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Sample records for atp induced vasodilatation

  1. ATP induced vasodilatation and purinergic receptors in the human leg: roles of nitric oxide, prostaglandins and adenosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Bune, Laurids; Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hellsten, Ylva

    2009-01-01

    -arterial infusion of ATP (0.45-2.45 micromol/min; mean+/-SEM) in 19 healthy, male subjects with and without co-infusion of NG-mono-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; NO formation inhibitor; 12.3+/-0.3 mg/min), indomethacin (INDO; prostaglandin formation blocker; 613+/-12 microg/min) and/or theophylline (adenosine receptor...... was associated with a parallel lowering in leg vascular conductance and cardiac output and a compensatory increase in leg O2 extraction. Infusion of theophylline did not alter the ATP induced leg hyperemia or systemic variables. Real time PCR analysis of the mRNA content from the vastus lateralus...

  2. Chronic hypoxia increases arterial blood pressure and reduces adenosine and ATP induced vasodilatation in skeletal muscle in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Robach, P;

    2014-01-01

    altitude than at sea level (P < 0.05). At altitude, the high doses of adenosine and ATP reduced mean arterial blood pressure by 9-12%, independently of FI O2 . The change in vascular conductance in response to ATP was lower at altitude than at sea level by 24 and 38%, during the low and high ATP doses...... protein expression was determined in muscle biopsies after 4 weeks at 3454 m by Western blot. RESULTS: At altitude, mean arterial blood pressure was 13% higher (91 ± 2 vs. 102 ± 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) than at sea level and was unaltered by hyperoxic breathing. Baseline leg vascular conductance was 25% lower at...... blood pressure and reduces the vasodilatory responses to adenosine and ATP....

  3. Induces vasodilatation of rat mesenteric artery in vitro mainly by inhibiting receptor-mediated Ca(2+)-influx and Ca(2+)-release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yong-Xiao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; He, Jian-Yu;

    2005-01-01

    inhibited the contraction derived from NA and CaCI2 in Ca(2+)-free medium, in a concentration dependent manner, indicating the vasodilatation was related to the inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ influx through the receptor-operated calcium channels and intracellular Ca2+ release from the Ca2+ store. Atropine......-induced concentration-response curve to the right, in a non-parallel manner, suggesting the mechanism of atropine was not mediated via the (alpha1-adrenoreceptor. The beta-adrenoreceptor and ATP sensitive potassium channel, a voltage dependent calcium channel, were not involved in the vasodilatation. However, atropine...... had no effect on the caffeine-induced contraction in the artery segments, indicating the inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ release as a result of atropine most likely occurs via the IP3 pathway rather than the ryanodine receptors. Our results suggest that atropine-induced vasodilatation is mainly from...

  4. Acrolein induces vasodilatation of rodent mesenteric bed via an EDHF-dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrolein is generated endogenously during lipid peroxidation and inflammation and is an environmental pollutant. Protein adducts of acrolein are detected in atherosclerotic plaques and neurons of patients with Alzheimer's disease. To understand vascular effects of acrolein exposure, we studied acrolein vasoreactivity in perfused rodent mesenteric bed. Acrolein induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation that was more robust and more sensitive than dilation induced by 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, trans-2-hexenal, or propionaldehyde. Acrolein-induced vasodilatation was mediated by K+-sensitive components, e.g., it was abolished in 0 [K+]o buffer or in 3 mM tetrabutylammonium, inhibited 75% in 50 μM ouabain, and inhibited 64% in 20 mM K+ buffer. Moreover, combined treatment with the Ca2+-activated K+ channel inhibitors 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34, 100 nM) and apamin (5 μM) significantly reduced vasodilatation without altering sensitivity to acrolein. However, acrolein-induced % dilation was unaffected by L-NAME or indomethacin pretreatment indicating mechanistic independence of NO and prostaglandins. Moreover, acrolein induced vasodilatation in cirazoline-precontracted mesenteric bed of eNOS-null mice confirming eNOS independence. Pretreatment with 6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanoic acid (PPOH 50 μM), an epoxygenase inhibitor, or the superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol (100 μM) significantly attenuated acrolein-induced vasodilatation. Collectively, these data indicate that acrolein stimulates mesenteric bed vasodilatation due to endothelium-derived signal(s) that is K+-, ouabain-, PPOH-, and Tempol-sensitive, and thus, a likely endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). These data indicate that low level acrolein exposure associated with vascular oxidative stress or inflammation stimulates vasodilatation via EDHF release in medium-sized arteries - a novel function

  5. Correlation of Flicker-Induced and Flow-Mediated Vasodilatation in Patients With Endothelial Dysfunction and Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Pemp, Berthold; Weigert, Günther; Karl, Katharina; Petzl, Ursula; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold; Garhofer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Flicker-induced vasodilatation is reduced in patients with vascular-related diseases, which has at least partially been attributed to endothelial dysfunction of retinal vessels. Currently, the standard method to assess endothelial function in vivo is flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD). Thus, the present study was performed to investigate whether a correlation exists between flicker-induced vasodilatation and FMD in patients with known endothelial dysfunction and healthy subjects. RE...

  6. Acrolein Induces Vasodilatation of Rodent Mesenteric Bed via an EDHF-Dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Awe, S.O.; Adeagbo, A.S. O.; D’Souza, S.E.; Bhatnagar, A.; Conklin, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Acrolein is generated endogenously during lipid peroxidation and inflammation and is an environmental pollutant. Protein adducts of acrolein are detected in atherosclerotic plaques and neurons of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. To understand vascular effects of acrolein exposure, we studied acrolein vasoreactivity in perfused rodent mesenteric bed. Acrolein induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation that was more robust and more sensitive than dilation induced by 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonena...

  7. Oral single high-dose aspirin results in a long-lived inhibition of anodal current-induced vasodilatation

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, S; Fromy, B; Koïtka, A; Tartas, M; Saumet, J L; Abraham, P

    2002-01-01

    Acetyl salicyclic acid (aspirin) irreversibly blocks cyclo-oxygenase (COX). This effect is short-lived in endothelial or smooth muscle cells due to resynthesis but long-lived in platelets devoid of synthesis ability. Aspirin blocks the anodal current-induced vasodilatation, suggesting participation by prostaglandin (PG). We analysed the time course of the effect of aspirin as an indirect indicator of the origin of the PG possibly involved in anodal current-induced vasodilatation.In healthy vo...

  8. Involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors in insulin-induced vasodilatation in mesenteric resistance blood vessels of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Kawasaki, H; Okazaki, M; Nakatsuma, A; Araki, H; Gomita, Y

    1998-04-01

    1. The vascular effect of insulin in the mesenteric resistance blood vessel and the role of calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP)-receptor in insulin-induced vascular responsiveness were investigated in rats. 2. The mesenteric vascular beds isolated from Wistar rats were perfused with Krebs solution, and perfusion pressure was measured with a pressure transducer. In preparations contracted by perfusion with Krebs solution containing methoxamine in the presence of guanethidine, the perfusion of insulin (from 0.1 to 3000 nM) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in perfusion pressure due to vasodilatation. The pD2 value and maximum relaxation (%) were 6.94+/-0.22 and 43.9+/-5.2, respectively. 3. This vasodilator response to insulin was unaffected by 100 nM propranolol (beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) plus 100 nM atropine (muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonist), 100 microM L-NG-nitroarginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 1 microM ouabain (Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor), or 1 microM glibenclamide (ATP sensitive K+-channel inhibitor). 4. In preparations without endothelium, perfusion of insulin produced a marked vasodilatation. The pD2 value and maximum relaxation (%) were 7.62+/-0.21 and 81.0+/-4.6, respectively, significantly greater than in preparations with intact endothelium. 5. The vasodilator responses to insulin in the preparations without endothelium were significantly inhibited by CGRP[8 37], a CGRP receptor antagonist, whereas pretreatment with capsaisin, a toxin for CGRP-containing nerves, did not affect insulin-induced vasodilatation. 6. These results suggest that insulin induces non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic and endothelium-independent vasodilatation, which is partially mediated by CGRP receptors. PMID:9605576

  9. Loss of capsaicin-induced meningeal neurogenic sensory vasodilatation in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dux, M; Rosta, J; Pintér, S; Sántha, P; Jancsó, G

    2007-11-30

    Neuropathic alterations of sensory nerves involved in the mediation of neurogenic inflammation of the meninges may contribute to the increased incidence of headaches in diabetics. In the rat, activation of capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors, which express the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor, induces meningeal vasodilatation, a significant component of neurogenic inflammation, through the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). This study examines the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on TRPV1 receptor-mediated neurogenic sensory vasodilatation, CGRP release and nerve fiber density in the rat dura mater. In a cranial window preparation, epidural application of capsaicin (10(-7) M) produced distinct vasodilatory responses in control animals as measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. In diabetic rats, capsaicin-induced vasodilatation was reduced or even abolished 6, but not 2 or 4 weeks after diabetes induction. In contrast, vasoconstriction, a non-neurogenic response to capsaicin at a higher concentration (10(-5) M), was not altered in diabetic rats. The vasodilatory effects of histamine (10(-5) M), acetylcholine (10(-4) M) and CGRP (10(-5) M) were similar in control, diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic animals. In diabetic rats, a significant decrease in the capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP and reduction in the density of TRPV1-immunoreactive (IR) nerves were demonstrated. Treatment of the diabetic rats with insulin restored both the vasodilatory response and the capsaicin-induced CGRP release toward control values. In conclusion, this study revealed a marked impairment of meningeal TRPV1-IR nerves in streptozotocin diabetic rats by showing reduced neurogenic sensory vasodilatation, decreased capsaicin-evoked CGRP release and reduction in the number of TRPV1-IR nerve fibers of the dura mater. The findings suggest that capsaicin-sensitive afferents may play an important role in meningeal nociceptor function and their

  10. Interactions of adenosine, prostaglandins and nitric oxide in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation: in vivo and in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Clare J; Abbas, Mark R; Coney, Andrew M; Marshall, Janice M

    2002-01-01

    Adenosine, prostaglandins (PG) and nitric oxide (NO) have all been implicated in hypoxia-evoked vasodilatation. We investigated whether their actions are interdependent. In anaesthetised rats, the PG synthesis inhibitors diclofenac or indomethacin reduced muscle vasodilatation evoked by systemic hypoxia or adenosine, but not that evoked by iloprost, a stable analogue of prostacyclin (PGI2), or by an NO donor. After diclofenac, the A1 receptor agonist CCPA evoked no vasodilatation: we previously showed that A1, but not A2A, receptors mediate the hypoxia-induced muscle vasodilatation. Further, in freshly excised rat aorta, adenosine evoked a release of NO, detected with an NO-sensitive electrode, that was abolished by NO synthesis inhibition, or endothelium removal, and reduced by ≈50 % by the A1 antagonist DPCPX, the remainder being attenuated by the A2A antagonist ZM241385. Diclofenac reduced adenosine-evoked NO release by ≈50 % under control conditions, abolished that evoked in the presence of ZM241385, but did not affect that evoked in the presence of DPCPX. Adenosine-evoked NO release was also abolished by the adenyl cyclase inhibitor 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine, while dose-dependent NO release was evoked by iloprost. Finally, stimulation of A1, but not A2A, receptors caused a release of PGI2 from rat aorta, assessed by radioimmunoassay of its stable metabolite, 6-keto PGF1α, that was abolished by diclofenac. These results suggest that during systemic hypoxia, adenosine acts on endothelial A1 receptors to increase PG synthesis, thereby generating cAMP, which increases the synthesis and release of NO and causes muscle vasodilatation. This pathway may be important in other situations involving these autocoids. PMID:12356892

  11. Cold-induced vasodilatation response at different water bath temperatures in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, L; Purkayastha, S S; Malhotra, M S

    1978-08-01

    The response of cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) at different water bath temperatures was studied in 20 monkeys (3.5 kg) in a conscious state in a thermoneutral room. The animals were controlled by seating in a monkey chair, and the right hind limb up to 7.5 cm from the heel was immersed in a water bath for 60 min. Four series of experiments were conducted at water bath temperatures of 0 degrees, 4 degrees, 8 degrees, and 12 degrees C, respectively, at weekly intervals and the skin temperatures were measured from three sites in the foot. Marked CIVD response was noted from the dorsum and, to a lesser extent, from the sole of the foot, but no response was seen from the tip of the middle toe at 0 degrees, 4 degrees, and 8 degrees C water bath temperatures. The pattern of CIVD response at 4 degrees C was identical to that of 0 degrees C, but the response at 8 degrees C was poor and was absent at 12 degrees C. Three patterns of CIVD--such as hunting, proportional control, and slow, steady, and continuous rewarming--was observed. However, 15% of the animals did not exhibit any CIVD. The observations show that the CIVD response of monkeys is remarkably similar to that of man. PMID:98160

  12. P2Y receptor-induced EDHF vasodilatation is of primary importance for the regulation of perfusion pressure in the peripheral circulation of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmsjø, M; Chu, Z M; Croft, K;

    2002-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides have been shown to induce vasodilatation of conductance arteries by release of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). As small resistance arteries are of greater importance for blood pressure regulation, a whole rat mesenteric arterial bed preparation was...

  13. Adenosine concentration in the porcine coronary artery wall and A2A receptor involvement in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøbert, Ole; Haink, Gesine; Simonsen, Ulf; Gravholt, Claus H; Levin, Max; Deussen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We tested whether hypoxia-induced coronary artery dilatation could be mediated by an increase in adenosine concentration within the coronary artery wall or by an increase in adenosine sensitivity. Porcine left anterior descendent coronary arteries, precontracted with prostaglandin F2α (10−5m), were mounted in a pressure myograph and microdialysis catheters were inserted into the tunica media. Dialysate adenosine concentrations were analysed by HPLC. Glucose, lactate and pyruvate were measured by an automated spectrophotometric kinetic enzymatic analyser. The exchange fraction of [14C]adenosine over the microdialysis membrane increased from 0.32 ± 0.02 to 0.46 ± 0.02 (n = 4, P < 0.01) during the study period. At baseline, interstitial adenosine was in the region of 10 nm which is significantly less than previously found myocardial concentrations. Hypoxia (PO2 30 mmHg for 60 min, n = 5) increased coronary diameters by 20.0 ± 2.6% (versus continuous oxygenation −3.1 ± 2.4%, n = 6, P < 0.001) but interstitial adenosine concentration fell. Blockade of adenosine deaminase (with erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl-)-adenine, 5 μm), adenosine kinase (with iodotubericidine, 10 μm) and adenosine transport (with n-nitrobenzylthioinosine, 1 μm) increased interstitial adenosine but the increase was unrelated to hypoxia or diameter. A coronary dilatation similar to that during hypoxia could be obtained with 30 μm of adenosine in the organ bath and the resulting interstitial adenosine concentrations (n = 5) were 20 times higher than the adenosine concentration measured during hypoxia. Adenosine concentration–response experiments showed vasodilatation to be more pronounced during hypoxia (n = 9) than during normoxia (n = 9, P < 0.001) and the A2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 (20 nm, n = 5), attenuated hypoxia-induced vasodilatation while the selective A2B receptor antagonist MRS1754 (20 nm, n = 4), had no effect. The lactate/pyruvate ratio was significantly increased in

  14. External Dentin Stimulation Induces ATP Release in Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Wang, C; Fujita, T; Malmstrom, H S; Nedergaard, M; Ren, Y F; Dirksen, R T

    2015-09-01

    ATP is involved in neurosensory processing, including nociceptive transduction. Thus, ATP signaling may participate in dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain. In this study, we investigated whether pannexins, which can form mechanosensitive ATP-permeable channels, are present in human dental pulp. We also assessed the existence and functional activity of ecto-ATPase for extracellular ATP degradation. We further tested if ATP is released from dental pulp upon dentin mechanical or thermal stimulation that induces dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain and if pannexin or pannexin/gap junction channel blockers reduce stimulation-dependent ATP release. Using immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated immunoreactivity of pannexin 1 and 2 in odontoblasts and their processes extending into the dentin tubules. Using enzymatic histochemistry staining, we also demonstrated functional ecto-ATPase activity within the odontoblast layer, subodontoblast layer, dental pulp nerve bundles, and blood vessels. Using an ATP bioluminescence assay, we found that mechanical or cold stimulation to the exposed dentin induced ATP release in an in vitro human tooth perfusion model. We further demonstrated that blocking pannexin/gap junction channels with probenecid or carbenoxolone significantly reduced external dentin stimulation-induced ATP release. Our results provide evidence for the existence of functional machinery required for ATP release and degradation in human dental pulp and that pannexin channels are involved in external dentin stimulation-induced ATP release. These findings support a plausible role for ATP signaling in dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain. PMID:26130258

  15. Vasodilatation in the rat dorsal hindpaw induced by activation of sensory neurons is reduced by Paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Gracias, N.G.; Cummins, T.R.; Kelley, M R; Basile, D.P.; Iqbal, T.; Vasko, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a major side effect following treatment with the cancer chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel. Whether paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy is secondary to altered function of small diameter sensory neurons remains controversial. To ascertain whether the function of the small diameter sensory neurons was altered following systemic administration of paclitaxel, we injected male Sprague Dawley rats with 1 mg/kg paclitaxel every other day for a total of four doses and exa...

  16. Blockade of Extracellular ATP Effect by Oxidized ATP Effectively Mitigated Induced Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ronglan; Liang, Dongchun; Sun, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Various pathological conditions are accompanied by ATP release from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. Extracellular ATP (eATP) functions as a signaling molecule by activating purinergic P2 purine receptors. The key P2 receptor involved in inflammation was identified as P2X7R. Recent studies have shown that P2X7R signaling is required to trigger the Th1/Th17 immune response, and oxidized ATP (oxATP) effectively blocks P2X7R activation. In this study we investigated the effect of oxATP on mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Our results demonstrated that induced EAU in B6 mice was almost completely abolished by the administration of small doses of oxATP, and the Th17 response, but not the Th1 response, was significantly weakened in the treated mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the therapeutic effects involve the functional change of a number of immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and regulatory T cells. OxATP not only directly inhibits the T cell response; it also suppresses T cell activation by altering the function of DCs and Foxp3+ T cell. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of P2X7R activation effectively exempts excessive autoimmune inflammation, which may indicate a possible therapeutic use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27196432

  17. ATP-induced [Ca2+]i changes and depolarization in GH3 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hae Sook; Park, Kyu Sang; Cha, Seung Kyu; Kong, In Deok; Lee, Joong Woo

    2000-01-01

    Extracellular ATP is a neurotransmitter and mediates a variety of responses. In the endocrine system, there are data suggesting a physiological role for ATP in Ca2+ signalling and hormone secretion. However, the ATP receptor subtype involved has not been clearly elucidated in GH3 cells, a rat anterior pituitary cell line.BzATP- and ATP-induced [Ca2+]i responses had EC50 values of 18 and 651 μM, respectively. The maximal response to ATP was only 59±8% of that for BzATP. The BzATP-induced [Ca2+...

  18. Restoration of intracellular ATP production in banked red blood cells improves inducible ATP export and suppresses RBC-endothelial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Brett S; Hanna, Gabi; Hendargo, Hansford C; McMahon, Timothy J

    2014-12-15

    Transfusion of banked red blood cells (RBCs) has been associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. Storage-induced alterations in RBC glycolytic flux, attenuated ATP export, and microvascular adhesion of transfused RBCs in vivo could contribute, but the underlying mechanisms have not been tested. We tested the novel hypothesis that improving deoxygenation-induced metabolic flux and the associated intracellular ATP generation in stored RBCs (sRBCs) results in an increased extracellular ATP export and suppresses microvascular adhesion of RBCs to endothelium in vivo following transfusion. We show deficient intracellular ATP production and ATP export by human sRBCs during deoxygenation (impairments ~42% and 49%, respectively). sRBC pretreatment with a solution containing glycolytic intermediate/purine/phosphate precursors (i.e., "PIPA") restored deoxygenation-induced intracellular ATP production and promoted extracellular ATP export (improvement ~120% and 50%, respectively). In a nude mouse model of transfusion, adhesion of human RBCs to the microvasculature in vivo was examined. Only 2% of fresh RBCs (fRBCs) transfused adhered to the vascular wall, compared with 16% of sRBCs transfused. PIPA pretreatment of sRBCs significantly reduced adhesion to just 5%. In hypoxia, adhesion of sRBCs transfused was significantly augmented (up to 21%), but not following transfusion of fRBCs or PIPA-treated sRBCs (3.5% or 6%). Enhancing the capacity for deoxygenation-induced glycolytic flux within sRBCs increases their ability to generate intracellular ATP, improves the inducible export of extracellular anti-adhesive ATP, and consequently suppresses adhesion of stored, transfused RBCs to the vascular wall in vivo. PMID:25305182

  19. Blockade of Extracellular ATP Effect by Oxidized ATP Effectively Mitigated Induced Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU)

    OpenAIRE

    Ronglan Zhao; Dongchun Liang; Deming Sun

    2016-01-01

    Various pathological conditions are accompanied by ATP release from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. Extracellular ATP (eATP) functions as a signaling molecule by activating purinergic P2 purine receptors. The key P2 receptor involved in inflammation was identified as P2X7R. Recent studies have shown that P2X7R signaling is required to trigger the Th1/Th17 immune response, and oxidized ATP (oxATP) effectively blocks P2X7R activation. In this study we investigated the effect...

  20. Extracellular ATP induces a large nonselective conductance in macrophage plasma membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Buisman, H P; Steinberg, T. H.; FISCHBARG, J.; Silverstein, S C; Vogelzang, S A; Ince, C.; Ypey, D.L.; Leijh, P C

    1988-01-01

    Extracellular ATP in its tetra-anionic form (ATP4-) induces ion fluxes and membrane depolarization in the mouse macrophage-like cell line J774.2 and in resident mouse macrophages. We analyzed the effects of extracellular ATP4- by both patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode techniques. Whole-cell patch-configuration membrane potential measurements on J774.2 cells revealed that ATP4- -induced depolarization occurred within 40 ms of pulsed application of ATP and was completely reversible. ...

  1. Granule-specific ATP requirements for Ca2+-induced exocytosis in human neutrophils. Evidence for substantial ATP-independent release

    OpenAIRE

    Theander, Sten; Lew, Daniel Pablo; Nusse, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    Ca2+-induced exocytosis in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells involves ATP-dependent steps believed to 'prime' vesicles for exocytosis. Primed, docked vesicles are released in response to Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Neutrophils, however, do not possess voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and appear to have no docked vesicles. Furthermore, neutrophils have several types of granules with markedly different Ca2+ requirements for exocytosis. These differential Ca2+ dependencies were u...

  2. Activation of ATP/UTP-selective receptors increases blood flow and blunts sympathetic vasoconstriction in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yegutkin, G.G.; Gonzalez-Alonso, J.; Rosenmeier, Jaya Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstriction is blunted in the vascular beds of contracting skeletal muscle in humans, presumably due to the action of vasoactive metabolites (functional sympatholysis). Recently, we demonstrated that infusion of ATP into the arterial circulation of the resting human leg increases...... hyperaemia in conditions of increased sympathetic nerve drive such as exercise or hypoxia Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10/15...... blood flow and concomitantly blunts alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction in a similar manner to that during moderate exercise. Here we tested the hypothesis that ATP, rather than its dephosphorylated metabolites, induces vasodilatation and sympatholysis in resting skeletal muscle via activation of ATP...... vasodilatory and sympatholytic effects of exogenous ATP in the skeletal muscle vasculature are largely mediated via ATP itself rather than its dephosphorylated metabolites, most likely via binding to endothelial ATP/UTP-selective P2Y(2) receptors. These data are consistent with a role of ATP in skeletal muscle...

  3. Portulaca oleracea inhibit vincristine induced peripheral neuropathy: involvement of ATP-sensitive K+ channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mohana Rupa

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study reveal the antinociceptive effect of P. oleracea in vincristine induced peripheral neuropathy and involving ATP-sensitive potassium channels pathway. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 474-478

  4. Continuous detection of cerebral vasodilatation and vasoconstriction using intracranial pulse morphological template matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Shadnaz; Gonzalez, Nestor; Subudhi, Andrew W; Hamilton, Robert; Vespa, Paul; Bergsneider, Marvin; Roach, Robert C; Hu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Although accurate and continuous assessment of cerebral vasculature status is highly desirable for managing cerebral vascular diseases, no such method exists for current clinical practice. The present work introduces a novel method for real-time detection of cerebral vasodilatation and vasoconstriction using pulse morphological template matching. Templates consisting of morphological metrics of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) pulse, measured at middle cerebral artery using Transcranial Doppler, are obtained by applying a morphological clustering and analysis of intracranial pulse algorithm to the data collected during induced vasodilatation and vasoconstriction in a controlled setting. These templates were then employed to define a vasodilatation index (VDI) and a vasoconstriction index (VCI) for any inquiry data segment as the percentage of the metrics demonstrating a trend consistent with those obtained from the training dataset. The validation of the proposed method on a dataset of CBFV signals of 27 healthy subjects, collected with a similar protocol as that of training dataset, during hyperventilation (and CO₂ rebreathing tests) shows a sensitivity of 92% (and 82%) for detection of vasodilatation (and vasoconstriction) and the specificity of 90% (and 92%), respectively. Moreover, the proposed method of detection of vasodilatation (vasoconstriction) is capable of rejecting all the cases associated with vasoconstriction (vasodilatation) and outperforms other two conventional techniques by at least 7% for vasodilatation and 19% for vasoconstriction. PMID:23226385

  5. Variation potential-induced photosynthetic and respiratory changes increase ATP content in pea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Vodeneev, Vladimir; Katicheva, Lyubov; Semina, Maria; Sukhov, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    Local damage induces a physiological response in higher plants by means of generation and propagation of variation potential (VP). The response includes changes in photosynthesis and respiration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of these changes on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in pea leaves. VP was induced by local heating of the first mature leaf and registered using extracellular and intracellular electrodes. Photosynthesis and respiration were measured using Dual-PAM-100 and GFS-3000. ATP content was determined using a bioluminescence-based ATP determination kit. Two non-stimulated leaves (second and fourth) were investigated. We showed that heating induced VP that propagated into the second mature leaf, but only a slight electrical reaction was registered in the fourth mature leaf. VP-induced inactivation of photosynthesis developed in the second leaf and included two stages: short- and long-term inactivation. Local heating also caused a two-stage increase in ATP content in the second leaf, which was connected with the photosynthetic responses. Changes in photosynthesis and ATP content were not observed in the fourth leaf. The effect of VP on respiration was investigated under dark conditions. We found that variation potential induced short-term activation of respiration in the second leaf. Local heating induced ATP content increase which included only one stage under dark conditions. Changes in ATP and respiration were absent in the fourth leaf under dark conditions. Thus, VP-induced photosynthetic and respiratory changes are likely to increase ATP content in pea leaves. PMID:27450494

  6. Relationship of chromosomal damage induced by caffeine to growth temperature and ATP level in proliferating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, P; Mingo, R; González-Fernández, A; López-Sáez, J F

    1986-10-01

    Caffeine is known to induce chromosomal aberrations in proliferating cells when they are incubated during G2 and mitotic prophase. In the present paper, this caffeine effect has been analyzed in Allium cepa root meristems growing at different culture temperatures under steady-state kinetics. Caffeine (1-10 mM) induces chromosomal aberrations in a dose-dependent manner, and the treatment efficiency correlates linearly with the square of caffeine concentration. The efficiency of caffeine incubations, within the range 5-25 degrees C during equivalent cycle time periods has also been studied. It has been found that the lower the culture temperature, the higher the level of chromosomal aberrations. Moreover, at different temperatures, the level of chromosomal aberrations is a simple function of caffeine concentration and the ATP level. Therefore, the efficiency of caffeine treatment appears to be determined by some interaction between caffeine concentration and cellular ATP level. Our present results demonstrate that the influence of growth temperature on the chromosome-breaking effect of caffeine can be, at least partially, explained by the ATP levels during the incubation periods. In short, under different kinetics of plant cell proliferation, the ATP level, and/or something correlating with it, could explain the efficiency of caffeine in inducing chromosomal aberrations: the lower the ATP level, the higher the caffeine efficiency. PMID:3773927

  7. UTP-induced ATP release is a fine-tuned signalling pathway in osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringelbach, Tina M; Aslan, Derya; Novak, Ivana; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Niklas R

    2014-01-01

    Osteocytes reside as a cellular network throughout the mineralised matrix of bone and are considered the primary mechanosensors of this tissue. They sense mechanical stimulation such as fluid flow and are able to regulate osteoblast and osteoclast functions on the bone surface. Previously, we found that ATP is released load-dependently from osteocytes from the onset of mechanical stimulation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether and how ATP release can be evoked in osteocytes via purinergic receptor activation. ATP release was quantified by real-time determination using the luciferin-luciferase assay and the release pathway was investigated using pharmacological inhibition. The P2Y receptor profile was analysed using gene expression analysis by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, while functional testing was performed using measurements of intracellular calcium responses to P2 receptor agonists. These investigations demonstrated that MLO-Y4 osteocytes express functional P2Y(2), P2Y(4), P2Y(12) and P2Y(13) receptors in addition to the previously reported P2X receptors. Further, we found that osteocytes respond to nucleotides such as ATP, UTP and ADP by increasing the intracellular calcium concentration and that they release ATP dose-dependently upon stimulation with 1-10 μM UTP. In addition to this, osteocytes release large amounts of ATP upon cell rupture, which might also be a source for other nucleotides, such as UTP. These findings indicate that mechanically induced ATP signals may be propagated by P2 receptor activation and further ATP release in the osteocyte network and implicate purinergic signalling as a central signalling pathway in osteocyte mechanotransduction. PMID:24374572

  8. ATP-sensitive K+ channel knockout induces cardiac proteome remodeling predictive of heart disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrell, D Kent; Zlatkovic, Jelena; Kane, Garvan C; Yamada, Satsuki; Terzic, Andre

    2009-10-01

    Forecasting disease susceptibility requires detection of maladaptive signatures prior to onset of overt symptoms. A case-in-point are cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channelopathies, for which the substrate underlying disease vulnerability remains to be identified. Resolving molecular pathobiology, even for single genetic defects, mandates a systems platform to reliably diagnose disease predisposition. High-throughput proteomic analysis was here integrated with network biology to decode consequences of Kir6.2 K(ATP) channel pore deletion. Differential two-dimensional gel electrophoresis reproducibly resolved >800 protein species from hearts of asymptomatic wild-type and Kir6.2-knockout counterparts. K(ATP) channel ablation remodeled the cardiac proteome, significantly altering 71 protein spots, from which 102 unique identities were assigned following hybrid linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. Ontological annotation stratified the K(ATP) channel-dependent protein cohort into a predominant bioenergetic module (63 resolved identities), with additional focused sets representing signaling molecules (6), oxidoreductases (8), chaperones (6), and proteins involved in catabolism (6), cytostructure (8), and transcription and translation (5). Protein interaction mapping, in conjunction with expression level changes, localized a K(ATP) channel-associated subproteome within a nonstochastic scale-free network. Global assessment of the K(ATP) channel deficient environment verified the primary impact on metabolic pathways and revealed overrepresentation of markers associated with cardiovascular disease. Experimental imposition of graded stress precipitated exaggerated structural and functional myocardial defects in the Kir6.2-knockout, decreasing survivorship and validating the forecast of disease susceptibility. Proteomic cartography thus provides an integral view of molecular remodeling in the heart induced by K(ATP) channel deletion, establishing a

  9. Insulin-mediated vasodilatation, but not glucose uptake or endothelium-mediated vasodilatation, is enhanced in young females compared with males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Fugmann, Andreas; Millgård, Jonas; Berne, Christian; Lithell, Hans

    2002-02-01

    In order to evaluate possible differences between men and women with regard to the ability of insulin to induce vasodilatation, promote glucose uptake and enhance endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, 12 young (22-28 years), non-obese women and 15 corresponding males were subjected to 2 h of euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia (insulin infusion rate of 56 m-units x min(-1) x m(-2)). Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was evaluated by the local intra-arterial infusion of methacholine into the brachial artery (2-4 microg/min). The cardiac index was measured by thoracic bioimpedance. A 2 h period of hyperinsulinaemia increased the plasma insulin concentration to a similar degree in both sexes (females, 84 +/- 8.8 m-units/l; males, 87 +/- 7.5 m-units/l), but induced a more marked increase in forearm blood flow in females than in males (+104 +/- 67% and +52 +/- 30% respectively; P<0.01; 95% confidence interval for difference 11-94%). Furthermore, a significant decrease in total peripheral resistance (-20 +/- 6.9%; P<0.01) and an increase in cardiac index (+23 +/- 13%; P<0.01) were seen in women only (P<0.05 compared with men). Blood pressure and heart rate were not altered in either sex. Whole-body insulin-mediated glucose uptake and forearm glucose uptake did not differ between the sexes, and the ability of insulin to enhance endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (+19%; P<0.01) was similar in men and women. In conclusion, the present study shows that the ability of insulin to cause vasodilatation was greater in non-obese young women compared with men. However, no differences between the sexes were seen with regard to insulin-mediated glucose uptake and the ability of insulin to enhance endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. PMID:11834144

  10. Real-time imaging of ATP release induced by mechanical stretch in human airway smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Norihiro; Ito, Satoru; Furuya, Kishio; Naruse, Keiji; Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2014-12-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells within the airway walls are continually exposed to mechanical stimuli, and exhibit various functions in response to these mechanical stresses. ATP acts as an extracellular mediator in the airway. Moreover, extracellular ATP is considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, it is not known whether ASM cells are cellular sources of ATP secretion in the airway. We therefore investigated whether mechanical stretch induces ATP release from ASM cells. Mechanical stretch was applied to primary human ASM cells cultured on a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Concentrations of ATP in cell culture supernatants measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence were significantly elevated by cyclic stretch (12 and 20% strain). We further visualized the stretch-induced ATP release from the cells in real time using a luminescence imaging system, while acquiring differential interference contrast cell images with infrared optics. Immediately after a single uniaxial stretch for 1 second, strong ATP signals were produced by a certain population of cells and spread to surrounding spaces. The cyclic stretch-induced ATP release was significantly reduced by inhibitors of Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular exocytosis, 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxymethyl ester, monensin, N-ethylmaleimide, and bafilomycin. In contrast, the stretch-induced ATP release was not inhibited by a hemichannel blocker, carbenoxolone, or blockade of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 by short interfering RNA transfection or ruthenium red. These findings reveal a novel property of ASM cells: mechanically induced ATP release may be a cellular source of ATP in the airway. PMID:24885163

  11. Extracellular ATP-induced NO production and its dependence on membrane Ca2+ flux in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Wu, Jian-yong

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) is a novel signalling agent, and nitric oxide (NO) is a well-established signal molecule with diverse functions in plant growth and development. This study characterizes NO production induced by exogenous ATP and examines its relationship with other important signalling agents, Ca2+ and H2O2 in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root culture. Exogenous ATP was applied at 10–500 μM to the hairy root cultures and stimulated NO production was detectable within 30 min. The NO leve...

