine the physiological relevance of this regulatory mechanism, we manipulated membrane PIP(2) levels by expressing either the wild-type or an inactive form of PI-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) in COSm6 cells and examined the ATP sensitivity of coexpressed K(ATP) channels. Channels from cells expressing the wild-type PIP5K have a 6-fold lower ATP sensitivity (K(1/2), the half maximal inhibitory concentration, approximately 60 microM) than the sensitivities from control cells (K(1/2) approximately 10 microM). An inactive form of the PIP5K had little effect on the K(1/2) of wild-type channels but increased the ATP-sensitivity of a mutant K(ATP) channel that has an intrinsically lower ATP sensitivity (from K(1/2) approximately 450 microM to K(1/2) approximately 100 microM), suggesting a decrease in membrane PIP(2) levels as a consequence of a dominant-negative effect of the inactive PIP5K. These results show that PIP5K activity, which regulates PIP(2) and PI-3,4,5-P(3) levels, is a significant determinant of the physiological nucleotide sensitivity of K(ATP) channels.

  6. Disruption of ATP-sensitive potassium channel function in skeletal muscles promotes production and secretion of musclin

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    Sierra, Ana, E-mail: ana-sierra@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Subbotina, Ekaterina, E-mail: ekaterina-subbotina@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Zhu, Zhiyong, E-mail: zhiyong-zhu@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gao, Zhan, E-mail: zhan-gao@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Koganti, Siva Rama Krishna, E-mail: sivaramakrishna.koganti@ttuhc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Coetzee, William A., E-mail: william.coetzee@nyumc.org [Department of Pediatrics, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Goldhamer, David J., E-mail: david.goldhamer@uconn.edu [Center for Regenerative Biology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Advanced Technology Laboratory, University of Connecticut, 1392 Storrs Road Unit 4243, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M., E-mail: denice-zingman@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Zingman, Leonid V., E-mail: leonid-zingman@uiowa.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, Medical Center, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium (K{sub ATP}) channels control skeletal muscle energy use through their ability to adjust membrane excitability and related cell functions in accordance with cellular metabolic status. Mice with disrupted skeletal muscle K{sub ATP} channels exhibit reduced adipocyte size and increased fatty acid release into the circulation. As yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this link between skeletal muscle K{sub ATP} channel function and adipose mobilization have not been established. Here, we demonstrate that skeletal muscle-specific disruption of K{sub ATP} channel function in transgenic (TG) mice promotes production and secretion of musclin. Musclin is a myokine with high homology to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) that enhances ANP signaling by competing for elimination. Augmented musclin production in TG mice is driven by a molecular cascade resulting in enhanced acetylation and nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) – an inhibitor of transcription of the musclin encoding gene. Musclin production/secretion in TG is paired with increased mobilization of fatty acids and a clear trend toward increased circulating ANP, an activator of lipolysis. These data establish K{sub ATP} channel-dependent musclin production as a potential mechanistic link coupling “local” skeletal muscle energy consumption with mobilization of bodily resources from fat. Understanding such mechanisms is an important step toward designing interventions to manage metabolic disorders including those related to excess body fat and associated co-morbidities. - Highlights: • ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channels regulate musclin production by skeletal muscles. • Lipolytic ANP signaling is promoted by augmented skeletal muscle musclin production. • Skeletal muscle musclin transcription is promoted by a CaMKII/HDAC/FOXO1 pathway. • Musclin links adipose mobilization to energy use in K{sub ATP} channel deficient skeletal muscle.

  7. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria - An amazing defence tool against hyperosmotic stress

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    Daniela eTrono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about fifteen years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP. Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous and tissues/organs (etiolated and green have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane towards the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ, the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K+/H+ antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate

  8. Vascular ATP-sensitive potassium channels are over-expressed and partially regulated by nitric oxide in experimental septic shock.

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    Collin, Solène; Sennoun, Nacira; Dron, Anne-Gaëlle; de la Bourdonnaye, Mathilde; Montemont, Chantal; Asfar, Pierre; Lacolley, Patrick; Meziani, Ferhat; Levy, Bruno

    2011-05-01

    To study the activation and expression of vascular (aorta and small mesenteric arteries) potassium channels during septic shock with or without modulation of the NO pathway. Septic shock was induced in rats by peritonitis. Selective inhibitors of vascular K(ATP) (PNU-37883A) or BK(Ca) [iberiotoxin (IbTX)] channels were used to demonstrate their involvement in vascular hyporeactivity. Vascular response to phenylephrine was measured on aorta and small mesenteric arteries mounted on a wire myograph. Vascular expression of potassium channels was studied by PCR and Western blot, in the presence or absence of 1400W, an inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor. Aortic activation of the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Arterial pressure as well as in vivo and ex vivo vascular reactivity were reduced by sepsis and improved by PNU-37883A but not by IbTX. Sepsis was associated with an up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of vascular K(ATP) channels, while expression of vascular BK(Ca) channels remained unchanged. Selective iNOS inhibition blunted the sepsis-induced increase in aortic NO, decreased NF-κB activation, and down-regulated vascular K(ATP) channel expression. Vascular K(ATP) but not BK(Ca) channels are activated, over-expressed, and partially regulated by NO via NF-κB activation during septic shock. Their selective inhibition restores arterial pressure and vascular reactivity and decreases lactate concentration. The present data suggest that selective vascular K(ATP) channel inhibitors offer potential therapeutic perspectives for septic shock.

  9. Possible involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the antidepressant-like effect of baclofen in mouse forced swimming test.

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    Nazari, Seyedeh Khadijeh; Nikoui, Vahid; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Chegini, Zahra Hadi; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2016-12-01

    Previous study confirmed that the acute treatment with baclofen by inhibition of the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway diminished the immobility behavior in the forced swimming test (FST) of mice. Considering the involvement of NO in adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ), in the present study we investigated the involvement of K ATP channels in antidepressant-like effect of baclofen in the forced swimming test (FST). After assessment of locomotor behavior in the open-field test (OFT), FST was applied for evaluation of the antidepressant-like activity of baclofen in mice. Baclofen at different doses (0.1, 0.3, and 1mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) were administrated by intraperitoneal (ip) route, 30min before the FST or OFT. To clarify the probable involvement of K ATP channels, after determination of sub-effective doses of glibenclamide as a K ATP channel blocker and cromakalim, as an opener of these channels, they were co-administrated with the sub-effective and effective doses of baclofen, respectively. Baclofen at dose 1mg/kg significantly decreased the immobility behavior of mice similar to fluoxetine (20mg/kg). Co-administration of gelibenclamide sub-effective dose (1mg/kg) with baclofen (0.1mg/kg) showed a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the FST. Also, sub-effective dose of cromakalim (0.1mg/kg) inhibited the antidepressant-like effect of baclofen (1mg/kg) in the FST. All aforementioned treatments had not any impact on the locomotor movement of mice in OFT. Our study for the first time revealed that antidepressant-like effect of baclofen on mice is K ATP -dependent, and baclofen seems that exert this effect by blocking the K ATP channels. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Possible involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the antidepressant-like effects of gabapentin in mouse forced swimming test.

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    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Akbarian, Reyhaneh; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Nikoui, Vahid; Zolfaghari, Samira; Chamanara, Mohsen; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2017-07-01

    Gabapentin as an anticonvulsant drug also has beneficial effects in treatment of depression. Previously, we showed that acute administration of gabapentin produced an antidepressant-like effect in the mouse forced swimming test (FST) by a mechanism that involves the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO). Considering the involvement of NO in adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ), in the present study we investigated the involvement of K ATP channels in antidepressant-like effect of gabapentin. Gabapentin at different doses (5-10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) were administrated by intraperitoneal route, 60 and 30 min, respectively, before the test. To clarify the probable involvement of K ATP channels, mice were pretreated with K ATP channel inhibitor or opener. Gabapentin at dose 10 mg/kg significantly decreased the immobility behavior of mice similar to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg). Co-administration of subeffective dose (1 mg/kg) of glibenclamide (inhibitor of K ATP channels) with gabapentin (3 mg/kg) showed a synergistic antidepressant-like effect. Also, subeffective dose of cromakalim (opener of K ATP channels, 0.1 mg/kg) inhibited the antidepressant-like effect of gabapentin (10 mg/kg). None of the treatments had any impact on the locomotor movement. Our study, for the first time, revealed that antidepressant-like effect of gabapentin in mice is mediated by blocking the K ATP channels.

  11. ATP Release Channels

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    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  12. Ropivacaine-Induced Contraction Is Attenuated by Both Endothelial Nitric Oxide and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channels in Isolated Rat Aortae

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    Seong-Ho Ok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated endothelium-derived vasodilators and potassium channels involved in the modulation of ropivacaine-induced contraction. In endothelium-intact rat aortae, ropivacaine concentration-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of the following inhibitors: the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, the neuronal NOS inhibitor Nω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride, the inducible NOS inhibitor 1400W dihydrochloride, the nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC inhibitor ODQ, the NOS and GC inhibitor methylene blue, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, the cytochrome p450 epoxygenase inhibitor fluconazole, the voltage-dependent potassium channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, the calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA, the inward-rectifying potassium channel inhibitor barium chloride, and the ATP-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor glibenclamide. The effect of ropivacaine on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined by western blotting. Ropivacaine-induced contraction was weaker in endothelium-intact aortae than in endothelium-denuded aortae. L-NAME, ODQ, and methylene blue enhanced ropivacaine-induced contraction, whereas wortmannin, Nω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride, 1400W dihydrochloride, and fluconazole had no effect. 4-AP and TEA enhanced ropivacaine-induced contraction; however, barium chloride and glibenclamide had no effect. eNOS phosphorylation was induced by ropivacaine. These results suggest that ropivacaine-induced contraction is attenuated primarily by both endothelial nitric oxide and voltage-dependent potassium channels.

  13. Quantitative autoradiography of the binding sites for [125I] iodoglyburide, a novel high-affinity ligand for ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlert, D.R.; Gackenheimer, S.L.; Mais, D.E.; Robertson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a high specific activity ligand for localization of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the brain. When brain sections were incubated with [ 125 I]iodoglyburide (N-[2-[[[(cyclohexylamino)carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]ethyl]-5- 125 I-2- methoxybenzamide), the ligand bound to a single site with a KD of 495 pM and a maximum binding site density of 176 fmol/mg of tissue. Glyburide was the most potent inhibitor of specific [ 125 I]iodoglyburide binding to rat forebrain sections whereas iodoglyburide and glipizide were slightly less potent. The binding was also sensitive to ATP which completely inhibited binding at concentrations of 10 mM. Autoradiographic localization of [ 125 I]iodoglyburide binding indicated a broad distribution of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the brain. The highest levels of binding were seen in the globus pallidus and ventral pallidum followed by the septohippocampal nucleus, anterior pituitary, the CA2 and CA3 region of the hippocampus, ventral pallidum, the molecular layer of the cerebellum and substantia nigra zona reticulata. The hilus and dorsal subiculum of the hippocampus, molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, lateral olfactory tract nucleus, olfactory tubercle and the zona incerta contained relatively high levels of binding. A lower level of binding (approximately 3- to 4-fold) was found throughout the remainder of the brain. These results indicate that the ATP-sensitive potassium channel has a broad presence in the rat brain and that a few select brain regions are enriched in this subtype of neuronal potassium channels

  14. Place of Mitochondrial Potassium-ATP Channels in The Mechanism of Effect of Ischemic Conditionings

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    İlker Şengül

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion episodes in a short interval “just before” ischemia performed experimentally have been called preconditioning, where as “just after” ischemia have been called postconditioning and tissue protective effects of these endogenous mechanisms have been shown in various organs via various studies. Although multipl mechanisms have been being propounded about these phenomenons which have been found area of usage from hearth surgery to organ transplantation, mitochondrial potassium ATP-channels have been maintaining its importance.

  15. Dioxin-induced acute cardiac mitochondrial oxidative damage and increased activity of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Susana P.; Pereira, Gonçalo C.; Pereira, Cláudia V.; Carvalho, Filipa S.; Cordeiro, Marília H.; Mota, Paula C.; Ramalho-Santos, João; Moreno, António J.; Oliveira, Paulo J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental dioxin 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is classified as a Group 1 human carcinogen and teratogenic agent. We hypothesize that TCDD-induced oxidative stress may also interfere with mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels (mitoKATP), which are known to regulate and to be regulated by mitochondrial redox state. We investigated the effects of an acute treatment of male Wistar rats with TCDD (50 μg/kg i.p.) and measured the regulation of cardiac mitoKATP. While the function of cardiac mitochondria was slightly depressed, mitoKATP activity was 52% higher in animals treated with TCDD. The same effects were not observed in liver mitochondria isolated from the same animals. Our data also shows that regulation of mitochondrial ROS production by mitoKATP activity is different in both groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that TCDD increases mitoKATP activity in the heart, which may counteract the increased oxidative stress caused by the dioxin during acute exposure. -- Highlights: •Acute TCDD treatment of Wistar rats causes cardiac oxidative stress. •Acute TCDD treatment causes cardiac mitochondrial alterations. •Mitochondrial liver vs. heart alterations are distinct. •TCDD treatment resulted in altered activity of cardiac mitochondrial K-ATP channels. -- Dioxin alters the regulation of cardiac mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels and disturbs mitochondrial physiology

  16. Disruption of ATP-sensitive potassium channel function in skeletal muscles promotes production and secretion of musclin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Ana; Subbotina, Ekaterina; Zhu, Zhiyong; Gao, Zhan; Koganti, Siva Rama Krishna; Coetzee, William A.; Goldhamer, David J.; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M.; Zingman, Leonid V.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium (K_A_T_P) channels control skeletal muscle energy use through their ability to adjust membrane excitability and related cell functions in accordance with cellular metabolic status. Mice with disrupted skeletal muscle K_A_T_P channels exhibit reduced adipocyte size and increased fatty acid release into the circulation. As yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this link between skeletal muscle K_A_T_P channel function and adipose mobilization have not been established. Here, we demonstrate that skeletal muscle-specific disruption of K_A_T_P channel function in transgenic (TG) mice promotes production and secretion of musclin. Musclin is a myokine with high homology to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) that enhances ANP signaling by competing for elimination. Augmented musclin production in TG mice is driven by a molecular cascade resulting in enhanced acetylation and nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) – an inhibitor of transcription of the musclin encoding gene. Musclin production/secretion in TG is paired with increased mobilization of fatty acids and a clear trend toward increased circulating ANP, an activator of lipolysis. These data establish K_A_T_P channel-dependent musclin production as a potential mechanistic link coupling “local” skeletal muscle energy consumption with mobilization of bodily resources from fat. Understanding such mechanisms is an important step toward designing interventions to manage metabolic disorders including those related to excess body fat and associated co-morbidities. - Highlights: • ATP-sensitive K"+ channels regulate musclin production by skeletal muscles. • Lipolytic ANP signaling is promoted by augmented skeletal muscle musclin production. • Skeletal muscle musclin transcription is promoted by a CaMKII/HDAC/FOXO1 pathway. • Musclin links adipose mobilization to energy use in K_A_T_P channel deficient skeletal muscle.

  17. A conserved residue cluster that governs kinetics of ATP-dependent gating of Kir6.2 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Roger S; Wright, Jordan; Pless, Stephan Alexander

    2015-01-01

    modest effects on gating kinetics despite significant changes in ATP sensitivity and open probability. However, we identified a pair of highly conserved neighboring amino acids (Trp68, Lys170) that control the rate of channel opening and inhibition in response to ATP. Paradoxically, mutations of Trp68...... or Lys170 markedly slow the kinetics of channel opening (500 ms and 700 ms for Trp68Leu and Lys170Asn, respectively), while increasing channel open probability. Examining the functional effects of these residues using phi-value analysis revealed a steep negative slope. This finding implies...

  18. ATP-sensitive K(+-channels in muscle cells: features and physiological role

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    O. B. Vadzyuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ATP-sensitive K+-channels of plasma membranes belong to the inward rectifier potassium channels type. They are involved in coupling of electrical activity of muscle cell with its metabolic­ state. These channels are heterooctameric and consist of two types of subunits: four poreforming (Kir 6.х and four regulatory (SUR, sulfonylurea receptor. The Kir subunits contain highly selective K+ filter and provide for high-velocity K+ currents. The SUR subunits contain binding sites for activators and blockers and have metabolic sensor, which enables channel activation under conditions of metabolic stress. ATP blocks K+ currents through the ATP-sensitive K+-channels in the most types of muscle cells. However, functional activity of these channels does not depend on absolute concentration of ATP but on the АТР/ADP ratio and presence of Mg2+. Physiologically active substances, such as phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and fatty acid esters can regulate the activity of these structures in muscle cells. Activation of these channels under ischemic conditions underlies their cytoprotective action, which results in prevention of Ca2+ overload in cytosol. In contrast to ATP-sensitive K+-channels of plasma membranes, the data regarding the structure and function of ATP-sensitive K+-channels of mitochondrial membrane are contradictory. Pore-forming subunits of this channel have not been firmly identified yet. ATP-sensitive K+ transport through the mitochondrial­ membrane is easily tested by different methods, which are briefly reviewed in this paper. Interaction of mitoKATP with physiological and pharmacological ligands is discussed as well.

  19. Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the piracetam induced blockade of opioid effects.

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    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Nirmal; Jindal, Seema

    2007-12-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of piracetam on morphine/ buprenorphine-induced antinociception in rats and effect of piracetam on morphine or minoxidil induced relaxation in KCl-precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation. Nociceptive threshold was measured by the tail flick test in rats. The cumulative dose responses of morphine or minoxidil were recorded in KCl-precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation. Piracetam attenuated buprenorphine-induced antinociception in rats. Piracetam significantly reduced the morphine and minoxidil induced relaxation in KCl precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation suggesting that piracetam interferes with opioid receptor and ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) opener mediated responses in vitro. Thus, it may be suggested that piracetam attenuates opioid effects by an opioid receptor-KATP channel linked mechanism.

  20. From in silico to in vitro: a trip to reveal flavonoid binding on the Rattus norvegicus Kir6.1 ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel.

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    Trezza, Alfonso; Cicaloni, Vittoria; Porciatti, Piera; Langella, Andrea; Fusi, Fabio; Saponara, Simona; Spiga, Ottavia

    2018-01-01

    ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channels (Kir), are a potassium channel family involved in many physiological processes. K ATP dysfunctions are observed in several diseases such as hypoglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia, Prinzmetal angina-like symptoms, cardiovascular diseases. A broader view of the K ATP mechanism is needed in order to operate on their regulation, and in this work we clarify the structure of the Rattus norvegicus ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 8 (Kir6.1), which has been obtained through a homology modelling procedure. Due to the medical use of flavonoids, a considerable increase in studies on their influence on human health has recently been observed, therefore our aim is to study, through computational methods, the three-dimensional (3D) conformation together with mechanism of action of Kir6.1 with three flavonoids. Computational analysis by performing molecular dynamics (MD) and docking simulation on rat 3D modelled structure have been completed, in its closed and open conformation state and in complex with Quercetin, 5-Hydroxyflavone and Rutin flavonoids. Our study showed that only Quercetin and 5-Hydroxyflavone were responsible for a significant down-regulation of the Kir6.1 activity, stabilising it in a closed conformation. This hypothesis was supported by in vitro experiments demonstrating that Quercetin and 5-Hydroxyflavone were capable to inhibit K ATP currents of rat tail main artery myocytes recorded by the patch-clamp technique. Combined methodological approaches, such as molecular modelling, docking and MD simulations of Kir6.1 channel, used to elucidate flavonoids intrinsic mechanism of action, are introduced, revealing a new potential druggable protein site.

  1. Single K ATP channel opening in response to action potential firing in mouse dentate granule neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Geoffrey R; Lutas, Andrew; Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Yellen, Gary

    2011-06-08

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels) are important sensors of cellular metabolic state that link metabolism and excitability in neuroendocrine cells, but their role in nonglucosensing central neurons is less well understood. To examine a possible role for K(ATP) channels in modulating excitability in hippocampal circuits, we recorded the activity of single K(ATP) channels in cell-attached patches of granule cells in the mouse dentate gyrus during bursts of action potentials generated by antidromic stimulation of the mossy fibers. Ensemble averages of the open probability (p(open)) of single K(ATP) channels over repeated trials of stimulated spike activity showed a transient increase in p(open) in response to action potential firing. Channel currents were identified as K(ATP) channels through blockade with glibenclamide and by comparison with recordings from Kir6.2 knock-out mice. The transient elevation in K(ATP) p(open) may arise from submembrane ATP depletion by the Na(+)-K(+) ATPase, as the pump blocker strophanthidin reduced the magnitude of the elevation. Both the steady-state and stimulus-elevated p(open) of the recorded channels were higher in the presence of the ketone body R-β-hydroxybutyrate, consistent with earlier findings that ketone bodies can affect K(ATP) activity. Using perforated-patch recording, we also found that K(ATP) channels contribute to the slow afterhyperpolarization following an evoked burst of action potentials. We propose that activity-dependent opening of K(ATP) channels may help granule cells act as a seizure gate in the hippocampus and that ketone-body-mediated augmentation of the activity-dependent opening could in part explain the effect of the ketogenic diet in reducing epileptic seizures.

  2. Changes by short-term hypoxia in the membrane properties of pyramidal cells and the levels of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides in slices of rat neocortex; effects of agonists and antagonists of ATP-dependent potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissarek, M; Garcia de Arriba, S; Schäfer, M; Sieler, D; Nieber, K; Illes, P

    1998-10-01

    In a first series of experiments, intracellular recordings were made from pyramidal cells in layers II-III of the rat primary somatosensory cortex. Superfusion of the brain slice preparations with hypoxic medium (replacement of 95%O2-5%CO2 with 95%N2-5%CO2) for up to 30 min led to a time-dependent depolarization (HD) without a major change in input resistance. Short periods of hypoxia (5 min) induced reproducible depolarizations which were concentration-dependently depressed by an agonist of ATP-dependent potassium (K(ATP)) channels, diazoxide (3-300 microM). The effect of 30 but not 300 microM diazoxide was reversed by washout. Tolbutamide (300 microM), an antagonist of K(ATP) channels, did not alter the HD when given alone. It did, however, abolish the inhibitory effect of diazoxide (30 microM) on the HD. Neither diazoxide (3-300 microM) nor tolbutamide (300 microM) influenced the membrane potential or the apparent input resistance of the neocortical pyramidal cells. Current-voltage (I-V) curves constructed at a membrane potential of -90 mV by injecting both de- and hyperpolarizing current pulses were not altered by diazoxide (30 microM) or tolbutamide (300 microM). Moreover, normoxic and hypoxic I-V curves did not cross each other, excluding a reversal of the HD at any membrane potential between -130 and -50 mV. The hypoxia-induced change of the I-V relation was the same both in the absence and presence of tolbutamide (300 microM). In a second series of experiments, nucleoside di- and triphosphates separated with anion exchange HPLC were measured in the neocortical slices. After 5 min of hypoxia, levels of nucleoside triphosphates declined by 29% (GTP), 34% (ATP), 44% (UTP) and 58% (CTP). By contrast, the levels of nucleoside diphosphates either did not change (UDP) or increased by 13% (GDP) and 40% (ADP). In slices subjected to 30 min of hypoxia the triphosphate levels continued to decrease, while the levels of GDP and ADP returned to control values. The tri

  3. [Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channel activators in liver mitochondrial function in rats with different resistance to hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, H M; Kurhaliuk, N M; Vovkanych, L S

    2003-01-01

    Effects of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels opener pinacidil (0.06 mg/kg) and inhibitor glibenclamide (1 mg/kg) in rats with different resistance to hypoxia on indices of ADP-stimulation of mitochondrial respiration by Chance, calcium capacity and processes of lipid peroxidation in liver has been investigated. We used next substrates of oxidation: 0.35 mM succinate, 1 mM alpha-ketoglutarate. Additional analyses contain the next inhibitors: mitochondrial fermentative complex I-10 mkM rotenone, succinate dehydrogenase 2 mM malonic acid. It was shown that effects of pinacidil induced the increasing of oxidative phosporylation efficacy and ATP synthesis together with lowering of calcium capacity in rats with low resistance to hypoxia. Effects of pinacidil were leveled by glibenclamide. These changes are connected with the increasing of respiratory rate, calcium overload and intensification of lipid peroxidation processes. A conclusion was made about protective effect of pinacidil on mitochondrial functioning by economization of oxygen-dependent processes, adaptive potentialities of organisms with low resistance to hypoxia being increased.

  4. Maternal protein restriction induces alterations in insulin signaling and ATP sensitive potassium channel protein in hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomei; Qi, Ying; Gao, Hong; Jiao, Yisheng; Gu, Hui; Miao, Jianing; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. To investigate the mechanisms behind this "metabolic imprinting" phenomenon, we examined the impact of maternal undernutrition on insulin signaling pathway and the ATP sensitive potassium channel expression in the hypothalamus of intrauterine growth restriction fetus. Intrauterine growth restriction rat model was developed through maternal low protein diet. The expression and activated levels of insulin signaling molecules and K(ATP) protein in the hypothalami which were dissected at 20 days of gestation, were analyzed by western blot and real time PCR. The tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the insulin receptor substrate 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase p85α in the hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetus were markedly reduced. There was also a downregulation of the hypothalamic ATP sensitive potassium channel subunit, sulfonylurea receptor 1, which conveys the insulin signaling. Moreover, the abundances of gluconeogenesis enzymes were increased in the intrauterine growth restriction livers, though no correlation was observed between sulfonylurea receptor 1 and gluconeogenesis enzymes. Our data suggested that aberrant intrauterine milieu impaired insulin signaling in the hypothalamus, and these alterations early in life might contribute to the predisposition of the intrauterine growth restriction fetus toward the adult metabolic disorders.

  5. SENSITIVE EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM AND CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKING AND ATP-SENSITIVE POTASSIUM CHANNEL ACTIVATORS ON SEMINAL VESICLE SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS

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    H SADRAEI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Seminal vesicle smooth muscle contraction is mediated through sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons activity. Although seminal vesicle plays an important role in male fertility, but little attention is given to mechanism involved in contraction of this organ.
    Methods. In this study effects of drugs which activate ATP - sensitive K channels and blockers of K and Ca channels were examined on contraction of guinea - pig isolated seminal vesicle due to electrical filled stimulation (EFS, noradrenaline, carbachol and KCI.
    Results. The K channel blocker tetraethyl ammonium potentate the EFS responses at all frequencies, while, the ATP - sensitive K channel inhibitor glibenclamide and the K channel opener levcromakalim, diazoxide, minoxidil and Ca channel blocker nifedipine all had relaxant effect on guinea - pig seminal vesicle.
    Discussion. This study indicate that activities of K and Ca channels is important in regulation of seminal vesicle contraction due to nerve stimulation, noradrenaline or carbachol.

  6. In Vitro Contractile Response of Rabbit Myometrium to BKCa and KATP Potassium Channel Openers

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    Soňa Fraňová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the participation of ligand-sensitive potassium large conductance calcium-activated channels (BKCa and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in uterine smooth muscle reactivity during different stages of the experimentally induced proliferatory and secretory phase in the sexual cycle in ovariectomised rabbits in vitro. The myometrial reactivity to oxytocin (10-6 mol l-1 was investigated by an in vitro method in female rabbits 14 days after ovariectomy treated with 17β-estradiol - 1 mg/kg/day i.m. for 7 days, or with a combination of progesterone 2 mg/kg/day s.c. for 7 days and 17β-estradiol - 0.2 mg/ kg/day (day 3–7. The strips of myometrial smooth muscle were incubated with a specific opener (NS 1619 and an antagonist (TEA of potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, or with a specific opener (pinacidil and an antagonist (glybenclamide of ATP-sensitive potassium channels before the administration of oxytocin. NS1619 produced more potent inhibition of the oxytocin-induced contraction during the gestagen dominance (experimental secretory phase than the one observed during the oestrogen dominance (experimental proliferatory phase. TEA antagonized the NS1619 induced inhibition of the myometrial contraction. In the matter of KATP potassium channels, after the administration of pinacidil we observed a similar situation in the changes of myometrial contractility. Pinacidil produced more pronounced inhibition of oxytocin-induced contraction during the secretory phase, and its effect was abolished by the selective inhibitor glybenclamide. Our experimental results indicate that both potassium large conductance calcium-activated channels and ATP-sensitive potassium channels significantly participate in the regulation of myometrial oxytocin-induced contractions and the activity of these channels is probably influenced by the levels of oestrogens and gestagens.

  7. Involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and the opioid system in the anticonvulsive effect of zolpidem in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Mehdi; Shirzadian, Armin; Dehdashtian, Amir; Amiri, Shayan; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic medication that mainly exerts its function through activating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors. There is some evidence that zolpidem may have anticonvulsive effects. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been elucidated yet. In the present study, we used the pentylentetrazole (PTZ)-induced generalized seizure model in mice to investigate whether zolpidem can affect seizure threshold. We also further evaluated the roles of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels as well as μ-opioid receptors in the effects of zolpidem on seizure threshold. Our data showed that zolpidem in a dose-dependent manner increased the PTZ-induced seizure threshold. The noneffective (i.e., did not significantly alter the PTZ-induced seizure threshold by itself) doses of KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide) and nonselective opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone) were able to inhibit the anticonvulsive effect of zolpidem. Additionally, noneffective doses of either KATP channel opener (cromakalim) or nonselective μ-opioid receptor agonist (morphine) in combination with a noneffective dose of zolpidem exerted a significant anticonvulsive effect on PTZ-induced seizures in mice. A combination of noneffective doses of naloxone and glibenclamide, which separately did not affect zolpidem effect on seizure threshold, inhibited the anticonvulsive effects of zolpidem. These results suggest a role for KATP channels and the opioid system, alone or in combination, in the anticonvulsive effects of zolpidem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clofilium inhibits Slick and Slack potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Angeles Tejada, Maria; Stolpe, Kathleen; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2012-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance potassium channels have been recently discovered, and are found in the central nervous system and in the heart. Both channels are activated by Na(+) and Cl(-), and Slick channels are also inhibited by adenosine triphospate (ATP). An important role of setting the resting membrane potential and controlling the basal excitability of neurons has been suggested for these channels. In addition, no specific blockers for these channels are known up to the present. With the purpose of studying the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels, the effects of exposure to the antiarrhythmic compound clofilium were evaluated. Clofilium was able to modulate the activity of Slick and Slack channels effectively, with a stronger effect on Slack than Slick channels. In order to evaluate the pharmacological behavior of Slick and Slack channels further, 38 commonly used potassium channel blockers were tested. Screening of these compounds did not reveal any modulators of Slick and Slack channels, except for clofilium. The present study provides a first approach towards elucidating the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels and could be the basis for future studies aimed at developing potent and specific blockers and activators for these channels.

  9. Increase of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels in the heart of type-1 diabetic rats

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    Chen Zhih-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An impairment of cardiovascular function in streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rats has been mentioned within 5 days-to-3 months of induction. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels are expressed on cardiac sarcolemmal membranes. It is highly responsive to metabolic fluctuations and can have effects on cardiac contractility. The present study attempted to clarify the changes of cardiac KATP channels in diabetic disorders. Methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with a high concentration of glucose (a D-glucose concentration of 30 mM was used and cells were cultured for 24 hr were used to examine the effect of hyperglycemia on cardiac function and the expression of KATP channels. KATP channels expression was found to be linked to cardiac tonic dysfunction, and we evaluated the expression levels of KATP channels by Western blot and Northern blot analysis. Results The result shows diazoxide produced a marked reduction of heart rate in control group. Furthermore, the methods of Northern blotting and Western blotting were employed to identify the gene expression of KATP channel. Two subunits of cardiac KATP channel (SUR2A and kir 6.2 were purchased as indicators and showed significantly decreased in both diabetic rats and high glucose treated rat cardiac myocytes. Correction of hyperglycemia by insulin or phlorizin restored the gene expression of cardiac KATP in these diabetic rats. Conclusions Both mRNA and protein expression of cardiac KATP channels are decreased in diabetic rats induced by STZ for 8 weeks. This phenomenon leads to result in desensitization of some KATP channel drugs.

  10. Voltage-dependent gating of hERG potassium channels

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    Yen May eCheng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which voltage-gated channels sense changes in membrane voltage and energetically couple this with opening of the ion conducting pore has been the source of significant interest. In voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels, much of our knowledge in this area comes from Shaker-type channels, for which voltage-dependent gating is quite rapid. In these channels, activation and deactivation are associated with rapid reconfiguration of the voltage-sensing domain unit that is electromechanically coupled, via the S4-S5 linker helix, to the rate-limiting opening of an intracellular pore gate. However, fast voltage-dependent gating kinetics are not typical of all Kv channels, such as Kv11.1 (human ether-a-go-go related gene, hERG, which activates and deactivates very slowly. Compared to Shaker channels, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying slow hERG gating is much poorer. Here, we present a comparative review of the structure-function relationships underlying voltage-dependent gating in Shaker and hERG channels, with a focus on the roles of the voltage sensing domain and the S4-S5 linker that couples voltage sensor movements to the pore. Measurements of gating current kinetics and fluorimetric analysis of voltage sensor movement are consistent with models suggesting that the hERG activation pathway contains a voltage independent step, which limits voltage sensor transitions. Constraints upon hERG voltage sensor movement may result from loose packing of the S4 helices and additional intra-voltage sensor counter charge interactions. More recent data suggest that key amino acid differences in the hERG voltage sensing unit and S4-S5 linker, relative to fast activating Shaker-type Kv channels, may also contribute to the increased stability of the resting state of the voltage sensor.

  11. Physiology and pathophysiology of K(ATP) channels in the pancreas and cardiovascular system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    K(ATP) channels are present in pancreatic and extrapancreatic tissues such as heart and smooth muscle, and display diverse molecular composition. They contain two different structural subunits: an inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunit (Kir6.x) and a sulfonylurea receptor (SURX). Recent studies on genetically engineered Kir6.2 knockout mice have provided a better understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of Kir6.2-containing K(ATP) channels. Kir6.2/SUR1 has a pivotal role in pancreatic insulin secretion. Kir6.2/SUR2A mediates the effects of K(ATP) channels openers on cardiac excitability and contractility and contributes to ischemic preconditioning. However, controversy remains on the physiological properties of the K(ATP) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Kir6.1 knockout mice exhibit sudden cardiac death due to cardiac ischemia, indicating that Kir6.1 rather than Kir6.2 is critical in the regulation of vascular tone. This article summarizes current understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of Kir6.1- and Kir6.2-containing K(ATP) channels.

  12. Inward rectifier potassium (Kir2.1) channels as end-stage boosters of endothelium-dependent vasodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkusare, Swapnil K; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Bonev, Adrian D; Nelson, Mark T

    2016-06-15

    Increase in endothelial cell (EC) calcium activates calcium-sensitive intermediate and small conductance potassium (IK and SK) channels, thereby causing hyperpolarization and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Endothelial cells express inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels, but their role in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is not clear. In the mesenteric arteries, only ECs, but not smooth muscle cells, displayed Kir currents that were predominantly mediated by the Kir2.1 isoform. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatations in response to muscarinic receptor, TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) channel and IK/SK channel agonists were highly attenuated by Kir channel inhibitors and by Kir2.1 channel knockdown. These results point to EC Kir channels as amplifiers of vasodilatation in response to increases in EC calcium and IK/SK channel activation and suggest that EC Kir channels could be targeted to treat endothelial dysfunction, which is a hallmark of vascular disorders. Endothelium-dependent vasodilators, such as acetylcholine, increase intracellular Ca(2+) through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels in the plasma membrane and inositol trisphosphate receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to stimulation of Ca(2+) -sensitive intermediate and small conductance K(+) (IK and SK, respectively) channels. Although strong inward rectifier K(+) (Kir) channels have been reported in the native endothelial cells (ECs) their role in EC-dependent vasodilatation is not clear. Here, we test the idea that Kir channels boost the EC-dependent vasodilatation of resistance-sized arteries. We show that ECs, but not smooth muscle cells, of small mesenteric arteries have Kir currents, which are substantially reduced in EC-specific Kir2.1 knockdown (EC-Kir2.1(-/-) ) mice. Elevation of extracellular K(+) to 14 mm caused vasodilatation of pressurized arteries, which was prevented by endothelial denudation and Kir channel

  13. Docetaxel modulates the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) and ATP-sensitive potassium current (IKATP) in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Song, Zhi-Guo; Jiang, Da-Qing; Nie, Hong-Guang; Han, Dong-Yun

    2015-04-01

    Ion channel expression and activity may be affected during tumor development and cancer growth. Activation of potassium (K(+)) channels in human breast cancer cells is reported to be involved in cell cycle progression. In this study, we investigated the effects of docetaxel on the delayed rectifier potassium current (I K) and the ATP-sensitive potassium current (I KATP) in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435S, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Our results show that docetaxel inhibited the I K and I KATP in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the control at a potential of +60 mV, treatment with docetaxel at doses of 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 µM significantly decreased the I K in MCF-7 cells by 16.1 ± 3.5, 30.2 ± 5.2, 42.5 ± 4.3, and 46.4 ± 9% (n = 5, P < 0.05), respectively and also decreased the I KATP at +50 mV. Similar results were observed in MDA-MB-435S cells. The G-V curves showed no significant changes after treatment of either MCF-7 or MDA-MB-435S cells with 10 μM docetaxel. The datas indicate that the possible mechanisms of I K and I KATP inhibition by docetaxel may be responsible for its effect on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells.

  14. The Methanolic Extract from Murraya koenigii L. Inhibits Glutamate-Induced Pain and Involves ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel as Antinociceptive Mechanism

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    Nushrat Sharmin Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii L. is a perennial shrub, belonging to the family Rutaceae. Traditionally, the leaves of this plant are extensively used in treatment of a wide range of diseases and disorders including pain and inflammation. Although researchers have revealed the antinociceptive effects of this plant’s leaves during past few years, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unknown. Therefore, the present study evaluated some antinociceptive mechanisms of the methanolic extract of M. koenigii (MEMK leaves along with its antinociceptive potential using several animal models. The antinociceptive effects of MEMK were evaluated using formalin-induced licking and acetic acid-induced writhing tests at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. In addition, we also justified the possible participations of glutamatergic system and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the observed activities. Our results demonstrated that MEMK significantly (p<0.01 inhibited the pain thresholds induced by formalin and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. MEMK also significantly (p<0.01 suppressed glutamate-induced pain. Moreover, pretreatment with glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker at 10 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 reversed the MEMK-mediated antinociception. These revealed that MEMK might have the potential to interact with glutamatergic system and the ATP-sensitive potassium channels to exhibit its antinociceptive activities. Therefore, our results strongly support the antinociceptive effects of M. koenigii leaves and provide scientific basis of their analgesic uses in the traditional medicine.

  15. Voltage-Dependent Gating of hERG Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yen May; Claydon, Tom W.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which voltage-gated channels sense changes in membrane voltage and energetically couple this with opening of the ion conducting pore has been the source of significant interest. In voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, much of our knowledge in this area comes from Shaker-type channels, for which voltage-dependent gating is quite rapid. In these channels, activation and deactivation are associated with rapid reconfiguration of the voltage-sensing domain unit that is electromechanically coupled, via the S4–S5 linker helix, to the rate-limiting opening of an intracellular pore gate. However, fast voltage-dependent gating kinetics are not typical of all Kv channels, such as Kv11.1 (human ether-à-go-go related gene, hERG), which activates and deactivates very slowly. Compared to Shaker channels, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying slow hERG gating is much poorer. Here, we present a comparative review of the structure–function relationships underlying activation and deactivation gating in Shaker and hERG channels, with a focus on the roles of the voltage-sensing domain and the S4–S5 linker that couples voltage sensor movements to the pore. Measurements of gating current kinetics and fluorimetric analysis of voltage sensor movement are consistent with models suggesting that the hERG activation pathway contains a voltage independent step, which limits voltage sensor transitions. Constraints upon hERG voltage sensor movement may result from loose packing of the S4 helices and additional intra-voltage sensor counter-charge interactions. More recent data suggest that key amino acid differences in the hERG voltage-sensing unit and S4–S5 linker, relative to fast activating Shaker-type Kv channels, may also contribute to the increased stability of the resting state of the voltage sensor. PMID:22586397

  16. Localization and function of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Jung; Kristensen, Michael; Hellsten, Ylva

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the localization of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels in human skeletal muscle and the functional importance of these channels for human muscle K+ distribution at rest and during muscle activity. Membrane fractionation based on the giant vesicle technique...... or the sucrose-gradient technique in combination with Western blotting demonstrated that the KATP channels are mainly located in the sarcolemma. This localization was confirmed by immunohistochemical measurements. With the microdialysis technique, it was demonstrated that local application of the KATP channel...... to in vitro conditions, the present study demonstrated that under in vivo conditions the KATP channels are active at rest and contribute to the accumulation of interstitial K+....

  17. Voltage-gated potassium channels regulate calcium-dependent pathways involved in human T lymphocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C S; Boltz, R C; Blake, J T; Nguyen, M; Talento, A; Fischer, P A; Springer, M S; Sigal, N H; Slaughter, R S; Garcia, M L

    1993-03-01

    The role that potassium channels play in human T lymphocyte activation has been investigated by using specific potassium channel probes. Charybdotoxin (ChTX), a blocker of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels (PK,Ca) and voltage-gated potassium channels (PK,V) that are present in human T cells, inhibits the activation of these cells. ChTX blocks T cell activation induced by signals (e.g., anti-CD2, anti-CD3, ionomycin) that elicit a rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) by preventing the elevation of [Ca2+]i in a dose-dependent manner. However, ChTX has no effect on the activation pathways (e.g., anti-CD28, interleukin 2 [IL-2]) that are independent of a rise in [Ca2+]i. In the former case, both proliferative response and lymphokine production (IL-2 and interferon gamma) are inhibited by ChTX. The inhibitory effect of ChTX can be demonstrated when added simultaneously, or up to 4 h after the addition of the stimulants. Since ChTX inhibits both PK,Ca and PK,V, we investigated which channel is responsible for these immunosuppressive effects with the use of two other peptides, noxiustoxin (NxTX) and margatoxin (MgTX), which are specific for PK,V. These studies demonstrate that, similar to ChTX, both NxTX and MgTX inhibit lymphokine production and the rise in [Ca2+]i. Taken together, these data provide evidence that blockade of PK,V affects the Ca(2+)-dependent pathways involved in T lymphocyte proliferation and lymphokine production by diminishing the rise in [Ca2+]i that occurs upon T cell activation.

  18. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  19. Voltage-Dependent Gating: Novel Insights from KCNQ1 Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Gating of voltage-dependent cation channels involves three general molecular processes: voltage sensor activation, sensor-pore coupling, and pore opening. KCNQ1 is a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel whose distinctive properties have provided novel insights on fundamental principles of voltage-dependent gating. 1) Similar to other Kv channels, KCNQ1 voltage sensor activation undergoes two resolvable steps; but, unique to KCNQ1, the pore opens at both the intermediate and activated state of voltage sensor activation. The voltage sensor-pore coupling differs in the intermediate-open and the activated-open states, resulting in changes of open pore properties during voltage sensor activation. 2) The voltage sensor-pore coupling and pore opening require the membrane lipid PIP2 and intracellular ATP, respectively, as cofactors, thus voltage-dependent gating is dependent on multiple stimuli, including the binding of intracellular signaling molecules. These mechanisms underlie the extraordinary KCNE1 subunit modification of the KCNQ1 channel and have significant physiological implications. PMID:26745405

  20. Inward rectifier potassium (Kir2.1) channels as end‐stage boosters of endothelium‐dependent vasodilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Thomas; Bonev, Adrian D.; Nelson, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Increase in endothelial cell (EC) calcium activates calcium‐sensitive intermediate and small conductance potassium (IK and SK) channels, thereby causing hyperpolarization and endothelium‐dependent vasodilatation.Endothelial cells express inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels, but their role in endothelium‐dependent vasodilatation is not clear.In the mesenteric arteries, only ECs, but not smooth muscle cells, displayed Kir currents that were predominantly mediated by the Kir2.1 isoform.Endothelium‐dependent vasodilatations in response to muscarinic receptor, TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) channel and IK/SK channel agonists were highly attenuated by Kir channel inhibitors and by Kir2.1 channel knockdown.These results point to EC Kir channels as amplifiers of vasodilatation in response to increases in EC calcium and IK/SK channel activation and suggest that EC Kir channels could be targeted to treat endothelial dysfunction, which is a hallmark of vascular disorders. Abstract Endothelium‐dependent vasodilators, such as acetylcholine, increase intracellular Ca2+ through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels in the plasma membrane and inositol trisphosphate receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to stimulation of Ca2+‐sensitive intermediate and small conductance K+ (IK and SK, respectively) channels. Although strong inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channels have been reported in the native endothelial cells (ECs) their role in EC‐dependent vasodilatation is not clear. Here, we test the idea that Kir channels boost the EC‐dependent vasodilatation of resistance‐sized arteries. We show that ECs, but not smooth muscle cells, of small mesenteric arteries have Kir currents, which are substantially reduced in EC‐specific Kir2.1 knockdown (EC‐Kir2.1 −/−) mice. Elevation of extracellular K+ to 14 mm caused vasodilatation of pressurized arteries, which was prevented by endothelial

  1. Sar1-GTPase-dependent ER exit of KATP channels revealed by a mutation causing congenital hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taneja, Tarvinder K; Mankouri, Jamel; Karnik, Rucha

    2009-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel controls insulin secretion by coupling glucose metabolism to excitability of the pancreatic beta-cell membrane. The channel comprises four subunits each of Kir6.2 and the sulphonylurea receptor (SUR1), encoded by KCNJ11 and ABCC8, respectively. Mutatio...

  2. Disulfide mapping the voltage-sensing mechanism of a voltage-dependent potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Ozawa, Shin-Ichiro; Harada, Hitomi; Kimura, Tomomi; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2016-11-17

    Voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels allow for the selective permeability of potassium ions in a membrane potential dependent manner, playing crucial roles in neurotransmission and muscle contraction. Kv channel is a tetramer, in which each subunit possesses a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and a pore domain (PD). Although several lines of evidence indicated that membrane depolarization is sensed as the movement of helix S4 of the VSD, the detailed voltage-sensing mechanism remained elusive, due to the difficulty of structural analyses at resting potential. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive disulfide locking analysis of the VSD using 36 double Cys mutants, in order to identify the proximal residue pairs of the VSD in the presence or absence of a membrane potential. An intramolecular SS-bond was formed between 6 Cys pairs under both polarized and depolarized environment, and one pair only under depolarized environment. The multiple conformations captured by the SS-bond can be divided by two states, up and down, where S4 lies on the extracellular and intracellular sides of the membrane, respectively, with axial rotation of 180°. The transition between these two states is caused by the S4 translocation of 12 Å, enabling allosteric regulation of the gating at the PD.

  3. Dystrophin is required for the normal function of the cardio-protective K(ATP channel in cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Graciotti

    Full Text Available Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients often develop a cardiomyopathy for which the pathogenesis is still unknown. We have employed the murine animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mdx, which develops a cardiomyopathy that includes some characteristics of the human disease, to study the molecular basis of this pathology. Here we show that the mdx mouse heart has defects consistent with alteration in compounds that regulate energy homeostasis including a marked decrease in creatine-phosphate (PC. In addition, the mdx heart is more susceptible to anoxia than controls. Since the cardio-protective ATP sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP complex and PC have been shown to interact we investigated whether deficits in PC levels correlate with other molecular events including K(ATP ion channel complex presence, its functionality and interaction with dystrophin. We found that this channel complex is present in the dystrophic cardiac cell membrane but its ability to sense a drop in the intracellular ATP concentration and consequently open is compromised by the absence of dystrophin. We further demonstrate that the creatine kinase muscle isoform (CKm is displaced from the plasma membrane of the mdx cardiac cells. Considering that CKm is a determinant of K(ATP channel complex function we hypothesize that dystrophin acts as a scaffolding protein organizing the K(ATP channel complex and the enzymes necessary for its correct functioning. Therefore, the lack of proper functioning of the cardio-protective K(ATP system in the mdx cardiomyocytes may be part of the mechanism contributing to development of cardiac disease in dystrophic patients.

  4. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  5. Inhibition of the cardiac ATP-dependent potassium current by KB-R7943.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramochkin, Denis V; Vornanen, Matti

    2014-09-01

    KB-R7943 (2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)phenyl]ethyl]isothiourea) was developed as a specific inhibitor of the sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) with potential experimental and therapeutic use. However, in cardiomyocytes KB-R7943 also effectively blocks several K(+) currents including the delayed rectifier, IKr, and background inward rectifier, IK1. In the present study we analyze the effects of KB-R7943 on the ATP-dependent potassium current (IKATP) recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp in ventricular cardiomyocytes from a mammal (mouse) and a fish (crucian carp). IKATP was induced by external application of a mitochondrial uncoupler CCCP (3×10(-7) M) and internal perfusion of the cell with ATP-free pipette solution. A weakly inwardly rectifying current with a large outward component, recorded in the presence of CCCP, was blocked with 10(-5) M glibenclamide by 56.1±4.6% and 56.9±3.6% in crucian carp and mouse ventricular myocytes, respectively. In fish cardiomyocytes IKATP was blocked by KB-R7943 with an IC50 value of 3.14×10(-7) M, while in mammalian cells IC50 was 2.8×10(-6) M (PKB-R7943 inhibited CCCP-induced IKATP by 99.9±0.13% and 97.5±1.2% in crucian carp and mouse ventricular myocytes, respectively. In crucian carp the IKATP is about an order of magnitude more sensitive to KB-R7943 than the background IK1, but in mammals IKATP and IK1 are almost equally sensitive to KB-R7943. Therefore, the ability of KB-R7943 to block IKATP should be taken into account together with INCX inhibition when investigating possible cardioprotective effects of this compound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered Potassium Ion Channel Function as a Possible Mechanism of Increased Blood Pressure in Rats Fed Thermally Oxidized Palm Oil Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanu, Etah E; Owu, Daniel U; Osim, Eme E

    2017-12-27

    Intake of thermally oxidized palm oil leads to cytotoxicity and alteration of the potassium ion channel function. This study investigated the effects of fresh and thermally oxidized palm oil diets on blood pressure and potassium ion channel function in blood pressure regulation. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight rats. Control group received normal feed; fresh palm oil (FPO) and thermally oxidized palm oil (TPO) groups were fed a diet mixed with 15% (weight/weight) fresh palm oil and five times heated palm oil, respectively, for 16 weeks. Blood pressure was measured; blood samples, hearts, and aortas were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Thermally oxidized palm oil significantly elevated basal mean arterial pressure (MAP). Glibenclamide (10 -5 mmol/L) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 10 -3 mmol/L) significantly raised blood pressure in TPO compared with FPO and control groups. Levcromakalim (10 -6 mmol/L) significantly (p palm oil increases MAP probably due to the attenuation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (BK Ca ) channels, tissue peroxidation, and altered histological structures of the heart and blood vessels.

  7. Large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels prevent dendritic excitability in neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhassine, Narimane; Berger, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels (BK channels) are homogeneously distributed along the somatodendritic axis of layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the rat somatosensory cortex. The relevance of this conductance for dendritic calcium electrogenesis was studied in acute brain slices using somatodendritic patch clamp recordings and calcium imaging. BK channel activation reduces the occurrence of dendritic calcium spikes. This is reflected in an increased critical frequency of somatic spikes necessary to activate the distal initiation zone. Whilst BK channels repolarise the somatic spike, they dampen it only in the distal dendrite. Their activation reduces dendritic calcium influx via glutamate receptors. Furthermore, they prevent dendritic calcium electrogenesis and subsequent somatic burst discharges. However, the time window for coincident somatic action potential and dendritic input to elicit dendritic calcium events is not influenced by BK channels. Thus, BK channel activation in layer 5 pyramidal neurons affects cellular excitability primarily by establishing a high threshold at the distal action potential initiation zone.

  8. Inhibition of large conductance calcium-dependent potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conductance, calcium and voltage- dependent potassium (BKCa) channels thereby promoting vasoconstriction. Our results show that the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, induced concentration-dependent relaxation in rat mesenteric artery.

  9. Role of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel-mediated PKC-ε in delayed protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated hearts of sevoflurane-preconditioned rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C. [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, The Second Affiliate Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Hu, S.M. [Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Xie, H.; Qiao, S.G. [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, The Second Affiliate Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, H. [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis Health System, Davis, CA (United States); Liu, C.F. [Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2015-03-27

    This study aimed to determine the role of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (mitoK{sub ATP}) channels and protein kinase C (PKC)-ε in the delayed protective effects of sevoflurane preconditioning using Langendorff isolated heart perfusion models. Fifty-four isolated perfused rat hearts were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=9). The rats were exposed for 60 min to 2.5% sevoflurane (the second window of protection group, SWOP group) or 33% oxygen inhalation (I/R group) 24 h before coronary occlusion. The control group (CON) and the sevoflurane group (SEVO) group were exposed to 33% oxygen and 2.5% sevoflurane for 60 min, respectively, without coronary occlusion. The mitoK{sub ATP} channel inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) was given 30 min before sevoflurane preconditioning (5-HD+SWOP group). Cardiac function indices, infarct sizes, serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations, and the expression levels of phosphorylated PKC-ε (p-PKC-ε) and caspase-8 were measured. Cardiac function was unchanged, p-PKC-ε expression was upregulated, caspase-8 expression was downregulated, cTnI concentrations were decreased, and the infarcts were significantly smaller (P<0.05) in the SWOP group compared with the I/R group. Cardiac function was worse, p-PKC-ε expression was downregulated, caspase-8 expression was upregulated, cTnI concentration was increased and infarcts were larger in the 5-HD+SWOP group (P<0.05) compared with the SWOP group. The results suggest that mitoK{sub ATP} channels are involved in the myocardial protective effects of sevoflurane in preconditioning against I/R injury, by regulating PKC-ε phosphorylation before ischemia, and by downregulating caspase-8 during reperfusion.

  10. The use of microelectrode array (MEA) to study the protective effects of potassium channel openers on metabolically compromised HL-1 cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, J K Y; Chan, M; Yeung, C K; Rudd, J A; Hofmann, B; Ingebrandt, S; Offenhäusser, A

    2009-01-01

    The microelectrode array (MEA) was used to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of adenosine triphosphate sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channel activation using potassium channel openers (KCOs) on HL-1 cardiomyocytes subjected to acute chemically induced metabolic inhibition. Beat frequency and extracellular action potential (exAP) amplitude were measured in the presence of metabolic inhibitors (sodium azide (NaN 3 ) or 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG)) or KCOs (pinacidil (PIN, a cyanoguanidine derivative, activates sarcolemmal K ATP channels) or SDZ PCO400 (SDZ, a benzopyran derivative, activates mitochondrial K ATP channels)). The protective effects of these KCOs on metabolically inhibited HL-1 cells were subsequently investigated. Signal shapes indicated that NaN 3 and 2-DG reduced the rate of the sodium (Na + ) influx signal as reflected by a reduction in beat frequency. PIN and SDZ appeared to reduce both rate of depolarization and extent of the Na + influx signals. Pre-treating cardiomyocytes with PIN (0.1 mM), but not SDZ, prevented the reduction of beat frequency associated with NaN 3 - or 2-DG-induced metabolic inhibition. The exAP amplitude was not affected by either KCO. The cardioprotective effect of PIN relative to SDZ may be due to the opening of different K ATP channels. This metabolic inhibition model on the MEA may provide a stable platform for the study of cardiac pathophysiology in the future

  11. Molecular interactions involved in proton-dependent gating in KcsA potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posson, David J.; Thompson, Ameer N.; McCoy, Jason G.

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial potassium channel KcsA is gated open by the binding of protons to amino acids on the intracellular side of the channel. We have identified, via channel mutagenesis and x-ray crystallography, two pH-sensing amino acids and a set of nearby residues involved in molecular interactions that influence gating. We found that the minimal mutation of one histidine (H25) and one glutamate (E118) near the cytoplasmic gate completely abolished pH-dependent gating. Mutation of nearby residues either alone or in pairs altered the channel’s response to pH. In addition, mutations of certain pairs of residues dramatically increased the energy barriers between the closed and open states. We proposed a Monod–Wyman–Changeux model for proton binding and pH-dependent gating in KcsA, where H25 is a “strong” sensor displaying a large shift in pKa between closed and open states, and E118 is a “weak” pH sensor. Modifying model parameters that are involved in either the intrinsic gating equilibrium or the pKa values of the pH-sensing residues was sufficient to capture the effects of all mutations. PMID:24218397

  12. Cholesterol influences voltage-gated calcium channels and BK-type potassium channels in auditory hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Purcell

    Full Text Available The influence of membrane cholesterol content on a variety of ion channel conductances in numerous cell models has been shown, but studies exploring its role in auditory hair cell physiology are scarce. Recent evidence shows that cholesterol depletion affects outer hair cell electromotility and the voltage-gated potassium currents underlying tall hair cell development, but the effects of cholesterol on the major ionic currents governing auditory hair cell excitability are unknown. We investigated the effects of a cholesterol-depleting agent (methyl beta cyclodextrin, MβCD on ion channels necessary for the early stages of sound processing. Large-conductance BK-type potassium channels underlie temporal processing and open in a voltage- and calcium-dependent manner. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs are responsible for calcium-dependent exocytosis and synaptic transmission to the auditory nerve. Our results demonstrate that cholesterol depletion reduced peak steady-state calcium-sensitive (BK-type potassium current by 50% in chick cochlear hair cells. In contrast, MβCD treatment increased peak inward calcium current (~30%, ruling out loss of calcium channel expression or function as a cause of reduced calcium-sensitive outward current. Changes in maximal conductance indicated a direct impact of cholesterol on channel number or unitary conductance. Immunoblotting following sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation revealed BK expression in cholesterol-enriched microdomains. Both direct impacts of cholesterol on channel biophysics, as well as channel localization in the membrane, may contribute to the influence of cholesterol on hair cell physiology. Our results reveal a new role for cholesterol in the regulation of auditory calcium and calcium-activated potassium channels and add to the growing evidence that cholesterol is a key determinant in auditory physiology.

  13. Functional K(ATP) channels in the rat retinal microvasculature: topographical distribution, redox regulation, spermine modulation and diabetic alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Eisuke; Fukumoto, Masanori; Puro, Donald G

    2009-05-15

    The essential task of the circulatory system is to match blood flow to local metabolic demand. However, much remains to be learned about this process. To better understand how local perfusion is regulated, we focused on the functional organization of the retinal microvasculature, which is particularly well adapted for the local control of perfusion. Here, we assessed the distribution and regulation of functional K(ATP) channels whose activation mediates the hyperpolarization induced by adenosine. Using microvascular complexes freshly isolated from the rat retina, we found a topographical heterogeneity in the distribution of functional K(ATP) channels; capillaries generate most of the K(ATP) current. The initiation of K(ATP)-induced responses in the capillaries supports the concept that the regulation of retinal perfusion is highly decentralized. Additional study revealed that microvascular K(ATP) channels are redox sensitive, with oxidants increasing their activity. Furthermore, the oxidant-mediated activation of these channels is driven by the polyamine spermine, whose catabolism produces oxidants. In addition, our observation that spermine-dependent oxidation occurs predominately in the capillaries accounts for why they generate most of the K(ATP) current detected in retinal microvascular complexes. Here, we also analysed retinal microvessels of streptozotocin-injected rats. We found that soon after the onset of diabetes, an increase in spermine-dependent oxidation at proximal microvascular sites boosts their K(ATP) current and thereby virtually eliminates the topographical heterogeneity of functional K(ATP) channels. We conclude that spermine-dependent oxidation is a previously unrecognized mechanism by which this polyamine modulates ion channels; in addition to a physiological role, spermine-dependent oxidation may also contribute to microvascular dysfunction in the diabetic retina.

  14. A new pH-sensitive rectifying potassium channel in mitochondria from the embryonic rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajma, Anna; Szewczyk, Adam

    2012-10-01

    Patch-clamp single-channel studies on mitochondria isolated from embryonic rat hippocampus revealed the presence of two different potassium ion channels: a large-conductance (288±4pS) calcium-activated potassium channel and second potassium channel with outwardly rectifying activity under symmetric conditions (150/150mM KCl). At positive voltages, this channel displayed a conductance of 67.84pS and a strong voltage dependence at holding potentials from -80mV to +80mV. The open probability was higher at positive than at negative voltages. Patch-clamp studies at the mitoplast-attached mode showed that the channel was not sensitive to activators and inhibitors of mitochondrial potassium channels but was regulated by pH. Moreover, we demonstrated that the channel activity was not affected by the application of lidocaine, an inhibitor of two-pore domain potassium channels, or by tertiapin, an inhibitor of inwardly rectifying potassium channels. In summary, based on the single-channel recordings, we characterised for the first time mitochondrial pH-sensitive ion channel that is selective for cations, permeable to potassium ions, displays voltage sensitivity and does not correspond to any previously described potassium ion channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Delayed rectifier potassium channels are involved in SO2 derivative-induced hippocampal neuronal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies implicate the possible neurotoxicity of SO(2), however, its mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated SO(2) derivative-induced effect on delayed rectifier potassium channels (I(K)) and cellular death/apoptosis in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. The results demonstrate that SO(2) derivatives (NaHSO(3) and Na(2)SO(3), 3:1M/M) effectively augmented I(K) and promoted the activation of delayed rectifier potassium channels. Also, SO(2) derivatives increased neuronal death percentage and contributed to the formation of DNA ladder in concentration-dependent manners. Interestingly, the neuronal death and DNA ladder formation, caused by SO(2) derivatives, could be attenuated by the delayed rectifier potassium channel blocker (tetraethylammonium, TEA), but not by the transient outward potassium channel blocker (4-aminopyridine, 4-AP). It implies that stimulating delayed rectifier potassium channels were involved in SO(2) derivative-caused hippocampal neuronal insults, and blocking these channels might be one of the possibly clinical treatment for SO(2)-caused neuronal dysfunction.