  12. ATP-induced electron transfer by redox-selective partner recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Sandra E.; Goetzl, Sebastian; Jeoung, Jae-Hun; Bommer, Martin; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Hildebrandt, Peter; Dobbek, Holger

    2014-08-01

    Thermodynamically unfavourable electron transfers are enabled by coupling to an energy-supplying reaction. How the energy is transduced from the exergonic to the endergonic process is largely unknown. Here we provide the structural basis for an energy transduction process in the reductive activation of B12-dependent methyltransferases. The transfer of one electron from an activating enzyme to the cobalamin cofactor is energetically uphill and relies on coupling to an ATPase reaction. Our results demonstrate that the key to coupling is, besides the oxidation state-dependent complex formation, the conformational gating of the electron transfer. Complex formation induces a substitution of the ligand at the electron-accepting Co ion. Addition of ATP initiates electron transfer by provoking conformational changes that destabilize the complex. We show how remodelling of the electron-accepting Co2+ promotes ATP-dependent electron transfer; an efficient strategy not seen in other electron-transferring ATPases.

  13. Different modulation by Ca2+-activated K+ channel blockers and herbimycin of acetylcholine- and flow-evoked vasodilatation in rat mesenteric small arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsgaard, Michael; Lopez, Vanesa; Buus, Niels H; Simonsen, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    The present study addressed whether endothelium-dependent vasodilatation evoked by acetylcholine and flow are mediated by the same mechanisms in isolated rat mesenteric small arteries, suspended in a pressure myograph for the measurement of internal diameter. In pressurized arterial segments contracted with U46619 in the presence of indomethacin, shear stress generated by the flow evoked relaxation. Thus, in endothelium-intact segments low (5.1±0.6 dyn cm−2) and high (19±2 dyn cm−2) shear stress evoked vasodilatations that were reduced by, respectively, 68±11 and 68±8% (P<0.05, n=7) by endothelial cell removal. Acetylcholine (0.01–1 μM) evoked concentration-dependent vasodilatation that was abolished by endothelial cell removal. Incubation with indomethacin alone did not change acetylcholine and shear stress-evoked vasodilatation, while the combination of indomethacin with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, NG,NG-asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA 1 mM), reduced low and high shear stress-evoked vasodilatation with, respectively, 52±15 and 58±10% (P<0.05, n=9), but it did not change acetylcholine-evoked vasodilatation. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated K+ channels with a combination of apamin (0.5 μM) and charybdotoxin (ChTX) (0.1 μM) did not change shear stress- and acetylcholine-evoked vasodilatation. In the presence of indomethacin and ADMA, the combination of apamin (0.5 μM) and ChTx (0.1 μM) increased contraction induced by U46619, but these blockers did not change the vasodilatation evoked by shear stress. In contrast, acetylcholine-evoked vasodilatation was abolished by the combination of apamin and charybdotoxin. In the presence of indomethacin, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A (1 μM), inhibited low and high shear stress-evoked vasodilatation with, respectively, 32±12 and 68±14% (P<0.05, n=8), but it did not change vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine. In the presence of indomethacin and ADMA, herbimycin A neither

  14. Synergistic augmentation of ATP-induced interleukin-6 production by arsenite in HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Daigo; Asao, Masashi; Okada, Hideta; Yogi, Kuniko; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro

    2016-06-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure causes cutaneous diseases such as hyperkeratosis and skin cancer. However, little information has been available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying these symptoms. Because extracellular ATP and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are involved in pathological aspects of cutaneous diseases, we examined whether sodium arsenite (As(III)) affects ATP-induced IL-6 production in human epidermal keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The results showed that the addition of As(III) into the medium of HaCaT cells dose dependently increased the production of IL-6 induced by extracellular ATP, although As(III) alone had no effect on IL-6 production. To elucidate the mechanism of the synergistic effect of As(III) on IL-6 production by extracellular ATP, we next examined the phosphorylation of p38, ERK and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), since we found that these signaling molecules were stimulated by exposure to extracellular ATP. The results indicated that ATP-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK and EGFR was synergistically enhanced by co-exposure to As(III). To clarify the mechanisms underlying the enhanced phosphorylation of p38, ERK and EGFR by As(III), we explored two possible mechanisms: the inhibition of extracellular ATP degradation and the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) activity by As(III). The degradation of extracellular ATP was not changed by As(III), whereas the activity of PTPs was significantly inhibited by As(III). Our results suggest that As(III) augments ATP-induced IL-6 production in HaCaT cells through enhanced phosphorylation of the EGFR and p38/ERK pathways, which is associated with the inhibition of PTPs activity. PMID:26104857

  15. Phosphocholine-Modified Macromolecules and Canonical Nicotinic Agonists Inhibit ATP-Induced IL-1β Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Andreas; Küllmar, Mira; Wilker, Sigrid; Richter, Katrin; Zakrzewicz, Anna; Atanasova, Srebrena; Mathes, Verena; Timm, Thomas; Lerner, Sabrina; Klein, Jochen; Kaufmann, Andreas; Bauer, Stefan; Padberg, Winfried; Kummer, Wolfgang; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Fronius, Martin; Schweda, Elke K H; Lochnit, Günter; Grau, Veronika

    2015-09-01

    IL-1β is a potent proinflammatory cytokine of the innate immune system that is involved in host defense against infection. However, increased production of IL-1β plays a pathogenic role in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, sepsis, stroke, and transplant rejection. To prevent detrimental collateral damage, IL-1β release is tightly controlled and typically requires two consecutive danger signals. LPS from Gram-negative bacteria is a prototypical first signal inducing pro-IL-1β synthesis, whereas extracellular ATP is a typical second signal sensed by the ATP receptor P2X7 that triggers activation of the NLRP3-containing inflammasome, proteolytic cleavage of pro-IL-1β by caspase-1, and release of mature IL-1β. Mechanisms controlling IL-1β release, even in the presence of both danger signals, are needed to protect from collateral damage and are of therapeutic interest. In this article, we show that acetylcholine, choline, phosphocholine, phosphocholine-modified LPS from Haemophilus influenzae, and phosphocholine-modified protein efficiently inhibit ATP-mediated IL-1β release in human and rat monocytes via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing subunits α7, α9, and/or α10. Of note, we identify receptors for phosphocholine-modified macromolecules that are synthesized by microbes and eukaryotic parasites and are well-known modulators of the immune system. Our data suggest that an endogenous anti-inflammatory cholinergic control mechanism effectively controls ATP-mediated release of IL-1β and that the same mechanism is used by symbionts and misused by parasites to evade innate immune responses of the host. PMID:26202987

  16. N114S mutation causes loss of ATP-induced aggregation of human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined recombinant wild-type human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 (wt-PRS1, EC 2.7.6.1) and the point mutant Asn114Ser PRS1 (N114S-Mutant) in cells of a patient with primary gout. Dynamic light-scattering and sedimentation velocity experiments indicated that the monomeric wt-PRS1 in solution was assembled into hexamers after adding the substrate ATP. However, this ATP-induced aggregation effect was not observed with N114S-Mutant, which has a 50% higher enzymatic activity than that of wt-PRS1. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the point mutation causes an increase of α-helix content and a decrease of turn content. Examination of the crystal structure of wt-PRS1 indicated that 12 hydrogen bonds formed by 6 pairs of N114 and D139 have an important role in stabilizing the hexamer. We suggest that the substitution of S114 for N114 in N114S-Mutant leads to the rupture of 12 hydrogen bonds and breakage of the PO43- allosteric site where PO43- functions as a fixer of the ATP-binding loop. Therefore, we consider that formation of the hexamer as the structural basis of the ADP allosteric inhibition is greatly weakened by the N114S mutation, and that alteration of the ATP-binding loop conformation is the key factor in the increased activity of N114S-Mutant. These two factors could be responsible for the high level of activity of N114S-Mutant in this patient.

  17. Eugenol Inhibits ATP-induced P2X Currents in Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hai Ying; Lee, Byung Ky; Kim, Joong Soo; Jung, Sung Jun; Oh, Seog Bae

    2008-01-01

    Eugenol is widely used in dentistry to relieve pain. We have recently demonstrated voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels as molecular targets for its analgesic effects, and hypothesized that eugenol acts on P2X3, another pain receptor expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG), and tested the effects of eugenol by whole-cell patch clamp and Ca2+ imaging techniques. In the present study, we investigated whether eugenol would modulate 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-induced currents in rat TG neurons and P2X3-e...

  18. Extracellular ATP induces spikes in cytosolic free Ca2+ but not in NADH oxidase activity in neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Olsen, Lars Folke; Hallett, Maurice B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish whether non-mitochondrial oxidase activity in human neutrophils is tightly related to cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, we simultaneously measured Ca2+ oscillations induced by ATP and oxidant production in single adherent neutrophils using confocal microscopy. ATP induced fast...... damped Ca2+ spikes with a period of 15 s and slower irregular spikes with a period greater than 50 s. Spikes in Ca2+ occurred in the absence of Ca2+ influx, but the amplitude was damped by inhibition of Ca2+ influx. Using the oxidation of hydroethidine as a cytosolic marker of oxidant production, we show...... that the generation of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils adherent to glass was accelerated by ATP. The step-up in NADPH oxidase activity followed the first elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ but, despite subsequent spikes in Ca2+ concentration, no oscillations in oxidase activity could be detected. ATP...

  19. Somatic ATP release from guinea pig sympathetic neurons does not require calcium-induced calcium release from internal stores

    OpenAIRE

    Merriam, Laura A.; Locknar, Sarah A.; Girard, Beatrice M.; Parsons, Rodney L.

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies indicated that a Ca2+-dependent release of ATP can be initiated from the soma of sympathetic neurons dissociated from guinea pig stellate ganglia. Previous studies also indicated that Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) can modulate membrane excitability in these same neurons. As Ca2+ release from internal stores is thought to support somatodendritic transmitter release in other neurons, the present study investigated whether CICR is essential for somatic ATP release from dissociat...

  20. Compensatory vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise: mechanisms responsible for matching oxygen supply to demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Darren P; Joyner, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia can have profound influences on the circulation. In humans, acute exposure to moderate hypoxia has been demonstrated to result in vasodilatation in the coronary, cerebral, splanchnic and skeletal muscle vascular beds. The combination of submaximal exercise and hypoxia produces a ‘compensatory’ vasodilatation and augmented blood flow in contracting skeletal muscles relative to the same level of exercise under normoxic conditions. This augmented vasodilatation exceeds that predicted by a simple sum of the individual dilator responses to hypoxia alone and normoxic exercise. Additionally, this enhanced hypoxic exercise hyperaemia is proportional to the hypoxia-induced fall in arterial oxygen (O2) content, thus preserving muscle O2 delivery and ensuring it is matched to demand. Several vasodilator pathways have been proposed and examined as likely regulators of skeletal muscle blood flow in response to changes in arterial O2 content. The purpose of this review is to put into context the present evidence regarding mechanisms responsible for the compensatory vasodilatation observed during hypoxic exercise in humans. Along these lines, this review will highlight the interactions between various local metabolic and endothelial derived substances that influence vascular tone during hypoxic exercise. PMID:22988134

  1. Saffron reduces ATP-induced retinal cytotoxicity by targeting P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Lucia; Cavallero, Anna; Baroni, Debora; Garbati, Patrizia; Prestipino, Gianfranco; Bisti, Silvia; Nobile, Mario; Picco, Cristiana

    2016-03-01

    P2X7-type purinergic receptors are distributed throughout the nervous system where they contribute to physiological and pathological functions. In the retina, this receptor is found in both inner and outer cells including microglia modulating signaling and health of retinal cells. It is involved in retinal neurodegenerative disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Experimental studies demonstrated that saffron protects photoreceptors from light-induced damage preserving both retinal morphology and visual function and improves retinal flicker sensitivity in AMD patients. To evaluate a possible interaction between saffron and P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs), different cellular models and experimental approaches were used. We found that saffron positively influences the viability of mouse primary retinal cells and photoreceptor-derived 661W cells exposed to ATP, and reduced the ATP-induced intracellular calcium increase in 661W cells. Similar results were obtained on HEK cells transfected with recombinant rat P2X7R but not on cells transfected with rat P2X2R. Finally, patch-clamp experiments showed that saffron inhibited cationic currents in HEK-P2X7R cells. These results point out a novel mechanism through which saffron may exert its protective role in neurodegeneration and support the idea that P2X7-mediated calcium signaling may be a crucial therapeutic target in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26739703

  2. Leishmania donovani: intracellular ATP level regulates apoptosis-like death in luteolin induced dyskinetoplastid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Nilkantha; Das, Benu Brata; Ganguly, Agneyo; Banerjee, Bijoylaxhmi; Sen, Tanusree; Majumder, Hemanta K

    2006-11-01

    Leishmaniasis presents a spectrum of diseases ranging from benign cutaneous lesions to the often-fatal visceralizing form. Luteolin, a dietary flavone induces apoptosis-like death in both promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania, the causative agent of the diseases. Here, we have elucidated the mechanism of action of luteolin by analyzing the mitochondrial and cytosolic changes associated with apoptosis-like death of leishmanial cells. In Leishmania donovani, treatment with luteolin induces the loss of both maxicircles and minicircles which resulted in the formation of dyskinetoplastid cells. The loss of mitochondrial DNA causes reduction in the activities of complex I, II, III, and IV of electron transport chain. However, the mitochondrial ATPase activity of complex V remains almost unaltered during treatment with luteolin but the sensitivity to oligomycin is lost. The inactivation of ETC complex is associated with decrease in mitochondrial as well as glycolytic ATP production, which is responsible for depolarization of Deltapsi(m) and alteration in mitochondrial structure. This event is followed by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria in mt-DNA depleted leishmanial cells and causes an activation of caspase like proteases. Collectively our results provide the first insight into the mechanistic pathway of apoptosis-like death where inhibition of glycolytic ATP production is an essential event responsible for depolarization of Deltapsi(m) in mt-DNA depleted cells to propagate apoptosis-like death in leishmanial cells. PMID:16707127

  3. ATP induces guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle excitability via the P2Y4 receptor and COX-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoo, Aaron C; Nelson, Mark T; Mawe, Gary M

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which ATP increases guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle (GBSM) excitability. We evaluated changes in membrane potential and action potential (AP) frequency in GBSM by use of intracellular recording. Application of ATP (100 microM) caused membrane depolarization and a significant increase in AP frequency that were not sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM). The nonselective P2 antagonist, suramin (100 microM), blocked the excitatory response, resulting in decreased AP frequency in the presence of ATP. The excitatory response to ATP was not altered by pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2,4-disulfonic acid (30 microM), a nonselective P2X antagonist. UTP also caused membrane depolarization and increased AP frequency, with a similar dose-response relationship as ATP. RT-PCR demonstrated that the P2Y(4), but not P2Y(2), receptor subtype is expressed in guinea pig gallbladder muscularis. ATP induced excitation was blocked by indomethacin (10 microM) and the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor SC-560 (300 nM), but not the COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide (500 nM). These data suggest that ATP stimulates P2Y(4) receptors within the gallbladder muscularis and, in turn, stimulate prostanoid production via COX-1 leading to increased excitability of GBSM. PMID:18436624

  4. The properties of the ATP-induced depolarization and current in single cells isolated from the guinea-pig urinary bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, R.; Brading, A. F.

    1990-01-01

    1. The actions of exogenously applied ATP were investigated with the whole-cell patch clamp method in single cells isolated from guinea-pig urinary bladder with a modified concentration jump technique. 2. Rapid application of ATP (threshold ca. 100 nM) depolarized the cell membrane with superimposition of action potentials which was followed by transient hyperpolarization. In the presence of D600, the amplitude of the ATP-induced depolarization was a function of the ATP concentration (EC50: 0...

  5. Protection against chemotherapy-induced alopecia: targeting ATP-binding cassette transporters in the hair follicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Iain S; Pitre, Aaron; Schuetz, John D; Paus, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    Currently, efficacious treatments for chemotherapy-induced alopecia (hair loss) are lacking, and incidences of permanent hair loss following high-dose chemotherapy are on the increase. In this article, we describe mechanisms by which the pharmacological defense status of the hair follicle might be enhanced, thereby reducing the accumulation of cytotoxic cancer drugs and preventing or reducing hair loss and damage. We believe this could be achieved via the selective increase in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression within the hair follicle epithelium, following application of topical agonists for regulatory nuclear receptors. Clinical application would require the development of hair follicle-targeted formulations, potentially utilizing nanoparticle technology. This novel approach has the potential to yield entirely new therapeutic options for the treatment and management of chemotherapy-induced alopecia, providing significant psychological and physical benefit to cancer patients. PMID:24100054

  6. Maitotoxin-induced myocardial cell injury: Calcium accumulation followed by ATP depletion precedes cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitotoxin, the most potent marine toxin, is known to increase the uptake and the accumulation of Ca2+ into cells, and was used in the present study to investigate the mechanisms of myocardial cell damage induced by Ca2+ overload. In cultured cardiomyocytes, isolated from 2-day-old rats, maitotoxin affected cell viability, as indicated by the leakage of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and of radiolabeled adenine nucleotides into the extracellular medium. Maitotoxin-induced leakage of LDH steadily increased between 30 min and 24 hr, and was preceded by a marked depletion of intracellular ATP. Addition of maitotoxin resulted in a rapid influx of extracellular Ca2+, as detected by preincubating the cells in the presence of 45Ca; this effect evolved in a few minutes, thus preceding the signs of cell death. Cytosolic levels of free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) were monitored by loading freshly isolated, suspended cardiomyocytes with the intracellular fluorescent probe fura-2; in these cells, maitotoxin induced a dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i, with a lag phase of less than a minute. All these effects of maitotoxin were inhibited by reducing Ca2+ concentration in the culture medium or by incubating the cells with the calcium-channel blocking drug verapamil. It is thus demonstrated that maitotoxin-induced cardiotoxicity is secondary to an inordinate influx of Ca2+ into the cells. It is also suggested that, in those conditions that lead to an inordinate accumulation of Ca2+ into myocardial cells, the unmatched demands of energy and the depletion of ATP play a primary role in the irreversible stage of cell damage

  7. Extracellular ATP induces spikes in cytosolic free Ca(2+) but not in NADPH oxidase activity in neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Olsen, Lars Folke; Hallett, Maurice B

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish whether non-mitochondrial oxidase activity in human neutrophils is tightly related to cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, we simultaneously measured Ca(2+) oscillations induced by ATP and oxidant production in single adherent neutrophils using confocal microscopy. ATP induced fast...... damped Ca(2+) spikes with a period of 15s and slower irregular spikes with a period greater than 50s. Spikes in Ca(2+) occurred in the absence of Ca(2+) influx, but the amplitude was damped by inhibition of Ca(2+) influx. Using the oxidation of hydroethidine as a cytosolic marker of oxidant production......, we show that the generation of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils adherent to glass was accelerated by ATP. The step-up in NADPH oxidase activity followed the first elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) but, despite subsequent spikes in Ca(2+) concentration, no oscillations in oxidase activity could be...

  8. Differential contribution of electrically evoked dorsal root reflexes to peripheral vasodilatation and plasma extravasation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yuan B

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorsal root reflexes (DRRs are antidromic activities traveling along the primary afferent fibers, which can be generated by peripheral stimulation or central stimulation. DRRs are thought to be involved in the generation of neurogenic inflammation, as indicated by plasma extravasation and vasodilatation. The hypothesis of this study was that electrical stimulation of the central stump of a cut dorsal root would lead to generation of DRRs, resulting in plasma extravasation and vasodilatation. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared to expose spinal cord and L4-L6 dorsal roots under pentobarbital general anesthesia. Electrical stimulation of either intact, proximal or distal, cut dorsal roots was applied while plasma extravasation or blood perfusion of the hindpaw was recorded. Results While stimulation of the peripheral stump of a dorsal root elicited plasma extravasation, electrical stimulation of the central stump of a cut dorsal root generated significant DRRs, but failed to induce plasma extravasation. However, stimulation of the central stump induced a significant increase in blood perfusion. Conclusions It is suggested that DRRs are involved in vasodilatation but not plasma extravasation in neurogenic inflammation in normal animals.

  9. Involvement of Calcium, Reactive Oxygen Species, and ATP in Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Damage in Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of Cr6+-induced red blood cells (RBCs damage. Methods: The effect of Cr6+ exposure on RBCs was evaluated by hemolytic rate and blood gas assays. After exposure to 20 μM Cr6+, the percentage of phosphatidylserine (PS-exposing cells, intracellular Ca2+, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and ATP levels were evaluated, and cell morphology was observed. RBCs were exposed to Cr6+ in different Ringer solutions to investigate the role of changes of Ca2+, ROS, and ATP levels in eryptosis and morphology. Results: The Cr6+-induced damage of RBCs was dose-dependent. After a 6 h incubation with Cr6+, RBCs exhibited significant Ca2+ influx, ROS increase, ATP depletion, and PS exposure, but displayed no obvious change in morphology at this time point. After 24 h Cr6+ exposure, the RBCs decreased in size, appeared to be spike-like, and had decreased forward scatter. Inhibition of Ca2+ influx attenuated PS-exposure caused by 6 h Cr6+ exposure, but did not prevent 24 h Cr6+ exposure-induced morphological change in RBCs. Inhibition of rapid ATP consumption using adenine significantly ameliorated Cr6+-caused PS-exposure at 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, and prevented 24 h Cr6+ incubation-induced morphological change in RBCs. Conclusion: Cr6+ can lead to eryptosis. Ca2+ influx, increased ROS levels, and rapid ATP consumption are closely related to Cr6+-induced RBCs damage. Ca2+ influx plays an extremely important role in Cr6+-mediated toxicity.

  10. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channel protects cardiac myocytes against lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua; Xiong, Yiqun; Xu, Chaoying; Liu, Xinliang; Lin, Jian; Mu, Guiping; Xu, Shaogang; Liu, Wenhe

    2016-09-01

    The sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ (sarcKATP) channel plays a cardioprotective role during stress. However, the role of the sarcKATP channel in the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and association with mitochondrial calcium remains unclear. For this purpose, we developed a model of LPS-induced sepsis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs). The TUNEL assay was performed in order to detect the apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and the MTT assay was performed to determine cellular viability. Exposure to LPS significantly decreased the viability of the NRCs as well as the expression of Bcl-2, whereas it enhanced the activity and expression of the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and Bax, respectively. The sarcKATP channel blocker, HMR-1098, increased the apoptosis of NRCs, whereas the specific sarcKATP channel opener, P-1075, reduced the apoptosis of NRCs. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red (RR) partially inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of HMR-1098. In order to confirm the role of the sarcKATP channel, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus vector carrying the sarcKATP channel mutant subunit Kir6.2AAA to inhibit the channel activity. Kir6.2AAA adenovirus infection in NRCs significantly aggravated the apoptosis of myocytes induced by LPS. Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of the sarcKATP channel in apoptosis may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic targets and strategies for the management of sepsis and cardiac dysfunction. PMID:27430376

  11. Variations of ATP and its metabolites in the hippocampus of rats subjected to pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doná, Flávia; Conceição, Isaltino Marcelo; Ulrich, Henning; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Freitas, Thalma Ariani; Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahao; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José

    2016-06-01

    Although purinergic receptor activity has lately been associated with epilepsy, little is known about the exact role of purines in epileptogenesis. We have used a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy induced by pilocarpine to study the dynamics of purine metabolism in the hippocampus during different times of status epilepticus (SE) and the chronic phase. Concentrations of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine in normal and epileptic rat hippocampus were determined by microdialysis in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extracellular ATP concentrations did not vary along 4 h of SE onset. However, AMP concentration was elevated during the second hour, whereas ADP and adenosine concentrations augmented during the third and fourth hour following SE. During chronic phase, extracellular ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine concentrations decreased, although these levels again increased significantly during spontaneous seizures. These results suggest that the increased turnover of ATP during the acute period is a compensatory mechanism able to reduce the excitatory role of ATP. Increased adenosine levels following 4 h of SE may contribute to block seizures. On the other hand, the reduction of purine levels in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats may result from metabolic changes and be part of the mechanisms involved in the onset of spontaneous seizures. This work provides further insights into purinergic signaling during establishment and chronic phase of epilepsy. PMID:26939579

  12. UTP-induced ATP release is a fine-tuned signalling pathway in osteocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Kringelbach, Tina M.; Aslan, Derya; Novak, Ivana; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Niklas R.

    2013-01-01

    Osteocytes reside as a cellular network throughout the mineralised matrix of bone and are considered the primary mechanosensors of this tissue. They sense mechanical stimulation such as fluid flow and are able to regulate osteoblast and osteoclast functions on the bone surface. Previously, we found that ATP is released load-dependently from osteocytes from the onset of mechanical stimulation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether and how ATP release can be evoked ...

  13. Differential modulation of ATP-induced calcium signalling by A1 and A2 adenosine receptors in cultured cortical astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Alloisio, Susanna; Cugnoli, Carlo; Ferroni, Stefano; Nobile, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Despite the accumulating evidence that under various pathological conditions the extracellular elevation of adenine-based nucleotides and nucleosides plays a key role in the control of astroglial reactivity, how these signalling molecules interact in the regulation of astrocyte function is still largely elusive.The action of the nucleoside adenosine in the modulation of the intracellular calcium signalling ([Ca2+]i) elicited by adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-induced activation of P2 purinoce...

  14. Endothelial ATP-binding cassette G1 in mouse endothelium protects against hemodynamic-induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shanshan; Wang, Jiaxing; Zhang, Xu; Shi, Ying; Li, Bochuan; Bao, Qiankun; Pang, Wei; Ai, Ding; Zhu, Yi; He, Jinlong

    2016-08-19

    Activated vascular endothelium inflammation under persistent hyperlipidemia is the initial step of atherogenesis. ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) is a crucial factor maintaining sterol and lipid homeostasis by transporting cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of ABCG1 in endothelial inflammation activation during early-stage atherogenesis in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific ABCG1 transgenic (EC-ABCG1-Tg) mice were generated and cross-bred with low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice. After a 4-week Western-type diet, the mice were sacrificed for assessing atherosclerosis. Human umbilical vein ECs were treated with different flows, and ABCG1 was adenovirally overexpressed to investigate the mechanism in vitro. Compared with Ldlr(-/-) mouse aortas, EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr(-/-) aortas showed decreased early-stage lesions. Furthermore, the lesion area in the EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr(-/-) mouse aortic arch but not thoracic aorta was significantly reduced, which suggests a protective role of ABCG1 under atheroprone flow. In vitro, overexpression of ABCG1 attenuated EC activation caused by oscillatory shear stress. Overexpression of ABCG1 blunted cholesterol-activated ECs in vitro. In exploring the mechanisms of ABCG1 attenuating endothelial inflammation, we found that ABCG1 inhibited oscillatory flow-activated nuclear factor kappa B and NLRP3 inflammasome in ECs. ABCG1 may play a protective role in early-stage atherosclerosis by reducing endothelial activation induced by oscillatory shear stress via suppressing the inflammatory response. PMID:27297110

  15. Peripheral vasodilatation determines cardiac output in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bada, A A; Svendsen, J H; Secher, N H; Saltin, B; Mortensen, S P

    In dogs, manipulation of heart rate has no effect on the exercise-induced increase in cardiac output. Whether these findings apply to humans remain uncertain, because of the large differences in cardiovascular anatomy and regulation. To investigate the role of heart rate and peripheral...... arterial ATP infusion at rest. Exercise and ATP infusion increased cardiac output, leg blood flow and vascular conductance (P <0.05), whereas cerebral perfusion remained unchanged. During atrial pacing increasing heart rate by up to 54 beats min(−1), cardiac output did not change in any of the three...... demonstrate that the elevated cardiac output during steady-state exercise is regulated by the increase in skeletal muscle blood flow and venous return to the heart, whereas the increase in heart rate appears to be secondary to the regulation of cardiac output....

  16. ATP releasing connexin 30 hemichannels mediate flow-induced calcium signaling in the collecting duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Burford, James L; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2013-01-01

    ATP in the renal tubular fluid is an important regulator of salt and water reabsorption via purinergic calcium signaling that involves the P2Y2 receptor, ENaC, and AQP2. Recently, we have shown that connexin (Cx) 30 hemichannels are localized to the non-junctional apical membrane of cells in the...... distal nephron-collecting duct (CD) and release ATP into the tubular fluid upon mechanical stimuli, leading to reduced salt and water reabsorption. Cx30(-/-) mice show salt-dependent elevations in BP and impaired pressure-natriuresis. Thus, we hypothesized that increased tubular flow rate leads to Cx30...... suramin. Taken together, these data confirm that mechanosensitive Cx30 hemichannels mediate tubular ATP release and purinergic calcium signaling in the CD which mechanism plays an important role in the regulation of CD salt and water reabsorption....

  17. Dynamic changes in cytosolic ATP levels in cultured glutamatergic neurons during NMDA-induced synaptic activity supported by glucose or lactate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Sofie Cecilie; Winkler, Ulrike; Andresen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    biosensor Ateam1.03YEMK. While inducing synaptic activity by subjecting cultured neurons to two 30 s pulses of NMDA (30 µM) with a 4 min interval, changes in relative ATP levels were measured in the presence of lactate (1 mM), glucose (2.5 mM) or the combination of the two. ATP levels reversibly declined...... following NMDA-induced neurotransmission activity, as indicated by a reversible 10-20 % decrease in the response of the biosensor. The responses were absent when the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine was present. In the presence of lactate alone, the ATP response dropped significantly more than in the...

  18. Cell deformation at the air-liquid interface induces Ca2+-dependent ATP release from lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Ronaldo; Grygorczyk, Alexandra; Solecki, Anna; Cherkaoui, Lalla Siham; Berthiaume, Yves; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2011-04-01

    Extracellular nucleotides regulate mucociliary clearance in the airways and surfactant secretion in alveoli. Their release is exquisitely mechanosensitive and may be induced by stretch as well as airflow shear stress acting on lung epithelia. We hypothesized that, in addition, tension forces at the air-liquid interface (ALI) may contribute to mechanosensitive ATP release in the lungs. Local depletion of airway surface liquid, mucins, and surfactants, which normally protect epithelial surfaces, facilitate such release and trigger compensatory mucin and fluid secretion processes. In this study, human bronchial epithelial 16HBE14o(-) and alveolar A549 cells were subjected to tension forces at the ALI by passing an air bubble over the cell monolayer in a flow-through chamber, or by air exposure while tilting the cell culture dish. Such stimulation induced significant ATP release not involving cell lysis, as verified by ethidium bromide staining. Confocal fluorescence microscopy disclosed reversible cell deformation in the monolayer part in contact with the ALI. Fura 2 fluorescence imaging revealed transient intracellular Ca(2+) elevation evoked by the ALI, which did not entail nonspecific Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space. ATP release was reduced by ∼40 to ∼90% from cells loaded with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM and was completely abolished by N-ethylmalemide (1 mM). These experiments demonstrate that in close proximity to the ALI, surface tension forces are transmitted directly on cells, causing their mechanical deformation and Ca(2+)-dependent exocytotic ATP release. Such a signaling mechanism may contribute to the detection of local deficiency of airway surface liquid and surfactants on the lung surface. PMID:21239538

  19. UTP-induced ATP release is a fine-tuned signalling pathway in osteocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelbach, Tina M.; Aslan, Derya; Novak, Ivana;

    2014-01-01

    intracellular calcium responses to P2 receptor agonists. These investigations demonstrated that MLO-Y4 osteocytes express functional P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors in addition to the previously reported P2X receptors. Further, we found that osteocytes respond to nucleotides such as ATP, UTP and ADP by...

  20. Differential regulation of proinflammatory mediators following LPS- and ATP-induced activation of monocytes from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Anush; Petrek, Martin; Navratilova, Zdenka; Blbulyan, Armen; Boyajyan, Anna; Manukyan, Gayane

    2015-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in association with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Growing evidence supports the involvement of monocytes in APS pathogenesis. Inflammatory activation of monocytes promotes thrombus formation and other APS complications. However, mechanisms underlying their activation are poorly investigated. We aimed to determine transcriptional activity of monocytes after exposing them to low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS + adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using comparative qRT-PCR. The results showed that LPS significantly increased transcriptional levels of TLR2, IL-23, CCL2, CXCL10, IL-1β, and IL-6 in APS cells, while, in cells from healthy donors, LPS resulted in IL-6 and STAT3 elevated mRNAs. Double stimulation of the cells resulted in decreased mRNA levels of NLRP3 in monocytes isolated from healthy donors and CCL2, IL-1β in APS cells. By contrast, TLR2 mRNAs were elevated in both investigated groups after culture of the cells with LPS + ATP. Thus, the findings indicate increased sensitivity of APS cells to LPS that may contribute to thrombus formation and enhance development or progression of autoimmune processes. Low concentrations of ATP diminish LPS-induced inflammatory state of APS monocytes which might be a potential mechanism which regulates inflammatory state of the cells. PMID:25785264

  1. Participation of the NO/cGMP/K+ATP pathway in the antinociception induced by Walker tumor bearing in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implantation of Walker 256 tumor decreases acute systemic inflammation in rats. Inflammatory hyperalgesia is one of the most important events of acute inflammation. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K+ATP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of peripheral antinociception mediated by several drugs and physical exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible involvement of the NO/cGMP/K+ATP pathway in antinociception induced in Walker 256 tumor-bearing male Wistar rats (180-220 g). The groups consisted of 5-6 animals. Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. Walker tumor (4th and 7th day post-implantation) reduced prostaglandin E2- (PGE2, 400 ng/paw; 50 µL; intraplantar injection) and carrageenan-induced hypernociception (500 µg/paw; 100 µL; intraplantar injection). Walker tumor-induced analgesia was reversed (99.3% for carrageenan and 77.2% for PGE2) by a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME; 90 mg/kg, ip) and L-arginine (200 mg/kg, ip), which prevented (80% for carrageenan and 65% for PGE2) the effect of L-NAME. Treatment with the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (100% for carrageenan and 95% for PGE2; 8 µg/paw) and the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) blocker glibenclamide (87.5% for carrageenan and 100% for PGE2; 160 µg/paw) reversed the antinociceptive effect of tumor bearing in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed an intrinsic peripheral antinociceptive effect of Walker tumor bearing in rats. This antinociceptive effect seemed to be mediated by activation of the NO/cGMP pathway followed by the opening of KATP channels

  2. Extracellular ATP-induced nuclear Ca{sup 2+} transient is mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in mouse pancreatic {beta}-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zheng; Li, Zhengzheng; Peng, Gong; Chen, Xiaoli; Yin, Wenxuan [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Rd., Beijing 100101 (China); Kotlikoff, Michael I. [Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yuan, Zeng-qiang, E-mail: zqyuan@sun5.ibp.ac.cn [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Rd., Beijing 100101 (China); Ji, Guangju, E-mail: gj28@ibp.ac.cn [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Rd., Beijing 100101 (China)

    2009-05-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) induces an intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transient by activating phospholipase C (PLC)-associated P2X4 purinergic receptors, leading to production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and subsequent Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores in mouse pancreatic {beta}-cells. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, Ca{sup 2+} indicator fluo-4 AM, and the cell permeable nuclear indicator Hoechst 33342, we examined the properties of eATP-induced Ca{sup 2+} release in pancreatic {beta}-cell nuclei. eATP induced a higher nuclear Ca{sup 2+} transient in pancreatic {beta}-cell nuclei than in the cytosol. After pretreatment with thapsigargin (TG), an inhibitor of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA) pumps, the amplitude of eATP-induced Ca{sup 2+} transients in the nucleus was still much higher than those in the cytosol. This effect of eATP was not altered by inhibition of either the plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (PMCA) or the plasma membrane Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger (NCX) by LaCl{sub 3} or by replacement of Na{sup +} with N-Methyl-Glucosamine. eATP-induced nuclear Ca{sup 2+} transients were abolished by a cell-permeable IP3R inhibitor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), but were not blocked by the ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonist ryanodine. Immunofluorescence studies showed that IP3Rs are expressed on the nuclear envelope of pancreatic {beta}-cells. These results indicate that eATP triggers nuclear Ca{sup 2+} transients by mobilizing a nuclear Ca{sup 2+} store via nuclear IP3Rs.

  3. ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel Knockout Induces Cardiac Proteome Remodeling Predictive of Heart Disease Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Arrell, D. Kent; Zlatkovic, Jelena; Kane, Garvan C; Yamada, Satsuki; Terzic, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Forecasting disease susceptibility requires detection of maladaptive signatures prior to onset of overt symptoms. A case-in-point are cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channelopathies, for which the substrate underlying disease vulnerability remains to be identified. Resolving molecular pathobiology, even for single genetic defects, mandates a systems platform to reliably diagnose disease predisposition. High-throughput proteomic analysis was here integrated with network biology to decode conse...

  4. ATP-induced lipid membrane reordering in the myelinated nerve fiber identified using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a successful application of Raman spectroscopy to the problem of lipid ordering with microscopic resolution in different regions of the myelinated nerve fiber. Simultaneous collection of Raman spectra of lipids and carotenoids has enabled us to characterize membrane fluidity and the degree of lipid ordering based on intensity ratios for the 1527/1160 and 2940/2885 cm−1 bands. We show that the intensity profiles of the major Raman bands vary significantly between the three major regions of myelinated nerve fiber: internode, paranode and the node of Ranvier. Mapping Raman peak intensities over these areas suggested that the carotenoid molecules are localized in the myelin membranes of nerve cells. Paranodal membranes were sensitive to extracellular ATP. ATP solutions (7 mM) influenced the 1527/1160 and 2940/2885 cm−1 intensity ratios. Changes in both carotenoid and lipid Raman spectra were in accord and indicated an increase in lipid ordering degree and decrease in membrane fluidity under ATP administration. The collected data provide evidence for the existence of a regulatory purinergic signaling pathway in the peripheral nervous system. (letter)

  5. ATP-sensitive K+ channels that are blocked by hypoglycemia-inducing sulfonylureas in insulin-secreting cells are activated by galanin, a hyperglycemia-inducing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of the hyperglycemia-inducing hormone galanin, a 29-amino acid peptide names from its N-terminal glycine and C-terminal amidated alanine, was studied in rat insulinoma (RINm5F) cells using electrophysiological and 86Rb+ flux techniques. Galanin hyperpolarizes and reduces spontaneous electrical activity by activating a population of APT-sensitive K+ channels with a single-channel conductance of 30 pS (at -60 mV). Galanin-induced hyperpolarization and reduction of spike activity are reversed by the hypoglycemia-inducing sulfonylurea glibenclamine. Glibenclamide blocks the galanin-activated ATP-sensitive K+ channel. 86Rb+ efflux from insulinoma cells is stimulated by galanin in a dose-dependent manner. The half-maximum value of activation is found at 1.6 nM. Galanin-induced 86Rb+ efflux is abolished by glibenclamide. The half-maximum value of inhibition is found at 0.3 nM, which is close to the half-maximum value of inhibition of the ATP-dependent K+ channel reported earlier. 86Rb+ efflux studies confirm the electrophysiological demonstration that galanin activates and ATP-dependent K+ channel

  6. Ascorbate blocks endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated vasodilatation in the bovine ciliary vascular bed and rat mesentery

    OpenAIRE

    McNeish, Alister J.; Wilson, William S; Martin, William

    2002-01-01

    The effects of ascorbate were assessed on vasodilatation mediated by endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in the ciliary vascular bed of the bovine isolated perfused eye and in the rat isolated perfused mesenteric arterial bed.In the bovine eye, EDHF-mediated vasodilator responses induced by acetylcholine or bradykinin were powerfully blocked when ascorbate (50 μM) was included in the perfusion medium for at least 120 min; with acetylcholine a normally-masked muscarinic vasoconst...

  7. Novel ATP-binding heat-inducible protein of Mr = 37,000 that is sensitive to transformation in BALB/3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using affinity chromatography on ATP-agarose, we have identified a major ATP-binding protein in Nonidet P-40 extracts of avian and mammalian cells labeled with [35S]methionine. After washing ATP-agarose beads with high-ionic-strength buffer (0.4 M NaCl), the 37-kD protein was shown to be one of the major ATP-binding proteins while p72 and grp78, which are members of the hsp70 family, also bound to ATP-agarose. This protein consisted of several spots on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the most basic spot was approximately 9.2 in chick embryo fibroblasts, whereas it was about 8.8 in mouse 3T3 cells. The identities of these proteins in mouse and chick cells were confirmed by peptide mapping. After heat-shock treatment of BALB/3T3 cells, the major heat-shock protein, hsp70, was shown to be induced very rapidly after heat shock and was recovered in the ATP-binding fraction. Besides hsp70, a 37-kD protein was also found to be induced by heat shock. This protein was drastically induced by treating the cells with alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl, an iron chelating reagent, but not with sodium arsenite, calcium ionophore, or tunicamycin. The synthesis and the total amount of this ATP-binding protein increased in mouse 3T3 cells transformed by simian virus 40, methylcholanthrene, or activated c-Ha-ras oncogene compared to their normal counterparts. The incorporation of [32P]orthophosphate was not detected in either normal or transformed cells. These studies established that a major ATP-binding protein of Mr = 37,000 is a heat-inducible protein and that the synthesis of this protein is regulated by malignant transformation

  8. Inflammatory responses are not sufficient to cause delayed neuronal death in ATP-induced acute brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hey-Kyeong Jeong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain inflammation is accompanied by brain injury. However, it is controversial whether inflammatory responses are harmful or beneficial to neurons. Because many studies have been performed using cultured microglia and neurons, it has not been possible to assess the influence of multiple cell types and diverse factors that dynamically and continuously change in vivo. Furthermore, behavior of microglia and other inflammatory cells could have been overlooked since most studies have focused on neuronal death. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the precise roles of microglia and brain inflammation in the injured brain, and determine their contribution to neuronal damage in vivo from the onset of injury. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Acute neuronal damage was induced by stereotaxic injection of ATP into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc and the cortex of the rat brain. Inflammatory responses and their effects on neuronal damage were investigated by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR, and stereological counting, etc. ATP acutely caused death of microglia as well as neurons in a similar area within 3 h. We defined as the core region the area where both TH(+ and Iba-1(+ cells acutely died, and as the penumbra the area surrounding the core where Iba-1(+ cells showed activated morphology. In the penumbra region, morphologically activated microglia arranged around the injury sites. Monocytes filled the damaged core after neurons and microglia died. Interestingly, neither activated microglia nor monocytes expressed iNOS, a major neurotoxic inflammatory mediator. Monocytes rather expressed CD68, a marker of phagocytic activity. Importantly, the total number of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc at 3 h (∼80% of that in the contralateral side did not decrease further at 7 d. Similarly, in the cortex, ATP-induced neuron-damage area detected at 3 h did not increase for up to 7 d. CONCLUSIONS: Different cellular

  9. ATP-induced temperature independence of hemoglobin-O2 affinity in heterothermic billfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Fago, Angela;

    2010-01-01

    heterotherms, where it may hamper unloading (e.g. in cold extremities of arctic mammals) or increase the diffusive arterio-venous short-circuiting of O2 (e.g. in counter-current heat exchangers of warm swimming muscles of tuna). We hypothesized analogous blood specializations in heterothermic billfish, whose...... addition to allosterically modulating hemoglobin-O2 affinity, ATP diminishes its temperature sensitivity, reducing deleterious arterio-venous short-circuiting of oxygen in the cranial billfish heat exchangers. The mechanism underlying this reduction in oxygenation enthalpy differs fundamentally from that...

  10. ATP1B3: a virus-induced host factor against EV71 replication by up-regulating the production of type-I interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanfang; Hou, Hongyan; Wang, Feng; Qiao, Long; Wang, Xiong; Yu, Jing; Liu, Weiyong; Sun, Ziyong

    2016-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe diseases, and is becoming increasingly common in children. In the current study, we carried out yeast two-hybrid assays to screen human proteins that could interact with 3A protein of EV71. Human β3 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ATP1B3) protein was demonstrated to interact with the 3A protein of EV71. Although 3A protein had no effect on the expression of ATP1B3, EV71 infection resulted in elevated expression of ATP1B3 in RD cell line, both on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Interestingly, knockdown of ATP1B3 could significantly increase the replication of EV71, whereas overexpression of ATP1B3 significantly suppressed the replication of EV71 in RD cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of ATP1B3 could induce the production of type-I interferons. Our study demonstrated that ATP1B3 inhibit EV71 replication by enhancing the production of type-I interferons, which could act as a potential therapeutic target in EV71 infection. PMID:27240146

  11. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Inhibits Voltage-Sensitive Potassium Currents in Isolated Hensen’s Cells and Nifedipine Protects Against Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rui; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhiying; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, YongAn; Sun, Wei; Wu, Xuan; Zhao, Zhifei; Niu, Baolong; Li, Xingqi; Dai, Guanghai; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a well-known neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system, plays an important role as an extracellular chemical messenger in the cochlea. Material/Methods Using a whole-cell recording technique, we studied the effects of ATP on isolated Hensen’s cells, which are supporting cells in the cochlea, to determine if they are involved in the transduction of ions with hair cells. Results ATP (0.1–10 μM) reduced the potassium current (IK+) in the majority of the recorded Hensen’s cells (21 out of 25 cells). An inward current was also induced by high concentrations of ATP (100 μM to 10 mM), which was reversibly blocked by 100 μM suramin (a purinergic antagonist) and blocked by nifedipine (an L-type calcium channel blocker). After the cochleas were perfused with artificial perilymph solutions containing nifedipine and exposed to noise, the amplitude increase in the compound action potential (CAP) threshold and the reduction in cochlear microphonics was lower than when they were exposed to noise alone. Conclusions Our results suggest that ATP can block IK+ channels at a low concentration and induce an inward Ca2+ current at high concentrations, which is reversed by purinergic receptors. Nifedipine may have a partially protective effect on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). PMID:27292522

  12. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Inhibits Voltage-Sensitive Potassium Currents in Isolated Hensen's Cells and Nifedipine Protects Against Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rui; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhiying; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, YongAn; Sun, Wei; Wu, Xuan; Zhao, Zhifei; Niu, Baolong; Li, Xingqi; Dai, Guanghai; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a well-known neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system, plays an important role as an extracellular chemical messenger in the cochlea. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using a whole-cell recording technique, we studied the effects of ATP on isolated Hensen's cells, which are supporting cells in the cochlea, to determine if they are involved in the transduction of ions with hair cells. RESULTS ATP (0.1-10 µM) reduced the potassium current (IK+) in the majority of the recorded Hensen's cells (21 out of 25 cells). An inward current was also induced by high concentrations of ATP (100 µM to 10 mM), which was reversibly blocked by 100 µM suramin (a purinergic antagonist) and blocked by nifedipine (an L-type calcium channel blocker). After the cochleas were perfused with artificial perilymph solutions containing nifedipine and exposed to noise, the amplitude increase in the compound action potential (CAP) threshold and the reduction in cochlear microphonics was lower than when they were exposed to noise alone. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that ATP can block IK+ channels at a low concentration and induce an inward Ca2+ current at high concentrations, which is reversed by purinergic receptors. Nifedipine may have a partially protective effect on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). PMID:27292522

  13. Probing the ATP-induced conformational flexibility of the PcrA helicase protein using molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhashal, Anil R; Choudhury, Chandan Kumar; Roy, Sudip

    2016-03-01

    Helicases are enzymes that unwind double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) into its single-stranded components. It is important to understand the binding and unbinding of ATP from the active sites of helicases, as this knowledge can be used to elucidate the functionality of helicases during the unwinding of dsDNA. In this work, we investigated the unbinding of ATP and its effect on the active-site residues of the helicase PcrA using molecular dynamic simulations. To mimic the unbinding process of ATP from the active site of the helicase, we simulated the application of an external force that pulls ATP from the active site and computed the free-energy change during this process. We estimated an energy cost of ~85 kJ/mol for the transformation of the helicase from the ATP-bound state (1QHH) to the ATP-free state (1PJR). Unbinding led to conformational changes in the residues of the protein at the active site. Some of the residues at the ATP-binding site were significantly reoriented when the ATP was pulled. We observed a clear competition between reorientation of the residues and energy stabilization by hydrogen bonds between the ATP and active-site residues. We also checked the flexibility of the PcrA protein using a principal component analysis of domain motion. We found that the ATP-free state of the helicase is more flexible than the ATP-bound state. PMID:26860503

  14. Mechanism underling enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in thoracic aorta of early stage streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice%链尿佐菌素诱导的早期糖尿病小鼠胸主动脉内皮依赖性舒张增强机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈兵; 叶春玲; 叶开和; 刘建军; 孙鹏; 蒋家华

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of the enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in thoracic aorta of the early stage streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice. METHODS: Radioimmunity was used to detect the metabolite of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α(6-keto-PGF1α), in the blood serum. Vascular muscle tension and phenylephrine (PE)-induced rhythmic activity in the isolated thoracic aorta of mice were also compared. RESULTS: 6-Keto-PGF1α in the serum was significantly higher in STZ-induced diabetic mice than age-matched controls [(1.8± 1.0) μg/L vs (0.5±0.3) μg/L, P<0.01]. PE induced rhythmic activity in both diabetic and control mouse aorta but the amplitude was markedly higher in diabetic mice than in controls [(4.9± 1.7) % vs (12±5) %, P<0.01]. PE, high K+ solution-induced contraction, and acetylcholine (Ach)-induced relaxation [(56±10) % vs (81±8) %, P<0.01] were notablely enhanced in diabetic mice than those in controls. Alone NG-nitro-Larginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 6-(phenylamino)-5,8-quinolinedione (LY-83583) abolished the rhythmic activity and Ach-induced relaxation in controls but only partially inhibited them in diabetic mice. Indomethacin did not affect rhythmic activity but depressed Ach-induced relaxation. L-NAME plus indomethacin significantly depressed the rhythmic activity and Ach-induced relaxation than L-NAME alone (P<0.01). Furthermore tetraethylammonium plus L-NAME abolished them in diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: The mechanism that enhanced endotheliumdependent vasodilatation in STZ-induced diabetic mice is due to enhanced production of PGI2 and endotheliumderived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). The phenomena maybe only take place in early stage of diabetic mice.%目的:探讨链尿佐菌素(STZ)诱导的早期糖尿病C57BL/6J小鼠胸主动脉内皮依赖性舒张增强机制.方法:采用放免法测定糖尿病(DM)和对照(Control)组小鼠血清中前列环素(PGI2)代谢物6-

  15. HBCDD-induced sustained reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP and steroidogenesis in peripubertal rat Leydig cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), a brominated flame retardant added to various consumer products, is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. We have previously shown that 6-hour exposure to HBCDD disturbs basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells. Reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cAMP production was also observed. Here, we further expanded research on the effect of HBCDD on Leydig cells by using a prolonged exposure scenario. Cells were incubated in the presence of HBCDD during 24 h and then treated with HBCDD + hCG for additional 2 h. Results showed that HBCDD caused a sustained reduction in ATP level after 24 h of exposure, which persisted after additional 2-hour treatment with HBCDD + hCG. cAMP and androgen accumulations measured after 2 h of HBCDD + hCG treatment were also inhibited. Real-time PCR analysis showed significant inhibition in the expression of genes for steroidogenic enzymes, luteinizing hormone receptor, regulatory and transport proteins, and several transcription factors under both treatment conditions. Western blot analysis revealed a decreased level of 30 kDa steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) after HBCDD + hCG treatment. In addition, HBCDD decreased the conversion of 22-OH cholesterol to pregnenolone and androstenedione to testosterone, indicating loss of the activity of cytochrome P450C11A1 (CYP11A1) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17β). Cell survival was not affected, as confirmed by cytotoxicity and trypan blue tests or DNA fragmentation analysis. In summary, our data showed that HBCDD inhibits ATP supply, most likely through a decrease in ΔΨm, and targets multiple sites in the steroidogenic pathway in Leydig cells. - Highlights: • HBCDD causes a sustained reduction in ΔΨm and ATP level in Leydig cells. • Prolonged HBCDD exposure decreases hCG-supported steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. • HBCDD targets StAR, HSD17β and CYP11A1 in Leydig

  16. HBCDD-induced sustained reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP and steroidogenesis in peripubertal rat Leydig cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa, E-mail: nebojsa.andric@dbe.uns.ac.rs

    2015-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), a brominated flame retardant added to various consumer products, is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. We have previously shown that 6-hour exposure to HBCDD disturbs basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells. Reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cAMP production was also observed. Here, we further expanded research on the effect of HBCDD on Leydig cells by using a prolonged exposure scenario. Cells were incubated in the presence of HBCDD during 24 h and then treated with HBCDD + hCG for additional 2 h. Results showed that HBCDD caused a sustained reduction in ATP level after 24 h of exposure, which persisted after additional 2-hour treatment with HBCDD + hCG. cAMP and androgen accumulations measured after 2 h of HBCDD + hCG treatment were also inhibited. Real-time PCR analysis showed significant inhibition in the expression of genes for steroidogenic enzymes, luteinizing hormone receptor, regulatory and transport proteins, and several transcription factors under both treatment conditions. Western blot analysis revealed a decreased level of 30 kDa steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) after HBCDD + hCG treatment. In addition, HBCDD decreased the conversion of 22-OH cholesterol to pregnenolone and androstenedione to testosterone, indicating loss of the activity of cytochrome P450C11A1 (CYP11A1) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17β). Cell survival was not affected, as confirmed by cytotoxicity and trypan blue tests or DNA fragmentation analysis. In summary, our data showed that HBCDD inhibits ATP supply, most likely through a decrease in ΔΨm, and targets multiple sites in the steroidogenic pathway in Leydig cells. - Highlights: • HBCDD causes a sustained reduction in ΔΨm and ATP level in Leydig cells. • Prolonged HBCDD exposure decreases hCG-supported steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. • HBCDD targets StAR, HSD17β and CYP11A1 in Leydig

  17. Kinetic Validation of the Models for P-Glycoprotein ATP Hydrolysis and Vanadate-Induced Trapping. Proposal for Additional Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Lugo, Miguel Ramón; Sharom, Frances Jane

    2014-01-01

    P-Glycoprotein, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, is a multidrug transporter responsible for cellular efflux of hundreds of structurally unrelated compounds, including natural products, many clinically used drugs and anti-cancer agents. Expression of P-glycoprotein has been linked to multidrug resistance in human cancers. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis at their two cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains, which interact to form a closed ATP-bound sandwich d...

  18. Fluid shifts, vasodilatation and ambulatory blood pressure reduction during long duration spaceflight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsk, Peter; Asmar, Ali; Damgaard, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    activity, and the nightly dip is maintained in space.It remains a challenge to explore what causes the systemic vasodilatation leading to a reduction in blood pressure in space, and whether the unexpectedly high stroke volume and cardiac output can explain some vision acuity problems encountered by......KEY POINTS: Weightlessness in space induces initially an increase in stroke volume and cardiac output, accompanied by unchanged or slightly reduced blood pressure.It is unclear whether these changes persist throughout months of flight.Here, we show that cardiac output and stroke volume increase by...... 35–41% between 3 and 6 months on the International Space Station, which is more than during shorter flights.Twenty-four hour ambulatory brachial blood pressure is reduced by 8–10 mmHg by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance of 39%, which is not a result of the suppression of sympathetic nervous...

  19. ATP-Dependent Lon Protease Contributes to Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Wang, Minggang; Hou, Nengyi; Hu, Xiao; Jia, Guiqing; Qin, Xianpeng; Zuo, Xiaofei; Liu, Yang; Luo, Kun; Song, Wei; Wang, Kang; Pang, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest risk factor for development of gastric cancer. Host cellular stress responses, including inflammatory and immune responses, have been reported highly linked to H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis. However, whether mitochondrial regulation and metabolic reprogramming, which are potently associated with various cancers, play a role in H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis is largely unknown. Here we revealed that Lon protease (Lonp1), which is a key inductive of mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) and is required to maintain the mitochondrial quality, was greatly induced in H. pylori infected gastric epithelial cells. Importantly, we uncovered that knockdown of Lonp1 expression significantly diminished the metabolic switch to glycolysis and gastric cell proliferation associated with low multiplicity of H. pylori infection. In addition, Lonp1 overexpression in gastric epithelial cells also promoted glycolytic switch and cell overgrowth, suggesting H. pylori effect is Lonp1 dependent. We further demonstrated that H. pylori induced Lonp1 expression and cell overgrowth, at least partially, via HIF-1α regulation. Collectively, our results concluded the relevance of Lonp1 for cell proliferation and identified Lonp1 as a key regulator of metabolic reprogramming in H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27108387

  20. MgATP-induced conformational changes in the iron protein from Azotobacter vinelandii, as studied by small-angle x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Gavini, N; Tsuruta, H; Eliezer, D; Burgess, B K; Doniach, S; Hodgson, K O

    1994-02-01

    Small angle x-ray scattering experiments have been carried out on the purified iron proteins of nitrogenase from wild-type Azotobacter vinelandii and from a Nif- mutant strain, A. vinelandii UW91 (which has an A157S mutation). This study was designed to investigate the influence of MgATP and MgADP binding on the protein structure in solution. For the wild-type protein, the binding of MgATP induces a significant conformational change that is observed as a decrease of about 2.0 A in the radius of gyration. In contrast, the binding of MgADP to the wild-type iron protein does not detectably affect the radius of gyration. In the absence of nucleotides, the radius of gyration for the UW91 mutant is indistinguishable from that of the wild-type. However, unlike for the wild-type protein, the radius of gyration of the UW91 iron protein is unaffected by the addition of MgATP. We have previously shown that the UW91 iron protein has a normal [4Fe-4S] cluster and MgATP binding ability but that it is completely blocked for electron transfer and MgATP hydrolysis (Gavini, N., and Burgess, B. K. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 21179-21186). These x-ray scattering measurements suggest that a conformation different from that of the native state is therefore required for the iron protein to perform electron transfer to the MoFe protein. These results also support the hypothesis that Ala-157 is crucial for the iron protein to establish the electron-transfer-favored conformation induced by MgATP binding. PMID:8106367

  1. Copper-induced apical trafficking of ATP7B in polarized hepatoma cells provides a mechanism for biliary copper excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H; Wolters, H; Van Luyn, MJA; Miura, N; Kuipers, F; Vonk, RJ

    2000-01-01

    Background & Aims: Mutations in the ATP7B gene, encoding a copper-transporting P-type adenosine triphosphatase, lead to excessive hepatic copper accumulation because of impaired biliary copper excretion in Wilson's disease. In human liver, ATP7B is predominantly localized to the trans-Golgi network,

  2. Palmitate-induced changes in energy demand cause reallocation of ATP supply in rat and human skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisr, Raid B; Affourtit, Charles

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity-related muscle insulin resistance, but the causality of this association is controversial. The notion that mitochondrial oxidative capacity may be insufficient to deal appropriately with excessive nutrient loads is for example disputed. Effective mitochondrial capacity is indirectly, but largely determined by ATP-consuming processes because skeletal muscle energy metabolism is mostly controlled by ATP demand. Probing the bioenergetics of rat and human myoblasts in real time we show here that the saturated fatty acid palmitate lowers the rate and coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation under conditions it causes insulin resistance. Stearate affects the bioenergetic parameters similarly, whereas oleate and linoleate tend to decrease the rate but not the efficiency of ATP synthesis. Importantly, we reveal that palmitate influences how oxidative ATP supply is used to fuel ATP-consuming processes. Direct measurement of newly made protein demonstrates that palmitate lowers the rate of de novo protein synthesis by more than 30%. The anticipated decrease of energy demand linked to protein synthesis is confirmed by attenuated cycloheximide-sensitivity of mitochondrial respiratory activity used to make ATP. This indirect measure of ATP turnover indicates that palmitate lowers ATP supply reserved for protein synthesis by at least 40%. This decrease is also provoked by stearate, oleate and linoleate, albeit to a lesser extent. Moreover, palmitate lowers ATP supply for sodium pump activity by 60-70% and, in human cells, decreases ATP supply for DNA/RNA synthesis by almost three-quarters. These novel fatty acid effects on energy expenditure inform the 'mitochondrial insufficiency' debate. PMID:27154056

  3. Automated mass action model space generation and analysis methods for two-reactant combinatorially complex equilibriums: An analysis of ATP-induced ribonucleotide reductase R1 hexamerization data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoyevitch Tomas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribonucleotide reductase is the main control point of dNTP production. It has two subunits, R1, and R2 or p53R2. R1 has 5 possible catalytic site states (empty or filled with 1 of 4 NDPs, 5 possible s-site states (empty or filled with ATP, dATP, dTTP or dGTP, 3 possible a-site states (empty or filled with ATP or dATP, perhaps two possible h-site states (empty or filled with ATP, and all of this is folded into an R1 monomer-dimer-tetramer-hexamer equilibrium where R1 j-mers can be bound by variable numbers of R2 or p53R2 dimers. Trillions of RNR complexes are possible as a result. The problem is to determine which are needed in models to explain available data. This problem is intractable for 10 reactants, but it can be solved for 2 and is here for R1 and ATP. Results Thousands of ATP-induced R1 hexamerization models with up to three (s, a and h ATP binding sites per R1 subunit were automatically generated via hypotheses that complete dissociation constants are infinite and/or that binary dissociation constants are equal. To limit the model space size, it was assumed that s-sites are always filled in oligomers and never filled in monomers, and to interpret model terms it was assumed that a-sites fill before h-sites. The models were fitted to published dynamic light scattering data. As the lowest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC of the 3-parameter models was greater than the lowest of the 2-parameter models, only models with up to 3 parameters were fitted. Models with sums of squared errors less than twice the minimum were then partitioned into two groups: those that contained no occupied h-site terms (508 models and those that contained at least one (1580 models. Normalized AIC densities of these two groups of models differed significantly in favor of models that did not include an h-site term (Kolmogorov-Smirnov p -15; consistent with this, 28 of the top 30 models (ranked by AICs did not include an h-site term and 28

  4. Kinetic validation of the models for P-glycoprotein ATP hydrolysis and vanadate-induced trapping. Proposal for additional steps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramón Lugo

    Full Text Available P-Glycoprotein, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC superfamily, is a multidrug transporter responsible for cellular efflux of hundreds of structurally unrelated compounds, including natural products, many clinically used drugs and anti-cancer agents. Expression of P-glycoprotein has been linked to multidrug resistance in human cancers. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis at their two cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains, which interact to form a closed ATP-bound sandwich dimer. Intimate knowledge of the catalytic cycle of these proteins is clearly essential for understanding their mechanism of action. P-Glycoprotein has been proposed to hydrolyse ATP by an alternating mechanism, for which there is substantial experimental evidence, including inhibition of catalytic activity by trapping of ortho-vanadate at one nucleotide-binding domain, and the observation of an asymmetric occluded state. Despite many studies of P-glycoprotein ATPase activity over the past 20 years, no comprehensive kinetic analysis has yet been carried out, and some puzzling features of its behaviour remain unexplained. In this work, we have built several progressively more complex kinetic models, and then carried out simulations and detailed analysis, to test the validity of the proposed reaction pathway employed by P-glycoprotein for ATP hydrolysis. To establish kinetic parameters for the catalytic cycle, we made use of the large amount of published data on ATP hydrolysis by hamster P-glycoprotein, both purified and in membrane vesicles. The proposed kinetic scheme(s include a high affinity priming reaction for binding of the first ATP molecule, and an independent pathway for ADP binding outside the main catalytic cycle. They can reproduce to varying degrees the observed behavior of the protein's ATPase activity and its inhibition by ortho-vanadate. The results provide new insights into the mode of action of P-glycoprotein, and some hypotheses about the

  5. (+)-SJ733, a clinical candidate for malaria that acts through ATP4 to induce rapid host-mediated clearance of Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Ebert, Daniel; Salinas, Yandira; Pradhan, Anupam; Lehane, Adele M; Myrand-Lapierre, Marie-Eve; O'Loughlin, Kathleen G; Shackleford, David M; Justino de Almeida, Mariana; Carrillo, Angela K; Clark, Julie A; Dennis, Adelaide S M; Diep, Jonathon; Deng, Xiaoyan; Duffy, Sandra; Endsley, Aaron N; Fedewa, Greg; Guiguemde, W Armand; Gómez, María G; Holbrook, Gloria; Horst, Jeremy; Kim, Charles C; Liu, Jian; Lee, Marcus C S; Matheny, Amy; Martínez, María Santos; Miller, Gregory; Rodríguez-Alejandre, Ane; Sanz, Laura; Sigal, Martina; Spillman, Natalie J; Stein, Philip D; Wang, Zheng; Zhu, Fangyi; Waterson, David; Knapp, Spencer; Shelat, Anang; Avery, Vicky M; Fidock, David A; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Charman, Susan A; Mirsalis, Jon C; Ma, Hongshen; Ferrer, Santiago; Kirk, Kiaran; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Kyle, Dennis E; DeRisi, Joseph L; Floyd, David M; Guy, R Kiplin

    2014-12-16

    Drug discovery for malaria has been transformed in the last 5 years by the discovery of many new lead compounds identified by phenotypic screening. The process of developing these compounds as drug leads and studying the cellular responses they induce is revealing new targets that regulate key processes in the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. We disclose herein that the clinical candidate (+)-SJ733 acts upon one of these targets, ATP4. ATP4 is thought to be a cation-transporting ATPase responsible for maintaining low intracellular Na(+) levels in the parasite. Treatment of parasitized erythrocytes with (+)-SJ733 in vitro caused a rapid perturbation of Na(+) homeostasis in the parasite. This perturbation was followed by profound physical changes in the infected cells, including increased membrane rigidity and externalization of phosphatidylserine, consistent with eryptosis (erythrocyte suicide) or senescence. These changes are proposed to underpin the rapid (+)-SJ733-induced clearance of parasites seen in vivo. Plasmodium falciparum ATPase 4 (pfatp4) mutations that confer resistance to (+)-SJ733 carry a high fitness cost. The speed with which (+)-SJ733 kills parasites and the high fitness cost associated with resistance-conferring mutations appear to slow and suppress the selection of highly drug-resistant mutants in vivo. Together, our data suggest that inhibitors of PfATP4 have highly attractive features for fast-acting antimalarials to be used in the global eradication campaign. PMID:25453091

  6. Exogenous ATP induces formation of membrane pore in PC12 cells%外源性 ATP 诱导 PC12细胞的膜孔形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧; 尹雅玲; 李超堃; 赵红岗; 马洁; 李东亮

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨外源性三磷酸腺苷( ATP)诱导PC12细胞的膜孔形成及关键分子靶标。方法:用不同浓度的ATP处理培养的PC12细胞,采用倒置相差显微镜观察形态,CCK-8法检测细胞存活率,YO-PRO-1染色检测细胞膜通透性,Western blotting和real-time PCR检测P2X7受体和pannexin 1(Panx1)表达的变化。结果:(1)ATP(1 mmol/L、3 mmol/L、5 mmol/L)作用3 h,可见随着ATP浓度升高,PC12细胞变圆,脱壁细胞增多;当ATP浓度为3 mmol/L或5 mmol/L时,PC12细胞活力较对照组显著下降(P<0.05)。(2)不同浓度的ATP(0、1、3、5 mmol/L)作用1 h,PC12细胞摄入YO-PRO-1的荧光强度随着浓度增加而增加;同一浓度的ATP作用不同时间(15、30、60 min),随着时间的增加,胞内的荧光强度也增加。(3)亮蓝G(P2X7受体的抑制剂)预处理可明显拮抗ATP引起的细胞活力下降和胞内荧光强度增强(P<0.05),而生胃酮(Panx1的抑制剂)预处理不改变细胞活力和胞内的荧光强度(P>0.05)。(4)ATP作用3 h使PC12细胞 P2X7受体的mRNA和蛋白表达明显升高(P<0.05),而Panx1 mRNA和蛋白表达变化不大(P>0.05)。结论:胞外高浓度ATP引起PC12细胞的膜孔形成可能主要与P2X7受体的表达和激活有关。%AIM:To investigate the formation of membrane pore in PC 12 cells induced by exogenous adenosine triphosphate ( ATP) and to identify the key molecular targets .METHODS:PC12 cells were treated with different concen-trations of ATP to establish the injury model .The morphological change was observed under an inverted phase -contrast mi-croscope.The viability of the PC12 cells was measured by CCK-8 assay.Fluorescent dye YO-PRO-1 was used to detect the membrane permeability.The expression of P2X7 receptor and pannexin 1 (Panx1) at mRNA and protein levels was as-sessed by real-time PCR and Western blotting .RESULTS:After exposed

  7. Optical ATP Biosensor for Extracellular ATP Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, C; Huang, C.-Y.C.; Lin, W-C

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular Adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) is an important multi-functional molecule which can mediate numerous physiological activities by activating purinergic P2 receptors. The objective of this study was to develop a novel optical ATP sensor for in-situ extracellular ATP measurement in biological tissues. The optical ATP sensor was made by applying two layers of sol-gel coating to the end of an optical fiber probe end. The first layer contained ruthenium complex for sensing changes in ...