  16. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. BAD-dependent regulation of fuel metabolism and K(ATP) channel activity confers resistance to epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Fisher, Jill K; Szlyk, Benjamin; Polak, Klaudia; Wiwczar, Jessica; Tanner, Geoffrey R; Lutas, Andrew; Yellen, Gary; Danial, Nika N

    2012-05-24

    Neuronal excitation can be substantially modulated by alterations in metabolism, as evident from the anticonvulsant effect of diets that reduce glucose utilization and promote ketone body metabolism. We provide genetic evidence that BAD, a protein with dual functions in apoptosis and glucose metabolism, imparts reciprocal effects on metabolism of glucose and ketone bodies in brain cells. These effects involve phosphoregulation of BAD and are independent of its apoptotic function. BAD modifications that reduce glucose metabolism produce a marked increase in the activity of metabolically sensitive K(ATP) channels in neurons, as well as resistance to behavioral and electrographic seizures in vivo. Seizure resistance is reversed by genetic ablation of the K(ATP) channel, implicating the BAD-K(ATP) axis in metabolic control of neuronal excitation and seizure responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytoplasmic Domains and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channel Gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Francisco; Domínguez, Pedro; de la Peña, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The basic architecture of the voltage-dependent K+ channels (Kv channels) corresponds to a transmembrane protein core in which the permeation pore, the voltage-sensing components and the gating machinery (cytoplasmic facing gate and sensor–gate coupler) reside. Usually, large protein tails are attached to this core, hanging toward the inside of the cell. These cytoplasmic regions are essential for normal channel function and, due to their accessibility to the cytoplasmic environment, constitute obvious targets for cell-physiological control of channel behavior. Here we review the present knowledge about the molecular organization of these intracellular channel regions and their role in both setting and controlling Kv voltage-dependent gating properties. This includes the influence that they exert on Kv rapid/N-type inactivation and on activation/deactivation gating of Shaker-like and eag-type Kv channels. Some illustrative examples about the relevance of these cytoplasmic domains determining the possibilities for modulation of Kv channel gating by cellular components are also considered. PMID:22470342

  19. Voltage dependent potassium channel remodeling in murine intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Hai; Huang, Xu; Guo, Xin; Meng, Xiang-Min; Wu, Yi-Song; Lu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Kim, Young-chul; Xu, Wen-Xie

    2014-01-01

    Partial obstruction of the small intestine causes obvious hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells and motility disorder in the bowel proximate to the obstruction. To identify electric remodeling of hypertrophic smooth muscles in partially obstructed murine small intestine, the patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode recording methods were used to identify the possible electric remodeling and Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were utilized to examine the channel protein expression and phosphorylation level changes in this research. After 14 days of obstruction, partial obstruction caused obvious smooth muscle hypertrophy in the proximally located intestine. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed, their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized compared with normal and sham animals. The current density of voltage dependent potassium channel (KV) was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and the voltage sensitivity of KV activation was altered. The sensitivity of KV currents (IKV) to TEA, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, increased significantly, but the sensitivity of IKv to 4-AP, a KV blocker, stays the same. The protein levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were up-regulated in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cell membrane. The serine and threonine phosphorylation levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were significantly increased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Thus this study represents the first identification of KV channel remodeling in murine small intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction. The enhanced phosphorylations of KV4.3 and KV2.2 may be involved in this process.

  20. Killing of Candida albicans by Human Salivary Histatin 5 Is Modulated, but Not Determined, by the Potassium Channel TOK1

    OpenAIRE

    Baev, Didi; Rivetta, Alberto; Li, Xuewei S.; Vylkova, Slavena; Bashi, Esther; Slayman, Clifford L.; Edgerton, Mira

    2003-01-01

    Salivary histatin 5 (Hst 5), a potent toxin for the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, induces noncytolytic efflux of cellular ATP, potassium, and magnesium in the absence of cytolysis, implicating these ion movements in the toxin's fungicidal activity. Hst 5 action on Candida resembles, in many respects, the action of the K1 killer toxin on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in that system the yeast plasma membrane potassium channel, Tok1p, has recently been reported to be a primary target o...

  1. Functional diversity of potassium channel voltage-sensing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas, León D

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels or Kv's are membrane proteins with fundamental physiological roles. They are composed of 2 main functional protein domains, the pore domain, which regulates ion permeation, and the voltage-sensing domain, which is in charge of sensing voltage and undergoing a conformational change that is later transduced into pore opening. The voltage-sensing domain or VSD is a highly conserved structural motif found in all voltage-gated ion channels and can also exist as an independent feature, giving rise to voltage sensitive enzymes and also sustaining proton fluxes in proton-permeable channels. In spite of the structural conservation of VSDs in potassium channels, there are several differences in the details of VSD function found across variants of Kvs. These differences are mainly reflected in variations in the electrostatic energy needed to open different potassium channels. In turn, the differences in detailed VSD functioning among voltage-gated potassium channels might have physiological consequences that have not been explored and which might reflect evolutionary adaptations to the different roles played by Kv channels in cell physiology.

  2. Voltage dependent potassium channel remodeling in murine intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hai Liu

    Full Text Available Partial obstruction of the small intestine causes obvious hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells and motility disorder in the bowel proximate to the obstruction. To identify electric remodeling of hypertrophic smooth muscles in partially obstructed murine small intestine, the patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode recording methods were used to identify the possible electric remodeling and Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were utilized to examine the channel protein expression and phosphorylation level changes in this research. After 14 days of obstruction, partial obstruction caused obvious smooth muscle hypertrophy in the proximally located intestine. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed, their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized compared with normal and sham animals. The current density of voltage dependent potassium channel (KV was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and the voltage sensitivity of KV activation was altered. The sensitivity of KV currents (IKV to TEA, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, increased significantly, but the sensitivity of IKv to 4-AP, a KV blocker, stays the same. The protein levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were up-regulated in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cell membrane. The serine and threonine phosphorylation levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were significantly increased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Thus this study represents the first identification of KV channel remodeling in murine small intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction. The enhanced phosphorylations of KV4.3 and KV2.2 may be involved in this process.

  3. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Zanetti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the structure-function relationship of a small number of prokaryotic ion channels characterized so far greatly contributed to our knowledge on basic mechanisms of ion conduction. We identified a new potassium channel (SynK in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a photosynthetic model organism. SynK, when expressed in a K(+-uptake-system deficient E. coli strain, was able to recover growth of these organisms. The protein functions as a potassium selective ion channel when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The location of SynK in cyanobacteria in both thylakoid and plasmamembranes was revealed by immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions. SynK seems to be conserved during evolution, giving rise to a TPK (two-pore K(+ channel family member which is shown here to be located in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis. Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies.

  4. Slick (Kcnt2 Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels Limit Peptidergic Nociceptor Excitability and Hyperalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L Tomasello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slick (Kcnt2 sodium-activated potassium (K Na channel is a rapidly gating and weakly voltage-dependent and sodium-dependent potassium channel with no clearly defined physiological function. Within the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, we show Slick channels are exclusively expressed in small-sized and medium-sized calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP-containing DRG neurons, and a pool of channels are localized to large dense-core vesicles (LDCV-containing CGRP. We stimulated DRG neurons for CGRP release and found Slick channels contained within CGRP-positive LDCV translocated to the neuronal membrane. Behavioral studies in Slick knockout (KO mice indicated increased basal heat detection and exacerbated thermal hyperalgesia compared with wild-type littermate controls during neuropathic and chronic inflammatory pain. Electrophysiologic recordings of DRG neurons from Slick KO mice revealed that Slick channels contribute to outward current, propensity to fire action potentials (APs, and to AP properties. Our data suggest that Slick channels restrain the excitability of CGRP-containing neurons, diminishing pain behavior after inflammation and injury.

  5. Slack, Slick, and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    The Slack and Slick genes encode potassium channels that are very widely expressed in the central nervous system. These channels are activated by elevations in intracellular sodium, such as those that occur during trains of one or more action potentials, or following activation of nonselective cationic neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA receptors. This review covers the cellular and molecular properties of Slack and Slick channels and compares them with findings on the properties of sodium-activated potassium currents (termed KNa currents) in native neurons. Human mutations in Slack channels produce extremely severe defects in learning and development, suggesting that KNa channels play a central role in neuronal plasticity and intellectual function. PMID:24319675

  6. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Geoffrey Murphy...NUMBER The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy...The overall objective of this Discovery Award was to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet (KD) regulates neuronal excitability by influencing

  7. Effects of potassium channel opener on the kinetics of thallium-201 in in-vitro and in-vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, E. J.; Ahn, B. C.; Chae, S. C.; Lee, K. B.; Kim, C. K.

    1997-01-01

    Potassium channel opener (K-opener) opens membrane ATP-sensitive K + -channel and induces and increase in potassium efflux from cells. K-openers are powerful smooth muscle relaxants and currently used as antihypertensive, antianginal drugs or bronchodilators in clinic. Pharmacologic potency of newly synthesized K-opener is being evaluated with efflux capacity of preincubated Rb-83 from the isolated aortic vascular tissue preparation. Thallium has similar characteristics to those of rubidium and potassium in vivo. To evaluate the effect of pinacidil (a potent K-opener) on Tl-201 biokinetics, we have performed uptake/washout studies in cultured myocytes, and mice biodistribution study. Primary culture of spontaneous contracting myocytes was undertake from hearts of newborn Sprague-Dawley rat. Different concentration of pinacidil (100nM or 10uM) was co-incubated with Tl-201 in HBSS buffer to evaluate its effect on cellular uptake, or challenged to myocyte preparations pre-incubated with Tl-201 for washout study. Pinacidil was injected into mice simultaneous or 10-min after Tl-201 injection, and organ uptake and whole body retention ratio was measured using gamma counter or dose calibrator. Co-incubation of pinacidil with Tl-201 resulted in a decrease in Tl uptake into myocytes by 1.6 - 2.5 times, and an increase in washout by 1.6 - 3.1 times. Pinacidil injection resulted in mild decrease in blood, heart and liver uptake in mice, bur renal uptake was markedly decreased in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that the pinacidil Tl-201 kinetics and may potentially affect the interpretation of Tl-201 myocardial imaging

  8. Involvement of nitric oxide and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the peripheral antinoceptive action of a tramadol-dexketoprofen combination in the formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario A; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Pérez-Urizar, José; Chavarría-Bolaños, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Systemic coadministration of tramadol and dexketoprofen can produce antinociceptive synergism in animals. There has been only limited evaluation of this drug combination in the peripheral nervous system in terms of the antinociceptive interaction and its mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the peripheral antinociceptive interaction between tramadol and dexketoprofen in the formalin test and the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Different doses of tramadol or dexketoprofen were administered locally to the formalin-injured mouse paw and the antinociceptive effect evaluated. ED50 values were calculated for both drugs alone and in combination. Coadministration of tramadol and dexketoprofen produced an antinociceptive synergistic interaction during the second phase of the formalin test. Pretreatment with NO antagonists, including l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester and 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one, or the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel antagonist glibenclamide reversed the antinociceptive synergistic effect of the tramadol-dexketoprofen combination, suggesting that NO and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels were involved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. St36 electroacupuncture activates nNOS, iNOS and ATP-sensitive potassium channels to promote orofacial antinociception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, R T; Galdino, G; Perez, A C; Silva, G; Romero, T R; Duarte, I D

    2017-02-01

    Orofacial pain is pain perceived in the face and/or oral cavity, generally caused by diseases or disorders of regional structures, by dysfunction of the nervous system, or through referral from distant sources. Treatment of orofacial pain is mainly pharmacological, but it has increased the number of reports demonstrating great clinical results with the use of non-pharmacological therapies, among them electroacupuncture. However, the mechanisms involved in the electroacupuncture are not well elucidated. Thus, the present study investigate the involvement of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and ATP sensitive K + channels (KATP) in the antinociception induced by electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoint St36. Thermal nociception was applied in the vibrissae region of rats, and latency time for face withdrawal was measured. Electrical stimulation of acupoint St36 for 20 minutes reversed the thermal withdrawal latency and this effect was maintained for 150 min. Intraperitoneal administration of specific inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and a KATP channels blocker reversed the antinociception induced by EA. Furthermore, nitrite concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma, increased 4 and 3-fold higher, respectively, after EA. This study suggests that NO participates of antinociception induced by EA by nNOS, iNOS and ATP-sensitive K + channels activation.

  10. Role of the activation gate in determining the extracellular potassium dependency of block of HERG by trapped drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Kristeen; Chu, Elaine; Dodyk, Katrina; Richter, Kristofer; Miller, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Drug induced long QT syndrome (diLQTS) results primarily from block of the cardiac potassium channel HERG (human-ether-a-go-go related gene). In some cases long QT syndrome can result in the lethal arrhythmia torsade de pointes, an arrhythmia characterized by a rapid heart rate and severely compromised cardiac output. Many patients requiring medication present with serum potassium abnormalities due to a variety of conditions including gastrointestinal dysfunction, renal and endocrine disorders, diuretic use, and aging. Extracellular potassium influences HERG channel inactivation and can alter block of HERG by some drugs. However, block of HERG by a number of drugs is not sensitive to extracellular potassium. In this study, we show that block of WT HERG by bepridil and terfenadine, two drugs previously shown to be trapped inside the HERG channel after the channel closes, is insensitive to extracellular potassium over the range of 0 mM to 20 mM. We also show that bepridil block of the HERG mutant D540K, a mutant channel that is unable to trap drugs, is dependent on extracellular potassium, correlates with the permeant ion, and is independent of HERG inactivation. These results suggest that the lack of extracellular potassium dependency of block of HERG by some drugs may in part be related to the ability of these drugs to be trapped inside the channel after the channel closes.

  11. Potassium channels as drugs targets in therapy of cardiovascular diseases: 25 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Dragana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Potassium channels are the most variable ion channel group. They participate in numerous cardiovascular functions, for example regulation of vascular tone, maintenance of resting cardiac membrane potential and excitability of cardiac conduction tissue. Both drugs and endogenous ligands could modulate potassium channel function, belonging to the potassium channel blockers or openers. Modulation of potassium channels could be a therapeutic or adverse drug action. Class III antiarrhythmic agents block the potassium channels, thereby prolonging repolarization phase of action potential with resulting prolongation of effective refractory period. Their effectiveness against supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias should be weighted against their proarrhythmogenic potential. In addition, numerous other antiarrhythmic agents could modulate potassium channels as well. Diazoxide, minoxidil and nicorandil (well known arterial vasodilators, as well as numerous newly synthesized substances with still unknown therapeutic potential, belong to the potassium channel activators/openers. Therapeutic use of such vasodilators may involve treatment of hypertension (diazoxide, minoxidil and stable angina (nicorandil. Their use might be accompanied with side effects, such as vasodilation, edema, hypotension and reflex tachycardia. Potassium channel openers have also an important role in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and pulmonary hypertension. In the future, drugs with selective effects on the vascular or cardiac potassium channels could be useful therapeutic agents.

  12. POTASSIUM CHANNELS AS DRUGS TARGETS IN THERAPY OF CARDIOVASCULAR DESEASES: 25 YEARS LATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium channels are the most variable ion channel group. They participate in numerous cardiovascular functions, for example regulation of vascular tone, maintenance of resting cardiac membrane potential and excitability of cardiac conduction tissue. Both drugs and endogenous ligands could modulate potassium channel function, belonging to the potassium channel blockers or openers. Modulation of potassium channels could be a therapeutic or adverse drug action. Class III antiarrhythmic agents block the potassium channels, thereby prolonging repolarization phase of action potential with resulting prolongation of effective refractory period. Their effectiveness against supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias should be weighted against their proarrhythmogenic potential. In addition, numerous other antiarrhythmic agents could modulate potassium channels as well. Diazoxide, minoxidil and nicorandil (well known arterial vasodilators, as well as numerous newly synthesized substances with still unknown therapeutic potential, belong to the potassium channel activators/ openers. Therapeutic use of such vasodilators may involve treatment of hypertension (diazoxide, minoxidil and stable angina (nicorandil. Their use might be accompanied with side effects, such as vasodilation, edema, hypotension and reflex tachycardia. Potassium channel openers have also an important role in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and pulmonary hypertension. In the future, drugs with selective effects on the vascular or cardiac potassium channels could be useful therapeutic agents.

  13. Mutagenesis in mammalian cells can be modulated by radiation-induced voltage-dependent potassium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, A.H.; Zhou, L.Y.; Lambe, E.K.; Hahn, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    In mammalian cells, little is known about the initial events whose ultimate consequence is mutagenesis or DNA repair. The role the plasma membrane may play as an initiator of such a pathway is not understood. We show, for the first time, that membrane voltage-dependent potassium (K + ) currents, activated by ionizing radiation play a significant role in radiation mutagenesis. Specifically, we show that the frequency of mutation at the HGPRT locus is increased as expected to 37.6±4.0 mutations per 100,000 survivors by 800 cGy of ionizing radiation from a spontaneous frequency of 1.5±1.5. This increase, however, is abolished if either K + channel blocker, CsCl or BaCl 2 , is present for 2h following irradiation of the cells. RbCl, chemically similar to CsCl but known not to block K + channels, is ineffective in reducing the mutation frequency. Treatment of cells with CsCl or BaCl 2 had no effect on radiation-induced cell killing

  14. Expression, purification and functional reconstitution of slack sodium-activated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yangyang; Yang, Youshan; Bian, Shumin; Sigworth, Fred J

    2012-11-01

    The slack (slo2.2) gene codes for a potassium-channel α-subunit of the 6TM voltage-gated channel family. Expression of slack results in Na(+)-activated potassium channel activity in various cell types. We describe the purification and reconstitution of Slack protein and show that the Slack α-subunit alone is sufficient for potassium channel activity activated by sodium ions as assayed in planar bilayer membranes and in membrane vesicles.

  15. Chronic electroconvulsive stimulation but not chronic restraint stress modulates mRNA expression of voltage-dependent potassium channels Kv7.2 and Kv11.1 in the rat piriform cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjæresen, Marie-Louise; Hageman, Ida; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which stress and electroconvulsive therapy exert opposite effects on the course of major depression are not known. Potential candidates might include the voltage-dependent potassium channels. Potassium channels play an important role in maintaining the resting membrane potential...... and controlling neuronal excitability. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the effects of one or several electroconvulsive stimulations and chronic restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days) on the expression of voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv7.2, Kv11.1, and Kv11.3 mRNA in the rat brain using in situ...... hybridization. Repeated, but not acute, electroconvulsive stimulation increased Kv7.2 and Kv11.1 mRNA levels in the piriform cortex. In contrast, restraint stress had no significant effect on mRNA expression of Kv7.2, Kv11.1, or Kv11.3 in any of the brain regions examined. Thus, it appears that the investigated...

  16. Antispasmodic activity of Symplocos paniculata is mediated through opening of ATP-dependent K+ channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hussain Janbaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Symplocos paniculata is a medicinal plant used by native healers to manage gastrointestinal ailments. The crude methanolic extract of S. paniculata was screened pharmacologically both in vitro and in vivo for the validation of its therapeutic potential. It suppressed the spontaneous activity of isolated rabbit jejunum preparations and also caused inhibition of the low K+ (20 mM- induced spastic contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations in a manner comparable to cromakalim. The relaxant effect was found to be blocked following glibenclamide exposure of the isolated tissue preparations similar to cromakalim, suggesting that observed response was likely to be mediated through opening of ATP dependent K+ channels. Following oral administration to mice provided protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in a manner similar to loperamide. The plant material was found safe in toxicity study up to oral dose of 8 g/kg in mice. Hence, present study provides a scientific basis for the vernacular use of S. paniculata in gastro-intestinal system.

  17. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  18. Lactococcin G is a potassium ion-conducting, two-component bacteriocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, G; Ubbink-Kok, T; Hildeng-Hauge, H; Nissen-Meyer, J; Nes, I F; Konings, W N; Driessen, A J

    1996-02-01

    Lactococcin G is a novel lactococcal bacteriocin whose activity depends on the complementary action of two peptides, termed alpha and beta. Peptide synthesis of the alpha and beta peptides yielded biologically active lactococcin G, which was used in mode-of-action studies on sensitive cells of Lactococcus lactis. Approximately equivalent amounts of both peptides were required for optimal bactericidal effect. No effect was observed with either the alpha or beta peptide in the absence of the complementary peptide. The combination of alpha and beta peptides (lactococcin G) dissipates the membrane potential (delta omega), and as a consequence cells release alpha-aminoisobutyrate, a non-metabolizable alanine analog that is accumulated through a proton motive-force dependent mechanism. In addition, the cellular ATP level is dramatically reduced, which results in a drastic decrease of the ATP-driven glutamate uptake. Lactococcin G does not form a proton-conducting pore, as it has no effect on the transmembrane pH gradient. Dissipation of the membrane potential by uncouplers causes a slow release of potassium (rubidium) ions. However, rapid release of potassium was observed in the presence of lactococcin G. These data suggest that the bactericidal effect of lactococcin G is due to the formation of potassium-selective channels by the alpha and beta peptides in the target bacterial membrane.

  19. Loss of ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Surface Expression in Heart Failure Underlies Dysregulation of Action Potential Duration and Myocardial Vulnerability to Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Gao

    Full Text Available The search for new approaches to treatment and prevention of heart failure is a major challenge in medicine. The adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP channel has been long associated with the ability to preserve myocardial function and viability under stress. High surface expression of membrane KATP channels ensures a rapid energy-sparing reduction in action potential duration (APD in response to metabolic challenges, while cellular signaling that reduces surface KATP channel expression blunts APD shortening, thus sacrificing energetic efficiency in exchange for greater cellular calcium entry and increased contractile force. In healthy hearts, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII phosphorylates the Kir6.2 KATP channel subunit initiating a cascade responsible for KATP channel endocytosis. Here, activation of CaMKII in a transaortic banding (TAB model of heart failure is coupled with a 35-40% reduction in surface expression of KATP channels compared to hearts from sham-operated mice. Linkage between KATP channel expression and CaMKII is verified in isolated cardiomyocytes in which activation of CaMKII results in downregulation of KATP channel current. Accordingly, shortening of monophasic APD is slowed in response to hypoxia or heart rate acceleration in failing compared to non-failing hearts, a phenomenon previously shown to result in significant increases in oxygen consumption. Even in the absence of coronary artery disease, failing myocardium can be further injured by ischemia due to a mismatch between metabolic supply and demand. Ischemia-reperfusion injury, following ischemic preconditioning, is diminished in hearts with CaMKII inhibition compared to wild-type hearts and this advantage is largely eliminated when myocardial KATP channel expression is absent, supporting that the myocardial protective benefit of CaMKII inhibition in heart failure may be substantially mediated by KATP channels. Recognition of CaMKII-dependent

  20. Localization and pharmacological characterization of voltage dependent calcium channels in cultured neocortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, D B; Lund, Trine Meldgaard; Belhage, B

    2001-01-01

    The physiological significance and subcellular distribution of voltage dependent calcium channels was defined using calcium channel blockers to inhibit potassium induced rises in cytosolic calcium concentration in cultured mouse neocortical neurons. The cytosolic calcium concentration was measured...... channels were differentially distributed in somata, neurites and nerve terminals. omega-conotoxin MVIIC (omega-CgTx MVIIC) inhibited approximately 40% of the Ca(2+)-rise in both somata and neurites and 60% of the potassium induced [3H]GABA release, indicating that the Q-type channel is the quantitatively...... most important voltage dependent calcium channel in all parts of the neuron. After treatment with thapsigargin the increase in cytosolic calcium was halved, indicating that calcium release from thapsigargin sensitive intracellular calcium stores is an important component of the potassium induced rise...

  1. Modeling the concentration-dependent permeation modes of the KcsA potassium ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2003-12-01

    The potassium channel from Streptomyces lividans (KcsA) is an integral membrane protein with sequence similarity to all known potassium channels, particularly in the selectivity filter region. A recently proposed model for ion channels containing either n or (n-1) single-file ions in their selectivity filters [P. H. Nelson, J. Chem. Phys. 177, 11396 (2002)] is applied to published KcsA channel K+ permeation data that exhibit a high-affinity process at low concentrations and a low-affinity process at high concentrations [M. LeMasurier et al., J. Gen. Physiol. 118, 303 (2001)]. The kinetic model is shown to provide a reasonable first-order explanation for both the high- and low-concentration permeation modes observed experimentally. The low-concentration mode ([K+]200 mM) has a 200-mV dissociation constant of 1100 mM and a conductance of 500 pS. Based on the permeation model, and x-ray analysis [J. H. Morais-Cabral et al., Nature (London) 414, 37 (2001)], it is suggested that the experimentally observed K+ permeation modes correspond to an n=3 mechanism at high concentrations and an n=2 mechanism at low concentrations. The ratio of the electrical dissociation distances for the high- and low-concentration modes is 3:2, also consistent with the proposed n=3 and n=2 modes. Model predictions for K+ channels that exhibit asymmetric current-voltage (I-V) curves are presented, and further validation of the kinetic model via molecular simulation and experiment is discussed. The qualitatively distinct I-V characteristics exhibited experimentally by Tl+, NH+4, and Rb+ ions at 100 mM concentration can also be explained using the model, but more extensive experimental tests are required for quantitative validation of the model predictions.

  2. Pharmacological and molecular comparison of K(ATP) channels in rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Edvinsson, Lars; Olesen, Jes

    2006-01-01

    , we studied the possible involvement of endothelial K(ATP) channels by pressurized arteriography after luminal administration of synthetic K(ATP) channel openers to rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries. Furthermore, we examined the mRNA and protein expression profile of K(ATP) channels to rat...... basilar and middle cerebral arteries using quantitative real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and Western blotting, respectively. In the perfusion system, we found no significant responses after luminal application of three K(ATP) channel openers to rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries...

  3. A K ATP channel-dependent pathway within alpha cells regulates glucagon release from both rodent and human islets of Langerhans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Patrick E; De Marinis, Yang Zhang; Ramracheya, Reshma; Salehi, Albert; Ma, Xiaosong; Johnson, Paul R V; Cox, Roger; Eliasson, Lena; Rorsman, Patrik

    2007-06-01

    Glucagon, secreted from pancreatic islet alpha cells, stimulates gluconeogenesis and liver glycogen breakdown. The mechanism regulating glucagon release is debated, and variously attributed to neuronal control, paracrine control by neighbouring beta cells, or to an intrinsic glucose sensing by the alpha cells themselves. We examined hormone secretion and Ca(2+) responses of alpha and beta cells within intact rodent and human islets. Glucose-dependent suppression of glucagon release persisted when paracrine GABA or Zn(2+) signalling was blocked, but was reversed by low concentrations (1-20 muM) of the ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel opener diazoxide, which had no effect on insulin release or beta cell responses. This effect was prevented by the KATP channel blocker tolbutamide (100 muM). Higher diazoxide concentrations (>/=30 muM) decreased glucagon and insulin secretion, and alpha- and beta-cell Ca(2+) responses, in parallel. In the absence of glucose, tolbutamide at low concentrations (10 muM) were inhibitory. In the presence of a maximally inhibitory concentration of tolbutamide (0.5 mM), glucose had no additional suppressive effect. Downstream of the KATP channel, inhibition of voltage-gated Na(+) (TTX) and N-type Ca(2+) channels (omega-conotoxin), but not L-type Ca(2+) channels (nifedipine), prevented glucagon secretion. Both the N-type Ca(2+) channels and alpha-cell exocytosis were inactivated at depolarised membrane potentials. Rodent and human glucagon secretion is regulated by an alpha-cell KATP channel-dependent mechanism. We propose that elevated glucose reduces electrical activity and exocytosis via depolarisation-induced inactivation of ion channels involved in action potential firing and secretion.

  4. Stretch-induced Ca2+ independent ATP release in hippocampal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yingfei; Teng, Sasa; Zheng, Lianghong; Sun, Suhua; Li, Jie; Guo, Ning; Li, Mingli; Wang, Li; Zhu, Feipeng; Wang, Changhe; Rao, Zhiren; Zhou, Zhuan

    2018-02-28

    Similar to neurons, astrocytes actively participate in synaptic transmission via releasing gliotransmitters. The Ca 2+ -dependent release of gliotransmitters includes glutamate and ATP. Following an 'on-cell-like' mechanical stimulus to a single astrocyte, Ca 2+ independent single, large, non-quantal, ATP release occurs. Astrocytic ATP release is inhibited by either selective antagonist treatment or genetic knockdown of P2X7 receptor channels. Our work suggests that ATP can be released from astrocytes via two independent pathways in hippocampal astrocytes; in addition to the known Ca 2+ -dependent vesicular release, larger non-quantal ATP release depends on P2X7 channels following mechanical stretch. Astrocytic ATP release is essential for brain functions such as synaptic long-term potentiation for learning and memory. However, whether and how ATP is released via exocytosis remains hotly debated. All previous studies of non-vesicular ATP release have used indirect assays. By contrast, two recent studies report vesicular ATP release using more direct assays. In the present study, using patch clamped 'ATP-sniffer cells', we re-investigated astrocytic ATP release at single-vesicle resolution in hippocampal astrocytes. Following an 'on-cell-like' mechanical stimulus of a single astrocyte, a Ca 2+ independent single large non-quantal ATP release occurred, in contrast to the Ca 2+ -dependent multiple small quantal ATP release in a chromaffin cell. The mechanical stimulation-induced ATP release from an astrocyte was inhibited by either exposure to a selective antagonist or genetic knockdown of P2X7 receptor channels. Functional P2X7 channels were expressed in astrocytes in hippocampal brain slices. Thus, in addition to small quantal ATP release, larger non-quantal ATP release depends on P2X7 channels in astrocytes. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  5. Homogeneous distribution of large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels on soma and apical dendrite of rat neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhassine, Narimane; Berger, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Voltage-gated conductances on dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons participate in synaptic integration and output generation. We investigated the properties and the distribution of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) in this cell type using excised patches in acute slice preparations of rat somatosensory cortex. BK channels were characterized by their large conductance and sensitivity to the specific blockers paxilline and iberiotoxin. BK channels showed a pronounced calcium-dependence with a maximal opening probability of 0.69 at 10 microm and 0.42 at 3 microm free calcium. Their opening probability and transition time constants between open and closed states are voltage-dependent. At depolarized potentials, BK channel gating is described by two open and one closed states. Depolarization increases the opening probability due to a prolongation of the open time constant and a shortening of the closed time constant. Calcium-dependence and biophysical properties of somatic and dendritic BK channels were identical. The presence of BK channels on the apical dendrite of layer 5 pyramidal neurons was shown by immunofluorescence. Patch-clamp recordings revealed a homogeneous density of BK channels on the soma and along the apical dendrite up to 850 microm with a mean density of 1.9 channels per microm(2). BK channels are expressed either isolated or in clusters containing up to four channels. This study shows the presence of BK channels on dendrites. Their activation might modulate the shape of sodium and calcium action potentials, their propagation along the dendrite, and thereby the electrotonic distance between the somatic and dendritic action potential initiation zones.

  6. A K ATP channel-dependent pathway within alpha cells regulates glucagon release from both rodent and human islets of Langerhans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick E MacDonald

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon, secreted from pancreatic islet alpha cells, stimulates gluconeogenesis and liver glycogen breakdown. The mechanism regulating glucagon release is debated, and variously attributed to neuronal control, paracrine control by neighbouring beta cells, or to an intrinsic glucose sensing by the alpha cells themselves. We examined hormone secretion and Ca(2+ responses of alpha and beta cells within intact rodent and human islets. Glucose-dependent suppression of glucagon release persisted when paracrine GABA or Zn(2+ signalling was blocked, but was reversed by low concentrations (1-20 muM of the ATP-sensitive K(+ (KATP channel opener diazoxide, which had no effect on insulin release or beta cell responses. This effect was prevented by the KATP channel blocker tolbutamide (100 muM. Higher diazoxide concentrations (>/=30 muM decreased glucagon and insulin secretion, and alpha- and beta-cell Ca(2+ responses, in parallel. In the absence of glucose, tolbutamide at low concentrations (10 muM were inhibitory. In the presence of a maximally inhibitory concentration of tolbutamide (0.5 mM, glucose had no additional suppressive effect. Downstream of the KATP channel, inhibition of voltage-gated Na(+ (TTX and N-type Ca(2+ channels (omega-conotoxin, but not L-type Ca(2+ channels (nifedipine, prevented glucagon secretion. Both the N-type Ca(2+ channels and alpha-cell exocytosis were inactivated at depolarised membrane potentials. Rodent and human glucagon secretion is regulated by an alpha-cell KATP channel-dependent mechanism. We propose that elevated glucose reduces electrical activity and exocytosis via depolarisation-induced inactivation of ion channels involved in action potential firing and secretion.

  7. Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sampson, Kevin J.; Kass, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels conduct outward potassium currents during the plateau phase of action potentials and play pivotal roles in cardiac repolarization. These include IKs, IKr and the atrial specific IKur channels. In this chapter, we will review the molecular identities and biophysical properties of these channels. Mutations in the genes encoding delayed rectifiers lead to loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes, disrupt normal cardiac repolarization and result in various cardiac rhythm disorders, including congenital Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation. We will also discuss the possibility and prospect of using delayed rectifier channels as therapeutic targets to manage cardiac arrhythmia. PMID:27261823

  8. Sarcolemmal cardiac K(ATP) channels as a target for the cardioprotective effects of the fluorine-containing pinacidil analogue, flocalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitychuk, Oleg I; Strutynskyi, Ruslan B; Yagupolskii, Lev M; Tinker, Andrew; Moibenko, Olexiy O; Shuba, Yaroslav M

    2011-02-01

    A class of drugs known as K(ATP) -channel openers induce cardioprotection. This study examined the effects of the novel K(ATP) -channel opener, the fluorine-containing pinacidil derivative, flocalin, on cardiac-specific K(ATP) -channels, excitability of native cardiac myocytes and on the ischaemic heart. The action of flocalin was investigated on: (i) membrane currents through cardiac-specific K(ATP) -channels (I(KATP) ) formed by K(IR) 6.2/SUR2A heterologously expressed in HEK-293 cells (HEK-293(₆.₂/₂A) ); (ii) excitability and intracellular Ca²(+) ([Ca²(+) ](i) ) transients of cultured rat neonatal cardiac myocytes; and (iii) functional and ultrastructural characteristics of isolated guinea-pig hearts subjected to ischaemia-reperfusion. Flocalin concentration-dependently activated a glibenclamide-sensitive I(KATP) in HEK-293(₆.₂/₂A) cells with an EC₅₀= 8.1 ± 0.4 µM. In cardiac myocytes, flocalin (5 µM) hyperpolarized resting potential by 3-5 mV, markedly shortened action potential duration, reduced the amplitude of [Ca²(+) ](i) transients by 2-3-fold and suppressed contraction. The magnitude and extent of reversibility of these effects depended on the type of cardiac myocytes. In isolated hearts, perfusion with 5 µmol·L⁻¹ flocalin, before inducing ischaemia, facilitated restoration of contraction during reperfusion, decreased the number of extrasystoles, prevented the appearance of coronary vasoconstriction and reduced damage to the cardiac tissue at the ultrastructural level (state of myofibrils, membrane integrity, mitochondrial cristae structure). Flocalin induced potent cardioprotection by activating cardiac-type K(ATP) -channels with all the benefits of the presence of fluorine group in the drug structure: higher lipophilicity, decreased toxicity, resistance to oxidation and thermal degradation, decreased metabolism in the organism and prolonged therapeutic action. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The

  9. Effect of potassium channel modulators in mouse forced swimming test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Ghelardini, Carla; Caldari, Bernardetta; Bartolini, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of different potassium channel blockers (tetraethylammonium, apamin, charybdotoxin, gliquidone), potassium channel openers (pinacidil, minoxidil, cromakalim) and aODN to mKv1.1 on immobility time was evaluated in the mouse forced swimming test, an animal model of depression. Tetraethylammonium (TEA; 5 μg per mouse i.c.v.), apamin (3 ng per mouse i.c.v.), charybdotoxin (1 μg per mouse i.c.v.) and gliquidone (6 μg per mouse i.c.v.) administered 20 min before the test produced anti-immobility comparable to that induced by the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline (15 mg kg−1 s.c.) and imipramine (30 mg kg−1 s.c.). By contrast pinacidil (10–20 μg per mouse i.c.v.), minoxidil (10–20 μg per mouse i.c.v.) and cromakalim (20–30 μg per mouse i.c.v.) increased immobility time when administered in the same experimental conditions. Repeated administration of an antisense oligonucleotide (aODN) to the mKv1.1 gene (1 and 3 nmol per single i.c.v. injection) produced a dose-dependent increase in immobility time of mice 72 h after the last injection. At day 7, the increasing effect produced by aODN disappeared. A degenerate mKv1.1 oligonucleotide (dODN), used as control, did not produce any effect in comparison with saline- and vector-treated mice. At the highest effective dose, potassium channels modulators and the mKv1.1 aODN did not impair motor coordination, as revealed by the rota rod test, nor did they modify spontaneous motility as revealed by the Animex apparatus. These results suggest that modulation of potassium channels plays an important role in the regulation of immobility time in the mouse forced swimming test. PMID:10323599

  10. Characterization of P2Y receptors mediating ATP induced relaxation in guinea pig airway smooth muscle: involvement of prostaglandins and K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño, Luis M; Cruz-Valderrama, José E; Figueroa, Alejandra; Flores-Soto, Edgar; García-Hernández, Luz M; Carbajal, Verónica; Segura, Patricia; Méndez, Carmen; Díaz, Verónica; Barajas-López, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    In airway smooth muscle (ASM), adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) induces a relaxation associated with prostaglandin production. We explored the role of K(+) currents (I (K)) in this relaxation. ATP relaxed the ASM, and this effect was abolished by indomethacin. Removal of airway epithelium slightly diminished the ATP-induced relaxation at lower concentration without modifying the responses to ATP at higher concentrations. ATPγS and UTP induced a concentration-dependent relaxation similar to ATP; α,β-methylene-ATP was inactive from 1 to 100 μM. Suramin or reactive blue 2 (RB2), P2Y receptor antagonists, did not modify the relaxation, but their combination significantly reduced this effect of ATP. The relaxation was also inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM; which uncouples G proteins). In myocytes, the ATP-induced I (K) increment was not modified by suramin or RB2 but the combination of both drugs abolished it. This increment in the I (K) was also completely nullified by NEM and SQ 22,536. 4-Amynopyridine or iberiotoxin diminished the ATP-induced I (K) increment, and the combination of both substances diminished ATP-induced relaxation. The presence of P2Y(2) and P2Y(4) receptors in smooth muscle was corroborated by Western blot and confocal images. In conclusion, ATP: (1) produces relaxation by inducing the production of bronchodilator prostaglandins in airway smooth muscle, most likely by acting on P2Y(4) and P2Y(2) receptors; (2) induces I (K) increment through activation of the delayed rectifier K(+) channels and the high-conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels, therefore both channels are implicated in the ATP-induced relaxation; and (3) this I (K) increment is mediated by prostaglandin production which in turns increase cAMP signaling pathway.

  11. Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sampson, Kevin J; Kass, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels conduct outward potassium currents during the plateau phase of action potentials and play pivotal roles in cardiac repolarization. These include IKs, IKr and the atrial specific IKur channels. In this article, we will review their molecular identities and biophysical properties. Mutations in the genes encoding delayed rectifiers lead to loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes, disrupt normal cardiac repolarization and result in various cardiac rhythm disorders, including congenital Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation. We will also discuss the prospect of using delayed rectifier channels as therapeutic targets to manage cardiac arrhythmia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium channels involved in corticostriatal presynaptic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, David; Mateos, Verónica; Islas, Gustavo; Barral, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    Presynaptic modulation has been associated mainly with calcium channels but recent data suggests that inward rectifier potassium channels (K(IR)) also play a role. In this work we set to characterize the role of presynaptic K(IR) channels in corticostriatal synaptic transmission. We elicited synaptic potentials in striatum by stimulating cortical areas and then determined the synaptic responses of corticostriatal synapsis by using paired pulse ratio (PPR) in the presence and absence of several potassium channel blockers. Unspecific potassium channels blockers Ba(2+) and Cs(+) reduced the PPR, suggesting that these channels are presynaptically located. Further pharmacological characterization showed that application of tertiapin-Q, a specific K(IR)3 channel family blocker, also induced a reduction of PPR, suggesting that K(IR)3 channels are present at corticostriatal terminals. In contrast, exposure to Lq2, a specific K(IR)1.1 inward rectifier potassium channel, did not induce any change in PPR suggesting the absence of these channels in the presynaptic corticostriatal terminals. Our results indicate that K(IR)3 channels are functionally expressed at the corticostriatal synapses, since blockage of these channels result in PPR decrease. Our results also help to explain how synaptic activity may become sensitive to extracellular signals mediated by G-protein coupled receptors. A vast repertoire of receptors may influence neurotransmitter release in an indirect manner through regulation of K(IR)3 channels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. BAD and KATP channels regulate neuron excitability and epileptiform activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Fernández-Agüera, María Carmen; Nathwani, Nidhi; Lahmann, Carolina; Burnham, Veronica L; Danial, Nika N; Yellen, Gary

    2018-01-25

    Brain metabolism can profoundly influence neuronal excitability. Mice with genetic deletion or alteration of Bad ( B CL-2 a gonist of cell d eath) exhibit altered brain-cell fuel metabolism, accompanied by resistance to acutely induced epileptic seizures; this seizure protection is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels. Here we investigated the effect of BAD manipulation on K ATP channel activity and excitability in acute brain slices. We found that BAD's influence on neuronal K ATP channels was cell-autonomous and directly affected dentate granule neuron (DGN) excitability. To investigate the role of neuronal K ATP channels in the anticonvulsant effects of BAD, we imaged calcium during picrotoxin-induced epileptiform activity in entorhinal-hippocampal slices. BAD knockout reduced epileptiform activity, and this effect was lost upon knockout or pharmacological inhibition of K ATP channels. Targeted BAD knockout in DGNs alone was sufficient for the antiseizure effect in slices, consistent with a 'dentate gate' function that is reinforced by increased K ATP channel activity. © 2018, Martínez-François et al.

  14. Structural determinants of PIP(2) regulation of inward rectifier K(ATP) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyng, S L; Cukras, C A; Harwood, J; Nichols, C G

    2000-11-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) activates K(ATP) and other inward rectifier (Kir) channels. To determine residues important for PIP(2) regulation, we have systematically mutated each positive charge in the COOH terminus of Kir6.2 to alanine. The effects of these mutations on channel function were examined using (86)Rb efflux assays on intact cells and inside-out patch-clamp methods. Both methods identify essentially the same basic residues in two narrow regions (176-222 and 301-314) in the COOH terminus that are important for the maintenance of channel function and interaction with PIP(2). Only one residue (R201A) simultaneously affected ATP and PIP(2) sensitivity, which is consistent with the notion that these ligands, while functionally competitive, are unlikely to bind to identical sites. Strikingly, none of 13 basic residues in the terminal portion (residues 315-390) of the COOH terminus affected channel function when neutralized. The data help to define the structural requirements for PIP(2) sensitivity of K(ATP) channels. Moreover, the regions and residues defined in this study parallel those uncovered in recent studies of PIP(2) sensitivity in other inward rectifier channels, indicating a common structural basis for PIP(2) regulation.

  15. Modification of sodium and potassium channel kinetics by diethyl ether and studies on sodium channel inactivation in the crayfish giant axon membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, Bruce Palmer [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The effects of ether and halothane on membrane currents in the voltage clamped crayfish giant axon membrane were investigated. Concentrations of ether up to 300 mM and of halothane up to 32 mM had no effect on resting potential or leakage conductance. Ether and halothane reduced the size of sodium currents without changing the voltage dependence of the peak currents or their reversal potential. Ether and halothane also produced a reversible, dose-dependent speeding of sodium current decay at all membrane potentials. Ether reduced the time constants for inactivation, and also shifted the midpoint of the steady-state inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. Potassium currents were smaller with ether present, with no change in the voltage dependence of steady-state currents. The activation of potassium channels was faster with ether present. There was no apparent change in the capacitance of the crayfish giant axon membrane with ether concentrations of up to 100 mM. Experiments on sodium channel inactivation kinetics were performed using 4-aminopyridine to block potassium currents. Sodium currents decayed with a time course generally fit well by a single exponential. The time constant of decay was a steep function of voltage, especially in the negative resistance region of the peak current vs voltage relation.The time course of inactivation was very similar to that of the decay of the current at the same potential. The measurement of steady-state inactivation curves with different test pulses showed no shifts along the voltage asix. The voltage-dependence of the integral of sodium conductance was measured to test models of sodium channel inactivation in which channels must open before inactivating; the results appear inconsistent with some of the simplest cases of such models.

  16. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channel Function and Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Human cardiomyocytes express 3 distinct types of delayed rectifier potassium channels. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels conduct the rapidly activating current IKr; KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels conduct the slowly activating current IKs; and Kv1.5 channels conduct an ultrarapid activating current IKur. Here the authors provide a general overview of the mechanistic and structural basis of ion selectivity, gating, and pharmacology of the 3 types of cardiac delayed rectifier potassium ion channels. Most blockers bind to S6 residues that line the central cavity of the channel, whereas activators interact with the channel at 4 symmetric binding sites outside the cavity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of different types of potassium channels in the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in the mouse forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budni, Josiane; Gadotti, Vinícius M; Kaster, Manuella P; Santos, Adair R S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2007-12-01

    The administration of agmatine elicits an antidepressant-like effect in the mouse forced swimming test by a mechanism dependent on the inhibition of the NMDA receptors and the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Since it has been reported that the NO can activate different types of potassium (K(+)) channels in several tissues, the present study investigates the possibility of synergistic interactions between different types of K(+) channel inhibitors and agmatine in the forced swimming test. Treatment of mice by i.c.v. route with subeffective doses of tetraethylammonium (a non specific inhibitor of K(+) channels, 25 pg/site), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K(+) channels inhibitor, 0.5 pg/site), charybdotoxin (a large- and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel inhibitor, 25 pg/site) or apamin (a small-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel inhibitor, 10 pg/site), augmented the effect of agmatine (0.001 mg/kg, i.p.) in the forced swimming test. Furthermore, the administration of agmatine and the K(+) channel inhibitors, alone or in combination, did not affect locomotion in the open-field test. Moreover, the reduction in the immobility time elicited by an active dose of agmatine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the forced swimming test was prevented by the pre-treatment of mice with the K(+) channel openers cromakalim (10 microg/site, i.c.v.) and minoxidil (10 microg/site, i.c.v.), without affecting locomotion. Together these data raise the possibility that the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in the forced swimming test is related to its modulatory effects on neuronal excitability, via inhibition of K(+) channels.

  18. Sildenafil protects neuronal cells from mitochondrial toxicity induced by β-amyloid peptide via ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yonghae; Kim, Koanhoi; Cho, Hyok-Rae

    2018-06-02

    To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of sildenafil in animal models of neurological disorders, we investigated the effects of sildenafil on the mitochondrial toxicity induced by β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide. Treatment of HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells with Aβ 25∼35 results in increased mitochondrial Ca 2+ load, which is subsequently suppressed by sildenafil as well as by diazoxide, a selective opener of the ATP-sensitive K + channels (K ATP ). However, the suppressive effects of sildenafil and diazoxide are significantly attenuated by 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5-HD), a K ATP inhibitor. The increased mitochondrial Ca 2+ overload is accompanied by decrease in the intracellular ATP concentration, increase in intracellular ROS generation, occurrence of mitochondrial permeability transition, and activation of caspase-9 and cell death. Exposure to sildenafil inhibited the mitochondria-associated changes and cell death induced by Aβ. However, the inhibitory effects of sildenafil are abolished or weakened in the presence of 5-HD, suggesting that opening of the mitochondrial K ATP is required for sildenafil to exert these effects. Taken together, these results indicate that at the mitochondrial levels, sildenafil plays a protective role towards neuronal cell in an environment rich in Aβ, and exerts its effects via the mitochondrial K ATP channels-dependent mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ion Concentration- and Voltage-Dependent Push and Pull Mechanisms of Potassium Channel Ion Conduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Kasahara

    Full Text Available The mechanism of ion conduction by potassium channels is one of the central issues in physiology. In particular, it is still unclear how the ion concentration and the membrane voltage drive ion conduction. We have investigated the dynamics of the ion conduction processes in the Kv1.2 pore domain, by molecular dynamics (MD simulations with several different voltages and ion concentrations. By focusing on the detailed ion movements through the pore including selectivity filter (SF and cavity, we found two major conduction mechanisms, called the III-IV-III and III-II-III mechanisms, and the balance between the ion concentration and the voltage determines the mechanism preference. In the III-IV-III mechanism, the outermost ion in the pore is pushed out by a new ion coming from the intracellular fluid, and four-ion states were transiently observed. In the III-II-III mechanism, the outermost ion is pulled out first, without pushing by incoming ions. Increases in the ion concentration and voltage accelerated ion conductions, but their mechanisms were different. The increase in the ion concentrations facilitated the III-IV-III conductions, while the higher voltages increased the III-II-III conductions, indicating that the pore domain of potassium channels permeates ions by using two different driving forces: a push by intracellular ions and a pull by voltage.

  20. The Arabidopsis guard cell outward potassium channel GORK is regulated by CPK33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corratgé-Faillie, Claire; Ronzier, Elsa; Sanchez, Frédéric; Prado, Karine; Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Lanciano, Sophie; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Lacombe, Benoît; Xiong, Tou Cheu

    2017-07-01

    A complex signaling network involving voltage-gated potassium channels from the Shaker family contributes to the regulation of stomatal aperture. Several kinases and phosphatases have been shown to be crucial for ABA-dependent regulation of the ion transporters. To date, the Ca 2+ -dependent regulation of Shaker channels by Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinases (CPKs) is still elusive. A functional screen in Xenopus oocytes was launched to identify such CPKs able to regulate the three main guard cell Shaker channels KAT1, KAT2, and GORK. Seven guard cell CPKs were tested and multiple CPK/Shaker couples were identified. Further work on CPK33 indicates that GORK activity is enhanced by CPK33 and unaffected by a nonfunctional CPK33 (CPK33-K102M). Furthermore, Ca 2+ -induced stomatal closure is impaired in two cpk33 mutant plants. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. K-ATP channel expression and pharmacological in vivo and in vitro studies of the K-ATP channel blocker PNU-37883A in rat middle meningeal arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, K.B.; Boni, L.J.; Baun, M.

    2008-01-01

    closed cranial window model and in myograph baths, respectively. Key results: Expression studies indicate that inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir)6.1/sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) 2B is the major K-ATP channel complex in rat MMA. PNU-37883A (0.5 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited the in vivo dilatory effect...... of levcromakalim (0.025 mg kg(-1)), pinacidil (0.38 mg kg(-1)) and P-1075 (0.016 mg kg(-1)) in rat MMA. In vitro PNU-37883A significantly inhibited the dilatory responses of the three K-ATP channel openers in rat MMA at 10(-7) and 3 x 10(-7) M. Conclusions and implications: We suggest that Kir6.1/SUR2B...

  2. 1,4,2-Benzo/pyridodithiazine 1,1-dioxides structurally related to the ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers 1,2,4-Benzo/pyridothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides exert a myorelaxant activity linked to a distinct mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotte, Bernard; de Tullio, Pascal; Florence, Xavier; Goffin, Eric; Somers, Fabian; Boverie, Stéphane; Lebrun, Philippe

    2013-04-25

    The synthesis of diversely substituted 3-alkyl/aralkyl/arylamino-1,4,2-benzodithiazine 1,1-dioxides and 3-alkylaminopyrido[4,3-e]-1,4,2-dithiazine 1,1-dioxides is described. Their biological activities on pancreatic β-cells and on smooth muscle cells were compared to those of the reference ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) openers diazoxide and 7-chloro-3-isopropylamino-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide. The aim was to assess the impact on biological activities of the replacement of the 1,2,4-thiadiazine ring by an isosteric 1,4,2-dithiazine ring. Most of the dithiazine analogues were found to be inactive on the pancreatic tissue, although some compounds bearing a 1-phenylethylamino side chain at the 3-position exerted a marked myorelaxant activity. Such an effect did not appear to be related to the opening of KATP channels but rather reflected a mechanism of action similar to that of calcium channel blockers. Tightly related 3-(1-phenylethyl)sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides were also found to exert a pronounced myorelaxant activity, resulting from both a KATP channel activation and a calcium channel blocker mechanism. The present work highlights the critical importance of an intracyclic NH group at the 4-position, as well as an exocyclic NH group linked to the 3-position of the benzo- and pyridothiadiazine dioxides, for activity on KATP channels.

  3. ATP-modulated K+ channels sensitive to antidiabetic sulfonylureas are present in adenohypophysis and are involved in growth hormone release.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, H; De Weille, J R; Epelbaum, J; Mourre, C; Amoroso, S; Slama, A; Fosset, M; Lazdunski, M

    1993-01-01

    The adenohypophysis contains high-affinity binding sites for antidiabetic sulfonylureas that are specific blockers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels. The binding protein has a M(r) of 145,000 +/- 5000. The presence of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (26 pS) has been demonstrated by electrophysiological techniques. Intracellular perfusion of adenohypophysis cells with an ATP-free medium to activate ATP-sensitive K+ channels induces a large hyperpolarization (approximately 30 mV) that is antagonized by an...

  4. Structural Determinants of Specific Lipid Binding to Potassium Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weingarth, M.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330985655; Prokofyev, A.; van der Cruijsen, E.A.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330826743; Nand, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337731403; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238; Pongs, O.; Baldus, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314410864

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated specific lipid binding to the pore domain of potassium channels KcsA and chimeric KcsAKv1.3 on the structural and functional level using extensive coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, solid-state NMR, and single channel measurements. We show that, while

  5. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel by iptakalim normalizes stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behaviour by alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress in mouse hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Jie; Zhao, Zhan; Yang, Dan-Dan; Cao, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Ling; Ji, Juan; Gu, Jun; Huang, Ji-Ye; Sun, Xiu-Lan

    2017-04-01

    Stress-induced disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is strongly implicated in incidence of mood disorders. A heightened neuroinflammatory response and oxidative stress play a fundamental role in the dysfunction of the HPA axis. We have previously demonstrated that iptakalim (Ipt), a new ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel opener, could prevent oxidative injury and neuroinflammation against multiple stimuli-induced brain injury. The present study was to demonstrate the impacts of Ipt in stress-induced HPA axis disorder and depressive behavior. We employed 2 stress paradigms: 8 weeks of continuous restraint stress (chronic restraint stress, CRS) and 2h of restraint stress (acute restraint stress, ARS), to mimic both chronic stress and severe acute stress. Prolonged (4 weeks) and short-term (a single injection) Ipt treatment was administered 30min before each stress paradigm. We found that HPA axis was altered after stress, with different responses to CRS (lower ACTH and CORT, higher AVP, but normal CRH) and ARS (higher CRH, ACTH and CORT, but normal AVP). Both prolonged and short-term Ipt treatment normalized stress-induced HPA axis disorders and abnormal behaviors in mice. CRS and ARS up-regulated mRNA levels of inflammation-related molecules (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and TLR4) and oxidative stress molecules (gp91phox, iNOS and Nrf2) in the mouse hypothalamus. Double immunofluorescence showed CRS and ARS increased microglia activation (CD11b and TNFα) and oxidative stress in neurons (NeuN and gp91phox), which were alleviated by Ipt. Therefore, the present study reveals that Ipt could prevent against stress-induced HPA axis disorders and depressive behavior by alleviating inflammation and oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels: A Structural Examination of Selectivity and Gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dorothy M.; Nimigean, Crina M.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels play a fundamental role in the generation and propagation of the action potential. The discovery of these channels began with predictions made by early pioneers, and has culminated in their extensive functional and structural characterization by electrophysiological, spectroscopic, and crystallographic studies. With the aid of a variety of crystal structures of these channels, a highly detailed picture emerges of how the voltage-sensing domain reports changes in the membrane electric field and couples this to conformational changes in the activation gate. In addition, high-resolution structural and functional studies of K+ channel pores, such as KcsA and MthK, offer a comprehensive picture on how selectivity is achieved in K+ channels. Here, we illustrate the remarkable features of voltage-gated potassium channels and explain the mechanisms used by these machines with experimental data. PMID:27141052

  7. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K channels...... and pancreatic pathologies, including pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and cancer, in which the dysregulation or altered expression of K channels may be of importance....

  8. KCNE3 is an inhibitory subunit of the Kv4.3 potassium channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian Kv4.3 potassium channel is a fast activating and inactivating K+ channel widely distributed in mammalian tissues. Kv4.3 is the major component of various physiologically important currents ranging from A-type currents in the CNS to the transient outward potassium conductance in the ...

  9. Modeling removal of accumulated potassium from T-tubules by inward rectifier potassium channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, W.; Vliek, M.; Wienk, E.D.; Alberink, M.J.; Ypey, D.L.; Ypey, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The membrane models of Cannon et al. (1993) and Alberink et al. (1995) for mammalian skeletal muscle fibers are based upon Hodgkin-Huxley descriptions of sodium, potassium delayed rectifier and leak conductances and the capacitive current taking into account fast inactivation of sodium channels. Now

  10. Protective roles for potassium SK/KCa2 channels in microglia and neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia M Dolga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available New concepts on potassium channel function in neuroinflammation suggest that they regulate mechanisms of microglial activation, including intracellular calcium homeostasis, morphological alterations, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, antigen presentation, and phagocytosis. Although little is known about voltage independent potassium channels in microglia, special attention emerges on small (SK/KCNN1-3/KCa2 and intermediate (IK/KCNN4/KCa3.1-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels as regulators of microglial activation in the field of research on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In particular, recent findings suggested that SK/KCa2 channels, by regulating calcium homeostasis, may elicit a dual mechanism of action with protective properties in neurons and inhibition of inflammatory responses in microglia. Thus, modulating SK/KCa2 channels and calcium signaling may provide novel therapeutic strategies in neurological disorders, where neuronal cell death and inflammatory responses concomitantly contribute to disease progression. Here, we review the particular role of SK/KCa2 channels for [Ca2+]i regulation in microglia and neurons, and we discuss the potential impact for further experimental approaches addressing novel therapeutic strategies in neurological diseases, where neuronal cell death and neuroinflammatory processes are prominent.

  11. Free energy dissipation of the spontaneous gating of a single voltage-gated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Zeng; Wang, Rui-Zhen

    2018-02-01

    Potassium channels mainly contribute to the resting potential and re-polarizations, with the potassium electrochemical gradient being maintained by the pump Na + /K + -ATPase. In this paper, we construct a stochastic model mimicking the kinetics of a potassium channel, which integrates temporal evolving of the membrane voltage and the spontaneous gating of the channel. Its stationary probability density functions (PDFs) are found to be singular at the boundaries, which result from the fact that the evolving rates of voltage are greater than the gating rates of the channel. We apply PDFs to calculate the power dissipations of the potassium current, the leakage, and the gating currents. On a physical perspective, the essential role of the system is the K + -battery charging the leakage (L-)battery. A part of power will inevitably be dissipated among the process. So, the efficiency of energy transference is calculated.

  12. Free energy dissipation of the spontaneous gating of a single voltage-gated potassium channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Zeng; Wang, Rui-Zhen

    2018-02-01

    Potassium channels mainly contribute to the resting potential and re-polarizations, with the potassium electrochemical gradient being maintained by the pump Na+/K+-ATPase. In this paper, we construct a stochastic model mimicking the kinetics of a potassium channel, which integrates temporal evolving of the membrane voltage and the spontaneous gating of the channel. Its stationary probability density functions (PDFs) are found to be singular at the boundaries, which result from the fact that the evolving rates of voltage are greater than the gating rates of the channel. We apply PDFs to calculate the power dissipations of the potassium current, the leakage, and the gating currents. On a physical perspective, the essential role of the system is the K+-battery charging the leakage (L-)battery. A part of power will inevitably be dissipated among the process. So, the efficiency of energy transference is calculated.

  13. Hydrogen bonds as molecular timers for slow inactivation in voltage-gated potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Galpin, Jason D; Niciforovic, Ana P

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels enable potassium efflux and membrane repolarization in excitable tissues. Many Kv channels undergo a progressive loss of ion conductance in the presence of a prolonged voltage stimulus, termed slow inactivation, but the atomic determinants that regulate the k...... subunit(s). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01289.001....

  14. Voltage-dependent gating of KCNH potassium channels lacking a covalent link between voltage-sensing and pore domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lörinczi, Éva; Gómez-Posada, Juan Camilo; de La Peña, Pilar; Tomczak, Adam P.; Fernández-Trillo, Jorge; Leipscher, Ulrike; Stühmer, Walter; Barros, Francisco; Pardo, Luis A.

    2015-03-01

    Voltage-gated channels open paths for ion permeation upon changes in membrane potential, but how voltage changes are coupled to gating is not entirely understood. Two modules can be recognized in voltage-gated potassium channels, one responsible for voltage sensing (transmembrane segments S1 to S4), the other for permeation (S5 and S6). It is generally assumed that the conversion of a conformational change in the voltage sensor into channel gating occurs through the intracellular S4-S5 linker that provides physical continuity between the two regions. Using the pathophysiologically relevant KCNH family, we show that truncated proteins interrupted at, or lacking the S4-S5 linker produce voltage-gated channels in a heterologous model that recapitulate both the voltage-sensing and permeation properties of the complete protein. These observations indicate that voltage sensing by the S4 segment is transduced to the channel gate in the absence of physical continuity between the modules.

  15. Regulation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in insulinoma cells: Activation by somatostatin and protein kinase C and the role of cAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Weille, J.R.; Schmid-Antomarchi, H.; Fosset, M.; Lazdunski, M.