  8. Silibinin, a natural flavonoid, induces autophagy via ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of ATP involving BNIP3 in human MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Wang, Wei; Jin, Xin; Wang, Zhaoyang; Ji, Zhiwei; Meng, Guanmin

    2015-06-01

    Silibinin, derived from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum), has anticancer and chemopreventive properties. Silibinin has been reported to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cells. However, the mechanisms by which silibinin exerts an anticancer effect are poorly defined. The present study aimed to investigate whether silibinin-induced cell death might be attributed to autophagy and the underlying mechanisms in human MCF7 breast cancer cells. Our results showed that silibinin-induced cell death was greatly abrogated by two specific autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and bafilomycin-A1 (Baf-A1). In addition, silibinin triggered the conversion of light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II, promoted the upregulation of Atg12-Atg5 formation, increased Beclin-1 expression, and decreased the Bcl-2 level. Moreover, we noted elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, concomitant with the dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and a drastic decline in ATP levels following silibinin treatment, which were effectively prevented by the antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid. Silibinin stimulated the expression of Bcl-2 adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), a pro-death Bcl-2 family member, and silencing of BNIP3 greatly inhibited silibinin-induced cell death, decreased ROS production, and sustained ΔΨm and ATP levels. Taken together, these findings revealed that silibinin induced autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and ATP depletion involving BNIP3 in MCF7 cells. PMID:25891311

  9. The relationship of vascular endothelial marker and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the relationship of vascular endothelial marker and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in patients with essential hypertension (EH). Methods: Plasma endothlium (ET-1) (with RIA) and von Willber factor (vWF)(with ELISA) levels were measured both before and after 12 wks' treatment in 56 patients with essential hypertension and 32 controls. The brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function was examined with high resolving color doppler ultra-sonography. The 56 patients with EH were of two groups A. high and very high risk, n=26 B. low and moderate risk, n=30. Results: Plasma levels of ET-1, vWF in patients with EH as a whole were significantly higher than those in controls group [(53.3±16.2)pg/ml vs(42.5±8.5)pg/ml, (158.2±28.6)% vs(130.6±35.2)%], endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function wasmuch reduced in patients with EH(7.5±4.2)% vs controls(12.3±4.3)%. Among the patients, values in Group A were significantly different from those in Group B. After treatment for 12 weeks, plasma ET-1 and vWF and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function were significantly improved. There was negative correlation between vascular endothelial marker levels and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function. Conclusion: The endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function was impaired and plasma ET-1 and vWF levels were increased in patients with EH, the endothelial dysfunction was closely associated with the risk level of EH. Vascular endothelial markers were useful indicators for evaluation of the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function. (authors)

  10. Participation of the NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway in the antinociception induced by Walker tumor bearing in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, A.L.R.; Pinheiro, C.A.; Oliveira, G.J.; Torres, J.N.L.; Moraes, M.O.; Ribeiro, R.A.; Vale, M.L.; Souza, M.H.L.P. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-03-30

    Implantation of Walker 256 tumor decreases acute systemic inflammation in rats. Inflammatory hyperalgesia is one of the most important events of acute inflammation. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of peripheral antinociception mediated by several drugs and physical exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible involvement of the NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway in antinociception induced in Walker 256 tumor-bearing male Wistar rats (180-220 g). The groups consisted of 5-6 animals. Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. Walker tumor (4th and 7th day post-implantation) reduced prostaglandin E{sub 2}- (PGE{sub 2}, 400 ng/paw; 50 µL; intraplantar injection) and carrageenan-induced hypernociception (500 µg/paw; 100 µL; intraplantar injection). Walker tumor-induced analgesia was reversed (99.3% for carrageenan and 77.2% for PGE{sub 2}) by a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME; 90 mg/kg, ip) and L-arginine (200 mg/kg, ip), which prevented (80% for carrageenan and 65% for PGE{sub 2}) the effect of L-NAME. Treatment with the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (100% for carrageenan and 95% for PGE{sub 2}; 8 µg/paw) and the ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channel (KATP) blocker glibenclamide (87.5% for carrageenan and 100% for PGE{sub 2}; 160 µg/paw) reversed the antinociceptive effect of tumor bearing in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed an intrinsic peripheral antinociceptive effect of Walker tumor bearing in rats. This antinociceptive effect seemed to be mediated by activation of the NO/cGMP pathway followed by the opening of KATP channels.

  11. ATP Depletion Via Mitochondrial F1F0 Complex by Lethal Factor is an Early Event in B. Anthracis-Induced Sudden Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell W. Woodberry

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis’ primary virulence factor is a tripartite anthrax toxin consisting of edema factor (EF, lethal factor (LF and protective antigen (PA. In complex with PA, EF and LF are internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis. EF is a calmodulin- dependent adenylate cyclase that induces tissue edema. LF is a zinc-metalloprotease that cleaves members of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases. Lethal toxin (LT: PA plus LF-induced death of macrophages is primarily attributed to expression of the sensitive Nalp1b allele, inflammasome formation and activation of caspase-1, but early events that initiate these processes are unknown. Here we provide evidence that an early essential event in pyroptosis of alveolar macrophages is LF-mediated depletion of cellular ATP. The underlying mechanism involves interaction of LF with F1F0-complex gamma and beta subunits leading to increased ATPase activity in mitochondria. In support, mitochondrial DNA-depleted MH-S cells have decreased F1F0 ATPase activity due to the lack of F06 and F08 polypeptides and show increased resistance to LT. We conclude that ATP depletion is an important early event in LT-induced sudden cell death and its prevention increases survival of toxin-sensitive cells.

  12. Botulinum toxin type A normalizes alterations in urothelial ATP and NO release induced by chronic spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Christopher P.; Gangitano, David A; Munoz, Alvaro; Salas, Nilson A.; Boone, Timothy B.; Aoki, K Roger; Francis, Joseph; Somogyi, George T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to simultaneously examine changes in urothelial ATP and NO release in normal and spinal cord injured animals as well as in spinal cord injured animals treated with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A). Furthermore we correlated changes in transmitter release with functional changes in bladder contraction frequency, and determined the effects of BoNT-A on bladder efferent nerve function. Normal and spinal cord injured rat bladders were injected on day 0 with either veh...

  13. ATP-sensitive K/sup +/ channels that are blocked by hypoglycemia-inducing sulfonylureas in insulin-secreting cells are activated by galanin, a hyperglycemia-inducing hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Weille, J.; Schmid-Antomarchi, H.; Fosset, M.; Lazdunski, M.

    1988-02-01

    The action of the hyperglycemia-inducing hormone galanin, a 29-amino acid peptide names from its N-terminal glycine and C-terminal amidated alanine, was studied in rat insulinoma (RINm5F) cells using electrophysiological and /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ flux techniques. Galanin hyperpolarizes and reduces spontaneous electrical activity by activating a population of APT-sensitive K/sup +/ channels with a single-channel conductance of 30 pS (at -60 mV). Galanin-induced hyperpolarization and reduction of spike activity are reversed by the hypoglycemia-inducing sulfonylurea glibenclamine. Glibenclamide blocks the galanin-activated ATP-sensitive K/sup +/ channel. /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux from insulinoma cells is stimulated by galanin in a dose-dependent manner. The half-maximum value of activation is found at 1.6 nM. Galanin-induced /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux is abolished by glibenclamide. The half-maximum value of inhibition is found at 0.3 nM, which is close to the half-maximum value of inhibition of the ATP-dependent K/sup +/ channel reported earlier. /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux studies confirm the electrophysiological demonstration that galanin activates and ATP-dependent K/sup +/ channel.

  14. Vasodilatation of afferent arterioles and paradoxical increase of renal vascular resistance by furosemide in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oppermann, Mona; Hansen, Pernille B; Castrop, Hayo; Schnermann, Jurgen

    2007-01-01

    Loop diuretics like furosemide have been shown to cause renal vasodilatation in dogs and humans, an effect thought to result from both a direct vascular dilator effect and from inhibition of tubuloglomerular feedback. In isolated perfused afferent arterioles preconstricted with angiotensin II or N...... capillaries by the expanding tubular compartment are responsible for the reduction of RBF in vivo....

  15. Elevated levels of mitochonrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production in 17-β-estradiol-induced prolactin-secretory tumor cells in male rats are inhibited by melatonin in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-qiang; YANG Quan-hui; XU Rong-kun; XU Jian-ning

    2013-01-01

    Background Our earlier studies indicate that melatonin inhibits the proliferation of prolactinoma and induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor in rats.Melatonin has also been shown to induce apoptosis and to reduce the production of ATP in breast tumor cells.This study analyzed the levels of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP and also the effects of melatonin treatment of prolactinoma.Methods In the in vivo study,mitochondria were harvested from control pituitaries or prolactinoma collected from the pituitaries of melatonin-and 17-β-estradiol (E2)-treated male rats.In the in vitro study,prolactinoma cells mitochondria were harvested.Activities of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes were assayed using fluorometer.ATP production of prolactinoma cells was estimated using bioluminescent methods.Results Elevated levels of four mitochondrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production were recorded in prolactinoma cells.Moreover,in both in vivo and in vitro studies,melatonin inhibited the activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP in prolactinoma cells.Conclusions There is a link between mitochondrial function increase and tumorigenesis.Melatonin induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor of rats via the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of energy metabolism.

  16. The Role of ATP in the Regulation of NCAM Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübschmann, Martin; Skladchikova, Galina

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular ATP is an abundant signaling molecule that has a number of functions in the nervous system. It is released by both neurons and glial cells, activates purinergic receptors and acts as a trophic factor as well as a neurotransmitter. In this review, we summarize the evidence for a direct...... ATP-NCAM interaction and discuss its functional implications. The ectodomain of NCAM contains the ATP binding Walker motif A and has intrinsic ATPase activity, which could modulate NCAM-dependent signaling processes. NCAM interacts directly with and signals through FGFR. The NCAM binding site to ATP...... overlaps with the site of NCAM-FGFR interaction, and ATP is capable of disrupting NCAM-FGFR binding. This implies that NCAM signaling through FGFR can be regulated by ATP, which is supported by the observation that ATP can abrogate NCAM-induced neurite outgrowth. Finally, ATP can induce NCAM ectodomain...

  17. OSCILLATING FLUID FLOW ACTIVATION OF GAP JUNCTION HEMICHANNELS INDUCES ATP RELEASE FROM MLO-Y4 OSTEOCYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Genetos, Damian C.; Kephart, Curtis J.; Zhang, Yue; Yellowley, Clare E.; Donahue, Henry J.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical loads are required for optimal bone mass. One mechanism whereby mechanical loads are transduced into localized cellular signals is strain-induced fluid flow through lacunae and canaliculi of bone. Gap junctions (GJ) between osteocytes and osteoblasts provides a mechanism whereby flow-induced signals are detected by osteocytes and transduced to osteoblasts. We have demonstrated the importance of GJ and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in intracellular calcium and pr...

  18. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Nielsen, Jens Jung;

    2009-01-01

    ATP has been proposed to play multiple roles in local skeletal muscle blood flow regulation by inducing vasodilation and modulating sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, but the mechanism remain unclear. Here we evaluated the effects of arterial ATP infusion and exercise on limb muscle interstitial...... ATP and NE concentrations to gain insight into the interstitial and intravascular mechanisms by which ATP causes muscle vasodilation and sympatholysis. Leg hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotide and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were measured during: 1) femoral arterial ATP infusion (0.......42+/-0.04 and 2.26+/-0.52 mumol/min; mean+/-SEM) and 2) one-leg knee-extensor exercise (18+/-0 and 37+/-2W) in 10 healthy, male subjects. Arterial ATP infusion and exercise increased leg blood flow (LBF) in the experimental leg from ~0.3 L/min at baseline to 4.2+/-0.3 and 4.6+/-0.5 L/min, respectively, whereas...

  19. Endothelium-dependent, Flow-mediated Vasodilatation Dysfunction with Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; Jari LAUKKANEN

    2002-01-01

    @@ Endothelium is a physiological barrier between the blood and vascular smooth muscle. The endothelium is a primary target for cardiovascular risk factors because of its anatomic position. Intact endothelial cell modulates vascular tone by releasing vasoactive products.Endothelial dysfunction might lead to vascular conflicting movements induced by some pharmacological and physiological factors.

  20. Effect of medication on microvascular vasodilatation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Christine; Andersson, Sven; Edvinsson, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microvascular responses in the skin, to local heat, iontophoretically administered acetylcholine and to sodium nitroprusside in relation to cardiovascular damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and matched controls. We also wanted to...... well as independent (sodium nitroprusside) vasodilatation, was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Clinical data and medication were retrieved from the clinical database and patient records. The cutaneous microvascular reactivity did not differ between SLE patients and a group of matched controls nor...... sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent vasodilatation) compared with those without antimalarial drugs (p < 0.01). The response to acetylcholine was higher among patients on warfarin compared with those without (p < 0.05), whereas glucocorticoid use (≥5 mg daily) was associated with reduced...

  1. Impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation in Asian Indians with erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Tanuj; Kapoor, Aditya; Kumar, Jatinder; Sinha, Archana; Ranjan, Priyadarshi; Kumar, Sudeep; Garg, Naveen; Tewari, Satyendra; Srivastava, Aneesh; Kapoor, Rakesh; Goel, Pravin K.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is the postulated link between coronary artery disease (CAD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) is a non-invasive surrogate marker for endothelial function assessment. Despite Asian Indians representing a considerable global CAD burden, data on FMD and ED in these patients are lacking. Of the 225 patients undergoing coronary angiography, 72% had ED (assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) quest...

  2. Deficiency of ATP2C1, a golgi ion pump, induces secretory pathway defects in endoplasmic reticulum ( ER)-associated degradation and sensitivity to ER stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Castaneda, J; Park, YN; Liu, M; Hauser, K; Rudolph, H; Shull, GE; Jonkman, MF; Mori, K; Ikeda, S; Ogawa, H; Arvan, P

    2005-01-01

    Relatively few clues have been uncovered to elucidate the cell biological role(s) of mammalian ATP2C1 encoding an inwardly directed secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+ pump that is ubiquitously expressed. Deficiency of ATP2C1 results in a human disease ( Hailey-Hailey), which primarily affects keratinocytes

  3. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling facilitates nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced DNA lesions in synthetic dinucleosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ura, Kiyoe; Araki, Marito; Saeki, Hideaki; Masutani, Chikahide; Ito, Takashi; Iwai, Shigenori; Mizukoshi, Toshimi; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Hanaoka, Fumio

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between chromatin dynamics and nucleotide excision repair (NER), we have examined the effect of chromatin structure on the formation of two major classes of UV-induced DNA lesions in reconstituted dinucleosomes. Furthermore, we have developed a model chromatin-NER system consisting of purified human NER factors and dinucleosome substrates that contain pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs) either at the center of the nucleosome or in the linker DNA....

  4. Thermodynamics of proton transport coupled ATP synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turina, Paola; Petersen, Jan; Gräber, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The thermodynamic H(+)/ATP ratio of the H(+)-ATP synthase from chloroplasts was measured in proteoliposomes after energization of the membrane by an acid base transition (Turina et al. 2003 [13], 418-422). The method is discussed, and all published data obtained with this system are combined and analyzed as a single dataset. This meta-analysis led to the following results. 1) At equilibrium, the transmembrane ΔpH is energetically equivalent to the transmembrane electric potential difference. 2) The standard free energy for ATP synthesis (reference reaction) is ΔG°ref=33.8±1.3kJ/mol. 3) The thermodynamic H(+)/ATP ratio, as obtained from the shift of the ATP synthesis equilibrium induced by changing the transmembrane ΔpH (varying either pHin or pHout) is 4.0±0.1. The structural H(+)/ATP ratio, calculated from the ratio of proton binding sites on the c-subunit-ring in F0 to the catalytic nucleotide binding sites on the β-subunits in F1, is c/β=14/3=4.7. We infer that the energy of 0.7 protons per ATP that flow through the enzyme, but do not contribute to shifting the ATP/(ADP·Pi) ratio, is used for additional processes within the enzyme, such as activation, and/or energy dissipation, due e.g. to internal uncoupling. The ratio between the thermodynamic and the structural H(+)/ATP values is 0.85, and we conclude that this value represents the efficiency of the chemiosmotic energy conversion within the chloroplast H(+)-ATP synthase. PMID:26940516

  5. Relationship of tightly bound ADP and ATP to control and catalysis by chloroplast ATP synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether the tightly bound ADP that can cause a pronounced inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by the chloroplast ATP synthase and F1 ATPase (CF1) is bound at catalytic sites or at noncatalytic regulatory sites or both has been uncertain. The authors have used photolabeling by 2-azido-ATP and 2-azido-ADP to ascertain the location, with Mg2+ activation, of tightly bound ADP (a) that inhibits the hydrolysis of ATP by chloroplast ATP synthase, (b) that can result in an inhibited form of CF1 that slowly regains activity during ATP hydrolysis, and (c) that arises when low concentrations of ADP markedly inhibit the hydrolysis of GTP by CF1. The data show that in all instances the inhibition is associated with ADP binding without inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) at catalytic sites. After photophosphorylation of ADP or 2-azido-ADP with [32P]P/sub i/, similar amounts of the corresponding triphosphates are present on washed thylakoid membranes. Trials with appropriately labeled substrates show that a small portion of the tightly bound 2-azido-ATP gives rise to covalent labeling with an ATP moiety at noncatalytic sites but that most of the bound 2-azido-ATP gives rise to covalent labeling with an ATP moiety at noncatalytic sites but that most of the bound 2-azido-ATP gives rise to covalent labeling by an ADP moiety at a catalytic site. They also report the occurrence of a 1-2-min delay in the onset of the Mg2+-induced inhibition after addition of CF1 to solutions containing Mg2+ and ATP, and that this delay is not associated with the filling of noncatalytic sites. A rapid burst of P/sub i/ formation is followed by a much lower, constant steady-state rate. The burst is not observed with GTP as a substrate or with Ca2+ as the activating cation

  6. Interferential electrical stimulation improves peripheral vasodilatation in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interferential electrical stimulation (IES, which may be linked to greater penetration of deep tissue, may restore blood flow by sympathetic nervous modulation; however, studies have found no association between the frequency and duration of the application and blood flow. We hypothesized that 30 min of IES applied to the ganglion stellate region might improve blood flow redistribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IES on metaboreflex activation in healthy individuals. METHOD: Interferential electrical stimulation or a placebo stimulus (same protocol without electrical output was applied to the stellate ganglion region in eleven healthy subjects (age 25±1.3 years prior to exercise. Mean blood pressure (MBP, heart rate (HR, calf blood flow (CBF and calf vascular resistance (CVR were measured throughout exercise protocols (submaximal static handgrip exercise and with recovery periods with or without postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO+ and PECO -, respectively. Muscle metaboreflex control of calf vascular resistance was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve when circulation was occluded from the area under the curve from the AUC without circulatory occlusion. RESULTS: At peak exercise, increases in mean blood pressure were attenuated by IES (p<0.05, and the effect persisted under both the PECO+ and PECO- treatments. IES promoted higher CBF and lower CVR during exercise and recovery. Likewise, IES induced a reduction in the estimated muscle metaboreflex control (placebo, 21±5 units vs. IES, 6±3, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Acute application of IES prior to exercise attenuates the increase in blood pressure and vasoconstriction during exercise and metaboreflex activation in healthy subjects.

  7. Involvement of F1296 and N1303 of CFTR in induced-fit conformational change in response to ATP binding at NBD2

    OpenAIRE

    Szollosi, A; P.; Vergani; Csanady, L.

    2010-01-01

    The chloride ion channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) displays a typical adenosine trisphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) protein architecture comprising two transmembrane domains, two intracellular nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), and a unique intracellular regulatory domain. Once phosphorylated in the regulatory domain, CFTR channels can open and close when supplied with cytosolic ATP. Despite the general agreement that formation of a head-to-tail NBD dim...

  8. Two conventional PKC isoforms, α and βI, are involved in the ATP-induced regulation of VRAC and glutamate release in cultured astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Rudkouskaya, Alena; Chernoguz, Artur; Haskew-Layton, Renée E.; Mongin, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) are activated by cell swelling and are permeable to inorganic and small organic anions, including the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate. In astrocytes, ATP potently enhances VRAC activity and glutamate release via a P2Y receptor-dependent mechanism. Our previous pharmacological study identified protein kinase C (PKC) as a major signaling enzyme in VRAC regulation by ATP. However, conflicting results obtained with potent PKC blockers prompte...

  9. Mycophenolic acid induces ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression through the PPARγ–LXRα–ABCA1 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Using an ABCA1p-LUC HepG2 cell line, we found that MPA upregulated ABCA1 expression. ► MPA induced ABCA1 and LXRα protein expression in HepG2 cells. ► PPARγ antagonist GW9662 markedly inhibited MPA-induced ABCA1 and LXRα protein expression. ► The effect of MPA upregulating ABCA1 was due mainly to activation of the PPARγ-LXRα-ABCA1 pathway. -- Abstract: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) promotes cholesterol and phospholipid efflux from cells to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I and plays an important role in atherosclerosis. In a previous study, we developed a high-throughput screening method using an ABCA1p-LUC HepG2 cell line to find upregulators of ABCA1. Using this method in the present study, we found that mycophenolic acid (MPA) upregulated ABCA1 expression (EC50 = 0.09 μM). MPA upregulation of ABCA1 expression was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis in HepG2 cells. Previous work has indicated that MPA is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ; EC50 = 5.2–9.3 μM). Liver X receptor α (LXRα) is a target gene of PPARγ and may directly regulate ABCA1 expression. Western blot analysis showed that MPA induced LXRα protein expression in HepG2 cells. Addition of PPARγ antagonist GW9662 markedly inhibited MPA-induced ABCA1 and LXRα protein expression. These data suggest that MPA increased ABCA1 expression mainly through activation of PPARγ. Thus, the effects of MPA on upregulation of ABCA1 expression were due mainly to activation of the PPARγ–LXRα–ABCA1 signaling pathway. This is the first report that the antiatherosclerosis activity of MPA is due to this mechanism.

  10. Mycophenolic acid induces ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression through the PPAR{gamma}-LXR{alpha}-ABCA1 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yanni; Lai, Fangfang; Xu, Yang; Wu, Yexiang; Liu, Qi; Li, Ni; Wei, Yuzhen; Feng, Tingting; Zheng, Zhihui; Jiang, Wei; Yu, Liyan; Hong, Bin [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050 (China); Si, Shuyi, E-mail: sisyimb@hotmail.com [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using an ABCA1p-LUC HepG2 cell line, we found that MPA upregulated ABCA1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPA induced ABCA1 and LXR{alpha} protein expression in HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 markedly inhibited MPA-induced ABCA1 and LXR{alpha} protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of MPA upregulating ABCA1 was due mainly to activation of the PPAR{gamma}-LXR{alpha}-ABCA1 pathway. -- Abstract: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) promotes cholesterol and phospholipid efflux from cells to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I and plays an important role in atherosclerosis. In a previous study, we developed a high-throughput screening method using an ABCA1p-LUC HepG2 cell line to find upregulators of ABCA1. Using this method in the present study, we found that mycophenolic acid (MPA) upregulated ABCA1 expression (EC50 = 0.09 {mu}M). MPA upregulation of ABCA1 expression was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis in HepG2 cells. Previous work has indicated that MPA is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}; EC50 = 5.2-9.3 {mu}M). Liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}) is a target gene of PPAR{gamma} and may directly regulate ABCA1 expression. Western blot analysis showed that MPA induced LXR{alpha} protein expression in HepG2 cells. Addition of PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 markedly inhibited MPA-induced ABCA1 and LXR{alpha} protein expression. These data suggest that MPA increased ABCA1 expression mainly through activation of PPAR{gamma}. Thus, the effects of MPA on upregulation of ABCA1 expression were due mainly to activation of the PPAR{gamma}-LXR{alpha}-ABCA1 signaling pathway. This is the first report that the antiatherosclerosis activity of MPA is due to this mechanism.

  11. 饮食诱导肥胖与肥胖抵抗大鼠ATP生成量的比较%The comparison of ATP contents between diet-induced obesity group and diet-induced obesity resistance group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双; 胡丽贞; 于海涛; 梁冰; 薛宏凤; 李雅杰; 王舒然

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较饮食诱导肥胖大鼠与肥胖抵抗大鼠三磷酸腺苷(adenosine triphosphate,ATP)生成量的差异.方法 将健康雄性远交群(sprague dawley,SD)大鼠,随机分为基础饲料(control,CON)组和高脂饲料组,喂养2周后,将高脂饲料组按照体重增加量分为饮食诱导肥胖(diet-induced obesity,DIO)组和饮食诱导抵抗(diet-induced obesity resistance,DR)组.于喂养第10周末,麻醉处死动物,观察体重、摄食量、能量利用率以及肝脏、心脏、肌肉组织中ATP生成量的情况.结果 DIO组的体重一直高于DR组(均有P<0.05).DIO组总能量摄入高于DR组和CON组(均有P<0.001),但DIO组与DR组能量利用率差异无统计学意义.DR组大鼠肝脏、心脏和肌肉组织中ATP生成量比DIO组分别高出12.8%,30.6%和11.6%.结论 饮食诱导肥胖和肥胖抵抗大鼠的能量代谢存在差异,这种差异可能与主要能量器官中ATP的生成量有关.%Objective To compare the ATP contents in tissues between diet-induced obesity(DIO) group and diet-induced obesity resistance (DR) group. Methods Forty-eight male sprague dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group and high-fat group which were given different diets. After 2-week feeding, the high-fat group were divided into diet-induced obesity group and diet-induced obesity resistance group. The rats were sacrificed for tissues and blood sample at the end of week 10. Results The body weight of DIO group was higher than that of DR group during the feeding (all P < 0. 05 ) . The total energy intake of DIO group was higher than that of DR group and CON group ( all P < 0. 001). No significance were observed of energy utilization between DIO group and DR group. The ATP contents of DIO group were 12. 8% , 30. 6% , and 11. 6% lower than that of DR group in liver, cardiac and muscle separately. Conclusions The differences of energy utilization between DIO group and DR group may be related with the ATP contents in

  12. Extracellular ATP in the Exocrine Pancreas – ATP Release, Signalling and Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena

    ATP plays an important role as an autocrine/paracrine signalling molecule, being released from a number of tissues, in response to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli. Released ATP induces Ca2+ - and/or cAMP - dependent cellular responses via activation of ubiquitously expressed P2X and ...... release. So far, the contribution of duct cells in purinergic signalling has never been studied. This work presents that both acinar and duct cells are sources of extracellular ATP in the exocrine pancreas. Here we show that duct cells release ATP in response to several physiological......, particularly during Ca2+ stress conditions. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate a complex regulation of purinergic signalling in exocrine pancreas. A crucial role for duct cells in mediating extracellular nucleotides homeostasis, involving ATP release, subsequent hydrolysis and conversion via...

  13. K(ATP) channel openers in the trigeminovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, K B; Amrutkar, D V; Baun, M;

    2012-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel openers levcromakalim and pinacidil are vasodilators that induce headache in healthy people. The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) induces headache in healthy people and migraine in migraineurs, potentially through a mechanism that involve...

  14. Structural Mechanism of Allosteric Activity Regulation in a Ribonucleotide Reductase with Double ATP Cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Renzo; Jonna, Venkateswara Rao; Kumar, Rohit; Nayeri, Niloofar; Lundin, Daniel; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Hofer, Anders; Logan, Derek T

    2016-06-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) reduce ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. Their overall activity is stimulated by ATP and downregulated by dATP via a genetically mobile ATP cone domain mediating the formation of oligomeric complexes with varying quaternary structures. The crystal structure and solution X-ray scattering data of a novel dATP-induced homotetramer of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa class I RNR reveal the structural bases for its unique properties, namely one ATP cone that binds two dATP molecules and a second one that is non-functional, binding no nucleotides. Mutations in the observed tetramer interface ablate oligomerization and dATP-induced inhibition but not the ability to bind dATP. Sequence analysis shows that the novel type of ATP cone may be widespread in RNRs. The present study supports a scenario in which diverse mechanisms for allosteric activity regulation are gained and lost through acquisition and evolutionary erosion of different types of ATP cone. PMID:27133024

  15. Galectin-3 silencing inhibits epirubicin-induced ATP binding cassette transporters and activates the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway via β-catenin/GSK-3β modulation in colorectal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuo Lee

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR, an unfavorable factor compromising the treatment efficacy of anticancer drugs, involves the upregulation of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters and induction of galectin-3 signaling. Galectin-3 plays an anti-apoptotic role in many cancer cells and regulates various pathways to activate MDR. Thus, the inhibition of galectin-3 has the potential to enhance the efficacy of the anticancer drug epirubicin. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanisms of silencing galectin-3 via RNA interference (RNAi on the β-catenin/GSK-3β pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Galectin-3 knockdown increased the intracellular accumulation of epirubicin in Caco-2 cells; suppressed the mRNA expression of galectin-3, β-catenin, cyclin D1, c-myc, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR-associated protein (MRP 1, and MRP2; and downregulated the protein expression of P-gp, cyclin D1, galectin-3, β-catenin, c-Myc, and Bcl-2. Moreover, galectin-3 RNAi treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of GSK-3β, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9; remarkably increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio; and upregulated the GSK-3β and Bax protein expressions. Apoptosis was induced by galectin-3 RNAi and/or epirubicin as demonstrated by chromatin condensation, a higher sub-G1 phase proportion, and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, indicating an intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Epirubicin-mediated resistance was effectively inhibited via galectin-3 RNAi treatment. However, these phenomena could be rescued after galectin-3 overexpression. We show for the first time that the silencing of galectin-3 sensitizes MDR cells to epirubicin by inhibiting ABC transporters and activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis through modulation of the β-catenin/GSK-3β pathway in human colon cancer cells.

  16. Characterization of Na+ influx mediated by ATP(4-)-activated P2 purinoceptors in PC12 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, S. Y.; Kim, K. T.

    1996-01-01

    1. Micromolar levels of extracellular ATP increased cytosolic Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) as well as cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in PC12 cells. 2. Pretreatment of cells with tetrodotoxin, benzamil or thapsigargin did not alter the ATP-induced Na+ influx. 3. Increased extracellular Mg2+ concentration decreased the ATP effect. Furthermore, when the extracellular ATP pool was treated to contain corresponding calculated concentrations of ATP4-, the increase in [Na+]i stayed linked to th...

  17. Flußvermittelte Vasodilatation (FMD der Arteria brachialis: Methodik und klinischer Stellenwert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frick M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Frühe Diagnose und Risikostratifizierung sind wichtige Ziele in der Prävention der koronaren Herzkrankheit. Die Endotheldysfunktion tritt im Frühstadium der Atherosklerose auf und ist klinisch als Störung der endothelabhängigen Vasodilatation erfaßbar. 1992 wurde erstmals eine nichtinvasive Methode beschrieben, welche mittels hochauflösenden Ultraschalls die flußvermittelte Vasodilatation (FMD der Arteria brachialis als Parameter der Endothelfunktion bestimmt. Aufgrund der vermeintlich einfachen, nicht-invasiven Durchführung ist dieser Test trotz fehlender internationaler Standardisierung und unterschiedlicher methodischer Ansätze in einer Vielzahl von Studien angewandt worden. Zusätzlich wurden in den letzten Jahren immer mehr Faktoren beschrieben, die das Ergebnis der FMD beeinflussen. Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt einen Überblick über Voraussetzungen zur Durchführung der Bestimmung der Endothelfunktion an der Arteria brachialis und zeigt mögliche Einflußfaktoren auf. Zudem wird eine detaillierte Vorgehensweise bei der Messung der Endothelfunktion vorgegeben, die zu einer Standardisierung dieser Methode auf nationaler Ebene führen soll.

  18. Dynamics and structural changes induced by ATP and/or substrate binding in the inward-facing conformation state of P-glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yurika; Hsu, Wei-Lin; Chiba, Shuntaro; Hayashi, Tomohiko; Furuta, Tadaomi; Sakurai, Minoru

    2013-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multidrug transporter that catalyzes the transport of a substrate. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of this type of substrate transport, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the X-ray crystal structure of P-gp, which has an inward-facing conformation. Our simulations indicated that the dimerization of the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) is driven by the binding of ATP to the NBDs and/or the binding of the substrate to a cavity in the transmembrane domains (TMDs). Based on these results, we discuss a role of ATP in the allosteric communication that occurs between the NBDs and the TMDs.

  19. Capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammation in the skin in patients with symptoms induced by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Helle; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mosbech, Holger; Serup, Jørgen; Elberling, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Intradermal injection of capsaicin induces the axonal release of neuropeptides, vasodilatation and flare, e.g. neurogenic inflammation. The spatial profile of neurogenic inflammation in the skin has been studied in various experimental models. Polarization spectroscopy imaging introduced recently...

  20. Involvement of capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves in the proteinase-activated receptor 2-mediated vasodilatation in the rat dura mater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dux, M; Rosta, J; Sántha, P; Jancsó, G

    2009-07-01

    Neurogenic inflammation of the dura mater encephali has been suggested to contribute to the mechanisms of meningeal nociception and blood flow regulation. Recent findings demonstrated that the rat dura mater is innervated by trigeminal capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic nociceptive afferent nerves which mediate meningeal vascular responses through activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor. The present work explored the functional significance of the capsaicin-sensitive subpopulation of dural afferent nerves via their contribution to the meningeal vascular responses evoked through activation of the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2). The vascular responses of the dura mater were studied by laser Doppler flowmetry in a rat open cranial window preparation. Topical applications of trypsin, a PAR-2-activator, or Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-amide (SLIGRL-NH(2)), a selective PAR-2 agonist peptide, resulted in dose-dependent increases in meningeal blood flow. The SLIGRL-NH(2)-induced vasodilatation was significantly reduced following capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerve defunctionalization by prior systemic capsaicin treatment and by pretreatment of the dura mater with the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) an unspecific inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production, but not 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole (TRIM), a neuronal NO synthase inhibitor, also inhibited the vasodilator response to SLIGRL-NH(2). The vasodilator responses elicited by very low concentrations of capsaicin (10 nM) were significantly enhanced by prior application of SLIGRL-NH(2). The present findings demonstrate that activation of the PAR-2 localized on capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal nociceptive afferent nerves induces vasodilatation in the dural vascular bed by mechanisms involving NO and CGRP release. The results indicate that the PAR-2-mediated activation and

  1. Effect of extraluminal ATP application on vascular tone and blood flow in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Al-Khazraji, Baraa K; Mortensen, Stefan P; Jackson, Dwayne N; Ellis, Christopher G; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    NO and prostanoid formation. Inhibition of these systems abolished the vasodilator effect of ATP. Cell-culture experiments verified ATP-induced formation of NO and prostacyclin in rat skeletal muscle microvascular endothelial cells and ATP-induced formation of NO in rat skeletal muscle cells. To...

  2. Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Alan Gruenhagen

    2003-12-12

    The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca{sup 2+} imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K{sup +} and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol functionalized Cd

  3. The biphasic response of rat vesical smooth muscle to ATP.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolego, C; Pinna, C.; Abbracchio, M. P.; Cattabeni, F.; Puglisi, L.

    1995-01-01

    1. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is known to exert a variety of biological effects via the activation of either ionotropic P2x- or G-protein coupled P2Y-purinoceptor subtypes. In this study the effects induced by ATP and ATP analogues on rat bladder strips were characterized at resting tone and in carbachol-prestimulated tissues. 2. ATP exerted a clear concentration-dependent biphasic response, which was maximal at 1 mM concentration and was characterized by an immediate and transient contr...

  4. Normal flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery and carotid artery intima-media thickness in subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Cabral

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT is a disease for which exact therapeutic approaches have not yet been established. Previous studies have suggested an association between SHT and coronary heart disease. Whether this association is related to SHT-induced changes in serum lipid levels or to endothelial dysfunction is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine endothelial function measured by the flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery and the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT in a group of women with SHT compared with euthyroid subjects. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, apoprotein A (apo A, apo B, and lipoprotein(a were also determined. Twenty-one patients with SHT (mean age: 42.4 ± 10.8 years and mean thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels: 8.2 ± 2.7 µIU/mL and 21 euthyroid controls matched for body mass index, age and atherosclerotic risk factors (mean age: 44.2 ± 8.5 years and mean TSH levels: 1.4 ± 0.6 µIU/mL participated in the study. Lipid parameters (except HDL-C and apo A, which were lower and IMT values were higher in the common carotid and carotid bifurcation of SHT patients with positive serum thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab (0.62 ± 0.2 and 0.62 ± 0.16 mm for the common carotid and carotid bifurcation, respectively when compared with the negative TPO-Ab group (0.55 ± 0.24 and 0.58 ± 0.13 mm, for common carotid and carotid bifurcation, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that minimal thyroid dysfunction had no adverse effects on endothelial function in the population studied. Further investigation is warranted to assess whether subclinical hypothyroidism, with and without TPO-Ab-positive serology, has any effect on endothelial function.

  5. A study of atriphos (ATP) action on muscular circulation in progressive muscular dystrophy by the radioactive xenon clearance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of intramuscularly and intravenously adminostered atriphos on the muscular circulation was studied with radioactive xenon in 12 children with progressive muscular dystrophy. After combined local intramuscular injection of ATP (atriphos) with the radioactive marker a 12-fold increment of muscular circulation ensues, lasting about 15 minutes. No vasodilatating effect on the muscular flow was oberved after intravenous injection of 20-40 mg of atriphos. It is believed that intramuscular administration of atriphos produced dilatation of capillaries and of the venous part of the muscular circulation. (author)

  6. Autophagy and ATP-induced anti-apoptosis in antigen presenting cells (APC) follows the cytokine storm in patients after major trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, E Marion; Flacke, Sarah; Liu, Fengguang; Lorenz, Myriam R.; Schilling, Patricia; Nass, Max E.; Foehr, Karl J.; Huber-Lang, Markus; Weiss, Manfred E.

    2011-01-01

    Severe trauma and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) occur as a result of a cytokine storm which is in part due to ATP released from damaged tissue. This pathology also leads to increased numbers of immature antigen presenting cells (APC) sharing properties of dendritic cells (DC) or macrophages (MΦ). The occurrence of immature APC appears to coincide with the reactivation of herpes virus infections such as Epstein Barr virus (EBV). The aim of this study was the comparative an...

  7. Translational coupling of the maize chloroplast atpB and atpE genes

    OpenAIRE

    Gatenby, Anthony A.; Rothstein, Steven. J.; Nomura, Masayasu

    1989-01-01

    The genes for the β and ε subunits of maize chloroplast ATP synthase are encoded by the organelle genome, are cotranscribed, and have overlapping translation initiation and termination codons. To determine whether the atpB and atpE genes are translationally coupled, they were transformed into Escherichia coli on a multicopy plasmid. Synthesis of full-length β and ε polypeptides demonstrated correct initiation of translation by the bacterial ribosomes. To assay for translational coupling, the ...

  8. Concentraciones aumentadas de PCR e IL6 y una menor vasodilatación mediada por flujo temprano en la gestación predicen el desarrollo de hipertensión inducida por el embarazo Increased PRC and IL6 concentrations and lower early flow-mediated vasodilatation in gestation help predict the developement of pregnancy-induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald García

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: el propósito de este estudio fue evaluar si concentraciones plasmáticas elevadas de marcadores inflamatorios y una función endotelial alterada preceden y están envueltas en el desarrollo de hipertensión inducida por el embarazo (HIE. Métodos: doscientos veintiséis primigestantes menores de 25 años fueron incluidas antes de la semana 34 de gestación en un estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte. Se realizó evaluación basal de la vasodilatación mediada por flujo (VMF en la arteria braquial utilizando un sistema de eco-doppler con transductor de 7.5 MHz (Aloka, vario-view SDD2200, Tokio, Japón. Adicionalmente, se determinaron las concentraciones plasmáticas de proteína C-reactiva (PCR y de interleucina 6 (IL-6 (IMMULITE 1000, DCP, Los Ángeles, CA en 10 mujeres que desarrollaron HIE y en 20 controles pareados por edad materna y edad gestacional de ingreso al estudio. Resultados: las mujeres que posteriormente desarrollaron HIE presentaron una menor VMF (17.65%±9.33 vs 24.81%± 5.30; pBackground: endothelial dysfunction has been involved in the development of pre-eclampsia. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the role of infection-inflammation as a key factor of endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether endothelial dysfunction is associated with inflammation that precedes the clinical and biochemical manifestations of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH. Methods: two hundred and twenty six normotensive primigravidae pregnant women under 25 years of age, at 20-30 weeks of gestation, were included in a nested case-control study. Flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery was measured using a 7.5MHz transducer (Aloka, vario-view SDD2200, Tokyo, Japan. Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein were determined (IMMULITE 1000, DPC, Los Angeles, CA. Results: ten women developed PIH and 216 remained normotensive. Twenty 20 normal pregnant women

  9. 骨髓瘤细胞中阿霉素诱导的ATP变化与自噬的关系%Relationship between ATP and Autophagy in Myeloma Cell Lines NCI-H929 Induced by Doxorubicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余芳; 陈协群; 陈娟娟; 黄晓梅

    2011-01-01

    目的:检测用阿霉(doxorubicin DOXO)处理的骨髓瘤细胞株NCI-H929中ATP与自噬表达水平的变化,探讨两者之间的关联.方法:分别以DOXO 2umol/124h、DOXO 2umol/1 联用自噬抑制剂3MA 10mmol/124h处理H-929细胞后,采用MTT法检测细胞存活率;ATP生物发光法检测ATP表达量;Western Blot检测靶细胞自噬标志分子LC3蛋白的表达.结果:各组相对未处理组存活率分别为54%、35%;相对未处理组%ATP分别为400%、150%;DOXO 24h LC3表达显著上调.结论:经DOXO处理H-929细胞系自噬形成,进而ATP上升以保护细胞.%Objective: As a major intracellular degradation system that is found ubiquitously in eukaryotes, autophagy plays a key role in maintaining protein metabolic equilibrium, cell homeostasis, regulating cellular constituent recycling, cell development and differentiation. In different cell types or different stress modes, the role or function of autophagy changes. What's the function of autophagy in myeloma cells? We don't have experience at present. Based on the background above, in this study, by means of the model of myeloma cells (H-929 cells), we try to explore the effects of autophagy on cell death induced by DOXO and the correlating mechanism. Methods:After treated with DOXO (2umol/l for 24 h) with or without 3MA (10mmol/l), cells were collected and subjected to MTT assay, cellular ATP measurement and western blot for analysis. The ATP level was presented as percentage to the untreated control group. Results: The survival ratio was significantly higher in the DOXO group (54%) than that in the DOXO+3-MA group (35%); The ATP level changed (DOXO group 400%, DOXO+3-MA group 150%); Western blot showed that there was a high level of LC3Ⅱ in DOXO singly treating cells and a low level in DOXO+3-MA group. Conclusions: 1. Autophagy as protective mechanism responses to the death induced by DOXO; 2. Autophagy inhibition by chemical inhibitor enhances the death induced by DOXO in

  10. A label-free electrochemiluminescent sensor for ATP detection based on ATP-dependent ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Lin, Chunshui; Yao, Qiuhong; Chen, Xi

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we describe a new label-free, sensitive and highly selective strategy for the electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection of ATP at the picomolar level via ATP-induced ligation. The molecular-beacon like DNA probes (P12 complex) are self-assembled on a gold electrode. The presence of ATP leads to the ligation of P12 complex which blocks the digestion by Exonuclease III (Exo III). The protected P12 complex causes the intercalation of numerous ECL indicators (Ru(phen)3(2+)) into the duplex DNA grooves, resulting in significantly amplified ECL signal output. Since the ligating site of T4 DNA ligase and the nicking site of Exo III are the same, it involves no long time of incubation for conformation change. The proposed strategy combines the amplification power of enzyme and the inherent high sensitivity of the ECL technique and enables picomolar detection of ATP. The developed strategy also shows high selectivity against ATP analogs, which makes our new label-free and highly sensitive ligation-based method a useful addition to the amplified ATP detection arena. PMID:27154705

  11. Reinterpreting the action of ATP analogs on K(ATP) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, David; Gossack, Lindsay; Quast, Ulrich; Bryan, Joseph

    2013-06-28

    Neuroendocrine-type K(ATP) channels, (SUR1/Kir6.2)4, couple the transmembrane flux of K(+), and thus membrane potential, with cellular metabolism in various cell types including insulin-secreting β-cells. Mutant channels with reduced activity are a cause of congenital hyperinsulinism, whereas hyperactive channels are a cause of neonatal diabetes. A current regulatory model proposes that ATP hydrolysis is required to switch SUR1 into post-hydrolytic conformations able to antagonize the inhibitory action of nucleotide binding at the Kir6.2 pore, thus coupling enzymatic and channel activities. Alterations in SUR1 ATPase activity are proposed to contribute to neonatal diabetes and type 2 diabetes risk. The regulatory model is partly based on the reduced ability of ATP analogs such as adenosine 5'-(β,γ-imino)triphosphate (AMP-PNP) and adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (ATPγS) to stimulate channel activity, presumably by reducing hydrolysis. This study uses a substitution at the catalytic glutamate, SUR(1E1507Q), with a significantly increased affinity for ATP, to probe the action of these ATP analogs on conformational switching. ATPγS, a slowly hydrolyzable analog, switches SUR1 conformations, albeit with reduced affinity. Nonhydrolyzable AMP-PNP and adenosine 5'-(β,γ-methylenetriphosphate) (AMP-PCP) alone fail to switch SUR1, but do reverse ATP-induced switching. AMP-PCP displaces 8-azido-[(32)P]ATP from the noncanonical NBD1 of SUR1. This is consistent with structural data on an asymmetric bacterial ABC protein that shows that AMP-PNP binds selectively to the noncanonical NBD to prevent conformational switching. The results imply that MgAMP-PNP and MgAMP-PCP (AMP-PxP) fail to activate K(ATP) channels because they do not support NBD dimerization and conformational switching, rather than by limiting enzymatic activity. PMID:23665564

  12. ATP release and purinergic signaling in NLRP3 inflammasome activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eCOUILLIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The NLRP3 inflammasome is a protein complex involved in IL-1β and IL-18 processing that senses pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns. One step- or two step- models have been proposed to explain the tight regulation of IL-1β production during inflammation. Moreover, cellular stimulation triggers ATP release and subsequent activation of purinergic receptors at the cell surface. Importantly some studies have reported roles for extracellular ATP (eATP, in NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to PAMPs and DAMPs. In this mini review, we will discuss the link between active ATP release, purinergic signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We will focus on the role of autocrine or paracrine ATP export in particle-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and discuss how particle activators are competent to induce maturation and secretion of IL-1β through a process that involves, as a first event, extracellular release of endogenous ATP through hemichannel opening, and as a second event, signaling through purinergic receptors that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Finally, we will review the evidence for ATP as a key proinflammatory mediator released by dying cells. In particular we will discuss how cancer cells dying via autophagy trigger ATP-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the macrophages engulfing them, eliciting an immunogenic response against tumors.

  13. F1-dependent translation of mitochondrially encoded Atp6p and Atp8p subunits of yeast ATP synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Rak, Malgorzata; Tzagoloff, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The ATP synthase of yeast mitochondria is composed of 17 different subunit polypeptides. We have screened a panel of ATP synthase mutants for impaired expression of Atp6p, Atp8p, and Atp9p, the only mitochondrially encoded subunits of ATP synthase. Our results show that translation of Atp6p and Atp8p is activated by F1 ATPase (or assembly intermediates thereof). Mutants lacking the α or β subunits of F1, or the Atp11p and Atp12p chaperones that promote F1 assembly, have normal levels of the b...

  14. Lack of Correlation Between Vasodilatation and Pharmacologically Induced Immediate Headache in Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Messoud; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Dalgaard, Peter; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    experiments were vasodilators we examined a possible correlation between headache scores and increases in arterial diameter. Methods: We identified nine studies and retrieved raw data in 89 healthy subjects (46 females, 43 males), mean age 27 years (range 18–59 years). The following variables were collected...

  15. Amperometric ATP biosensor based on polymer entrapped enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueng, Angelika; Kranz, Christine; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2004-05-15

    A dual enzyme electrode for the detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) at physiologically relevant pH levels was developed by co-immobilization of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOD) and hexokinase (HEX) using pH-shift induced deposition of enzyme containing polymer films. Application of a simple electrochemical procedure for the co-immobilization of the enzymes at electrode surfaces exhibits a major improvement of sensitivity, response time, reproducibility, and ease of fabrication of ATP biosensors. Competition between glucose oxidase and hexokinase for the substrate glucose involving ATP as a co-substrate allows the determination of ATP concentrations. Notable control on the immobilization process enables fabrication of micro biosensors with a diameter of 25 microm. The presented concept provides the technological basis for a new generation of fast responding, sensitive, and robust biosensors for the detection of ATP at physiological pH values with a detection limit of 10 nmol l(-1). PMID:15046763

  16. Ectopic ATP synthase in endothelial cells: a novel cardiovascular therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yi; Zhu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase produces ATP in cells and is found on the inner membrane of mitochondria or the cell plasma membrane (ectopic ATP synthase). Here, we summarize the functions of ectopic ATP synthase in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Ectopic ATP synthase is involved in adenosine metabolism on the cell surface through its ATP generation or hydrolysis activity. The ATP/ADP generated by the enzyme on the plasma membrane can bind to P2X/P2Y receptors and activate the related signalling pathways to regulate endothelial function. The β-chain of ectopic ATP synthase on the EC surface can recruit inflammatory cells and activate cytotoxic activity to damage ECs and induce vascular inflammation. Angiostatin and other angiogenesis inhibitors can have anti-angiogenic functions by inhibiting ectopic ATP synthase on ECs. Moreover, ectopic ATP synthase on ECs is a receptor for apoA-I, the acceptor of cholesterol efflux, which implies that endothelial ectopic ATP synthase is involved in cholesterol metabolism. Coupling factor 6 (CF6), a part of ectopic ATP synthase, is released from ECs and can inhibit prostacyclin synthesis and promote nitric oxide (NO) degradation to enhance NO bioactivity. Because ATP/ADP generated by ectopic ATP synthase can induce NO production, substances such as CF6 can inhibit NO generation by inhibiting surface ATP/ADP production. Thus, the components of ectopic ATP synthase are associated with regulation of vascular tone. Through these functions, ectopic ATP synthase on ECs is considered a potential and novel therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, hypertension and lipid disorders. PMID:21247400

  17. Prolonged Exposure of Primary Human Muscle Cells to Plasma Fatty Acids Associated with Obese Phenotype Induces Persistent Suppression of Muscle Mitochondrial ATP Synthase β Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lee; Hanavan, Paul D; Campbell, Latoya E; De Filippis, Elena; Lake, Douglas F; Coletta, Dawn K; Roust, Lori R; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Carroll, Chad C; Katsanos, Christos S

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies show reduced abundance of the β-subunit of mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) in skeletal muscle of obese individuals. The β-F1-ATPase forms the catalytic core of the ATP synthase, and it is critical for ATP production in muscle. The mechanism(s) impairing β-F1-ATPase metabolism in obesity, however, are not completely understood. First, we studied total muscle protein synthesis and the translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in obese (BMI, 36±1 kg/m2) and lean (BMI, 22±1 kg/m2) subjects. Both total protein synthesis (0.044±0.006 vs 0.066±0.006%·h-1) and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase (0.0031±0.0007 vs 0.0073±0.0004) were lower in muscle from the obese subjects when compared to the lean controls (Pculture model, and tested the specific hypothesis that circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in obesity play a role in the responses observed in humans. The findings on total protein synthesis and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in primary myotubes cultured from a lean subject, and after exposure to NEFA extracted from serum of an obese subject, were similar to those obtained in humans. Among candidate microRNAs (i.e., non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression), we identified miR-127-5p in preventing the production of β-F1-ATPase. Muscle expression of miR-127-5p negatively correlated with β-F1-ATPase protein translation efficiency in humans (r = - 0.6744; Pobese subject. On the other hand, locked nucleic acid inhibitor synthesized to target miR-127-5p significantly increased β-F1-ATPase translation efficiency in myotubes (0.6±0.1 vs 1.3±0.3, in control vs exposure to 50 nM inhibitor; Pobesity in suppressing muscle protein metabolism, and establish impaired β-F1-ATPase translation as an important consequence of obesity. PMID:27532680

  18. An ATP synthase harboring an atypical γ-subunit is involved in ATP synthesis in tomato fruit chromoplasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pateraki, Irini; Renato, Marta; Azcõn-Bieto, Joaquín;

    2013-01-01

    synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids. This transition renders chromoplasts unable to photochemically synthesize ATP, and therefore these organelles need to obtain the ATP required for anabolic processes through alternative sources. It is widely accepted that the ATP used for biosynthetic processes in...... non-photosynthetic plastids is imported from the cytosol or is obtained through glycolysis. In this work, however, we show that isolated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit chromoplasts are able to synthesize ATP de novo through a respiratory pathway using NADPH as an electron donor. We also report...... the involvement of a plastidial ATP synthase harboring an atypical γ-subunit induced during ripening, which lacks the regulatory dithiol domain present in plant and algae chloroplast γ-subunits. Silencing of this atypical γ-subunit during fruit ripening impairs the capacity of isolated chromoplast to...

  19. K ATP channels in pig and human intracranial arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Sørensen, Mette Aaskov; Strøbech, Lotte Bjørg;

    2008-01-01

    Clinical trials suggest that synthetic ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel openers may cause headache and migraine by dilating cerebral and meningeal arteries. We studied the mRNA expression profile of K(ATP) channel subunits in the pig and human middle meningeal artery (MMA) and in the pig middle...... cerebral artery (MCA). We determined the order of potency of four K(ATP) channel openers when applied to isolated pig MMA and MCA, and we examined the potential inhibitory effects of the Kir6.1 subunit specific K(ATP) channel blocker PNU-37883A on K(ATP) channel opener-induced relaxation of the isolated...... pig MMA and MCA. Using conventional RT-PCR, we detected the mRNA transcripts of the K(ATP) channel subunits Kir6.1 and SUR2B in all the examined pig and human intracranial arteries. Application of K(ATP) channel openers to isolated pig MMA and MCA in myographs caused a concentration...

  20. Authentic role of ATP signaling in micturition reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Makoto; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Norichika; Soda, Tetsuji; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Matsumoto-Miyai, Kazumasa; Ishida, Yusuke; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Ogawa, Osamu; Nonomura, Norio; Shimada, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a signaling molecule that regulates cellular processes. Based on previous studies of bladder function over the past decade, bladder ATP signaling was thought to have an essential role in the normal micturition reflex. In this study, we performed detailed analyses of bladder function in purinergic receptor-deficient mice using the automated voided stain on paper method and video-urodynamics. Unexpectedly, a lack of P2X2 or P2X3 receptors did not affect bladder function under normal physiological conditions, indicating that bladder ATP signaling is not essential for normal micturition reflex. In contrast, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced markedly high levels of ATP release from the urothelium. In addition, LPS-induced rapid bladder hyperactivity was attenuated in P2X2(-/-) and P2X3(-/-) mice. Contrary to the previous interpretation, our present findings indicate that bladder ATP signaling has a fundamental role in the micturition reflex, especially in bladder dysfunction, under pathological conditions. Therefore, the bladder ATP signaling pathway might be a highly promising therapeutic target for functional bladder disorders. This study newly defines an authentic role for bladder ATP signaling in the micturition reflex. PMID:26795755

  1. K-ATP channel expression and pharmacological in vivo and in vitro studies of the K-ATP channel blocker PNU-37883A in rat middle meningeal arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, K.B.; Boni, L.J.; Baun, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dilatation of cerebral and dural arteries causes a throbbing, migraine-like pain, indicating that these structures are involved in migraine. Clinical trials suggest that adenosine 5'-triphosphate-sensitive K+ (K-ATP) channel opening may cause migraine by dilatating...... intracranial arteries, including the middle meningeal artery (MMA). We studied the K-ATP channel expression profile in rat MMA and examined the potential inhibitory effects of the K-ATP channel blocker PNU-37883A on K-ATP channel opener-induced relaxation of the rat MMA, using the three K-ATP channel openers...... levcromakalim, pinacidil and P-1075. Experimental approach: mRNA and protein expression of K-ATP channel subunits in the rat MMA were studied by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The in vivo and in vitro effects of the K-ATP channel drugs on rat MMA were studied in the genuine...

  2. Polarized ATP distribution in urothelial mucosal and serosal space is differentially regulated by stretch and ectonucleotidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiqun

    2015-11-15

    Purinergic signaling is a major pathway in regulating bladder function, and mechanical force stimulates urothelial ATP release, which plays an important role in bladder mechanotransduction. Although urothelial ATP release was first reported almost 20 years ago, the way in which release is regulated by mechanical force, and the presence of ATP-converting enzymes in regulating the availability of released ATP is still not well understood. Using a set of custom-designed Ussing chambers with the ability to manipulate mechanical forces applied on the urothelial tissue, we have demonstrated that it is stretch and not hydrostatic pressure that induces urothelial ATP release. The experiments reveal that urothelial ATP release is tightly controlled by stretch speed, magnitude, and direction. We have further shown that stretch-induced urothelial ATP release is insensitive to temperature (4°C). Interestingly, stretch-induced ATP release shows polarized distribution, with the ATP concentration in mucosal chamber (nanomolar level) about 10 times higher than the ATP concentration in serosal chamber (subnanomolar level). Furthermore, we have consistently observed differential ATP lifetime kinetics in the mucosal and serosal chambers, which is consistent with our immunofluorescent localization data, showing that ATP-converting enzymes ENTPD3 and alkaline phosphatase are expressed on urothelial basal surface, but not on the apical membrane. In summary, our data indicate that urothelial ATP release is finely regulated by stretch speed, magnitude, and direction, and extracellular ATP signaling is likely to be differentially regulated by ectonucleotidase, which results in temporally and spatially distinct ATP kinetics in response to mechanical stretch. PMID:26336160

  3. Structure of ATP-Bound Human ATP:Cobalamin Adenosyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert,H.; Hill, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding human ATP:cobalamin adenosyltransferase (hATR) can result in the metabolic disorder known as methylmalonic aciduria (MMA). This enzyme catalyzes the final step in the conversion of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}) to the essential human cofactor adenosylcobalamin. Here we present the 2.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of ATP bound to hATR refined to an R{sub free} value of 25.2%. The enzyme forms a tightly associated trimer, where the monomer comprises a five-helix bundle and the active sites lie on the subunit interfaces. Only two of the three active sites within the trimer contain the bound ATP substrate, thereby providing examples of apo- and substrate-bound-active sites within the same crystal structure. Comparison of the empty and occupied sites indicates that twenty residues at the enzyme's N-terminus become ordered upon binding of ATP to form a novel ATP-binding site and an extended cleft that likely binds cobalamin. The structure explains the role of 20 invariant residues; six are involved in ATP binding, including Arg190, which hydrogen bonds to ATP atoms on both sides of the scissile bond. Ten of the hydrogen bonds are required for structural stability, and four are in positions to interact with cobalamin. The structure also reveals how the point mutations that cause MMA are deficient in these functions.

  4. Differential expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ip Virginia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 are metal transporting proteins that control the cellular disposition of copper and platinum drugs, but their expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue and their role in platinum-induced neurotoxicity are unknown. To investigate the DRG expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1, lumbar DRG and reference tissues were collected for real time quantitative PCR, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis from healthy control adult rats or from animals treated with intraperitoneal oxaliplatin (1.85 mg/kg or drug vehicle twice weekly for 8 weeks. Results In DRG tissue from healthy control animals, ATP7A mRNA was clearly detectable at levels similar to those found in the brain and spinal cord, and intense ATP7A immunoreactivity was localised to the cytoplasm of cell bodies of smaller DRG neurons without staining of satellite cells, nerve fibres or co-localisation with phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (pNF-H. High levels of CTR1 mRNA were detected in all tissues from healthy control animals, and strong CTR1 immunoreactivity was associated with plasma membranes and vesicular cytoplasmic structures of the cell bodies of larger-sized DRG neurons without co-localization with ATP7A. DRG neurons with strong expression of ATP7A or CTR1 had distinct cell body size profiles with minimal overlap between them. Oxaliplatin treatment did not alter the size profile of strongly ATP7A-immunoreactive neurons but significantly reduced the size profile of strongly CTR1-immunoreactive neurons. ATP7B mRNA was barely detectable, and no specific immunoreactivity for ATP7B was found, in DRG tissue from healthy control animals. Conclusions In conclusion, adult rat DRG tissue exhibits a specific pattern of expression of copper transporters with distinct subsets of peripheral sensory neurons intensely expressing either ATP7A or CTR1, but not both or ATP7B. The neuron subtype-specific and largely non

  5. The expression of p66shc in peripheral blood monocytes is increased in patients with coronary heart disease and correlated with endothelium-dependent vasodilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qin; Wang, Qiong; Dong, Lini; Wang, Yanjiao; Tan, Yi; Zhang, Xiangyu

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to detect the p66shc mRNA and protein expression of the peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) in coronary heart disease patients (CHD) and controls, to evaluate the correlation between the expression of p66shc mRNA in the PBMs and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. This study included 78 coronary angiography-documented CHD patients (CHD group) and 38 non-CHD controls (control group). The p66shc mRNA and protein levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. The flow-mediated dilatation (FMD, endothelium-dependent), nitroglycerine-induced dilatation (NID, endothelium-independent) and carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) were detected using high-resolution ultrasound. The p66shc mRNA and the protein expression levels in the PBMs were significantly higher in the CHD group compared with the control group (p = 0.007 and 0.001). The FMD (p FMD and the NID (all p FMD (p dysfunction, which might represent a molecular target to prevent endothelial dysfunction-related disease. PMID:24676406

  6. The CADE ATP System Competition — CASC

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Geoff; University of Miami.

    2016-01-01

    The CADE ATP System Competition (CASC) is an annual evaluation of fully automatic automated theorem proving (ATP) systems for classical logic — the world championship for such systems. CASC provides a public evaluation of the relative capabilities of ATP systems, and aims stimulate ATP research towards the development of more powerful ATP systems. Over the years CASC has been a catalyst for impressive improvements in ATP.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Extracellular ATP-Regulated Proteins Identifies ATP Synthase β-Subunit as a Novel Plant Cell Death Regulator*

    OpenAIRE

    Chivasa, Stephen; Tomé, Daniel F. A.; Hamilton, John M.; Slabas, Antoni R.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular ATP is an important signal molecule required to cue plant growth and developmental programs, interactions with other organisms, and responses to environmental stimuli. The molecular targets mediating the physiological effects of extracellular ATP in plants have not yet been identified. We developed a well characterized experimental system that depletes Arabidopsis cell suspension culture extracellular ATP via treatment with the cell death-inducing mycotoxin fumonisin B1. This pr...

  8. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation augments cutaneous vasodilatation and reduces mean arterial pressure in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jeremy T; Levitt, Erica L; Hodges, Gary J; Wong, Brett J

    2015-03-01

    Nitrate supplementation in the form of beetroot juice has been shown to increase nitric oxide (NO) where nitrate can be reduced to nitrite and, subsequently, to NO through both nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent and -independent pathways. We tested the hypothesis that nitrate supplementation would augment the NO component of the cutaneous vasodilatation to local skin heating in young, healthy humans. Participants reported to the lab for pre- and post-supplement local heating protocols. Nitrate supplementation consisted of one shot (70 ml) of beetroot juice (0.45 g nitrate; 5mM) for three days. Six participants were equipped with two microdialysis fibers on the ventral forearm and randomly assigned to lactated Ringer's (control) or continuous infusion of 20mM l-NAME (NOS inhibitor). The control site was subsequently perfused with l-NAME once a plateau in skin blood flow was achieved to quantify NOS-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation. Skin blood flow via laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured; cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF/MAP and normalized to %CVCmax. Beetroot juice reduced MAP (Pre: 90 ± 1 mmHg vs. Post: 83 ± 1 mmHg) and DBP (Pre: 74 ± 2 mmHg vs. Post: 62 ± 3 mmHg) (Pbeetroot juice (91 ± 5%CVCmax) compared to pre-beetroot juice (79 ± 2%CVCmax) (Pbeetroot juice. These data suggest that nitrate supplementation via beetroot juice can reduce MAP and DBP as well as augment NOS-independent vasodilatation to local heating in the cutaneous vasculature of healthy humans. PMID:25554360

  9. Profiling Protein Kinases and Other ATP Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis Using Acyl-ATP Probes*

    OpenAIRE

    Villamor, J. G.; Kaschani, F.; Colby, T; Oeljeklaus, J.; Zhao, D; Kaiser, M.; Patricelli, M. P.; R. A. L. van der Hoorn

    2013-01-01

    Many protein activities are driven by ATP binding and hydrolysis. Here, we explore the ATP binding proteome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using acyl-ATP (AcATP)1 probes. These probes target ATP binding sites and covalently label lysine residues in the ATP binding pocket. Gel-based profiling using biotinylated AcATP showed that labeling is dependent on pH and divalent ions and can be competed by nucleotides. The vast majority of these AcATP-labeled proteins are known ATP binding prot...

  10. Dorsal horn neurons release extracellular ATP in a VNUT-dependent manner that underlies neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiro; Ozono, Yui; Mikuriya, Satsuki; Kohro, Yuta; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Reiko; Salter, Michael W; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2016-01-01

    Activation of purinergic receptors in the spinal cord by extracellular ATP is essential for neuropathic hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury (PNI). However, the cell type responsible for releasing ATP within the spinal cord after PNI is unknown. Here we show that PNI increases expression of vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) in the spinal cord. Extracellular ATP content ([ATP]e) within the spinal cord was increased after PNI, and this increase was suppressed by exocytotic inhibitors. Mice lacking VNUT did not show PNI-induced increase in [ATP]e and had attenuated hypersensitivity. These phenotypes were recapitulated in mice with specific deletion of VNUT in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) neurons, but not in mice lacking VNUT in primary sensory neurons, microglia or astrocytes. Conversely, ectopic VNUT expression in SDH neurons of VNUT-deficient mice restored PNI-induced increase in [ATP]e and pain. Thus, VNUT is necessary for exocytotic ATP release from SDH neurons which contributes to neuropathic pain. PMID:27515581

  11. Does ATP cross the cell plasma membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudry, I. H.

    1982-01-01

    Although there is an abundance of evidence which indicates that ATP is released as well as taken up by cells, the concept that ATP cannot cross the cell membrane has tended to prevail. This article reviews the evidence for the release as well as uptake of ATP by cells. The evidence presented by various investigators clearly indicates that ATP can cross the cell membrane and suggests that the release and uptake of ATP are physiological processes.

  12. Extracellular ATP4- promotes cation fluxes in the J774 mouse macrophage cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracellular ATP stimulates transmembrane ion fluxes in the mouse macrophage cell line J774. In the presence of Mg2+, nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs and other purine and pyrimidine nucleotides do not elicit this response, suggesting the presence of a specific receptor for ATP on the macrophage plasma membrane. One candidate for such a receptor is the ecto-ATPase expressed on these cells. We, therefore, investigated the role of this enzyme in ATP-induced 86Rb+ efflux in J774 cells. The ecto-ATPase had a broad nucleotide specificity and did not hydrolyze extracellular ATP in the absence of divalent cations. 86Rb+ efflux was not blocked by inhibition of the ecto-ATPase and did not require Ca2+ or Mg2+. In fact, ATP-stimulated 86Rb+ efflux was inhibited by Mg2+ and correlated with the availability of ATP4- in the medium. In the absence of divalent cations, the slowly hydrolyzable ATP analogs adenosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate (AMP-PNP) and adenosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (ATP-gamma-S) also stimulated 86Rb+ efflux, albeit at higher concentrations than that required for ATP4-. Exposure of J774 cells to 10 mM ATP for 45 min caused death of 95% of cells. By this means we selected variant J774 cells that did not exhibit 86Rb+ efflux in the presence of extracellular ATP but retained ecto-ATPase activity. These results show that the ecto-ATPase of J774 cells does not mediate the effects of ATP on these cells; that ATP4- and not MgATP2- promotes 86Rb+ efflux from these cells; and that hydrolysis of ATP is not required to effect this change in membrane permeability. These findings suggest that J774 cells possess a plasma membrane receptor which binds ATP4-, AMP-PNP, and ATP-gamma-S, and that the ecto-ATPase limits the effects of ATP on these cells by hydrolyzing Mg-ATP2-

  13. Extracellular ATP4- promotes cation fluxes in the J774 mouse macrophage cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, T.H.; Silverstein, S.C.

    1987-03-05

    Extracellular ATP stimulates transmembrane ion fluxes in the mouse macrophage cell line J774. In the presence of Mg2+, nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs and other purine and pyrimidine nucleotides do not elicit this response, suggesting the presence of a specific receptor for ATP on the macrophage plasma membrane. One candidate for such a receptor is the ecto-ATPase expressed on these cells. We, therefore, investigated the role of this enzyme in ATP-induced /sup 86/Rb+ efflux in J774 cells. The ecto-ATPase had a broad nucleotide specificity and did not hydrolyze extracellular ATP in the absence of divalent cations. /sup 86/Rb+ efflux was not blocked by inhibition of the ecto-ATPase and did not require Ca2+ or Mg2+. In fact, ATP-stimulated /sup 86/Rb+ efflux was inhibited by Mg2+ and correlated with the availability of ATP4- in the medium. In the absence of divalent cations, the slowly hydrolyzable ATP analogs adenosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate (AMP-PNP) and adenosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (ATP-gamma-S) also stimulated /sup 86/Rb+ efflux, albeit at higher concentrations than that required for ATP4-. Exposure of J774 cells to 10 mM ATP for 45 min caused death of 95% of cells. By this means we selected variant J774 cells that did not exhibit /sup 86/Rb+ efflux in the presence of extracellular ATP but retained ecto-ATPase activity. These results show that the ecto-ATPase of J774 cells does not mediate the effects of ATP on these cells; that ATP4- and not MgATP2- promotes /sup 86/Rb+ efflux from these cells; and that hydrolysis of ATP is not required to effect this change in membrane permeability. These findings suggest that J774 cells possess a plasma membrane receptor which binds ATP4-, AMP-PNP, and ATP-gamma-S, and that the ecto-ATPase limits the effects of ATP on these cells by hydrolyzing Mg-ATP2-.