    1989-01-01

    The actions of somatostatin and of the phorbol ester 4β-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were studied in rat insulinoma (RINm5F) cells by electrophysiological and 86 Rb + flux techniques. Both PMA and somatostatin hyperpolarize insulinoma cells by activating ATP-sensitive K + channels. The presence of intracellular GTP is required for the somatostatin effects. PMA- and somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization and channel activity are inhibited by the sulfonylurea glibenclamide. Glibenclamide-sensitive 86 Rb + efflux from insulinoma cells is stimulated by somatostatin in a dose-dependent manner (half maximal effect at 0.7 nM) and abolished by pertussis toxin pretreatment. Mutual roles of a GTP-binding protein, of protein kinase C, and of cAMP in the regulation of ATP-sensitive K + channels are discussed

  16. Voltage-dependent gating in a "voltage sensor-less" ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley T Kurata

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The voltage sensitivity of voltage-gated cation channels is primarily attributed to conformational changes of a four transmembrane segment voltage-sensing domain, conserved across many levels of biological complexity. We have identified a remarkable point mutation that confers significant voltage dependence to Kir6.2, a ligand-gated channel that lacks any canonical voltage-sensing domain. Similar to voltage-dependent Kv channels, the Kir6.2[L157E] mutant exhibits time-dependent activation upon membrane depolarization, resulting in an outwardly rectifying current-voltage relationship. This voltage dependence is convergent with the intrinsic ligand-dependent gating mechanisms of Kir6.2, since increasing the membrane PIP2 content saturates Po and eliminates voltage dependence, whereas voltage activation is more dramatic when channel Po is reduced by application of ATP or poly-lysine. These experiments thus demonstrate an inherent voltage dependence of gating in a "ligand-gated" K+ channel, and thereby provide a new view of voltage-dependent gating mechanisms in ion channels. Most interestingly, the voltage- and ligand-dependent gating of Kir6.2[L157E] is highly sensitive to intracellular [K+], indicating an interaction between ion permeation and gating. While these two key features of channel function are classically dealt with separately, the results provide a framework for understanding their interaction, which is likely to be a general, if latent, feature of the superfamily of cation channels.

  17. The temperature dependence of the BK channel activity - kinetics, thermodynamics, and long-range correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzkiewicz-Jałowiecka, Agata; Dworakowska, Beata; Grzywna, Zbigniew J

    2017-10-01

    Large-conductance, voltage dependent, Ca 2+ -activated potassium channels (BK) are transmembrane proteins that regulate many biological processes by controlling potassium flow across cell membranes. Here, we investigate to what extent temperature (in the range of 17-37°C with ΔT=5°C step) is a regulating parameter of kinetic properties of the channel gating and memory effect in the series of dwell-time series of subsequent channel's states, at membrane depolarization and hyperpolarization. The obtained results indicate that temperature affects strongly the BK channels' gating, but, counterintuitively, it exerts no effect on the long-range correlations, as measured by the Hurst coefficient. Quantitative differences between dependencies of appropriate channel's characteristics on temperature are evident for different regimes of voltage. Examining the characteristics of BK channel activity as a function of temperature allows to estimate the net activation energy (E act ) and changes of thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, ΔG) by channel opening. Larger E act corresponds to the channel activity at membrane hyperpolarization. The analysis of entropy and enthalpy changes of closed to open channel's transition suggest the entropy-driven nature of the increase of open state probability during voltage activation and supports the hypothesis about the voltage-dependent geometry of the channel vestibule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Connexin hemichannel-mediated CO2-dependent release of ATP in the medulla oblongata contributes to central respiratory chemosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert T R; id Bihi, Rachid; Eason, Robert; Spyer, K Michael; Dicke, Nikolai; Willecke, Klaus; Marina, Nephtali; Gourine, Alexander V; Dale, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Arterial , a major determinant of breathing, is detected by chemosensors located in the brainstem. These are important for maintaining physiological levels of in the blood and brain, yet the mechanisms by which the brain senses CO2 remain controversial. As ATP release at the ventral surface of the brainstem has been causally linked to the adaptive changes in ventilation in response to hypercapnia, we have studied the mechanisms of CO2-dependent ATP release in slices containing the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata. We found that CO2-dependent ATP release occurs in the absence of extracellular acidification and correlates directly with the level of . ATP release is independent of extracellular Ca2+ and may occur via the opening of a gap junction hemichannel. As agents that act on connexin channels block this release, but compounds selective for pannexin-1 have no effect, we conclude that a connexin hemichannel is involved in CO2-dependent ATP release. We have used molecular, genetic and immunocytochemical techniques to demonstrate that in the medulla oblongata connexin 26 (Cx26) is preferentially expressed near the ventral surface. The leptomeninges, subpial astrocytes and astrocytes ensheathing penetrating blood vessels at the ventral surface of the medulla can be loaded with dye in a CO2-dependent manner, suggesting that gating of a hemichannel is involved in ATP release. This distribution of CO2-dependent dye loading closely mirrors that of Cx26 expression and colocalizes to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells. In vivo, blockers with selectivity for Cx26 reduce hypercapnia-evoked ATP release and the consequent adaptive enhancement of breathing. We therefore propose that Cx26-mediated release of ATP in response to changes in is an important mechanism contributing to central respiratory chemosensitivity. PMID:20736421

  19. Deformation-induced release of ATP from erythrocytes in a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based microchip with channels that mimic resistance vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alexander K; Fischer, David J; Martin, R Scott; Spence, Dana M

    2004-08-15

    The ability of nitric oxide to relax smooth muscle cells surrounding resistance vessels in vivo is well documented. Here, we describe a series of studies designed to quantify amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a known stimulus of NO production in endothelial cells, released from erythrocytes that are mechanically deformed as these cells traverse microbore channels in lithographically patterned microchips. Results indicate that micromolar amounts of ATP are released from erythrocytes flowing through channels having cross sectional dimensions of 60 x 38 micron (2.22 +/- 0.50 microM ATP). Microscopic images indicate that erythrocytes, when being pumped through the microchip channels, migrate toward the center of the channels, leaving a cell-free or skimming layer at the walls of the channel, a profile known to exist in circulatory vessels in vivo. A comparison of the amounts of ATP released from RBCs mechanically deformed in microbore tubing (2.54 +/- 0.15 microM) vs a microchip (2.59 +/- 0.32 microM) suggests that channels in microchips may serve as functional biomimics of the microvasculature. Control studies involving diamide, a membrane-stiffening agent, suggest that the RBC-derived ATP is not due to cell lysis but rather physical deformation.

  20. Mechanism of Proarrhythmic Effects of Potassium Channel Blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Ravens, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Any disturbance of electrical impulse formation in the heart and of impulse conduction or action potential (AP) repolarization can lead to rhythm disorders. Potassium (K(+)) channels play a prominent role in the AP repolarization process. In this review we describe the causes and mechanisms...

  1. Coulomb interaction rules timescales in potassium ion channel tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De March, N.; Prado, S. D.; Brunnet, L. G.

    2018-06-01

    Assuming the selectivity filter of KcsA potassium ion channel may exhibit quantum coherence, we extend a previous model by Vaziri and Plenio (2010 New J. Phys. 12 085001) to take into account Coulomb repulsion between potassium ions. We show that typical ion transit timescales are determined by this interaction, which imposes optimal input/output parameter ranges. Also, as observed in other examples of quantum tunneling in biological systems, the addition of moderate noise helps coherent ion transport.

  2. Reversible antisense inhibition of Shaker-like Kv1.1 potassium channel expression impairs associative memory in mouse and rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, Noam; Ghelardini, Carla; Tesco, Giuseppina; Galeotti, Nicoletta; Dahl, Dennis; Tomsic, Daniel; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; Quattrone, Alessandro; Capaccioli, Sergio; Bartolini, Alessandro; Alkon, Daniel L.

    1997-01-01

    Long-term memory is thought to be subserved by functional remodeling of neuronal circuits. Changes in the weights of existing synapses in networks might depend on voltage-gated potassium currents. We therefore studied the physiological role of potassium channels in memory, concentrating on the Shaker-like Kv1.1, a late rectifying potassium channel that is highly localized within dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal and dentate gyrus granular cells. Repeated intracerebroventricular injection of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide to Kv1.1 reduces expression of its particular intracellular mRNA target, decreases late rectifying K+ current(s) in dentate granule cells, and impairs memory but not other motor or sensory behaviors, in two different learning paradigms, mouse passive avoidance and rat spatial memory. The latter, hippocampal-dependent memory loss occurred in the absence of long-term potentiation changes recorded both from the dentate gyrus or CA1. The specificity of the reversible antisense targeting of mRNA in adult animal brains may avoid irreversible developmental and genetic background effects that accompany transgenic “knockouts”. PMID:9114006

  3. Reversible antisense inhibition of Shaker-like Kv1.1 potassium channel expression impairs associative memory in mouse and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, N; Ghelardini, C; Tesco, G; Galeotti, N; Dahl, D; Tomsic, D; Cavallaro, S; Quattrone, A; Capaccioli, S; Bartolini, A; Alkon, D L

    1997-04-29

    Long-term memory is thought to be subserved by functional remodeling of neuronal circuits. Changes in the weights of existing synapses in networks might depend on voltage-gated potassium currents. We therefore studied the physiological role of potassium channels in memory, concentrating on the Shaker-like Kv1.1, a late rectifying potassium channel that is highly localized within dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal and dentate gyrus granular cells. Repeated intracerebroventricular injection of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide to Kv1.1 reduces expression of its particular intracellular mRNA target, decreases late rectifying K+ current(s) in dentate granule cells, and impairs memory but not other motor or sensory behaviors, in two different learning paradigms, mouse passive avoidance and rat spatial memory. The latter, hippocampal-dependent memory loss occurred in the absence of long-term potentiation changes recorded both from the dentate gyrus or CA1. The specificity of the reversible antisense targeting of mRNA in adult animal brains may avoid irreversible developmental and genetic background effects that accompany transgenic "knockouts".

  4. Palytoxin and the sodium/potassium pump—phosphorylation and potassium interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Antônio M; De Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G; Infantosi, Antonio F C

    2009-01-01

    We proposed a reaction model for investigating interactions between K + and the palytoxin–sodium–potassium (PTX–Na + /K + ) pump complex under conditions where enzyme phosphorylation may occur. The model is composed of (i) the Albers–Post model for Na + /K + –ATPase, describing Na + and K + pumping; (ii) the reaction model proposed for Na + /K + –ATPase interactions with its ligands (Na + , K + , ATP, ADP and P) and with PTX. A mathematical model derived for representing the reactions was used to simulate experimental studies of the PTX-induced current, in different concentrations for the pump ligands. The simulations allow interpretation of the simultaneous action of Na + /K + –ATPase phosphorylation and K + on the PTX-induced channels. The results suggest that (i) phosphorylation increases the PTX toxic effect, increasing its affinity and reducing the K + occlusion rate, and (ii) K + causes channel blockage, increases the toxin dissociation rate and impedes the induced channel phosphorylation, implying reduction of the PTX toxic effect

  5. Alkali pH directly activates ATP-sensitive K+ channels and inhibits insulin secretion in beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; Karaman, Gunce; Wheeler, Michael B

    2006-11-17

    Glucose stimulation of pancreatic beta-cells is reported to lead to sustained alkalization, while extracellular application of weak bases is reported to inhibit electrical activity and decrease insulin secretion. We hypothesize that beta-cell K(ATP) channel activity is modulated by alkaline pH. Using the excised patch-clamp technique, we demonstrate a direct stimulatory action of alkali pH on recombinant SUR1/Kir6.2 channels due to increased open probability. Bath application of alkali pH similarly activates native islet beta-cell K(ATP) channels, leading to an inhibition of action potentials, and hyperpolarization of membrane potential. In situ pancreatic perfusion confirms that these cellular effects of alkali pH are observable at a functional level, resulting in decreases in both phase 1 and phase 2 glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our data are the first to report a stimulatory effect of a range of alkali pH on K(ATP) channel activity and link this to downstream effects on islet beta-cell function.

  6. The role of voltage-gated potassium channels in the regulation of mouse uterine contractility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Peter W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine smooth muscle cells exhibit ionic currents that appear to be important in the control of uterine contractility, but how these currents might produce the changes in contractile activity seen in pregnant myometrium has not been established. There are conflicting reports concerning the role of voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels and large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK channels in the regulation of uterine contractility. In this study we provide molecular and functional evidence for a role for Kv channels in the regulation of spontaneous contractile activity in mouse myometrium, and also demonstrate a change in Kv channel regulation of contractility in pregnant mouse myometrium. Methods Functional assays which evaluated the effects of channel blockers and various contractile agonists were accomplished by quantifying contractility of isolated uterine smooth muscle obtained from nonpregnant mice as well as mice at various stages of pregnancy. Expression of Kv channel proteins in isolated uterine smooth muscle was evaluated by Western blots. Results The Kv channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP caused contractions in nonpregnant mouse myometrium (EC50 = 54 micromolar, maximal effect at 300 micromolar but this effect disappeared in pregnant mice; similarly, the Kv4.2/Kv4.3 blocker phrixotoxin-2 caused contractions in nonpregnant, but not pregnant, myometrium. Contractile responses to 4-AP were not dependent upon nerves, as neither tetrodotoxin nor storage of tissues at room temperature significantly altered these responses, nor were responses dependent upon the presence of the endometrium. Spontaneous contractions and contractions in response to 4-AP did not appear to be mediated by BK, as the BK channel-selective blockers iberiotoxin, verruculogen, or tetraethylammonium failed to affect either spontaneous contractions or 4-AP-elicited responses. A number of different Kv channel alpha subunit proteins were

  7. A polycystin-type transient receptor potential (Trp channel that is activated by ATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Traynor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ATP and ADP are ancient extra-cellular signalling molecules that in Dictyostelium amoebae cause rapid, transient increases in cytosolic calcium due to an influx through the plasma membrane. This response is independent of hetero-trimeric G-proteins, the putative IP3 receptor IplA and all P2X channels. We show, unexpectedly, that it is abolished in mutants of the polycystin-type transient receptor potential channel, TrpP. Responses to the chemoattractants cyclic-AMP and folic acid are unaffected in TrpP mutants. We report that the DIF morphogens, cyclic-di-GMP, GABA, glutamate and adenosine all induce strong cytoplasmic calcium responses, likewise independently of TrpP. Thus, TrpP is dedicated to purinergic signalling. ATP treatment causes cell blebbing within seconds but this does not require TrpP, implicating a separate purinergic receptor. We could detect no effect of ATP on chemotaxis and TrpP mutants grow, chemotax and develop almost normally in standard conditions. No gating ligand is known for the human homologue of TrpP, polycystin-2, which causes polycystic kidney disease. Our results now show that TrpP mediates purinergic signalling in Dictyostelium and is directly or indirectly gated by ATP.

  8. Inwardly rectifying potassium channels influence Drosophila wing morphogenesis by regulating Dpp release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Giri Raj; Pradhan, Sarala Joshi; Bates, Emily Anne

    2017-08-01

    Loss of embryonic ion channel function leads to morphological defects, but the underlying reason for these defects remains elusive. Here, we show that inwardly rectifying potassium (Irk) channels regulate release of the Drosophila bone morphogenetic protein Dpp in the developing fly wing and that this is necessary for developmental signaling. Inhibition of Irk channels decreases the incidence of distinct Dpp-GFP release events above baseline fluorescence while leading to a broader distribution of Dpp-GFP. Work by others in different cell types has shown that Irk channels regulate peptide release by modulating membrane potential and calcium levels. We found calcium transients in the developing wing, and inhibition of Irk channels reduces the duration and amplitude of calcium transients. Depolarization with high extracellular potassium evokes Dpp release. Taken together, our data implicate Irk channels as a requirement for regulated release of Dpp, highlighting the importance of the temporal pattern of Dpp presentation for morphogenesis of the wing. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Long-pore Electrostatics in Inward-rectifier Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Janice L.; Palmer, Lawrence G.; Roux, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels differ from the canonical K+ channel structure in that they possess a long extended pore (∼85 Å) for ion conduction that reaches deeply into the cytoplasm. This unique structural feature is presumably involved in regulating functional properties specific to Kir channels, such as conductance, rectification block, and ligand-dependent gating. To elucidate the underpinnings of these functional roles, we examine the electrostatics of an ion along this extended pore. Homology models are constructed based on the open-state model of KirBac1.1 for four mammalian Kir channels: Kir1.1/ROMK, Kir2.1/IRK, Kir3.1/GIRK, and Kir6.2/KATP. By solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the electrostatic free energy of a K+ ion is determined along each pore, revealing that mammalian Kir channels provide a favorable environment for cations and suggesting the existence of high-density regions in the cytoplasmic domain and cavity. The contribution from the reaction field (the self-energy arising from the dielectric polarization induced by the ion's charge in the complex geometry of the pore) is unfavorable inside the long pore. However, this is well compensated by the electrostatic interaction with the static field arising from the protein charges and shielded by the dielectric surrounding. Decomposition of the static field provides a list of residues that display remarkable correspondence with existing mutagenesis data identifying amino acids that affect conduction and rectification. Many of these residues demonstrate interactions with the ion over long distances, up to 40 Å, suggesting that mutations potentially affect ion or blocker energetics over the entire pore. These results provide a foundation for understanding ion interactions in Kir channels and extend to the study of ion permeation, block, and gating in long, cation-specific pores. PMID:19001143

  10. Mechanism of inhibition of mouse Slo3 (KCa 5.1) potassium channels by quinine, quinidine and barium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, David C; Muench, Stephen P; Lippiat, Jonathan D

    2015-09-01

    The Slo3 (KCa 5.1) channel is a major component of mammalian KSper (sperm potassium conductance) channels and inhibition of these channels by quinine and barium alters sperm motility. The aim of this investigation was to determine the mechanism by which these drugs inhibit Slo3 channels. Mouse (m) Slo3 (KCa 5.1) channels or mutant forms were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and currents recorded with 2-electrode voltage-clamp. Gain-of-function mSlo3 mutations were used to explore the state-dependence of the inhibition. The interaction between quinidine and mSlo3 channels was modelled by in silico docking. Several drugs known to block KSper also affected mSlo3 channels with similar levels of inhibition. The inhibition induced by extracellular barium was prevented by increasing the extracellular potassium concentration. R196Q and F304Y mutations in the mSlo3 voltage sensor and pore, respectively, both increased channel activity. The F304Y mutation did not alter the effects of barium, but increased the potency of inhibition by both quinine and quinidine approximately 10-fold; this effect was not observed with the R196Q mutation. Block of mSlo3 channels by quinine, quinidine and barium is not state-dependent. Barium inhibits mSlo3 outside the cell by interacting with the selectivity filter, whereas quinine and quinidine act from the inside, by binding in a hydrophobic pocket formed by the S6 segment of each subunit. Furthermore, we propose that the Slo3 channel activation gate lies deep within the pore between F304 in the S6 segment and the selectivity filter. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Functional identification of a GORK potassium channel from the ancient desert shrub Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.) Cheng f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junlin; Zhang, Huanchao; Lei, Han; Jin, Man; Yue, Guangzhen; Su, Yanhua

    2016-04-01

    A GORK homologue K(+) channel from the ancient desert shrub Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.) Cheng f. shows the functional conservation of the GORK channels among plant species. Guard cell K(+) release through the outward potassium channels eventually enables the closure of stomata which consequently prevents plant water loss from severe transpiration. Early patch-clamp studies with the guard cells have revealed many details of such outward potassium currents. However, genes coding for these potassium-release channels have not been sufficiently characterized from species other than the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We report here the functional identification of a GORK (for Gated or Guard cell Outward Rectifying K(+) channels) homologue from the ancient desert shrub Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.) Cheng f. AmGORK was primary expressed in shoots, where the transcripts were regulated by stress factors simulated by PEG, NaCl or ABA treatments. Patch-clamp measurements on isolated guard cell protoplasts revealed typical depolarization voltage gated outward K(+) currents sensitive to the extracelluar K(+) concentration and pH, resembling the fundamental properties previously described in other species. Two-electrode voltage-clamp analysis in Xenopus lavies oocytes with AmGORK reconstituted highly similar characteristics as assessed in the guard cells, supporting that the function of AmGORK is consistent with a crucial role in mediating stomatal closure in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus. Furthermore, a single amino acid mutation D297N of AmGORK eventually abolishes both the voltage-gating and its outward rectification and converts the channel into a leak-like channel, indicating strong involvement of this residue in the gating and voltage dependence of AmGORK. Our results obtained from this anciently originated plant support a strong functional conservation of the GORK channels among plant species and maybe also along the progress of revolution.

  12. Mechanisms of constitutive and ATP-evoked ATP release in neonatal mouse olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayoz Sébastien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP is an extracellular signaling molecule with many ascribed functions in sensory systems, including the olfactory epithelium. The mechanism(s by which ATP is released in the olfactory epithelium has not been investigated. Quantitative luciferin-luciferase assays were used to monitor ATP release, and confocal imaging of the fluorescent ATP marker quinacrine was used to monitor ATP release via exocytosis in Swiss Webster mouse neonatal olfactory epithelial slices. Results Under control conditions, constitutive release of ATP occurs via exocytosis, hemichannels and ABC transporters and is inhibited by vesicular fusion inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin A and hemichannel and ABC transporter inhibitor probenecid. Constitutive ATP release is negatively regulated by the ATP breakdown product ADP through activation of P2Y receptors, likely via the cAMP/PKA pathway. In vivo studies indicate that constitutive ATP may play a role in neuronal homeostasis as inhibition of exocytosis inhibited normal proliferation in the OE. ATP-evoked ATP release is also present in mouse neonatal OE, triggered by several ionotropic P2X purinergic receptor agonists (ATP, αβMeATP and Bz-ATP and a G protein-coupled P2Y receptor agonist (UTP. Calcium imaging of P2X2-transfected HEK293 “biosensor” cells confirmed the presence of evoked ATP release. Following purinergic receptor stimulation, ATP is released via calcium-dependent exocytosis, activated P2X1,7 receptors, activated P2X7 receptors that form a complex with pannexin channels, or ABC transporters. The ATP-evoked ATP release is inhibited by the purinergic receptor inhibitor PPADS, Clostridium difficile toxin A and two inhibitors of pannexin channels: probenecid and carbenoxolone. Conclusions The constitutive release of ATP might be involved in normal cell turn-over or modulation of odorant sensitivity in physiological conditions. Given the growth-promoting effects of ATP, ATP-evoked ATP

  13. Rearrangement of potassium ions and Kv1.1/Kv1.2 potassium channels in regenerating axons following end-to-end neurorrhaphy: ionic images from TOF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Hui; Chang, Hung-Ming; Wu, Tsung-Huan; Chen, Li-You; Yang, Yin-Shuo; Tseng, To-Jung; Liao, Wen-Chieh

    2017-10-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 that cluster at juxtaparanodal (JXP) regions are essential in the regulation of nerve excitability and play a critical role in axonal conduction. When demyelination occurs, Kv1.1/Kv1.2 activity increases, suppressing the membrane potential nearly to the equilibrium potential of K + , which results in an axonal conduction blockade. The recovery of K + -dependent communication signals and proper clustering of Kv1.1/Kv1.2 channels at JXP regions may directly reflect nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury. However, little is known about potassium channel expression and its relationship with the dynamic potassium ion distribution at the node of Ranvier during the regenerative process of peripheral nerve injury (PNI). In the present study, end-to-end neurorrhaphy (EEN) was performed using an in vivo model of PNI. The distribution of K + at regenerating axons following EEN was detected by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The specific localization and expression of Kv1.1/Kv1.2 channels were examined by confocal microscopy and western blotting. Our data showed that the re-establishment of K + distribution and intensity was correlated with the functional recovery of compound muscle action potential morphology in EEN rats. Furthermore, the re-clustering of Kv1.1/1.2 channels 1 and 3 months after EEN at the nodal region of the regenerating nerve corresponded to changes in the K + distribution. This study provided direct evidence of K + distribution in regenerating axons for the first time. We proposed that the Kv1.1/Kv1.2 channels re-clustered at the JXP regions of regenerating axons are essential for modulating the proper patterns of K + distribution in axons for maintaining membrane potential stability after EEN.

  14. Active Sites of Spinoxin, a Potassium Channel Scorpion Toxin, Elucidated by Systematic Alanine Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigneur, Steve; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Kawano, Chihiro; Nose, Takeru; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Tytgat, Jan; Sato, Kazuki

    2016-05-31

    Peptide toxins from scorpion venoms constitute the largest group of toxins that target the voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv). Spinoxin (SPX) isolated from the venom of scorpion Heterometrus spinifer is a 34-residue peptide neurotoxin cross-linked by four disulfide bridges. SPX is a potent inhibitor of Kv1.3 potassium channels (IC50 = 63 nM), which are considered to be valid molecular targets in the diagnostics and therapy of various autoimmune disorders and cancers. Here we synthesized 25 analogues of SPX and analyzed the role of each amino acid in SPX using alanine scanning to study its structure-function relationships. All synthetic analogues showed similar disulfide bond pairings and secondary structures as native SPX. Alanine replacements at Lys(23), Asn(26), and Lys(30) resulted in loss of activity against Kv1.3 potassium channels, whereas replacements at Arg(7), Met(14), Lys(27), and Tyr(32) also largely reduced inhibitory activity. These results suggest that the side chains of these amino acids in SPX play an important role in its interaction with Kv1.3 channels. In particular, Lys(23) appears to be a key residue that underpins Kv1.3 channel inhibition. Of these seven amino acid residues, four are basic amino acids, suggesting that the positive electrostatic potential on the surface of SPX is likely required for high affinity interaction with Kv1.3 channels. This study provides insight into the structure-function relationships of SPX with implications for the rational design of new lead compounds targeting potassium channels with high potency.

  15. Neonatal diabetes and congenital hyperinsulinism caused by mutations in ABCC8/SUR1 are associated with altered and opposite affinities for ATP and ADP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eBryan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channels composed of potassium inward-rectifier type 6.2 and sulfonylurea receptor type 1 subunits (Kir6.2/SUR14 are expressed in various cells in the brain and endocrine pancreas where they couple metabolic status to membrane potential. In β-cells, increases in cytosolic [ATP/ADP]c inhibit KATP channel activity, leading to membrane depolarization and exocytosis of insulin granules. Mutations in ABCC8 (SUR1 or KCNJ11 (Kir6.2 can result in gain or loss of channel activity and cause neonatal diabetes (ND or congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI, respectively. SUR1 is reported to be a Mg2+-dependent ATPase. A prevailing model posits that ATP hydrolysis at SUR1 is required to stimulate openings of the pore. However, recent work shows nucleotide binding, without hydrolysis, is sufficient to switch SUR1 to stimulatory conformations. The actions of nucleotides, ATP and ADP, on ND (SUR1E1506D and CHI (SUR1E1506K mutants, without Kir6.2, were compared to assess both models. Both substitutions significantly impair hydrolysis in SUR1 homologues. SUR1E1506D has greater affinity for MgATP than wildtype; SUR1E1506K has reduced affinity. Without Mg2+, SUR1E1506K has a greater affinity for ATP4- consistent with electrostatic attraction between ATP4-, unshielded by Mg2+, and the basic lysine. Further analysis of ND and CHI ABCC8 mutants in the second transmembrane and nucleotide binding domains (TMD2 & NBD2, found a relation between their affinities for ATP (± Mg2+ and their clinical phenotype. Increased affinity for ATP is associated with ND; decreased affinity with CHI. In contrast, MgADP showed a weaker relationship. Diazoxide, known to reduce insulin release in some CHI cases, potentiates switching of CHI mutants from non-stimulatory to stimulatory states consistent with diazoxide stabilizing a nucleotide-bound conformation. The results emphasize the greater importance of nucleotide binding vs hydrolysis in the regulation of KATP channels

  16. Crystal structure of the potassium-importing KdpFABC membrane complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ching-Shin; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Stokes, David L.

    2017-06-21

    Cellular potassium import systems play a fundamental role in osmoregulation, pH homeostasis and membrane potential in all domains of life. In bacteria, the kdp operon encodes a four-subunit potassium pump that maintains intracellular homeostasis, cell shape and turgor under conditions in which potassium is limiting1. This membrane complex, called KdpFABC, has one channel-like subunit (KdpA) belonging to the superfamily of potassium transporters and another pump-like subunit (KdpB) belonging to the superfamily of P-type ATPases. Although there is considerable structural and functional information about members of both superfamilies, the mechanism by which uphill potassium transport through KdpA is coupled with ATP hydrolysis by KdpB remains poorly understood. Here we report the 2.9 Å X-ray structure of the complete Escherichia coli KdpFABC complex with a potassium ion within the selectivity filter of KdpA and a water molecule at a canonical cation site in the transmembrane domain of KdpB. The structure also reveals two structural elements that appear to mediate the coupling between these two subunits. Specifically, a protein-embedded tunnel runs between these potassium and water sites and a helix controlling the cytoplasmic gate of KdpA is linked to the phosphorylation domain of KdpB. On the basis of these observations, we propose a mechanism that repurposes protein channel architecture for active transport across biomembranes.

  17. Regulation of voltage-gated potassium channels attenuates resistance of side-population cells to gefitinib in the human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon Young; Kim, Hang-Rae; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, So Yeong

    2017-02-21

    Side-population (SP) cells that exclude anti-cancer drugs have been found in various tumor cell lines. Moreover, SP cells have a higher proliferative potential and drug resistance than main population cells (Non-SP cells). Also, several ion channels are responsible for the drug resistance and proliferation of SP cells in cancer. To confirm the expression and function of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels of SP cells, these cells, as well as highly expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and stemness genes, were isolated from a gefitinib-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (NCI-H460), using Hoechst 33342 efflux. In the present study, we found that mRNA expression of Kv channels in SP cells was different compared to Non-SP cells, and the resistance of SP cells to gefitinib was weakened with a combination treatment of gefitinib and Kv channel blockers or a Kv7 opener, compared to single-treatment gefitinib, through inhibition of the Ras-Raf signaling pathway. The findings indicate that Kv channels in SP cells could be new targets for reducing the resistance to gefitinib.

  18. The voltage-gated potassium channel subunit, Kv1.3, is expressed in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The Shaker-type voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.3, is believed to be restricted in distribution to lymphocytes and neurons. In lymphocytes, this channel has gained intense attention since it has been proven that inhibition of Kv1.3 channels compromise T lymphocyte activation. To investigate...

  19. The acrylamide (S)-1 differentially affects Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Schmitt, Nicole; Calloe, Kirstine

    2006-01-01

    The family of Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channels consists of five members. Kv7.2 and 3 are the primary molecular correlates of the M-current, but also Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 display M-current characteristics. M-channel modulators include blockers (e.g., linopirdine) for cognition enhancement and openers (e.g...

  20. Intercellular odontoblast communication via ATP mediated by pannexin-1 channel and phospholipase C-coupled receptor activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eSato

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP released via pannexin-1 channels, in response to the activation of mechanosensitive-TRP channels during odontoblast mechanical stimulation, mediates intercellular communication among odontoblasts in dental pulp slice preparation dissected form rat incisor. Recently, odontoblast cell lines, such as mouse odontoblast lineage cells, have been widely used to investigate physiological/pathological cellular functions. To clarify whether the odontoblast cell lines also communicate with each other by diffusible chemical substance(s, we investigated the chemical intercellular communication among cells from mouse odontoblast cell lines following mechanical stimulation. A single cell was stimulated using a glass pipette filled with standard extracellular solution. We measured intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i by fura-2 in stimulated cells, as well as in cells located nearby. Direct mechanical stimulation to a single odontoblast increased [Ca2+]i, which showed sensitivity to capsazepine. In addition, we observed increases in [Ca2+]i not only in the mechanically stimulated odontoblast, but also in nearby odontoblasts. We could observe mechanical stimulation-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in a stimulated human embryo kidney (HEK 293 cell, but not in nearby HEK293 cells. The increase in [Ca2+]i in nearby odontoblasts, but not in the stimulated odontoblast, was inhibited by adenosine triphosphate (ATP release channel (pannexin-1 inhibitor in a concentration- and spatial-dependent manner. Moreover, in the presence of phospholipase C (PLC inhibitor, the increase in [Ca2+]i in nearby odontoblasts, following mechanical stimulation of a single odontoblast, was abolished. We could record some inward currents evoked from odontoblasts near the stimulated odontoblast, but the currents were observed in only 4.8% of the recorded odontoblasts. The results of this study showed that ATP is released via pannexin-1, from a mechanically stimulated

  1. Effect of angiotensin II, ATP, and ionophore A23187 on potassium efflux in adrenal glomerulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, M.V.; Marusic, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Angiotensin II stimulus on perifused bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells elicited an increase in 86Rb efflux from cells previously equilibrated with the radioisotope. When 45Ca fluxes were measured under similar conditions, it was observed that Ca and Rb effluxes occurred within the first 30 s of the addition of the hormone and were independent of the presence of external Ca. The 86Rb efflux due to angiotensin II was inhibited by quinine and apamin. The hypothesis that the angiotensin II response is a consequence of an increase in the K permeability of the glomerulosa cell membrane triggered by an increase in cytosolic Ca is supported by the finding that the divalent cation ionophore A23187 also initiated 86Rb or K loss (as measured by an external K electrode). This increased K conductance was also seen with 10(-4) M ATP. Quinine and apamin greatly reduced the effect of ATP or A23187 on 86Rb or K release in adrenal glomerulosa cells. The results suggest that Ca-dependent K channels or carriers are present in the membranes of bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells and are sensitive to hormonal stimulus

  2. Inhibition by acrolein of light-induced stomatal opening through inhibition of inward-rectifying potassium channels in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Moshiul; Ye, Wenxiu; Matsushima, Daiki; Khokon, Md Atiqur Rahman; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein is a reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde derived from lipid peroxides, which are produced in plants under a variety of stress. We investigated effects of acrolein on light-induced stomatal opening using Arabidopsis thaliana. Acrolein inhibited light-induced stomatal opening in a dose-dependent manner. Acrolein at 100 μM inhibited plasma membrane inward-rectifying potassium (Kin) channels in guard cells. Acrolein at 100 μM inhibited Kin channel KAT1 expressed in a heterologous system using Xenopus leaves oocytes. These results suggest that acrolein inhibits light-induced stomatal opening through inhibition of Kin channels in guard cells.

  3. Influence of calcium-dependent potassium channel blockade and nitric oxide inhibition on norepinephrine-induced contractions in two forms of genetic hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Líšková, Silvia; Petrová, M.; Karen, Petr; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2010), s. 128-134 ISSN 1933-1711 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : potassium channels * nitric oxide * norepinephrine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.931, year: 2010

  4. The TRPM6 Kinase Domain Determines the Mg·ATP Sensitivity of TRPM7/M6 Heteromeric Ion Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Yu, Haijie; Huang, Junhao; Faouzi, Malika; Schmitz, Carsten; Penner, Reinhold; Fleig, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential melastatin member 7 (TRPM7) and member 6 (TRPM6) are divalent cation channel kinases essential for magnesium (Mg2+) homeostasis in vertebrates. It remains unclear how TRPM6 affects divalent cation transport and whether this involves functional homomeric TRPM6 plasma membrane channels or heteromeric channel assemblies with TRPM7. We show that homomeric TRPM6 is highly sensitive to intracellular free Mg2+ and therefore unlikely to be active at physiological levels of [Mg2+]i. Co-expression of TRPM7 and TRPM6 produces heteromeric TRPM7/M6 channels with altered pharmacology and sensitivity to intracellular Mg·ATP compared with homomeric TRPM7. Strikingly, the activity of heteromeric TRPM7/M6 channels is independent of intracellular Mg·ATP concentrations, essentially uncoupling channel activity from cellular energy status. Disruption of TRPM6 kinase phosphorylation activity re-introduces Mg·ATP sensitivity to the heteromeric channel similar to that of TRPM7. Thus, TRPM6 modulates the functionality of TRPM7, and the TRPM6 kinase plays a critical role in tuning the phenotype of the TRPM7·M6 channel complex. PMID:24385424

  5. The TRPM6 kinase domain determines the Mg·ATP sensitivity of TRPM7/M6 heteromeric ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Yu, Haijie; Huang, Junhao; Faouzi, Malika; Schmitz, Carsten; Penner, Reinhold; Fleig, Andrea

    2014-02-21

    The transient receptor potential melastatin member 7 (TRPM7) and member 6 (TRPM6) are divalent cation channel kinases essential for magnesium (Mg(2+)) homeostasis in vertebrates. It remains unclear how TRPM6 affects divalent cation transport and whether this involves functional homomeric TRPM6 plasma membrane channels or heteromeric channel assemblies with TRPM7. We show that homomeric TRPM6 is highly sensitive to intracellular free Mg(2+) and therefore unlikely to be active at physiological levels of [Mg(2+)]i. Co-expression of TRPM7 and TRPM6 produces heteromeric TRPM7/M6 channels with altered pharmacology and sensitivity to intracellular Mg·ATP compared with homomeric TRPM7. Strikingly, the activity of heteromeric TRPM7/M6 channels is independent of intracellular Mg·ATP concentrations, essentially uncoupling channel activity from cellular energy status. Disruption of TRPM6 kinase phosphorylation activity re-introduces Mg·ATP sensitivity to the heteromeric channel similar to that of TRPM7. Thus, TRPM6 modulates the functionality of TRPM7, and the TRPM6 kinase plays a critical role in tuning the phenotype of the TRPM7·M6 channel complex.

  6. Differential Activity of Voltage- and Ca2+-Dependent Potassium Channels in Leukemic T Cell Lines: Jurkat Cells Represent an Exceptional Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Valle-Reyes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Activation of resting T cells relies on sustained Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane, which in turn depends on the functional expression of potassium channels, whose activity repolarizes the membrane potential. Depending on the T-cells subset, upon activation the expression of Ca2+- or voltage-activated K+ channels, KCa or Kv, is up-regulated. In this study, by means of patch-clamp technique in the whole cell mode, we have studied in detail the characteristics of Kv and KCa currents in resting and activated human T cells, the only well explored human T-leukemic cell line Jurkat, and two additional human leukemic T cell lines, CEM and MOLT-3. Voltage dependence of activation and inactivation of Kv1.3 current were shifted up to by 15 mV to more negative potentials upon a prolonged incubation in the whole cell mode and displayed little difference at a stable state in all cell lines but CEM, where the activation curve was biphasic, with a high and low potential components. In Jurkat, KCa currents were dominated by apamine-sensitive KCa2.2 channels, whereas only KCa3.1 current was detected in healthy T and leukemic CEM and MOLT-3 cells. Despite a high proliferation potential of Jurkat cells, Kv and KCa currents were unexpectedly small, more than 10-fold lesser as compared to activated healthy human T cells, CEM and MOLT-3, which displayed characteristic Kv1.3high:KCa3.1high phenotype. Our results suggest that Jurkat cells represent perhaps a singular case and call for more extensive studies on primary leukemic T cell lines as well as a verification of the therapeutic potential of specific KCa3.1 blockers to combat acute lymphoblastic T leukemias.

  7. Coupling between the voltage-sensing and pore domains in a voltage-gated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schow, Eric V; Freites, J Alfredo; Nizkorodov, Alex; White, Stephen H; Tobias, Douglas J

    2012-07-01

    Voltage-dependent potassium (Kv), sodium (Nav), and calcium channels open and close in response to changes in transmembrane (TM) potential, thus regulating cell excitability by controlling ion flow across the membrane. An outstanding question concerning voltage gating is how voltage-induced conformational changes of the channel voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) are coupled through the S4-S5 interfacial linking helices to the opening and closing of the pore domain (PD). To investigate the coupling between the VSDs and the PD, we generated a closed Kv channel configuration from Aeropyrum pernix (KvAP) using atomistic simulations with experiment-based restraints on the VSDs. Full closure of the channel required, in addition to the experimentally determined TM displacement, that the VSDs be displaced both inwardly and laterally around the PD. This twisting motion generates a tight hydrophobic interface between the S4-S5 linkers and the C-terminal ends of the pore domain S6 helices in agreement with available experimental evidence.

  8. Pharmacological Conversion of a Cardiac Inward Rectifier into an Outward Rectifier Potassium Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Galindo, Eloy G; Sanchez-Chapula, Jose A; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Navarro-Polanco, Ricardo A

    2016-09-01

    Potassium (K(+)) channels are crucial for determining the shape, duration, and frequency of action-potential firing in excitable cells. Broadly speaking, K(+) channels can be classified based on whether their macroscopic current outwardly or inwardly rectifies, whereby rectification refers to a change in conductance with voltage. Outwardly rectifying K(+) channels conduct greater current at depolarized membrane potentials, whereas inward rectifier channels conduct greater current at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. Under most circumstances, outward currents through inwardly rectifying K(+) channels are reduced at more depolarized potentials. However, the acetylcholine-gated K(+) channel (KACh) conducts current that inwardly rectifies when activated by some ligands (such as acetylcholine), and yet conducts current that outwardly rectifies when activated by other ligands (for example, pilocarpine and choline). The perplexing and paradoxical behavior of KACh channels is due to the intrinsic voltage sensitivity of the receptor that activates KACh channels, the M2 muscarinic receptor (M2R). Emerging evidence reveals that the affinity of M2R for distinct ligands varies in a voltage-dependent and ligand-specific manner. These intrinsic receptor properties determine whether current conducted by KACh channels inwardly or outwardly rectifies. This review summarizes the most recent concepts regarding the intrinsic voltage sensitivity of muscarinic receptors and the consequences of this intriguing behavior on cardiac physiology and pharmacology of KACh channels. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. The inhibitor of volume-regulated anion channels DCPIB activates TREK potassium channels in cultured astrocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minieri, L.; Pivoňková, Helena; Caprini, M.; Harantová, Lenka; Anděrová, Miroslava; Ferroni, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 5 (2013), s. 1240-1254 ISSN 0007-1188 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1338 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : two-pore-domain potassium channels * patch clamp * neuroprotection Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.990, year: 2013

  10. Aberrant modulation of a delayed rectifier potassium channel by glutamate in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Markakis, Ioannis; Davaki, Panagiota; Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Rombos, Antonis; Hatzimanolis, Alexandros; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios

    2010-02-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), potassium channel abnormalities have been reported in both neural and peripheral tissues. Herein, using whole-cell patch-clamp, we demonstrate an aberrant glutamate-dependent modulation of K(V)1.3 channels in T lymphocytes of AD patients. Although intrinsic K(V)1.3 properties in patients were similar to healthy individuals, glutamate (1-1000 microM) failed to yield the hyperpolarizing shift normally observed in K(V)1.3 steady-state inactivation (-4.4+/-2.7 mV in AD vs. -14.3+/-2.5 mV in controls, 10 microM glutamate), resulting in a 4-fold increase of resting channel activity. Specific agonist and antagonist data indicate that this abnormality is due to dysfunction of cognate group II mGluRs. Given that glutamate is present in plasma and that both mGluRs and K(V)1.3 channels regulate T-lymphocyte responsiveness, our finding may account for the presence of immune-associated alterations in AD. Furthermore, if this aberration reflects a corresponding one in neural tissue, it could provide a potential target in AD pathogenesis.

  11. Prostatic relaxation induced by agmatine is decreased in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang-Ming; Tsai, Tsung-Chin; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Tong, Yat-Ching; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2012-09-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Neurotransmitters are known to control prostate contractility. Agmatine is one of them and induces relaxation through imidazoline receptors. The paper shows that the action of agmatine is reduced in hypertensive rats, and that this change is related to the decrease of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the prostate. The findings can increase our understanding of the possible underlying mechanism for the development of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia. To compare agmatine-induced prostatic relaxation in hypertensive and control rats. To investigate the responsible mechanism(s) and the role of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Prostate strips were isolated from male spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and normal Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats for measurement of isometric tension. The strips were precontracted with 1 µmol/L phenylephrine or 50 mmol/L KCl. Dose-dependent relaxation of the prostatic strips was studied by cumulative administration of agmatine, 1 to 100 µmol/L, into the organ bath. Effects of specific antagonists on agmatine-induced relaxation were studied. Western blotting analysis was used to measure the gene expression of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the rat prostate. Prostatic relaxation induced by agmatine was markedly reduced in SH rats compared with WKY rats. The relaxation caused by agmatine was abolished by BU224, a selective imidazoline I(2)-receptor antagonist, but was not modified by efaroxan at a dose sufficient to block imidazoline I(1)-receptors. The relaxation induced by diazoxide at a concentration sufficient to activate ATP-sensitive potassium channels was markedly reduced in the SH rat prostate. Expressions of ATP-sensitive potassium channel sulphonylurea receptor and inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 6.2 subunits were both decreased in the prostate of SH rats. The decrease of agmatine-induced prostatic relaxation in SH rats is related to the change in

  12. Identification of critical amino acids in the proximal C-terminal of TREK-2 K+ channel for activation by acidic pHi and ATP-dependent inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Joohan; Jun, Young Keul; Zhang, Yin-Hua; Nam, Joo Hyun; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Sung Joon

    2018-02-01

    TWIK-related two-pore domain K + channels (TREKs) are regulated by intracellular pH (pH i ) and Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P 2 ). Previously, Glu 306 in proximal C-terminal (pCt) of mouse TREK-1 was identified as the pH i -sensing residue. The direction of PI(4,5)P 2 sensitivity is controversial, and we have recently shown that TREKs are inhibited by intracellular ATP via endogenous PI(4,5)P 2 formation. Here we investigate the anionic and cationic residues of pCt for the pH i and ATP-sensitivity in human TREK-2 (hTREK-2). In inside-out patch clamp recordings (I TREK-2,i-o ), acidic pH i -induced activation was absent in E332A and was partly attenuated in E335A. Neutralization of cationic Lys (K330A) also eliminated the acidic pH i sensitivity of I TREK-2,i-o . Unlike the inhibition of wild-type (WT) I TREK-2,i-o by intracellular ATP, neither E332A nor K330A was sensitive to ATP. Nevertheless, exogenous PI(4,5)P 2 (10 μM) abolished I TREK-2 i-o in all the above mutants as well as in WT, indicating unspecific inhibition by exogenous PI(4,5)P 2 . In whole-cell recordings of TREK-2 (I TREK-2,w-c ), K330A and E332A showed higher or fully active basal activity, showing attenuated or insignificant activation by 2-APB, arachidonic acid, or acidic pH e 6.9. I TREK-1,w-c of WT is largely suppressed by pH e 6.9, and the inhibition is slightly attenuated in K312A and E315A. The results show concerted roles of the oppositely charged Lys and Glu in pCt for the ATP-dependent low basal activity and pH i sensitivity.

  13. Mechanism of electromechanical coupling in voltage-gated potassium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikard eBlunck

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated ion channels play a central role in the generation of action potentials in the nervous system. They are selective for one type of ion – sodium, calcium or potassium. Voltage-gated ion channels are composed of a central pore that allows ions to pass through the membrane and four peripheral voltage sensing domains that respond to changes in the membrane potential. Upon depolarization, voltage sensors in voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv undergo conformational changes driven by positive charges in the S4 segment and aided by pairwise electrostatic interactions with the surrounding voltage sensor. Structure-function relations of Kv channels have been investigated in detail, and the resulting models on the movement of the voltage sensors now converge to a consensus; the S4 segment undergoes a combined movement of rotation, tilt and vertical displacement in order to bring 3-4 e+ each through the electric field focused in this region. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the voltage sensor movement leads to pore opening, the electromechanical coupling, is still not fully understood. Thus, recently, electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels has been investigated with a multitude of techniques including electrophysiology, 3D crystal structures, fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Evidently, the S4-S5 linker, the covalent link between the voltage sensor and pore, plays a crucial role. The linker transfers the energy from the voltage sensor movement to the pore domain via an interaction with the S6 C-termini, which are pulled open during gating. In addition, other contact regions have been proposed. This review aims to provide (i an in-depth comparison of the molecular mechanisms of electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels; (ii insight as to how the voltage sensor and pore domain influence one another; and (iii theoretical predictions on the movement of the cytosolic face of the KV channels

  14. Immunolocalization and expression of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in human myometrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Sofia T; Svalø, Julie; Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK3) channels have been detected in human myometrium and we have previously shown a functional role of SK channels in human myometrium in vitro. The aims of this study were to identify the precise localization of SK3 channels and to quantify SK3 m....... This is the first report to provide evidence for a possible role of SK3 channels in human uterine telocytes....

  15. Milrinone-Induced Postconditioning Requires Activation of Mitochondrial Ca2+-sensitive Potassium (mBKCa) Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behmenburg, Friederike; Trefz, Lara; Dorsch, Marianne; Ströthoff, Martin; Mathes, Alexander; Raupach, Annika; Heinen, André; Hollmann, Markus W.; Berger, Marc M.; Huhn, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    Cardioprotection by postconditioning requires activation of mitochondrial large-conductance Ca2+-sensitive potassium (mBKCa) channels. The involvement of these channels in milrinone-induced postconditioning is unknown. The authors determined whether cardioprotection by milrinone-induced

  16. The Sodium-Activated Potassium Channel Slack Is Required for Optimal Cognitive Flexibility in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Anne E.; Dieter, Rebekka; Nann, Yvette; Hausmann, Mario; Meyerdierks, Nora; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Ruth, Peter; Lukowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    "Kcnt1" encoded sodium-activated potassium channels (Slack channels) are highly expressed throughout the brain where they modulate the firing patterns and general excitability of many types of neurons. Increasing evidence suggests that Slack channels may be important for higher brain functions such as cognition and normal intellectual…

  17. Diet-induced obesity impairs endothelium-derived hyperpolarization via altered potassium channel signaling mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Haddock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vascular endothelium plays a critical role in the control of blood flow. Altered endothelium-mediated vasodilator and vasoconstrictor mechanisms underlie key aspects of cardiovascular disease, including those in obesity. Whilst the mechanism of nitric oxide (NO-mediated vasodilation has been extensively studied in obesity, little is known about the impact of obesity on vasodilation to the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH mechanism; which predominates in smaller resistance vessels and is characterized in this study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Membrane potential, vessel diameter and luminal pressure were recorded in 4(th order mesenteric arteries with pressure-induced myogenic tone, in control and diet-induced obese rats. Obesity, reflecting that of human dietary etiology, was induced with a cafeteria-style diet (∼30 kJ, fat over 16-20 weeks. Age and sexed matched controls received standard chow (∼12 kJ, fat. Channel protein distribution, expression and vessel morphology were determined using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and ultrastructural techniques. In control and obese rat vessels, acetylcholine-mediated EDH was abolished by small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (SK(Ca/IK(Ca inhibition; with such activity being impaired in obesity. SK(Ca-IK(Ca activation with cyclohexyl-[2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl-6-methyl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amine (CyPPA and 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO, respectively, hyperpolarized and relaxed vessels from control and obese rats. IK(Ca-mediated EDH contribution was increased in obesity, and associated with altered IK(Ca distribution and elevated expression. In contrast, the SK(Ca-dependent-EDH component was reduced in obesity. Inward-rectifying potassium channel (K(ir and Na(+/K(+-ATPase inhibition by barium/ouabain, respectively, attenuated and abolished EDH in arteries from control and obese rats, respectively; reflecting differential K

  18. Specific residues of the cytoplasmic domains of cardiac inward rectifier potassium channels are effective antifibrillatory targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noujaim, Sami F.; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Ferrer-Villada, Tania; López-Izquierdo, Angelica; Pandit, Sandeep; Calvo, Conrado J.; Grzeda, Krzysztof R.; Berenfeld, Omer; Sánchez Chapula, José A.; Jalife, José

    2010-01-01

    Atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias can be perpetuated by up-regulation of inward rectifier potassium channels. Thus, it may be beneficial to block inward rectifier channels under conditions in which their function becomes arrhythmogenic (e.g., inherited gain-of-function mutation channelopathies, ischemia, and chronic and vagally mediated atrial fibrillation). We hypothesize that the antimalarial quinoline chloroquine exerts potent antiarrhythmic effects by interacting with the cytoplasmic domains of Kir2.1 (IK1), Kir3.1 (IKACh), or Kir6.2 (IKATP) and reducing inward rectifier potassium currents. In isolated hearts of three different mammalian species, intracoronary chloroquine perfusion reduced fibrillatory frequency (atrial or ventricular), and effectively terminated the arrhythmia with resumption of sinus rhythm. In patch-clamp experiments chloroquine blocked IK1, IKACh, and IKATP. Comparative molecular modeling and ligand docking of chloroquine in the intracellular domains of Kir2.1, Kir3.1, and Kir6.2 suggested that chloroquine blocks or reduces potassium flow by interacting with negatively charged amino acids facing the ion permeation vestibule of the channel in question. These results open a novel path toward discovering antiarrhythmic pharmacophores that target specific residues of the cytoplasmic domain of inward rectifier potassium channels.—Noujaim, S. F., Stuckey, J. A., Ponce-Balbuena, D., Ferrer-Villada, T., López-Izquierdo, A., Pandit, S., Calvo, C. J., Grzeda, K. R., Berenfeld, O., Sánchez Chapula, J. A., Jalife, J. Specific residues of the cytoplasmic domains of cardiac inward rectifier potassium channels are effective antifibrillatory targets. PMID:20585026

  19. Block of voltage-gated potassium channels by Pacific ciguatoxin-1 contributes to increased neuronal excitability in rat sensory neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birinyi-Strachan, Liesl C.; Gunning, Simon J.; Lewis, Richard J.; Nicholson, Graham M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the actions of the polyether marine toxin Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on neuronal excitability in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using patch-clamp recording techniques. Under current-clamp conditions, bath application of 2-20 nM P-CTX-1 caused a rapid, concentration-dependent depolarization of the resting membrane potential in neurons expressing tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive voltage-gated sodium (Na v ) channels. This action was completely suppressed by the addition of 200 nM TTX to the external solution, indicating that this effect was mediated through TTX-sensitive Na v channels. In addition, P-CTX-1 also prolonged action potential and afterhyperpolarization (AHP) duration. In a subpopulation of neurons, P-CTX-1 also produced tonic action potential firing, an effect that was not accompanied by significant oscillation of the resting membrane potential. Conversely, in neurons expressing TTX-resistant Na v currents, P-CTX-1 failed to alter any parameter of neuronal excitability examined in this study. Under voltage-clamp conditions in rat DRG neurons, P-CTX-1 inhibited both delayed-rectifier and 'A-type' potassium currents in a dose-dependent manner, actions that occurred in the absence of alterations to the voltage dependence of activation. These actions appear to underlie the prolongation of the action potential and AHP, and contribute to repetitive firing. These data indicate that a block of potassium channels contributes to the increase in neuronal excitability, associated with a modulation of Na v channel gating, observed clinically in response to ciguatera poisoning

  20. Ketogenic diet metabolites reduce firing in central neurons by opening K(ATP) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyuan; Berg, Jim; Yellen, Gary

    2007-04-04

    A low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet remains one of the most effective (but mysterious) treatments for severe pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We have tested for an acute effect of physiological ketone bodies on neuronal firing rates and excitability, to discover possible therapeutic mechanisms of the ketogenic diet. Physiological concentrations of ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate or acetoacetate) reduced the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in slices from rat or mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata. This region is thought to act as a "seizure gate," controlling seizure generalization. Consistent with an anticonvulsant role, the ketone body effect is larger for cells that fire more rapidly. The effect of ketone bodies was abolished by eliminating the metabolically sensitive K(ATP) channels pharmacologically or by gene knock-out. We propose that ketone bodies or glycolytic restriction treat epilepsy by augmenting a natural activity-limiting function served by K(ATP) channels in neurons.

  1. Computational Tools for Interpreting Ion Channel pH-Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazanavets, Ivan; Warwicker, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Activity in many biological systems is mediated by pH, involving proton titratable groups with pKas in the relevant pH range. Experimental analysis of pH-dependence in proteins focusses on particular sidechains, often with mutagenesis of histidine, due to its pKa near to neutral pH. The key question for algorithms that predict pKas is whether they are sufficiently accurate to effectively narrow the search for molecular determinants of pH-dependence. Through analysis of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), mutational effects on pH-dependence are probed, distinguishing between groups described as pH-coupled or pH-sensor. Whereas mutation can lead to a shift in transition pH between open and closed forms for either type of group, only for pH-sensor groups does mutation modulate the amplitude of the transition. It is shown that a hybrid Finite Difference Poisson-Boltzmann (FDPB) - Debye-Hückel continuum electrostatic model can filter mutation candidates, providing enrichment for key pH-coupled and pH-sensor residues in both ASICs and Kir channels, in comparison with application of FDPB alone.

  2. Computational Tools for Interpreting Ion Channel pH-Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazanavets

    Full Text Available Activity in many biological systems is mediated by pH, involving proton titratable groups with pKas in the relevant pH range. Experimental analysis of pH-dependence in proteins focusses on particular sidechains, often with mutagenesis of histidine, due to its pKa near to neutral pH. The key question for algorithms that predict pKas is whether they are sufficiently accurate to effectively narrow the search for molecular determinants of pH-dependence. Through analysis of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir channels and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs, mutational effects on pH-dependence are probed, distinguishing between groups described as pH-coupled or pH-sensor. Whereas mutation can lead to a shift in transition pH between open and closed forms for either type of group, only for pH-sensor groups does mutation modulate the amplitude of the transition. It is shown that a hybrid Finite Difference Poisson-Boltzmann (FDPB - Debye-Hückel continuum electrostatic model can filter mutation candidates, providing enrichment for key pH-coupled and pH-sensor residues in both ASICs and Kir channels, in comparison with application of FDPB alone.

  3. The uniqueness of the plant mitochondrial potassium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Pastore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ATP-inhibited Plant Mitochondrial K+ Channel (PmitoKATPwas discovered about fifteen years ago in Durum WheatMitochondria (DWM. PmitoKATP catalyses the electrophoreticK+ uniport through the inner mitochondrial membrane;moreover, the co-operation between PmitoKATP and K+/H+antiporter allows such a great operation of a K+ cycle tocollapse mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ and ΔpH, thusimpairing protonmotive force (Δp. A possible physiological roleof such ΔΨ control is the restriction of harmful reactive oxygenspecies (ROS production under environmental/oxidative stressconditions. Interestingly, DWM lacking Δp were found to benevertheless fully coupled and able to regularly accomplish ATPsynthesis; this unexpected behaviour makes necessary to recastin some way the classical chemiosmotic model. In the whole,PmitoKATP may oppose to large scale ROS production bylowering ΔΨ under environmental/oxidative stress, but, whenstress is moderate, this occurs without impairing ATP synthesisin a crucial moment for cell and mitochondrial bioenergetics.[BMB Reports 2013; 46(8: 391-397

  4. PKC and AMPK regulation of Kv1.5 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Tang, Chuyi

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-gated Kv1.5 potassium channel, conducting the ultra-rapid rectifier K(+) current (IKur), is regulated through several pathways. Here we investigate if Kv1.5 surface expression is controlled by the 2 kinases PKC and AMPK, using Xenopus oocytes, MDCK cells and atrial derived HL-1 cells....

  5. Altered expression of two-pore domain potassium (K2P channels in cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams

    Full Text Available Potassium channels have become a focus in cancer biology as they play roles in cell behaviours associated with cancer progression, including proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Two-pore domain (K2P potassium channels are background channels which enable the leak of potassium ions from cells. As these channels are open at rest they have a profound effect on cellular membrane potential and subsequently the electrical activity and behaviour of cells in which they are expressed. The K2P family of channels has 15 mammalian members and already 4 members of this family (K2P2.1, K2P3.1, K2P9.1, K2P5.1 have been implicated in cancer. Here we examine the expression of all 15 members of the K2P family of channels in a range of cancer types. This was achieved using the online cancer microarray database, Oncomine (www.oncomine.org. Each gene was examined across 20 cancer types, comparing mRNA expression in cancer to normal tissue. This analysis revealed all but 3 K2P family members (K2P4.1, K2P16.1, K2P18.1 show altered expression in cancer. Overexpression of K2P channels was observed in a range of cancers including breast, leukaemia and lung while more cancers (brain, colorectal, gastrointestinal, kidney, lung, melanoma, oesophageal showed underexpression of one or more channels. K2P1.1, K2P3.1, K2P12.1, were overexpressed in a range of cancers. While K2P1.1, K2P3.1, K2P5.1, K2P6.1, K2P7.1 and K2P10.1 showed significant underexpression across the cancer types examined. This analysis supports the view that specific K2P channels may play a role in cancer biology. Their altered expression together with their ability to impact the function of other ion channels and their sensitivity to environmental stimuli (pO2, pH, glucose, stretch makes understanding the role these channels play in cancer of key importance.

  6. Investigating the potassium interactions with the palytoxin induced channels in Na+/K+ pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Antônio M; Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G; Infantosi, Antonio F C; Teixeira, Hewerson Z; Duarte, Mário A

    2009-02-01

    K(+) has been appointed as the main physiological inhibitor of the palytoxin (PTX) effect on the Na(+)/K(+) pump. This toxin acts opening monovalent cationic channels through the Na(+)/K(+) pump. We investigate, by means of computational modeling, the kinetic mechanisms related with K(+) interacting with the complex PTX-Na(+)/K(+) pump. First, a reaction model, with structure similar to Albers-Post model, describing the functional cycle of the pump, was proposed for describing K(+) interference on the complex PTX-Na(+)/K(+) pump in the presence of intracellular ATP. A mathematic model was derived from the reaction model and it was possible to solve numerically the associated differential equations and to simulate experimental maneuvers about the PTX induced currents in the presence of K(+) in the intra- and extracellular space as well as ATP in the intracellular. After the model adjusting to the experimental data, a Monte Carlo method for sensitivity analysis was used to analyze how each reaction parameter acts during each experimental maneuver involving PTX. For ATP and K(+) concentrations conditions, the simulations suggest that the enzyme substate with ATP bound to its high-affinity sites is the main substate for the PTX binding. The activation rate of the induced current is limited by the K(+) deocclusion from the PTX-Na(+)/K(+) pump complex. The K(+) occlusion in the PTX induced channels in the enzymes with ATP bound to its low-affinity sites is the main mechanism responsible for the reduction of the enzyme affinity to PTX.

  7. Inhibition of Inwardly Rectifying Potassium (Kir 4.1 Channels Facilitates Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF Expression in Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kinboshi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir 4.1 channels in astrocytes regulate neuronal excitability by mediating spatial potassium buffering. Although dysfunction of astrocytic Kir4.1 channels is implicated in the development of epileptic seizures, the functional mechanisms of Kir4.1 channels in modulating epileptogenesis remain unknown. We herein evaluated the effects of Kir4.1 inhibition (blockade and knockdown on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a key modulator of epileptogenesis, in the primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. For blockade of Kir4.1 channels, we tested several antidepressant agents which reportedly bound to and blocked Kir4.1 channels in a subunit-specific manner. Treatment of astrocytes with fluoxetine enhanced BDNF mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner and increased the BDNF protein level. Other antidepressants (e.g., sertraline and imipramine also increased the expression of BDNF mRNA with relative potencies similar to those for inhibition of Kir4.1 channels. In addition, suppression of Kir4.1 expression by the transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting Kir4.1 significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF. The BDNF induction by Kir4.1 siRNA transfection was suppressed by the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, but not by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125. The present results demonstrated that inhibition of Kir4.1 channels facilitates BDNF expression in astrocytes primarily by activating the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, which may be linked to the development of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Role of vascular potassium channels in the regulation of renal hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    of one or more classes of K+ channels will lead to a change in hemodynamic resistance and therefore of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration pressure. Through these effects, the activity of renal vascular K+ channels influences renal salt and water excretion, fluid homeostasis, and ultimately blood...... pressure. Four main classes of K+ channels [calcium activated (KCa), inward rectifier (Kir), voltage activated (KV), and ATP sensitive (KATP)] are found in the renal vasculature. Several in vitro experiments have suggested a role for individual classes of K+ channels in the regulation of renal vascular...... function. Results from in vivo experiments are sparse. We discuss the role of the different classes of renal vascular K+ channels and their possible role in the integrated function of the renal microvasculature. Since several pathological conditions, among them hypertension, are associated with alterations...

  9. Intracellular mediators of potassium-induced aldosterone secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.; Chiou, S.; Davis, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the intracellular messengers of potassium in eliciting aldosterone secretion in calf adrenal glomerulosa cells since there were unresolved issues relating to the role of phosphoinositides, cAMP and protein kinases. We observed no evidence of hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) in 3 H-inositol labeled alf adrenal cells or increase of cAMP in response to potassium. Addition of calcium channel blocker, nitrendipine after stimulating adrenal glomerulosa cells with potassium, markedly inhibited aldosterone secretion. A calmodulin inhibitor (W-7) produced greater reduction of aldosterone secretion than an inhibitor of protein kinase C (H-7). These results suggest that a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration through voltage-dependent calcium channel and calmodulin are the critical determinants of aldosterone secretion stimulated by potassium

  10. Non-equivalent role of TM2 gating hinges in heteromeric Kir4.1/Kir5.1 potassium channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Lijun; Tucker, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of the crystal structures of the KcsA and MthK potassium channels suggests that the process of opening a K+ channel involves pivoted bending of the inner pore-lining helices at a highly conserved glycine residue. This bending motion is proposed to splay the transmembrane domains outwards to widen the gate at the ?helix-bundle crossing?. However, in the inwardly rectifying (Kir) potassium channel family, the role of this ?hinge? residue in the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and t...

  11. Glucocorticoids activate the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in skeletal muscle during fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, S. S.; Goldberg, A. L.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential for the increase in protein breakdown in skeletal muscle normally seen during fasting. To determine which proteolytic pathway(s) are activated upon fasting, leg muscles from fed and fasted normal rats were incubated under conditions that block or activate different proteolytic systems. After food deprivation (1 day), the nonlysosomal ATP-dependent process increased by 250%, as shown in experiments involving depletion of muscle ATP. Also, the maximal capacity of the lysosomal process increased 60-100%, but no changes occurred in the Ca(2+)-dependent or the residual energy-independent proteolytic processes. In muscles from fasted normal and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats, the protein breakdown sensitive to inhibitors of the lysosomal or Ca(2+)-dependent pathways did not differ. However, the ATP-dependent process was 30% slower in muscles from fasted ADX rats. Administering dexamethasone to these animals or incubating their muscles with dexamethasone reversed this defect. During fasting, when the ATP-dependent process rises, muscles show a two- to threefold increase in levels of ubiquitin (Ub) mRNA. However, muscles of ADX animals failed to show this response. Injecting dexamethasone into the fasted ADX animals increased muscle Ub mRNA within 6 h. Thus glucocorticoids activate the ATP-Ub-dependent proteolytic pathway in fasting apparently by enhancing the expression of components of this system such as Ub.

  12. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. C. Nomenclature and Properties of Calcium-Activated and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Aldrich, Richard W; Chandy, K George; Grissmer, Stephan; Wei, Aguan D; Wulff, Heike

    2017-01-01

    A subset of potassium channels is regulated primarily by changes in the cytoplasmic concentration of ions, including calcium, sodium, chloride, and protons. The eight members of this subfamily were originally all designated as calcium-activated channels. More recent studies have clarified the gating mechanisms for these channels and have documented that not all members are sensitive to calcium. This article describes the molecular relationships between these channels and provides an introduction to their functional properties. It also introduces a new nomenclature that differentiates between calcium- and sodium-activated potassium channels. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Comparison of the effects of the K(+)-channel openers cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate on vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenden, A. D.; Grimwood, S.; Grant, T. L.; Todd, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    1 The actions of the potassium channel openers, cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate, were compared in a range of isolated blood vessel preparations. 2 Cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity of the guinea-pig portal vein and relaxed the noradrenaline precontracted rat aorta with similar potency. In contrast, minoxidil sulphate was less potent than cromakalim in inhibiting spontaneous activity in the rat portal vein and was essentially inactive in the noradrenaline precontracted rat mesenteric artery and rabbit aorta. 3 Minoxidil sulphate did not antagonize the effects of cromakalim in the rabbit aorta indicating it was not acting as a partial 'agonist'. 4 Charybdotoxin, noxiustoxin and rubidium failed to discriminate between cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate indicating that the apparently selective effects of minoxidil sulphate were not mediated by either Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels, delayed rectifiers or rubidium impermeable potassium channels. 5 Glibenclamide antagonized the effects of cromakalim in an apparently competitive manner whereas the effects of minoxidil sulphate were antagonized in a non-competitive manner. The involvement of subtypes of ATP-sensitive potassium channels is discussed. PMID:1878752

  14. Kaempferol enhances endothelium-dependent relaxation in the porcine coronary artery through activation of large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y C; Leung, S W S; Leung, G P H; Man, R Y K

    2015-06-01

    Kaempferol, a plant flavonoid present in normal human diet, can modulate vasomotor tone. The present study aimed to elucidate the signalling pathway through which this flavonoid enhanced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. The effect of kaempferol on the relaxation of porcine coronary arteries to endothelium-dependent (bradykinin) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxing agents was studied in an in vitro organ chamber setup. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of kaempferol on potassium channels in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (PCASMCs). At a concentration without direct effect on vascular tone, kaempferol (3 × 10(-6) M) enhanced relaxations produced by bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside. The potentiation by kaempferol of the bradykinin-induced relaxation was not affected by N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of NO synthase (10(-4) M) or TRAM-34 plus UCL 1684, inhibitors of intermediate- and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, respectively (10(-6) M each), but was abolished by tetraethylammonium chloride, a non-selective inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels (10(-3) M), and iberiotoxin, a selective inhibitor of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa 1.1; 10(-7) M). Iberiotoxin also inhibited the potentiation by kaempferol of sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations. Kaempferol stimulated an outward-rectifying current in PCASMCs, which was abolished by iberiotoxin. The present results suggest that, in smooth muscle cells of the porcine coronary artery, kaempferol enhanced relaxations caused by endothelium-derived and exogenous NO as well as those due to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. This vascular effect of kaempferol involved the activation of KCa 1.1 channels. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Activation of ERG2 potassium channels by the diphenylurea NS1643

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Three members of the ERG potassium channel family have been described (ERG1-3 or Kv 11.1-3). ERG1 is by far the best characterized subtype and it constitutes the molecular component of the cardiac I(Kr) current. All three channel subtypes are expressed in neurons but their function remains unclear....... The lack of functional information is at least partly due to the lack of specific pharmacological tools. The compound NS1643 has earlier been reported as an ERG1 channel activator. We found that NS1643 also activates the ERG2 channel; however, the molecular mechanism of the activation differs between...... the ERG1 and ERG2 channels. This is surprising since ERG1 and ERG2 channels have very similar biophysical and structural characteristics. For ERG2, NS1643 causes a left-ward shift of the activation curve, a faster time-constant of activation and a slower time-constant of inactivation as well...

  16. Minoxidil opens mitochondrial KATP channels and confers cardioprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiaki; Li, Yulong; Saito, Tomoaki; Nakaya, Haruaki

    2003-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the mitochondrial inner membrane (mitoKATP channel) rather than in the sarcolemma (sarcKATP channel) appears to play an important role in cardioprotection. We examined the effect of minoxidil, a potent antihypertensive agent and hair growth stimulator, on sarcKATP and mitoKATP channels in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. Minoxidil activated a glybenclamide-sensitive sarcKATP channel current in the whole-cell recording mode with an EC50 of 182.6 μM. Minoxidil reversibly increased the flavoprotein oxidation, an index of mitoKATP channel activity, in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 for mitoKATP channel activation was estimated to be 7.3 μM; this value was notably ≈25-fold lower than that for sarcKATP channel activation. Minoxidil (10 μM) significantly attenuated the ouabain-induced increase of mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration, which was measured by loading cells with rhod-2 fluorescence. Furthermore, pretreatment with minoxidil (10 μM) before 20-min no-flow ischaemia significantly improved the recovery of developed tension measured after 60 min of reperfusion in coronary perfused guinea-pig ventricular muscles. These cardioprotective effects of minoxidil were completely abolished by the mitoKATP channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (500 μM). Our results indicate that minoxidil exerts a direct cardioprotective effect on heart muscle cells, an effect mediated by the selective activation of mitoKATP channels. PMID:14691056

  17. [Effect of K-ATP channel opener-pinacidil on the liver mitochondria function in rats with different resistance to hypoxia during stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, H M; Kurhaliuk, N M; Vovkanych, L S

    2004-01-01

    We have examined the influence of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener pinacidil (0.06 mg/kg) and inhibitor glibenclamide (1 mg/kg) on the changes of energy metabolism in the liver of rats under the stress conditions. The rats were divided in two groups with high and low resistance to hypoxia. The stress was modeled by placing the rats in a cage filled with water and closed with a net. The distance from water to the net was only 5 cm. The effects of KATP opener pinacidil (0.06 mg/kg) and inhibitor glibenclamide (1 mg/kg) on ADP-stimulating mitochondrial respiration by Chance, calcium capacity of organellas and processes of lipid peroxidation in the liver of rats with different resistance to hypoxia under the stress condition have been investigated. We have used the next substrates of oxidation: 0.35 mM succinate and 1 mM alpha-ketoglutarate. The additional analyses were conducted with the use of inhibitors: mitochondrial enzyme complex I 10 mM rotenone and succinate dehydrohenase 2 mM malonic acid. It was shown that the stress condition evoked the succinate oxidation and the decrease of alpha-ketoglutarate efficacy, the increase of calcium mitochondrial capacity and the intensification of lipid peroxidation processes. Under the presence of succinate, the increase of O2 uptake with simultaneous decrease of ADP/O ratio in rats with high resistance under stress was observed. Simultaneously, oxidation of alpha-ketoglutarate, a NAD-dependent substrate, was inhibited. Pinacidil caused the reorganization of mitochondrial energy metabolism in favour of NAD-dependent oxidation and the improvment of the protection against stress. The decrease of the efficacy of mitochondrial energy processes functioning was shown in animals with low resistance to hypoxia. KATP channel opener pinacidil has a protective effect on the processes of mitochondrial liver energy support under stress. These changes deal with the increase of alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation (respiratory rate and

  18. The inward rectifier potassium channel Kir2.1 is expressed in mouse neutrophils from bone marrow and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masia, Ricard; Krause, Daniela S; Yellen, Gary

    2015-02-01

    Neutrophils are phagocytic cells that play a critical role in innate immunity by destroying bacterial pathogens. Channels belonging to the inward rectifier potassium channel subfamily 2 (Kir2 channels) have been described in other phagocytes (monocytes/macrophages and eosinophils) and in hematopoietic precursors of phagocytes. Their physiological function in these cells remains unclear, but some evidence suggests a role in growth factor-dependent proliferation and development. Expression of functional Kir2 channels has not been definitively demonstrated in mammalian neutrophils. Here, we show by RT-PCR that neutrophils from mouse bone marrow and liver express mRNA for the Kir2 subunit Kir2.1 but not for other subunits (Kir2.2, Kir2.3, and Kir2.4). In electrophysiological experiments, resting (unstimulated) neutrophils from mouse bone marrow and liver exhibit a constitutively active, external K(+)-dependent, strong inwardly rectifying current that constitutes the dominant current. The reversal potential is dependent on the external K(+) concentration in a Nernstian fashion, as expected for a K(+)-selective current. The current is not altered by changes in external or internal pH, and it is blocked by Ba(2+), Cs(+), and the Kir2-selective inhibitor ML133. The single-channel conductance is in agreement with previously reported values for Kir2.1 channels. These properties are characteristic of homomeric Kir2.1 channels. Current density in short-term cultures of bone marrow neutrophils is decreased in the absence of growth factors that are important for neutrophil proliferation [granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF)]. These results demonstrate that mouse neutrophils express functional Kir2.1 channels and suggest that these channels may be important for neutrophil function, possibly in a growth factor-dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Functional expression of a heterologous nickel-dependent, ATP-independent urease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, N; Luttik, M A H; Cueto Rojas, H F; Wahl, A; van Maris, A J A; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

    2015-07-01

    In microbial processes for production of proteins, biomass and nitrogen-containing commodity chemicals, ATP requirements for nitrogen assimilation affect product yields on the energy producing substrate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a current host for heterologous protein production and potential platform for production of nitrogen-containing chemicals, uptake and assimilation of ammonium requires 1 ATP per incorporated NH3. Urea assimilation by this yeast is more energy efficient but still requires 0.5 ATP per NH3 produced. To decrease ATP costs for nitrogen assimilation, the S. cerevisiae gene encoding ATP-dependent urease (DUR1,2) was replaced by a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene encoding ATP-independent urease (ure2), along with its accessory genes ureD, ureF and ureG. Since S. pombe ure2 is a Ni(2+)-dependent enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express native Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes, the S. pombe high-affinity nickel-transporter gene (nic1) was also expressed. Expression of the S. pombe genes into dur1,2Δ S. cerevisiae yielded an in vitro ATP-independent urease activity of 0.44±0.01 µmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) and restored growth on urea as sole nitrogen source. Functional expression of the Nic1 transporter was essential for growth on urea at low Ni(2+) concentrations. The maximum specific growth rates of the engineered strain on urea and ammonium were lower than those of a DUR1,2 reference strain. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures with urea as nitrogen source, the engineered strain exhibited an increased release of ammonia and reduced nitrogen content of the biomass. Our results indicate a new strategy for improving yeast-based production of nitrogen-containing chemicals and demonstrate that Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional characterization of Kv11.1 (hERG) potassium channels split in the voltage-sensing domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Pilar; Domínguez, Pedro; Barros, Francisco

    2018-03-23

    Voltage-dependent KCNH family potassium channel functionality can be reconstructed using non-covalently linked voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and pore modules (split channels). However, the necessity of a covalent continuity for channel function has not been evaluated at other points within the two functionally independent channel modules. We find here that by cutting Kv11.1 (hERG, KCNH2) channels at the different loops linking the transmembrane spans of the channel core, not only channels split at the S4-S5 linker level, but also those split at the intracellular S2-S3 and the extracellular S3-S4 loops, yield fully functional channel proteins. Our data indicate that albeit less markedly, channels split after residue 482 in the S2-S3 linker resemble the uncoupled gating phenotype of those split at the C-terminal end of the VSD S4 transmembrane segment. Channels split after residues 514 and 518 in the S3-S4 linker show gating characteristics similar to those of the continuous wild-type channel. However, breaking the covalent link at this level strongly accelerates the voltage-dependent accessibility of a membrane impermeable methanethiosulfonate reagent to an engineered cysteine at the N-terminal region of the S4 transmembrane helix. Thus, besides that of the S4-S5 linker, structural integrity of the intracellular S2-S3 linker seems to constitute an important factor for proper transduction of VSD rearrangements to opening and closing the cytoplasmic gate. Furthermore, our data suggest that the short and probably rigid characteristics of the extracellular S3-S4 linker are not an essential component of the Kv11.1 voltage sensing machinery.

  1. Grafting voltage and pharmacological sensitivity in potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xi; Fan, Chunyan; Ji, Wei; Tian, Fuyun; Xu, Tao; Gao, Zhaobing

    2016-08-01

    A classical voltage-gated ion channel consists of four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs). However, the roles of each VSD in the channels remain elusive. We developed a GVTDT (Graft VSD To Dimeric TASK3 channels that lack endogenous VSDs) strategy to produce voltage-gated channels with a reduced number of VSDs. TASK3 channels exhibit a high host tolerance to VSDs of various voltage-gated ion channels without interfering with the intrinsic properties of the TASK3 selectivity filter. The constructed channels, exemplified by the channels grafted with one or two VSDs from Kv7.1 channels, exhibit classical voltage sensitivity, including voltage-dependent opening and closing. Furthermore, the grafted Kv7.1 VSD transfers the potentiation activity of benzbromarone, an activator that acts on the VSDs of the donor channels, to the constructed channels. Our study indicates that one VSD is sufficient to voltage-dependently gate the pore and provides new insight into the roles of VSDs.

  2. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in the DNA-damage response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Hannes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The integrity of DNA is continuously challenged by metabolism-derived and environmental genotoxic agents that cause a variety of DNA lesions, including base alterations and breaks. DNA damage interferes with vital processes such as transcription and replication, and if not repaired properly, can ultimately lead to premature aging and cancer. Multiple DNA pathways signaling for DNA repair and DNA damage collectively safeguard the integrity of DNA. Chromatin plays a pivotal role in regulating DNA-associated processes, and is itself subject to regulation by the DNA-damage response. Chromatin influences access to DNA, and often serves as a docking or signaling site for repair and signaling proteins. Its structure can be adapted by post-translational histone modifications and nucleosome remodeling, catalyzed by the activity of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes. In recent years, accumulating evidence has suggested that ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes play important, although poorly characterized, roles in facilitating the effectiveness of the DNA-damage response. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the involvement of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in three major DNA repair pathways: nucleotide excision repair, homologous recombination, and non-homologous end-joining. This shows that a surprisingly large number of different remodeling complexes display pleiotropic functions during different stages of the DNA-damage response. Moreover, several complexes seem to have multiple functions, and are implicated in various mechanistically distinct repair pathways.

  3. Differential distribution of the sodium‐activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Hans‐Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sodium‐activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high‐conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093–2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26587966

  4. Differential distribution of the sodium-activated potassium channels slick and slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Schwarzer, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are high-conductance potassium channels of the Slo family. In neurons, Slick and Slack channels are involved in the generation of slow afterhyperpolarization, in the regulation of firing patterns, and in setting and stabilizing the resting membrane potential. The distribution and subcellular localization of Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain have not yet been established in detail. The present study addresses this issue through in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both channels were widely distributed and exhibited distinct distribution patterns. However, in some brain regions, their expression overlapped. Intense Slick channel immunoreactivity was observed in processes, varicosities, and neuronal cell bodies of the olfactory bulb, granular zones of cortical regions, hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septal nuclei, certain hypothalamic and midbrain nuclei, and several regions of the brainstem. The Slack channel showed primarily a diffuse immunostaining pattern, and labeling of cell somata and processes was observed only occasionally. The highest Slack channel expression was detected in the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nuclei, basal ganglia, and distinct areas of the midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar cortex. In addition, comparing our data obtained from mouse brain with a previously published study on rat brain revealed some differences in the expression and distribution of Slick and Slack channels in these species. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2093-2116, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the tetramerization domain derived from the human potassium channel Kv1.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winklmeier, Andreas; Weyand, Michael; Schreier, Christina; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert; Kremer, Werner

    2009-01-01

    The tetramerization domain of human Kv1.3 was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to space group I4 and diffracted to 1.2 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The tetramerization domain (T1 domain) derived from the voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv1.3 of Homo sapiens was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The crystals were first grown in an NMR tube in 150 mM potassium phosphate pH 6.5 in the absence of additional precipitants. The crystals showed I4 symmetry characteristic of the naturally occurring tetrameric assembly of the single subunits. A complete native data set was collected to 1.2 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation

  6. Kaempferol enhances endothelium-dependent relaxation in the porcine coronary artery through activation of large-conductance a2+-activated K+ channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y C; Leung, S W S; Leung, G P H; Man, R Y K

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Kaempferol, a plant flavonoid present in normal human diet, can modulate vasomotor tone. The present study aimed to elucidate the signalling pathway through which this flavonoid enhanced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Experimental Approach The effect of kaempferol on the relaxation of porcine coronary arteries to endothelium-dependent (bradykinin) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxing agents was studied in an in vitro organ chamber setup. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of kaempferol on potassium channels in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (PCASMCs). Key Results At a concentration without direct effect on vascular tone, kaempferol (3 × 10−6 M) enhanced relaxations produced by bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside. The potentiation by kaempferol of the bradykinin-induced relaxation was not affected by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of NO synthase (10−4 M) or TRAM-34 plus UCL 1684, inhibitors of intermediate- and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, respectively (10−6 M each), but was abolished by tetraethylammonium chloride, a non-selective inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels (10−3 M), and iberiotoxin, a selective inhibitor of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa1.1; 10−7 M). Iberiotoxin also inhibited the potentiation by kaempferol of sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations. Kaempferol stimulated an outward-rectifying current in PCASMCs, which was abolished by iberiotoxin. Conclusions and Implications The present results suggest that, in smooth muscle cells of the porcine coronary artery, kaempferol enhanced relaxations caused by endothelium-derived and exogenous NO as well as those due to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. This vascular effect of kaempferol involved the activation of KCa1.1 channels. PMID:25652142

  7. Activation of endothelial and epithelial K(Ca) 2.3 calcium-activated potassium channels by NS309 relaxes human small pulmonary arteries and bronchioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small (K(Ca) 2) and intermediate (K(Ca) 3.1) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (K(Ca) ) may contribute to both epithelium- and endothelium-dependent relaxations, but this has not been established in human pulmonary arteries and bronchioles. Therefore, we inv...... targets for treatment of pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease....

  8. Gain-of-function mutations in potassium channel subunit KCNE2 associated with early-onset lone atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Morten Salling

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Disturbances in cardiac potassium conductance are considered as one of the disease mechanisms in AF. We aimed to investigate if mutations in potassium-channel β-subunits KCNE2 and KCNE3 are associated with early-onset lone AF. ...

  9. Intracellular zinc activates KCNQ channels by reducing their dependence on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haixia; Boillat, Aurélien; Huang, Dongyang; Liang, Ce; Peers, Chris; Gamper, Nikita

    2017-08-01

    M-type (Kv7, KCNQ) potassium channels are proteins that control the excitability of neurons and muscle cells. Many physiological and pathological mechanisms of excitation operate via the suppression of M channel activity or expression. Conversely, pharmacological augmentation of M channel activity is a recognized strategy for the treatment of hyperexcitability disorders such as pain and epilepsy. However, physiological mechanisms resulting in M channel potentiation are rare. Here we report that intracellular free zinc directly and reversibly augments the activity of recombinant and native M channels. This effect is mechanistically distinct from the known redox-dependent KCNQ channel potentiation. Interestingly, the effect of zinc cannot be attributed to a single histidine- or cysteine-containing zinc-binding site within KCNQ channels. Instead, zinc dramatically reduces KCNQ channel dependence on its obligatory physiological activator, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ). We hypothesize that zinc facilitates interactions of the lipid-facing interface of a KCNQ protein with the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane in a way similar to that promoted by PIP 2 Because zinc is increasingly recognized as a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger, this discovery might represent a hitherto unknown native pathway of M channel modulation and provide a fresh strategy for the design of M channel activators for therapeutic purposes.

  10. Immunomodulatory effects of diclofenac in leukocytes through the targeting of Kv1.3 voltage-dependent potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalonga, Núria; David, Miren; Bielańska, Joanna; González, Teresa; Parra, David; Soler, Concepció; Comes, Núria; Valenzuela, Carmen; Felipe, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    Kv1.3 plays a crucial role in the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes and macrophages. While Kv1.3 is responsible for the voltage-dependent potassium current in T-cells, in macrophages this K(+) current is generated by the association of Kv1.3 and Kv1.5. Patients with autoimmune diseases show a high number of effector memory T cells that are characterized by a high expression of Kv1.3 and Kv1.3 antagonists ameliorate autoimmune disorders in vivo. Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in patients who suffer from painful autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we show that diclofenac impairs immune response via a mechanism that involves Kv1.3. While diclofenac inhibited Kv1.3 expression in activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes, Kv1.5 remained unaffected. Diclofenac also decreased iNOS levels in Raw 264.7 cells, impairing their activation in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS-induced macrophage migration and IL-2 production in stimulated Jurkat T-cells were also blocked by pharmacological doses of diclofenac. These effects were mimicked by Margatoxin, a specific Kv1.3 inhibitor, and Charybdotoxin, which blocks both Kv1.3 and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)3.1). Because Kv1.3 is a very good target for autoimmune therapies, the effects of diclofenac on Kv1.3 are of high pharmacological relevance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nicorandil-Induced Hyperkalemia in a Uremic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Hao Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicorandil is an antianginal agent with nitrate-like and ATP-sensitive potassium channel activator properties. After activation of potassium channels, potassium ions are expelled out of the cells, which lead to membrane hyperpolarization, closure of voltage-gated calcium channels, and finally vasodilation. We present a uremic case suffering from repeated junctional bradycardia, especially before hemodialysis. After detailed evaluation, nicorandil was suspected to be the cause of hyperkalemia which induced bradycardia. This case reminds us that physicians should be aware of this potential complication in patients receiving ATP-sensitive potassium channel activator.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the PAS domains of EAG and ELK potassium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaixo, Ricardo; Morais-Cabral, João Henrique

    2010-01-01

    The N-terminal PAS domains from the eukaryotic EAG potassium channels are thought to have a regulatory function. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of two of these domains are described. Per–Arnt–Sim (PAS) domains are ubiquitous in nature; they are ∼130-amino-acid protein domains that adopt a fairly conserved three-dimensional structure despite their low degree of sequence homology. These domains constitute the N-terminus or, less frequently, the C-terminus of a number of proteins, where they exert regulatory functions. PAS-containing proteins generally display two or more copies of this motif. In this work, the crystallization and preliminary analysis of the PAS domains of two eukaryotic potassium channels from the ether-à-go-go (EAG) family are reported

  13. Metal-dependent regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in fibroblast cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenartowicz Malgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD, respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency obtained by treatment with the copper chelator led to a downregulation of ATP7A in the control fibroblasts, but surprisingly not in the WD fibroblasts. In contrast, the addition of copper led to an increased expression of ATP7A, but a decreased expression of ATP7B. Thus, whereas similar regulation patterns for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6-8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at high copper concentrations, whereas more surprisingly, cells that express the mutant ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at low copper concentrations. Thus, although the transcription of ATP7A is regulated by copper, clonal growth selection in mosaic cell cultures is affected by the level of copper. Female carriers of MD are rarely affected probably due to a skewed inactivation of the X-chromosome bearing the ATP7A mutation.

  14. Escitalopram block of hERG potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yun Ju; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hong Joon; Kim, In-Beom; Choi, Jin-Sung; Sung, Ki-Wug; Hahn, Sang June

    2014-01-01

    Escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is the pharmacologically active S-enantiomer of the racemic mixture of RS-citalopram and is widely used in the treatment of depression. The effects of escitalopram and citalopram on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in human embryonic kidney cells were investigated using voltage-clamp and Western blot analyses. Both drugs blocked hERG currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 2.6 μM for escitalopram and an IC50 value of 3.2 μM for citalopram. The blocking of hERG by escitalopram was voltage-dependent, with a steep increase across the voltage range of channel activation. However, voltage independence was observed over the full range of activation. The blocking by escitalopram was frequency dependent. A rapid application of escitalopram induced a rapid and reversible blocking of the tail current of hERG. The extent of the blocking by escitalopram during the depolarizing pulse was less than that during the repolarizing pulse, suggesting that escitalopram has a high affinity for the open state of the hERG channel, with a relatively lower affinity for the inactivated state. Both escitalopram and citalopram produced a reduction of hERG channel protein trafficking to the plasma membrane but did not affect the short-term internalization of the hERG channel. These results suggest that escitalopram blocked hERG currents at a supratherapeutic concentration and that it did so by preferentially binding to both the open and the inactivated states of the channels and by inhibiting the trafficking of hERG channel protein to the plasma membrane.

  15. Study of the interaction of potassium ion channel protein with micelle by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, Anil; Talukdar, Keka

    2018-04-01

    Ion channels are proteins forming pore inside the body of all living organisms. This potassium ion channel known as KcsA channel and it is found in the each cell and nervous system. Flow of various ions is regulated by the function of the ion channels. The nerve ion channel protein with protein data bank entry 1BL8, which is basically an ion channel protein in Streptomyces Lividans and which is taken up to form micelle-protein system and the system is analyzed by using molecular dynamics simulation. Firstly, ion channel pore is engineered by CHARMM potential and then Micelle-protein system is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation. For some specific micelle concentration, the protein unfolding is observed.

  16. Inhibitors of the 5-lipoxygenase arachidonic acid pathway induce ATP release and ATP-dependent organic cation transport in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Souza, Hercules Antônio; Lira, Maria Nathalia de; Costa-Junior, Helio Miranda; da Cruz, Cristiane Monteiro; Vasconcellos, Jorge Silvio Silva; Mendes, Anderson Nogueira; Pimenta-Reis, Gabriela; Alvarez, Cora Lilia; Faccioli, Lucia Helena; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; Schachter, Julieta; Persechini, Pedro Muanis

    2014-07-01

    We have previously described that arachidonic acid (AA)-5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolism inhibitors such as NDGA and MK886, inhibit cell death by apoptosis, but not by necrosis, induced by extracellular ATP (ATPe) binding to P2X7 receptors in macrophages. ATPe binding to P2X7 also induces large cationic and anionic organic molecules uptake in these cells, a process that involves at least two distinct transport mechanisms: one for cations and another for anions. Here we show that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not inhibit P2X7 receptors, as judged by the maintenance of the ATPe-induced uptake of fluorescent anionic dyes. In addition, we describe two new transport phenomena induced by these inhibitors in macrophages: a cation-selective uptake of fluorescent dyes and the release of ATP. The cation uptake requires secreted ATPe, but, differently from the P2X7/ATPe-induced phenomena, it is also present in macrophages derived from mice deficient in the P2X7 gene. Inhibitors of phospholipase A2 and of the AA-cyclooxygenase pathway did not induce the cation uptake. The uptake of non-organic cations was investigated by measuring the free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by Fura-2 fluorescence. NDGA, but not MK886, induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Chelating Ca(2+) ions in the extracellular medium suppressed the intracellular Ca(2+) signal without interfering in the uptake of cationic dyes. We conclude that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not block P2X7 receptors, trigger the release of ATP, and induce an ATP-dependent uptake of organic cations by a Ca(2+)- and P2X7-independent transport mechanism in macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gene knockout of the KCNJ8-encoded Kir6.1 K(ATP) channel imparts fatal susceptibility to endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Garvan C; Lam, Chen-Fuh; O'Cochlain, Fearghas; Hodgson, Denice M; Reyes, Santiago; Liu, Xiao-Ke; Miki, Takashi; Seino, Susumu; Katusic, Zvonimir S; Terzic, Andre

    2006-11-01

    Sepsis, the systemic inflammatory response to infection, imposes a high demand for bodily adaptation, with the cardiovascular response a key determinant of outcome. The homeostatic elements that secure cardiac tolerance in the setting of the sepsis syndrome are poorly understood. Here, in a model of acute septic shock induced by endotoxin challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), knockout of the KCNJ8 gene encoding the vascular Kir6.1 K(ATP) channel pore predisposed to an early and profound survival disadvantage. The exaggerated susceptibility provoked by disruption of this stress-responsive sensor of cellular metabolism was linked to progressive deterioration in cardiac activity, ischemic myocardial damage, and contractile dysfunction. Deletion of KCNJ8 blunted the responsiveness of coronary vessels to cytokine- or metabolic-mediated vasodilation necessary to support myocardial perfusion in the wild-type (WT), creating a deficit in adaptive response in the Kir6.1 knockout. Application of a K(ATP) channel opener drug improved survival in the endotoxic WT but had no effect in the Kir6.1 knockout. Restoration of the dilatory capacity of coronary vessels was required to rescue the Kir6.1 knockout phenotype and reverse survival disadvantage in lethal endotoxemia. Thus, the Kir6.1-containing K(ATP) channel, by coupling vasoreactivity with metabolic demand, provides a vital feedback element for cardiovascular tolerance in endotoxic shock.

  18. Mitochondrial modulation of oxygen-dependent radiosensitivity in some human tumour cell lines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anoopkumar-Dukie, S

    2009-10-01

    Oxygen-dependent radiosensitivity of tumour cells reflects direct oxidative damage to DNA, but non-nuclear mechanisms including signalling pathways may also contribute. Mitochondria are likely candidates because not only do they integrate signals from each of the main kinase pathways but mitochondrial kinases responsive to oxidative stress communicate to the rest of the cell. Using pharmacological and immunochemical methods, we tested the role of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and the Bcl-2 proteins in oxygen-dependent radiosensitivity. Drug-treated or untreated cervical cancer HeLa, breast cancer MCF-7 and melanoma MeWo cell lines were irradiated at 6.2 Gy under normoxic and hypoxic conditions then allowed to proliferate for 7 days. The MPT blocker cyclosporin A (2 microM) strongly protected HeLa but not the other two lines against oxygen-dependent radiosensitivity. By contrast, bongkrekic acid (50 microM), which blocks MPT by targeting the adenine nucleotide transporter, had only marginal effect and calcineurin inhibitor FK-506 (0.1 microM) had none. Nor was evidence found for the modulation of oxygen-dependent radiosensitivity by Bax\\/Bcl-2 signalling, mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium (mitoK(ATP)) channels or mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. In conclusion, calcineurin-independent protection by cyclosporin A suggests that MPT but not mitoK(ATP) or the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway plays a causal role in oxygen-dependent radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. Targeting MPT may therefore improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy in some solid tumours.

  19. Escherichia coli contains a soluble ATP-dependent protease (Ti) distinct from protease La

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, B.J.; Park, W.J.; Chung, C.H.; Goldberg, A.L.

    1987-08-01

    The energy requirement for protein breakdown in Escherichia coli has generally been attributed to the ATP-dependence of protease La, the lon gene product. The authors have partially purified another ATP-dependent protease from lon/sup -/ cells that lack protease La (as shown by immunoblotting). This enzyme hydrolyzes (/sup 3/H)methyl-casein to acid-soluble products in the presence of ATP and Mg/sup 2 +/. ATP hydrolysis appears necessary for proteolytic activity. Since this enzyme is inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, it appears to be a serine protease, but it also contains essential thiol residues. They propose to name this enzyme protease Ti. It differs from protease La in nucleotide specificity, inhibitor sensitivity, and subunit composition. On gel filtration, protease Ti has an apparent molecular weight of 370,000. It can be fractionated by phosphocellulose chromatography or by DEAE chromatography into two components with apparent molecular weights of 260,000 and 140,000. When separated, they do not show preteolytic activity. One of these components, by itself, has ATPase activity and is labile in the absence of ATP. The other contains the diisopropyl fluorophosphate-sensitive proteolytic site. These results and the similar findings of Katayama-Fujimura et al. indicate that E. coli contains two ATP-hydrolyzing proteases, which differ in many biochemical features and probably in their physiological roles.

  20. Escherichia coli contains a soluble ATP-dependent protease (Ti) distinct from protease La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, B.J.; Park, W.J.; Chung, C.H.; Goldberg, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The energy requirement for protein breakdown in Escherichia coli has generally been attributed to the ATP-dependence of protease La, the lon gene product. The authors have partially purified another ATP-dependent protease from lon - cells that lack protease La (as shown by immunoblotting). This enzyme hydrolyzes [ 3 H]methyl-casein to acid-soluble products in the presence of ATP and Mg 2+ . ATP hydrolysis appears necessary for proteolytic activity. Since this enzyme is inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, it appears to be a serine protease, but it also contains essential thiol residues. They propose to name this enzyme protease Ti. It differs from protease La in nucleotide specificity, inhibitor sensitivity, and subunit composition. On gel filtration, protease Ti has an apparent molecular weight of 370,000. It can be fractionated by phosphocellulose chromatography or by DEAE chromatography into two components with apparent molecular weights of 260,000 and 140,000. When separated, they do not show preteolytic activity. One of these components, by itself, has ATPase activity and is labile in the absence of ATP. The other contains the diisopropyl fluorophosphate-sensitive proteolytic site. These results and the similar findings of Katayama-Fujimura et al. indicate that E. coli contains two ATP-hydrolyzing proteases, which differ in many biochemical features and probably in their physiological roles

  1. Role of inward rectifier potassium channels in salivary gland function and sugar feeding of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arthropod salivary gland is of critical importance for horizontal transmission of pathogens, yet a detailed understanding of the ion conductance pathways responsible for saliva production and excretion is lacking. A superfamily of potassium ion channels, known as inward rectifying potassium (Ki...

  2. Terbinafine is a novel and selective activator of the two-pore domain potassium channel TASK3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Paul D; Veale, Emma L; McCoull, David; Tickle, David C; Large, Jonathan M; Ococks, Emma; Gothard, Gemma; Kettleborough, Catherine; Mathie, Alistair; Jerman, Jeffrey

    2017-11-04

    Two-pore domain potassium channels (K2Ps) are characterized by their four transmembrane domain and two-pore topology. They carry background (or leak) potassium current in a variety of cell types. Despite a number of important roles there is currently a lack of pharmacological tools with which to further probe K2P function. We have developed a cell-based thallium flux assay, using baculovirus delivered TASK3 (TWIK-related acid-sensitive K + channel 3, KCNK9, K2P9.1) with the aim of identifying novel, selective TASK3 activators. After screening a library of 1000 compounds, including drug-like and FDA approved molecules, we identified Terbinafine as an activator of TASK3. In a thallium flux assay a pEC50 of 6.2 ( ±0.12) was observed. When Terbinafine was screened against TASK2, TREK2, THIK1, TWIK1 and TRESK no activation was observed in thallium flux assays. Several analogues of Terbinafine were also purchased and structure activity relationships examined. To confirm Terbinafine's activation of TASK3 whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology was carried out and clear potentiation observed in both the wild type channel and the pathophysiological, Birk-Barel syndrome associated, G236R TASK3 mutant. No activity at TASK1 was observed in electrophysiology studies. In conclusion, we have identified the first selective activator of the two-pore domain potassium channel TASK3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [G-protein potentiates the activation of TNF-alpha on calcium-activated potassium channel in ECV304].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Zheng, Y; Qu, J; Bao, G

    2000-06-01

    Observe the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on calcium-activated potassium channel in ECV304 and the possible involvement of G-protein mediation in the action of TNF-alpha. Using the cell-attached configuration of patch clamp technique. (1) the activity of high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKca) was recorded. Its conductance is (202.54 +/- 16.62) pS; (2) the activity of BKca was potentiated by 200 U/ml TNF-alpha; (3) G-protein would intensify this TNF-alpha activation. TNF-alpha acted on vascular endothelial cell ECV304 could rapidly activate the activity of BKca. Opening of BKca resulted in membrane hyper-polarization which could increase electro-chemical gradient for the resting Ca2+ influx and open leakage calcium channel, thus resting cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration could be elevated. G-protein may exert an important regulation in this process.

  4. Hyperpolarization moves S4 sensors inward to open MVP, a methanococcal voltage-gated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesti, Federico; Rajan, Sindhu; Gonzalez-Colaso, Rosana; Nikolaeva, Natalia; Goldstein, Steve A N

    2003-04-01

    MVP, a Methanococcus jannaschii voltage-gated potassium channel, was cloned and shown to operate in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Like pacemaker channels, MVP opens on hyperpolarization using S4 voltage sensors like those in classical channels activated by depolarization. The MVP S4 span resembles classical sensors in sequence, charge, topology and movement, traveling inward on hyperpolarization and outward on depolarization (via canaliculi in the protein that bring the extracellular and internal solutions into proximity across a short barrier). Thus, MVP opens with sensors inward indicating a reversal of S4 position and pore state compared to classical channels. Homologous channels in mammals and plants are expected to function similarly.

  5. Polarized axonal surface expression of neuronal KCNQ potassium channels is regulated by calmodulin interaction with KCNQ2 subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Cavaretta

    Full Text Available KCNQ potassium channels composed of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 subunits give rise to the M-current, a slow-activating and non-inactivating voltage-dependent potassium current that limits repetitive firing of action potentials. KCNQ channels are enriched at the surface of axons and axonal initial segments, the sites for action potential generation and modulation. Their enrichment at the axonal surface is impaired by mutations in KCNQ2 carboxy-terminal tail that cause benign familial neonatal convulsion and myokymia, suggesting that their correct surface distribution and density at the axon is crucial for control of neuronal excitability. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating enrichment of KCNQ channels at the neuronal axon remain elusive. Here, we show that enrichment of KCNQ channels at the axonal surface of dissociated rat hippocampal cultured neurons is regulated by ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin. Using immunocytochemistry and the cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 membrane protein as a trafficking reporter, we demonstrate that fusion of KCNQ2 carboxy-terminal tail is sufficient to target CD4 protein to the axonal surface whereas inhibition of calmodulin binding to KCNQ2 abolishes axonal surface expression of CD4 fusion proteins by retaining them in the endoplasmic reticulum. Disruption of calmodulin binding to KCNQ2 also impairs enrichment of heteromeric KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels at the axonal surface by blocking their trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the axon. Consistently, hippocampal neuronal excitability is dampened by transient expression of wild-type KCNQ2 but not mutant KCNQ2 deficient in calmodulin binding. Furthermore, coexpression of mutant calmodulin, which can interact with KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels but not calcium, reduces but does not abolish their enrichment at the axonal surface, suggesting that apo calmodulin but not calcium-bound calmodulin is necessary for their preferential targeting to the axonal

  6. Neuronal trafficking of voltage-gated potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla S; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger; Misonou, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    The computational ability of CNS neurons depends critically on the specific localization of ion channels in the somatodendritic and axonal membranes. Neuronal dendrites receive synaptic inputs at numerous spines and integrate them in time and space. The integration of synaptic potentials is regul......The computational ability of CNS neurons depends critically on the specific localization of ion channels in the somatodendritic and axonal membranes. Neuronal dendrites receive synaptic inputs at numerous spines and integrate them in time and space. The integration of synaptic potentials...

  7. Pharmacological dissection of K(v)7.1 channels in systemic and pulmonary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadha, Preet S; Zunke, Friederike; Davis, Alison J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the functional impact of KCNQ1-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channels (K(v)7.1) in the vasculature.......The aim of this study was to characterize the functional impact of KCNQ1-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channels (K(v)7.1) in the vasculature....

  8. Inhibitory effects of telmisartan on culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-Sha Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Activation of T lymphocytes, for which potassium channels are essential, is involved in the development of hypertension. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effects of telmisartan on the culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes derived from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension. Methods: CD4+ T-cell samples from hypertensive Kazakh patients and healthy Kazakh people were divided into healthy control, case control, telmisartan, and 4-aminopytidine groups. Changes in the expression levels of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-17 in the blood of the healthy control and case control subjects were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes were first activated and proliferated in vitro and then incubated for 0, 24, and 48 h under various treatment conditions. Thereafter, changes in CD4+ T-lymphocytic proliferation were determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 and microscope photography. Changes in messenger RNA (mRNA and protein expression of the Kv1.3 potassium channel in CD4+ T lymphocytes were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blots, respectively. Results: The IL-6 and IL-17 expression levels were significantly higher in the blood of the hypertensive Kazakh patients than in the healthy Kazakh people. Telmisartan inhibited T-lymphocytic proliferation, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of the Kv1.3 potassium channel in CD4+ T lymphocytes, and the inhibitory effects were time-dependent, with the strongest inhibition observed after 48 h and significantly weaker inhibition observed after 24 h of treatment. Conclusions: Telmisartan may potentially regulate hypertensive inflammatory responses by inhibiting T-lymphocytic proliferation and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes.

  9. Ion channels in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrich, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    Since the first recordings of single potassium channel activities in the plasma membrane of guard cells more than 25 years ago, patch-clamp studies discovered a variety of ion channels in all cell types and plant species under inspection. Their properties differed in a cell type- and cell membrane-dependent manner. Guard cells, for which the existence of plant potassium channels was initially documented, advanced to a versatile model system for studying plant ion channel structure, function, and physiology. Interestingly, one of the first identified potassium-channel genes encoding the Shaker-type channel KAT1 was shown to be highly expressed in guard cells. KAT1-type channels from Arabidopsis thaliana and its homologs from other species were found to encode the K(+)-selective inward rectifiers that had already been recorded in early patch-clamp studies with guard cells. Within the genome era, additional Arabidopsis Shaker-type channels appeared. All nine members of the Arabidopsis Shaker family are localized at the plasma membrane, where they either operate as inward rectifiers, outward rectifiers, weak voltage-dependent channels, or electrically silent, but modulatory subunits. The vacuole membrane, in contrast, harbors a set of two-pore K(+) channels. Just very recently, two plant anion channel families of the SLAC/SLAH and ALMT/QUAC type were identified. SLAC1/SLAH3 and QUAC1 are expressed in guard cells and mediate Slow- and Rapid-type anion currents, respectively, that are involved in volume and turgor regulation. Anion channels in guard cells and other plant cells are key targets within often complex signaling networks. Here, the present knowledge is reviewed for the plant ion channel biology. Special emphasis is drawn to the molecular mechanisms of channel regulation, in the context of model systems and in the light of evolution.

  10. [Mechanism of potassium channel in hypoxia-ischemic brain edema: experiment with neonatal rat astrocyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xue-mei; Xiang, Long; Liao, Da-qing; Feng, Zhi-chun; Mu, De-zhi

    2008-11-04

    To investigate the mechanism of potassium channel in brain edema caused by hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Astrocytes were obtained from 3-day-old SD rats, cultured, and randomly divided into 2 groups: normoxia group, cultured under normoxic condition, and hypoxic-ischemic group, cultured under hypoxic-ischemic condition. The cell volume was measured by radiologic method. Patch-clamp technique was used to observe the electric physiological properties of the voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) in a whole cell configuration, and the change of voltage-gated potassium channel current (IKv) was recorded in cultured neonatal rat astrocyte during HI. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression vector was constructed from pSUPER vector and transfected into the astrocytes (AQP4 RNAi) to construct AQP4 knockdown (AQP4-/-) cells. cellular volume was determined using [3H]-3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake in both AQP4-/- and AQP4+/+ cells under the condition of HI. Real time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of AQP4. The percentages of the AQP4+/+ and AQP4-/- astrocyte volumes in the condition of HI for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h were 104+/-7, 109+/-6, 126+/-12, and 152+/-9 times, and 97+/-7, 105+/-9, 109+/-7, and 132+/-6 times as those of their corresponding control groups (all Pastrocytes significantly increased during HI and the degrees of edema mediated by AQP4 knockdown at different time points were all significantly milder (all Pastrocytes via aquaporin-4 and then cell swelling.

  11. Identification of potential novel interaction partners of the sodium-activated potassium channels Slick and Slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Schwarzer, Christoph; Kremser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert H; Knaus, Hans-Günther

    2015-12-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are paralogous channels of the Slo family of high-conductance potassium channels. Slick and Slack channels are widely distributed in the mammalian CNS and they play a role in slow afterhyperpolarization, generation of depolarizing afterpotentials and in setting and stabilizing the resting potential. In the present study we used a combined approach of (co)-immunoprecipitation studies, Western blot analysis, double immunofluorescence and mass spectrometric sequencing in order to investigate protein-protein interactions of the Slick and Slack channels. The data strongly suggest that Slick and Slack channels co-assemble into identical cellular complexes. Double immunofluorescence experiments revealed that Slick and Slack channels co-localize in distinct mouse brain regions. Moreover, we identified the small cytoplasmic protein beta-synuclein and the transmembrane protein 263 (TMEM 263) as novel interaction partners of both, native Slick and Slack channels. In addition, the inactive dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP 10) and the synapse associated protein 102 (SAP 102) were identified as constituents of the native Slick and Slack channel complexes in the mouse brain. This study presents new insights into protein-protein interactions of native Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain.

  12. Diadenosine pentaphosphate affects electrical activity in guinea pig atrium via activation of potassium acetylcholine-dependent inward rectifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramochkin, Denis V; Karimova, Viktoria M; Filatova, Tatiana S; Kamkin, Andre

    2017-07-01

    Diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) belongs to the family of diadenosine polyphosphates, endogenously produced compounds that affect vascular tone and cardiac performance when released from platelets. The previous findings indicate that Ap5A shortens action potentials (APs) in rat myocardium via activation of purine P2 receptors. The present study demonstrates alternative mechanism of Ap5A electrophysiological effects found in guinea pig myocardium. Ap5A (10 -4  M) shortens APs in guinea pig working atrial myocardium and slows down pacemaker activity in the sinoatrial node. P1 receptors antagonist DPCPX (10 -7  M) or selective GIRK channels blocker tertiapin (10 -6  M) completely abolished all Ap5A effects, while P2 blocker PPADS (10 -4  M) was ineffective. Patch-clamp experiments revealed potassium inward rectifier current activated by Ap5A in guinea pig atrial myocytes. The current was abolished by DPCPX or tertiapin and therefore was considered as potassium acetylcholine-dependent inward rectifier (I KACh ). Thus, unlike rat, in guinea pig atrium Ap5A produces activation of P1 receptors and subsequent opening of KACh channels leading to negative effects on cardiac electrical activity.

  13. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  14. Mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation of the guinea pig fundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Tey, Shu-Leei; Lee, Ming-Che; Liu, Ching-Wen; Su, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Shih-Che

    2018-04-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that can be isolated from plants and also is a constituent of red wine. Resveratrol induces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Impaired gastric accommodation plays an important role in functional dyspepsia and fundic relaxation and is a therapeutic target of functional dyspepsia. Although drugs for fundic relaxation have been developed, these types of drugs are still rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relaxant effects of resveratrol in the guinea pig fundus. We studied the relaxant effects of resveratrol in the guinea pig fundus. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation on the guinea pig fundus by using tetraethylammonium (a non-selective potassium channel blocker), apamine (a selective inhibitor of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), iberiotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker), KT 5720 (a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor), KT 5823 (a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G inhibitor), NG-nitro-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), tetrodotoxin (a selective neuronal Na + channel blocker), ω-conotoxin GVIA (a selective neuronal Ca 2+ channel blocker) and G-15 (a G-protein coupled estrogen receptor antagonist). The results of this study showed that resveratrol has potent and dose-dependent relaxant effects on the guinea pig fundic muscle. In addition, the results showed that resveratrol-induced relaxation of the guinea pig fundus occurs through nitric oxide and ATP-sensitive potassium channels. This study provides the first evidence concerning the relaxant effects of resveratrol in the guinea pig fundic muscle strips. Furthermore, resveratrol may be a potential drug to relieve gastrointestinal dyspepsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Proapoptotic Role of Potassium Ions in Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglin Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively promote the infiltration of potassium ions. The significance of these channels for tumor biology has become obvious. However, the effects of potassium ions on the tumor or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, we studied the biological effects of L02 and HepG2 cells with ectogenous potassium ions. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Our results indicated that potassium ions inhibited proliferation of L02 and HepG2 cells and promoted their apoptosis. Potassium ions induced apoptosis through regulating Bcl-2 family members and depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, especially for HepG2 cell. These biological effects were associated with channel protein HERG. By facilitating expression of channel protein HERG, potassium ions may prevent it from being shunted to procancerous pathways by inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrated that potassium ions may be a key regulator of liver cell function. Thus, our findings suggest that potassium ions could inhibit tumorigenesis through inducing apoptosis of hepatoma cells by upregulating potassium ions transport channel proteins HERG and VDAC1.

  16. The heart and potassium: a banana republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ehsan; Spiers, Christine; Khan, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The importance of potassium in maintaining stable cardiac function is a clinically understood phenomenon. Physiologically the importance of potassium in cardiac function is described by the large number of different kinds of potassium ions channels found in the heart compared to channels and membrane transport mechanisms for other ions such as sodium and calcium. Potassium is important in physiological homeostatic control of cardiac function, but is also of relevance to the diseased state, as potassium-related effects may stabilize or destabilize cardiac function. This article aims to provide a detailed understanding of potassium-mediated cardiac function. This will help the clinical practitioner evaluate how modulation of potassium ion channels by disease and pharmacological manipulation affect the cardiac patient, thus aiding in decision making when faced with clinical problems related to potassium.

  17. Ethanol affects network activity in cultured rat hippocampus: mediation by potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Korkotian

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol on neuronal network activity were studied in dissociated cultures of rat hippocampus. Exposure to low (0.25-0.5% ethanol concentrations caused an increase in synchronized network spikes, and a decrease in the duration of individual spikes. Ethanol also caused an increase in rate of miniature spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Higher concentrations of ethanol eliminated network spikes. These effects were reversible upon wash. The effects of the high, but not the low ethanol were blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline. The enhancing action of low ethanol was blocked by apamin, an SK potassium channel antagonist, and mimicked by 1-EBIO, an SK channel opener. It is proposed that in cultured hippocampal networks low concentration of ethanol is associated with SK channel activity, rather than the GABAergic receptor.

  18. Ionic channels in plants: potassium transport Canais iônicos em plantas: o transporte de potássio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa de Oliveira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of potassium channels on the plasma membrane has helped to elucidate important mechanisms in animal and plant physiology. Plant growth and development associated mechanisms, such as germination, leaf movements, stomatal action, ion uptake in roots, phloem transport and nutrient storage are linked to potassium transport. Studies describing potassium transport regulation by abscisic acid (ABA, Ca++, light and other factors are presented here. Also the types of channels that regulate potassium uptake and efflux in the cell, and the interaction of these channels with external signals, are discussed.A descoberta de canais iônicos presentes na membrana plasmática tem ajudado a elucidar importantes mecanismos fisiológicos em animais e plantas. Mecanismos associados ao crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas, tais como germinação, movimento foliar, abertura e fechamento de estômatos, absorção de íons pelas raízes e armazenamento de nutrientes estão ligados ao transporte de potássio. Estudos descrevendo a regulação do transporte deste nutriente por ácido abscísico (ABA, Ca++, luz e outros fatores são apresentados. Os tipos de canais que regulam a saída e entrada de potássio na célula, e as interações destes com os sinais externos, são discutidos.

  19. A label-free electrochemiluminescent sensor for ATP detection based on ATP-dependent ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Lin, Chunshui; Yao, Qiuhong; Chen, Xi

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we describe a new label-free, sensitive and highly selective strategy for the electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection of ATP at the picomolar level via ATP-induced ligation. The molecular-beacon like DNA probes (P12 complex) are self-assembled on a gold electrode. The presence of ATP leads to the ligation of P12 complex which blocks the digestion by Exonuclease III (Exo III). The protected P12 complex causes the intercalation of numerous ECL indicators (Ru(phen)3(2+)) into the duplex DNA grooves, resulting in significantly amplified ECL signal output. Since the ligating site of T4 DNA ligase and the nicking site of Exo III are the same, it involves no long time of incubation for conformation change. The proposed strategy combines the amplification power of enzyme and the inherent high sensitivity of the ECL technique and enables picomolar detection of ATP. The developed strategy also shows high selectivity against ATP analogs, which makes our new label-free and highly sensitive ligation-based method a useful addition to the amplified ATP detection arena. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel de novo mutation in ATP1A3 and childhood-onset schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedemark-Margulies, Niklas; Brownstein, Catherine A.; Vargas, Sigella; Tembulkar, Sahil K.; Towne, Meghan C.; Shi, Jiahai; Gonzalez-Cuevas, Elisa; Liu, Kevin X.; Bilguvar, Kaya; Kleiman, Robin J.; Han, Min-Joon; Torres, Alcy; Berry, Gerard T.; Yu, Timothy W.; Beggs, Alan H.; Agrawal, Pankaj B.; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We describe a child with onset of command auditory hallucinations and behavioral regression at 6 yr of age in the context of longer standing selective mutism, aggression, and mild motor delays. His genetic evaluation included chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing. Sequencing revealed a previously unreported heterozygous de novo mutation c.385G>A in ATP1A3, predicted to result in a p.V129M amino acid change. This gene codes for a neuron-specific isoform of the catalytic α-subunit of the ATP-dependent transmembrane sodium–potassium pump. Heterozygous mutations in this gene have been reported as causing both sporadic and inherited forms of alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. We discuss the literature on phenotypes associated with known variants in ATP1A3, examine past functional studies of the role of ATP1A3 in neuronal function, and describe a novel clinical presentation associated with mutation of this gene. PMID:27626066

  1. Silencing of Kv4.1 potassium channels inhibits cell proliferation of tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Soo Hwa; Choi, Changsun; Hong, Seong-Geun; Yarishkin, Oleg V.; Bae, Young Min; Kim, Jae Gon; O'Grady, Scott M.; Yoon, Kyong-Ah; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, So Yeong

    2009-01-01

    Potassium channel activity has been shown to facilitate cell proliferation in cancer cells. In the present study, the role of Kv4.1 channels in immortal and tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells was investigated. Kv4.1 protein expression was positively correlated with tumorigenicity. Moreover, transfection with siRNAs targeting Kv4.1 mRNA suppressed proliferation of tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells. Experiments using mRNA isolated from human breast cancer tissues revealed that the level of Kv4.1 mRNA expression varied depending on the stage of the tumor. Kv4.1 protein expression increased during stages T2 and T3 compared to normal tissue. These results demonstrated that Kv4.1 plays a role in proliferation of tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells. In addition, elevated Kv4.1 expression may be useful as a diagnostic marker for staging mammary tumors and selective blockers of Kv4.1 may serve to suppress tumor cell proliferation.