  14. Structural characterization of two metastable ATP-bound states of P-glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L O'Mara

    Full Text Available ATP Binding Cassette (ABC transporters couple the binding and hydrolysis of ATP to the transport of substrate molecules across the membrane. The mechanism by which ATP binding and/or hydrolysis drives the conformational changes associated with substrate transport has not yet been characterized fully. Here, changes in the conformation of the ABC export protein P-glycoprotein on ATP binding are examined in a series of molecular dynamics simulations. When one molecule of ATP is placed at the ATP binding site associated with each of the two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs, the membrane-embedded P-glycoprotein crystal structure adopts two distinct metastable conformations. In one, each ATP molecule interacts primarily with the Walker A motif of the corresponding NBD. In the other, the ATP molecules interacts with both Walker A motif of one NBD and the Signature motif of the opposite NBD inducing the partial dimerization of the NBDs. This interaction is more extensive in one of the two ATP binding site, leading to an asymmetric structure. The overall conformation of the transmembrane domains is not altered in either of these metastable states, indicating that the conformational changes associated with ATP binding observed in the simulations in the absence of substrate do not lead to the outward-facing conformation and thus would be insufficient in themselves to drive transport. Nevertheless, the metastable intermediate ATP-bound conformations observed are compatible with a wide range of experimental cross-linking data demonstrating the simulations do capture physiologically important conformations. Analysis of the interaction between ATP and its cofactor Mg(2+ with each NBD indicates that the coordination of ATP and Mg(2+ differs between the two NBDs. The role structural asymmetry may play in ATP binding and hydrolysis is discussed. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our results are not heavily influenced by the crystal structure chosen for initiation

  15. Molecular mechanism of sulphonylurea block of K(ATP) channels carrying mutations that impair ATP inhibition and cause neonatal diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proks, Peter; de Wet, Heidi; Ashcroft, Frances M

    2013-11-01

    Sulphonylurea drugs are the therapy of choice for treating neonatal diabetes (ND) caused by mutations in the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (KATP channel). We investigated the interactions between MgATP, MgADP, and the sulphonylurea gliclazide with KATP channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In the absence of MgATP, gliclazide block was similar for wild-type channels and those carrying the Kir6.2 ND mutations R210C, G334D, I296L, and V59M. Gliclazide abolished the stimulatory effect of MgATP on all channels. Conversely, high MgATP concentrations reduced the gliclazide concentration, producing a half-maximal block of G334D and R201C channels and suggesting a mutual antagonism between nucleotide and gliclazide binding. The maximal extent of high-affinity gliclazide block of wild-type channels was increased by MgATP, but this effect was smaller for ND channels; channels that were least sensitive to ATP inhibition showed the smallest increase in sulphonylurea block. Consequently, G334D and I296L channels were not fully blocked, even at physiological MgATP concentrations (1 mmol/L). Glibenclamide block was also reduced in β-cells expressing Kir6.2-V59M channels. These data help to explain why patients with some mutations (e.g., G334D, I296L) are insensitive to sulphonylurea therapy, why higher drug concentrations are needed to treat ND than type 2 diabetes, and why patients with severe ND mutations are less prone to drug-induced hypoglycemia. PMID:23835339

  16. The downstream atpE cistron is efficiently translated via its own cis-element in partially overlapping atpB–atpE dicistronic mRNAs in chloroplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Haruka; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Yasushi; Sugiura, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    The chloroplast atpB and atpE genes encode subunits β and ε of the ATP synthase, respectively. They are co-transcribed as dicistronic mRNAs in flowering plants. An unusual feature is an overlap (AUGA) of the atpB stop codon (UGA) with the atpE start codon (AUG). Hence, atpE translation has been believed to depend on atpB translation (i.e. translational coupling). Using an in vitro translation system from tobacco chloroplasts, we showed that both atpB and atpE cistrons are translated from the ...

  17. ATP interaction with the open state of the K(ATP) channel.

    OpenAIRE

    Enkvetchakul, D; Loussouarn, G.; Makhina, E; Nichols, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel closure by ATP is unclear, and various kinetic models in which ATP binds to open or to closed states have previously been presented. Effects of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) and multiple Kir6.2 mutations on ATP inhibition and open probability in the absence of ATP are explainable in kinetic models where ATP stabilizes a closed state and interaction with an open state is not required. Evidence that ATP can in fact interact wi...

  18. Insulin induces a positive relationship between the rates of ATP and glycogen changes in isolated rat liver in presence of glucose; a 31P and 13C NMR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin Henri

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an emerging theory suggesting that insulin, which is known to be the predominant postprandial anabolic hormone, is also a major regulator of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. However, little is known about its effects in the liver. Since there is a theoretical relationship between glycogen metabolism and energy status, a simultaneous and continuous investigation of hepatic ATP and glycogen content was performed in intact and isolated perfused liver by 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR The hepatic rates of ATP and glycogen changes were evaluated with different concentrations of insulin and glucose during continuous and short-term supply. Results Liver from rats fed ad libitum were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit Buffer (KHB(controls or KHB containing 6 mM glucose, 30 mM glucose, insulin alone, insulin + 6 mM glucose, insulin + 30 mM glucose. In the control, glycogenolysis occurred at a rate of -0.53 ± 0.021 %·min-1 and ATP content decreased at a rate of -0.28 ± 0.029 %·min-1. In the absence of insulin, there was a close proportional relationship between the glycogen flux and the glucose concentration, whereas ATP rates never varied. With insulin + glucose, both glycogen and ATP rates were strongly related to the glucose concentration; the magnitude of net glycogen flux was linearly correlated to the magnitude of net ATP flux: fluxglycogen = 72.543(fluxATP + 172.08, R2 = 0.98. Conclusion Only the co-infusion of 30 mM glucose and insulin led to (i a net glycogen synthesis, (ii the maintenance of the hepatic ATP content, and a strong positive correlation between their net fluxes. This has never previously been reported. The specific effect of insulin on ATP change is likely related to a rapid stimulation of the hepatic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We propose that variations in the correlation between rates of ATP and glycogen changes could be a probe for insulin

  19. Copper directs ATP7B to the apical domain of hepatic cells via basolateral endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasae, Lydia K; Schell, Michael J; Hubbard, Ann L

    2014-12-01

    Physiologic Cu levels regulate the intracellular location of the Cu ATPase ATP7B. Here, we determined the routes of Cu-directed trafficking of endogenous ATP7B in the polarized hepatic cell line WIF-B and in the liver in vivo. Copper (10 µm) caused ATP7B to exit the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in vesicles, which trafficked via large basolateral endosomes to the apical domain within 1 h. Although perturbants of luminal acidification had little effect on the TGN localization of ATP7B in low Cu, they blocked delivery to the apical membrane in elevated Cu. If the vesicular proton-pump inhibitor bafilomycin-A1 (Baf) was present with Cu, ATP7B still exited the TGN, but accumulated in large endosomes located near the coverslip, in the basolateral region. Baf washout restored ATP7B trafficking to the apical domain. If ATP7B was staged apically in high Cu, Baf addition promoted the accumulation of ATP7B in subapical endosomes, indicating a blockade of apical recycling, with concomitant loss of ATP7B at the apical membrane. The retrograde pathway to the TGN, induced by Cu removal, was far less affected by Baf than the anterograde (Cu-stimulated) case. Overall, loss of acidification-impaired Cu-regulated trafficking of ATP7B at two main sites: (i) sorting and exit from large basolateral endosomes and (ii) recycling via endosomes near the apical membrane. PMID:25243755

  20. Oxidized ATP. An irreversible inhibitor of the macrophage purinergic P2Z receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, M; Hanau, S; Pizzo, P; Rippa, M; Di Virgilio, F

    1993-04-15

    The effects of oxidized ATP (oATP) on responses triggered by extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATPe) were investigated in the mouse macrophage-like cell line J774. ATPe induced in this cell line two kinds of responses mediated by two different P2 purinergic receptors: 1) an early permeabilization of the plasma membrane to extracellular hydrophilic markers of M(r) up to 900 mediated by P2Z receptors; and 2) a fast mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores mediated by P2Y receptors. Low oATP concentrations (100 microM) completely blocked the first response without affecting the second. ATPe-dependent cell swelling, vacuolization, and lysis were also inhibited. Antagonism developed slowly, as an incubation at 37 degrees C for at least 2 h in the presence of oATP was needed and was irreversible, thus suggesting that the inhibitory action was due to covalent modification of the receptor. The rate of hydrolysis of exogenous ATP was slightly decreased by oATP, indicating a minor blocking effect of this compound on plasma membrane ecto-ATPases in the concentration range tested. These observations suggest that oATP may be a potentially very useful tool for isolation and characterization of the P2Z purinergic receptor. PMID:8463330

  1. Air-stimulated ATP release from keratinocytes occurs through connexin hemichannels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis P Barr

    Full Text Available Cutaneous ATP release plays an important role in both epidermal stratification and chronic pain, but little is known about ATP release mechanisms in keratinocytes that comprise the epidermis. In this study, we analyzed ATP release from cultured human neonatal keratinocytes briefly exposed to air, a process previously demonstrated to trigger ATP release from these cells. We show that exposing keratinocytes to air by removing media for 15 seconds causes a robust, long-lasting ATP release. This air-stimulated ATP release was increased in calcium differentiated cultures which showed a corresponding increase in connexin 43 mRNA, a major component of keratinocyte hemichannels. The known connexin hemichannel inhibitors 1-octanol and carbenoxolone both significantly reduced air-stimulated ATP release, as did two drugs traditionally used as ABC transporter inhibitors (glibenclamide and verapamil. These same 4 inhibitors also prevented an increase in the uptake of a connexin permeable dye induced by air exposure, confirming that connexin hemichannels are open during air-stimulated ATP release. In contrast, activity of the MDR1 ABC transporter was reduced by air exposure and the drugs that inhibited air-stimulated ATP release had differential effects on this transporter. These results indicate that air exposure elicits non-vesicular release of ATP from keratinocytes through connexin hemichannels and that drugs used to target connexin hemichannels and ABC transporters may cross-inhibit. Connexins represent a novel, peripheral target for the treatment of chronic pain and dermatological disease.

  2. Purinergic facilitation of ATP-sensitive potassium current in rat ventricular myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Babenko, Andrey P.; Vassort, Guy

    1997-01-01

    The effects of different purinergic agonists on the cardiac adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium current (IK(ATP)), appearing during dialysis of rat isolated ventricular myocytes with a low-ATP (100 μM) internal solution under whole-cell patch-clamp conditions, were examined in the presence of a P1 purinoceptor antagonist.The extracellular application of ATP in the micromolar range induced, besides known inward currents through cationic and chloride channels, the facilitation o...

  3. T-type Ca(2+) channels facilitate NO-formation, vasodilatation and NO-mediated modulation of blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Andersen, Kenneth; Thuesen, Anne D;

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are involved in the vascular excitation-contraction mechanism and regulation of arterial blood pressure. It was hypothesized that T-type channels promote formation of nitric oxide from the endothelium. The present experiments determine the involvement of T-type chan......Voltage-gated calcium channels are involved in the vascular excitation-contraction mechanism and regulation of arterial blood pressure. It was hypothesized that T-type channels promote formation of nitric oxide from the endothelium. The present experiments determine the involvement of T......-type channels in depolarization-dependent dilatation of mesenteric arteries and blood pressure regulation in Cav3.1 knock-out mice. Nitric oxide-dependent vasodilatation following depolarization-mediated vasoconstriction was reduced significantly in mesenteric arteries from Cav3.1(-/-) compared to wild type...

  4. Vasodilatation with captopril and prazosin in chronic heart failure: double blind study at rest and on exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, J; Canepa-Anson, R; Norell, M S; Poole-Wilson, P; Sutton, G

    1986-03-01

    A double blind cross over study was performed to compare the long term hormonal, haemodynamic, and clinical responses to specific inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (captopril) and of the alpha 1 adrenoceptors of the sympathetic system (prazosin) both at rest and during upright exercise in patients with chronic heart failure. Sixteen patients completed one month's treatment with each drug. During conventional diuretic treatment (control) plasma renin activity, aldosterone, and noradrenaline were increased at rest and on exercise. Control left ventricular filling pressures were raised, and correlated significantly with plasma renin activity both at rest and on exercise. Systemic vascular resistance was increased at rest, and its reduction during exercise correlated inversely with the increase in plasma renin activity and plasma noradrenaline. After one month's treatment with captopril there were reductions in plasma aldosterone, weight, left ventricular filling pressure, and systemic vascular resistance at rest and on exercise. Dyspnoea was relieved and exercise capacity increased. The greater fall in systemic vascular resistance on exercise no longer correlated with the increase in plasma renin activity. During treatment with prazosin there were increases in plasma noradrenaline and, transiently, in plasma aldosterone. Fluid retention occurred, and left ventricular filling pressure was unchanged. Compared with control values systemic vascular resistance was reduced at rest but not on exercise. Dyspnoea and exercise capacity did not improve. In chronic heart failure, vasodilatation by inhibition of the alpha adrenergic system with prazosin causes compensatory stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and does not result in clinical benefit. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with captopril causes secondary vasodilatation at rest and on exercise and results in improvement in symptoms and exercise capacity. PMID

  5. ATP synthase in slow- and fast-growing mycobacteria is active in ATP synthesis and blocked in ATP hydrolysis direction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, A.C.; Driessen, N.N.; Hahn, M.M.; Lill, H.; Bald, D.

    2010-01-01

    ATP synthase is a validated drug target for the treatment of tuberculosis, and ATP synthase inhibitors are promising candidate drugs for the treatment of infections caused by other slow-growing mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans. ATP synthase is an essential enzyme

  6. ATP Release and Effects in Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Amstrup, Jan; Henriksen, Katrine Lütken;

    2003-01-01

    ATP and other nucleotides are released from various cells, but the pathway and physiological stimulus for ATP release are often unclear. The focus of our studies is the understanding of ATP release and signaling in rat exocrine pancreas. In acinar suspension mechanical stimulation, hypotonic shock...

  7. Synergistic binding of glucose and aluminium ATP to hexokinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfitt, A R; Kellett, G L; Hoggett, J G

    1988-08-10

    The binding of glucose, AlATP and AlADP to the monomeric and dimeric forms of the native yeast hexokinase PII isoenzyme and to the proteolytically modified SII monomeric form was monitored at pH 6.7 by the concomitant quenching of intrinsic protein fluorescence. No fluorescence changes were observed when free enzyme was mixed with AlATP at concentrations up to 7500 microM. In the presence of saturating concentrations of glucose, the maximal quenching of fluorescence induced by AlATP was between 1.5 and 3.5% depending on species, and the average value of [L]0.5, the concentration of ligand at half-saturation, over all monomeric species was 0.9 +/- 0.4 microM. The presence of saturating concentrations of AlATP diminished [L]0.5 for glucose binding by between 260- and 670-fold for hexokinase PII and SII monomers, respectively (dependent on the ionic strength), and by almost 4000-fold for PII dimer. The data demonstrate extremely strong synergistic interactions in the binding of glucose and AlATP to yeast hexokinase, arising as a consequence of conformational changes in the free enzyme induced by glucose and in enzyme-glucose complex induced by AlATP. The synergistic interactions of glucose and AlATP are related to their kinetic synergism and to the ability of AlATP to act as a powerful inhibitor of the hexokinase reaction. PMID:3042027

  8. Towards a multiscale description of microvascular flow regulation: O2-dependent release of ATP from human erythrocytes and the distribution of ATP in capillary networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eGoldman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the numerous mechanisms that have been suggested to contribute to optimization of O2 supply to meet O2 need in skeletal muscle requires a systems biology approach which permits quantification of these physiological processes over a wide range of length scales. Here we describe two individual computational models based on in vivo and in vitro studies which, when incorporated into a single robust multiscale model, will provide information on the role of erythrocyte-released ATP in perfusion distribution in skeletal muscle under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Healthy human erythrocytes exposed to low O2 tension release ATP via a well characterized signaling pathway requiring activation of the G-protein, Gi, and adenylyl cyclase leading to increases in cAMP. This cAMP then activates PKA and subsequently CFTR culminating in ATP release via pannexin 1. A critical control point in this pathway is the level of cAMP which is regulated by pathway-specific phosphodiesterases. Using time constants (~100ms that are consistent with measured erythrocyte ATP release, we have constructed a dynamic model of this pathway. The model predicts levels of ATP release consistent with measurements obtained over a wide range of hemoglobin O2 saturations (sO2. The model further predicts how insulin, at concentrations found in prediabetes, enhances the activity of PDE3 and reduces intracellular cAMP levels leading to decreased low O2-induced ATP release from erythrocytes. The second model, which couples O2 and ATP transport in capillary networks, shows how intravascular ATP and the resulting conducted vasodilation are affected by local sO2, convection and ATP degradation. This model also predicts network-level effects of decreased ATP release resulting from elevated insulin levels. Taken together, these models lay the groundwork for investigating the systems biology of the regulation of microvascular perfusion distribution by

  9. ATP citrate lyase knockdown impacts cancer stem cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hanai, J-i; Doro, N; Seth, P; Sukhatme, V P

    2013-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL) knockdown (KD) causes tumor suppression and induces differentiation. We have previously reported that ACL KD reverses epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells. Because EMT is often associated with processes that induce stemness, we hypothesized that ACL KD impacts cancer stem cells. By assessing tumorsphere formation and expression of stem cell markers, we showed this to be the case in A549 cells, which harbor a Ras mutation, and in two other non-sm...

  10. Isotope-coded ATP Probe for Quantitative Affinity Profiling of ATP-binding Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Lei; Wang, Yinsheng

    2013-01-01

    ATP-binding proteins play significant roles in numerous cellular processes. Here, we introduced a novel isotope-coded ATP-affinity probe (ICAP) as acylating agent to simultaneously enrich and incorporate isotope label to ATP-binding proteins. By taking advantage of the quantitative capability of this isotope-coded probe, we devised an affinity profiling strategy to comprehensively characterize ATP-protein interactions at the entire proteome scale. False-positive identification of ATP-binding ...

  11. Mechanisms of constitutive and ATP-evoked ATP release in neonatal mouse olfactory epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Hayoz Sébastien; Jia Cuihong; Hegg CC

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background ATP is an extracellular signaling molecule with many ascribed functions in sensory systems, including the olfactory epithelium. The mechanism(s) by which ATP is released in the olfactory epithelium has not been investigated. Quantitative luciferin-luciferase assays were used to monitor ATP release, and confocal imaging of the fluorescent ATP marker quinacrine was used to monitor ATP release via exocytosis in Swiss Webster mouse neonatal olfactory epithelial slices. Results...

  12. Aptamer based turn-off fluorescent ATP assay using DNA concatamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a turn-off fluorescence-based strategy for the detection of ATP by making use of aptamer-triggered dsDNA concatamers. This sensitive and easily controlled method is based on consecutive hybridization induced by ATP aptamers and their sectional complementary DNAs to form dsDNA concatamers. The intercalator SYBR Green I (SGI) was employed as a fluorescent probe. In the absence of ATP, the probe produces a strong signal. However, on addition of ATP, the binding of aptamer and ATP cause the concatamers to collapse and to release SGI whose fluorescence then is quenched. The effect was exploited to design a selective ATP assay by relating the decrease in fluorescence to the ATP concentration. A lower detection limit of 6.1 μM and a linear response in the 0 to 5000 μM concentration range was accomplished. The strategy was applied to cellular ATP assays, and the results obtained by this strategy and by the gold standard method are in good agreement. The method is sensitive, simple and cost efficient, and hence is promising in terms of future applications to determine ATP in cellular and other systems. (author)

  13. Overactive and Underactive Bladder Dysfunction is Reflected by Alterations in Urothelial ATP and NO Release

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Alvaro; Smith, Christopher P.; Boone, Timothy B.; Somogyi, George T.

    2010-01-01

    ATP and NO are released from the urothelium in the bladder. Detrusor Overactivity (DO) following spinal cord injury results in higher ATP and lower NO release from the bladder urothelium. Our aim was to study the relationship between ATP and NO release in 1) early diabetic bladders, an overactive bladder model; and 2) in “diuretic” bladders, an underactive bladder model. To induce diabetes mellitus female rats received 65 mg/kg streptozocin (i.v.). To induce chronic diuresis rats were fed wit...

  14. ATP independent and ATP dependent chromatin remodeling in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unraveling the biochemistry of chromatin dynamics during DNA replication, repair, recombination as well as transcription is the current challenge in biology. The nucleosomes containing histone octamer are the crucial elements responsible for winding and unwinding eukaryotic DNA. During DNA centric events, these nucleosomes translocate along the DNA with concomitant covalent modifications of histones. We explored these mechanisms in wheat seedlings after irradiation with survivable dose of 60Co-γ radiations. The histones isolated from irradiated seedlings showed that global acetylation of H3 decreased and H4 increased in dose depend manner till 100 grays. Time course of individual modifications showed that for H3K4 and H3K9 acetylation decreased, whereas H3S10, phosphorylation increased. There were fluctuations in acetylation of H4K5, H4K12 and H4K16, whereas H4K8 showed hyperacetylation. We found ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity as trans-transfer of the nucleosomes from wheat native donor chromatin on a labeled nucleosome positioning sequence and cis-transfer of the mononucleosomes in vitro. However, there was no significant change in this activity in extracts obtained from irradiated wheat seedlings. This is the first report on, demonstration of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity and site specific H3 and H4 modifications in response to exposure to ionizing radiation in case of plants. (author)

  15. Cholesterol efflux via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and cholesterol uptake via the LDL receptor influences cholesterol-induced impairment of beta cell function in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, J. K.; Kremer, P. H. C.; Dai, L.; Tang, R.; Ruddle, P.; de Haan, W.; Brunham, L. R.; Verchere, C. B.; Hayden, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular cholesterol accumulation is an emerging mechanism for beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Absence of the cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) results in increased islet cholesterol and impaired insulin secretion, indicating that impaired cholesterol effl

  16. The multi-xenobiotic resistance (MXR) efflux activity in hemocytes of Mytilus edulis is mediated by an ATP binding cassette transporter of class C (ABCC) principally inducible in eosinophilic granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioult, Damien; Pasquier, Jennifer; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Poret, Agnès; Abbas, Imane; Marin, Matthieu; Minier, Christophe; Le Foll, Frank

    2014-08-01

    In marine and estuarine species, immunotoxic and/or immunomodulatory mechanisms are the crossroad of interactions between xenobiotics, microorganisms and physicochemical variations of the environment. In mussels, immunity relies exclusively on innate responses carried out by cells collectively called hemocytes and found in the open hemolymphatic circulatory system of these organisms. However, hemocytes do not form a homogenous population of immune cells since distinct subtypes of mussel blood cells can be distinguished by cytochemistry, flow cytometry or cell motility analysis. Previous studies have also shown that these cells are able to efflux xenobiotics by means of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter activities conferring a multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) phenotype. ABC transporters corresponding to vertebrate class B/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and to class C/multidrug resistance related protein (MRP) are characterized in Mytilidae. Herein, we have investigated the relative contributions of ABCB- and ABCC-mediated efflux within the different hemocyte subpopulations of Mytilus edulis mussels, collected from areas differentially impacted by chemical contaminants in Normandy (France). RT-PCR analyses provide evidence for the presence of ABCB and ABCC transporters transcripts in hemocytes. Immunodetection of ABCB/P-gp with the monoclonal antibody UIC2 in living hemocytes revealed that expression was restricted to granular structures of spread cells. Efflux transporter activities, with calcein-AM as fluorescent probe, were measured by combining flow cytometry to accurate Coulter cell size measurements in order to get a cell-volume normalized fluorescence concentration. In these conditions, basal fluorescence levels were higher in hemocytes originating from Yport (control site) than in cells collected from the harbor of Le Havre, where mussels are more exposed to with persistent pollutants. By using specific ABCB/P-gp (verapamil, PSC833, zosuquidar) and ABCC/MRP (MK

  17. Age-dependent impact of CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channel deletion on myogenic tone and flow-mediated vasodilatation in small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Miriam F; Björling, Karl; Jensen, Lars Jørn

    2016-01-01

    The myogenic response and flow-mediated vasodilatation are important regulators of local blood perfusion and total peripheral resistance, and are known to entail a calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs), respectively. CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channels a......-mediated vasomotor responses to prevent excess arterial tone, protect against cardiovascular disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  18. Acute Effect of Whole-Body Periodic Acceleration on Brachial Flow-Mediated Vasodilatation Assessed by a Novel Semi-Automatic Vessel Chasing UNEXEF18G System

    OpenAIRE

    Takase, Bonpei; Hattori, Hidemi; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Uehata, Akimi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Fujita, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Repeated application of whole-body periodic acceleration (WBPA) upregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase and improves brachial artery endothelial function (BAEF) as assessed by measurement of flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD). However, the acute effect of a single application of WBPA on BAEF has not been fully characterized. In addition, although a novel semi-automatic vessel chasing system (UNEXEF18G) has now been developed in Japan, the direct comparison of UNEXEF18G with a...

  19. Reactivity to low‐flow as a potential determinant for brachial artery flow‐mediated vasodilatation

    OpenAIRE

    Aizawa, Kunihiko; Elyas, Salim; Adingupu, Damilola D.; Casanova, Francesco; Gooding, Kim M.; Strain, W. David; Shore, Angela C.; Gates, Phillip E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have reported a vasoconstrictor response in the radial artery during a cuff‐induced low‐flow condition, but a similar low‐flow condition in the brachial artery results in nonuniform reactivity. This variable reactivity to low‐flow influences the subsequent flow‐mediated dilatation (FMD) response following cuff‐release. However, it is uncertain whether reactivity to low‐flow is important in data interpretation in clinical populations and older adults. This study aimed...

  20. Optimisation of ATP determination in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution......, since the method is very sensitive (detects 0.5 ng ATP/L) and results are obtained within minutes. When calculating the ATP value a number of parameters need to be considered. These were investigate by use of two different reagent kits (PCP-kit and Lumin(ATE)/Lumin(EX)-kit), internal standard and an...... Advance Coupe luminometer. The investigations showed a 60 times higher response of the PCP-kit, making it more suitable for measurement of samples with low ATP content. ATP-standard dilutions prepared in tap water were stable for at least 15 months when stored frozen at -80ºC, and storage of large...

  1. Protein targeting to ATP-dependent proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Inobe, Tomonao; Matouschek, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    ATP-dependent proteases control diverse cellular processes by degrading specific regulatory proteins. Understanding how these regulatory proteins are targeted to ATP-dependent proteases is of central importance to understanding their biological role as regulators. Recent work has shown that protein substrates are specifically transferred to ATP-dependent proteases through different routes. These routes can function in parallel or independently. In all of these targeting mechanisms it can be u...

  2. Regulation of Aerobic Energy Metabolism in Podospora anserina by Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Structurally Different c-Subunits of ATP Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellem, Carole H.; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Ackerman, Sharon H.; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Most of the ATP in living cells is produced by an F-type ATP synthase. This enzyme uses the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Proton movements across the membrane domain (FO) of the ATP synthase drive the rotation of a ring of 8–15 c-subunits, which induces conformational changes in the catalytic part (F1) of the enzyme that ultimately promote ATP synthesis. Two paralogous nuclear genes, called Atp9-5 and Atp9-7, encode structurally different c-subunits in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. We have in this study identified differences in the expression pattern for the two genes that correlate with the mitotic activity of cells in vegetative mycelia: Atp9-7 is transcriptionally active in non-proliferating (stationary) cells while Atp9-5 is expressed in the cells at the extremity (apex) of filaments that divide and are responsible for mycelium growth. When active, the Atp9-5 gene sustains a much higher rate of c-subunit synthesis than Atp9-7. We further show that the ATP9-7 and ATP9-5 proteins have antagonist effects on the longevity of P. anserina. Finally, we provide evidence that the ATP9-5 protein sustains a higher rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and yield in ATP molecules per electron transferred to oxygen than the c-subunit encoded by Atp9-7. These findings reveal that the c-subunit genes play a key role in the modulation of ATP synthase production and activity along the life cycle of P. anserina. Such a degree of sophistication for regulating aerobic energy metabolism has not been described before. PMID:27442014

  3. Gynura procumbens Merr. decreases blood pressure in rats by vasodilatation via inhibition of calcium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See-Ziau Hoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gynura procumbens has been shown to decrease blood pressure via inhibition of the angiotensinconverting enzyme. However, other mechanisms that may contribute to the hypotensive effect have not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cardiovascular effects of a butanolic fraction of Gynura procumbens in rats. METHODS: Anaesthetized rats were given intravenous bolus injections of butanolic fraction at doses of 2.5-20 mg/kg in vivo. The effect of butanolic fraction on vascular reactivity was recorded in isolated rat aortic rings in vitro. RESULTS: Intravenous administrations of butanolic fraction elicited significant (p<0.001 and dose-dependent decreases in the mean arterial pressure. However, a significant (p<0.05 decrease in the heart rate was observed only at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg. In isolated preparations of rat aortic rings, phenylephrine (1×10-6 M- or potassium chloride (8×10-2 M-precontracted endothelium-intact and -denuded tissue; butanolic fraction (1×10-6-1×10-1 g/ml induced similar concentration-dependent relaxation of the vessels. In the presence of 2.5×10-3 and 5.0×10-3 g/ml butanolic fraction, the contractions induced by phenylephrine (1×10-9-3×10-5 M and potassium chloride (1×10-2-8×10-2 M were significantly antagonized. The calcium-induced vasocontractions (1×10-4-1×10-2 M were antagonized by butanolic fraction concentration-dependently in calcium-free and high potassium (6×10-2 M medium, as well as in calcium- and potassium-free medium containing 1×10-6 M phenylephrine. However, the contractions induced by noradrenaline (1×10-6 M and caffeine (4.5×10-2 M were not affected by butanolic fraction. CONCLUSION: Butanolic fraction contains putative hypotensive compounds that appear to inhibit calcium influx via receptor-operated and/or voltage-dependent calcium channels to cause vasodilation and a consequent fall in blood pressure.

  4. Structural, biochemical and genetic characterization of dissimilatory ATP sulfurylase from Allochromatium vinosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Parey

    Full Text Available ATP sulfurylase (ATPS catalyzes a key reaction in the global sulfur cycle by reversibly converting inorganic sulfate (SO4 (2- with ATP to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS and pyrophosphate (PPi. In this work we report on the sat encoded dissimilatory ATP sulfurylase from the sulfur-oxidizing purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum. In this organism, the sat gene is located in one operon and co-transcribed with the aprMBA genes for membrane-bound APS reductase. Like APS reductase, Sat is dispensible for growth on reduced sulfur compounds due to the presence of an alternate, so far unidentified sulfite-oxidizing pathway in A. vinosum. Sulfate assimilation also proceeds independently of Sat by a separate pathway involving a cysDN-encoded assimilatory ATP sulfurylase. We produced the purple bacterial sat-encoded ATP sulfurylase as a recombinant protein in E. coli, determined crucial kinetic parameters and obtained a crystal structure in an open state with a ligand-free active site. By comparison with several known structures of the ATPS-APS complex in the closed state a scenario about substrate-induced conformational changes was worked out. Despite different kinetic properties ATPS involved in sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing processes are not distinguishable on a structural level presumably due to the interference between functional and evolutionary processes.

  5. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-Interactome using the iTRAQ-SPROX Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, M. Ariel; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2016-02-01

    The stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) technique was used in combination with an isobaric mass tagging strategy to identify adenosine triphosphate (ATP) interacting proteins in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome. The SPROX methodology utilized in this work enabled 373 proteins in a yeast cell lysate to be assayed for ATP interactions (both direct and indirect) using the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). A total of 28 proteins were identified with AMP-PNP-induced thermodynamic stability changes. These protein hits included 14 proteins that were previously annotated as ATP-binding proteins in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). The 14 non-annotated ATP-binding proteins included nine proteins that were previously found to be ATP-sensitive in an earlier SPROX study using a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based approach. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein hits identified here and in the earlier SILAC-SPROX experiments revealed that many of the previously annotated ATP-binding protein hits were kinases, ligases, and chaperones. In contrast, many of the newly discovered ATP-sensitive proteins were not from these protein classes, but rather were hydrolases, oxidoreductases, and nucleic acid-binding proteins.

  6. ATP stimulates calcium influx in primary astrocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ATP and other purines on 45Ca uptake was studied in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Treatment of the cells with ATP for 1 to 30 min brought about an increase in cellular 45Ca. Stimulation of calcium influx by ATP was investigated using a 90 sec exposure to 45Ca and over a concentration range of 0.1 nM to 3 mM; a biphasic dose-response curve was obtained with EC50 values of 0.3 nM and 9 uM, indicating the presence of low and high affinity purinergic binding sites. Similar levels of 45Ca influx at 90 sec were observed with ATP, ADP and adenosine (all at 100 uM). Prior treatment of the cultures with LaCl3 blocked the purine-induced 45Ca influx. These findings indicate that one pathway for calcium entry in astrocytes involves purinergic receptor-operated, calcium channels

  7. Conformational dynamics of ATP/Mg:ATP in motor proteins via data mining and molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovschi, A.; Liu, Ming S.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2012-08-01

    The conformational diversity of ATP/Mg:ATP in motor proteins was investigated using molecular dynamics and data mining. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) conformations were found to be constrained mostly by inter cavity motifs in the motor proteins. It is demonstrated that ATP favors extended conformations in the tight pockets of motor proteins such as F1-ATPase and actin whereas compact structures are favored in motor proteins such as RNA polymerase and DNA helicase. The incorporation of Mg2+ leads to increased flexibility of ATP molecules. The differences in the conformational dynamics of ATP/Mg:ATP in various motor proteins was quantified by the radius of gyration. The relationship between the simulation results and those obtained by data mining of motor proteins available in the protein data bank is analyzed. The data mining analysis of motor proteins supports the conformational diversity of the phosphate group of ATP obtained computationally.

  8. Inhibitory effect of BIBN4096BS on cephalic vasodilatation induced by CGRP or transcranial electrical stimulation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kenneth A; Birk, Steffen; Doods, Henri;

    2004-01-01

    therapeutic principle. We used an improved closed cranial window model to measure changes of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and cortical pial artery/arteriole diameter (PA) and changes in local cortical cerebral blood flow (LCBF(Flux)) in anaesthetised artificially ventilated rats. The ability of BIBN4096...... LCBF(Flux) was similar not prevented by the antagonist. We suggest that systemic BIBN4096BS exerts its inhibitory action mainly on large dural blood vessels (MMA)....