  2. Oleate induces KATP channel-dependent hyperpolarization in mouse hypothalamic glucose-excited neurons without altering cellular energy charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadak, Selma; Beall, Craig; Vlachaki Walker, Julia M; Soutar, Marc P M; McCrimmon, Rory J; Ashford, Michael L J

    2017-03-27

    The unsaturated fatty acid, oleate exhibits anorexigenic properties reducing food intake and hepatic glucose output. However, its mechanism of action in the hypothalamus has not been fully determined. This study investigated the effects of oleate and glucose on GT1-7 mouse hypothalamic cells (a model of glucose-excited (GE) neurons) and mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons. Whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recordings, immunoblotting and cell energy status measures were used to investigate oleate- and glucose-sensing properties of mouse hypothalamic neurons. Oleate or lowered glucose concentration caused hyperpolarization and inhibition of firing of GT1-7 cells by the activation of ATP-sensitive K + channels (K ATP ). This effect of oleate was not dependent on fatty acid oxidation or raised AMP-activated protein kinase activity or prevented by the presence of the UCP2 inhibitor genipin. Oleate did not alter intracellular calcium, indicating that CD36/fatty acid translocase may not play a role. However, oleate activation of K ATP may require ATP metabolism. The short-chain fatty acid octanoate was unable to replicate the actions of oleate on GT1-7 cells. Although oleate decreased GT1-7 cell mitochondrial membrane potential there was no change in total cellular ATP or ATP/ADP ratios. Perforated patch and whole-cell recordings from mouse hypothalamic slices demonstrated that oleate hyperpolarized a subpopulation of ARC GE neurons by K ATP activation. Additionally, in a separate small population of ARC neurons, oleate application or lowered glucose concentration caused membrane depolarization. In conclusion, oleate induces K ATP- dependent hyperpolarization and inhibition of firing of a subgroup of GE hypothalamic neurons without altering cellular energy charge. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Ion channel profile of TRPM8 cold receptors reveals a novel role of TASK-3 potassium channels in thermosensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenilla-Palao, Cruz; Luis, Enoch; Fernández-Peña, Carlos; Quintero, Eva; Weaver, Janelle L.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Viana, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Summary Animals sense cold ambient temperatures through the activation of peripheral thermoreceptors that express TRPM8, a cold- and menthol-activated ion channel. These receptors can discriminate a very wide range of temperatures from innocuous to noxious. The molecular mechanism responsible for the variable sensitivity of individual cold receptors to temperature is unclear. To address this question, we performed a detailed ion channel expression analysis of cold sensitive neurons, combining BAC transgenesis with a molecular profiling approach in FACS purified TRPM8 neurons. We found that TASK-3 leak potassium channels are highly enriched in a subpopulation of these sensory neurons. The thermal threshold of TRPM8 cold neurons is decreased during TASK-3 blockade and in mice lacking TASK-3 and, most importantly, these mice display hypersensitivity to cold. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TASK-3 channels in thermosensation, showing that a channel-based combinatorial strategy in TRPM8 cold thermoreceptors leads to molecular specialization and functional diversity. PMID:25199828

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic characterization of a cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain from the mouse EAG potassium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques-Carvalho, Maria João; Morais-Cabral, João Henrique

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization conditions and preliminary crystal characterization of the cytoplasmic cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain from the mouse EAG potassium channel are reported. The members of the family of voltage-gated KCNH potassium channels play important roles in cardiac and neuronal repolarization, tumour proliferation and hormone secretion. These channels have a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain which is homologous to cyclic nucleotide-binding domains (CNB-homology domains), but it has been demonstrated that channel function is not affected by cyclic nucleotides and that the domain does not bind nucleotides in vitro. Here, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a CNB-homology domain from a member of the KCNH family, the mouse EAG channel, is reported. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution and the crystal belonged to the hexagonal space group P3 1 21

  5. Reversible Dementia: Two Nursing Home Patients With Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Antibody-Associated Limbic Encephalitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reintjes, W.; Romijn, M.D.M.; den Hollander, D.; ter Bruggen, J.P.; van Marum, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (VGKC-LE) is a rare disease that is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for medical practitioners. Two patients with VGKC-LE, both developing dementia are presented. Following treatment, both patients showed remarkable

  6. Gamma-radiation effect of the ATP-ASE-activity in various parts of cotton sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimov, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    ATP-ase is a thiol enzyme whose sulfhydryl group plays an important role. The transport of substances through biological membranes is the result of the action of the sodium-potassium pump of the cell, which functions with ATP energy. The action of this transport mechanism depends on the activity of ATP-ase. It may be postulated, therefore, that the suppression of the active transport of Na + and K + ions in cells under irradiation is partially the result of a disturbance of the activity of the ATP enzyme system. The author studied the effect of gamma radiation on ATP-ase activity in various parts of seven-day-old seedlings of type 108-F cotton, which were irradiated using Co 60 gamma radiation. The results of the experiment showed that the ATP-ase activity of the cotton seedling rootlets depends on the dose and the time elapsed after irradiation (a table is given). Small radiation doses (0.2 and 0.5 krad) significantly increased ATP-ase activity in the rootlets, while heavy doses inhibited it significantly. Similar results were obtained for the stems and leaves (tables are given). It was estblished that the ATP-ase of cotton seedlings has varying sensitivity to irradiation. The most sensitive ATP-ases were those of the rootlets. The activity of background ATP-ase is less subject to change than Na + and K + activated ATP-ases. For example, while the activity of ATP-ase (without ions) was inhibited by 25% when a 25 krad irradiation dose was administered, the retardation of Na + and K + activated ATP-ases reached 41%. The author suggests that the inhibition of ATP-ase activity under irradiation is mainly the result of a disturbance of the structure of the membrane functions. It is also possible that ATP-ase activity decreases because of a lack of the enzyme substrate - ATP, which is formed during the process of oxydative phosphorylization. A table is also provided showing the effect of irradiation on the activity of ATP-ase activated by various ions in the roots of

  7. Effects of channel noise on firing coherence of small-world Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X. J.; Lei, J. Z.; Perc, M.; Lu, Q. S.; Lv, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effects of channel noise on firing coherence of Watts-Strogatz small-world networks consisting of biophysically realistic HH neurons having a fraction of blocked voltage-gated sodium and potassium ion channels embedded in their neuronal membranes. The intensity of channel noise is determined by the number of non-blocked ion channels, which depends on the fraction of working ion channels and the membrane patch size with the assumption of homogeneous ion channel density. We find that firing coherence of the neuronal network can be either enhanced or reduced depending on the source of channel noise. As shown in this paper, sodium channel noise reduces firing coherence of neuronal networks; in contrast, potassium channel noise enhances it. Furthermore, compared with potassium channel noise, sodium channel noise plays a dominant role in affecting firing coherence of the neuronal network. Moreover, we declare that the observed phenomena are independent of the rewiring probability.

  8. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels Kv1.3--Potentially New Molecular Target in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisseyre, Andrzej; Gąsiorowska, Justyna; Michalak, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels, Kv1.3, which were discovered in 1984, are integral membrane proteins which are activated ("open") upon change of the cell membrane potential, enabling a passive flux of potassium ions across the cell membrane. The channels are expressed in many different tissues, both normal and cancer. Since 2005 it has been known that the channels are expressed not only in the plasma membrane, but also in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The activity of Kv1.3 channels plays an important role, among others, in setting the cell resting membrane potential, cell proliferation, apoptosis and volume regulation. For some years, these channels have been considered a potentially new molecular target in both the diagnostics and therapy of some cancer diseases. This review article focuses on: 1) changes of expression of the channels in cancer disorders with special regard to correlations between the channels' expression and stage of the disease, 2) influence of inhibitors of Kv1.3 channels on proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells, 3) possible future applications of Kv1.3 channels' inhibitors in therapy of some cancer diseases. In the last section, the results of studies performed in our Laboratory of Bioelectricity on the influence of selected biologically active plant-derived compounds from the groups of flavonoids and stilbenes and their natural and synthetic derivatives on the activity of Kv1.3 channels in normal and cancer cells are reviewed. A possible application of some compounds from these groups to support therapy of cancer diseases, such as breast, colon and lymph node cancer, and melanoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), is announced.

  9. Diclofenac distinguishes among homomeric and heteromeric potassium channels composed of KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggemann, Lioubov I; Mackie, Alexander R; Martin, Jody L; Cribbs, Leanne L; Byron, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 potassium channel subunits are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, although it remains uncertain how these subunits assemble to form functional channels. Using patch-clamp techniques, we compared the electrophysiological characteristics and effects of diclofenac, a known KCNQ channel activator, on human KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 channels expressed individually or together in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells. The conductance curves of the overexpressed channels were fitted by a single Boltzmann function in each case (V(0.5) values: -31, -44, and -38 mV for KCNQ4, KCNQ5, and KCNQ4/5, respectively). Diclofenac (100 μM) inhibited KCNQ5 channels, reducing maximum conductance by 53%, but increased maximum conductance of KCNQ4 channels by 38%. The opposite effects of diclofenac on KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 could not be attributed to the presence of a basic residue (lysine) in the voltage-sensing domain of KCNQ5, because mutation of this residue to neutral glycine (the residue present in KCNQ4) resulted in a more effective block of the channel. Differences in deactivation rates and distinct voltage-dependent effects of diclofenac on channel activation and deactivation observed with each of the subunit combinations (KCNQ4, KCNQ5, and KCNQ4/5) were used as diagnostic tools to evaluate native KCNQ currents in vascular smooth muscle cells. A7r5 cells express only KCNQ5 channels endogenously, and their responses to diclofenac closely resembled those of the overexpressed KCNQ5 currents. In contrast, mesenteric artery myocytes, which express both KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 channels, displayed whole-cell KCNQ currents with properties and diclofenac responses characteristic of overexpressed heteromeric KCNQ4/5 channels.

  10. Tuning the allosteric regulation of artificial muscarinic and dopaminergic ligand-gated potassium channels by protein engineering of G protein-coupled receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Christophe J.; Revilloud, Jean; Caro, Lydia N.; Dupuis, Julien P.; Trouchet, Amandine; Estrada-Mondragón, Argel; Nieścierowicz, Katarzyna; Sapay, Nicolas; Crouzy, Serge; Vivaudou, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels enable intercellular transmission of action potential through synapses by transducing biochemical messengers into electrical signal. We designed artificial ligand-gated ion channels by coupling G protein-coupled receptors to the Kir6.2 potassium channel. These artificial channels called ion channel-coupled receptors offer complementary properties to natural channels by extending the repertoire of ligands to those recognized by the fused receptors, by generating more sustained signals and by conferring potassium selectivity. The first artificial channels based on the muscarinic M2 and the dopaminergic D2L receptors were opened and closed by acetylcholine and dopamine, respectively. We find here that this opposite regulation of the gating is linked to the length of the receptor C-termini, and that C-terminus engineering can precisely control the extent and direction of ligand gating. These findings establish the design rules to produce customized ligand-gated channels for synthetic biology applications. PMID:28145461

  11. Intracellular and non-neuronal targets of voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Bethan; Makuch, Mateusz; Moloney, Teresa; Dettmann, Inga; Mindorf, Swantje; Probst, Christian; Stoecker, Winfried; Buckley, Camilla; Newton, Charles R; Leite, M Isabel; Maddison, Paul; Komorowski, Lars; Adcock, Jane; Vincent, Angela; Waters, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Autoantibodies against the extracellular domains of the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex proteins, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2), are found in patients with limbic encephalitis, faciobrachial dystonic seizures, Morvan's syndrome and neuromyotonia. However, in routine testing, VGKC complex antibodies without LGI1 or CASPR2 reactivities (double-negative) are more common than LGI1 or CASPR2 specificities. Therefore, ...

  12. Functional significance of M-type potassium channels in nociceptive cutaneous sensory endings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Gayle M.; Reilly, Joanne M.; Thakur, Matthew; Keasberry, Vanessa N.; Marsh, Stephen J.; Dickenson, Anthony H.; Brown, David A.

    2012-01-01

    M-channels carry slowly activating potassium currents that regulate excitability in a variety of central and peripheral neurons. Functional M-channels and their Kv7 channel correlates are expressed throughout the somatosensory nervous system where they may play an important role in controlling sensory nerve activity. Here we show that Kv7.2 immunoreactivity is expressed in the peripheral terminals of nociceptive primary afferents. Electrophysiological recordings from single afferents in vitro showed that block of M-channels by 3 μM XE991 sensitized Aδ- but not C-fibers to noxious heat stimulation and induced spontaneous, ongoing activity at 32°C in many Aδ-fibers. These observations were extended in vivo: intraplantar injection of XE991 selectively enhanced the response of deep dorsal horn (DH) neurons to peripheral mid-range mechanical and higher range thermal stimuli, consistent with a selective effect on Aδ-fiber peripheral terminals. These results demonstrate an important physiological role of M-channels in controlling nociceptive Aδ-fiber responses and provide a rationale for the nocifensive behaviors that arise following intraplantar injection of the M-channel blocker XE991. PMID:22593734

  13. Functional significance of M-type potassium channels in nociceptive cutaneous sensory endings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle M. Passmore

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available M-channels carry slowly activating potassium currents that regulate excitability in a variety of central and peripheral neurons. Functional M-channels and their Kv7 channel correlates are expressed throughout the somatosensory nervous system where they may play an important role in controlling sensory nerve activity. Here we show that Kv7.2 immunoreactivity is expressed in the peripheral terminals of nociceptive primary afferents. Electrophysiological recordings from single afferents in vitro showed that block of M-channels by 3 µM XE991 sensitised Adelta- but not C-fibres to noxious heat stimulation and induced spontaneous, ongoing activity at 32ºC in many Adelta-fibres. These observations were extended in vivo: intraplantar injection of XE991 selectively enhanced the response of deep dorsal horn neurons to peripheral mid-range mechanical and higher range thermal stimuli, consistent with a selective effect on Adelta-fibre peripheral terminals. These results demonstrate an important physiological role of M-channels in controlling nociceptive Adelta-fibre responses and provide a rationale for the nocifensive behaviours that arise following intraplantar injection of the M-channel blocker XE991.

  14. Energy-dependent dissociation of ATP from high affinity catalytic sites of beef heart mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penefsky, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    Incubation of [gamma- 32 P]ATP with a molar excess of the membrane-bound form of mitochondrial ATPase (F1) results in binding of the bulk of the radioactive nucleotide in high affinity catalytic sites (Ka = 10(12) M-1). Subsequent initiation of respiration by addition of succinate or NADH is accompanied by a profound decrease in the affinity for ATP. About one-third of the bound radioactive ATP appears to dissociate, that is, the [gamma- 32 P]ATP becomes accessible to hexokinase. The NADH-stimulated dissociation of [gamma- 32 P]ATP is energy-dependent since the stimulation is inhibited by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and is prevented by respiratory chain inhibitors. The rate of the energy-dependent dissociation of ATP that occurs in the presence of NADH, ADP, and Pi is commensurate with the measured initial rate of ATP synthesis in NADH-supported oxidative phosphorylation catalyzed by the same submitochondrial particles. Thus, the rate of dissociation of ATP from the high affinity catalytic site of submitochondrial particles meets the criterion of kinetic competency under the conditions of oxidative phosphorylation. These experiments provide evidence in support of the argument that energy conserved during the oxidation of substrates by the respiratory chain can be utilized to reduce the very tight binding of product ATP in high affinity catalytic sites and to promote dissociation of the nucleotide

  15. Deletion of the Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel leads to neuronal and behavioral hyperexcitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speca, David J.; Ogata, Genki; Mandikian, Danielle; Bishop, Hannah I.; Wiler, Steve W.; Eum, Kenneth; Wenzel, H. Jürgen; Doisy, Emily T.; Matt, Lucas; Campi, Katharine L.; Golub, Mari S.; Nerbonne, Jeanne M.; Hell, Johannes W.; Trainor, Brian C.; Sack, Jon T.; Schwartzkroin, Philip A.; Trimmer, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel exhibits high-level expression in both principal and inhibitory neurons throughout the central nervous system, including prominent expression in hippocampal neurons. Studies of in vitro preparations suggest that Kv2.1 is a key yet conditional regulator of intrinsic neuronal excitability, mediated by changes in Kv2.1 expression, localization and function via activity-dependent regulation of Kv2.1 phosphorylation. Here we identify neurological and behavioral deficits in mutant (Kv2.1−/−) mice lacking this channel. Kv2.1−/− mice have grossly normal characteristics. No impairment in vision or motor coordination was apparent, although Kv2.1−/− mice exhibit reduced body weight. The anatomic structure and expression of related Kv channels in the brains of Kv2.1−/− mice appears unchanged. Delayed rectifier potassium current is diminished in hippocampal neurons cultured from Kv2.1−/− animals. Field recordings from hippocampal slices of Kv2.1−/− mice reveal hyperexcitability in response to the convulsant bicuculline, and epileptiform activity in response to stimulation. In Kv2.1−/− mice, long-term potentiation at the Schaffer collateral – CA1 synapse is decreased. Kv2.1−/− mice are strikingly hyperactive, and exhibit defects in spatial learning, failing to improve performance in a Morris Water Maze task. Kv2.1−/− mice are hypersensitive to the effects of the convulsants flurothyl and pilocarpine, consistent with a role for Kv2.1 as a conditional suppressor of neuronal activity. Although not prone to spontaneous seizures, Kv2.1−/− mice exhibit accelerated seizure progression. Together, these findings suggest homeostatic suppression of elevated neuronal activity by Kv2.1 plays a central role in regulating neuronal network function. PMID:24494598

  16. ATP secretion from nerve trunks and Schwann cells mediated by glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo Jun; Bennett, Max R

    2003-11-14

    ATP release from rat sciatic nerves and from cultured Schwann cells isolated from the nerves was investigated using an online bioluminescence technique. ATP was released in relatively large amounts from rat sciatic nerve trunks during electrical stimulation. This release was blocked by the sodium channel inhibitor tetrodotoxin and the non-NMDA glutamate receptor blocker 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Schwann cells isolated from the nerve trunks did not release ATP when electrically stimulated but did in response to glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner. Glutamate-stimulated ATP release was inhibited by specific non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 and competitive non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX. Glutamate-stimulated ATP release was decreased by inhibition of anion transporter inhibitors by furosemide, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by glibenclamide and exocytosis by botulinum toxin A, indicating that anion transporters and exocytosis provide the main secretion mechanisms for ATP release from the Schwann cells.

  17. Functional delineation of three groups of the ATP-dependent family of chromatin remodeling enzymes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyer, L.A.; Logie, C.; Bonte, E; Becker, P.B.; Wade, P.A.; Wolff, A.P.; Wu, C.; Imbalzano, A.N.; Peterson, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes antagonize the inhibitory effects of chromatin. We compare six different remodeling complexes: ySWI/SNF, yRSC, hSWI/SNF, xMi-2, dCHRAC, and dNURF. We find that each complex uses similar amounts of ATP to remodel nucleosomal arrays at nearly identical rates.

  18. Three C-terminal residues from the sulphonylurea receptor contribute to the functional coupling between the KATP channel subunits SUR2A and Kir6.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Julien P; Revilloud, Jean; Moreau, Christophe J; Vivaudou, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are metabolic sensors formed by the association of the inward rectifier potassium channel Kir6.2 and the sulphonylurea receptor SUR2A. SUR2A adjusts channel gating as a function of intracellular ATP and ADP and is the target of pharmaceutical openers and blockers which, respectively, up- and down-regulate Kir6.2. In an effort to understand how effector binding to SUR2A translates into Kir6.2 gating modulation, we examined the role of a 65-residue SUR2A fragment linking transmembrane domain TMD2 and nucleotide-binding domain NBD2 that has been shown to interact with Kir6.2. This fragment of SUR2A was replaced by the equivalent residues of its close homologue, the multidrug resistance protein MRP1. The chimeric construct was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized using the patch-clamp technique. We found that activation by MgADP and synthetic openers was greatly attenuated although apparent affinities were unchanged. Further chimeragenetic and mutagenetic studies showed that mutation of three residues, E1305, I1310 and L1313 (rat numbering), was sufficient to confer this defective phenotype. The same mutations had no effects on channel block by the sulphonylurea glibenclamide or by ATP, suggesting a role for these residues in activatory – but not inhibitory – transduction processes. These results indicate that, within the KATP channel complex, the proximal C-terminal of SUR2A is a critical link between ligand binding to SUR2A and Kir6.2 up-regulation. PMID:18450778

  19. Protein self-assembly and lipid binding in the folding of the potassium channel KcsA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera, F.N.; Renard, M.L.; Poveda, J.A.; de Kruijff, B.; Killian, J.A.; González-Ros, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Moderate concentrations of the alcohol 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) cause the coupled unfolding and dissociation into subunits of the homotetrameric potassium channel KcsA, in a process that is partially irreversible when the protein is solubilized in plain dodecyl â-D-maltoside (DDM) micelles

  20. N-Acetylcysteine-induced vasodilatation is modulated by KATP channels, Na+/K+-ATPase activity and intracellular calcium concentration: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezir, Özden; Çömelekoğlu, Ülkü; Sucu, Nehir; Yalın, Ali Erdinç; Yılmaz, Şakir Necat; Yalın, Serap; Söğüt, Fatma; Yaman, Selma; Kibar, Kezban; Akkapulu, Merih; Koç, Meryem İlkay; Seçer, Didem

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channel, Na + /K + -ATPase activity, and intracellular calcium levels on the vasodilatory effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in thoracic aorta by using electrophysiological and molecular techniques. Rat thoracic aorta ring preparations and cultured thoracic aorta cells were divided into four groups as control, 2mM NAC, 5mM NAC, and 10mM NAC. Thoracic aorta rings were isolated from rats for measurements of relaxation responses and Na + /K + -ATPase activity. In the cultured thoracic aorta cells, we measured the currents of K ATP channel, the concentration of intracellular calcium and mRNA expression level of K ATP channel subunits (KCNJ8, KCNJ11, ABCC8 and ABCC9). The relaxation rate significantly increased in all NAC groups compared to control. Similarly, Na + /K + - ATPase activity also significantly decreased in NAC groups. Outward K ATP channel current significantly increased in all NAC groups compared to the control group. Intracellular calcium concentration decreased significantly in all groups with compared control. mRNA expression level of ABCC8 subunit significantly increased in all NAC groups compared to the control group. Pearson correlation analysis showed that relaxation rate was significantly associated with K ATP current, intracellular calcium concentration, Na + /K + -ATPase activity and mRNA expression level of ABCC8 subunit. Our findings suggest that NAC relaxes vascular smooth muscle cells through a direct effect on K ATP channels, by increasing outward K+ flux, partly by increasing mRNA expression of K ATP subunit ABCC8, by decreasing in intracellular calcium and by decreasing in Na + /K + -ATPase activity. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. ATP sensitive K+ channel subunits (Kir6.1, Kir6.2) are the candidate mediators regulating ameliorating effects of pulsed magnetic field on aortic contractility in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Isil; Yilmaz, Mehmet B; Kocaturk-Sel, Sabriye; Tufan, Turan; Erkoc, Mehmet A; Comertpay, Gamze; Oksuz, Hale; Barc, Esma D

    2018-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes increased morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. With recent advancements in technology, alternative treatment methods have begun to be investigated in the world. This study aims to evaluate the effect of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on vascular complications and contractile activities of aortic rings along with Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 subunit expressions of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ) in aortas of controlled-diabetic and non-controlled diabetic rats. Controlled-diabetic and non-controlled diabetic adult male Wistar rats were exposed to PMF for a period of 6 weeks according to the PMF application protocol (1 h/day; intensity: 1.5 mT; consecutive frequency: 1, 10, 20, and 40 Hz). After PMF exposure, body weight and blood glucose levels were measured. Then, thoracic aorta tissue was extracted for relaxation-contraction and Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 expression experiments. Blood plasma glucose levels, body weight, and aortic ring contraction percentage decreased in controlled-diabetic rats but increased in non-controlled diabetic rats. PMF therapy repressed Kir6.1 mRNA expression in non-controlled diabetic rats but not in controlled diabetic rats. Conversely, Kir6.2 mRNA expressions were repressed both in controlled diabetic and non-controlled diabetic rats by PMF. Our findings suggest that the positive therapeutic effects of PMF may act through (K ATP ) subunits and may frequently occur in insulin-free conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:299-311, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Microelectrode array measurement of potassium ion channel remodeling on the field action potential duration in rapid atrial pacing rabbits model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Yan, Huang; Wugeti, Najina; Guo, Yujun; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Mei; Guo, Xingui; Jiao, Changan; Xu, Wenli; Li, Tianqi

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) arises from abnormalities in atrial structure and electrical activity. Microelectrode arrays (MEA) is a real-time, nondestructive measurement of the resting and action potential signal, from myocardial cells, to the peripheral circuit of electrophysiological activity. This study examined the field action potential duration (fAPD) of the right atrial appendage (RAA) by MEA in rapid atrial pacing (RAP) in the right atrium of rabbits. In addition, this study also investigated the effect of potassium ion channel blockers on fAPD. 40 New Zealand white rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1) the control, 2) potassium ion channel blocker (TEA, 4-Ap and BaCl2), and 3) amiodarone groups. The hearts were quickly removed and right atrial appendage sectioned (slice thickness 500 μm). Each slice was perfused with Tyrode's solution and continuously stimulated for 30 minutes. Sections from the control group were superfused with Tyrode's solution for 10 minutes, while the blocker groups and amiodarone were both treated with their respective compounds for 10 minutes each. The fAPD of RAA and action field action potential morphology were measured using MEA. In non-pace (control) groups, fAPD was 188.33 ± 18.29 ms after Tyrode's solution superfusion, and 173.91 ± 6.83 ms after RAP. In pace/potassium ion channel groups, TEA and BaCl2 superfusion prolonged atrial field action potential (fAPD) (control vs blocker: 176.67 ± 8.66 ms vs 196.11 ± 10.76 ms, 182.22 ± 12.87 ms vs 191.11 ± 13.09 ms with TEA and BaCl2 superfusion, respectively, P action potential in animal heart slices. After superfusing potassium ion channel blockers, fAPD was prolonged. These results suggest that Ito, IKur and IK1 remodel and mediate RAP-induced atrial electrical remodeling. Amiodarone alter potassium ion channel activity (Ito, IKur, IK1 and IKs), shortening fAPD.

  3. Cooperative endocytosis of the endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renigunta, Vijay; Fischer, Thomas; Zuzarte, Marylou; Kling, Stefan; Zou, Xinle; Siebert, Kai; Limberg, Maren M.; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels; Schlichthörl, Günter; Daut, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 interacts with the acid-sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. The functional relevance of this interaction was studied by heterologous expression of these proteins (and mutants thereof) in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cell lines. Coexpression of syntaxin-8 caused a fourfold reduction in TASK-1 current, a corresponding reduction in the expression of TASK-1 at the cell surface, and a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis of the channel. TASK-1 and syntaxin-8 colocalized in the early endosomal compartment, as indicated by the endosomal markers 2xFYVE and rab5. The stimulatory effect of the SNARE protein on the endocytosis of the channel was abolished when both an endocytosis signal in TASK-1 and an endocytosis signal in syntaxin-8 were mutated. A syntaxin-8 mutant that cannot assemble with other SNARE proteins had virtually the same effect as wild-type syntaxin-8. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed formation and endocytosis of vesicles containing fluorescence-tagged clathrin, TASK-1, and/or syntaxin-8. Our results suggest that the unassembled form of syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1 are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cooperative manner. This implies that syntaxin-8 regulates the endocytosis of TASK-1. Our study supports the idea that endosomal SNARE proteins can have functions unrelated to membrane fusion. PMID:24743596

  4. Treating a natural outbreak of columnaris in channel catfish with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An F. Columnare-exclusive epizootic occurred in fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) during normal tank culture practices at SNARC. Fish were transferred to the ultra low-flow system and 2.1 mg/L copper sulfate or 3 mg/L potassium permanganate was administered; an untreated control was ...

  5. Chronic exposure to KATP channel openers results in attenuated glucose sensing in hypothalamic GT1-7 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haythorne, Elizabeth; Hamilton, D Lee; Findlay, John A; Beall, Craig; McCrimmon, Rory J; Ashford, Michael L J

    2016-12-01

    Individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) are often exposed to recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia. This reduces hormonal and behavioural responses that normally counteract low glucose in order to maintain glucose homeostasis, with altered responsiveness of glucose sensing hypothalamic neurons implicated. Although the molecular mechanisms are unknown, pharmacological studies implicate hypothalamic ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K ATP ) activity, with K ATP openers (KCOs) amplifying, through cell hyperpolarization, the response to hypoglycaemia. Although initial findings, using acute hypothalamic KCO delivery, in rats were promising, chronic exposure to the KCO NN414 worsened the responses to subsequent hypoglycaemic challenge. To investigate this further we used GT1-7 cells to explore how NN414 affected glucose-sensing behaviour, the metabolic response of cells to hypoglycaemia and K ATP activity. GT1-7 cells exposed to 3 or 24 h NN414 exhibited an attenuated hyperpolarization to subsequent hypoglycaemic challenge or NN414, which correlated with diminished K ATP activity. The reduced sensitivity to hypoglycaemia was apparent 24 h after NN414 removal, even though intrinsic K ATP activity recovered. The NN414-modified glucose responsiveness was not associated with adaptations in glucose uptake, metabolism or oxidation. K ATP inactivation by NN414 was prevented by the concurrent presence of tolbutamide, which maintains K ATP closure. Single channel recordings indicate that NN414 alters K ATP intrinsic gating inducing a stable closed or inactivated state. These data indicate that exposure of hypothalamic glucose sensing cells to chronic NN414 drives a sustained conformational change to K ATP , probably by binding to SUR1, that results in loss of channel sensitivity to intrinsic metabolic factors such as MgADP and small molecule agonists. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade

    KAUST Repository

    Jourdain, P.

    2016-02-19

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade.

  7. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade

    KAUST Repository

    Jourdain, P.; Allaman, I.; Rothenfusser, K.; Fiumelli, Hubert; Marquet, P.; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade.

  8. ATP sensitive potassium channels in the skeletal muscle functions : involvement of the KCNJ11(Kir6.2 gene in the determination of Warner Bratzer shear force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico eTricarico

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ATP-sensitive K+-channels (KATP are distributed in the tissues coupling metabolism with K+ ions efflux. KATP subunits are encoded by KCNJ8 (Kir6.1, KCNJ11 (Kir6.2, ABCC8 (SUR1 and ABCC9 (SUR2 genes, alternative RNA splicing give rise to SUR variants that confer distinct physiological properties on the channel. An high expression/activity of the sarco-KATP channel is observed in various rat fast-twitch muscles, characterized by elevated muscle strength, while a low expression/activity is observed in the slow-twitch muscles characterized by reduced strength and frailty. Down-regulation of the KATP subunits of fast-twitch fibres is found in conditions characterized by weakness and frailty. KCNJ11 gene knockout mice have reduced glycogen, lean phenotype, lower body fat, and weakness. KATP channel is also a sensor of muscle atrophy. The KCNJ11 gene is located on BTA15, close to a QTL for meat tenderness, it has also a role in glycogen storage, a key mechanism of the postmortem transformation of muscle into meat. The role of KCNJ11 gene in muscle function may underlie an effect of KCNJ11 genotypes on meat tenderness, as recently reported. The fiber phenotype and genotype are important in livestock production science. Quantitative traits including meat production and quality are influenced both by environment and genes. Molecular markers can play an important role in the genetic improvement of animals through breeding strategies. Many factors influence the muscle Warner-Bratzler shear force including breed, age, feeding, the biochemical and functional parameters. The role of KCNJ11gene and related genes on muscle tenderness will be discussed in the present review.

  9. Phosphorylation of linker histones regulates ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, P.J.; Carruthers, L.M.; Logie, C.; Hill, D.A.; Solomon, M.J.; Wade, P.A.; Imbalzano, A.N.; Hansen, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Members of the ATP-dependent family of chromatin remodeling enzymes play key roles in the regulation of transcription, development, DNA repair and cell cycle control. We find that the remodeling activities of the ySWI/SNF, hSWI/SNF, xMi-2 and xACF complexes are nearly abolished by incorporation of

  10. Evidence that two ATP-dependent (Lon proteases in Borrelia burgdorferi serve different functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Coleman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The canonical ATP-dependent protease Lon participates in an assortment of biological processes in bacteria, including the catalysis of damaged or senescent proteins and short-lived regulatory proteins. Borrelia spirochetes are unusual in that they code for two putative ATP-dependent Lon homologs, Lon-1 and Lon-2. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted through the blood feeding of Ixodes ticks. Previous work in our laboratory reported that B. burgdorferi lon-1 is upregulated transcriptionally by exposure to blood in vitro, while lon-2 is not. Because blood induction of Lon-1 may be of importance in the regulation of virulence factors critical for spirochete transmission, the clarification of functional roles for these two proteases in B. burgdorferi was the object of this study. On the chromosome, lon-2 is immediately downstream of ATP-dependent proteases clpP and clpX, an arrangement identical to that of lon of Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Lon-1 and Lon-2 cluster separately due to differences in the NH(2-terminal substrate binding domains that may reflect differences in substrate specificity. Recombinant Lon-1 manifested properties of an ATP-dependent chaperone-protease in vitro but did not complement an E. coli Lon mutant, while Lon-2 corrected two characteristic Lon-mutant phenotypes. We conclude that B. burgdorferi Lons -1 and -2 have distinct functional roles. Lon-2 functions in a manner consistent with canonical Lon, engaged in cellular homeostasis. Lon-1, by virtue of its blood induction, and as a unique feature of the Borreliae, may be important in host adaptation from the arthropod to a warm-blooded host.

  11. APETx4, a Novel Sea Anemone Toxin and a Modulator of the Cancer-Relevant Potassium Channel KV10.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Moreels

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The human ether-à-go-go channel (hEag1 or KV10.1 is a cancer-relevant voltage-gated potassium channel that is overexpressed in a majority of human tumors. Peptides that are able to selectively inhibit this channel can be lead compounds in the search for new anticancer drugs. Here, we report the activity-guided purification and electrophysiological characterization of a novel KV10.1 inhibitor from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. Purified sea anemone fractions were screened for inhibitory activity on KV10.1 by measuring whole-cell currents as expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. Fractions that showed activity on Kv10.1 were further purified by RP-HPLC. The amino acid sequence of the peptide was determined by a combination of MALDI- LIFT-TOF/TOF MS/MS and CID-ESI-FT-ICR MS/MS and showed a high similarity with APETx1 and APETx3 and was therefore named APETx4. Subsequently, the peptide was electrophysiologically characterized on KV10.1. The selectivity of the toxin was investigated on an array of voltage-gated ion channels, including the cardiac human ether-à-go-go-related gene potassium channel (hERG or Kv11.1. The toxin inhibits KV10.1 with an IC50 value of 1.1 μM. In the presence of a similar toxin concentration, a shift of the activation curve towards more positive potentials was observed. Similar to the effect of the gating modifier toxin APETx1 on hERG, the inhibition of Kv10.1 by the isolated toxin is reduced at more positive voltages and the peptide seems to keep the channel in a closed state. Although the peptide also induces inhibitory effects on other KV and NaV channels, it exhibits no significant effect on hERG. Moreover, APETx4 induces a concentration-dependent cytotoxic and proapoptotic effect in various cancerous and noncancerous cell lines. This newly identified KV10.1 inhibitor can be used as a tool to further characterize the oncogenic channel KV10.1 or as a

  12. ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Factors and Their Roles in Affecting Nucleosome Fiber Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lusser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors of the SNF2 family are key components of the cellular machineries that shape and regulate chromatin structure and function. Members of this group of proteins have broad and heterogeneous functions ranging from controlling gene activity, facilitating DNA damage repair, promoting homologous recombination to maintaining genomic stability. Several chromatin remodeling factors are critical components of nucleosome assembly processes, and recent reports have identified specific functions of distinct chromatin remodeling factors in the assembly of variant histones into chromatin. In this review we will discuss the specific roles of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors in determining nucleosome composition and, thus, chromatin fiber properties.

  13. Kv10.1 potassium channel: from the brain to the tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cázares-Ordoñez, V; Pardo, L A

    2017-10-01

    The KCNH1 gene encodes the Kv10.1 (Eag1) ion channel, a member of the EAG (ether-à-go-go) family of voltage-gated potassium channels. Recent studies have demonstrated that KCHN1 mutations are implicated in Temple-Baraitser and Zimmermann-Laband syndromes and other forms of developmental deficits that all present with mental retardation and epilepsy, suggesting that Kv10.1 might be important for cognitive development in humans. Although the Kv10.1 channel is mainly expressed in the mammalian brain, its ectopic expression occurs in 70% of human cancers. Cancer cells and tumors expressing Kv10.1 acquire selective advantages that favor cancer progression through molecular mechanisms that involve several cellular pathways, indicating that protein-protein interactions may be important for Kv10.1 influence in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Several studies on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of Kv10.1 expression have shown interesting mechanistic insights about Kv10.1 role in oncogenesis, increasing the importance of identifying the cellular factors that regulate Kv10.1 expression in tumors.

  14. Diclofenac Distinguishes among Homomeric and Heteromeric Potassium Channels Composed of KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 SubunitsS⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggemann, Lioubov I.; Mackie, Alexander R.; Martin, Jody L.; Cribbs, Leanne L.

    2011-01-01

    KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 potassium channel subunits are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, although it remains uncertain how these subunits assemble to form functional channels. Using patch-clamp techniques, we compared the electrophysiological characteristics and effects of diclofenac, a known KCNQ channel activator, on human KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 channels expressed individually or together in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells. The conductance curves of the overexpressed channels were fitted by a single Boltzmann function in each case (V0.5 values: −31, −44, and −38 mV for KCNQ4, KCNQ5, and KCNQ4/5, respectively). Diclofenac (100 μM) inhibited KCNQ5 channels, reducing maximum conductance by 53%, but increased maximum conductance of KCNQ4 channels by 38%. The opposite effects of diclofenac on KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 could not be attributed to the presence of a basic residue (lysine) in the voltage-sensing domain of KCNQ5, because mutation of this residue to neutral glycine (the residue present in KCNQ4) resulted in a more effective block of the channel. Differences in deactivation rates and distinct voltage-dependent effects of diclofenac on channel activation and deactivation observed with each of the subunit combinations (KCNQ4, KCNQ5, and KCNQ4/5) were used as diagnostic tools to evaluate native KCNQ currents in vascular smooth muscle cells. A7r5 cells express only KCNQ5 channels endogenously, and their responses to diclofenac closely resembled those of the overexpressed KCNQ5 currents. In contrast, mesenteric artery myocytes, which express both KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 channels, displayed whole-cell KCNQ currents with properties and diclofenac responses characteristic of overexpressed heteromeric KCNQ4/5 channels. PMID:20876743

  15. Voltage-gated potassium channel-complex autoimmunity and associated clinical syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Sarosh R; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibodies are defined by the radioimmunoprecipitation of Kv1 potassium channel subunits from brain tissue extracts and were initially discovered in patients with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH). Subsequently, they were found in patients with PNH plus psychosis, insomnia, and dysautonomia, collectively termed Morvan's syndrome (MoS), and in a limbic encephalopathy (LE) with prominent amnesia and frequent seizures. Most recently, they have been described in patients with pure epilepsies, especially in patients with the novel and distinctive semiology termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). In each of these conditions, there is a close correlation between clinical measures and antibody levels. The VGKC-complex is a group of proteins that are strongly associated in situ and after extraction in mild detergent. Two major targets of the autoantibodies are leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2). The patients with PNH or MoS are most likely to have CASPR2 antibodies, whereas LGI1 antibodies are found characteristically in patients with FBDS and LE. Crucially, each of these conditions has a good response to immunotherapies, often corticosteroids and plasma exchange, although optimal regimes require further study. VGKC-complex antibodies have also been described in neuropathic pain syndromes, chronic epilepsies, a polyradiculopathy in porcine abattoir workers, and some children with status epilepticus. Increasingly, however, the antigenic targets in these patients are not defined and in some cases the antibodies may be secondary rather than the primary cause. Future serologic studies should define all the antigenic components of the VGKC-complex, and further inform mechanisms of antibody pathogenicity and related inflammation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  17. Scorpion Toxins Specific for Potassium (K+ Channels: A Historical Overview of Peptide Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary L. Bergeron

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion toxins have been central to the investigation and understanding of the physiological role of potassium (K+ channels and their expansive function in membrane biophysics. As highly specific probes, toxins have revealed a great deal about channel structure and the correlation between mutations, altered regulation and a number of human pathologies. Radio- and fluorescently-labeled toxin isoforms have contributed to localization studies of channel subtypes in expressing cells, and have been further used in competitive displacement assays for the identification of additional novel ligands for use in research and medicine. Chimeric toxins have been designed from multiple peptide scaffolds to probe channel isoform specificity, while advanced epitope chimerization has aided in the development of novel molecular therapeutics. Peptide backbone cyclization has been utilized to enhance therapeutic efficiency by augmenting serum stability and toxin half-life in vivo as a number of K+-channel isoforms have been identified with essential roles in disease states ranging from HIV, T-cell mediated autoimmune disease and hypertension to various cardiac arrhythmias and Malaria. Bioengineered scorpion toxins have been monumental to the evolution of channel science, and are now serving as templates for the development of invaluable experimental molecular therapeutics.

  18. ATP-dependent and NAD-dependent modification of glutamine synthetase from Rhodospirillum rubrum in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woehle, D.L.; Lueddecke, B.A.; Ludden, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is the target of both ATP- and NAD-dependent modification. Incubation of R. rubrum cell supernatant with [α- 32 P]NAD results in the labeling of glutamine synthetase and two other unidentified proteins. Dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase does not appear to be responsible for the modification of glutamine synthetase or the unidentified proteins. The [α- 32 P]ATP- and [α- 32 P] NAD-dependent modifications of R. rubrum glutamine synthetase appear to be exclusive and the two forms of modified glutamine synthetase are separable on two-dimensional gels. Loss of enzymatic activity by glutamine synthetase did not correlate with [α- 32 P]NAD labeling. This is in contrast to inactivation by nonphysiological ADP-ribosylation of other glutamine synthetases by an NAD:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase from turkey erythrocytes. A 32 P-labeled protein spot comigrates with the NAD-treated glutamine synthetase spot when glutamine synthetase purified from H 3 32 PO 4 -grown cells is analyzed on two-dimensional gels. The adenylylation site of R. rubrum glutamine synthetase has been determined to be Leu-(Asp)-Tyr-Leu-Pro-Pro-Glu-Glu-Leu-Met; the tyrosine residue is the site of modification

  19. Identification and characterization of an ATP.Mg-dependent protein phosphatase from pig brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.D.; Fong, Y.L.

    1985-01-01

    Substantial amounts of ATP.Mg-dependent phosphorylase phosphatase (Fc. M) and its activator (kinase FA) were identified and extensively purified from pig brain, in spite of the fact that glycogen metabolism in the brain is of little importance. The brain Fc.M was completely inactive and could only be activated by ATP.Mg and FA, isolated either from rabbit muscle or pig brain. Kinetical analysis of the dephosphorylation of endogenous brain protein indicates that Fc.M could dephosphorylate 32 P-labeled myelin basic protein (MBP) and [ 32 P]phosphorylase alpha at a comparable rate and moreover, this associated MBP phosphatase activity was also strictly kinase FA/ATP.Mg-dependent, demonstrating that MBP is a potential substrate for Fc.M in the brain. By manipulating MBP and inhibitor-2 as specific potent phosphorylase phosphatase inhibitors, we further demonstrate that 1) Fc.M contains two distinct catalytic sites to dephosphorylate different substrates, and 2) brain MBP may be a physiological trigger involved in the regulation of protein phosphatase substrate specificity in mammalian nervous tissues

  20. Ether à go-go potassium channel expression in soft tissue sarcoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühmer Walter

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of the human Eag1 potassium channel (Kv10.1 is normally restricted to the adult brain, but it has been detected in both tumour cell lines and primary tumours. Our purpose was to determine the frequency of expression of Eag1 in soft tissue sarcoma and its potential clinical implications. Results We used specific monoclonal antibodies to determine the expression levels of Eag1 in soft tissue sarcomas from 210 patients by immunohistochemistry. Eag1 was expressed in 71% of all tumours, with frequencies ranging from 56% (liposarcoma to 82% (rhabdomyosarcoma. We detected differences in expression levels depending on the histological type, but no association was seen between expression of this protein and sex, age, grade or tumour size. Four cell lines derived from relevant sarcoma histological types (fibrosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma were tested for Eag1 expression by real-time RT-PCR. We found all four lines to be positive for Eag1. In these cell lines, blockage of Eag1 by RNA interference led to a decrease in proliferation. Conclusion Eag1 is aberrantly expressed in over 70% sarcomas. In sarcoma cell lines, inhibition of Eag1 expression and/or function leads to reduced proliferation. The high frequency of expression of Eag1 in primary tumours and the restriction of normal expression of the channel to the brain, suggests the application of this protein for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

  1. A novel mechanism for fine-tuning open-state stability in a voltage-gated potassium channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Niciforovic, Ana P; Galpin, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    stabilization is the consequence of the amelioration of an inherently repulsive open-state interaction between the partial negative charge on the face of Phe481 and a highly co-evolved acidic side chain, Glu395, and this interaction is potentially modulated through the Tyr485 hydroxyl. We propose...... fluorinated derivatives of aromatic residues previously implicated in the gating of Shaker potassium channels. Here we show that stepwise dispersion of the negative electrostatic surface potential of only one site, Phe481, stabilizes the channel open state. Furthermore, these data suggest that this apparent...

  2. CFTR mediates noradrenaline-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2011-09-24

    In our earlier study, noradrenaline (NA) stimulated ATP release from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons as mediated via β(3) adrenoceptors linked to G(s) protein involving protein kinase A (PKA) activation, to cause allodynia. The present study was conducted to understand how ATP is released from DRG neurons. In an outside-out patch-clamp configuration from acutely dissociated rat DRG neurons, single-channel currents, sensitive to the P2X receptor inhibitor PPADS, were evoked by approaching the patch-electrode tip close to a neuron, indicating that ATP is released from DRG neurons, to activate P2X receptor. NA increased the frequency of the single-channel events, but such NA effect was not found for DRG neurons transfected with the siRNA to silence the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In the immunocytochemical study using acutely dissociated rat DRG cells, CFTR was expressed in neurons alone, but not satellite cells, fibroblasts, or Schwann cells. It is concluded from these results that CFTR mediates NA-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons as an ATP channel.

  3. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  4. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels with small conductance in bradykinin-induced vasodilation of porcine retinal arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel; Bek, Toke

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Endothelial dysfunction and impaired vasodilation may be involved in the pathogenesis of retinal vascular diseases. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying bradykinin vasodilation were examined and whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (IK...

  5. Alterations of sodium and potassium channels of RGCs in RCS rat with the development of retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongshan; Song, Yanping; Yao, Junping; Weng, Chuanhuang; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2013-11-01

    All know that retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of hereditary retinal degenerative diseases characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptors and associated with progressive cells loss; nevertheless, little is known about how rods and cones loss affects the surviving inner retinal neurons and networks. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) process and convey visual information from retina to visual centers in the brain. The healthy various ion channels determine the normal reception and projection of visual signals from RGCs. Previous work on the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat, as a kind of classical RP animal model, indicated that, at late stages of retinal degeneration in RCS rat, RGCs were also morphologically and functionally affected. Here, retrograde labeling for RGCs with Fluorogold was performed to investigate the distribution, density, and morphological changes of RGCs during retinal degeneration. Then, patch clamp recording, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were performed to study the channels of sodium and potassium properties of RGCs, so as to explore the molecular and proteinic basis for understanding the alterations of RGCs membrane properties and firing functions. We found that the resting membrane potential, input resistance, and capacitance of RGCs changed significantly at the late stage of retinal degeneration. Action potential could not be evoked in a part of RGCs. Inward sodium current and outward potassium current recording showed that sodium current was impaired severely but only slightly in potassium current. Expressions of sodium channel protein were impaired dramatically at the late stage of retinal degeneration. The results suggested that the density of RGCs decreased, process ramification impaired, and sodium ion channel proteins destructed, which led to the impairment of electrophysiological functions of RGCs and eventually resulted in the loss of visual function.

  6. Vitamin K3 inhibits mouse uterine contraction in vitro via interference with the calcium transfer and the potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Xia; Lu, Li-Min; Wang, Li

    2016-08-05

    Previous studies have demonstrated vitamin K3 had a great relief to smooth muscle spastic disorders, but no researches have yet pinpointed its possible anti-contractile activity in the uterus. Here, we evaluated the effect of vitamin K3 on myometrial contractility and explored the possible mechanisms of vitamin K3 action. Myograph apparatus were used to record the changes in contractility of isolated mouse uterine strips in a tissue bath. Uterine strips were exposed to vitamin K3 or vehicle. Vitamin K3 suppressed spontaneous contractions in a concentration dependent manner. It significantly decreased the contractile frequency induced by PGF2ɑ but not their amplitude (expect 58.0 μM). Prior incubation with vitamin K3 reduced the effectiveness of PGF2ɑ-induced contraction. The antispasmodic effect of vitamin K3 was also sensitive to potassium channel blockers, such as tetraethylammonium, 4-aminopyridine, iberiotoxin) but not to the nitric oxide related pathway blockers. High concentrations (29.0, 58.0 μM) of vitamin K3 weakened the Ca(2+) dose response and inhibited phase 1 contraction (intracellular stored calcium release). These dates suggest that vitamin K3 specifically suppresses myometrial contractility by affecting calcium and potassium channels; thus, this approach has potential therapy for uterine contractile activity related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Piezo1 regulates mechanotransductive release of ATP from human RBCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Eyup; Zhou, Sitong; DeCourcey, James; Wang, Yixuan; Waugh, Richard E; Wan, Jiandi

    2015-09-22

    Piezo proteins (Piezo1 and Piezo2) are recently identified mechanically activated cation channels in eukaryotic cells and associated with physiological responses to touch, pressure, and stretch. In particular, human RBCs express Piezo1 on their membranes, and mutations of Piezo1 have been linked to hereditary xerocytosis. To date, however, physiological functions of Piezo1 on normal RBCs remain poorly understood. Here, we show that Piezo1 regulates mechanotransductive release of ATP from human RBCs by controlling the shear-induced calcium (Ca(2+)) influx. We find that, in human RBCs treated with Piezo1 inhibitors or having mutant Piezo1 channels, the amounts of shear-induced ATP release and Ca(2+) influx decrease significantly. Remarkably, a critical extracellular Ca(2+) concentration is required to trigger significant ATP release, but membrane-associated ATP pools in RBCs also contribute to the release of ATP. Our results show how Piezo1 channels are likely to function in normal RBCs and suggest a previously unidentified mechanotransductive pathway in ATP release. Thus, we anticipate that the study will impact broadly on the research of red cells, cellular mechanosensing, and clinical studies related to red cell disorders and vascular disease.

  8. Endocochlear potential depends on Cl− channels: mechanism underlying deafness in Bartter syndrome IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickheit, Gesa; Maier, Hannes; Strenzke, Nicola; Andreescu, Corina E; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Muenscher, Adrian; Zdebik, Anselm A; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Human Bartter syndrome IV is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital deafness and severe renal salt and fluid loss. It is caused by mutations in BSND, which encodes barttin, a β-subunit of ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb chloride channels. Inner-ear-specific disruption of Bsnd in mice now reveals that the positive potential, but not the high potassium concentration, of the scala media depends on the presence of these channels in the epithelium of the stria vascularis. The reduced driving force for K+-entry through mechanosensitive channels into sensory hair cells entails a profound congenital hearing loss and subtle vestibular symptoms. Although retaining all cell types and intact tight junctions, the thickness of the stria is reduced early on. Cochlear outer hair cells degenerate over several months. A collapse of endolymphatic space was seen when mice had additionally renal salt and fluid loss due to partial barttin deletion in the kidney. Bsnd−/− mice thus demonstrate a novel function of Cl− channels in generating the endocochlear potential and reveal the mechanism leading to deafness in human Bartter syndrome IV. PMID:18833191

  9. Potassium channel and NKCC cotransporter involvement in ocular refractive control mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila G Crewther

    Full Text Available Myopia affects well over 30% of adult humans globally. However, the underlying physiological mechanism is little understood. This study tested the hypothesis that ocular growth and refractive compensation to optical defocus can be controlled by manipulation of potassium and chloride ion-driven transretinal fluid movements to the choroid. Chicks were raised with +/-10D or zero power optical defocus rendering the focal plane of the eye in front of, behind, or at the level of the retinal photoreceptors respectively. Intravitreal injections of barium chloride, a non-specific inhibitor of potassium channels in the retina and RPE or bumetanide, a selective inhibitor of the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter were made, targeting fluid control mechanisms. Comparison of refractive compensation to 5 mM Ba(2+ and 10(-5 M bumetanide compared with control saline injected eyes shows significant change for both positive and negative lens defocus for Ba(2+ but significant change only for negative lens defocus with bumetanide (Rx(SAL(-10D = -8.6 +/- .9 D; Rx(Ba2+(-10D = -2.9 +/- .9 D; Rx(Bum(-10D = -2.9 +/- .9 D; Rx(SAL(+10D = +8.2 +/- .9 D; Rx(Ba2+(+10D = +2.8 +/- 1.3 D; Rx(Bum(+10D = +8.0 +/- .7 D. Vitreous chamber depths showed a main effect for drug conditions with less depth change in response to defocus shown for Ba(2+ relative to Saline, while bumetanide injected eyes showed a trend to increased depth without a significant interaction with applied defocus. The results indicate that both K channels and the NKCC cotransporter play a role in refractive compensation with NKCC blockade showing far more specificity for negative, compared with positive, lens defocus. Probable sites of action relevant to refractive control include the apical retinal pigment epithelium membrane and the photoreceptor/ON bipolar synapse. The similarities between the biometric effects of NKCC inhibition and biometric reports of the blockade of the retinal ON response, suggest a

  10. Delayed LGI1 seropositivity in voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibody limbic encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Michael; Galli, Jonathan; McNally, Scott; Tebo, Anne; Haven, Thomas; Thulin, Perla; Clardy, Stacey L

    2017-01-01

    We utilise a clinical case to highlight why exclusion of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex autoantibody testing in serological evaluation of patients may delay or miss the diagnosis. A 68-year-old man presented with increasing involuntary movements consistent with faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). Initial evaluation demonstrated VGKC antibody seropositivity with leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) seronegativity. Aggress...

  11. Strontium and barium in aqueous solution and a potassium channel binding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; Rempe, Susan B.

    2018-06-01

    Ion hydration structure and free energy establish criteria for understanding selective ion binding in potassium (K+) ion channels and may be significant to understanding blocking mechanisms as well. Recently, we investigated the hydration properties of Ba2+, the most potent blocker of K+ channels among the simple metal ions. Here, we use a similar method of combining ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, statistical mechanical theory, and electronic structure calculations to probe the fundamental hydration properties of Sr2+, which does not block bacterial K+ channels. The radial distribution of water around Sr2+ suggests a stable 8-fold geometry in the local hydration environment, similar to Ba2+. While the predicted hydration free energy of -331.8 kcal/mol is comparable with the experimental result of -334 kcal/mol, the value is significantly more favorable than the -305 kcal/mol hydration free energy of Ba2+. When placed in the innermost K+ channel blocking site, the solvation free energies and lowest energy structures of both Sr2+ and Ba2+ are nearly unchanged compared with their respective hydration properties. This result suggests that the block is not attributable to ion trapping due to +2 charge, and differences in blocking behavior arise due to free energies associated with the exchange of water ligands for channel ligands instead of free energies of transfer from water to the binding site.

  12. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, J Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S

    2007-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase generates electrochemical gradients for sodium and potassium that are vital to animal cells, exchanging three sodium ions for two potassium ions across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure at 3.5 A resolution......-subunit is contained within a pocket between transmembrane helices and seems to be a novel regulatory element controlling sodium affinity, possibly influenced by the membrane potential. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-13...

  13. Effects of different components of serum after radiation, burn and combined radiation-burn injury on inward rectifier potassium channel of myocardial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Benlan; Cheng Tianmin; Xiao Jiasi

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of different components of serum in rats inflicted with radiation, burn and combined radiation-burn injury on inward rectifier potassium channel of cultured myocardial cells. Method: Using patch clamp method to study the action of single ion channel. Results: The low molecular and lipid components of serum after different injuries models could all activate the inward rectifier potassium channel in cultured myocardial cells. The components of serum after combined radiation-burn injury showed the most significant effect, and the way of this effect was different from that from single injury. Conclusion: The serum components post injury altered the electric characteristic of myocardial cells, which may play a role in the combined effect of depressed cardiac function after combined radiation-burn injury

  14. Non-equivalent role of TM2 gating hinges in heteromeric Kir4.1/Kir5.1 potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lijun; Tucker, Stephen J

    2008-02-01

    Comparison of the crystal structures of the KcsA and MthK potassium channels suggests that the process of opening a K(+) channel involves pivoted bending of the inner pore-lining helices at a highly conserved glycine residue. This bending motion is proposed to splay the transmembrane domains outwards to widen the gate at the "helix-bundle crossing". However, in the inwardly rectifying (Kir) potassium channel family, the role of this "hinge" residue in the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and that of another putative glycine gating hinge at the base of TM2 remain controversial. We investigated the role of these two positions in heteromeric Kir4.1/Kir5.1 channels, which are unique amongst Kir channels in that both subunits lack a conserved glycine at the upper hinge position. Contrary to the effect seen in other channels, increasing the potential flexibility of TM2 by glycine substitutions at the upper hinge position decreases channel opening. Furthermore, the contribution of the Kir4.1 subunit to this process is dominant compared to Kir5.1, demonstrating a non-equivalent contribution of these two subunits to the gating process. A homology model of heteromeric Kir4.1/Kir5.1 shows that these upper "hinge" residues are in close contact with the base of the pore alpha-helix that supports the selectivity filter. Our results also indicate that the highly conserved glycine at the "lower" gating hinge position is required for tight packing of the TM2 helices at the helix-bundle crossing, rather than acting as a hinge residue.

  15. Selection of Inhibitor-Resistant Viral Potassium Channels Identifies a Selectivity Filter Site that Affects Barium and Amantadine Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Arrigoni, Cristina; Domigan, Courtney; Ferrara, Giuseppina; Pantoja, Carlos; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna; Minor, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Understanding the interactions between ion channels and blockers remains an important goal that has implications for delineating the basic mechanisms of ion channel function and for the discovery and development of ion channel directed drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings We used genetic selection methods to probe the interaction of two ion channel blockers, barium and amantadine, with the miniature viral potassium channel Kcv. Selection for Kcv mutants that were resistant to either blocker identified a mutant bearing multiple changes that was resistant to both. Implementation of a PCR shuffling and backcrossing procedure uncovered that the blocker resistance could be attributed to a single change, T63S, at a position that is likely to form the binding site for the inner ion in the selectivity filter (site 4). A combination of electrophysiological and biochemical assays revealed a distinct difference in the ability of the mutant channel to interact with the blockers. Studies of the analogous mutation in the mammalian inward rectifier Kir2.1 show that the T→S mutation affects barium block as well as the stability of the conductive state. Comparison of the effects of similar barium resistant mutations in Kcv and Kir2.1 shows that neighboring amino acids in the Kcv selectivity filter affect blocker binding. Conclusions/Significance The data support the idea that permeant ions have an integral role in stabilizing potassium channel structure, suggest that both barium and amantadine act at a similar site, and demonstrate how genetic selections can be used to map blocker binding sites and reveal mechanistic features. PMID:19834614

  16. Cellular ATP synthesis mediated by type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter Pit-1 is critical to chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Atsushi; Kawai, Shinji; Hayashibara, Tetsuyuki; Amano, Atsuo; Ooshima, Takashi; Michigami, Toshimi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yoneda, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-28

    Disturbed endochondral ossification in X-linked hypophosphatemia indicates an involvement of P(i) in chondrogenesis. We studied the role of the sodium-dependent P(i) cotransporters (NPT), which are a widely recognized regulator of cellular P(i) homeostasis, and the downstream events in chondrogenesis using Hyp mice, the murine homolog of human X-linked hypophosphatemia. Hyp mice showed reduced apoptosis and mineralization in hypertrophic cartilage. Hyp chondrocytes in culture displayed decreased apoptosis and mineralization compared with WT chondrocytes, whereas glycosaminoglycan synthesis, an early event in chondrogenesis, was not altered. Expression of the type III NPT Pit-1 and P(i) uptake were diminished, and intracellular ATP levels were also reduced in parallel with decreased caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity in Hyp chondrocytes. The competitive NPT inhibitor phosphonoformic acid and ATP synthesis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate disturbed endochondral ossification with reduced apoptosis in vivo and suppressed apoptosis and mineralization in conjunction with reduced P(i) uptake and ATP synthesis in WT chondrocytes. Overexpression of Pit-1 in Hyp chondrocytes reversed P(i) uptake and ATP synthesis and restored apoptosis and mineralization. Our results suggest that cellular ATP synthesis consequent to P(i) uptake via Pit-1 plays an important role in chondrocyte apoptosis and mineralization, and that chondrogenesis is ATP-dependent.

  17. PIP2 mediates functional coupling and pharmacology of neuronal KCNQ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Robin Y; Pless, Stephan A; Kurata, Harley T

    2017-01-01

    Retigabine (RTG) is a first-in-class antiepileptic drug that suppresses neuronal excitability through the activation of voltage-gated KCNQ2-5 potassium channels. Retigabine binds to the pore-forming domain, causing a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of channel activation. To elucid......Retigabine (RTG) is a first-in-class antiepileptic drug that suppresses neuronal excitability through the activation of voltage-gated KCNQ2-5 potassium channels. Retigabine binds to the pore-forming domain, causing a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of channel activation....... These findings reveal an important role for PIP2 in coupling retigabine binding to altered VSD function. We identify a polybasic motif in the proximal C terminus of retigabine-sensitive KCNQ channels that contributes to VSD-pore coupling via PIP2, and thereby influences the unique gating effects of retigabine....