  9. Continuous intravenous infusion of ATP in humans yields large expansions of erythrocyte ATP pools but extracellular ATP pools are elevated only at the start followed by rapid declines

    OpenAIRE

    Rapaport, Eliezer; Salikhova, Anna; Abraham, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) was investigated in a clinical trial that included 15 patients with advanced malignancies (solid tumors). ATP was administered by continuous intravenous infusions of 8 h once weekly for 8 weeks. Three values of blood ATP levels were determined. These were total blood (erythrocyte) and blood plasma (extracellular) ATP pools along with the initial rate of release of ATP into the blood plasma. We found that values related to erythrocyte ATP...

  10. Fluorogenic ATP Analogues for Online Monitoring of ATP Consumption : Observing Ubiquitin Activation in Real Time

    OpenAIRE

    Hacker, Stephan; Pagliarini, Dana; Tischer, Thomas; Hardt, Normann; Schneider, Daniel; Mex, Martin; Mayer, Thomas; Scheffner, Martin; Marx, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Many enzymes use ATP in signal-transducing processes or as an energy source. New fluorogenic ATP analogues signal ATP consumption by ubiquitin-like protein-activating enzymes in real time. Thus the inhibition and stimulation of these ATP-processing enzymes can be studied without auxiliary enzymes and reagents. beta-Lapachone was identified as an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 (see scheme; A=acceptor, D=donor).

  11. Identification and characterization of a novel NOD-like receptor family CARD domain containing 3 gene in response to extracellular ATP stimulation and its role in regulating LPS-induced innate immune response in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) head kidney macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoli; Hao, Gaixiang; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-03-01

    Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family with a caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) containing 3 (NLRC3) protein is an important cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that negatively regulates innate immune response in mammals. Hitherto, the immunological significance of NLRC3 protein in fish remains largely uncharacterized. Here we identified and characterized a novel NLRC3 gene (named poNLRC3) implicated in regulation of fish innate immunity from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The poNLRC3 protein is a cytoplasmic protein with an undefined N-terminal domain, a NACHT domain, a fish-specific NACHT associated domain, six LRR motifs, and a C-terminal fish-specific PYR/SPYR (B30.2) domain but only shares less than 40% sequence identities with the known Japanese flounder NLRC proteins. poNLRC3 gene is ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues and is dominantly expressed in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages (HKMs). We for the first time showed that poNLRC3 expression was significantly modulated by the stimulation of extracellular ATP, an important danger/damage-associated molecular pattern in activating innate immunity in P. olivaceus. Importantly, we revealed that poNLRC3 plays an important role in positively regulating ATP-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 gene expression, suggesting the involvement of poNLRC3 in extracellular ATP-mediated immune signaling. In addition, we showed that poNLRC3 mRNA expression was up-regulated in response to LPS and Edwardsiella tarda immune challenges. Finally, we showed that down-regulating the endogenous poNLRC3 expression with small interfering RNA significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in the Japanese flounder HKM cells. Altogether, we have identified a novel inducible fish NLR member, poNLRC3, which is involved in extracellular ATP-mediated immune signaling and may positively regulate the LPS-induced innate immune response in the Japanese

  12. The F0F1 ATP Synthase Complex Localizes to Membrane Rafts in Gonadotrope Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal; Xie, Jianjun; Brown, Jessica L; Edmunson, Alexa M; Dowling, Abigail; Navratil, Amy M; Scavelli, Kurt; Yoon, Hojean; Kim, Do-Geun; Bynoe, Margaret S; Clarke, Iain; Roberson, Mark S

    2016-09-01

    Fertility in mammals requires appropriate communication within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) is a central conduit for this communication. The GnRHR resides in discrete membrane rafts and raft occupancy is required for signaling by GnRH. The present studies use immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to define peptides present within the raft associated with the GnRHR and flotillin-1, a key raft marker. These studies revealed peptides from the F0F1 ATP synthase complex. The catalytic subunits of the F1 domain were validated by immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry, and cell surface biotinylation studies demonstrating that this complex was present at the plasma membrane associated with the GnRHR. The F1 catalytic domain faces the extracellular space and catalyzes ATP synthesis when presented with ADP in normal mouse pituitary explants and a gonadotrope cell line. Steady-state extracellular ATP accumulation was blunted by coadministration of inhibitory factor 1, limiting inorganic phosphate in the media, and by chronic stimulation of the GnRHR. Steady-state extracellular ATP accumulation was enhanced by pharmacological inhibition of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases. Kisspeptin administration induced coincident GnRH and ATP release from the median eminence into the hypophyseal-portal vasculature in ovariectomized sheep. Elevated levels of extracellular ATP augmented GnRH-induced secretion of LH from pituitary cells in primary culture, which was blocked in media containing low inorganic phosphate supporting the importance of extracellular ATP levels to gonadotrope cell function. These studies indicate that gonadotropes have intrinsic ability to metabolize ATP in the extracellular space and extracellular ATP may serve as a modulator of GnRH-induced LH secretion. PMID:27482602

  13. A sensitive aptasensor for colorimetric detection of adenosine triphosphate based on the protective effect of ATP-aptamer complexes on unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuan; Qi, Liang; Lv, Xiao-Jun; Lai, Ting; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the most direct source of energy in organisms. This study is the first to demonstrate that ATP-aptamer complexes provide greater protection for unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against salt-induced aggregation than either aptamer or ATP alone. This protective effect was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential measurement, and fluorescence polarization techniques. Utilizing controlled particle aggregation/dispersion as a gauge, a sensitive and selective aptasensor for colorimetric detection of ATP was developed using ATP-binding aptamers as the identification element and unmodified AuNPs as the probe. This aptasensor exhibited a good linear relationship between the absorbance and the logarithm concentration of ATP within a 50-1000 nM range. ATP analogs such as guanosine triphosphate, uridine triphosphate and cytidine triphosphate resulted in little or no interference in the determination of ATP. PMID:26638040

  14. Extracellular ATP inhibits Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation in an ex vivo model of Wallerian degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Youn Ho; Lee, Seo Jin [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Heogi-Dong 1, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Junyang, E-mail: jjung@khu.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Heogi-Dong 1, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATP-treated sciatic explants shows the decreased expression of p75NGFR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular ATP inhibits the expression of phospho-ERK1/2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lysosomal exocytosis is involved in Schwann cell dedifferentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular ATP blocks Schwann cell proliferation in sciatic explants. -- Abstract: After nerve injury, Schwann cells proliferate and revert to a phenotype that supports nerve regeneration. This phenotype-changing process can be viewed as Schwann cell dedifferentiation. Here, we investigated the role of extracellular ATP in Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation during Wallerian degeneration. Using several markers of Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation in sciatic explants, we found that extracellular ATP inhibits Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation during Wallerian degeneration. Furthermore, the blockage of lysosomal exocytosis in ATP-treated sciatic explants is sufficient to induce Schwann cell dedifferentiation. Together, these findings suggest that ATP-induced lysosomal exocytosis may be involved in Schwann cell dedifferentiation.

  15. Effects of arachidonic acid on ATP-sensitive K+ current in murine colonic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jae Yeoul; Yeum, Cheol Ho; Park, Yoo Whan; Jang, In Youb; Kong, In Deok; Sim, Jae Hoon; So, Insuk; Kim, Ki Whan; You, Ho Jin

    2002-09-01

    The effects of arachidonic acid (AA) and the mechanism through which it modulates ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) currents were examined in single smooth muscle cells of murine proximal colon. In the current-clamping mode, AA and glibenclamide induced depolarization of membrane potential. Using 0.1 mM ATP and 140 mM K+ solution in the pipette and 90 mM K+ in the bath solution at a -80 mV of holding potential, pinacidil activated the glibenclamide-sensitive inward current. The potential of these currents was reversed to near the equilibrium potential of K+ by 60 mM K+ in the bath solution. AA inhibited K(ATP) currents in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibition was not changed when 1 mM GDPbetaS was present in the pipette. Chelerythrine, protein kinase C inhibitor, did not block the AA effects. Superoxide dismutase and metabolic inhibitors (indomethacin and nordihydroguaiacretic acid) of AA did not affect the AA-induced inhibition. Eicosatetraynoic acid, a nonmetabolizable analogue of AA, inhibited the K(ATP) currents. These results suggest that AA-induced inhibition of K(ATP) currents is not mediated by G-protein or protein kinase C activation. The inhibitory action is likely to be a possible mechanism of AA-induced membrane depolarization. PMID:12396031

  16. Flow-Mediated Vasodilatation and Intima-Media Thickness in Patients with Coexisting Heart Failure and Diabetes Receiving Medical Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Vestergaard Andersen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intensive medical treatment of heart failure (HF patients with diabetes may reduce the endothelial dysfunction and the accelerated atherosclerotic process seen in these patients. To study this, we investigated the endothelial function and the presence of atherosclerosis as measured by flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD and intima-media thickness (IMT in intensively treated patients with coexisting HF and diabetes. Research Design and Method: FMD of the brachial artery and IMT of the common carotid arteries were determined in 26 patients with systolic HF and diabetes who were in intensive medical therapy, as well as in 19 healthy controls. The two groups were matched according to age and sex. In all subjects left ventricular ejection fraction was measured by two-dimensional echocardiography. Biochemical parameters including serum cholesterol, HDL and LDL, triglyceride, glucose, hemoglobin/hemoglobin-A1C (HbA1C, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP and N-terminal pro-BNP were also assessed. Results: Mean FMD and IMT did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in patients compared to controls (P < 0.001. The patients had a higher mean BNP, NT pro-BNP, triglyceride, HbA1C and glucose in comparison to controls. Cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were lower in patients compared to controls. Conclusions: Intensively treated patients with coexisting systolic HF and diabetes seem to have normal endothelial function as measured by FMD and they have no sign of accelerated atherosclerosis as measured by IMT. This suggests a positive effect of medication on the cardiovascular alterations in this group of patients.

  17. Contribution of oxygen-sensitive neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla to hypoxic cerebral vasodilatation in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanov, E. V.; Reis, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. We sought to determine whether hypoxic stimulation of neurons of the rostral ventrolateral reticular nucleus (RVL) would elevate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in anaesthetized paralysed rats. 2. Microinjection of sodium cyanide (NaCN; 150-450 pmol) into the RVL rapidly (within 1-2 s), transiently, dose-dependently and site-specifically elevated rCBF1 measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, by 61.3 +/- 22.1% (P anaesthesia. 4. Electrical stimulation of NaCN-sensitive sites in the RVL in spinalized rats increased rCBF measured autoradiographically with 14C iodoantipyrine (Kety method) in the mid-line thalamus (by 182.3 +/- 17.2%; P < 0.05) and cerebral cortex (by 172.6 +/- 15.6%; P < 0.05) regions, respectively, directly or indirectly innervated by RVL neurons, and in the remainder of the brain. In contrast regional cerebral glucose utilization (rCGU), measured autoradiographically with 14C-2-deoxyglucose (Sokoloff method), was increased in proportion to rCBF in the mid-line thalamus (165.6 +/- 17.8%, P < 0.05) but was unchanged in the cortex. 5. Bilateral electrolytic lesions of NaCN sensitive sites of RVL, while not altering resting rCBF or the elevation elicited by hypercarbia (arterial CO2 pressure, Pa,CO2, approximately 69 mmHg), reduced the vasodilatation elicited by normocapnic hypoxaemia (arterial O2 pressure, Pa,O2, approximately 27 mmHg) by 67% (P < 0.01) and flattened the slope of the Pa,O2-rCBF response curve. 6. We conclude that the elevation of rCBF produced in the cerebral cortex by hypoxaemia is in large measure neurogenic, mediated trans-synaptically over intrinsic neuronal pathways, and initiated by excitation of oxygen sensitive neurons in the RVL.

  18. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  19. MalT, the regulatory protein of the Escherichia coli maltose system, is an ATP-dependent transcriptional activator.

    OpenAIRE

    Richet, E; Raibaud, O

    1989-01-01

    We show that MalT, the transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli maltose regulon, specifically binds ATP and dATP with a high affinity (Kd = 0.4 microM) and exhibits a weak ATPase activity. Using an abortive initiation assay, we further show that activation of open complex formation by MalT depends on the presence of ATP in addition to that of maltotriose, the inducer of the maltose system. Similar experiments in which ATP was replaced by ADP or AMP-PNP, a non-hydrolysable analogue of...

  20. Ethacrynic acid inhibition of histamine release from rat mast cells: effect on cellular ATP levels and thiol groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1983-01-01

    The experiments concerned the effect of ethacrynic acid (0.5 mM) on the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of rat mast cells and the effect on histamine release induced by the ionophore A23187 (10 microM). Ethacrynic acid decreased the ATP level of the cells in presence of antimycin A and glucose...

  1. ATP and Presentation Service for Mizar Formalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Josef; Sitcliffe, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Automated Reasoning for Mizar (MizAR) service, which integrates several automated reasoning, artificial intelligence, and presentation tools with Mizar and its authoring environment. The service provides ATP assistance to Mizar authors in finding and explaining proofs, and offers generation of Mizar problems as challenges to ATP systems. The service is based on a sound translation from the Mizar language to that of first-order ATP systems, and relies on the recent progress in application of ATP systems in large theories containing tens of thousands of available facts. We present the main features of MizAR services, followed by an account of initial experiments in finding proofs with the ATP assistance. Our initial experience indicates that the tool offers substantial help in exploring the Mizar library and in preparing new Mizar articles.

  2. Pharmacological profile of the ATP-mediated increase in L-type calcium current amplitude and activation of a non-specific cationic current in rat ventricular cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Scamps, F.; Vassort, G

    1994-01-01

    1. The pharmacological profile of the ATP-induced increase in ICa amplitude and of ATP activation of a non-specific cationic current, IATP, was investigated in rat ventricular cells. 2. The EC50 values for ICa increase and IATP activation were 0.36 microM and 0.76 microM respectively. Suramin (10 microM) and cibacron blue (1 microM) competitively antagonized both effects of ATP. 3. The rank order of efficacy and potency of ATP analogues in increasing ICa amplitude was 2-methylthio-ATP approxi...

  3. A tenth atp gene and the conserved atpI gene of a Bacillus atp operon have a role in Mg2+ uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, David B.; Wang, Zhenxiong; Wei, Yi; Kent, Rebecca; Guffanti, Arthur A.; Banciu, Horia; Bechhofer, David H.; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2003-01-01

    The atp operon of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, as in most prokaryotes, contains the eight structural genes for the F-ATPase (ATP synthase), which are preceded by an atpI gene that encodes a membrane protein of unknown function. A tenth gene, atpZ, has been found in this operon, which is upstream of and overlapping with atpI. Most Bacillus species, and some other bacteria, possess atpZ homologues. AtpZ is predicted to be a membrane protein with a hairpin ...

  4. The structural basis of ATP as an allosteric modulator.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaoyong Lu; Wenkang Huang; Qi Wang; Qiancheng Shen; Shuai Li; Ruth Nussinov; Jian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is generally regarded as a substrate for energy currency and protein modification. Recent findings uncovered the allosteric function of ATP in cellular signal transduction but little is understood about this critical behavior of ATP. Through extensive analysis of ATP in solution and proteins, we found that the free ATP can exist in the compact and extended conformations in solution, and the two different conformational characteristics may be responsible for ATP...

  5. The Structural Basis of ATP as an Allosteric Modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shaoyong; Huang, Wenkang; Wang, Qi; Shen, Qiancheng; Li, Shuai; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) is generally regarded as a substrate for energy currency and protein modification. Recent findings uncovered the allosteric function of ATP in cellular signal transduction but little is understood about this critical behavior of ATP. Through extensive analysis of ATP in solution and proteins, we found that the free ATP can exist in the compact and extended conformations in solution, and the two different conformational characteristics may be responsible for ATP...

  6. Response of ATP sulfurylase and serine acetyltransferase towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-dong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Xiao-e; Chao, Yue-en; Feng, Ying

    2009-04-01

    We studied the responses of the activities of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyltransferase (SAT) to cadmium (Cd) levels and treatment time in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum alfredii Hance, as compared with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results show that plant growth was inhibited in NHE but promoted in HE when exposed to high Cd level. Cd concentrations in leaves and shoots rapidly increased in HE rather than in NHE, and they became much higher in HE than in NHE along with increasing treatment time and Cd supply levels. ATPS activity was higher in HE than in NHE in all Cd treatments, and increased with increasing Cd supply levels in both HE and NHE when exposed to Cd treatment within 8 h. However, a marked difference of ATPS activity between HE and NHE was found with Cd treatment for 168 h, where ATPS activity increased in HE but decreased in NHE. Similarly, SAT activity was higher in HE than in NHE at all Cd treatments, but was more sensitive in NHE than in HE. Both ATPS and SAT activities in NHE leaves tended to decrease with increasing treatment time after 8 h at all Cd levels. The results reveal the different responses in sulfur assimilation enzymes and Cd accumulation between HE and NHE. With increasing Cd stress, the activities of sulfur assimilation enzymes (ATPS and SAT) were induced in HE, which may contribute to Cd accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. PMID:19353742

  7. Response of ATP sulfurylase and serine acetyltransferase towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-dong GUO; Jun LIANG; Xiao-e YANG; Yue-en CHAO; Ying FENG

    2009-01-01

    We studied the responses of the activities of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyl-transferase (SAT) to cadmium (Cd) levels and treatment time in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum alfredii Hance, as compared with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results show that plant growth was inhibited in NHE but promoted in HE when exposed to high Cd level. Cd concentrations in leaves and shoots rapidly increased in HE rather than in NHE, and they became much higher in HE than in NHE along with increasing treatment time and Cd supply levels. ATPS activity was higher in HE than in NHE in all Cd treatments, and increased with increasing Cd supply levels in both HE and NHE when exposed to Cd treatment within 8 h. However, a marked difference of ATPS activity between HE and NHE was found with Cd treatment for 168 h, where ATPS activity increased in HE but decreased in NHE. Similarly, SAT activity was higher in HE than in NHE at all Cd treatments, but was more sensitive in NHE than in HE. Both ATPS and SAT activities in NHE leaves tended to decrease with increasing treatment time after 8 h at all Cd levels. The results reveal the different responses in sulfur assimilation enzymes and Cd accumulation between HE and NHE. With increasing Cd stress, the activities of sulfur assimilation enzymes (ATPS and SAT) were induced in HE, which may contribute to Cd accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

  8. Response of ATP sulfurylase and serine acetyltransferase towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-dong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Xiao-e; Chao, Yue-en; Feng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    We studied the responses of the activities of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyltransferase (SAT) to cadmium (Cd) levels and treatment time in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum alfredii Hance, as compared with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results show that plant growth was inhibited in NHE but promoted in HE when exposed to high Cd level. Cd concentrations in leaves and shoots rapidly increased in HE rather than in NHE, and they became much higher in HE than in NHE along with increasing treatment time and Cd supply levels. ATPS activity was higher in HE than in NHE in all Cd treatments, and increased with increasing Cd supply levels in both HE and NHE when exposed to Cd treatment within 8 h. However, a marked difference of ATPS activity between HE and NHE was found with Cd treatment for 168 h, where ATPS activity increased in HE but decreased in NHE. Similarly, SAT activity was higher in HE than in NHE at all Cd treatments, but was more sensitive in NHE than in HE. Both ATPS and SAT activities in NHE leaves tended to decrease with increasing treatment time after 8 h at all Cd levels. The results reveal the different responses in sulfur assimilation enzymes and Cd accumulation between HE and NHE. With increasing Cd stress, the activities of sulfur assimilation enzymes (ATPS and SAT) were induced in HE, which may contribute to Cd accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. PMID:19353742

  9. ATP responses in human C nociceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliges, Marita; Weidner, Christian; Schmelz, Martin; Schmidt, Roland; Ørstavik, Kristin; Torebjörk, Erik; Handwerker, Hermann

    2002-07-01

    Microelectrode recordings of impulse activity in nociceptive C fibres were performed in cutaneous fascicles of the peroneal nerve at the knee level in healthy human subjects. Mechano-heat responsive C units (CMH), mechano-insensitive but heat-responsive (CH) as well as mechano-insensitive and heat-insensitive C units (CM(i)H(i)) were identified. A subgroup of the mechano-insensitive units was readily activated by histamine. We studied the responsiveness of these nociceptor classes to injection of 20 microl 5 mM adenosintriphosphate (ATP) using saline injections as control. Because of mechanical distension during injection, which typically activates mechano-responsive C fibres, interest was focused on responsiveness to ATP after withdrawal of the injection needle. Post-injection responses were observed in 17/27 (63%) mechano-responsive units and in 14/22 (64%) mechano-insensitive units. Excitation by ATP occurred in 9/11 CH units and in 5/11 CM(i)H(i) units. ATP responsive units were found both within the histamine-responsive and the histamine-insensitive group of mechano-insensitive fibres. ATP responses appeared with a delay of 0-180 s after completion of injection; responses were most pronounced during the first 1-3 min of activation, and irregular ongoing activity was observed for up to 10 or even 20 min. ATP responses were dose-dependent, concentrations lower than 5 mM gave weaker responses. No heat or mechanical sensitisation was observed in any of the major fibre classes. In conclusion, we have shown that ATP injections at high concentrations activate C-nociceptors in healthy human skin, without preference for mechano-responsive or mechano-insensitive units. ATP did not sensitise human C fibres for mechanical or heat stimuli. We discuss how various mechanisms might contribute to the observed responses to ATP. PMID:12098617

  10. Metal-Dependent Regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in Fibroblast Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, Malgorzata; Moos, Torben; Ogórek, Mateusz; Jensen, Thomas G; Møller, Lisbeth B

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD) or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD), respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper, and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and 10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency obtained by treatment with the copper chelator led to a downregulation of ATP7A in the control fibroblasts, but surprisingly not in the WD fibroblasts. In contrast, the addition of copper led to an increased expression of ATP7A, but a decreased expression of ATP7B. Thus, whereas similar regulation patterns for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6-8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at high copper concentrations, whereas more surprisingly, cells that express the mutant ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at low copper concentrations. Thus, although the transcription of ATP7A is regulated by copper, clonal growth selection in mosaic cell cultures is affected by the level of copper. Female carriers of MD are rarely affected probably due to a skewed inactivation of the X-chromosome bearing the ATP7A mutation. PMID:27587995

  11. Probing the ATP Site of GRP78 with Nucleotide Triphosphate Analogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Hughes

    Full Text Available GRP78, a member of the ER stress protein family, can relocate to the surface of cancer cells, playing key roles in promoting cell proliferation and metastasis. GRP78 consists of two major functional domains: the ATPase and protein/peptide-binding domains. The protein/peptide-binding domain of cell-surface GRP78 has served as a novel functional receptor for delivering cytotoxic agents (e.g., a apoptosis-inducing peptide or taxol across the cell membrane. Here, we report our study on the ATPase domain of GRP78 (GRP78ATPase, whose potential as a transmembrane delivery system of cytotoxic agents (e.g., ATP-based nucleotide triphosphate analogs remains unexploited. As the binding of ligands (ATP analogs to a receptor (GRP78ATPase is a pre-requisite for internalization, we determined the binding affinities and modes of GRP78ATPase for ADP, ATP and several ATP analogs using surface plasmon resonance and x-ray crystallography. The tested ATP analogs contain one of the following modifications: the nitrogen at the adenine ring 7-position to a carbon atom (7-deazaATP, the oxygen at the β-γ bridge position to a carbon atom (AMPPCP, or the removal of the 2'-OH group (2'-deoxyATP. We found that 7-deazaATP displays an affinity and a binding mode that resemble those of ATP regardless of magnesium ion (Mg++ concentration, suggesting that GRP78 is tolerant to modifications at the 7-position. By comparison, AMPPCP's binding affinity was lower than ATP and Mg++-dependent, as the removal of Mg++ nearly abolished binding to GRP78ATPase. The AMPPCP-Mg++ structure showed evidence for the critical role of Mg++ in AMPPCP binding affinity, suggesting that while GRP78 is sensitive to modifications at the β-γ bridge position, these can be tolerated in the presence of Mg++. Furthermore, 2'-deoxyATP's binding affinity was significantly lower than those for all other nucleotides tested, even in the presence of Mg++. The 2'-deoxyATP structure showed the conformation of the

  12. Probing the ATP Site of GRP78 with Nucleotide Triphosphate Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Scott J; Antoshchenko, Tetyana; Chen, Yun; Lu, Hua; Pizarro, Juan C; Park, Hee-Won

    2016-01-01

    GRP78, a member of the ER stress protein family, can relocate to the surface of cancer cells, playing key roles in promoting cell proliferation and metastasis. GRP78 consists of two major functional domains: the ATPase and protein/peptide-binding domains. The protein/peptide-binding domain of cell-surface GRP78 has served as a novel functional receptor for delivering cytotoxic agents (e.g., a apoptosis-inducing peptide or taxol) across the cell membrane. Here, we report our study on the ATPase domain of GRP78 (GRP78ATPase), whose potential as a transmembrane delivery system of cytotoxic agents (e.g., ATP-based nucleotide triphosphate analogs) remains unexploited. As the binding of ligands (ATP analogs) to a receptor (GRP78ATPase) is a pre-requisite for internalization, we determined the binding affinities and modes of GRP78ATPase for ADP, ATP and several ATP analogs using surface plasmon resonance and x-ray crystallography. The tested ATP analogs contain one of the following modifications: the nitrogen at the adenine ring 7-position to a carbon atom (7-deazaATP), the oxygen at the β-γ bridge position to a carbon atom (AMPPCP), or the removal of the 2'-OH group (2'-deoxyATP). We found that 7-deazaATP displays an affinity and a binding mode that resemble those of ATP regardless of magnesium ion (Mg++) concentration, suggesting that GRP78 is tolerant to modifications at the 7-position. By comparison, AMPPCP's binding affinity was lower than ATP and Mg++-dependent, as the removal of Mg++ nearly abolished binding to GRP78ATPase. The AMPPCP-Mg++ structure showed evidence for the critical role of Mg++ in AMPPCP binding affinity, suggesting that while GRP78 is sensitive to modifications at the β-γ bridge position, these can be tolerated in the presence of Mg++. Furthermore, 2'-deoxyATP's binding affinity was significantly lower than those for all other nucleotides tested, even in the presence of Mg++. The 2'-deoxyATP structure showed the conformation of the bound

  13. Data for proteomic analysis of ATP-binding proteins and kinase inhibitor target proteins using an ATP probe

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Adachi; Marina Kishida; Shio Watanabe; Yuuki Hashimoto; Kazuna Fukamizu; Takeshi Tomonaga

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between ATP and ATP-binding proteins (ATPome) are common and are required for most cellular processes. Thus, it is clearly important to identify and quantify these interactions for understanding basic cellular mechanisms and the pathogenesis of various diseases. We used an ATP competition assay (competition between ATP and acyl-ATP probes) that enabled us to distinguish specific ATP-binding proteins from non-specific proteins (Adachi et al., 2014) [1]. As a result, we identified ...

  14. Positive Inotropic Effects of Low dATP/ATP Ratios on Mechanics and Kinetics of Porcine Cardiac Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Schoffstall, Brenda; Clark, Amanda; Chase, P. Bryant

    2006-01-01

    Substitution of 2′-deoxy ATP (dATP) for ATP as substrate for actomyosin results in significant enhancement of in vitro parameters of cardiac contraction. To determine the minimal ratio of dATP/ATP (constant total NTP) that significantly enhances cardiac contractility and obtain greater understanding of how dATP substitution results in contractile enhancement, we varied dATP/ATP ratio in porcine cardiac muscle preparations. At maximum Ca2+ (pCa 4.5), isometric force increased linearly with dAT...

  15. ATP-dependent protease in maize mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATP-dependent protease was identified in the matrix of Zea mays L. Sachara mitochondria. 14C-methylated casein has been used as a substrate, and the matrix ATP-dependent protease exhibited similar sensitivity towards specific inhibitors as the Lon protease from E. coli nd analogues from rat liver and yeast mitochondria. Here we report the existence of Lon like ATP-dependent protease in intact mitochondria prepared from 4-days-old epicotyls of Zea mays L. seedling. Enzyme has been purified from Lubrol treated mitochondria using ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The enzyme activity has been estimated using 14C-methylated casein as a substrate and sensitivity of the protease towards the specific inhibitors has been tested. ATP-dependent protease from the mitochondrial matrix of maize exhibit similar sensitivity to the above mentioned inhibitors like Lon protease from yeast and rat liver mitochondria as well as from E. coli. (authors)

  16. Astrocytes release ATP through lysosomal exocytosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Astrocytes, the most abundant type of glial cells in the brain, have been found to release signaling molecules, including adenosine triphosphate(ATP), the most important energy carrier inside the cell as well as a universal extracellular signaling molecule.

  17. Customized ATP towpreg. [Automated Tow Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky, Donald A.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Baucom, Robert M.; Johnston, Norman J.

    1992-01-01

    Automated tow placement (ATP) utilizes robotic technology to lay down adjacent polymer-matrix-impregnated carbon fiber tows on a tool surface. Consolidation and cure during ATP requires that void elimination and polymer matrix adhesion be accomplished in the short period of heating and pressure rolling that follows towpreg ribbon placement from the robot head to the tool. This study examined the key towpreg ribbon properties and dimensions which play a significant role in ATP. Analysis of the heat transfer process window indicates that adequate heating can be achieved at lay down rates as high as 1 m/sec. While heat transfer did not appear to be the limiting factor, resin flow and fiber movement into tow lap gaps could be. Accordingly, consideration was given to towpreg ribbon having uniform yet non-rectangular cross sections. Dimensional integrity of the towpreg ribbon combined with customized ribbon architecture offer great promise for processing advances in ATP of high performance composites.

  18. The photon emission, ATP level and motility of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol, Piotr; Szcześniak-Fabiańczyk, Barbara; Wierzchoś-Hilczer, Agnieszka

    2009-03-01

    Changes were studied in induced photon emission (as an indicator of oxidative stress), ATP level and sperm motility during seven day-storage of boar semen at 15 degrees C extended with the use of BTS extender. Photon emission was measured using a luminometer equipped with a cooled photomultiplier with a spectral response range from 370 to 620 nm. The time of storage had a significant effect on luminescence parameters (integral and peak max), intracellular ATP level and percentage of motile spermatozoa. The increase in luminescence parameters was paralleled by a decrease in ATP level and sperm motility. A significant correlation was found between the percentage of motile spermatozoa and integral (r=-0.27) and peak max (r=-0.31). ATP level was correlated with integral (r=-0.25) but not with peak max. Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species and products of cell membrane lipid peroxidation have a negative effect on ATP level and sperm motility. Induced luminescence assessment in combination with sperm motility and ATP level can give valuable information about the status and function of spermatozoa which may be relevant for predicting the fertilizing potential of the semen. PMID:19352416

  19. ATP differentially upregulates fibroblast growth factor 2 and transforming growth factor α in neonatal and adult mice: effect on neuroproliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C; Cussen, A R; Hegg, C C

    2011-03-17

    Multiple neurotrophic factors play a role in proliferation, differentiation and survival in the olfactory epithelium (OE); however, the signaling cascade has not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypotheses that ATP induces the synthesis and secretion of two neurotrophic factors, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα), and that these neurotrophic factors have a role in inducing proliferation. Protein levels of FGF2 and TGFα were increased 20 h post-intranasal instillation of ATP compared to vehicle control in adult Swiss Webster mice. Pre-intranasal treatment with purinergic receptor antagonist pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-20,40-disulfonic acid (PPADS) significantly blocked this ATP-induced increase, indicating that upregulation of FGF2 and TGFα expression is mediated by purinergic receptor activation. However, in neonatal mouse, intranasal instillation of ATP significantly increased the protein levels of FGF2, but not TGFα. Likewise, ATP evoked the secretion of FGF2, but not TGFα, from neonatal mouse olfactory epithelial slices and PPADS significantly blocked ATP-evoked FGF2 release. To determine the role of FGF2 and TGFα in inducing proliferation, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation was examined in adult olfactory epithelium. Intranasal treatment with FGF receptor inhibitor PD173074 or epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor AG1478 following ATP instillation significantly blocked ATP-induced BrdU incorporation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP induces proliferation in adult mouse olfactory epithelium by promoting FGF2 and TGFα synthesis and activation of their receptors. These data suggest that different mechanisms regulate neurogenesis in neonatal and adult OE, and FGF2 and TGFα may have different roles throughout development. PMID:21187124

  20. ATP differentially upregulates growth factors FGF2 and TGFα in neonatal and adult mice: Effect on neuroproliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cuihong; Cussen, Amber R.; Hegg, Colleen Cosgrove

    2011-01-01

    Multiple neurotrophic factors play a role in proliferation, differentiation and survival in the olfactory epithelium; however, the signaling cascade has not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypotheses that ATP induces the synthesis and secretion of two neurotrophic factors, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα), and that these neurotrophic factors have a role in inducing proliferation. Protein levels of FGF2 and TGFα were increased 20 h post-intranasal instillation of ATP compared to vehicle control in adult Swiss Webster mice. Pre-intranasal treatment with purinergic receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-20,40-disulfonic acid (PPADS) significantly blocked this ATP-induced increase, indicating that upregulation of FGF2 and TGFα expression is mediated by purinergic receptor activation. However, in neonatal mouse, intranasal instillation of ATP significantly increased the protein levels of FGF2, but not TGFα. Likewise, ATP evoked the secretion of FGF2, but not TGFα, from neonatal mouse olfactory epithelial slices and PPADS significantly blocked ATP-evoked FGF2 release. To determine the role of FGF2 and TGFα in inducing proliferation, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation was examined in adult olfactory epithelium. Intranasal treatment with FGF receptor inhibitor PD173074 or epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor AG1478 following ATP instillation significantly blocked ATP-induced BrdU incorporation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP induces proliferation in adult mouse olfactory epithelium by promoting FGF2 and TGFα synthesis and activation of their receptors. These data suggest that different mechanisms regulate neurogenesis in neonatal and adult OE, and FGF2 and TGFα may have different roles throughout development. PMID:21187124

  1. NADH supplementation decreases pinacidil-primed IK(ATP) in ventricular cardiomyocytes by increasing intracellular ATP

    OpenAIRE

    Pelzmann, Brigitte; Hallström, Seth; Schaffer, Peter; Lang, Petra; Nadlinger, Karl; Birkmayer, George D; Vrecko, Karoline; Reibnegger, Gilbert; Koidl, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) supplementation on the metabolic condition of isolated guinea-pig ventricular cardiomyocytes. The pinacidil-primed ATP-dependent potassium current IK(ATP) was used as an indicator of subsarcolemmal ATP concentration and intracellular adenine nucleotide contents were measured.Membrane currents were studied using the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell recording mode at 36–37°C. Adenine nucleotid...