  18. Alpha-helical hydrophobic polypeptides form proton-selective channels in lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A. E.; Deamer, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Proton translocation is important in membrane-mediated processes such as ATP-dependent proton pumps, ATP synthesis, bacteriorhodopsin, and cytochrome oxidase function. The fundamental mechanism, however, is poorly understood. To test the theoretical possibility that bundles of hydrophobic alpha-helices could provide a low energy pathway for ion translocation through the lipid bilayer, polyamino acids were incorporated into extruded liposomes and planar lipid membranes, and proton translocation was measured. Liposomes with incorporated long-chain poly-L-alanine or poly-L-leucine were found to have proton permeability coefficients 5 to 7 times greater than control liposomes, whereas short-chain polyamino acids had relatively little effect. Potassium permeability was not increased markedly by any of the polyamino acids tested. Analytical thin layer chromatography measurements of lipid content and a fluorescamine assay for amino acids showed that there were approximately 135 polyleucine or 65 polyalanine molecules associated with each liposome. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that a major fraction of the long-chain hydrophobic peptides existed in an alpha-helical conformation. Single-channel recording in both 0.1 N HCl and 0.1 M KCl was also used to determine whether proton-conducting channels formed in planar lipid membranes (phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine, 1:1). Poly-L-leucine and poly-L-alanine in HCl caused a 10- to 30-fold increase in frequency of conductive events compared to that seen in KCl or by the other polyamino acids in either solution. This finding correlates well with the liposome observations in which these two polyamino acids caused the largest increase in membrane proton permeability but had little effect on potassium permeability. Poly-L-leucine was considerably more conductive than poly-L-alanine due primarily to larger event amplitudes and, to a lesser extent, a higher event frequency. Poly-L-leucine caused two

  19. The effect of nitrazepam on depression and curiosity in behavioral tests in mice: The role of potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoui, Vahid; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Azhand, Pardis; Zolfaghari, Samira; Amiri, Shayan; Foroohandeh, Mehrdad; Motevalian, Manijeh; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2016-11-15

    Evidence show that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are involved in depression, so the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nitrazepam as agonist of GABA A receptors on depression and curiosity in male mice and the role of potassium channel in antidepressant-like response. For this purpose, we studied the antidepressant-like properties of fluoxetine, nitrazepam, glibenclamide, and cromakalim by both forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Animals were injected by various doses of nitrazepam (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5mg/kg). Nitrazepam at dose of 0.5mg/kg significantly decreased the immobility time compared to control group in both FST and TST. Fluoxetine also showed such a response. Co-administration of nitrazepam (0.05mg/kg) with glibenclamide in TST (1mg/kg) and in FST (0.3, 1mg/kg) also showed antidepressant-like response. Beside, cromakalim (0.1mg/kg) could reverse the antidepressant-like effect of nitrazepam (0.5mg/kg) in both FST and TST, while cromakalim and glibenclamide alone could not change the immobility time compared to control group (P>0.05). The hole-board test revealed that nitrazepam at doses of 0.5 and 0.1mg/kg could increase the activity of the animal's head-dipping and boost the curiosity and exploration behavior of mice. The results of this study revealed that nitrazepam may possess antidepressant-like properties and this effect is dependent to potassium channels in both FST and TST. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Calcium Co-regulates Oxidative Metabolism and ATP Synthase-dependent Respiration in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Umberto; Thevenet, Jonathan; Hermant, Aurelie; Dioum, Elhadji; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial energy metabolism is essential for glucose-induced calcium signaling and, therefore, insulin granule exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells. Calcium signals are sensed by mitochondria acting in concert with mitochondrial substrates for the full activation of the organelle. Here we have studied glucose-induced calcium signaling and energy metabolism in INS-1E insulinoma cells and human islet beta cells. In insulin secreting cells a surprisingly large fraction of total respiration under resting conditions is ATP synthase-independent. We observe that ATP synthase-dependent respiration is markedly increased after glucose stimulation. Glucose also causes a very rapid elevation of oxidative metabolism as was followed by NAD(P)H autofluorescence. However, neither the rate of the glucose-induced increase nor the new steady-state NAD(P)H levels are significantly affected by calcium. Our findings challenge the current view, which has focused mainly on calcium-sensitive dehydrogenases as the target for the activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. We propose a model of tight calcium-dependent regulation of oxidative metabolism and ATP synthase-dependent respiration in beta cell mitochondria. Coordinated activation of matrix dehydrogenases and respiratory chain activity by calcium allows the respiratory rate to change severalfold with only small or no alterations of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio. PMID:24554722

  1. Alcohol and the calcium-dependent potassium transport of human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.A.; Caldwell, K.K.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro exposure of human red blood cells to ethanol (100 and 400 mM) was found to increase the initial rate of calcium-dependent potassium efflux through the red cell membrane. This effect of ethanol was apparently not due to an elevation of the intracellular free calcium but rather to a direct action of the drug on the transport process as, (1) intracellular calcium concentrations were tightly buffered with EGTA, (2) ethanol did not alter the efflux of 45 Ca from the cells, and (3) dantrolene, which has been proposed to counteract the effect of ethanol on intracellular calcium levels in the erythrocyte, did not inhibit the stimulatory action of ethanol. The efflux of potassium from erythrocytes obtained from chronic alcoholics was not different from that of erythrocytes from non-alcoholic individuals. The relationship of these findings to neuronal potassium transport is discussed

  2. MRP transporters as membrane machinery in the bradykinin-inducible export of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yumei; Migita, Keisuke; Sun, Jing; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays the role of an autocrine/paracrine signal molecule in a variety of cells. So far, however, the membrane machinery in the export of intracellular ATP remains poorly understood. Activation of B2-receptor with bradykinin-induced massive release of ATP from cultured taenia coli smooth muscle cells. The evoked release of ATP was unaffected by gap junction hemichannel blockers, such as 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and Gap 26. Furthermore, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) coupled Cl(-) channel blockers, CFTR(inh)172, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, Gd3(+) and glibenclamide, failed to suppress the export of ATP by bradykinin. On the other, the evoked release of ATP was greatly reduced by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter inhibitors, MK-571, indomethacin, and benzbromarone. From western blotting analysis, blots of MRP 1 protein only, but not MRP 2 and MRP 3 protein, appeared at 190 kD. However, the MRP 1 protein expression was not enhanced after loading with 1 muM bradykinin for 5 min. Likewise, niflumic acid and fulfenamic acid, Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel blockers, largely abated the evoked release of ATP. The possibility that the MRP transporter system couples with Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel activities is discussed here. These findings suggest that MRP transporters, probably MRP 1, unlike CFTR-Cl(-) channels and gap junction hemichannels, may contribute as membrane machinery to the export of ATP induced by G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  3. Mining Protein Evolution for Insights into Mechanisms of Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channel Auxiliary Subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinarolo, Steven; Granata, Daniele; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Ahern, Christopher A

    2018-02-21

    Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) beta (β) subunits have been called the "overachieving" auxiliary ion channel subunit. Indeed, these subunits regulate the trafficking of the sodium channel complex at the plasma membrane and simultaneously tune the voltage-dependent properties of the pore-forming alpha-subunit. It is now known that VGSC β-subunits are capable of similar modulation of multiple isoforms of related voltage-gated potassium channels, suggesting that their abilities extend into the broader voltage-gated channels. The gene family for these single transmembrane immunoglobulin beta-fold proteins extends well beyond the traditional VGSC β1-β4 subunit designation, with deep roots into the cell adhesion protein family and myelin-related proteins - where inherited mutations result in a myriad of electrical signaling disorders. Yet, very little is known about how VGSC β-subunits support protein trafficking pathways, the basis for their modulation of voltage-dependent gating, and, ultimately, their role in shaping neuronal excitability. An evolutionary approach can be useful in yielding new clues to such functions as it provides an unbiased assessment of protein residues, folds, and functions. An approach is described here which indicates the greater emergence of the modern β-subunits roughly 400 million years ago in the early neurons of Bilateria and bony fish, and the unexpected presence of distant homologues in bacteriophages. Recent structural breakthroughs containing α and β eukaryotic sodium channels containing subunits suggest a novel role for a highly conserved polar contact that occurs within the transmembrane segments. Overall, a mixture of approaches will ultimately advance our understanding of the mechanism for β-subunit interactions with voltage-sensor containing ion channels and membrane proteins.

  4. Involvement of BKCa and KV potassium channels in cAMP-induced vasodilation: their insufficient function in genetic hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pintérová, Mária; Behuliak, Michal; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 3 (2014), s. 275-285 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0336; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : isoprenaline * cAMP * potassium channels * calcium channels Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  5. Isoflurane depolarizes bronchopulmonary C neurons by inhibiting transient A-type and delayed rectifier potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhuang, Jianguo; Zhang, Cancan; Xu, Fadi

    2013-04-01

    Inhalation of isoflurane (ISO), a widely used volatile anesthetic, can produce clinical tachypnea. In dogs, this response is reportedly mediated by bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), but the relevant mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of transient A-type potassium current (IA) channels and delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) channels hyperpolarizes neurons, and inhibition of both channels by ISO increases neural firing. Due to the presence of these channels in the cell bodies of rat PCFs, we determined whether ISO could stimulate PCFs to produce tachypnea in anesthetized rats, and, if so, whether this response resulted from ISO-induced depolarization of the pulmonary C neurons via the inhibition of IA and IK. We recorded ventilatory responses to 5% ISO exposure in anesthetized rats before and after blocking PCF conduction and the responses of pulmonary C neurons (extracellularly recorded) to ISO exposure. ISO-induced (1mM) changes in pulmonary C neuron membrane potential and IA/IK were tested using the perforated patch clamp technique. We found that: (1) ISO inhalation evoked a brief tachypnea (∼7s) and that this response disappeared after blocking PCF conduction; (2) the ISO significantly elevated (by 138%) the firing rate of most pulmonary C neurons (17 out of 21) in the nodose ganglion; and (3) ISO perfusion depolarized the pulmonary C neurons in the vitro and inhibited both IA and IK, and this evoked-depolarization was largely diminished after blocking both IA and IK. Our results suggest that ISO is able to stimulate PCFs to elicit tachypnea in rats, at least partly, via inhibiting IA and IK, thereby depolarizing the pulmonary C neurons. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Activation of human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels by the diphenylurea 1,3-bis-(2-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea (NS1643)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Diness, Thomas Goldin; Christ, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    The cardiac action potential is generated by a concerted action of different ion channels and transporters. Dysfunction of any of these membrane proteins can give rise to cardiac arrhythmias, which is particularly true for the repolarizing potassium channels. We suggest that an increased repolari......The cardiac action potential is generated by a concerted action of different ion channels and transporters. Dysfunction of any of these membrane proteins can give rise to cardiac arrhythmias, which is particularly true for the repolarizing potassium channels. We suggest that an increased......M. Application of NS1643 also resulted in a prolonged postrepolarization refractory time. Finally, cardiomyocytes exposed to NS1643 resisted reactivation by small depolarizing currents mimicking early afterdepolarizations. In conclusion, HERG channel activation by small molecules such as NS1643 increases...

  7. The potassium channel KCa3.1 as new therapeutic target for the prevention of obliterative airway disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xiaoqin; Deuse, Tobias; Chen, Yi-Je

    2013-01-01

    The calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 is critically involved in T-cell activation as well as in the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. We sought to investigate whether KCa3.1 contributes to the pathogenesis of obliterative airway disease (OAD) and whether knockout or p...

  8. The scaffold protein calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase controls ATP release in sensory ganglia upon P2X3 receptor activation and is part of an ATP keeper complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Tanja; Fabbretti, Elsa

    2016-08-01

    P2X3 receptors, gated by extracellular ATP, are expressed by sensory neurons and are involved in peripheral nociception and pain sensitization. The ability of P2X3 receptors to transduce extracellular stimuli into neuronal signals critically depends on the dynamic molecular partnership with the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK). The present work used trigeminal sensory neurons to study the impact that activation of P2X3 receptors (evoked by the agonist α,β-meATP) has on the release of endogenous ATP and how CASK modulates this phenomenon. P2X3 receptor function was followed by ATP efflux via Pannexin1 (Panx1) hemichannels, a mechanism that was blocked by the P2X3 receptor antagonist A-317491, and by P2X3 silencing. ATP efflux was enhanced by nerve growth factor, a treatment known to potentiate P2X3 receptor function. Basal ATP efflux was not controlled by CASK, and carbenoxolone or Pannexin silencing reduced ATP release upon P2X3 receptor function. CASK-controlled ATP efflux followed P2X3 receptor activity, but not depolarization-evoked ATP release. Molecular biology experiments showed that CASK was essential for the transactivation of Panx1 upon P2X3 receptor activation. These data suggest that P2X3 receptor function controls a new type of feed-forward purinergic signaling on surrounding cells, with consequences at peripheral and spinal cord level. Thus, P2X3 receptor-mediated ATP efflux may be considered for the future development of pharmacological strategies aimed at containing neuronal sensitization. P2X3 receptors are involved in sensory transduction and associate to CASK. We have studied in primary sensory neurons the molecular mechanisms downstream P2X3 receptor activation, namely ATP release and partnership with CASK or Panx1. Our data suggest that CASK and P2X3 receptors are part of an ATP keeper complex, with important feed-forward consequences at peripheral and central level. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Structural and functional analysis of the putative pH sensor in the Kir1.1 (ROMK) potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapedius, Markus; Haider, Shozeb; Browne, Katharine F; Shang, Lijun; Sansom, Mark S P; Baukrowitz, Thomas; Tucker, Stephen J

    2006-06-01

    The pH-sensitive renal potassium channel Kir1.1 is important for K+ homeostasis. Disruption of the pH-sensing mechanism causes type II Bartter syndrome. The pH sensor is thought to be an anomalously titrated lysine residue (K80) that interacts with two arginine residues as part of an 'RKR triad'. We show that a Kir1.1 orthologue from Fugu rubripes lacks this lysine and yet is still highly pH sensitive, indicating that K80 is not the H+ sensor. Instead, K80 functionally interacts with A177 on transmembrane domain 2 at the 'helix-bundle crossing' and controls the ability of pH-dependent conformational changes to induce pore closure. Although not required for pH inhibition, K80 is indispensable for the coupling of pH gating to the extracellular K+ concentration, explaining its conservation in most Kir1.1 orthologues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that instead of interacting with K80, the RKR arginine residues form highly conserved inter- and intra-subunit interactions that are important for Kir channel gating and influence pH sensitivity indirectly.

  10. Mitragynine and its potential blocking effects on specific cardiac potassium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Yea Lu; Teah, Yi Fan; Chong, Yoong Min [Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals & Nutraceuticals, NIBM, Ministry of Science, Technology & Innovation (MOSTI), Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Jamil, Mohd Fadzly Amar [Clinical Research Center, Hospital Seberang Jaya, Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Kollert, Sina [Institute of Physiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg (Germany); Adenan, Mohd Ilham [Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Wahab, Habibah Abdul [Pharmaceutical Design & Simulation (PhDS) Laboratory, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Döring, Frank; Wischmeyer, Erhard [Institute of Physiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg (Germany); Tan, Mei Lan, E-mail: tanml@usm.my [Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals & Nutraceuticals, NIBM, Ministry of Science, Technology & Innovation (MOSTI), Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-08-15

    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is known for its euphoric properties and is frequently used for recreational purposes. Several poisoning and fatal cases involving mitragynine have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac I{sub Kr} current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. On the other hand, I{sub K1}, a Kir current mediated by Kir2.1 channel and I{sub KACh}, a receptor-activated Kir current mediated by GIRK channel are also known to be important in maintaining the cardiac function. This study investigated the effects of mitragynine on the current, mRNA and protein expression of hERG channel in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells and Xenopus oocytes. The effects on Kir2.1 and GIRK channels currents were also determined in the oocytes. The hERG tail currents following depolarization pulses were inhibited by mitragynine with an IC{sub 50} value of 1.62 μM and 1.15 μM in the transfected cell line and Xenopus oocytes, respectively. The S6 point mutations of Y652A and F656A attenuated the inhibitor effects of mitragynine, indicating that mitragynine interacts with these high affinity drug-binding sites in the hERG channel pore cavity which was consistent with the molecular docking simulation. Interestingly, mitragynine does not affect the hERG expression at the transcriptional level but inhibits the protein expression. Mitragynine is also found to inhibit I{sub KACh} current with an IC{sub 50} value of 3.32 μM but has no significant effects on I{sub K1}. Blocking of both hERG and GIRK channels may cause additive cardiotoxicity risks. - Highlights: • The potential cardiac potassium channel blocking properties of mitragynine were investigated. • Mitragynine blocks hERG channel and I{sub Kr} in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells and hERG cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes. • Mitragynine inhibits the hERG protein but not the mRNA expression. • Mitragynine

  11. Mitragynine and its potential blocking effects on specific cardiac potassium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Yea Lu; Teah, Yi Fan; Chong, Yoong Min; Jamil, Mohd Fadzly Amar; Kollert, Sina; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Wahab, Habibah Abdul; Döring, Frank; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Tan, Mei Lan

    2016-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is known for its euphoric properties and is frequently used for recreational purposes. Several poisoning and fatal cases involving mitragynine have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac I Kr current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. On the other hand, I K1 , a Kir current mediated by Kir2.1 channel and I KACh , a receptor-activated Kir current mediated by GIRK channel are also known to be important in maintaining the cardiac function. This study investigated the effects of mitragynine on the current, mRNA and protein expression of hERG channel in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells and Xenopus oocytes. The effects on Kir2.1 and GIRK channels currents were also determined in the oocytes. The hERG tail currents following depolarization pulses were inhibited by mitragynine with an IC 50 value of 1.62 μM and 1.15 μM in the transfected cell line and Xenopus oocytes, respectively. The S6 point mutations of Y652A and F656A attenuated the inhibitor effects of mitragynine, indicating that mitragynine interacts with these high affinity drug-binding sites in the hERG channel pore cavity which was consistent with the molecular docking simulation. Interestingly, mitragynine does not affect the hERG expression at the transcriptional level but inhibits the protein expression. Mitragynine is also found to inhibit I KACh current with an IC 50 value of 3.32 μM but has no significant effects on I K1 . Blocking of both hERG and GIRK channels may cause additive cardiotoxicity risks. - Highlights: • The potential cardiac potassium channel blocking properties of mitragynine were investigated. • Mitragynine blocks hERG channel and I Kr in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells and hERG cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes. • Mitragynine inhibits the hERG protein but not the mRNA expression. • Mitragynine inhibits GIRK channel. • Simultaneous

  12. Importance of glycosylation on function of a potassium channel in neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Hall

    Full Text Available The Kv3.1 glycoprotein, a voltage-gated potassium channel, is expressed throughout the central nervous system. The role of N-glycans attached to the Kv3.1 glycoprotein on conducting and non-conducting functions of the Kv3.1 channel are quite limiting. Glycosylated (wild type, partially glycosylated (N220Q and N229Q, and unglycosylated (N220Q/N229Q Kv3.1 proteins were expressed and characterized in a cultured neuronal-derived cell model, B35 neuroblastoma cells. Western blots, whole cell current recordings, and wound healing assays were employed to provide evidence that the conducting and non-conducting properties of the Kv3.1 channel were modified by N-glycans of the Kv3.1 glycoprotein. Electrophoretic migration of the various Kv3.1 proteins treated with PNGase F and neuraminidase verified that the glycosylation sites were occupied and that the N-glycans could be sialylated, respectively. The unglycosylated channel favored a different whole cell current pattern than the glycoform. Further the outward ionic currents of the unglycosylated channel had slower activation and deactivation rates than those of the glycosylated Kv3.1 channel. These kinetic parameters of the partially glycosylated Kv3.1 channels were also slowed. B35 cells expressing glycosylated Kv3.1 protein migrated faster than those expressing partially glycosylated and much faster than those expressing the unglycosylated Kv3.1 protein. These results have demonstrated that N-glycans of the Kv3.1 glycoprotein enhance outward ionic current kinetics, and neuronal migration. It is speculated that physiological changes which lead to a reduction in N-glycan attachment to proteins will alter the functions of the Kv3.1 channel.

  13. Up-regulated Ectonucleotidases in Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein- and Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 1-Deficient Jurkat Leukemia Cells Counteract Extracellular ATP/AMP Accumulation via Pannexin-1 Channels during Chemotherapeutic Drug-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd-Tressler, Andrea M; Lane, Graham S; Dubyak, George R

    2017-07-01

    Pannexin-1 (Panx1) channels mediate the efflux of ATP and AMP from cancer cells in response to induction of extrinsic apoptosis by death receptors or intrinsic apoptosis by chemotherapeutic agents. We previously described the accumulation of extracellular ATP /AMP during chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in Jurkat human leukemia cells. In this study, we compared how different signaling pathways determine extracellular nucleotide pools in control Jurkat cells versus Jurkat lines that lack the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) or receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) cell death regulatory proteins. Tumor necrosis factor- α induced extrinsic apoptosis in control Jurkat cells and necroptosis in FADD-deficient cells; treatment of both lines with chemotherapeutic drugs elicited similar intrinsic apoptosis. Robust extracellular ATP/AMP accumulation was observed in the FADD-deficient cells during necroptosis, but not during apoptotic activation of Panx1 channels. Accumulation of extracellular ATP/AMP was similarly absent in RIP1-deficient Jurkat cells during apoptotic responses to chemotherapeutic agents. Apoptotic activation triggered equivalent proteolytic gating of Panx1 channels in all three Jurkat cell lines. The differences in extracellular ATP/AMP accumulation correlated with cell-line-specific expression of ectonucleotidases that metabolized the released ATP/AMP. CD73 mRNA, and α β -methylene-ADP-inhibitable ecto-AMPase activity were elevated in the FADD-deficient cells. In contrast, the RIP1-deficient cells were defined by increased expression of tartrate-sensitive prostatic acid phosphatase as a broadly acting ectonucleotidase. Thus, extracellular nucleotide accumulation during regulated tumor cell death involves interplay between ATP/AMP efflux pathways and different cell-autonomous ectonucleotidases. Differential expression of particular ectonucleotidases in tumor cell variants will determine whether chemotherapy-induced activation of Panx1 channels

  14. Localization of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and their effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigemino-neuronal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Johansson, H.; Amrutkar, D.V.; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are membrane proteins contributing to electrical propagation through neurons. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide found in the trigeminovascular system (TGVS). Both BK(Ca) channels and CGRP are involved in migrai...

  15. Emerging psychiatric syndromes associated with antivoltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüss, Harald; Lennox, Belinda R

    2016-11-01

    Antibodies against the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) were first recognised as having a potential pathogenic role in disorders of the central nervous system in 2001, with VGKC antibodies described in patients with limbic encephalitis, and the subsequent seminal paper describing the clinical phenotype and immunotherapy treatment responsiveness in 13 patients with VGKC antibodies and limbic encephalitis in 2004. These initial case descriptions were of a progressive neuropsychiatric syndrome with abnormalities of mood, sleep and cognition recognised alongside the neurological symptoms of seizures and autonomic instability. The clinical syndromes associated with VGKC complex (VGKCC) antibodies have broadened considerably over the last 15 years, with multiple cases of more restricted 'formes fruste' presentations associated with VGKCC antibodies being described. However, the relevance of antibodies in these cases has remained controversial. The understanding of the pathogenic nature of VGKC antibodies has further advanced since 2010 with the discovery that VGKC antibodies are not usually antibodies against the VGKC subunits themselves, but instead to proteins that are complexed with the potassium channel, in particular leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2). Antibodies against these proteins have been associated with particular, although overlapping, clinical phenotypes, each also including neuropsychiatric features. Our aim is to critically review the association between VGKCC, LGI1 and Caspr2 antibodies with isolated psychiatric presentations-with a focus on cognitive impairment, mood disorders and psychosis. We recommend that screening for VGKCC, LGI1 and Caspr2 antibodies be considered for those with neuropsychiatric presentations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Sleep disturbances in voltage-gated potassium channel antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Daniel A; Krieger, Ana C

    2016-05-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) are a family of membrane proteins responsible for controlling cell membrane potential. The presence of antibodies (Ab) against neuronal VGKC complexes aids in the diagnosis of idiopathic and paraneoplastic autoimmune neurologic disorders. The diagnosis of VGKC Ab-associated encephalopathy (VCKC Ab syndrome) should be suspected in patients with subacute onset of disorientation, confusion, and memory loss in the presence of seizures or a movement disorder. VGKC Ab syndrome may present with sleep-related symptoms, and the purpose of this communication is to alert sleep and neurology clinicians of this still-under-recognized condition. In this case, we are presenting the VGKC Ab syndrome which improved after treatment with solumedrol. The prompt recognition and treatment of this condition may prevent the morbidity associated with cerebral atrophy and the mortality associated with intractable seizures and electrolyte disturbances. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effects of spermine NONOate and ATP on the thermal stability of hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Rasha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minor changes in protein structure induced by small organic and inorganic molecules can result in significant metabolic effects. The effects can be even more profound if the molecular players are chemically active and present in the cell in considerable amounts. The aim of our study was to investigate effects of a nitric oxide donor (spermine NONOate, ATP and sodium/potassium environment on the dynamics of thermal unfolding of human hemoglobin (Hb. The effect of these molecules was examined by means of circular dichroism spectrometry (CD in the temperature range between 25°C and 70°C. The alpha-helical content of buffered hemoglobin samples (0.1 mg/ml was estimated via ellipticity change measurements at a heating rate of 1°C/min. Results Major results were: 1 spermine NONOate persistently decreased the hemoglobin unfolding temperature Tuirrespectively of the Na + /K + environment, 2 ATP instead increased the unfolding temperature by 3°C in both sodium-based and potassium-based buffers and 3 mutual effects of ATP and NO were strongly influenced by particular buffer ionic compositions. Moreover, the presence of potassium facilitated a partial unfolding of alpha-helical structures even at room temperature. Conclusion The obtained data might shed more light on molecular mechanisms and biophysics involved in the regulation of protein activity by small solutes in the cell.

  18. Molecular structure of human KATP in complex with ATP and ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth Pak Kin; Chen, Jue; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2017-12-29

    In many excitable cells, KATP channels respond to intracellular adenosine nucleotides: ATP inhibits while ADP activates. We present two structures of the human pancreatic KATP channel, containing the ABC transporter SUR1 and the inward-rectifier K + channel Kir6.2, in the presence of Mg 2+ and nucleotides. These structures, referred to as quatrefoil and propeller forms, were determined by single-particle cryo-EM at 3.9 Å and 5.6 Å, respectively. In both forms, ATP occupies the inhibitory site in Kir6.2. The nucleotide-binding domains of SUR1 are dimerized with Mg 2+ -ATP in the degenerate site and Mg 2+ -ADP in the consensus site. A lasso extension forms an interface between SUR1 and Kir6.2 adjacent to the ATP site in the propeller form and is disrupted in the quatrefoil form. These structures support the role of SUR1 as an ADP sensor and highlight the lasso extension as a key regulatory element in ADP's ability to override ATP inhibition. © 2017, Lee et al.

  19. Identification of the functional binding pocket for compounds targeting small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Pascal, John M.; Schumann, Marcel; Armen, Roger S.; Zhang, Ji-fang

    2012-01-01

    Small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels, activated by Ca2+-bound calmodulin, play an important role in regulating membrane excitability. These channels are also linked to clinical abnormalities. A tremendous amount of effort has been devoted to developing small molecule compounds targeting these channels. However, these compounds often suffer from low potency and lack of selectivity, hindering their potentials for clinical use. A key contributing factor is the lack of knowledge of the binding site(s) for these compounds. Here we demonstrate by X-ray crystallography that the binding pocket for the compounds of the 1-EBIO class is located at the calmodulin-channel interface. We show that, based on structure data and molecular docking, mutations of the channel can effectively change the potency of these compounds. Our results provide insight into the molecular nature of the binding pocket and its contribution to the potency and selectivity of the compounds of the 1-EBIO class. PMID:22929778

  20. Effects of allocryptopine on outward potassium current and slow delayed rectifier potassium current in rabbit myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Liu-Yang; Li, Nan; Chen, Xi; Cai, Zhong-Qi; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yang

    2016-05-01

    Allocryptopine (ALL) is an effective alkaloid of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. Papaveraceae and has proved to be anti-arrhythmic. The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of ALL on transmural repolarizing ionic ingredients of outward potassium current (I to) and slow delayed rectifier potassium current (I Ks). The monophasic action potential (MAP) technique was used to record the MAP duration of the epicardium (Epi), myocardium (M) and endocardium (Endo) of the rabbit heart and the whole cell patch clamp was used to record I to and I Ks in cardiomyocytes of Epi, M and Endo layers that were isolated from rabbit ventricles. The effects of ALL on MAP of Epi, M and Endo layers were disequilibrium. ALL could effectively reduce the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in rabbit transmural ventricular wall. ALL decreased the current densities of I to and I Ks in a voltage and concentration dependent way and narrowed the repolarizing differences among three layers. The analysis of gating kinetics showed ALL accelerated the channel activation of I to in M layers and partly inhibit the channel openings of I to in Epi, M and Endo cells. On the other hand, ALL mainly slowed channel deactivation of I Ks channel in Epi and Endo layers without affecting its activation. Our study gives partially explanation about the mechanisms of transmural inhibition of I to and I Ks channels by ALL in rabbit myocardium. These findings provide novel perspective regarding the anti-arrhythmogenesis application of ALL in clinical settings.

  1. Opening of small and intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels induces relaxation mainly mediated by nitric-oxide release in large arteries and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in small arteries from rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankevicius, Edgaras; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca) or K(Ca)2) and intermediate (IK(Ca) or K(Ca)3.1) conductance activated by 6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime (NS309) are involved in both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolar......This study was designed to investigate whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca) or K(Ca)2) and intermediate (IK(Ca) or K(Ca)3.1) conductance activated by 6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime (NS309) are involved in both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium...... in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and calcium concentrations were investigated in both HUVECs and mesenteric arterial endothelial cells. In both superior (∼1093 μm) and small mesenteric (∼300 μm) arteries, NS309 evoked endothelium- and concentration-dependent relaxations. In superior....... In small mesenteric arteries, NS309 relaxations were reduced slightly by ADMA, whereas apamin plus an IK(Ca) channel blocker almost abolished relaxation. Iberiotoxin did not change NS309 relaxation. HUVECs expressed mRNA for SK(Ca) and IK(Ca) channels, and NS309 induced increases in calcium, outward...

  2. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC 50 values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds

  3. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei [National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: li_zhiyuan@gibh.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  4. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter VcaM from Vibrio cholerae is Dependent on the Outer Membrane Factor Family for Its Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jung Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae ATP-binding cassette transporter VcaM (V. cholerae ABC multidrug resistance pump has previously been shown to confer resistance to a variety of medically important drugs. In this study, we set to analyse its properties both in vitro in detergent-solubilised state and in vivo to differentiate its dependency on auxiliary proteins for its function. We report the first detailed kinetic parameters of purified VcaM and the rate of phosphate (Pi production. To determine the possible functional dependencies of VcaM on the tripartite efflux pumps we then utilized different E. coli strains lacking the principal secondary transporter AcrB (Acriflavine resistance protein, as well as cells lacking the outer membrane factor (OMF TolC (Tolerance to colicins. Consistent with the ATPase function of VcaM we found it to be susceptible to sodium orthovanadate (NaOV, however, we also found a clear dependency of VcaM function on TolC. Inhibitors targeting secondary active transporters had no effects on either VcaM-conferred resistance or Hoechst 33342 accumulation, suggesting that VcaM might be capable of engaging with the TolC-channel without periplasmic mediation by additional transporters. Our findings are indicative of VcaM being capable of a one-step substrate translocation from cytosol to extracellular space utilising the TolC-channel, making it the only multidrug ABC-transporter outside of the MacB-family with demonstrable TolC-dependency.

  5. Discovery and characterization of cnidarian peptide toxins that affect neuronal potassium ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Olga; Harvey, Alan L

    2009-12-15

    Peptides have been isolated from several species of sea anemones and shown to block currents through various potassium ion channels, particularly in excitable cells. The toxins can be grouped into four structural classes: type 1 with 35-37 amino acid residues and three disulphide bridges; type 2 with 58-59 residues and three disulphide bridges; type 3 with 41-42 residues and three disulphide bridges; and type 4 with 28 residues and two disulphide bridges. Examples from the first class are BgK from Bunodosoma granulifera, ShK from Stichodactyla helianthus and AsKS (or kaliseptine) from Anemonia sulcata (now A. viridis). These interfere with binding of radiolabelled dendrotoxin to synaptosomal membranes and block currents through channels with various Kv1 subunits and also intermediate conductance K(Ca) channels. Toxins in the second class are homologous to Kunitz-type inhibitors of serine proteases; these toxins include kalicludines (AsKC 1-3) from A. sulcata and SHTXIII from S. haddoni; they block Kv1.2 channels. The third structural group includes BDS-I, BDS-II (from A. sulcata) and APETx 1 (from Anthropleura elegantissima). Their pharmacological specificity differs: BDS-I and -II block currents involving Kv3 subunits, while APETx1 blocks ERG channels. The fourth group comprises the more recently discovered SHTX I and II from S. haddoni. Their channel blocking specificity is not yet known but they displace dendrotoxin binding from synaptosomal membranes. Sea anemones can be predicted to be a continued source of new toxins that will serve as molecular probes of various K(+) channels.

  6. The conserved potassium channel filter can have distinct ion binding profiles: structural analysis of rubidium, cesium, and barium binding in NaK2K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yee Ling; Zeng, Weizhong; Sauer, David Bryant; Jiang, Youxing

    2014-08-01

    Potassium channels are highly selective for K(+) over the smaller Na(+). Intriguingly, they are permeable to larger monovalent cations such as Rb(+) and Cs(+) but are specifically blocked by the similarly sized Ba(2+). In this study, we used structural analysis to determine the binding profiles for these permeant and blocking ions in the selectivity filter of the potassium-selective NaK channel mutant NaK2K and also performed permeation experiments using single-channel recordings. Our data revealed that some ion binding properties of NaK2K are distinct from those of the canonical K(+) channels KcsA and MthK. Rb(+) bound at sites 1, 3, and 4 in NaK2K, as it does in KcsA. Cs(+), however, bound predominantly at sites 1 and 3 in NaK2K, whereas it binds at sites 1, 3, and 4 in KcsA. Moreover, Ba(2+) binding in NaK2K was distinct from that which has been observed in KcsA and MthK, even though all of these channels show similar Ba(2+) block. In the presence of K(+), Ba(2+) bound to the NaK2K channel at site 3 in conjunction with a K(+) at site 1; this led to a prolonged block of the channel (the external K(+)-dependent Ba(2+) lock-in state). In the absence of K(+), however, Ba(2+) acts as a permeating blocker. We found that, under these conditions, Ba(2+) bound at sites 1 or 0 as well as site 3, allowing it to enter the filter from the intracellular side and exit from the extracellular side. The difference in the Ba(2+) binding profile in the presence and absence of K(+) thus provides a structural explanation for the short and prolonged Ba(2+) block observed in NaK2K. © 2014 Lam et al.

  7. Interactions between β-catenin and the HSlo potassium channel regulates HSlo surface expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Bian

    Full Text Available The large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel alpha-subunit (Slo is widely distributed throughout the body and plays an important role in a number of diseases. Prior work has shown that Slo, through its S10 region, interacts with β-catenin, a key component of the cytoskeleton framework and the Wnt signaling pathway. However, the physiological significance of this interaction was not clear.Using a combination of proteomic and cell biology tools we show the existence of additional multiple binding sites in Slo, and explore in detail β-catenin interactions with the S10 region. We demonstrate that deletion of this region reduces Slo surface expression in HEK cells, which indicates that interaction with beta-catenin is important for Slo surface expression. This is confirmed by reduced expression of Slo in HEK cells and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus leghorn white hair cells treated with siRNA to β-catenin. HSlo reciprocally co-immunoprecipitates with β-catenin, indicating a stable binding between these two proteins, with the S10 deletion mutant having reduced binding with β-catenin. We also observed that mutations of the two putative GSK phosphorylation sites within the S10 region affect both the surface expression of Slo and the channel's voltage and calcium sensitivities. Interestingly, expression of exogenous Slo in HEK cells inhibits β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling.These studies identify for the first time a central role for β-catenin in mediating Slo surface expression. Additionally we show that Slo overexpression can lead to downregulation of Wnt signaling.

  8. Testosterone-mediated upregulation of delayed rectifier potassium channel in cardiomyocytes causes abbreviation of QT intervals in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kimiko; Takanari, Hiroki; Morishima, Masaki; Ma, FangFang; Wang, Yan; Takahashi, Naohiko; Ono, Katsushige

    2018-01-13

    Men have shorter rate-corrected QT intervals (QTc) than women, especially at the period of adolescence or later. The aim of this study was to elucidate the long-term effects of testosterone on cardiac excitability parameters including electrocardiogram (ECG) and potassium channel current. Testosterone shortened QT intervals in ECG in castrated male rats, not immediately after, but on day 2 or later. Expression of Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) mRNA was significantly upregulated by testosterone in cardiomyocytes of male and female rats. Short-term application of testosterone was without effect on delayed rectifier potassium channel current (I Ks ), whereas I Ks was significantly increased in cardiomyocytes treated with dihydrotestosterone for 24 h, which was mimicked by isoproterenol (24 h). Gene-selective inhibitors of a transcription factor SP1, mithramycin, abolished the effects of testosterone on Kv7.1. Testosterone increases Kv7.1-I Ks possibly through a pathway related to a transcription factor SP1, suggesting a genomic effect of testosterone as an active factor for cardiac excitability.

  9. Effects of cisplatin on potassium currents in CT26 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Potassium currents were detected in CT26 cells and the currents were reduced by the application of tetraethylammonium (TEA chloride, iberiotoxin, a big conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blocker and barium. The potassium currents were enhanced to 192< by the application of cisplatin (0.5 mM. Moreover, the increase of potassium currents by cisplatin was further inhibited by the application of TEA confirming the action of cisplatin on potassium channels. In addition, relative current induced by cisplatin in CT26 cells was bit larger than in normal IEC-6 cells.

  10. ATP depletion during mitotic arrest induces mitotic slippage and APC/CCdh1-dependent cyclin B1 degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun Yeon; Ahn, Ju-Hyun; Cho, Min-Guk; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2018-04-27

    ATP depletion inhibits cell cycle progression, especially during the G1 phase and the G2 to M transition. However, the effect of ATP depletion on mitotic progression remains unclear. We observed that the reduction of ATP after prometaphase by simultaneous treatment with 2-deoxyglucose and NaN 3 did not arrest mitotic progression. Interestingly, ATP depletion during nocodazole-induced prometaphase arrest resulted in mitotic slippage, as indicated by a reduction in mitotic cells, APC/C-dependent degradation of cyclin B1, increased cell attachment, and increased nuclear membrane reassembly. Additionally, cells successfully progressed through the cell cycle after mitotic slippage, as indicated by EdU incorporation and time-lapse imaging. Although degradation of cyclin B during normal mitotic progression is primarily regulated by APC/C Cdc20 , we observed an unexpected decrease in Cdc20 prior to degradation of cyclin B during mitotic slippage. This decrease in Cdc20 was followed by a change in the binding partner preference of APC/C from Cdc20 to Cdh1; consequently, APC/C Cdh1 , but not APC/C Cdc20 , facilitated cyclin B degradation following ATP depletion. Pulse-chase analysis revealed that ATP depletion significantly abrogated global translation, including the translation of Cdc20 and Cdh1. Additionally, the half-life of Cdh1 was much longer than that of Cdc20. These data suggest that ATP depletion during mitotic arrest induces mitotic slippage facilitated by APC/C Cdh1 -dependent cyclin B degradation, which follows a decrease in Cdc20 resulting from reduced global translation and the differences in the half-lives of the Cdc20 and Cdh1 proteins.

  11. ATP-dependent calcium transport across basal plasma membranes of human placental trophoblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, G.J.; Kelley, L.K.; Smith, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    As a first step in understanding the cellular basis of maternal-fetal calcium transfer, the authors examined the characteristics of calcium uptake by a highly purified preparation of the syncytiotrophoblast basal (fetal facing) plasma membrane. In the presence of nanomolar concentrations of free calcium, basal membranes demonstrated substantial ATP-dependent calcium uptake. This uptake required magnesium, was not significantly affected by Na + or K + (50 mM), or sodium azide (10 mM). Intravesicular calcium was rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore A23187. Calcium transport was significantly stimulated by the calcium-dependent regulatory protein calmodulin. Placental membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria also demonstrated ATP-dependent calcium uptake. In contrast to basal membrane, mitochondrial calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake by the ER was only 20% of that of basal membranes. They conclude that the placental basal plasma membrane possesses a high-affinity calcium transport system similar to that found in plasma membranes of a variety of cell types. This transporter is situated to permit it to function in vivo in maternal-fetal calcium transfer

  12. Excessive blinking and ataxia in a child with occult neuroblastoma and voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, Nicholas M

    2012-05-01

    A previously healthy 9-year-old girl presented with a 10-day history of slowly progressive unsteadiness, slurred speech, and behavior change. On examination there was cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria, excessive blinking, subtle perioral myoclonus, and labile mood. The finding of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid prompted paraneoplastic serological evaluation and search for an occult neural crest tumor. Antineuronal nuclear autoantibody type 1 (anti-Hu) and voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies were detected in serum. Metaiodobenzylguanidine scan and computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a localized abdominal mass in the region of the porta hepatis. A diagnosis of occult neuroblastoma was made. Resection of the stage 1 neuroblastoma and treatment with pulsed corticosteroids resulted in resolution of all symptoms and signs. Excessive blinking has rarely been described with neuroblastoma, and, when it is not an isolated finding, it may be a useful clue to this paraneoplastic syndrome. Although voltage-gated potassium channel complex autoimmunity has not been described previously in the setting of neuroblastoma, it is associated with a spectrum of paraneoplastic neurologic manifestations in adults, including peripheral nerve hyperexcitability disorders.

  13. Expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) and beta-adrenergic regulation of breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, Howard K III; Yu, Qiang; Cakir, Yavuz; Schuller, Hildegard M

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that at various organ sites there is a subset of adenocarcinomas that is regulated by beta-adrenergic and arachidonic acid-mediated signal transduction pathways. We wished to determine if this regulation exists in breast adenocarcinomas. Expression of mRNA that encodes a G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) has been shown in tissue samples from approximately 40% of primary human breast cancers. Previously, GIRK channels have been associated with beta-adrenergic signaling. Breast cancer cell lines were screened for GIRK channels by RT-PCR. Cell cultures of breast cancer cells were treated with beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists, and changes in gene expression were determined by both relative competitive and real time PCR. Potassium flux was determined by flow cytometry and cell signaling was determined by western blotting. Breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-361 MDA-MB 453, and ZR-75-1 expressed mRNA for the GIRK1 channel, while MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-435S did not. GIRK4 was expressed in all six breast cancer cell lines, and GIRK2 was expressed in all but ZR-75-1 and MDA-MB-435. Exposure of MDA-MB-453 cells for 6 days to the beta-blocker propranolol (1 μM) increased the GIRK1 mRNA levels and decreased beta 2 -adrenergic mRNA levels, while treatment for 30 minutes daily for 7 days had no effect. Exposure to a beta-adrenergic agonist and antagonist for 24 hours had no effect on gene expression. The beta adrenergic agonist, formoterol hemifumarate, led to increases in K + flux into MDA-MB-453 cells, and this increase was inhibited by the GIRK channel inhibitor clozapine. The tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a high affinity agonist for beta-adrenergic receptors stimulated activation of Erk 1/2 in MDA-MB-453 cells. Our data suggests β-adrenergic receptors and GIRK channels may play a role in breast cancer

  14. The KATP channel in migraine pathophysiology: a novel therapeutic target for migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Karagholi, Mohammad Al-Mahdi; Hansen, Jakob Møller; Severinsen, Johanne; Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-08-23

    To review the distribution and function of K ATP channels, describe the use of K ATP channels openers in clinical trials and make the case that these channels may play a role in headache and migraine. K ATP channels are widely present in the trigeminovascular system and play an important role in the regulation of tone in cerebral and meningeal arteries. Clinical trials using synthetic K ATP channel openers report headache as a prevalent-side effect in non-migraine sufferers, indicating that K ATP channel opening may cause headache, possibly due to vascular mechanisms. Whether K ATP channel openers can provoke migraine in migraine sufferers is not known. We suggest that K ATP channels may play an important role in migraine pathogenesis and could be a potential novel therapeutic anti-migraine target.

  15. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  16. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein Part II: Structure-Function Relationships and Fragmented Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This study focuses on students' understanding of three external representations (ribbon diagram, wireframe, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic) of the potassium ion channel protein. Analysis…

  17. Effect of global cardiac ischemia on human ventricular fibrillation: insights from a multi-scale mechanistic model of the human heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V Kazbanov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute regional ischemia in the heart can lead to cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation (VF, which in turn compromise cardiac output and result in secondary global cardiac ischemia. The secondary ischemia may influence the underlying arrhythmia mechanism. A recent clinical study documents the effect of global cardiac ischaemia on the mechanisms of VF. During 150 seconds of global ischemia the dominant frequency of activation decreased, while after reperfusion it increased rapidly. At the same time the complexity of epicardial excitation, measured as the number of epicardical phase singularity points, remained approximately constant during ischemia. Here we perform numerical studies based on these clinical data and propose explanations for the observed dynamics of the period and complexity of activation patterns. In particular, we study the effects on ischemia in pseudo-1D and 2D cardiac tissue models as well as in an anatomically accurate model of human heart ventricles. We demonstrate that the fall of dominant frequency in VF during secondary ischemia can be explained by an increase in extracellular potassium, while the increase during reperfusion is consistent with washout of potassium and continued activation of the ATP-dependent potassium channels. We also suggest that memory effects are responsible for the observed complexity dynamics. In addition, we present unpublished clinical results of individual patient recordings and propose a way of estimating extracellular potassium and activation of ATP-dependent potassium channels from these measurements.

  18. ATP-dependent human RISC assembly pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Mayuko; Kawamata, Tomoko; Paroo, Zain; Ye, Xuecheng; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Liu, Qinghua; Tomari, Yukihide

    2010-01-01

    The assembly of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a key process in small RNA-mediated gene silencing. In humans, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are incorporated into RISCs containing the Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins Ago1-4. Previous studies have proposed that, unlike Drosophila melanogaster RISC assembly pathways, human RISC assembly is coupled with dicing and is independent of ATP. Here we show by careful reexamination that, in humans, RISC assembly and dicing are uncoupled, and ATP greatly facilitates RISC loading of small-RNA duplexes. Moreover, all four human AGO proteins show remarkably similar structural preferences for small-RNA duplexes: central mismatches promote RISC loading, and seed or 3'-mid (guide position 12-15) mismatches facilitate unwinding. All these features of human AGO proteins are highly reminiscent of fly Ago1 but not fly Ago2.

  19. MiRNA-135a regulates the expression of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK3) channels in epilepsy-like conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honrath, Birgit; Norwood, Braxton; Tanrioever, Gaye; Kuter, Katarzyna; Henshall, David C; Aksel-Aksoy, Ayla; Schratt, Gerhard; Pasterkamp, Jeroen; Dencher, Norbert A.; Nieweg, Katja; Culmsee, Carsten; Dolga, Amalia Mihalea

    2017-01-01

    Background Excessive and hypersynchronous neuronal discharges are key characteristics in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Owing to their ability of regulating neuronal excitability, small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels have been implicated in

  20. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36) amide stimulates exocytosis in human pancreatic beta-cells by both proximal and distal regulatory steps in stimulus-secretion coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromada, J; Bokvist, K; Ding, W G

    1998-01-01

    The effect of glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide [GLP-1(7-36) amide] on membrane potential, whole-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K[ATP]) and Ca2+ currents, cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and exocytosis was explored in single human beta-cells. GLP-1(7-36) amide induced membrane...... depolarization that was associated with inhibition of whole-cell K(ATP) current. In addition, GLP-1(7-36) amide (and forskolin) produced greater than fourfold potentiation of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. The latter effect resulted in part (40%) from acceleration of Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent (L-type) Ca......2+ channels. More importantly, GLP-1(7-36) amide (via generation of cyclic AMP and activation of protein kinase A) potentiated exocytosis at a site distal to a rise in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration. Photorelease of caged cAMP produced a two- to threefold potentiation of exocytosis when...

  1. The secret life of ion channels: Kv1.3 potassium channels and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, M Teresa; Cidad, Pilar; López-López, José R

    2018-01-01

    Kv1.3 channels are involved in the switch to proliferation of normally quiescent cells, being implicated in the control of cell cycle in many different cell types and in many different ways. They modulate membrane potential controlling K + fluxes, sense changes in potential, and interact with many signaling molecules through their intracellular domains. From a mechanistic point of view, we can describe the role of Kv1.3 channels in proliferation with at least three different models. In the "membrane potential model," membrane hyperpolarization resulting from Kv1.3 activation provides the driving force for Ca 2+ influx required to activate Ca 2+ -dependent transcription. This model explains most of the data obtained from several cells from the immune system. In the "voltage sensor model," Kv1.3 channels serve mainly as sensors that transduce electrical signals into biochemical cascades, independently of their effect on membrane potential. Kv1.3-dependent proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) could fit this model. Finally, in the "channelosome balance model," the master switch determining proliferation may be related to the control of the Kv1.3 to Kv1.5 ratio, as described in glial cells and also in VSMCs. Since the three mechanisms cannot function independently, these models are obviously not exclusive. Nevertheless, they could be exploited differentially in different cells and tissues. This large functional flexibility of Kv1.3 channels surely gives a new perspective on their functions beyond their elementary role as ion channels, although a conclusive picture of the mechanisms involved in Kv1.3 signaling to proliferation is yet to be reached.

  2. cAMP-dependent kinase does not modulate the Slack sodium-activated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwer, Megan O; Picchione, Kelly E; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2009-09-01

    The Slack gene encodes a Na(+)-activated K(+) channel and is expressed in many different types of neurons. Like the prokaryotic Ca(2+)-gated K(+) channel MthK, Slack contains two 'regulator of K(+) conductance' (RCK) domains within its carboxy terminal, domains likely involved in Na(+) binding and channel gating. It also contains multiple consensus protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites and although regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation, modulation by PKA has not been determined. To test if PKA directly regulates Slack, nystatin-perforated patch whole-cell currents were recorded from a human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell line stably expressing Slack. Bath application of forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, caused a rapid and complete inhibition of Slack currents however, the inactive homolog of forskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin caused a similar effect. In contrast, bath application of 8-bromo-cAMP did not affect the amplitude nor the activation kinetics of Slack currents. In excised inside-out patch recordings, direct application of the PKA catalytic subunit to patches did not affect the open probability of Slack channels nor was open probability affected by direct application of protein phosphatase 2B. Preincubation of cells with the protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720 also did not change current density. Finally, mutating the consensus phosphorylation site located between RCK domain 1 and domain 2 from serine to glutamate did not affect current activation kinetics. We conclude that unlike PKC, phosphorylation by PKA does not acutely modulate the function and gating activation kinetics of Slack channels.

  3. Distribution, expression and functional effects of small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK) channels in rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Karen; Floyd, Rachel; Shmygol, Andre; Shmygol, Anatoly; Mobasheri, A; Wray, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-activated potassium channels are important in a variety of smooth muscles, contributing to excitability and contractility. In the myometrium previous work has focussed on the large conductance channels (BK), and the role of small conductance channels (SK) has received scant attention, despite the finding that over-expression of an SK channel isoform (SK3) results in uterine dysfunction and delayed parturition. This study therefore characterises the expression of the three SK channel isoforms (SK1-3) in rat myometrium throughout pregnancy and investigates their effect on cytosolic [Ca] and force and compares this with that of BK channels. Consistent expression of all SK isoform transcripts and clear immunostaining of SK1-3 was found. Inhibition of SK1-3 channels (apamin, scyllatoxin) significantly inhibited outward current, caused membrane depolarisation and elicited action potentials in previously quiescent cells. Apamin or scyllatoxin increased the amplitude of [Ca] and force in spontaneously contracting myometrial strips throughout gestation. The functional effect of SK inhibition was larger than that of BK channel inhibition. Thus we show for the first time that SK1-3 channels are expressed and translated throughout pregnancy and contribute to outward current, regulate membrane potential and hence Ca signals in pregnant rat myometrium. They contribute more to quiescence that BK channels. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Near-Infrared Laser on Neural Cell Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki-Oda, Noriko; Kataoka, Yosky; Yamada, Hisao; Awazu, Kunio

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared laser has been used to relieve patients from various kinds of pain caused by postherpetic neuralgesia, myofascial dysfunction, surgical and traumatic wound, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. Clinically, He-Ne (λ=632.8 nm, 780 nm) and Ga-Al-As (805 ± 25 nm) lasers are used to irradiate trigger points or nerve ganglion. However the precise mechanisms of such biological actions of the laser have not yet been resolved. Since laser therapy is often effective to suppress the pain caused by hyperactive excitation of sensory neurons, interactions with laser light and neural cells are suggested. As neural excitation requires large amount of energy liberated from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), we examined the effect of 830-nm laser irradiation on the energy metabolism of the rat central nervous system and isolated mitochondria from brain. The diode laser was applied for 15 min with irradiance of 4.8 W/cm2 on a 2 mm-diameter spot at the brain surface. Tissue ATP content of the irradiated area in the cerebral cortex was 19% higher than that of the non-treated area (opposite side of the cortex), whereas the ADP content showed no significant difference. Irradiation at another wavelength (652 nm) had no effect on either ATP or ADP contents. The temperature of the brain tissue was increased 4.5-5.0 deg. C during the irradiation of both 830-nm and 652-nm laser light. Direct irradiation of the mitochondrial suspension did not show any wavelength-dependent acceleration of respiration rate nor ATP synthesis. These results suggest that the increase in tissue ATP content did not result from the thermal effect, but from specific effect of the laser operated at 830 nm. Electrophysiological studies showed the hyperpolarization of membrane potential of isolated neurons and decrease in membrane resistance with irradiation of the laser, suggesting an activation of potassium channels. Intracellular ATP is reported to regulate some kinds of potassium channels. Possible mechanisms

  5. The N-terminal domain of Slack determines the formation and trafficking of Slick/Slack heteromeric sodium-activated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Kronengold, Jack; Yan, Yangyang; Gazula, Valeswara-Rao; Brown, Maile R; Ma, Liqun; Ferreira, Gonzalo; Yang, Youshan; Bhattacharjee, Arin; Sigworth, Fred J; Salkoff, Larry; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2009-04-29

    Potassium channels activated by intracellular Na(+) ions (K(Na)) play several distinct roles in regulating the firing patterns of neurons, and, at the single channel level, their properties are quite diverse. Two known genes, Slick and Slack, encode K(Na) channels. We have now found that Slick and Slack subunits coassemble to form heteromeric channels that differ from the homomers in their unitary conductance, kinetic behavior, subcellular localization, and response to activation of protein kinase C. Heteromer formation requires the N-terminal domain of Slack-B, one of the alternative splice variants of the Slack channel. This cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of Slack-B also facilitates the localization of heteromeric K(Na) channels to the plasma membrane. Immunocytochemical studies indicate that Slick and Slack-B subunits are coexpressed in many central neurons. Our findings provide a molecular explanation for some of the diversity in reported properties of neuronal K(Na) channels.

  6. Chronic Manganese Toxicity Associated with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Complex Antibodies in a Relapsing Neuropsychiatric Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrus S.H. Ho; Roger C.M. Ho; Amy M.L. Quek

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metal poisoning is a rare but important cause of encephalopathy. Manganese (Mn) toxicity is especially rare in the modern world, and clinicians’ lack of recognition of its neuropsychiatric manifestations can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We describe the case of a man who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, psychosis, dystonic limb movement and cognitive impairment and was initially diagnosed with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex limbic ence...

  7. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) with cerebellar involvement in a teenager

    OpenAIRE

    Langille, Megan M.; Desai, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum ...

  8. Does Autoimmunity have a Role in Myoclonic Astatic Epilepsy? A Case Report of Voltage Gated Potassium Channel Mediated Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsi, Deepa; Dolce, Alison; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Thodeson, Drew

    2016-01-01

    There is expanding knowledge about the phenotypic variability of patients with voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) antibody mediated neurologic disorders. The phenotypes are diverse and involve disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system manifestations described in the literature include limbic encephalitis, status epilepticus, and acute encephalitis. We report a 4.5 year-old boy who presented with intractable Myoclonic Astatic Epilepsy (MAE) or Doose syndrome and positive VGKC antibodies in serum. Treatment with steroids led to resolution of seizures and electrographic normalization. This case widens the spectrum of etiologies for MAE to include autoimmunity, in particular VGKC auto-antibodies and CNS inflammation, as a primary or contributing factor. There is an evolving understanding of voltage gated potassium channel complex mediated autoimmunity in children and the role of inflammation and autoimmunity in MAE and other intractable pediatric epilepsy syndromes remains to be fully defined. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis and appropriate management of antibody mediated epilepsy syndromes.

  9. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Mediated Regulation of BK Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Ye Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels belong to a family of Ca2+-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channels and play a vital role in various physiological activities in the human body. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is acknowledged as being vital in the body's hormone system and plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. There is growing evidence that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has profound influences on the expression and bioactivity of BK channels. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of BK channels mediated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and its potential as a target for clinical drugs.

  10. A novel 13 residue acyclic peptide from the marine snail, Conus monile, targets potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarslal, Sadasivannair; Singaravadivelan, Govindaswamy; Ramasamy, Palanisamy; Ananda, Kuppanna; Sarma, Siddhartha P; Sikdar, Sujit K; Krishnan, K S; Balaram, Padmanabhan

    2004-05-07

    A novel 13-residue peptide Mo1659 has been isolated from the venom of a vermivorous cone snail, Conus monile. HPLC fractions of the venom extract yielded an intense UV absorbing fraction with a mass of 1659Da. De novo sequencing using both matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization and electrospray MS/MS methods together with analysis of proteolytic fragments successfully yielded the amino acid sequence, FHGGSWYRFPWGY-NH(2). This was further confirmed by comparison with the chemically synthesized peptide and by conventional Edman sequencing. Mo1659 has an unusual sequence with a preponderance of aromatic residues and the absence of apolar, aliphatic residues like Ala, Val, Leu, and Ile. Mo1659 has no disulfide bridges distinguishing it from the conotoxins and bears no sequence similarity with any of the acyclic peptides isolated thus far from the venom of cone snails. Electrophysiological studies on the effect of Mo1659 on measured currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons suggest that the peptide targets non-inactivating voltage-dependent potassium channels.

  11. Quantum-mechanical analysis of amino acid residues function in the proton transport during F0F1-ATP synthase catalytic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivontsin, L. A.; Mashkovtseva, E. V.; Nartsissov, Ya R.

    2017-11-01

    Implications of quantum-mechanical approach to the description of proton transport in biological systems are a tempting subject for an overlapping of fundamental physics and biology. The model of proton transport through the integrated membrane enzyme FoF1-ATP synthase responsible for ATP synthesis was developed. The estimation of the mathematical expectation of the proton transfer time through the half-channel was performed. Observed set of proton pathways through the inlet half-channel showed the nanosecond timescale highly dependable of some amino acid residues. There were proposed two types of crucial amino acids: critically localized (His245) and being a part of energy conserving system (Asp119).

  12. Loss of Sodium-Activated Potassium Channel Slack and FMRP Differentially Affect Social Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Anne E; Ehinger, Rebekka; Straubinger, Julia; Zerfass, Patrick; Nann, Yvette; Lukowski, Robert

    2018-05-31

    The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack (Slo2.2) is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons where it is supposed to shape firing properties important for neuronal excitability. Slack activity is enhanced by interaction with the Fragile-X-Mental-Retardation-Protein (FMRP) and loss of FMRP leads to decreased sodium-activated potassium currents in medial nucleus of the trapezoid body neurons of the Fmr1-knockout (KO) mouse representing a mouse model of the human Fragile-X-Syndrome (FXS) and autism. Autism is a frequent comorbidity of FXS, but it is unclear whether Slack is involved in autistic or related conditions of FXS in vivo. By applying a wide range of behavioral tests, we compared social and autism-related behaviors in Slack- and FMRP-deficient mice. In our hands, as expected, FMRP-deficiency causes autism-related behavioral changes in nesting and in a marble-burying test. In contrast, Slack-deficient males exhibited specific abnormalities in sociability in direct and indirect social interaction tests. Hence, we show for the first time that a proper Slack channel function is mandatory for normal social behavior in mice. Nevertheless, as deficits in social behaviors seem to occur independently from each other in FMRP and Slack null mutants, we conclude that Slack is not involved in the autistic phenotype of FMRP KO mice. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ca2+ influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Naohiko; Ito, Satoru; Furuya, Kishio; Takahara, Norihiro; Naruse, Keiji; Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca 2+ signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca 2+ elevation is mainly via Ca 2+ influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca 2+ influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca 2+ ] i transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca 2+ ] i . The stretch-induced [Ca 2+ ] i elevation was attenuated in Ca 2+ -free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca 2+ ] i by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd 3+ , ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca 2+ ] i elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca 2+ influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP

  14. Bickerstaff's encephalitis and Miller Fisher syndrome associated with voltage-gated potassium channel and novel anti-neuronal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, E; Kürtüncü, M; Lang, B; Içöz, S; Akman-Demir, G; Eraksoy, M; Vincent, A

    2010-10-01

    GQ1b antibody (GQ1b-Ab) is detected in approximately two-thirds of sera of patients with Bickerstaffs encephalitis (BE). Whilst some of the remaining patients have antibodies to other gangliosides, many patients with BE are reported to be seronegative. Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody (VGKC-Ab) at high titer was detected during the diagnostic work-up of one patient with BE. Sera of an additional patient with BE and nine patients with Miller Fisher syndrome (MF) (all GQ1b-Ab positive) were investigated for VGKC-Ab and other anti-neuronal antibodies by radioimmunoprecipitation using 125I-dendrotoxin-VGKC and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Two patients with MF exhibited moderate titer VGKC-Abs. Regardless of positivity for VGKC or GQ1b antibodies, serum IgG of all patients with BE and MF reacted with the molecular layer and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in a distinctive pattern. Voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies might be involved in some cases of BE or MF. The common staining pattern despite different antibody results suggests that there might be other, as yet unidentified, antibodies associated with BE and MF.

  15. Extracellular ATP in the Exocrine Pancreas – ATP Release, Signalling and Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena

    release. So far, the contribution of duct cells in purinergic signalling has never been studied. This work presents that both acinar and duct cells are sources of extracellular ATP in the exocrine pancreas. Here we show that duct cells release ATP in response to several physiological......ATP plays an important role as an autocrine/paracrine signalling molecule, being released from a number of tissues, in response to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli. Released ATP induces Ca2+ - and/or cAMP - dependent cellular responses via activation of ubiquitously expressed P2X and P2......, particularly during Ca2+ stress conditions. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate a complex regulation of purinergic signalling in exocrine pancreas. A crucial role for duct cells in mediating extracellular nucleotides homeostasis, involving ATP release, subsequent hydrolysis and conversion via...

  16. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) with cerebellar involvement in a teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Megan M; Desai, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of this rare condition.

  17. Excitation block in a nerve fibre model owing to potassium-dependent changes in myelin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Alexey; Maksimov, G. V.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2011-01-01

    . Uptake of potassium leads to Schwann cell swelling and myelin restructuring that impacts the electrical properties of the myelin. In order to further understand the dynamic interaction that takes place between the myelin and the axon, we have modelled submyelin potassium accumulation and related changes...... in myelin resistance during prolonged high-frequency stimulation. We predict that potassium-mediated decrease in myelin resistance leads to a functional excitation block with various patterns of altered spike trains. The patterns are found to depend on stimulation frequency and amplitude and to range from...

  18. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  19. Mice Lacking Pannexin 1 Release ATP and Respond Normally to All Taste Qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Anderson, Catherine B; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required for the transmission of all taste qualities from taste cells to afferent nerve fibers. ATP is released from Type II taste cells by a nonvesicular mechanism and activates purinergic receptors containing P2X2 and P2X3 on nerve fibers. Several ATP release channels are expressed in taste cells including CALHM1, Pannexin 1, Connexin 30, and Connexin 43, but whether all are involved in ATP release is not clear. We have used a global Pannexin 1 knock out (Panx1 KO) mouse in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results confirm that Panx1 channels are absent in taste buds of the knockout mice and that other known ATP release channels are not upregulated. Using a luciferin/luciferase assay, we show that circumvallate taste buds from Panx1 KO mice normally release ATP upon taste stimulation compared with wild type (WT) mice. Gustatory nerve recordings in response to various tastants applied to the tongue and brief-access behavioral testing with SC45647 also show no difference between Panx1 KO and WT. These results confirm that Panx1 is not required for the taste evoked release of ATP or for neural and behavioral responses to taste stimuli. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. In vivo and in vitro attenuation of naloxone-precipitated experimental opioid withdrawal syndrome by insulin and selective KATP channel modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabhat; Sharma, Bhupesh; Gupta, Surbhi; Sharma, B M

    2015-01-01

    Opiate exposure for longer duration develops state of dependence in humans and animals, which is revealed by signs and symptoms of withdrawal precipitated by opioid receptor antagonists. The sudden withdrawal of opioids produces a withdrawal syndrome in opioid-dependent subjects. Insulin and ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel-mediated glucose homeostasis have been shown to modulate morphine withdrawal. Present study has been structured to investigate the role of insulin and pharmacological modulator of KATP channel (gliclazide) in experimental morphine withdrawal syndrome, both invivo and invitro. In this study, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice (invivo) as well as in rat ileum (invitro) were utilized to assess opioid withdrawal phenomenon. Morphine withdrawal syndromes like jumping and rearing frequency, forepaw licking, circling, fore paw tremor, wet dog shake, sneezing, overall morphine withdrawal severity (OMWS), serum glucose, brain malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), nitrite/nitrate, and calcium (Ca(+2)) were assessed. Naloxone has significantly increased morphine withdrawal syndrome, both invivo and invitro. Insulin and gliclazide have significantly attenuated, naloxone induced behavioral changes like jumping and rearing frequency, forepaw licking, wet dog shake, sneezing, straightening, circling, OMWS, and various biochemical impairments such as serum glucose, brain MDA, GSH, nitrite/nitrate, and Ca(+2) in morphine-dependent animals (invivo). In vitro, insulin and gliclazide have significantly reduced naloxone-induced contraction in morphine-withdrawn rat ileum preparation. Insulin and gliclazide (KATP channel blocker) have attenuated naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome, both invivo and invitro. Thus, insulin and KATP channel modulation may provide new avenues for research in morphine withdrawal.

  1. ATP Release from Human Airway Epithelial Cells Exposed to Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Baaske

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Airway epithelial cells reduce cytosolic ATP content in response to treatment with S. aureus alpha-toxin (hemolysin A, Hla. This study was undertaken to investigate whether this is due to attenuated ATP generation or to release of ATP from the cytosol and extracellular ATP degradation by ecto-enzymes. Exposure of cells to rHla did result in mitochondrial calcium uptake and a moderate decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that ATP regeneration may have been attenuated. In addition, ATP may have left the cells through transmembrane pores formed by the toxin or through endogenous release channels (e.g., pannexins activated by cellular stress imposed on the cells by toxin exposure. Exposure of cells to an alpha-toxin mutant (H35L, which attaches to the host cell membrane but does not form transmembrane pores, did not induce ATP release from the cells. The Hla-mediated ATP-release was completely blocked by IB201, a cyclodextrin-inhibitor of the alpha-toxin pore, but was not at all affected by inhibitors of pannexin channels. These results indicate that, while exposure of cells to rHla may somewhat reduce ATP production and cellular ATP content, a portion of the remaining ATP is released to the extracellular space and degraded by ecto-enzymes. The release of ATP from the cells may occur directly through the transmembrane pores formed by alpha-toxin.

  2. Identification of the functional binding pocket for compounds targeting small-conductance Ca²⁺-activated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Pascal, John M; Schumann, Marcel; Armen, Roger S; Zhang, Ji-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Small- and intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels, activated by Ca(2+)-bound calmodulin, have an important role in regulating membrane excitability. These channels are also linked to clinical abnormalities. A tremendous amount of effort has been devoted to developing small molecule compounds targeting these channels. However, these compounds often suffer from low potency and lack of selectivity, hindering their potential for clinical use. A key contributing factor is the lack of knowledge of the binding site(s) for these compounds. Here we demonstrate by X-ray crystallography that the binding pocket for the compounds of the 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO) class is located at the calmodulin-channel interface. We show that, based on structure data and molecular docking, mutations of the channel can effectively change the potency of these compounds. Our results provide insight into the molecular nature of the binding pocket and its contribution to the potency and selectivity of the compounds of the 1-EBIO class.

  3. Covalent modification of mutant rat P2X2 receptors with a thiol-reactive fluorophore allows channel activation by zinc or acidic pH without ATP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo S Dellal

    Full Text Available Rat P2X2 receptors open at an undetectably low rate in the absence of ATP. Furthermore, two allosteric modulators, zinc and acidic pH, cannot by themselves open these channels. We describe here the properties of a mutant receptor, K69C, before and after treatment with the thiol-reactive fluorophore Alexa Fluor 546 C(5-maleimide (AM546. Xenopus oocytes expressing unmodified K69C were not activated under basal conditions nor by 1,000 µM ATP. AM546 treatment caused a small increase in the inward holding current which persisted on washout and control experiments demonstrated this current was due to ATP independent opening of the channels. Following AM546 treatment, zinc (100 µM or acidic external solution (pH 6.5 elicited inward currents when applied without any exogenous ATP. In the double mutant K69C/H319K, zinc elicited much larger inward currents, while acidic pH generated outward currents. Suramin, which is an antagonist of wild type receptors, behaved as an agonist at AM546-treated K69C receptors. Several other cysteine-reactive fluorophores tested on K69C did not cause these changes. These modified receptors show promise as a tool for studying the mechanisms of P2X receptor activation.

  4. Iptakalim inhibits PDGF-BB-induced human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenrui; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zailiang; Yan, Xiaopei; Wang, Yanli; Xie, Weiping, E-mail: wpxie@njmu.edu.cn; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hongwang@njmu.edu.cn

    2015-08-15

    Chronic airway diseases are characterized by airway remodeling which is attributed partly to the proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). ATP-sensitive potassium (K{sub ATP}) channels have been identified in ASMCs. Mount evidence has suggested that K{sub ATP} channel openers can reduce airway hyperresponsiveness and alleviate airway remodeling. Opening K{sup +} channels triggers K{sup +} efflux, which leading to membrane hyperpolarization, preventing Ca{sup 2+}entry through closing voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is the most important regulator of muscle contraction, cell proliferation and migration. K{sup +} efflux decreases Ca{sup 2+} influx, which consequently influences ASMCs proliferation and migration. As a K{sub ATP} channel opener, iptakalim (Ipt) has been reported to restrain the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) involved in vascular remodeling, while little is known about its impact on ASMCs. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Ipt on human ASMCs and the mechanisms underlying. Results obtained from cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation showed that Ipt significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced ASMCs proliferation. ASMCs migration induced by PDGF-BB was also suppressed by Ipt in transwell migration and scratch assay. Besides, the phosphorylation of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (Akt), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) were as well alleviated by Ipt administration. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of Ipt on the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration in human ASMCs was blocked by glibenclamide (Gli), a selective K{sub ATP} channel antagonist. These findings provide a strong evidence to support that Ipt

  5. Protection against Mitochondrial and Metal Toxicity Depends on Functional Lipid Binding Sites in ATP13A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The late endo-/lysosomal P-type ATPase ATP13A2 (PARK9 is implicated in Parkinson’s disease (PD and Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, early-onset atypical Parkinsonism. ATP13A2 interacts at the N-terminus with the signaling lipids phosphatidic acid (PA and phosphatidylinositol (3,5 bisphosphate (PI(3,5P2, which modulate ATP13A2 activity under cellular stress conditions. Here, we analyzed stable human SHSY5Y cell lines overexpressing wild-type (WT or ATP13A2 mutants in which three N-terminal lipid binding sites (LBS1–3 were mutated. We explored the regulatory role of LBS1–3 in the cellular protection by ATP13A2 against mitochondrial stress induced by rotenone and found that the LBS2-3 mutants displayed an abrogated protective effect. Moreover, in contrast to WT, the LBS2 and LBS3 mutants responded poorly to pharmacological inhibition of, respectively, PI(3,5P2 and PA formation. We further demonstrate that PA and PI(3,5P2 are also required for the ATP13A2-mediated protection against the toxic metals Mn2+, Zn2+, and Fe3+, suggesting a general lipid-dependent activation mechanism of ATP13A2 in various PD-related stress conditions. Our results indicate that the ATP13A2-mediated protection requires binding of PI(3,5P2 to LBS2 and PA to LBS3. Thus, targeting the N-terminal lipid binding sites of ATP13A2 might offer a therapeutic approach to reduce cellular toxicity of various PD insults including mitochondrial stress.

  6. Purification, crystallization and structure determination of native GroEL from Escherichia coli lacking bound potassium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, Philip D.; Lodowski, David T.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    A 3.02 Å crystal structure of native GroEL from E. coli is presented. GroEL is a member of the ATP-dependent chaperonin family that promotes the proper folding of many cytosolic bacterial proteins. The structures of GroEL in a variety of different states have been determined using X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. In this study, a 3.02 Å crystal structure of the native GroEL complex from Escherichia coli is presented. The complex was purified and crystallized in the absence of potassium ions, which allowed evaluation of the structural changes that may occur in response to cognate potassium-ion binding by comparison to the previously determined wild-type GroEL structure (PDB code http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore.do?structureId), in which potassium ions were observed in all 14 subunits. In general, the structure is similar to the previously determined wild-type GroEL crystal structure with some differences in regard to temperature-factor distribution

  7. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC with cerebellar involvement in a teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Langille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of this rare condition.

  8. On the mechanism of TBA block of the TRPV1 channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera, Andrés Jara; Islas, León D; García-Villegas, Refugio; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2007-06-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is a nonselective cation channel activated by capsaicin and responsible for thermosensation. To date, little is known about the gating characteristics of these channels. Here we used tetrabutylammonium (TBA) to determine whether this molecule behaves as an ion conduction blocker in TRPV1 channels and to gain insight into the nature of the activation gate of this protein. TBA belongs to a family of classic potassium channel blockers that have been widely used as tools for determining the localization of the activation gate and the properties of the pore of several ion channels. We found TBA to be a voltage-dependent pore blocker and that the properties of block are consistent with an open-state blocker, with the TBA molecule binding to multiple open states, each with different blocker affinities. Kinetics of channel closure and burst-length analysis in the presence of blocker are consistent with a state-dependent blocking mechanism, with TBA interfering with closing of an activation gate. This activation gate may be located cytoplasmically with respect to the binding site of TBA ions, similar to what has been observed in potassium channels. We propose an allosteric model for TRPV1 activation and block by TBA, which explains our experimental data.

  9. Opposing Roles of Calcium and Intracellular ATP on Gating of the Purinergic P2X2 Receptor Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos B. Rokic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available P2X2 receptors (P2X2R exhibit a slow desensitization during the initial ATP application and a progressive, calcium-dependent increase in rates of desensitization during repetitive stimulation. This pattern is observed in whole-cell recordings from cells expressing recombinant and native P2X2R. However, desensitization is not observed in perforated-patched cells and in two-electrode voltage clamped oocytes. Addition of ATP, but not ATPγS or GTP, in the pipette solution also abolishes progressive desensitization, whereas intracellular injection of apyrase facilitates receptor desensitization. Experiments with injection of alkaline phosphatase or addition of staurosporine and ATP in the intracellular solution suggest a role for a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation in receptor desensitization. Mutation of residues that are potential phosphorylation sites identified a critical role of the S363 residue in the intracellular ATP action. These findings indicate that intracellular calcium and ATP have opposing effects on P2X2R gating: calcium allosterically facilitates receptor desensitization and ATP covalently prevents the action of calcium. Single cell measurements further revealed that intracellular calcium stays elevated after washout in P2X2R-expressing cells and the blockade of mitochondrial sodium/calcium exchanger lowers calcium concentrations during washout periods to basal levels, suggesting a role of mitochondria in this process. Therefore, the metabolic state of the cell can influence P2X2R gating.

  10. Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majoie, H J Marian; de Baets, Mark; Renier, Willy; Lang, Bethan; Vincent, Angela

    2006-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of antibodies to ion channels in patients with long standing epilepsy. Although the CNS is thought to be protected from circulating antibodies by the blood brain barrier, glutamate receptor antibodies have been reported in Rasmussen's encephalitis, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies have been found in a few patients with epilepsy, and antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC) have been found in a non-paraneoplastic form of limbic encephalitis (with amnesia and seizures) that responds to immunosuppressive therapy. We retrospectively screened sera from female epilepsy patients (n=106) for autoantibodies to VGKC (Kv 1.1, 1.2 or 1.6), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) (P/Q-type), and GAD. All positive results, based on the values of control data [McKnight, K., Jiang, Y., et al. (2005). Serum antibodies in epilepsy and seizure-associated disorders. Neurology 65, 1730-1735], were retested at lower serum concentrations, and results compared with previously published control data. Demographics, medical history, and epilepsy related information was gathered. The studied group consisted predominantly of patients with long standing drug resistant epilepsy. VGKC antibodies were raised (>100 pM) in six patients. VGCC antibodies (>45 pM) were slightly raised in only one patient. GAD antibodies were VGKC antibodies differed from previously described patients with limbic encephalitis-like syndrome, and were not different with respect to seizure type, age at first seizure, duration of epilepsy, or use of anti-epileptic drugs from the VGKC antibody negative patients. The results demonstrate that antibodies to VGKC are present in 6% of patients with typical long-standing epilepsy, but whether these antibodies are pathogenic or secondary to the primary disease process needs to be determined.

  11. Changes in dermal interstitial ATP levels during local heating of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Jayson R; Heal, Cory; Bridges, Jarom; Goldthorpe, Scott; Mack, Gary W

    2012-12-15

    Heating skin is believed to activate vanilloid type III and IV transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPV3, TRPV4, respectively), resulting in the release of ATP into the interstitial fluid. We examined the hypothesis that local skin heating would result in an accumulation of ATP in the interstitial fluid that would be related with a rise in skin blood flow (SkBF) and temperature sensation. Two microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis on the dorsal aspect of the forearm in 15 young, healthy subjects. The probed skin was maintained at 31°C, 35°C, 39°C and 43°C for 8 min periods, during which SkBF was monitored as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Dialysate was collected and analysed for ATP ([ATP](d)) using a luciferase-based assay, and ratings of perceived warmth were taken at each temperature. At a skin temperature of 31°C, [ATP](d) averaged 18.93 ± 4.06 nm and CVC averaged 12.57 ± 1.59% peak. Heating skin to 35°C resulted in an increase in CVC (17.63 ± 1.27% peak; P ATP](d). Heating skin to 39°C and 43°C resulted in a decreased [ATP](d) (5.88 ± 1.68 nm and 8.75 ± 3.44 nm, respectively; P ATP does not occur during local heating, and therefore does not have a role in temperature sensation or the dilator response in human skin. Nevertheless, the low threshold of dilatation (35°C) indicates a possible role for the TRPV3, TRPV4 channels or the sensitization of other ion channels in mediating the dilator response.

  12. A simple and versatile system for the ATP-dependent assembly of chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Mai T; Fei, Jia; Cruz-Becerra, Grisel; Kadonaga, James T

    2017-11-24

    Chromatin is the natural form of DNA in the eukaryotic nucleus and is the substrate for diverse biological phenomena. The functional analysis of these processes ideally would be carried out with nucleosomal templates that are assembled with customized core histones, DNA sequences, and chromosomal proteins. Here we report a simple, reliable, and versatile method for the ATP-dependent assembly of evenly spaced nucleosome arrays. This minimal chromatin assembly system comprises the Drosophila nucleoplasmin-like protein (dNLP) histone chaperone, the imitation switch (ISWI) ATP-driven motor protein, core histones, template DNA, and ATP. The dNLP and ISWI components were synthesized in bacteria, and each protein could be purified in a single step by affinity chromatography. We show that the dNLP-ISWI system can be used with different DNA sequences, linear or circular DNA, bulk genomic DNA, recombinant or native Drosophila core histones, native human histones, the linker histone H1, the non-histone chromosomal protein HMGN2, and the core histone variants H3.3 and H2A.V. The dNLP-ISWI system should be accessible to a wide range of researchers and enable the assembly of customized chromatin with specifically desired DNA sequences, core histones, and other chromosomal proteins. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Differential Regulation of Action Potential Shape and Burst-Frequency Firing by BK and Kv2 Channels in Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Tilia; Khaliq, Zayd M; Bean, Bruce P

    2015-12-16

    Little is known about the voltage-dependent potassium currents underlying spike repolarization in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Studying mouse substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons both in brain slice and after acute dissociation, we found that BK calcium-activated potassium channels and Kv2 channels both make major contributions to the depolarization-activated potassium current. Inhibiting Kv2 or BK channels had very different effects on spike shape and evoked firing. Inhibiting Kv2 channels increased spike width and decreased the afterhyperpolarization, as expected for loss of an action potential-activated potassium conductance. BK inhibition also increased spike width but paradoxically increased the afterhyperpolarization. Kv2 channel inhibition steeply increased the slope of the frequency-current (f-I) relationship, whereas BK channel inhibition had little effect on the f-I slope or decreased it, sometimes resulting in slowed firing. Action potential clamp experiments showed that both BK and Kv2 current flow during spike repolarization but with very different kinetics, with Kv2 current activating later and deactivating more slowly. Further experiments revealed that inhibiting either BK or Kv2 alone leads to recruitment of additional current through the other channel type during the action potential as a consequence of changes in spike shape. Enhancement of slowly deactivating Kv2 current can account for the increased afterhyperpolarization produced by BK inhibition and likely underlies the very different effects on the f-I relationship. The cross-regulation of BK and Kv2 activation illustrates that the functional role of a channel cannot be defined in isolation but depends critically on the context of the other conductances in the cell. This work shows that BK calcium-activated potassium channels and Kv2 voltage-activated potassium channels both regulate action potentials in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although both

  14. Compartmentalized beta subunit distribution determines characteristics and ethanol sensitivity of somatic, dendritic, and terminal large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, P M; Puig, S I; Martin, G E; Treistman, S N

    2009-06-01

    Neurons are highly differentiated and polarized cells, whose various functions depend upon the compartmentalization of ion channels. The rat hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system (HNS), in which cell bodies and dendrites reside in the hypothalamus, physically separated from their nerve terminals in the neurohypophysis, provides a particularly powerful preparation in which to study the distribution and regional properties of ion channel proteins. Using electrophysiological and immunohistochemical techniques, we characterized the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel in each of the three primary compartments (soma, dendrite, and terminal) of HNS neurons. We found that dendritic BK channels, in common with somatic channels but in contrast to nerve terminal channels, are insensitive to iberiotoxin. Furthermore, analysis of dendritic BK channel gating kinetics indicates that they, like somatic channels, have fast activation kinetics, in contrast to the slow gating of terminal channels. Dendritic and somatic channels are also more sensitive to calcium and have a greater conductance than terminal channels. Finally, although terminal BK channels are highly potentiated by ethanol, somatic and dendritic channels are insensitive to the drug. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of somatic and dendritic versus nerve terminal channels are consistent with the characteristics of exogenously expressed alphabeta1 versus alphabeta4 channels, respectively. Therefore, one possible explanation for our findings is a selective distribution of auxiliary beta1 subunits to the somatic and dendritic compartments and beta4 to the terminal compartment. This hypothesis is supported immunohistochemically by the appearance of distinct punctate beta1 or beta4 channel clusters in the membrane of somatic and dendritic or nerve terminal compartments, respectively.

  15. High potency inhibition of hERG potassium channels by the sodium–calcium exchange inhibitor KB-R7943

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongwei; Zhang, Yihong; Du, Chunyun; Dempsey, Christopher E; Hancox, Jules C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE KB-R7943 is an isothiourea derivative that is used widely as a pharmacological inhibitor of sodium–calcium exchange (NCX) in experiments on cardiac and other tissue types. This study investigated KB-R7943 inhibition of hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) K+ channels that underpin the cardiac rapid delayed rectifier potassium current, IKr. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements were made of hERG current (IhERG) carried by wild-type or mutant hERG channels and of native rabbit ventricular IKr. Docking simulations utilized a hERG homology model built on a MthK-based template. KEY RESULTS KB-R7943 inhibited both IhERG and native IKr rapidly on membrane depolarization with IC50 values of ∼89 and ∼120 nM, respectively, for current tails at −40 mV following depolarizing voltage commands to +20 mV. Marked IhERG inhibition also occurred under ventricular action potential voltage clamp. IhERG inhibition by KB-R7943 exhibited both time- and voltage-dependence but showed no preference for inactivated over activated channels. Results of alanine mutagenesis and docking simulations indicate that KB-R7943 can bind to a pocket formed of the side chains of aromatic residues Y652 and F656, with the compound's nitrobenzyl group orientated towards the cytoplasmic side of the channel pore. The structurally related NCX inhibitor SN-6 also inhibited IhERG, but with a markedly reduced potency. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS KB-R7943 inhibits IhERG/IKr with a potency that exceeds that reported previously for acute cardiac NCX inhibition. Our results also support the feasibility of benzyloxyphenyl-containing NCX inhibitors with reduced potential, in comparison with KB-R7943, to inhibit hERG. PMID:21950687

  16. Specific Sorting and Post-Golgi trafficking of Dendritic Potassium Channels in Living Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Stampe; Watanabe, Shoji; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger

    2014-01-01

    Proper membrane localization of ion channels is essential for the function of neuronal cells. Particularly, the computational ability of dendrites depends on the localization of different ion channels in specific sub-compartments. However, the molecular mechanisms which control ion channel...

  17. Dose-dependent ATP depletion and cancer cell death following calcium electroporation, relative effect of calcium concentration and electric field strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Emilie Louise; Sozer, Esin Bengisu; Romeo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    death and could be a novel cancer treatment. This study aims at understanding the relationship between applied electric field, calcium concentration, ATP depletion and efficacy. METHODS: In three human cell lines--H69 (small-cell lung cancer), SW780 (bladder cancer), and U937 (leukaemia), viability...... was observed with fluorescence confocal microscopy of quinacrine-labelled U937 cells. RESULTS: Both H69 and SW780 cells showed dose-dependent (calcium concentration and electric field) decrease in intracellular ATP (p...-dependently reduced cell survival and intracellular ATP. Increasing extracellular calcium allows the use of a lower electric field. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the use of calcium electroporation for treatment of cancer and possibly lowering the applied electric field in future trials....

  18. The antipsychotic drug loxapine is an opener of the sodium-activated potassium channel slack (Slo2.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biton, B; Sethuramanujam, S; Picchione, Kelly E; Bhattacharjee, A; Khessibi, N; Chesney, F; Lanneau, C; Curet, O; Avenet, P

    2012-03-01

    Sodium-activated potassium (K(Na)) channels have been suggested to set the resting potential, to modulate slow after-hyperpolarizations, and to control bursting behavior or spike frequency adaptation (Trends Neurosci 28:422-428, 2005). One of the genes that encodes K(Na) channels is called Slack (Kcnt1, Slo2.2). Studies found that Slack channels were highly expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons and modulated their firing frequency (J Neurosci 30:14165-14172, 2010). Therefore, Slack channel openers are of significant interest as putative analgesic drugs. We screened the library of pharmacologically active compounds with recombinant human Slack channels expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, by using rubidium efflux measurements with atomic absorption spectrometry. Riluzole at 500 μM was used as a reference agonist. The antipsychotic drug loxapine and the anthelmintic drug niclosamide were both found to activate Slack channels, which was confirmed by using manual patch-clamp analyses (EC(50) = 4.4 μM and EC(50) = 2.9 μM, respectively). Psychotropic drugs structurally related to loxapine were also evaluated in patch-clamp experiments, but none was found to be as active as loxapine. Loxapine properties were confirmed at the single-channel level with recombinant rat Slack channels. In dorsal root ganglion neurons, loxapine was found to behave as an opener of native K(Na) channels and to increase the rheobase of action potential. This study identifies new K(Na) channel pharmacological tools, which will be useful for further Slack channel investigations.

  19. Kir 4.1 inward rectifier potassium channel is upregulated in astrocytes in a murine multiple sclerosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Francisco; Almanza, Angélica; Rubio, Nazario; Soto, Enrique

    2018-06-11

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a high prevalence degenerative disease characterized at the cellular level by glial and neuronal cell death. The causes of cell death during the disease course are not fully understood. In this work we demonstrate that in a MS model induced by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection, the inward rectifier (Kir) 4.1 potassium channel subunit is overexpressed in astrocytes. In voltage clamp experiments the inward current density from TMEV-infected astrocytes was significantly larger than in mock-infected ones. The cRNA hybridization analysis from mock- and TMEV-infected cells showed an upregulation of a potassium transport channel coding sequence. We validated this mRNA increase by RT-PCR and quantitative PCR using Kir 4.1 specific primers. Western blotting experiments confirmed the upregulation of Kir 4.1, and alignment between sequences provided the demonstration that the over-expressed gene encodes for a Kir family member. Flow cytometry showed that the Kir 4.1 protein is located mainly in the cell membrane in mock and TMEV-infected astrocytes. Our results demonstrate an increase in K + inward current in TMEV-infected glial cells, this increment may reduce the neuronal depolarization, contributing to cell resilience mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Molecular Basis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Interactions with the Shaker Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Yazdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium (KV channels are membrane proteins that respond to changes in membrane potential by enabling K+ ion flux across the membrane. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs induce channel opening by modulating the voltage-sensitivity, which can provide effective treatment against refractory epilepsy by means of a ketogenic diet. While PUFAs have been reported to influence the gating mechanism by electrostatic interactions to the voltage-sensor domain (VSD, the exact PUFA-protein interactions are still elusive. In this study, we report on the interactions between the Shaker KV channel in open and closed states and a PUFA-enriched lipid bilayer using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We determined a putative PUFA binding site in the open state of the channel located at the protein-lipid interface in the vicinity of the extracellular halves of the S3 and S4 helices of the VSD. In particular, the lipophilic PUFA tail covered a wide range of non-specific hydrophobic interactions in the hydrophobic central core of the protein-lipid interface, while the carboxylic head group displayed more specific interactions to polar/charged residues at the extracellular regions of the S3 and S4 helices, encompassing the S3-S4 linker. Moreover, by studying the interactions between saturated fatty acids (SFA and the Shaker KV channel, our study confirmed an increased conformational flexibility in the polyunsaturated carbon tails compared to saturated carbon chains, which may explain the specificity of PUFA action on channel proteins.

  1. The extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends strongly on the organism and conditions for growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Westerhoff, H.V.; Snoep, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular genetics we have introduced uncoupled ATPase activity in two different bacterial species, Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis, and determined the elasticities of the growth rate and glycolytic flux towards the intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. During balanced growth in batch...... cultures of E. coli the ATP demand was found to have almost full control on the glycolytic flux (FCC=0.96) and the flux could be stimulated by 70%. In contrast to this, in L. lactis the control by ATP demand on the glycolytic flux was close to zero. However, when we used non-growing cells of L. lactis...... (which have a low glycolytic flux) the ATP demand had a high flux control and the flux could be stimulated more than two fold. We suggest that the extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends on how much excess capacity of glycolysis is present in the cells....

  2. Interactions between bicarbonate, potassium, and magnesium, and sulfur-dependent induction of luminescence in Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Yosuke; Era, Mariko; Ogawa, Akane; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    In spite of its central importance in research efforts, the relationship between seawater compounds and bacterial luminescence has not previously been investigated in detail. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effect of cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH(4) (+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) and anions (Cl(-) , HCO(3) (-) , CO(3) (2-) , and NO(3) (-) ) on the induction of both inorganic (sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate) and organic (L-cysteine and L-cystine) sulfur-dependent luminescence in Vibrio fischeri. We found that HCO(3) (-) (bicarbonate) and CO(3) (2-) (carbonate), in the form of various compounds, had a stimulatory effect on sulfur-dependent luminescence. The luminescence induced by bicarbonate was further promoted by the addition of magnesium. Potassium also increased sulfur-dependent luminescence when sulfate or thiosulfate was supplied as the sole sulfur source, but not when sulfite, L-cysteine, or L-cystine was supplied. The positive effect of potassium was accelerated by the addition of magnesium and/or calcium. Furthermore, the additional supply of magnesium improved the induction of sulfite- or L-cysteine-dependent luminescence, but not the l-cystine-dependent type. These results suggest that sulfur-dependent luminescence of V. fischeri under nutrient-starved conditions is mainly controlled by bicarbonate, carbonate, and potassium. In addition, our results indicate that an additional supply of magnesium is effective for increasing V. fischeri luminescence. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Photobiomodulation on KATP Channels of Kir6.2-Transfected HEK-293 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-qing Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channel couples cell metabolism to excitability. To explore role of KATP channels in cellular photobiomodulation, we designed experiment to study effect of low intensity 808 nm laser irradiation on the activity of membrane KATP channel. Study Design/Materials and Methods. Plasmids encoding Kir6.2 was constructed and heterologously expressed in cultured mammalian HEK-293 cells. The patch-clamp and data acquisition systems were used to record KATP channel current before and after irradiation. A laser beam of Ga-As 808 nm at 5 mW/cm2 was used in experiments. A one-way ANOVA test followed by a post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test was used to assess the statistical differences between data groups. Results. Obvious openings of KATP channels of Kir6.2-transfected HEK-293 cells and excised patches were recorded during and after low intensity 808 nm laser irradiation. Compared with the channels that did not undergo irradiation, open probability, current amplitude, and dwell time of KATP channels after irradiation improved. Conclusions. Low intensity 808 nm laser irradiation may activate membrane KATP channels of Kir6.2-transfected HEK-293 cells and in excised patches.

  4. G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium current contributes to ventricular repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Bo; Nissen, Jakob D; Laursen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional role of G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) channels in the cardiac ventricle.......The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional role of G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) channels in the cardiac ventricle....

  5. [Mg2+, ATP-dependent plasma membrane calcium pump of smooth muscle cells. I. Structural organization and properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veklich, T O; Mazur, Iu Iu; Kosterin, S O

    2015-01-01

    Tight control of cytoplasm Ca2+ concentration is essential in cell functioning. Changing of Ca2+ concentration is thorough in smooth muscle cells, because it determines relaxation/constraint process. One of key proteins which control Ca2+ concentration in cytoplasm is Mg2+, ATP-dependent plasma membrane calcium pump. Thus, it is important to find compoumds which allowed one to change Mg2+, ATP-dependent plasma membrane calcium pump activity, as long as this topic is of current interest in biochemical research which regards energy and pharmacomechanical coupling mechanism of muscle excitation and contraction. In this article we generalized literatute and own data about properties of smooth muscle cell plasma membrane Ca(2+)-pump. Stuctural oganization, kinetical properties and molecular biology are considered.

  6. Inwardly Rectifying Potassium (Kir) Channels Represent a Critical Ion Conductance Pathway in the Nervous Systems of Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Swale, Daniel R

    2018-01-25

    A complete understanding of the physiological pathways critical for proper function of the insect nervous system is still lacking. The recent development of potent and selective small-molecule modulators of insect inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels has enabled the interrogation of the physiological role and toxicological potential of Kir channels within various insect tissue systems. Therefore, we aimed to highlight the physiological and functional role of neural Kir channels the central nervous system, muscular system, and neuromuscular system through pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Our data provide significant evidence that Drosophila neural systems rely on the inward conductance of K + ions for proper function since pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation of neural Kir channels yielded dramatic alterations of the CNS spike discharge frequency and broadening and reduced amplitude of the evoked EPSP at the neuromuscular junction. Based on these data, we conclude that neural Kir channels in insects (1) are critical for proper function of the insect nervous system, (2) represents an unexplored physiological pathway that is likely to shape the understanding of neuronal signaling, maintenance of membrane potentials, and maintenance of the ionic balance of insects, and (3) are capable of inducing acute toxicity to insects through neurological poisoning.

  7. Ca{sup 2+} influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Naohiko [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ito, Satoru, E-mail: itori@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Furuya, Kishio [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahara, Norihiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Naruse, Keiji [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sokabe, Masahiro [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hasegawa, Yoshinori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca{sup 2+} signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation is mainly via Ca{sup 2+} influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. The stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was attenuated in Ca{sup 2+}-free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd{sup 3+}, ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca{sup 2+} influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP.

  8. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  9. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Finger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells.

  10. Chloride is essential for contraction of afferent arterioles after agonists and potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Ellekvist, Peter; Skøtt, O

    1997-01-01

    to norepinephrine, angiotensin II (ANG II), and potassium were measured after chloride depletion and compared with controls. Chloride depletion did not change arteriolar diameters, but the response to norepinephrine was markedly reduced when chloride was substituted with gluconate (n = 6) or isethionate (n = 6......). Reintroduction of chloride fully restored the sensitivity to norepinephrine. Contractions after ANG II and potassium were totally abolished in the absence of chloride (n = 6). In additional experiments (n = 7), the arteriolar contraction to 100 mM potassium was abolished only 1 min after removal of extracellular......A depolarizing chloride efflux has been suggested to activate voltage-dependent calcium channels in renal afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cells in response to vasoconstrictors. To test this proposal, rabbit afferent arterioles were microperfused, and the contractile dose responses...

  11. Clinical utility of seropositive voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammoul, Adham; Shayya, Luay; Mente, Karin; Li, Jianbo; Rae-Grant, Alexander; Li, Yuebing

    2016-10-01

    Antibodies against voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex are implicated in the pathogenesis of acquired neuromyotonia, limbic encephalitis, faciobrachial dystonic seizure, and Morvan syndrome. Outside these entities, the clinical value of VGKC-complex antibodies remains unclear. We conducted a single-center review of patients positive for VGKC-complex antibodies over an 8-year period. Among 114 patients positive for VGKC-complex antibody, 11 (9.6%) carrying the diagnosis of limbic encephalitis (n = 9) or neuromyotonia (n = 2) constituted the classic group, and the remaining 103 cases of various neurologic and non-neurologic disorders comprised the nonclassic group. The median titer for the classic group was higher than the nonclassic group ( p 0.25 nM) VGKC-complex antibody levels ( p VGKC-complex antibody titers are more likely found in patients with classically associated syndromes and other autoimmune conditions. Low-level VGKC-complex antibodies can be detected in nonspecific and mostly nonautoimmune disorders. The presence of VGKC-complex antibody, rather than its level, may serve as a marker of malignancy.

  12. Kalium: a database of potassium channel toxins from scorpion venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenkov, Alexey I; Krylov, Nikolay A; Chugunov, Anton O; Grishin, Eugene V; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    Kalium (http://kaliumdb.org/) is a manually curated database that accumulates data on potassium channel toxins purified from scorpion venom (KTx). This database is an open-access resource, and provides easy access to pages of other databases of interest, such as UniProt, PDB, NCBI Taxonomy Browser, and PubMed. General achievements of Kalium are a strict and easy regulation of KTx classification based on the unified nomenclature supported by researchers in the field, removal of peptides with partial sequence and entries supported by transcriptomic information only, classification of β-family toxins, and addition of a novel λ-family. Molecules presented in the database can be processed by the Clustal Omega server using a one-click option. Molecular masses of mature peptides are calculated and available activity data are compiled for all KTx. We believe that Kalium is not only of high interest to professional toxinologists, but also of general utility to the scientific community.Database URL:http://kaliumdb.org/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. The KCNQ5 potassium channel from mouse: a broadly expressed M-current like potassium channel modulated by zinc, pH, and volume changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Callø, Kirstine; Jespersen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    H-dependent potentiation by Zn2+ (EC50 = 21.8 microM at pH 7.4), inhibition by acidification (IC50 = 0.75 microM; pKa = 6.1), and regulation by small changes in cell volume. Furthermore, the channels are activated by the anti-convulsant drug retigabine (EC50 = 2.0 microM) and inhibited by the M-current blockers...... and hippocampus. This study shows that murine KCNQ5 channels, in addition to sharing biophysical and pharmacological characteristics with the human ortholog, are tightly regulated by physiological stimuli such as changes in extracellular Zn2+, pH, and tonicity, thus adding to the complex regulation...

  14. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in KATP channel-mediated insulin secretion in INS-1 insulinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Seon; Zheng Haifeng; Kim, Sung Joon; Park, Jong-Wan; Park, Kyong Soo; Ho, Won-Kyung; Chun, Yang-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) has been known to participate in cellular responses to xenobiotic and hypoxic stresses, as a common partner of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor-1/2α. Recently, it was reported that ARNT is essential for adequate insulin secretion in response to glucose input and that its expression is downregulated in the pancreatic islets of diabetic patients. In the present study, the authors addressed the mechanism by which ARNT regulates insulin secretion in the INS-1 insulinoma cell line. In ARNT knock-down cells, basal insulin release was elevated, but insulin secretion was not further stimulated by a high-glucose challenge. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that glucose-dependent membrane depolarization was impaired in these cells. Furthermore, K ATP channel activity and expression were reduced. Of two K ATP channel subunits, Kir6.2 was found to be positively regulated by ARNT at the mRNA and protein levels. Based on these results, the authors suggest that ARNT expresses K ATP channel and by so doing regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

  15. Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, M.G.; Reimann, E.M.; Thysseril, T.J.; Schlender, K.K.

    1986-01-01

    Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca 2+ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting 32 P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated 32 P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor

  16. Cytosolic nucleotides block and regulate the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingbo; Martinoia, Enrico; De Angeli, Alexis

    2014-09-12

    The aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form a membrane protein family exhibiting different physiological roles in plants, varying from conferring tolerance to environmental Al(3+) to the regulation of stomatal movement. The regulation of the anion channels of the ALMT family is largely unknown. Identifying intracellular modulators of the activity of anion channels is fundamental to understanding their physiological functions. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic nucleotides in regulating the activity of the vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9. We found that cytosolic nucleotides modulate the transport activity of AtALMT9. This modulation was based on a direct block of the pore of the channel at negative membrane potentials (open channel block) by the nucleotide and not by a phosphorylation mechanism. The block by nucleotides of AtALMT9-mediated currents was voltage dependent. The blocking efficiency of intracellular nucleotides increased with the number of phosphate groups and ATP was the most effective cellular blocker. Interestingly, the ATP block induced a marked modification of the current-voltage characteristic of AtALMT9. In addition, increased concentrations of vacuolar anions were able to shift the ATP block threshold to a more negative membrane potential. The block of AtALMT9-mediated anion currents by ATP at negative membrane potentials acts as a gate of the channel and vacuolar anion tune this gating mechanism. Our results suggest that anion transport across the vacuolar membrane in plant cells is controlled by cytosolic nucleotides and the energetic status of the cell. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Cytosolic Nucleotides Block and Regulate the Arabidopsis Vacuolar Anion Channel AtALMT9*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingbo; Martinoia, Enrico; De Angeli, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form a membrane protein family exhibiting different physiological roles in plants, varying from conferring tolerance to environmental Al3+ to the regulation of stomatal movement. The regulation of the anion channels of the ALMT family is largely unknown. Identifying intracellular modulators of the activity of anion channels is fundamental to understanding their physiological functions. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic nucleotides in regulating the activity of the vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9. We found that cytosolic nucleotides modulate the transport activity of AtALMT9. This modulation was based on a direct block of the pore of the channel at negative membrane potentials (open channel block) by the nucleotide and not by a phosphorylation mechanism. The block by nucleotides of AtALMT9-mediated currents was voltage dependent. The blocking efficiency of intracellular nucleotides increased with the number of phosphate groups and ATP was the most effective cellular blocker. Interestingly, the ATP block induced a marked modification of the current-voltage characteristic of AtALMT9. In addition, increased concentrations of vacuolar anions were able to shift the ATP block threshold to a more negative membrane potential. The block of AtALMT9-mediated anion currents by ATP at negative membrane potentials acts as a gate of the channel and vacuolar anion tune this gating mechanism. Our results suggest that anion transport across the vacuolar membrane in plant cells is controlled by cytosolic nucleotides and the energetic status of the cell. PMID:25028514

  18. Differential expression of the Kv1 voltage-gated potassium channel family in the rat nephron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrisoza-Gaytán, Rolando; Salvador, Carolina; Diaz-Bello, Beatriz; Escobar, Laura I

    2014-10-01

    Several potassium (K(+)) channels contribute to maintaining the resting membrane potential of renal epithelial cells. Apart from buffering the cell membrane potential and cell volume, K(+) channels allow sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule (PT), K(+) recycling and K(+) reabsorption in the thick ascending limb (TAL) and K(+) secretion and K(+) reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), connecting tubule (CNT) and collecting duct. Previously, we identified Kv.1.1, Kv1.3 and Kv1.6 channels in collecting ducts of the rat inner medulla. We also detected intracellular Kv1.3 channel in the acid secretory intercalated cells, which is trafficked to the apical membrane in response to dietary K(+) to function as a secretory K(+) channel. In this work we sought to characterize the expression of all members of the Kv1 family in the rat nephron. mRNA and protein expression were detected for all Kv1 channels. Immunoblots identified differential expression of each Kv1 in the cortex, outer and inner medulla. Immunofluorescence labeling detected Kv1.5 in Bowman´s capsule and endothelial cells and Kv1.7 in podocytes, endothelial cells and macula densa in glomeruli; Kv1.4, Kv1.5 and Kv1.7 in PT; Kv1.2, Kv1.4 and Kv1.6 in TAL; Kv1.1, Kv1.4 and Kv1.6 in DCT and CNT and Kv1.3 in DCT, and all the Kv1 family in the cortical and medullary collecting ducts. Recently, some hereditary renal syndromes have been attributed to mutations in K(+) channels. Our results expand the repertoire of K(+) channels that contribute to K(+) homeostasis to include the Kv1 family.

  19. Modulation of ERG channels by XE991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Calloe, Kirstine; Schmitt, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known to be stan......In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known...... to be standard KCNQ potassium channel blockers. These compounds have been used in many different tissues as specific pharmacological tools to discern native currents conducted by KCNQ channels from other potassium currents. In this article, we demonstrate that ERG1-2 channels are also reversibly inhibited by XE......991 in the micromolar range (EC(50) 107 microM for ERG1). The effect has been characterized in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing ERG1-2 and in the mammalian HEK293 cell line stably expressing ERG1 channels. The IC(50) values for block of KCNQ channels by XE991 range 1-65 microM. In conclusion, great...

  20. Voltage-gated potassium channel (K(v) 1) autoantibodies in patients with chagasic gut dysmotility and distribution of K(v) 1 channels in human enteric neuromusculature (autoantibodies in GI dysmotility).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubball, A W; Lang, B; Souza, M A N; Curran, O D; Martin, J E; Knowles, C H

    2012-08-01

    Autoantibodies directed against specific neuronal antigens are found in a significant number of patients with gastrointestinal neuromuscular diseases (GINMDs) secondary to neoplasia. This study examined the presence of antineuronal antibodies in idiopathic GINMD and GINMD secondary to South American Trypanosomiasis. The GI distribution of voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) was also investigated. Seventy-three patients were included in the study with diagnoses of primary achalasia, enteric dysmotility, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, esophageal or colonic dysmotility secondary to Chagas' disease. Sera were screened for specific antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs; P/Q subtype), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs; α3 subtype), and voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs, K(V) 1 subtype) using validated immunoprecipitation assays. The distribution of six VGKC subunits (K(V) 1.1-1.6), including those known to be antigenic targets of anti-VGKC antibodies was immunohistochemically investigated in all main human GI tract regions. Three patients (14%) with chagasic GI dysmotility were found to have positive anti-VGKC antibody titers. No antibodies were detected in patients with idiopathic GINMD. The VGKCs were found in enteric neurons at every level of the gut in unique yet overlapping distributions. The VGKC expression in GI smooth muscle was found to be limited to the esophagus. A small proportion of patients with GI dysfunction secondary to Chagas' disease have antibodies against VGKCs. The presence of these channels in the human enteric nervous system may have pathological relevance to the growing number of GINMDs with which anti-VGKC antibodies have been associated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Role of connexin 32 hemichannels in the release of ATP from peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualart-Marti, Anna; del Molino, Ezequiel Mas; Grandes, Xènia; Bahima, Laia; Martin-Satué, Mireia; Puchal, Rafel; Fasciani, Ilaria; González-Nieto, Daniel; Ziganshin, Bulat; Llobet, Artur; Barrio, Luis C; Solsona, Carles

    2013-12-01

    Extracellular purines elicit strong signals in the nervous system. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) does not spontaneously cross the plasma membrane, and nervous cells secrete ATP by exocytosis or through plasma membrane proteins such as connexin hemichannels. Using a combination of imaging, luminescence and electrophysiological techniques, we explored the possibility that Connexin 32 (Cx32), expressed in Schwann cells (SCs) myelinating the peripheral nervous system could be an important source of ATP in peripheral nerves. We triggered the release of ATP in vivo from mice sciatic nerves by electrical stimulation and from cultured SCs by high extracellular potassium concentration-evoked depolarization. No ATP was detected in the extracellular media after treatment of the sciatic nerve with Octanol or Carbenoxolone, and ATP release was significantly inhibited after silencing Cx32 from SCs cultures. We investigated the permeability of Cx32 to ATP by expressing Cx32 hemichannels in Xenopus laevis oocytes. We found that ATP release is coupled to the inward tail current generated after the activation of Cx32 hemichannels by depolarization pulses, and it is sensitive to low extracellular calcium concentrations. Moreover, we found altered ATP release in mutated Cx32 hemichannels related to the X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, suggesting that purinergic-mediated signaling in peripheral nerves could underlie the physiopathology of this neuropathy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Targets the Cys320/Cys529 Motif in Kv4.2 to Inhibit the Ito Potassium Channels in Cardiomyocytes and Regularizes Fatal Arrhythmia in Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shan-Feng; Luo, Yan; Ding, Ying-Jiong; Chen, Ying; Pu, Shi-Xin; Wu, Hang-Jing; Wang, Zhong-Feng; Tao, Bei-Bei; Wang, Wen-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The mechanisms underlying numerous biological roles of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) remain largely unknown. We have previously reported an inhibitory role of H2S in the L-type calcium channels in cardiomyocytes. This prompts us to examine the mechanisms underlying the potential regulation of H2S on the ion channels. Results: H2S showed a novel inhibitory effect on Ito potassium channels, and this effect was blocked by mutation at the Cys320 and/or Cys529 residues of the Kv4.2 subunit. H2S broke the disulfide bridge between a pair of oxidized cysteine residues; however, it did not modify single cysteine residues. H2S extended action potential duration in epicardial myocytes and regularized fatal arrhythmia in a rat model of myocardial infarction. H2S treatment significantly increased survival by ∼1.4-fold in the critical 2-h time window after myocardial infarction with a protection against ventricular premature beats and fatal arrhythmia. However, H2S did not change the function of other ion channels, including IK1 and INa. Innovation and Conclusion: H2S targets the Cys320/Cys529 motif in Kv4.2 to regulate the Ito potassium channels. H2S also shows a potent regularizing effect against fatal arrhythmia in a rat model of myocardial infarction. The study provides the first piece of evidence for the role of H2S in regulating Ito potassium channels and also the specific motif in an ion channel labile for H2S regulation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 129–147. PMID:25756524

  3. Mechanism underlying selective regulation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels by the psychostimulant-sensitive sorting nexin 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balana, Bartosz; Maslennikov, Innokentiy; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Stern, Kalyn M.; Bahima, Laia; Choe, Senyon; Slesinger, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are important gatekeepers of neuronal excitability. The surface expression of neuronal GIRK channels is regulated by the psychostimulant-sensitive sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) protein through a class I (-X-Ser/Thr-X-Φ, where X is any residue and Φ is a hydrophobic amino acid) PDZ-binding interaction. The G protein-insensitive inward rectifier channel (IRK1) contains the same class I PDZ-binding motif but associates with a different synaptic PDZ protein, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95). The mechanism by which SNX27 and PSD95 discriminate these channels was previously unclear. Using high-resolution structures coupled with biochemical and functional analyses, we identified key amino acids upstream of the channel's canonical PDZ-binding motif that associate electrostatically with a unique structural pocket in the SNX27-PDZ domain. Changing specific charged residues in the channel's carboxyl terminus or in the PDZ domain converts the selective association and functional regulation by SNX27. Elucidation of this unique interaction site between ion channels and PDZ-containing proteins could provide a therapeutic target for treating brain diseases. PMID:21422294

  4. Properties of Single K+ and Cl− Channels in Asclepias tuberosa Protoplasts 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauf, Charles L.; Wilson, Kathryn J.

    1987-01-01

    Potassium and chloride channels were characterized in Asclepias tuberosa suspension cell derived protoplasts by patch voltage-clamp. Whole-cell currents and single channels in excised patches had linear instantaneous current-voltage relations, reversing at the Nernst potentials for K+ and Cl−, respectively. Whole cell K+ currents activated exponentially during step depolarizations, while voltage-dependent Cl− channels were activated by hyperpolarizations. Single K+ channel conductance was 40 ± 5 pS with a mean open time of 4.5 milliseconds at 100 millivolts. Potassium channels were blocked by Cs+ and tetraethylammonium, but were insensitive to 4-aminopyridine. Chloride channels had a single-channel conductance of 100 ± 17 picosiemens, mean open time of 8.8 milliseconds, and were blocked by Zn2+ and ethacrynic acid. Whole-cell Cl− currents were inhibited by abscisic acid, and were unaffected by indole-3-acetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Since internal and external composition can be controlled, patch-clamped protoplasts are ideal systems for studying the role of ion channels in plant physiology and development. Images Fig. 5 PMID:16665712

  5. A comparative study of the effect of ciguatoxins on voltage-dependent Na+ and K+ channels in cerebellar neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sheila; Vale, Carmen; Alonso, Eva; Alfonso, Carmen; Rodríguez, Paula; Otero, Paz; Alfonso, Amparo; Vale, Paulo; Hirama, Masahiro; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2011-04-18

    Ciguatera is a global disease caused by the consumption of certain warm-water fish (ciguateric fish) that have accumulated orally effective levels of sodium channel activator toxins (ciguatoxins) through the marine food chain. The effect of ciguatoxin standards and contaminated ciguatoxin samples was evaluated by electrophysiological recordings in cultured cerebellar neurons. The toxins affected both voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium channels (Kv) although with different potencies. CTX 3C was the most active toxin blocking the peak inward sodium currents, followed by P-CTX 1B and 51-OH CTX 3C. In contrast, P-CTX 1B was more effective in blocking potassium currents. The analysis of six different samples of contaminated fish, in which a ciguatoxin analogue of mass 1040.6, not identical with the standard 51-OH CTX 3C, was the most prevalent compound, indicated an additive effect of the different ciguatoxins present in the samples. The results presented here constitute the first comparison of the potencies of three different purified ciguatoxins on sodium and potassium channels in the same neuronal preparation and indicate that electrophysiological recordings from cultured cerebellar neurons may provide a valuable tool to detect and quantify ciguatoxins in the very low nanomolar range.

  6. Effect of Intramuscular Protons, Lactate, and ATP on Muscle Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S Gregory

    Full Text Available Chronic muscle pain is a significant health problem leading to disability[1]. Muscle fatigue can exacerbate muscle pain. Metabolites, including ATP, lactate, and protons, are released during fatiguing exercise and produce pain in humans. These substances directly activate purinergic (P2X and acid sensing ion channels (ASICs on muscle nociceptors, and when combined, produce a greater increase in neuron firing than when given alone. Whether the enhanced effect of combining protons, lactate, and ATP is the sum of individual effects (additive or more than the sum of individual effects (synergistic is unknown. Using a rat model of muscle nociceptive behavior, we tested each of these compounds individually over a range of physiologic and supra-physiologic concentrations. Further, we combined all three compounds in a series of dilutions and tested their effect on muscle nociceptive behavior. We also tested a non-hydrolyzable form of ATP (α,β-meATP alone and in combination with lactate and acidic pH. Surprisingly, we found no dose-dependent effect on muscle nociceptive behavior for protons, lactate, or ATP when given alone. We similarly found no effect after application of each two-metabolite combination. Only pH 4 saline and α,β-meATP produced hyperalgesia when given alone. When all 3 substances were combined, however, ATP (2.4μm, lactate (10mM, and acidic pH (pH 6.0 produced an enhanced effect greater than the sum of the effects of the individual components, i.e. synergism. α,β me ATP (3nmol, on the other hand, showed no enhanced effects when combined with lactate (10mM or acidic pH (pH 6.0, i.e. additive. These data suggest that combining fatigue metabolites in muscle produces a synergistic effect on muscle nociception.

  7. Clofazimine inhibits human Kv1.3 potassium channel by perturbing calcium oscillation in T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhao R Ren

    Full Text Available The Kv1.3 potassium channel plays an essential role in effector memory T cells and has been implicated in several important autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and type 1 diabetes. A number of potent small molecule inhibitors of Kv1.3 channel have been reported, some of which were found to be effective in various animal models of autoimmune diseases. We report herein the identification of clofazimine, a known anti-mycobacterial drug, as a novel inhibitor of human Kv1.3. Clofazimine was initially identified as an inhibitor of intracellular T cell receptor-mediated signaling leading to the transcriptional activation of human interleukin-2 gene in T cells from a screen of the Johns Hopkins Drug Library. A systematic mechanistic deconvolution revealed that clofazimine selectively blocked the Kv1.3 channel activity, perturbing the oscillation frequency of the calcium-release activated calcium channel, which in turn led to the inhibition of the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. These effects of clofazimine provide the first line of experimental evidence in support of a causal relationship between Kv1.3 and calcium oscillation in human T cells. Furthermore, clofazimine was found to be effective in blocking human T cell-mediated skin graft rejection in an animal model in vivo. Together, these results suggest that clofazimine is a promising immunomodulatory drug candidate for treating a variety of autoimmune disorders.

  8. ATP, IMP, and glycogen in cod muscle at onset and during development of rigor mortis depend on the sampling location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Variation in glycogen, ATP, and IMP contents within individual cod muscles were studied in ice stored fish during the progress of rigor mortis. Rigor index was determined before muscle samples for chemical analyzes were taken at 16 different positions on the fish. During development of rigor......, the contents of glycogen and ATP decreased differently in relation to rigor index depending on sampling location. Although fish were considered to be in strong rigor according to the rigor index method, parts of the muscle were not in rigor as high ATP concentrations were found in dorsal and tall muscle....

  9. Phosphorylation of purified mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel by c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-3 modifies channel voltage-dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Gupta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC phosphorylated by c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-3 (JNK3 was incorporated into the bilayer lipid membrane. Single-channel electrophysiological properties of the native and the phosphorylated VDAC were compared. The open probability versus voltage curve of the native VDAC displayed symmetry around the voltage axis, whereas that of the phosphorylated VDAC showed asymmetry. This result indicates that phosphorylation by JNK3 modifies voltage-dependence of VDAC.

  10. Phosphorylation of purified mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel by c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-3 modifies channel voltage-dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Ghosh, Subhendu

    2017-06-01

    Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) phosphorylated by c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-3 (JNK3) was incorporated into the bilayer lipid membrane. Single-channel electrophysiological properties of the native and the phosphorylated VDAC were compared. The open probability versus voltage curve of the native VDAC displayed symmetry around the voltage axis, whereas that of the phosphorylated VDAC showed asymmetry. This result indicates that phosphorylation by JNK3 modifies voltage-dependence of VDAC.

  11. Kv1 channels and neural processing in vestibular calyx afferents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances L Meredith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potassium-selective ion channels are important for accurate transmission of signals from auditory and vestibular sensory end organs to their targets in the central nervous system. During different gravity conditions, astronauts experience altered input signals from the peripheral vestibular system resulting in sensorimotor dysfunction. Adaptation to altered sensory input occurs, but it is not explicitly known whether this involves synaptic modifications within the vestibular epithelia. Future investigations of such potential plasticity require a better understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the known heterogeneity of afferent discharge under normal conditions. This study advances this understanding by examining the role of the Kv1 potassium channel family in mediating action potentials in specialized vestibular afferent calyx endings in the gerbil crista and utricle. Pharmacological agents selective for different sub-types of Kv1 channels were tested on membrane responses in whole cell recordings in the crista. Kv1 channels sensitive to α-dendrotoxin and dendrotoxin-K were found to prevail in the central regions, whereas K+ channels sensitive to margatoxin, which blocks Kv1.3 and 1.6 channels, were more prominent in peripheral regions. Margatoxin-sensitive currents showed voltage-dependent inactivation. Dendrotoxin-sensitive currents showed no inactivation and dampened excitability in calyces in central neuroepithelial regions. The differential distribution of Kv1 potassium channels in vestibular afferents supports their importance in accurately relaying gravitational and head movement signals through specialized lines to the central nervous system. Pharmacological modulation of specific groups of K+ channels could help alleviate vestibular dysfunction on earth and in space.

  12. Kv1 channels and neural processing in vestibular calyx afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Frances L; Kirk, Matthew E; Rennie, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    Potassium-selective ion channels are important for accurate transmission of signals from auditory and vestibular sensory end organs to their targets in the central nervous system. During different gravity conditions, astronauts experience altered input signals from the peripheral vestibular system resulting in sensorimotor dysfunction. Adaptation to altered sensory input occurs, but it is not explicitly known whether this involves synaptic modifications within the vestibular epithelia. Future investigations of such potential plasticity require a better understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the known heterogeneity of afferent discharge under normal conditions. This study advances this understanding by examining the role of the Kv1 potassium channel family in mediating action potentials in specialized vestibular afferent calyx endings in the gerbil crista and utricle. Pharmacological agents selective for different sub-types of Kv1 channels were tested on membrane responses in whole cell recordings in the crista. Kv1 channels sensitive to α-dendrotoxin and dendrotoxin-K were found to prevail in the central regions, whereas K(+) channels sensitive to margatoxin, which blocks Kv1.3 and 1.6 channels, were more prominent in peripheral regions. Margatoxin-sensitive currents showed voltage-dependent inactivation. Dendrotoxin-sensitive currents showed no inactivation and dampened excitability in calyces in central neuroepithelial regions. The differential distribution of Kv1 potassium channels in vestibular afferents supports their importance in accurately relaying gravitational and head movement signals through specialized lines to the central nervous system. Pharmacological modulation of specific groups of K(+) channels could help alleviate vestibular dysfunction on earth and in space.

  13. KATP channels are not essential for pressure-dependent control of renin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Gambaryan, S; Scholz, H

    1998-01-01

    (IPRK). Cromakalim (0.1-10 muM) stimulated basal renin secretion up to threefold and caused vasorelaxation in the IPRK. Both effects of cromakalim were attenuated by glibenclamide. Cromakalim stimulated renin secretion from isolated juxtaglomerular (JG) cells and from microdissected afferent arterioles......This study aimed to investigate the functional role of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels in the control of renin secretion by renal perfusion pressure. We studied the effect of openers and blockers of KATP-channels on basal- and low-pressure-induced renin secretion from isolated perfused rat kidneys......, all of which suggests that KATP channel openers stimulate renin secretion at the level of JG cells. A decrease in the perfusion pressure from 13.3 to 9.33 kPa (100 mmHg to 70 mmHg) increased renin secretion twofold, and cromakalim further increased renin secretion. At 5.33 kPa (40 mmHg) renin...

  14. Major Channels Involved In Neuropsychiatric Disorders And Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eImbrici

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated ion channels are important mediators of physiological functions in the central nervous system. The cyclic activation of these channels influences neurotransmitter release, neuron excitability, gene transcription and plasticity, providing distinct brain areas with unique physiological and pharmacological response. A growing body of data has implicated ion channels in the susceptibility or pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. Indeed, population studies support the association of polymorphisms in calcium and potassium channels with the genetic risk for bipolar disorders or schizophrenia. Moreover, point mutations in calcium, sodium and potassium channel genes have been identified in some childhood developmental disorders. Finally, antibodies against potassium channel complexes occur in a series of autoimmune psychiatric diseases. Here we report recent studies assessing the role of calcium, sodium and potassium channels in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders, and briefly summarize promising pharmacological strategies targeted on ion channels for the therapy of mental illness and related genetic tests.

  15. Structure and mechanism of ATP-dependent phospholipid transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; Bailly, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and P4-ATPases are two large and seemingly unrelated families of primary active pumps involved in moving phospholipids from one leaflet of a biological membrane to the other. Scope of review This review aims to identify common mechanistic features...... in the way phospholipid flipping is carried out by two evolutionarily unrelated families of transporters. Major conclusions Both protein families hydrolyze ATP, although they employ different mechanisms to use it, and have a comparable size with twelve transmembrane segments in the functional unit. Further......, despite differences in overall architecture, both appear to operate by an alternating access mechanism and during transport they might allow access of phospholipids to the internal part of the transmembrane domain. The latter feature is obvious for ABC transporters, but phospholipids and other hydrophobic...

  16. Sex-dependent differences in the in vivo respiratory phenotype of the TASK-1 potassium channel knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Stefan; Buehler, Philipp Karl; Neubauer, Jacqueline; Haas, Cordula; Heitzmann, Dirk; Tegtmeier, Ines; Sterner, Christina; Barhanin, Jacques; Georgieff, Michael; Warth, Richard; Thomas, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    TASK-1 potassium channels have been implicated in central and peripheral chemoreception; however, the precise contribution of TASK-1 for the control of respiration is still under debate. Here, we investigated the respiration of unrestrained adult and neonatal TASK-1 knockout mice (TASK-1 -/- ) using a plethysmographic device. Respiration in adult female TASK-1 -/- mice under control (21% O 2 ), hypoxia and hypercapnia was unaffected. Under acute hypoxia male TASK-1 -/- mice exhibited a reduced increase of the respiratory frequency (f R ) compared to wildtypes. However, the tidal volume (V T ) of male TASK-1 -/- mice was strongly enhanced. The volatile anesthetic isoflurane induced in male TASK-1 -/- and male wild type mice (TASK-1 +/+ ) a similar respiratory depression. Neonatal TASK-1 -/- mice demonstrated a 30-40% decrease of the minute volume, caused by a reduction of the f R under control condition (21% O 2 ). Under hypoxia, neonatal TASK-1 -/- mice more frequently stopped breathing (apnea>3s) suggesting an increased hypoxia-sensitivity. As reported before, this increased hypoxia sensitivity had no influence on the survival rate of neonatal TASK-1 -/- mice. In adult and neonatal mice, TASK-1 gene deletion induced a significant prolongation of the relaxation time (R T ), which is a parameter for expiration kinetics. Additionally, screening for mutations in the human TASK-1 gene in 155 cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) was inconclusive. In conclusion, these data are suggestive for an increased hypoxia-sensitivity of neonatal TASK-1 -/- mice, however, without causing an increase in neonatal lethality. In adult female TASK-1 -/- mice respiration was unaffected, whereas adult male TASK-1 -/- mice showed a modified breathing pattern. These results are suggestive for sex-specific mechanisms for compensating the inactivation of TASK-1 in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Data on the construction of a recombinant HEK293 cell line overexpressing hERG potassium channel and examining the presence of hERG mRNA and protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fan Teah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “The effects of deoxyelephantopin on the cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channel current (IKr and human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG expression” (Y.F. Teah, M.A. Abduraman, A. Amanah, M.I. Adenan, S.F. Sulaiman, M.L. Tan [1], which the possible hERG blocking properties of deoxyelephantopin were investigated. This article describes the construction of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells overexpressing HERG potassium channel and verification of the presence of hERG mRNA and protein expression in this recombinant cell line.

  18. Opening of the inward rectifier potassium channel alleviates maladaptive tissue repair following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengfang; Liu, Enli; Luo, Tiane; Zhang, Weifang; He, Rongli

    2016-08-01

    Activation of the inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) channel has been reported to be associated with suppression of ventricular arrhythmias. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that opening of the IK1 channel with zacopride (ZAC) was involved in the modulation of tissue repair after myocardial infarction. Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to coronary artery ligation and ZAC was administered intraperitoneally (15 µg/kg/day) for 28 days. Compared with the ischemia group, treatment with ZAC significantly reduced the ratio of heart/body weight and the cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes, suggesting less cardiac hypertrophy. ZAC reduced the accumulation of collagen types I and III, accompanied with decrease of collagen area, which were associated with a reduction of collagen deposition in the fibrotic myocardium. Echocardiography showed improved cardiac function, evidenced by the reduced left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and left ventricular end-systolic dimension, and the increased ejection fraction and fractional shortening in ZAC-treated animals (all P < 0.05 vs. ischemia group). In coincidence with these changes, ZAC up-regulated the protein level of the IK1 channel and down-regulated the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 (p70S6) kinase. Administration of chloroquine alone, an IK1 channel antagonist, had no effect on all the parameters measured, but significantly blocked the beneficial effects of ZAC on cardiac repair. In conclusion, opening of the IK1 channel with ZAC inhibits maladaptive tissue repair and improves cardiac function, potentially mediated by the inhibition of ischemia-activated mTOR-p70S6 signaling pathway via the IK1 channel. So the development of pharmacological agents specifically targeting the activation of the IK1 channel may protect the heart against myocardial ischemia-induced cardiac dysfunction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  19. Urocortin2 prolongs action potential duration and modulates potassium currents in guinea pig myocytes and HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Zhen; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2015-07-05

    We previously reported that activation of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type 2 by urocortin2 up-regulates both L-type Ca(2+) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in ventricular myocytes and plays an important role in cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenesis. This study goal was to further test the hypothesis that urocortin2 may modulate action potentials as well as rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents. With whole cell patch-clamp techniques, action potentials and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents were recorded in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, respectively. And rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents were tested in hERG-HEK293 cells. Urocortin2 produced a time- and concentration-dependent prolongation of action potential duration. The EC50 values of action potential duration and action potential duration at 90% of repolarization were 14.73 and 24.3nM respectively. The prolongation of action potential duration of urocortin2 was almost completely or partly abolished by H-89 (protein kinase A inhibitor) or KB-R7943 (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange inhibitor) pretreatment respectively. And urocortin2 caused reduction of rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents in hERG-HEK293 cells. In addition, urocortin2 slowed the rate of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel activation, and rightward shifted the threshold of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents to more positive potentials. Urocortin2 prolonged action potential duration via activation of protein kinase A and Na(+)/ Ca(2+) exchange in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes in a time- and concentration- dependent manner. In hERG-HEK293 cells, urocortin2 reduced rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current density which may contribute to action potential duration prolongation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Acetone and Butanone Metabolism of the Denitrifying Bacterium “Aromatoleum aromaticum” Demonstrates Novel Biochemical Properties of an ATP-Dependent Aliphatic Ketone Carboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schühle, Karola

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic and aerobic metabolism of acetone and butanone in the betaproteobacterium “Aromatoleum aromaticum” is initiated by their ATP-dependent carboxylation to acetoacetate and 3-oxopentanoic acid, respectively. Both reactions are catalyzed by the same enzyme, acetone carboxylase, which was purified and characterized. Acetone carboxylase is highly induced under growth on acetone or butanone and accounts for at least 5.5% of total cell protein. The enzyme consists of three subunits of 85, 75, and 20 kDa, respectively, in a (αβγ)2 composition and contains 1 Zn and 2 Fe per heterohexamer but no organic cofactors. Chromatographic analysis of the ATP hydrolysis products indicated that ATP was exclusively cleaved to AMP and 2 Pi. The stoichiometry was determined to be 2 ATP consumed per acetone carboxylated. Purified acetone carboxylase from A. aromaticum catalyzes the carboxylation of acetone and butanone as the only substrates. However, the enzyme shows induced (uncoupled) ATPase activity with many other substrates that were not carboxylated. Acetone carboxylase is a member of a protein family that also contains acetone carboxylases of various other organisms, acetophenone carboxylase of A. aromaticum, and ATP-dependent hydantoinases/oxoprolinases. While the members of this family share several characteristic features, they differ with respect to the products of ATP hydrolysis, subunit composition, and metal content. PMID:22020645

  1. Kir6.2 activation by sulfonylurea receptors: a different mechanism of action for SUR1 and SUR2A subunits via the same residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principalli, Maria A; Dupuis, Julien P; Moreau, Christophe J; Vivaudou, Michel; Revilloud, Jean

    2015-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATP channels) play a key role in adjusting the membrane potential to the metabolic state of cells. They result from the unique combination of two proteins: the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, and the inward rectifier K+ channel Kir6.2. Both subunits associate to form a heterooctamer (4 SUR/4 Kir6.2). SUR modulates channel gating in response to the binding of nucleotides or drugs and Kir6.2 conducts potassium ions. The activity of K-ATP channels varies with their localization. In pancreatic β-cells, SUR1/Kir6.2 channels are partly active at rest while in cardiomyocytes SUR2A/Kir6.2 channels are mostly closed. This divergence of function could be related to differences in the interaction of SUR1 and SUR2A with Kir6.2. Three residues (E1305, I1310, L1313) located in the linker region between transmembrane domain 2 and nucleotide-binding domain 2 of SUR2A were previously found to be involved in the activation pathway linking binding of openers onto SUR2A and channel opening. To determine the role of the equivalent residues in the SUR1 isoform, we designed chimeras between SUR1 and the ABC transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), and used patch clamp recordings on Xenopus oocytes to assess the functionality of SUR1/MRP1 chimeric K-ATP channels. Our results reveal that the same residues in SUR1 and SUR2A are involved in the functional association with Kir6.2, but they display unexpected side-chain specificities which could account for the contrasted properties of pancreatic and cardiac K-ATP channels. PMID:26416970

  2. Effects of Potassium Channel Blockers on the Negative Inotropic Responses Induced by Cromakalim and Pinacidil in Guinea Pig Atrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    RD-A2•4 875 EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS ON THE NEGATIVE 1/1 INOTROPIC RESPONSES INDUCED BY CRONAKALIM RND PINACIDIL IN GUINEA PIG ATRIUM(U...INOTROPICTRSPONSES INDUCED BY CROMAKAUM AND PINACIDILIN GUINEA PIG ATRIUM a AUTHOR WAI-MAN LAU 7 FORMING ORG NAMES/ADDRESSES DEFENCE SCIENCE AND a...and Technology Organisaio Aot Val. Negative Inotropic Responses Victoria. Australia Induced by Cromakalim and Pinacidil in Guinea Pig Atrium Key

  3. Leucine-rich glioma inactivated-1 and voltage gated potassium channel autoimmune encephalitis associated with ischemic stroke; A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Patryce McGinley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune encephalitis is associated with a wide variety of antibodies and clinical presentations. Voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC antibodies are a cause of autoimmune non-paraneoplastic encephalitis characterized by memory impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and seizures. We present a case of VGKC encephalitis likely preceding an ischemic stroke. Reports of autoimmune encephalitis associated with ischemic stroke are rare. Several hypothesizes linking these two disease processes are proposed.

  4. Leucine-Rich Glioma Inactivated-1 and Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Autoimmune Encephalitis Associated with Ischemic Stroke: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Marisa; Morales-Vidal, Sarkis; Ruland, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis is associated with a wide variety of antibodies and clinical presentations. Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies are a cause of autoimmune non-paraneoplastic encephalitis characterized by memory impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and seizures. We present a case of VGKC encephalitis likely preceding an ischemic stroke. Reports of autoimmune encephalitis associated with ischemic stroke are rare. Several hypotheses linking these two disease processes are proposed. PMID:27242653

  5. Excitation block in a nerve fibre model owing to potassium-dependent changes in myelin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhe, A R; Maksimov, G V; Mosekilde, E; Sosnovtseva, O V

    2011-02-06

    The myelinated nerve fibre is formed by an axon and Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes that sheath the axon by winding around it in tight myelin layers. Repetitive stimulation of a fibre is known to result in accumulation of extracellular potassium ions, especially between the axon and the myelin. Uptake of potassium leads to Schwann cell swelling and myelin restructuring that impacts the electrical properties of the myelin. In order to further understand the dynamic interaction that takes place between the myelin and the axon, we have modelled submyelin potassium accumulation and related changes in myelin resistance during prolonged high-frequency stimulation. We predict that potassium-mediated decrease in myelin resistance leads to a functional excitation block with various patterns of altered spike trains. The patterns are found to depend on stimulation frequency and amplitude and to range from no block (less than 100 Hz) to a complete block (greater than 500 Hz). The transitional patterns include intermittent periodic block with interleaved spiking and non-spiking intervals of different relative duration as well as an unstable regime with chaotic switching between the spiking and non-spiking states. Intermittent conduction blocks are accompanied by oscillations of extracellular potassium. The mechanism of conductance block based on myelin restructuring complements the already known and modelled block via hyperpolarization mediated by the axonal sodium pump and potassium depolarization.

  6. ATP-independent DNA synthesis in Vaccinia-infected L cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, N.A.; Kauff, R.A.; Sikorski, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    Mouse L cells can be made permeable to exogenous nucleotides by a cold shock in 0.01 M Tris . HCl pH 7.8, 0.25 M sucrose, 1 mM EDTA, 30 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and 4 mM MgCl 2 . DNA synthesis in permeabilized L cells requires ATP whereas DNA synthesis in permeabilized L cells that are infected with Vaccinia virus is ATP-independent. Permeabilized L cells that are infected with ultraviolet-irradiated virus show a marked suppression of DNA synthesis which is not corrected by an excess of deoxynucleoside triphosphates and ATP. The ATP-dependent and ATP-independent processes of DNA synthesis are inhibited to the same extent by Mal-Net, pHMB, ara CTP and phosphonoacetate. Concentrations of daunorubicin and cytembena, which cause marked inhibition of the ATP-dependent enzymes, only cause partial inhibition of the ATP-independent enzymes. (Auth.)

  7. An ATP-dependent ligase with substrate flexibility involved in assembly of the peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic polyoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyoxin (POL) is an unusual nucleoside antibiotic, in which peptidyl moiety and nucleoside skeleton are linked by an amide bond. However, their biosynthesis remains poorly understood. Here, we report the deciphering of PolG as an ATP-dependent ligase responsible for the assembly of POL. A polG muta...

  8. The role of K –ATP channel in the preconditioning effect of magnesium in the rat isolated heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazargan M.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest for beneficial effect of Mg in the cardiovascular disorders. A number of cardiovascular disorders including myocardial infarction, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure have been associated with low extracellular or intracellular concentrations of Mg. The aim of present study was to investigate the preconditioning effects of magnesium (Mg on cardiac function and infarct size in the globally ischemic-reperfusion in isolated rat heart. Rat hearts were Langendorff-perfused, subjected to 30 minutes of global ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion, and assigned to one of the following treatment groups with 7 hearts in each group: (1 control, (2 ischemic- reperfusion, (IR, (3 ischemic preconditioning, (IPC of 5 minutes of global ischemia - reperfusion before lethal ischemia; or pretreatment with (4 30 µmol/L of Diazoxide (Dia, (5 8 mmol/L magnesium, (6 10 µmol/L glibenclamid (Gli, (7 magnesium and Dia and (8 magnesium and Gli. Infarct size was measured by the triphenyltetrazolium chloride method. Left ventricular function was assessed by left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP, heart rate and coronary flow (CF. Mg limited infarct size (9.76 % vs 44.47% in IR, P< 0.001 as did Dia (10.2 % vs 44.4 % in IR P< 0.001 and IPC (8.69 % vs 44.47% in IR, P< 0.001. The protective effect of magnesium was abolished by Gli. Administration of Mg had an anti-infarct effect in ischemic-reperfusion isolated rat hearts and improved cardiac function. Blockade of K-ATP channel abolished the protective effects of magnesium and suggest that K-ATP channel has an important role in this effects.

  9. Role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in the gating of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Gout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CFTR gene is unique within the ATP-binding cassette (ABC protein family, predominantly of transporters, by coding a chloride channel. The gating mechanism of ABC proteins has been characterized by the ATP Switch model in terms cycles of dimer formation and dissociation linked to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. It would be of interest to assess the extent that Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR, a functional channel, fits the ATP Switch model for ABC transporters. Additional transporter mechanisms, namely those of Pgp and HlyB, are discussed for perspective. Literature search of databases selected key references in comparing and contrasting the gating mechanism. CFTR is a functional chloride channel facilitating transmembrane anion flow down electrochemical gradients. A dysfunctional CFTR protein results in cystic fibrosis, a fatal pleiotropic disease currently managed symptomatically. Understanding the gating mechanism will help target drug development aimed at alleviating and curing the disease.

  10. Role of ATP-dependent K channels in the effects of erythropoietin in renal ischaemia injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonguç Utku Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the cell proliferative, cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic effects of EPO were associated with KATP channels in the renal tubular cell culture model under hypoxic/normal conditions.

  11. 4-Aminopyridine: a pan voltage-gated potassium channel inhibitor that enhances K7.4 currents and inhibits noradrenaline-mediated contraction of rat mesenteric small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khammy, Makhala M; Kim, Sukhan; Bentzen, Bo H

    2018-01-01

    has not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological activity of 4-AP on Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels and characterize the effect of 4-AP on rat resistance arteries. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Voltage clamp experiments were performed on Xenopus laevis oocytes......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels are regulators of vascular tone. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is considered a broad inhibitor of voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels, with little inhibitory effect on Kv7 family members at mmol concentrations. However, the effect of 4-AP on Kv7 channels...

  12. ATP binding cassette G1-dependent cholesterol efflux during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Maria C; Ji, Ailing; Jahangiri, Anisa; Vaughan, Ashley M; de Beer, Frederick C; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; Webb, Nancy R

    2011-02-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates the transport of cellular cholesterol to HDL, and it plays a key role in maintaining macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. During inflammation, HDL undergoes substantial remodeling, acquiring lipid changes and serum amyloid A (SAA) as a major apolipoprotein. In the current study, we investigated whether remodeling of HDL that occurs during acute inflammation impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux. Our data indicate that lipid free SAA acts similarly to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in mediating sequential efflux from ABCA1 and ABCG1. Compared with normal mouse HDL, acute phase (AP) mouse HDL containing SAA exhibited a modest but significant 17% increase in ABCG1-dependent efflux. Interestingly, AP HDL isolated from mice lacking SAA (SAAKO mice) was even more effective in promoting ABCG1 efflux. Hydrolysis with Group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) significantly reduced the ability of AP HDL from SAAKO mice to serve as a substrate for ABCG1-mediated cholesterol transfer, indicating that phospholipid (PL) enrichment, and not the presence of SAA, is responsible for alterations in efflux. AP human HDL, which is not PL-enriched, was somewhat less effective in mediating ABCG1-dependent efflux compared with normal human HDL. Our data indicate that inflammatory remodeling of HDL impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux independent of SAA.

  13. A futile cycle, formed between two ATP-dependant γ-glutamyl cycle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cystinosis, an inherited disease caused by a defect in the lysosomal cystine transporter (CTNS), is characterized by renal proximal tubular dysfunction. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion appears to be a key event in the pathophysiology of the disease, even though the manner in which ATP depletion occurs is still a ...

  14. Chronic potassium depletion increases adrenal progesterone production that is necessary for efficient renal retention of potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabida, Boutaïna; Edwards, Aurélie; Salhi, Amel; Azroyan, Anie; Fodstad, Heidi; Meneton, Pierre; Doucet, Alain; Bloch-Faure, May; Crambert, Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Modern dietary habits are characterized by high-sodium and low-potassium intakes, each of which was correlated with a higher risk for hypertension. In this study, we examined whether long-term variations in the intake of sodium and potassium induce lasting changes in the plasma concentration of circulating steroids by developing a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in mice. One finding of this model was that mice increase their plasma progesterone levels specifically in response to potassium depletion. This prediction was confirmed by measurements in both male mice and men. Further investigation showed that progesterone regulates renal potassium handling both in males and females under potassium restriction, independent of its role in reproduction. The increase in progesterone production by male mice was time dependent and correlated with decreased urinary potassium content. The progesterone-dependent ability to efficiently retain potassium was because of an RU486 (a progesterone receptor antagonist)-sensitive stimulation of the colonic hydrogen, potassium-ATPase (known as the non-gastric or hydrogen, potassium-ATPase type 2) in the kidney. Thus, in males, a specific progesterone concentration profile induced by chronic potassium restriction regulates potassium balance.

  15. Regulation of neuronal excitability by interaction of fragile X mental retardation protein with slack potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yalan; Brown, Maile R; Hyland, Callen; Chen, Yi; Kronengold, Jack; Fleming, Matthew R; Kohn, Andrea B; Moroz, Leonid L; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2012-10-31

    Loss of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) represents the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Studies with heterologous expression systems indicate that FMRP interacts directly with Slack Na(+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Na)), producing an enhancement of channel activity. We have now used Aplysia bag cell (BC) neurons, which regulate reproductive behaviors, to examine the effects of Slack and FMRP on excitability. FMRP and Slack immunoreactivity were colocalized at the periphery of isolated BC neurons, and the two proteins could be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated. Intracellular injection of FMRP lacking its mRNA binding domain rapidly induced a biphasic outward current, with an early transient tetrodotoxin-sensitive component followed by a slowly activating sustained component. The properties of this current matched that of the native Slack potassium current, which was identified using an siRNA approach. Addition of FMRP to inside-out patches containing native Aplysia Slack channels increased channel opening and, in current-clamp recordings, produced narrowing of action potentials. Suppression of Slack expression did not alter the ability of BC neurons to undergo a characteristic prolonged discharge in response to synaptic stimulation, but prevented recovery from a prolonged inhibitory period that normally follows the discharge. Recovery from the inhibited period was also inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. Our studies indicate that, in BC neurons, Slack channels are required for prolonged changes in neuronal excitability that require new protein synthesis, and raise the possibility that channel-FMRP interactions may link changes in neuronal firing to changes in protein translation.

  16. ATP- and NAD+-dependent DNA ligases share an essential function in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, A.; Gray, F. C; MacNeill, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    DNA ligases join the ends of DNA molecules during replication, repair and recombination. ATP-dependent ligases are found predominantly in the eukarya and archaea whereas NAD+-dependent DNA ligases are found only in the eubacteria and in entomopoxviruses. Using the genetically tractable halophile....... volcanii also encodes an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase family member, LigN, the first such enzyme to be identified in the archaea, and present phylogenetic analysis indicating that the gene encoding this protein has been acquired by lateral gene transfer (LGT) from eubacteria. As with LigA, we show that Lig...

  17. Nicorandil directly and cyclic GMP-dependently opens K+ channels in human bypass grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Marinko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As we previously demonstrated the role of different K+ channels in the action of nicorandil on human saphenous vein (HSV and human internal mammary artery (HIMA, this study aimed to analyse the contribution of the cGMP pathway in nicorandil-induced vasorelaxation and to determine the involvement of cGMP in the K+ channel-activating effect of nicorandil. An inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (GC, ODQ, significantly inhibited nicorandil-induced relaxation, while ODQ plus glibenclamide, a selective ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channel inhibitor, produced a further inhibition of both vessels. In HSV, ODQ in combination with 4-aminopyridine, a blocker of voltage-gated K+ (KV channels, did not modify the concentration-response to nicorandil compared with ODQ, whereas in HIMA, ODQ plus iberiotoxin, a selective blocker of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa channels, produced greater inhibition than ODQ alone. We showed that the cGMP pathway plays a significant role in the vasorelaxant effect of nicorandil on HSV and HIMA. It seems that nicorandil directly opens KATP channels in both vessels and BKCa channels in HIMA, although it is possible that stimulation of GC contributes to KATP channels activation in HIMA. Contrary, the activation of KV channels in HSV is probably due to GC activation and increased levels of cGMP.

  18. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of potassium permanganate at early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) against early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was evaluated. Fish were experimentally challenged, by waterborne exposure for 2 h to F. columnare after cutaneous abrasion, an...

  19. Resistance of Akt kinases to dephosphorylation through ATP-dependent conformational plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tung O; Zhang, Jin; Rodeck, Ulrich; Pascal, John M; Armen, Roger S; Spring, Maureen; Dumitru, Calin D; Myers, Valerie; Li, Xue; Cheung, Joseph Y; Feldman, Arthur M

    2011-11-15

    Phosphorylation of a threonine residue (T308 in Akt1) in the activation loop of Akt kinases is a prerequisite for deregulated Akt activity frequently observed in neoplasia. Akt phosphorylation in vivo is balanced by the opposite activities of kinases and phosphatases. Here we describe that targeting Akt kinase to the cell membrane markedly reduced sensitivity of phosphorylated Akt to dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A. This effect was amplified by occupancy of the ATP binding pocket by either ATP or ATP-competitive inhibitors. Mutational analysis revealed that R273 in Akt1 and the corresponding R274 in Akt2 are essential for shielding T308 in the activation loop against dephosphorylation. Thus, occupancy of the nucleotide binding pocket of Akt kinases enables intramolecular interactions that restrict phosphatase access and sustain Akt phosphorylation. This mechanism provides an explanation for the "paradoxical" Akt hyperphosphorylation induced by ATP-competitive inhibitor, A-443654. The lack of phosphatase resistance further contributes insight into the mechanism by which the human Akt2 R274H missense mutation may cause autosomal-dominant diabetes mellitus.

  20. Interaction between the cardiac rapidly (IKr) and slowly (IKs) activating delayed rectifier potassium channels revealed by low K+-induced hERG endocytic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Wang, Tingzhong; Yang, Tonghua; Xu, Jianmin; Li, Wentao; Fridman, Michael D; Fisher, John T; Zhang, Shetuan

    2011-10-07

    Cardiac repolarization is controlled by the rapidly (I(Kr)) and slowly (I(Ks)) activating delayed rectifier potassium channels. The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes I(Kr), whereas KCNQ1 and KCNE1 together encode I(Ks). Decreases in I(Kr) or I(Ks) cause long QT syndrome (LQTS), a cardiac disorder with a high risk of sudden death. A reduction in extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](o)) induces LQTS and selectively causes endocytic degradation of mature hERG channels from the plasma membrane. In the present study, we investigated whether I(Ks) compensates for the reduced I(Kr) under low K(+) conditions. Our data show that when hERG and KCNQ1 were expressed separately in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, exposure to 0 mM K(+) for 6 h completely eliminated the mature hERG channel expression but had no effect on KCNQ1. When hERG and KCNQ1 were co-expressed, KCNQ1 significantly delayed 0 mM K(+)-induced hERG reduction. Also, hERG degradation led to a significant reduction in KCNQ1 in 0 mM K(+) conditions. An interaction between hERG and KCNQ1 was identified in hERG+KCNQ1-expressing HEK cells. Furthermore, KCNQ1 preferentially co-immunoprecipitated with mature hERG channels that are localized in the plasma membrane. Biophysical and pharmacological analyses indicate that although hERG and KCNQ1 closely interact with each other, they form distinct hERG and KCNQ1 channels. These data extend our understanding of delayed rectifier potassium channel trafficking and regulation, as well as the pathology of LQTS.

  1. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Antibodies in Slow-Progression Motor Neuron Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godani, Massimiliano; Zoccarato, Marco; Beronio, Alessandro; Zuliani, Luigi; Benedetti, Luana; Giometto, Bruno; Del Sette, Massimo; Raggio, Elisa; Baldi, Roberta; Vincent, Angela

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of autoimmune neurological diseases associated with voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibodies (Abs) ranges from peripheral nerve disorders to limbic encephalitis. Recently, low titers of VGKC-complex Abs have also been reported in neurodegenerative disorders, but their clinical relevance is unknown. The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of VGKC-complex Abs in slow-progression motor neuron disease (MND). We compared 11 patients affected by slow-progression MND with 9 patients presenting typical progression illness. Sera were tested for VGKC-complex Abs by radioimmunoassay. The distribution of VGKC-complex Abs was analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the mean values in the study and control groups. A case with long-survival MND harboring VGKC-complex Abs and treated with intravenous immunoglobulins is described. Although VGKC-complex Abs are not likely to be pathogenic, these results could reflect the coexistence of an immunological activation in patients with slow disease progression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Mechanisms of Rose Bengal inhibition on SecA ATPase and ion channel activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Huang, Ying-Ju; Jin, Jin-Shan; Yu, Liyan; Yang, Hsiuchin; Jiang, Chun; Wang, Binghe; Tai, Phang C

    2014-11-14

    SecA is an essential protein possessing ATPase activity in bacterial protein translocation for which Rose Bengal (RB) is the first reported sub-micromolar inhibitor in ATPase activity and protein translocation. Here, we examined the mechanisms of inhibition on various forms of SecA ATPase by conventional enzymatic assays, and by monitoring the SecA-dependent channel activity in the semi-physiological system in cells. We build on the previous observation that SecA with liposomes form active protein-conducting channels in the oocytes. Such ion channel activity is enhanced by purified Escherichia coli SecYEG-SecDF·YajC liposome complexes. Inhibition by RB could be monitored, providing correlation of in vitro activity and intact cell functionality. In this work, we found the intrinsic SecA ATPase is inhibited by RB competitively at low ATP concentration, and non-competitively at high ATP concentrations while the translocation ATPase with precursors and SecYEG is inhibited non-competitively by RB. The Inhibition by RB on SecA channel activity in the oocytes with exogenous ATP-Mg(2+), mimicking translocation ATPase activity, is also non-competitive. The non-competitive inhibition on channel activity has also been observed with SecA from other bacteria which otherwise would be difficult to examine without the cognate precursors and membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ATP stimulates calcium influx in primary astrocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neary, J.T.; van Breemen, C.; Forster, E.; Norenberg, L.O.; Norenberg, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ATP and other purines on 45 Ca uptake was studied in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Treatment of the cells with ATP for 1 to 30 min brought about an increase in cellular 45 Ca. Stimulation of calcium influx by ATP was investigated using a 90 sec exposure to 45 Ca and over a concentration range of 0.1 nM to 3 mM; a biphasic dose-response curve was obtained with EC50 values of 0.3 nM and 9 uM, indicating the presence of low and high affinity purinergic binding sites. Similar levels of 45 Ca influx at 90 sec were observed with ATP, ADP and adenosine (all at 100 uM). Prior treatment of the cultures with LaCl3 blocked the purine-induced 45 Ca influx. These findings indicate that one pathway for calcium entry in astrocytes involves purinergic receptor-operated, calcium channels

  4. High Grade Glioma Mimicking Voltage Gated Potassium Channel Complex Associated Antibody Limbic Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilan Athauda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though raised titres of voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC complex antibodies have been occasionally associated with extracranial tumours, mainly presenting as Morvan's Syndrome or neuromyotonia, they have not yet been reported to be associated with an intracranial malignancy. This is especially important as misdiagnosis of these conditions and delay of the appropriate treatment can have important prognostic implications. We describe a patient with a high grade glioma presenting with clinical, radiological, and serological features consistent with the diagnosis of VGKC antibody associated limbic encephalitis (LE. This is the first association between a primary brain tumour and high titre of VGKC complex antibodies. Clinicoradiological progression despite effective immunosuppressive treatment should prompt clinicians to look for alternative diagnoses. Further studies to elucidate a possible association between VGKC complex and other surface antigen antibodies with primary brain tumours should be carried out.

  5. High grade glioma mimicking voltage gated potassium channel complex associated antibody limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athauda, Dilan; Delamont, R S; Pablo-Fernandez, E De

    2014-01-01

    Though raised titres of voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibodies have been occasionally associated with extracranial tumours, mainly presenting as Morvan's Syndrome or neuromyotonia, they have not yet been reported to be associated with an intracranial malignancy. This is especially important as misdiagnosis of these conditions and delay of the appropriate treatment can have important prognostic implications. We describe a patient with a high grade glioma presenting with clinical, radiological, and serological features consistent with the diagnosis of VGKC antibody associated limbic encephalitis (LE). This is the first association between a primary brain tumour and high titre of VGKC complex antibodies. Clinicoradiological progression despite effective immunosuppressive treatment should prompt clinicians to look for alternative diagnoses. Further studies to elucidate a possible association between VGKC complex and other surface antigen antibodies with primary brain tumours should be carried out.

  6. Calcitriol inhibits Ether-a go-go potassium channel expression and cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Becerra, Rocio; Diaz, Lorenza; Camacho, Javier; Barrera, David; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Morales, Angelica; Ortiz, Cindy Sharon; Avila, Euclides; Bargallo, Enrique; Arrecillas, Myrna; Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Antiproliferative actions of calcitriol have been shown to occur in many cell types; however, little is known regarding the molecular basis of this process in breast carcinoma. Ether-a-go-go (Eag1) potassium channels promote oncogenesis and are implicated in breast cancer cell proliferation. Since calcitriol displays antineoplastic effects while Eag1 promotes tumorigenesis, and both factors antagonically regulate cell cycle progression, we investigated a possible regulatory effect of calcitriol upon Eag1 as a mean to uncover new molecular events involved in the antiproliferative activity of this hormone in human breast tumor-derived cells. RT real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that calcitriol suppressed Eag1 expression by a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, which was potentiated by astemizole, a nonspecific Eag1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot demonstrated that Eag1 and VDR abundance was higher in invasive-ductal carcinoma than in fibroadenoma, and immunoreactivity of both proteins was located in ductal epithelial cells. Our results provide evidence of a novel mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and highlight VDR as a cancer therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment and prevention.

  7. Calcitriol inhibits Ether-a go-go potassium channel expression and cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Becerra, Rocio [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diaz, Lorenza, E-mail: lorenzadiaz@gmail.com [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camacho, Javier [Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barrera, David; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Morales, Angelica [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, Cindy Sharon [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Avila, Euclides [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bargallo, Enrique [Department of Breast Tumors, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arrecillas, Myrna [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-02-01

    Antiproliferative actions of calcitriol have been shown to occur in many cell types; however, little is known regarding the molecular basis of this process in breast carcinoma. Ether-a-go-go (Eag1) potassium channels promote oncogenesis and are implicated in breast cancer cell proliferation. Since calcitriol displays antineoplastic effects while Eag1 promotes tumorigenesis, and both factors antagonically regulate cell cycle progression, we investigated a possible regulatory effect of calcitriol upon Eag1 as a mean to uncover new molecular events involved in the antiproliferative activity of this hormone in human breast tumor-derived cells. RT real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that calcitriol suppressed Eag1 expression by a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, which was potentiated by astemizole, a nonspecific Eag1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot demonstrated that Eag1 and VDR abundance was higher in invasive-ductal carcinoma than in fibroadenoma, and immunoreactivity of both proteins was located in ductal epithelial cells. Our results provide evidence of a novel mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and highlight VDR as a cancer therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment and prevention.

  8. Inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels regulate pacemaker activity in spinal nociceptive circuits during early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Blankenship, Meredith L.; Baccei, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Pacemaker neurons in neonatal spinal nociceptive circuits generate intrinsic burst-firing and are distinguished by a lower “leak” membrane conductance compared to adjacent, non-bursting neurons. However, little is known about which subtypes of leak channels regulate the level of pacemaker activity within the developing rat superficial dorsal horn (SDH). Here we demonstrate that a hallmark feature of lamina I pacemaker neurons is a reduced conductance through inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels at physiological membrane potentials. Differences in the strength of inward rectification between pacemakers and non-pacemakers indicate the presence of functionally distinct Kir currents in these two populations at room temperature. However, Kir currents in both groups showed high sensitivity to block by extracellular Ba2+ (IC50 ~ 10 µM), which suggests the presence of ‘classical’ Kir (Kir2.x) channels in the neonatal SDH. The reduced Kir conductance within pacemakers is unlikely to be explained by an absence of particular Kir2.x isoforms, as immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 within spontaneously bursting neurons. Importantly, Ba2+ application unmasked rhythmic burst-firing in ~42% of non-bursting lamina I neurons, suggesting that pacemaker activity is a latent property of a sizeable population of SDH cells during early life. In addition, the prevalence of spontaneous burst-firing within lamina I was enhanced in the presence of high internal concentrations of free Mg2+, consistent with its documented ability to block Kir channels from the intracellular side. Collectively, the results indicate that Kir channels are key modulators of pacemaker activity in newborn central pain networks. PMID:23426663

  9. Sequence Alterations of I(Ks Potassium Channel Genes in Kazakhstani Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Akilzhanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia, and it results in significant morbidity and mortality. However, the pathogenesis of AF remains unclear to date. Recently, more pieces of evidence indicated that AF is a multifactorial disease resulting from the interaction between environmental factors and genetics. Recent studies suggest that genetic mutation of the slow delayed rectifier potassium channel (I(Ks may underlie AF.Objective. To investigate sequence alterations of I(Ks potassium channel genes KCNQ1, KCNE1 and KCNE2 in Kazakhstani patients with atrial fibrillation.Methods. Genomic DNA of 69 cases with atrial fibrillation and 27 relatives were analyzed for mutations in all protein-coding exons and their flanking splice site regions of the genes KCNQ1 (NM_000218.2 and NM_181798.1, KCNE1 (NM_000219.2, and KCNE2 (NM_172201.1 using bidirectional sequencing on the ABI 3730xL DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA.Results. In total, a disease-causing mutation was identified in 39 of the 69 (56.5% index cases. Of these, altered sequence variants in the KCNQ1 gene accounted for 14.5% of the mutations, whereas a KCNE1 mutation accounted for 43.5% of the mutations and KCNE2 mutation accounted for 1.4% of the mutations. The majority of the distinct mutations were found in a single case (80%, whereas 20% of the mutations were observed more than once. We found two sequence variants in KCNQ1 exon 13 (S546S G1638A and exon 16 (Y662Y, C1986T in ten patients (14.5%. In KCNE1 gene in exon 3 mutation, S59G A280G was observed in 30 of 69 patients (43.5% and KCNE2 exon 2 T10K C29A in 1 patient (1.4%. Genetic cascade screening of 27 relatives to the 69 index cases with an identified mutation revealed 26.9% mutation carriers  who were at risk of cardiac events such as syncope or sudden unexpected death.Conclusion. In this cohort of Kazakhstani index cases with AF, a disease-causing mutation was identified in

  10. Fragile X mental retardation protein controls ion channel expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Laurent

    2016-10-15

    Fragile X-associated disorders are a family of genetic conditions resulting from the partial or complete loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Among these disorders is fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein involved in the control of local translation, which has pleiotropic effects, in particular on synaptic function. Analysis of the brain FMRP transcriptome has revealed hundreds of potential mRNA targets encoding postsynaptic and presynaptic proteins, including a number of ion channels. FMRP has been confirmed to bind voltage-gated potassium channels (K v 3.1 and K v 4.2) mRNAs and regulates their expression in somatodendritic compartments of neurons. Recent studies have uncovered a number of additional roles for FMRP besides RNA regulation. FMRP was shown to directly interact with, and modulate, a number of ion channel complexes. The sodium-activated potassium (Slack) channel was the first ion channel shown to directly interact with FMRP; this interaction alters the single-channel properties of the Slack channel. FMRP was also shown to interact with the auxiliary β4 subunit of the calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel; this interaction increases calcium-dependent activation of the BK channel. More recently, FMRP was shown to directly interact with the voltage-gated calcium channel, Ca v 2.2, and reduce its trafficking to the plasma membrane. Studies performed on animal models of fragile X syndrome have revealed links between modifications of ion channel activity and changes in neuronal excitability, suggesting that these modifications could contribute to the phenotypes observed in patients with fragile X-associated disorders. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  11. All or none cell responses of Ca2+-dependent K channels elicited by calcium or lead in human red cells can be explained by heterogeneity of agonist distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.; Garcia-Sancho, J.; Herreros, B.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the all or none cell response of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels to added Ca in human red cells depleted of ATP by incubation with iodoacetate and inosine. A procedure was used which allows separation and differential analysis of responding and nonresponding cells. Responding (H for heavy) cells incubated in medium containing 5 mM K lose KCl and water and increase their density to the point of sinking on diethylphthalate (specific gravity = 1.12) on centrifugation. Nonresponding (L for light) cells do not lose KCl at all. There is no intermediate behavior. Increasing the Ca concentration in the medium increases the fraction of cells which become H. No differences in the sensitivity to Ca2+ of the individual K+ channels were detected in inside-out vesicles prepared either from H or from L cells. The Ca content of H cells was higher than that of L cells. Cells depleted of ATP by incubation with iodoacetate and inosine sustain pump-leak Ca fluxes of about 15 mumol/liter cells per hour. ATP seems to be resynthesized in these cells at the expense of cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate stores at a rate of about 150 mumol/liter cells per hour. Inhibition of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase by tetrathionate increased 6-8 times the measured rate of uptake of external 45Ca. This was accompanied by an increase in the fraction of H cells. All or none cell responses of Ca2+-dependent K channels have also been evidenced in intact human red cells on addition of Pb. They have the same characteristics as those in responding and nonresponding cells. The detailed study of the kinetics of Pb-induced shrinkage of red cells suspended in medium containing 5 mM K showed that changes of Pb concentration changed not only the fraction of H cells but also the rate of shrinkage of responding cells. H cells generated by Pb treatment contained significantly more lead than L cells

  12. Potassium conductances mediate bidirectional state-dependent modulation of action potential evoked dendritic calcium signals in dentate gyrus granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Brunner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Backpropagating action potentials (bAPs and local calcium signals that they trigger are fundamental for dendritic functions. Here we addressed the question what extent the changes of local dendritic membrane properties can contribute to the shaping of the coupling between dendritic action potentials and the local calcium responses. Using a combination of in vitro electrophysiological and confocal imaging techniques we found that activation of dendritic GIRK channels via mGlu2 or GABAB receptors enhanced the bAP¬-triggered calcium signals in the dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs. The enhancement of calcium signals was significant only in those dendritic regions, where these receptors are predominantly expressed. Similarly to GIRK channel activation, somatic hyperpolarization by DC current injection (from -64 mV to -77 mV, significantly increased bAP-associated calcium signals in the proximal dendrites. The hyperpolarization was associated with a decrease in the input resistance due to the rectification of the membrane potential of GCs. The effect of hyperpolarization on the calcium signals was maintained when T-type calcium currents were blocked but it decreased when GIRK channels were inhibited. Simultaneous dual somato-dendritic recordings from GCs showed that somatic hyperpolarization accelerated the repolarization phase of dendritic bAP in the proximal region whereas the rising phase and peak amplitude was not affected. We hypothesize that the larger driving force for calcium ions during the faster repolarization can contribute to the increasing in calcium signals. Employment of previously recorded dendritic bAP waveforms from hyperpolarized membrane potential as voltage command evoked larger calcium currents in nucleated patches compared to bAP waveform from the same recording at depolarized membrane potential. Furthermore, addition of native, high-voltage activated, inactivating potassium conductance by somatic dynamic clamp

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the renal potassium channel, ROMK, leads to type II Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Brighid M; Mackie, Timothy D; Subramanya, Arohan R; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2017-08-04

    Type II Bartter syndrome is caused by mutations in the renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease are poorly defined. To rapidly screen for ROMK function, we developed a yeast expression system and discovered that yeast cells lacking endogenous potassium channels could be rescued by WT ROMK but not by ROMK proteins containing any one of four Bartter mutations. We also found that the mutant proteins were significantly less stable than WT ROMK. However, their degradation was slowed in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor or when yeast cells contained mutations in the CDC48 or SSA1 gene, which is required for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). Consistent with these data, sucrose gradient centrifugation and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that most ROMK protein was ER-localized. To translate these findings to a more relevant cell type, we measured the stabilities of WT ROMK and the ROMK Bartter mutants in HEK293 cells. As in yeast, the Bartter mutant proteins were less stable than the WT protein, and their degradation was slowed in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor. Finally, we discovered that low-temperature incubation increased the steady-state levels of a Bartter mutant, suggesting that the disease-causing mutation traps the protein in a folding-deficient conformation. These findings indicate that the underlying pathology for at least a subset of patients with type II Bartter syndrome is linked to the ERAD pathway and that future therapeutic strategies should focus on correcting deficiencies in ROMK folding. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Modeling steady state SO2-dependent changes in capillary ATP concentration using novel O2 micro-delivery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonaim, Nour W.; Fraser, Graham M.; Ellis, Christopher G.; Yang, Jun; Goldman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to be released from the erythrocyte in an oxygen (O2) dependent manner. Since ATP is a potent vasodilator, it is proposed to be a key regulator in the pathway that mediates micro-vascular response to varying tissue O2 demand. We propose that ATP signaling mainly originates in the capillaries due to the relatively long erythrocyte transit times in the capillary and the short ATP diffusion distance to the electrically coupled endothelium. We have developed a computational model to investigate the effect of delivering or removing O2 to limited areas at the surface of a tissue with an idealized parallel capillary array on total ATP concentration. Simulations were conducted when exposing full surface to perturbations in tissue O2 tension (PO2) or locally using a circular micro-outlet (~100 μm in diameter), a square micro-slit (200 × 200 μm), or a rectangular micro-slit (1000 μm wide × 200 μm long). Results indicated the rectangular micro-slit has the optimal dimensions for altering hemoglobin saturations (SO2) in sufficient number capillaries to generate effective changes in total [ATP]. This suggests a threshold for the minimum number of capillaries that need to be stimulated in vivo by imposed tissue hypoxia to induce a conducted micro-vascular response. SO2 and corresponding [ATP] changes were also modeled in a terminal arteriole (9 μm in diameter) that replaces 4 surface capillaries in the idealized network geometry. Based on the results, the contribution of terminal arterioles to the net change in [ATP] in the micro-vascular network is minimal although they would participate as O2 sources thus influencing the O2 distribution. The modeling data presented here provide important insights into designing a novel micro-delivery device for studying micro-vascular O2 regulation in the capillaries in vivo. PMID:24069001

  15. Cholesterol up-regulates neuronal G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel activity in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiya, Anna N; Durdagi, Serdar; Noskov, Sergei; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2017-04-14

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well known risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that cholesterol-driven effects on physiology and pathophysiology derive from its ability to alter the function of a variety of membrane proteins including ion channels. Yet, the effect of cholesterol on G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels expressed in the brain is unknown. GIRK channels mediate the actions of inhibitory brain neurotransmitters. As a result, loss of GIRK function can enhance neuron excitability, whereas gain of GIRK function can reduce neuronal activity. Here we show that in rats on a high-cholesterol diet, cholesterol levels in hippocampal neurons are increased. We also demonstrate that cholesterol plays a critical role in modulating neuronal GIRK currents. Specifically, cholesterol enrichment of rat hippocampal neurons resulted in enhanced channel activity. In accordance, elevated currents upon cholesterol enrichment were also observed in Xenopus oocytes expressing GIRK2 channels, the primary GIRK subunit expressed in the brain. Furthermore, using planar lipid bilayers, we show that although cholesterol did not affect the unitary conductance of GIRK2, it significantly enhanced the frequency of channel openings. Last, combining computational and functional approaches, we identified two putative cholesterol-binding sites in the transmembrane domain of GIRK2. These findings establish that cholesterol plays a critical role in modulating GIRK activity in the brain. Because up-regulation of GIRK function can reduce neuronal activity, our findings may lead to novel approaches for prevention and therapy of cholesterol-driven neurodegenerative disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Complex N-Glycans Influence the Spatial Arrangement of Voltage Gated Potassium Channels in Membranes of Neuronal-Derived Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kristen Hall

    Full Text Available The intrinsic electrical properties of a neuron depend on expression of voltage gated potassium (Kv channel isoforms, as well as their distribution and density in the plasma membrane. Recently, we showed that N-glycosylation site occupancy of Kv3.1b modulated its placement in the cell body and neurites of a neuronal-derived cell line, B35 neuroblastoma cells. To extrapolate this mechanism to other N-glycosylated Kv channels, we evaluated the impact of N-glycosylation occupancy of Kv3.1a and Kv1.1 channels. Western blots revealed that wild type Kv3.1a and Kv1.1 α-subunits had complex and oligomannose N-glycans, respectively, and that abolishment of the N-glycosylation site(s generated Kv proteins without N-glycans. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy images revealed that N-glycans of Kv3.1a contributed to its placement in the cell membrane while N-glycans had no effect on the distribution of Kv1.1. Based on particle analysis of EGFP-Kv proteins in the adhered membrane, glycosylated forms of Kv3.1a, Kv1.1, and Kv3.1b had differences in the number, size or density of Kv protein clusters in the cell membrane of neurites and cell body of B35 cells. Differences were also observed between the unglycosylated forms of the Kv proteins. Cell dissociation assays revealed that cell-cell adhesion was increased by the presence of complex N-glycans of Kv3.1a, like Kv3.1b, whereas cell adhesion was similar in the oligomannose and unglycosylated Kv1.1 subunit containing B35 cells. Our findings provide direct evidence that N-glycans of Kv3.1 splice variants contribute to the placement of these glycoproteins in the plasma membrane of neuronal-derived cells while those of Kv1.1 were absent. Further when the cell membrane distribution of the Kv channel was modified by N-glycans then the cell-cell adhesion properties were altered. Our study demonstrates that N-glycosylation of Kv3.1a, like Kv3.1b, provides a mechanism for the distribution of these

  17. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein, Part I: Affordances and Limitations of Ribbon Diagrams, Vines, and Hydrophobic/Polar Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This project focuses on students' understanding of three external representations of the potassium ion channel protein. This is part I of a two-part study, which focuses on the affordances and…

  18. Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludens, J H; Clark, M A; Lawson, J A

    1995-06-01

    Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats were observed. Effects of K+ channel modulation on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion were studied using the adenosine-triphosphate- (ATP)-sensitive K+ channel blocker 4-morpholinecarboximidine-N-1-adamantyl-N'-cyclohexylhydr ochloride (U-37883A) in conscious rats previously equipped with catheters for clearance studies. In saline-loaded rats, i.v. doses of U-37883A of 1.7, 5.0 and 15 mg/kg increased absolute and fractional Na+ excretion dose-dependently without changing K+ excretion. The glomerular filtration rate remained constant during diuresis. In water-loaded (hypotonic dextrose) rats, free-water clearance studies revealed that the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker significantly decreased an index of solute reabsorption (free-water clearance adjusted for chloride clearance) in the diluting segment during peak natriuretic activity. In addition, U-37883A significantly decreased the osmolality of renal papillary interstitial fluid, indicative of an effect in the medullary portion of the diluting segment. Together, these findings suggest that ATP-sensitive K+ channels, possibly those located at the apical boarder, play a pivotal role in Na+ reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle.

  19. Switching from insulin to oral sulfonylureas in patients with diabetes due to Kir6.2 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Ewan R; Flechtner, Isabelle; Njølstad, Pål R

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heterozygous activating mutations in KCNJ11, encoding the Kir6.2 subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel, cause 30 to 58 percent of cases of diabetes diagnosed in patients under six months of age. Patients present with ketoacidosis or severe hyperglycemia and are treat...

  20. Short- and long-term inhibition of cardiac inward-rectifier potassium channel current by an antiarrhythmic drug bepridil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fangfang; Takanari, Hiroki; Masuda, Kimiko; Morishima, Masaki; Ono, Katsushige

    2016-07-01

    Bepridil is an effective antiarrhythmic drug on supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, and inhibitor of calmodulin. Recent investigations have been elucidating that bepridil exerts antiarrhythmic effects through its acute and chronic application for patients. The aim of this study was to identify the efficacy and the potential mechanism of bepridil on the inward-rectifier potassium channel in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in acute- and long-term conditions. Bepridil inhibited inward-rectifier potassium current (I K1) as a short-term effect with IC50 of 17 μM. Bepridil also reduced I K1 of neonatal cardiomyocytes when applied for 24 h in the culture medium with IC50 of 2.7 μM. Both a calmodulin inhibitor (W-7) and an inhibitor of calmodulin-kinase II (KN93) reduced I K1 when applied for 24 h as a long-term effect in the same fashion, suggesting that the long-term application of bepridil inhibits I K1 more potently than that of the short-term application through the inhibition of calmodulin kinase II pathway in cardiomyocytes.

  1. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  2. Agrobacterium VirB10, an ATP energy sensor required for type IV secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Eric; Christie, Peter J

    2004-12-07

    Bacteria use type IV secretion systems (T4SS) to translocate DNA and protein substrates to target cells of phylogenetically diverse taxa. Recently, by use of an assay termed transfer DNA immunoprecipitation (TrIP), we described the translocation route for a DNA substrate [T-DNA, portion of the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 T4SS in terms of a series of temporally and spatially ordered substrate contacts with subunits of the secretion channel. Here, we report that the bitopic inner membrane protein VirB10 undergoes a structural transition in response to ATP utilization by the VirD4 and VirB11 ATP-binding subunits, as monitored by protease susceptibility. VirB10 interacts with inner membrane VirD4 independently of cellular energetic status, whereas the energy-induced conformational change is required for VirB10 complex formation with an outer membrane-associated heterodimer of VirB7 lipoprotein and VirB9, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation. Under these conditions, the T-DNA substrate is delivered from the inner membrane channel components VirB6 and VirB8 to periplasmic and outer membrane-associated VirB2 pilin and VirB9. We propose that VirD4 and VirB11 coordinate the ATP-dependent formation of a VirB10 "bridge" between inner and outer membrane subassemblies of the VirB/D4 T4SS, and that this morphogenetic event is required for T-DNA translocation across the A. tumefaciens cell envelope.

  3. Potassium Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) is not a transcriptional regulator of cardiac electrical remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sine V; Tuomainen, Tomi; Borup, Rehannah

    2016-01-01

    The heart-failure relevant Potassium Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) augments CaV1.2 and KV4.3. KChIP3 represses CaV1.2 transcription in cardiomyocytes via interaction with regulatory DNA elements. Hence, we tested nuclear presence of KChIP2 and if KChIP2 translocates into the nucleus...... intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Neither increasing nor decreasing intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations caused translocation of KChIP2. Microarray analysis did not identify relief of transcriptional repression in murine KChIP2(-/-) heart samples. We conclude that although there is a baseline presence of KCh...

  4. KCNQ4 channel activation by BMS-204352 and retigabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Rikke Louise K.; Jespersen, Thomas; Christophersen, P

    2001-01-01

    Activation of potassium channels generally reduces cellular excitability, making potassium channel openers potential drug candidates for the treatment of diseases related to hyperexcitabilty such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain, and neurodegeneration. Two compounds, BMS-204352 and retigabine, prese...

  5. DNA supercoiling depends on the phosphorylation potential in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Workum, M.; van Dooren, S.J.M; Oldenburg, N

    1996-01-01

    ATP/ADP ratios were varied in different ways and the degree of negative supercoiling was determined in Escherichia coli. Independent of whether the ATP/ADP ratio was reduced by a shift to anaerobic conditions, by addition of protonophore (dinitrophenol) or by potassium cyanide addition, DNA super...

  6. The voltage-sensing domain of a phosphatase gates the pore of a potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Cristina; Schroeder, Indra; Romani, Giulia; Van Etten, James L; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2013-03-01

    The modular architecture of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels suggests that they resulted from the fusion of a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) to a pore module. Here, we show that the VSD of Ciona intestinalis phosphatase (Ci-VSP) fused to the viral channel Kcv creates Kv(Synth1), a functional voltage-gated, outwardly rectifying K(+) channel. Kv(Synth1) displays the summed features of its individual components: pore properties of Kcv (selectivity and filter gating) and voltage dependence of Ci-VSP (V(1/2) = +56 mV; z of ~1), including the depolarization-induced mode shift. The degree of outward rectification of the channel is critically dependent on the length of the linker more than on its amino acid composition. This highlights a mechanistic role of the linker in transmitting the movement of the sensor to the pore and shows that electromechanical coupling can occur without coevolution of the two domains.

  7. Ca²⁺-dependent K⁺ channels in exocrine salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E

    2014-06-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K(+) secretion in exocrine glands. Two K(+) channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: (1) a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene, and (2) a voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Autoantibodies against voltage-gated potassium channel and glutamic acid decarboxylase in psychosis: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and case series.

    OpenAIRE

    Grain, Rosemary; Lally, John; Stubbs, Brendon; Malik, Steffi; LeMince, Anne; Nicholson, Timothy R; Murray, Robin M; Gaughran, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) have been reported in some cases of psychosis. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate their prevalence in people with psychosis and report a case series of VGKC-complex antibodies in refractory psychosis. Only five studies presenting prevalence rates of VGKC seropositivity in psychosis were identified, in addition to our case series, with an overall prevale...

  9. Metabolism regulates the spontaneous firing of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons via KATP and nonselective cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutas, Andrew; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Yellen, Gary

    2014-12-03

    Neurons use glucose to fuel glycolysis and provide substrates for mitochondrial respiration, but neurons can also use alternative fuels that bypass glycolysis and feed directly into mitochondria. To determine whether neuronal pacemaking depends on active glucose metabolism, we switched the metabolic fuel from glucose to alternative fuels, lactate or β-hydroxybutyrate, while monitoring the spontaneous firing of GABAergic neurons in mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) brain slices. We found that alternative fuels, in the absence of glucose, sustained SNr spontaneous firing at basal rates, but glycolysis may still be supported by glycogen in the absence of glucose. To prevent any glycogen-fueled glycolysis, we directly inhibited glycolysis using either 2-deoxyglucose or iodoacetic acid. Inhibiting glycolysis in the presence of alternative fuels lowered SNr firing to a slower sustained firing rate. Surprisingly, we found that the decrease in SNr firing was not mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity, but if we lowered the perfusion flow rate or omitted the alternative fuel, KATP channels were activated and could silence SNr firing. The KATP-independent slowing of SNr firing that occurred with glycolytic inhibition in the presence of alternative fuels was consistent with a decrease in a nonselective cationic conductance. Although mitochondrial metabolism alone can prevent severe energy deprivation and KATP channel activation in SNr neurons, active glucose metabolism appears important for keeping open a class of ion channels that is crucial for the high spontaneous firing rate of SNr neurons. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416336-12$15.00/0.

  10. Synergistic activation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels by cholesterol and PI(4,5)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiya, Anna N; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2017-07-01

    G-protein gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK or Kir3) channels play a major role in the control of the heart rate, and require the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-bis-phosphate (PI(4,5)P 2 ) for activation. Recently, we have shown that the activity of the heterotetrameric Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel that underlies atrial K ACh currents was enhanced by cholesterol. Similarly, the activities of both the Kir3.4 homomer and its active pore mutant Kir3.4* (Kir3.4_S143T) were also enhanced by cholesterol. Here we employ planar lipid bilayers to investigate the crosstalk between PI(4,5)P 2 and cholesterol, and demonstrate that these two lipids act synergistically to activate Kir3.4* currents. Further studies using the Xenopus oocytes heterologous expression system suggest that PI(4,5)P 2 and cholesterol act via distinct binding sites. Whereas PI(4,5)P 2 binds to the cytosolic domain of the channel, the putative binding region of cholesterol is located at the center of the transmembrane domain overlapping the central glycine hinge region of the channel. Together, our data suggest that changes in the levels of two key membrane lipids - cholesterol and PI(4,5)P 2 - could act in concert to provide fine-tuning of Kir3 channel function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plant adaptation to fluctuating environment and biomass production are strongly dependent on guard cell potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaudy, Anne; Vavasseur, Alain; Hosy, Eric; Dreyer, Ingo; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    At least four genes encoding plasma membrane inward K+ channels (Kin channels) are expressed in Arabidopsis guard cells. A double mutant plant was engineered by disruption of a major Kin channel gene and expression of a dominant negative channel construct. Using the patch-clamp technique revealed that this mutant was totally deprived of guard cell Kin channel (GCKin) activity, providing a model to investigate the roles of this activity in the plant. GCKin activity was found to be an essential effector of stomatal opening triggered by membrane hyperpolarization and thereby of blue light-induced stomatal opening at dawn. It improved stomatal reactivity to external or internal signals (light, CO2 availability, and evaporative demand). It protected stomatal function against detrimental effects of Na+ when plants were grown in the presence of physiological concentrations of this cation, probably by enabling guard cells to selectively and rapidly take up K+ instead of Na+ during stomatal opening, thereby preventing deleterious effects of Na+ on stomatal closure. It was also shown to be a key component of the mechanisms that underlie the circadian rhythm of stomatal opening, which is known to gate stomatal responses to extracellular and intracellular signals. Finally, in a meteorological scenario with higher light intensity during the first hours of the photophase, GCKin activity was found to allow a strong increase (35%) in plant biomass production. Thus, a large diversity of approaches indicates that GCKin activity plays pleiotropic roles that crucially contribute to plant adaptation to fluctuating and stressing natural environments. PMID:18367672

  12. Reversible dementia: two nursing home patients with voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, Wesley; Romijn, Marloes D M; Hollander, Daan; Ter Bruggen, Jan P; van Marum, Rob J

    2015-09-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (VGKC-LE) is a rare disease that is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for medical practitioners. Two patients with VGKC-LE, both developing dementia are presented. Following treatment, both patients showed remarkable cognitive and functional improvement enabling them to leave the psychogeriatric nursing homes they both were admitted to. Patients with VGKC-LE can have a major cognitive and functional improvement even after a diagnostic delay of more than 1 year. Medical practitioners who treat patients with unexplained cognitive decline, epileptic seizures, or psychiatric symptoms should be aware of LE as an underlying rare cause. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of PMI depends on the changes in ATP and its degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shiwei; Fu, Gaowen; Seese, Ronald R; Wang, Zhen-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Estimating the time since death, or postmortem interval (PMI), has been one of the biggest difficulties in modern forensic investigation. This study tests if the concentrations of breakdown products of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) correlate with PMI in multiple organs from rat. Brains, spleens, and kidneys of rats were harvested at different time points in carcasses maintained at 4°C or 20°C. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify concentrations of metabolites related to ATP degradation. A K value (Kv=100×(Hx+HxR)/(ATP+ADP+AMP+IMP+HxR+Hx)) was calculated and correlated with PMI for each organ and temperature. The results indicate that the K value is a robust index for the estimation of PMI based on highly significant linear correlations between PMI and concentrations of ATP breakdown products. Compared with other current research methods, the changing tendency of ATP and its degradation products may be potentially a better way for the estimation of PMI in medico-legal practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bag1 Co-chaperone Promotes TRC8 E3 Ligase-dependent Degradation of Misfolded Human Ether a Go-Go-related Gene (hERG) Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantouche, Christine; Williamson, Brittany; Valinsky, William C; Solomon, Joshua; Shrier, Alvin; Young, Jason C

    2017-02-10

    Cardiac long QT syndrome type 2 is caused by mutations in the human ether a go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel, many of which cause misfolding and degradation at the endoplasmic reticulum instead of normal trafficking to the cell surface. The Hsc70/Hsp70 chaperones assist the folding of the hERG cytosolic domains. Here, we demonstrate that the Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factor Bag1 promotes hERG degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system at the endoplasmic reticulum to regulate hERG levels and channel activity. Dissociation of hERG complexes containing Hsp70 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP requires the interaction of Bag1 with Hsp70, but this does not involve the Bag1 ubiquitin-like domain. The interaction with Bag1 then shifts hERG degradation to the membrane-anchored E3 ligase TRC8 and its E2-conjugating enzyme Ube2g2, as determined by siRNA screening. TRC8 interacts through the transmembrane region with hERG and decreases hERG functional expression. TRC8 also mediates degradation of the misfolded hERG-G601S disease mutant, but pharmacological stabilization of the mutant structure prevents degradation. Our results identify TRC8 as a previously unknown Hsp70-independent quality control E3 ligase for hERG. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate Associated with Amphibian Erythrocytes: Inhibition of ATP Release by Anion Channel Blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Paddle and Burnstock (326), Williams and Forrester (463), Forrester and Williams (151) and Clemens and Forrester (82) provide evidence that hypoxia may...an ATp4 - receptor. Fed. Proc. 45:208, 1986. (abstr) 99. Dahlen , S.E. and Hedqvist, P. ATP, B,y-methylene ATP andN adenosine inhibit non-cholinergic...regulation of skeletal muscle blood low. Circ Res. 29:375-384, 1971. 117. Dodd, J., Jahr, C.E., Hamilton, P.N., Heath, M.J., Matthew , W.P., and Jessell, T.M

  16. Single Nisoldipine-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells Isolated from Rabbit Mesenteric Artery