  2. Hypercapnic vasodilatation in isolated rat basilar arteries is exerted via low pH and does not involve nitric oxide synthase stimulation or cyclic GMP production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, J P; Wang, Qian; Zhang, W; Jansen-Olesen, I; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A; Edvinsson, L

    1994-01-01

    relaxation by 54% and 70%, respectively. The effect of L-NOARG was completely reversed by L-arginine. Blockade of nerve excitation with tetrodotoxin (TTX) had no affect on the 15% CO2 elicited vasodilatation. Measurements of cGMP in vessel segments showed no significant increase in cGMP content in response...... to hypercapnia. L-NOARG and MB, but not TTX, significantly reduced the basal cGMP content in cerebral vessels. Adding 1.5% halothane to the incubation medium did not result in a significant increase in cGMP content. Lowering the pH by cumulative application of 0.12 M HCl resulted in relaxation...... that high CO2 elicits vasodilatation of isolated rat basilar arteries by a mechanism independent of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. The markedly reduced basal cGMP levels in cerebral vessels by L-NOARG and MB suggest that there exists a basal NO formation in the cerebral vessel wall....

  3. Probing the ATP Site of GRP78 with Nucleotide Triphosphate Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Lu, Hua; Pizarro, Juan C.; Park, Hee-Won

    2016-01-01

    GRP78, a member of the ER stress protein family, can relocate to the surface of cancer cells, playing key roles in promoting cell proliferation and metastasis. GRP78 consists of two major functional domains: the ATPase and protein/peptide-binding domains. The protein/peptide-binding domain of cell-surface GRP78 has served as a novel functional receptor for delivering cytotoxic agents (e.g., a apoptosis-inducing peptide or taxol) across the cell membrane. Here, we report our study on the ATPase domain of GRP78 (GRP78ATPase), whose potential as a transmembrane delivery system of cytotoxic agents (e.g., ATP-based nucleotide triphosphate analogs) remains unexploited. As the binding of ligands (ATP analogs) to a receptor (GRP78ATPase) is a pre-requisite for internalization, we determined the binding affinities and modes of GRP78ATPase for ADP, ATP and several ATP analogs using surface plasmon resonance and x-ray crystallography. The tested ATP analogs contain one of the following modifications: the nitrogen at the adenine ring 7-position to a carbon atom (7-deazaATP), the oxygen at the β-γ bridge position to a carbon atom (AMPPCP), or the removal of the 2’-OH group (2’-deoxyATP). We found that 7-deazaATP displays an affinity and a binding mode that resemble those of ATP regardless of magnesium ion (Mg++) concentration, suggesting that GRP78 is tolerant to modifications at the 7-position. By comparison, AMPPCP’s binding affinity was lower than ATP and Mg++-dependent, as the removal of Mg++ nearly abolished binding to GRP78ATPase. The AMPPCP-Mg++ structure showed evidence for the critical role of Mg++ in AMPPCP binding affinity, suggesting that while GRP78 is sensitive to modifications at the β-γ bridge position, these can be tolerated in the presence of Mg++. Furthermore, 2’-deoxyATP’s binding affinity was significantly lower than those for all other nucleotides tested, even in the presence of Mg++. The 2’-deoxyATP structure showed the conformation of the

  4. Integrin-mediated transactivation of P2X7R via hemichannel-dependent ATP release stimulates astrocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvaro; Lagos-Cabré, Raúl; Kong, Milene; Cárdenas, Areli; Burgos-Bravo, Francesca; Schneider, Pascal; Quest, Andrew F G; Leyton, Lisette

    2016-09-01

    Our previous reports indicate that ligand-induced αVβ3 integrin and Syndecan-4 engagement increases focal adhesion formation and migration of astrocytes. Additionally, ligated integrins trigger ATP release through unknown mechanisms, activating P2X7 receptors (P2X7R), and the uptake of Ca(2+) to promote cell adhesion. However, whether the activation of P2X7R and ATP release are required for astrocyte migration and whether αVβ3 integrin and Syndecan-4 receptors communicate with P2X7R via ATP remains unknown. Here, cells were stimulated with Thy-1, a reported αVβ3 integrin and Syndecan-4 ligand. Results obtained indicate that ATP was released by Thy-1 upon integrin engagement and required the participation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phospholipase-C gamma (PLCγ) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R). IP3R activation leads to increased intracellular Ca(2+), hemichannel (Connexin-43 and Pannexin-1) opening, and ATP release. Moreover, silencing of the P2X7R or addition of hemichannel blockers precluded Thy-1-induced astrocyte migration. Finally, Thy-1 lacking the integrin-binding site did not stimulate ATP release, whereas Thy-1 mutated in the Syndecan-4-binding domain increased ATP release, albeit to a lesser extent and with delayed kinetics compared to wild-type Thy-1. Thus, hemichannels activated downstream of an αVβ3 integrin-PI3K-PLCγ-IP3R pathway are responsible for Thy-1-induced, hemichannel-mediated and Syndecan-4-modulated ATP release that transactivates P2X7Rs to induce Ca(2+) entry. These findings uncover a hitherto unrecognized role for hemichannels in the regulation of astrocyte migration via P2X7R transactivation induced by integrin-mediated ATP release. PMID:27235833

  5. Ca2+ influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca2+ signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca2+ elevation is mainly via Ca2+ influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca2+ influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca2+]i transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca2+]i. The stretch-induced [Ca2+]i elevation was attenuated in Ca2+-free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca2+]i by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd3+, ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca2+]i elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca2+ influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP

  6. Ca{sup 2+} influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Naohiko [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ito, Satoru, E-mail: itori@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Furuya, Kishio [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahara, Norihiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Naruse, Keiji [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sokabe, Masahiro [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hasegawa, Yoshinori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca{sup 2+} signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation is mainly via Ca{sup 2+} influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. The stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was attenuated in Ca{sup 2+}-free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd{sup 3+}, ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca{sup 2+} influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP.

  7. ATP as a signaling molecule: the exocrine focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    Why and how do cells release ATP? It is not spilled energy. ATP becomes an extracellular regulator. Various cellular responses are initiated by purinergic receptors and signaling processes and are terminated by breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases. In epithelia, ATP regulates salt and water...

  8. ATP Synthesis in the Extremely Halophilic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proton-translocating ATPases are multimeric enzymes that carry out a multitude of essential functions. Their origin and evolution represent a seminal event in the early evolution of life. Amino acid sequences of the two largest subunits from archaeal ATPases (A-ATPases), vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases), and FOF1-ATP syntheses (FATPases) suggest these ATPases evolved from an ancestral vacuolar-like ATP syntheses. A necessary consequence of this notion is that the A-ATPases are ATP syntheses. With the possible exception of the A-ATPase from Halobacterium salinarium. no A-ATPase has been demonstrated to synthesize ATP. The evidence for this case is dubious since ATP synthesis occurs only when conditions are distinctively unphysiological. We demonstrated that ATP synthesis in H.saccharovorum is inconsistent with the operation of an A-type ATPase. In order to determine if this phenomenon was unique to H. saccharovorum, ATP synthesis was examined in various extremely halophilic bacteria with the goal of ascertaining if it resembled what occurred in a. saccharovorum, or was consistent with the operation of an A-type ATPase. A-, V-, and F-type ATPases respond singularly to certain inhibitors. Therefore, the effect of these inhibitors on ATP synthesis in several extreme halophiles was determined. Inhibitors that either blocked or collapsed proton-gradients inhibited the steady state synthesis of ATP thus verifying that synthesis took place at the expense of a proton gradient. Azide, an inhibitor of F-ATPases inhibited ATP synthesis. Since the arginine-dependent synthesis of ATP, which occurs by way of substrate-level phosphorylation, was unaffected by azide, it was unlikely that azide acted as an "uncoupler." N -ethylmaleimide and nitrate, which inhibit V- and A-ATPases, either did not inhibit ATP synthesis or resulted in higher steady-state levels of ATP. These results suggest there are two types of proton-motive ATPases in the extreme halophiles (and presumably in other

  9. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: normal ATP turnover in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines ATP metabolism in cultured muscle cells and fibroblasts from patients with Duchenne dystrophy. ATP and ADP levels were the same in cultured cells from normal subjects and patients and there was no difference in ATP synthesis or degradation. The ATP synthesis was measured by the incorporation of C 14-U-adenine into aTP and ADP. although there was a significant decrease in radioactively labelled ATP after incubation with deoxyglucose in Duchenne muscle cells, there was no difference in ATP concentration of ADP metabolism

  10. Compartmentalized ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J W; Thieleczek, R; Varsányi, M; Heilmeyer, L M

    1992-01-21

    Isolated skeletal muscle triads contain a compartmentalized glycolytic reaction sequence catalyzed by aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglycerate kinase. These enzymes express activity in the structure-associated state leading to synthesis of ATP in the triadic junction upon supply of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. ATP formation occurs transiently and appears to be kinetically compartmentalized, i.e., the synthesized ATP is not in equilibrium with the bulk ATP. The apparent rate constants of the aldolase and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/phosphoglycerate kinase reaction are significantly increased when fructose 1,6-bisphosphate instead of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is employed as substrate. The observations suggest that fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is especially effectively channelled into the junctional gap. The amplitude of the ATP transient is decreasing with increasing free [Ca2+] in the range of 1 nM to 30 microM. In the presence of fluoride, the ATP transient is significantly enhanced and its declining phase is substantially retarded. This observation suggests utilization of endogenously synthesized ATP in part by structure associated protein kinases and phosphatases which is confirmed by the detection of phosphorylated triadic proteins after gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Endogenous protein kinases phosphorylate proteins of apparent Mr 450,000, 180,000, 160,000, 145,000, 135,000, 90,000, 54,000, 51,000, and 20,000, respectively. Some of these phosphorylated polypeptides are in the Mr range of known phosphoproteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscle, which might give a first hint at the functional importance of the sequential glycolytic reactions compartmentalized in triads. PMID:1731894

  11. Clusterin and COMMD1 Independently Regulate Degradation of the Mammalian Copper ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Materia, Stephanie; Cater, Michael A.; Klomp, Leo W. J.; Mercer, Julian F. B.; La Fontaine, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    ATP7A and ATP7B are copper-transporting P-1B-type ATPases (Cu-ATPases) that are critical for regulating intracellular copper homeostasis. Mutations in the genes encoding ATP7A and ATP7B lead to copper deficiency and copper toxicity disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Clusterin and C

  12. Physiological levels of ATP Negatively Regulate Proteasome Function

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hongbiao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Shujue; Liu, Ningning; Lian, Wen; McDowell, Emily; Zhou, Ping; Zhao, Canguo; Guo, Haiping; Zhang, Change; Yang, Changshan; Wen, Guangmei; Dong, Xiaoxian; Lu, Li; Ma, Ningfang

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is ATP-dependent and the optimal ATP concentration to activate proteasome function in vitro is ~100 μM. Intracellular ATP levels are generally in the low millimolar range but ATP at a level within this range was shown to inhibit proteasome peptidase activities in vitro. Here we report new evidence that supports a hypothesis that intracellular ATP at the physiological levels bidirectionally regulates 26S proteasome proteolyti...

  13. Release of endogenous ATP during sympathetic nerve stimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, M. J.; White, T. D.

    1987-01-01

    1 Vas deferens from guinea-pig was stimulated with a suction electrode and both contractions and release of endogenous ATP monitored 2 Release of ATP was tetrodotoxin-sensitive and increased when the number of stimuli was increased. 3 Release of ATP was not due to contraction of the muscle and persisted following block of contractions with prazosin and alpha, beta-methylene ATP. 4 These results indicate that stimulation of the sympathetic nerves in the vas deferens releases endogenous ATP pre...

  14. Magnetic field affects enzymatic ATP synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L; Kuznetsov, Dmitry A

    2008-10-01

    The rate of ATP synthesis by creatine kinase extracted from V. xanthia venom was shown to depend on the magnetic field. The yield of ATP produced by enzymes with 24Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ ions in catalytic sites increases by 7-8% at 55 mT and then decreases at 80 mT. For enzyme with 25Mg2+ ion in a catalytic site, the ATP yield increases by 50% and 70% in the fields 55 and 80 mT, respectively. In the Earth field the rate of ATP synthesis by enzyme, in which Mg2+ ion has magnetic nucleus 25Mg, is 2.5 times higher than that by enzymes, in which Mg2+ ion has nonmagnetic, spinless nuclei 24Mg or 26Mg. Both magnetic field effect and magnetic isotope effect demonstrate that the ATP synthesis is an ion-radical process, affected by Zeeman interaction and hyperfine coupling in the intermediate ion-radical pair. PMID:18774801

  15. The interference of HEPES buffer during amperometric detection of ATP in clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Francois; Gauda, Estelle; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine

    2008-04-01

    HEPES-based biological buffer is subject to photooxidation upon exposure to fluorescent illumination. Thereby hydrogen peroxide is generated, which interferes with amperometric oxidoreductase-based biosensors for glucose or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). These biosensors operate at an oxidation potential above 500 mV vs. the standard calomel electrode (SCE) and involve hydrogen peroxide as the electroactive molecule detected at the electrode surface. False-positive detection of ATP was observed in HEPES buffer utilizing an amperometric microbiosensor based on the co-immobilization of glucose oxidase and hexokinase for detection of ATP in biological specimens. Electrochemical, mass spectrometric, (31)P NMR, and (1)H NMR studies indicate that complexation of ATP and HEPES induced by the presence of Ca(2+) in HEPES buffer decreases the photooxidation of HEPES. Consequently, the hydrogen peroxide background concentration is reduced, thereby leading to erroneous ATP detection at the dual-enzyme microbiosensor, which determines an increase in ATP via a reduced hydrogen peroxide signal. PMID:18368390

  16. Mechanical stress and ATP synthesis are coupled by mitochondrial oxidants in articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Katherine J; Ramakrishnan, Prem S; Brouillette, Marc J; Journot, Brice J; McKinley, Todd O; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Martin, James A

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic adaptation of articular cartilage under joint loading is evident and matrix synthesis seems to be critically tied to ATP. Chondrocytes utilize the glycolytic pathway for energy requirements but seem to require mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) to sustain ATP synthesis. The role of ROS in regulating ATP reserves under a mechanically active environment is not clear. It is believed that physiological strains cause deformation of the mitochondria, potentially releasing ROS for energy production. We hypothesized that mechanical loading stimulates ATP synthesis via mitochondrial release of ROS. Bovine osteochondral explants were dynamically loaded at 0.5 Hz with amplitude of 0.25 MPa for 1 h. Cartilage response to mechanical loading was assessed by imaging with dihydroethidium (ROS indicator) and a Luciferase-based ATP assay. Electron transport inhibitor rotenone and mitochondrial ROS scavenger MitoQ significantly suppressed mechanically induced ROS production and ATP synthesis. Our findings indicate that mitochondrial ROS are produced as a result of physiological mechanical strains. Taken together with our previous findings of ROS involvement in blunt impact injuries, mitochondrial ROS are important contributors to cartilage metabolic adaptation and their precise role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis warrants further investigation. PMID:22930474

  17. Signaling mechanism for modulation by ATP of glycine receptors on rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Gong; Zhou, Wei; Weng, Shi-Jun; Yang, Xiong-Li; Zhong, Yong-Mei

    2016-01-01

    ATP modulates voltage- and ligand-gated channels in the CNS via the activation of ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors. While P2Y receptors are expressed in retinal neurons, the function of these receptors in the retina is largely unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in rat retinal slice preparations, we demonstrated that ATP suppressed glycine receptor-mediated currents of OFF type ganglion cells (OFF-GCs) dose-dependently, and the effect was in part mediated by P2Y1 and P2Y11, but not by P2X. The ATP effect was abolished by intracellular dialysis of a Gq/11 protein inhibitor and phosphatidylinositol (PI)-phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, but not phosphatidylcholine (PC)-PLC inhibitor. The ATP effect was accompanied by an increase in [Ca(2+)]i through the IP3-sensitive pathway and was blocked by intracellular Ca(2+)-free solution. Furthermore, the ATP effect was eliminated in the presence of PKC inhibitors. Neither PKA nor PKG system was involved. These results suggest that the ATP-induced suppression may be mediated by a distinct Gq/11/PI-PLC/IP3/Ca(2+)/PKC signaling pathway, following the activation of P2Y1,11 and other P2Y subtypes. Consistently, ATP suppressed glycine receptor-mediated light-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents of OFF-GCs. These results suggest that ATP may modify the ON-to-OFF crossover inhibition, thus changing action potential patterns of OFF-GCs. PMID:27357477

  18. 萹蓄总黄酮对离体大鼠血管舒张作用机制的探讨%Study on vasodilatation effects of total flavonoid from polygonum aviculare on blood vessel of rat in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻喜英; 王彬; 朱运波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the vasodilatation effects of total flavonoid from polygonum aviculare on rat thoracic aorta and its underlying mechanisms. Methods Total flavonoid from polygonum aviculare was gotten by extracted with 65% alcohol, gathered with polyamide, and eluted with 75% alcohol.The content of flavone was determined with rutoside as standard preparation. Normal rats thoracic aorta in vitro used as sample, BL-420E biological functional experiment system was utilized to record dilatation effect of total flavonoid on PE affecting pre-contracting blood vessel and the relation between dilatation effect of total flavonoid on blood vessel and calcium influx. Results Total flavonoids from polygonum aviculare can diastole contractions of thoracic aorta caused by PE. In calcium-free perfusion, gradually adding CaCl2 induced calcium influx. Clinical data showed dose-effect relation between drug and blood vessel contraction decreased in the total flavonoids from polygonum aviculare incubation rats than normal rats. Besides, total flavonoids from polygonum aviculare can obviously inhibit contraction of blood vascular circle induced by calcium releasing.Conclusion FP exerted a dose-dependent vasodilatation effect on rat isolated aorta rings by inhibiting Ca2+influx via L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, consequently decrease Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle cells.%目的 研究萹蓄总黄酮(FP)对正常离体大鼠胸主动脉的舒张作用并对其机制进行初步探讨.方法 65%乙醇提取、聚酰胺富集、75%乙醇洗脱制得萹蓄总黄酮(FP),以芦丁为标准品测定FP中黄酮含量;以正常离体大鼠胸主动脉为标本,利用BL-420E生物机能实验系统记录FP对去氧肾上腺素(PE)预先收缩血管的舒张作用及FP舒张血管作用与外Ca2+内流、内Ca2+释放的关系.结果 FP可舒张PE引发的胸主动脉收缩的作用.在无Ca2+灌流液中,逐渐加入CaCl2引起外Ca2+内

  19. Open State Destabilization by Atp Occupancy Is Mechanism Speeding Burst Exit Underlying KATP Channel Inhibition by Atp

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lehong; Geng, Xuehui; Drain, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel is named after its characteristic inhibition by intracellular ATP. The inhibition is a centerpiece of how the KATP channel sets electrical signaling to the energy state of the cell. In the β cell of the endocrine pancreas, for example, ATP inhibition results from high blood glucose levels and turns on electrical activity leading to insulin release. The underlying gating mechanism (ATP inhibition gating) includes ATP stabilization of closed states, bu...

  20. Energy metabolism and ATP turnover time during the cell cycle in roentgen irradiated Ehrlich ascites tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cell-cycle related energy metabolism after roentgen irradiation of in vivo growing Ehrlich ascites tumour cells was investigated in cell fractions obtained by elutriator centrifuging. The oxygen consumption and the lactate and pyruvate production, measured in vitro after 4.5, 5 and 9 Gy up to 24 h, were undisturbed, while the decrease in the in vivo ATP content was dose-independent in all parts of the cell cycle. On the basis of these data the ATP turnover time was found to be decreased. The decrease in the ATP content is considered to be less likely to be due to membrane leakage or increased ATP consumption than to reduced ATP production. Since in vitro incubation normalizes the ATP content, it is suggested that environmental factors in the ascites liquid after irradiation cause a decrease in the ATP production. Low ATP contents of the cells do not appear to influence the irradiation-induced changes in the cell flow through the cell cycle. (Auth.)

  1. Aptamer loaded MoS2 nanoplates as nanoprobes for detection of intracellular ATP and controllable photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Li; Ding, Lin; Tian, Jiangwei; Bao, Lei; Hu, Yaoping; Ju, Huangxian; Yu, Jun-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    In this work we designed a MoS2 nanoplate-based nanoprobe for fluorescence imaging of intracellular ATP and photodynamic therapy (PDT) via ATP-mediated controllable release of 1O2. The nanoprobe was prepared by simply assembling a chlorine e6 (Ce6) labelled ATP aptamer on MoS2 nanoplates, which have favorable biocompatibility, unusual surface-area-to-mass ratio, strong affinity to single-stranded DNA, and can quench the fluorescence of Ce6. After the nanoprobe was internalized into the cells and entered ATP-abundant lysosomes, its recognition to ATP led to the release of the single-stranded aptamer from MoS2 nanoplates and thus recovered the fluorescence of Ce6 at an excitation wavelength of 633 nm, which produced a highly sensitive and selective method for imaging of intracellular ATP. Meanwhile, the ATP-mediated release led to the generation of 1O2 under 660 nm laser irradiation, which could induce tumor cell death with a lysosomal pathway. The controllable PDT provided a model approach for design of multifunctional theranostic nanoprobes. These results also promoted the development and application of MoS2 nanoplate-based platforms in biomedicine.In this work we designed a MoS2 nanoplate-based nanoprobe for fluorescence imaging of intracellular ATP and photodynamic therapy (PDT) via ATP-mediated controllable release of 1O2. The nanoprobe was prepared by simply assembling a chlorine e6 (Ce6) labelled ATP aptamer on MoS2 nanoplates, which have favorable biocompatibility, unusual surface-area-to-mass ratio, strong affinity to single-stranded DNA, and can quench the fluorescence of Ce6. After the nanoprobe was internalized into the cells and entered ATP-abundant lysosomes, its recognition to ATP led to the release of the single-stranded aptamer from MoS2 nanoplates and thus recovered the fluorescence of Ce6 at an excitation wavelength of 633 nm, which produced a highly sensitive and selective method for imaging of intracellular ATP. Meanwhile, the ATP

  2. ATP generation in Leishmania donovani amastigote form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Roy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania is the causative agent of various forms of leishmaniasis, a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The clinical manifestations of the disease range from selfhealing cutaneous and mucocutaneous skin ulcers to a fatal visceral form named visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar. The differentiation of Leishmania parasites from the insect stage, the promastigote, towards the pathogenic mammalian stage, the amastigote, is triggered primarily by the rise in ambient temperature encountered during the insect to mammal transmission. The survival of amastigote stage is dependent on that of the host. Regarding energy metabolism, which is an essential factor for the survival, parasites adapt to the environment under low oxygen tension in the host using metabolic systems which are very different from that of the host mammals. The amastigote form of L. donovani is independent on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production. Indeed, its cell growth was not inhibited by 20-fold excess oligomycin and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, which are the most specific inhibitors of the mitochondrial FoF1-ATP synthase. In contrast, mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone and complex III inhibitor antimycin A inhibited amastigote cell growth, suggesting the role of complex I and complex III in cell survival. Complex II appeared to have no role in cell survival. To further investigate the site of ATP production, we studied the substrate level phosphorylation, which was involved in the synthesis of ATP. Succinate-pyruvate couple showed the highest substrate level phosphorylation, whereas NADHfumarate and NADH-pyruvate couples failed to produce ATP. In contrast, NADPH-fumarate showed the highest rate of ATP formation in promastigotes. We conclude that substrate level phosphorylation is essential for the growth of L. donovani amastigotes.

  3. Nuclear genetic defects of mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Mráček, Tomáš; Vrbacký, Marek; Kaplanová, Vilma; Karbanová, Vendula; Nůsková, Hana; Pecina, Petr; Houštěk, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S57-S71. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0970; GA ČR GAP303/12/1363; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370; GA MZd(CZ) NT14050 Grant ostatní: Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 370411 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial diseases * TMEM70 * ATPAF1 * ATP5A1 * ATP5E Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  4. Growth enhancement effect of BzATP on primary cultured astrocytes from rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Zheng LIANG; Ying LIU; Zhu-Rong YE

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore whether BzATP could promote the growth of primary cultured astrocytes (AS) of rat and its possible mechanism, and whether TGF-β1 was involved in the event. Methods The primary cultured AS were derived from new born Sprague-Dawley rats.Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunofluorescent stain was used to check the purity of cultured AS. Morphometry was used to detect the changes of AS. The proliferation index of AS was detected by BrdU incorporation assay. Western blot was used to detect the changes of GFAP under different conditions. Changes of TGF-β1 gene transcription were detected by RT-PCR. ELISA was utilized to detect the variation of TGF-β1 protein in the supernate. Results The purity of primary cultured AS reached to 99%. BzATP promoted the hypertrophy of AS including the elongation of AS processes and the enlargement of cell bodies, BzATP also promoted the expression of GFAP in existence of Ca2+, but had no effect on cell proliferation. BzATP increased the transcription of TGF-β1 mRNA and the release of TGF-β1 protein in existence of Ca2+. TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody partially inhibited the expression of GFAP induced by BzATP, but had no effect on AS proliferation and cell morphology. Conclusion BzATP enhanced the hypertrophy of primary cultured AS, increased the expression of GFAP partially through TGF-β1. Mechanisms of the enhancement of AS growth induced by BzATP other than TGF-51 pathway remains to be elucidated.

  5. Migraine can be induced by sildenafil without changes in middle cerebral artery diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Birk, Steffen; Olesen, Jes

    GMP)-mediated vasodilatation. We examined whether sildenafil (Viagra), a selective inhibitor of cGMP-hydrolysing phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), which acts exclusively by increasing cGMP, can induce migraine and dilatation of cerebral arteries. We included 12 patients with migraine without aura in this double-blind, placebo...

  6. Mechanisms that match ATP supply to demand in cardiac pacemaker cells during high ATP demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Yael; Spurgeon, Harold A.; Ziman, Bruce D.; Lyashkov, Alexey E.

    2013-01-01

    The spontaneous action potential (AP) firing rate of sinoatrial node cells (SANCs) involves high-throughput signaling via Ca2+-calmodulin activated adenylyl cyclases (AC), cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent phosphorylation of SR Ca2+ cycling and surface membrane ion channel proteins. When the throughput of this signaling increases, e.g., in response to β-adrenergic receptor activation, the resultant increase in spontaneous AP firing rate increases the demand for ATP. We hypothesized that an increase of ATP production to match the increased ATP demand is achieved via a direct effect of increased mitochondrial Ca2+ (Ca2+m) and an indirect effect via enhanced Ca2+-cAMP/PKA-CaMKII signaling to mitochondria. To increase ATP demand, single isolated rabbit SANCs were superfused by physiological saline at 35 ± 0.5°C with isoproterenol, or by phosphodiesterase or protein phosphatase inhibition. We measured cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ and flavoprotein fluorescence in single SANC, and we measured cAMP, ATP, and O2 consumption in SANC suspensions. Although the increase in spontaneous AP firing rate was accompanied by an increase in O2 consumption, the ATP level and flavoprotein fluorescence remained constant, indicating that ATP production had increased. Both Ca2+m and cAMP increased concurrently with the increase in AP firing rate. When Ca2+m was reduced by Ru360, the increase in spontaneous AP firing rate in response to isoproterenol was reduced by 25%. Thus, both an increase in Ca2+m and an increase in Ca2+ activated cAMP-PKA-CaMKII signaling regulate the increase in ATP supply to meet ATP demand above the basal level. PMID:23604710

  7. The P2Z-purinoceptor of human lymphocytes: actions of nucleotide agonists and irreversible inhibition by oxidized ATP.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiley, J. S.; Chen, J. R.; Snook, M. B.; Jamieson, G P

    1994-01-01

    1. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to open a receptor-operated ion channel (P2Z class) in human lymphocytes which conducts a range of cationic permeants. The activity of a range of different agonists and inhibitors towards the P2Z-purinoceptor was investigated by measuring the agonist-induced influx of Ba2+ into fura-2 loaded lymphocytes. 2. The most potent agonist was 2' & 3'-0-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (benzoylbenzoic ATP) which gave 2 fold greater maximum Ba2+ influx and h...

  8. ATP regulates sodium channel kinetics in pancreatic islet beta cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Na; Rupnik, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cells act as glucose sensors, in which intracellular ATP ([ATP](i)) are altered with glucose concentration change. The characterization of voltage-gated sodium channels under different [ATP](i) remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that increasing [ATP](i) within a certain range of concentrations (2-8 mM) significantly enhanced the voltage-gated sodium channel currents, compared with 2 mM cytosolic ATP. This enhancement was attenuated by even high intracellular ATP (12 mM). F...

  9. Extracellular ATP signaling and homeostasis in plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Chunlan; Zhang, Xuan; Deng, Shurong; Zhao, Rui; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) is now recognized as an important signaling agent in plant growth and defense response to environmental stimuli. eATP has dual functions in plant cell signaling, which is largely dependent on its concentration in the extracellular matrix (ECM). A lethal level of eATP (extremely low or high) causes cell death, whereas a moderate level of eATP benefits plant growth and development. Ecto-apyrases (Nucleoside Triphosphate-Diphosphohydrolase) help control the eATP concentr...

  10. Calcium and ATP control multiple vital functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Life on Planet Earth, as we know it, revolves around adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a universal energy storing molecule. The metabolism of ATP requires a low cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, and hence tethers these two molecules together. The exceedingly low cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (which in all life forms is kept around 50–100 nM) forms the basis for a universal intracellular signalling system in which Ca2+ acts as a second messenger. Maintenance of transmembrane Ca2+ gradients, in turn, requires ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport, thus further emphasizing the inseparable links between these two substances. Ca2+ signalling controls the most fundamental processes in the living organism, from heartbeat and neurotransmission to cell energetics and secretion. The versatility and plasticity of Ca2+ signalling relies on cell specific Ca2+ signalling toolkits, remodelling of which underlies adaptive cellular responses. Alterations of these Ca2+ signalling toolkits lead to aberrant Ca2+ signalling which is fundamental for the pathophysiology of numerous diseases from acute pancreatitis to neurodegeneration. This paper introduces a theme issue on this topic, which arose from a Royal Society Theo Murphy scientific meeting held in March 2016. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolution brings Ca2+ and ATP together to control life and death’. PMID:27377728

  11. Calcium and ATP control multiple vital functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ole H; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-08-01

    Life on Planet Earth, as we know it, revolves around adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a universal energy storing molecule. The metabolism of ATP requires a low cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, and hence tethers these two molecules together. The exceedingly low cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration (which in all life forms is kept around 50-100 nM) forms the basis for a universal intracellular signalling system in which Ca(2+) acts as a second messenger. Maintenance of transmembrane Ca(2+) gradients, in turn, requires ATP-dependent Ca(2+) transport, thus further emphasizing the inseparable links between these two substances. Ca(2+) signalling controls the most fundamental processes in the living organism, from heartbeat and neurotransmission to cell energetics and secretion. The versatility and plasticity of Ca(2+) signalling relies on cell specific Ca(2+) signalling toolkits, remodelling of which underlies adaptive cellular responses. Alterations of these Ca(2+) signalling toolkits lead to aberrant Ca(2+) signalling which is fundamental for the pathophysiology of numerous diseases from acute pancreatitis to neurodegeneration. This paper introduces a theme issue on this topic, which arose from a Royal Society Theo Murphy scientific meeting held in March 2016.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377728

  12. Nuclear genetic defects of mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houštěk, Josef; Kmoch, S.; Mayr, J. A.; Sperl, W.; Zeman, J.

    Bari : University of Bari, 2008. L5.3-L5.3. [IUBMB Symposium S1. 22.06.2008-26.06.2008, Bari] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spr2 * mitochondrial disease * ATP synthase defects * nuclear mutation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  13. Monitoring enzymatic ATP hydrolysis by EPR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hacker, Stephan M.; Hintze, Christian; Marx, Andreas; Drescher, Malte

    2014-01-01

    An adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogue modified with two nitroxide radicals is developed and employed to study its enzymatic hydrolysis by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. For this application, we demonstrate that EPR holds the potential to complement fluorogenic substrate analogues in monitoring enzymatic activity.

  14. 丹红注射液对大鼠腹主动脉的舒张作用及机制%Vasodilatative effect of Danhong injection on rat abdominal aorta and its mechanism of actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔婷; 智晓文; 苏显明; 崔长琮; 郑巧伟; 封卫毅

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the vasodilatative effect of Danhong injection on rat abdominal aorta, and elucidate its possible mechanism of actions. METHODS The effects of Danhong injection on norepinephrine or potassium chloride treated blood vessels were observed in vivo and in vitro. The effects on the flow rate of arterial perfusion of rat hindlimb and the tensile force of rat aorta ring were measured The mechanism pf actions of Danhong injection in relaxation of rat aorta was explored with potassium channel blockers, caffeine and Ca2+ -free-Krebs solution perfusion. RESULTS The reduction of flow rate caused by norepinephrine was significantly rescued by Danhong injection at a concentration of 0. 3 - 3 mL·L-1. Menwhile, 3 mL·L-1 of Danhong injection also mildly ameliorated the decrease of blood supply induced by 30 mol·L-1 of potassium. 0. 3 - 40 mL·L-1 of Danhong injection significantly decreased the tension of high level norepinephrine or K+ perfusion solution treated rat abdominal aortic rings with or without endotheliura The amplitudes of relaxation in aorta rings with endothelium were more than that in aorta rings without endothelium perfused with 3 - 40 ml·L-1 of Danhong injection. No effects of potassium channel blockers TEA or 4-Ap on aorta ring tensile force were observed. 20 mL+L ' Danhong injection mildly inhibited vascular smooth muscle which was pre-contracted by NE in Ca2+ -free-Krebs solution. But it significantly inhibited vascular smooth muscle pre-contracted by NE in Ca2+ -Krebs solution. No effects of Danhong injective on caffeine preconstricted rat aortic rings were found. CONCLUSION Danhong injection showed a significant vasodilatation effect on vessels contracted by norepinephrine. Danhong injection inhibited norepinephrine-induced arterial contraction by reducing Ca2+ influx through receptor operated calcium channel and voltage-dependent calcium channel on smooth muscle cells in blood vessels. Danhong injection also showed a significant

  15. Resonance phenomenon of the ATP motor as an ultrasensitive biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peirong; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xia; Li, Xueren; Yue, Jiachang

    2012-09-28

    We designed a rotary biosensor as a damping effector, with the rotation of the F(0)F(1)-ATPase driven by Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) synthesis being indicated by the fluorescence intensity and a damping effect force being induced by the binding of an RNA molecule to its probe on the rotary biosensor. We found that the damping effect could contribute to the resonance phenomenon and energy transfer process of our rotary biosensor in the liquid phase. This result indicates that the ability of the rotary motor to operate in the vibration harmonic mode depends on the environmental conditions and mechanism in that a few molecules of the rotary biosensor could induce all of the sensor molecules to fluoresce together. These findings contribute to the theory study of the ATPase motor and future development of biosensors for ultrasensitive detection. PMID:22960174

  16. ATP-evoked Ca2+ mobilization and prostanoid release from astrocytes: P2-purinergic receptors linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, B.; Murphy, S.; Jeremy, J.; Morrow, C.; Dandona, P.

    1989-03-01

    Astrocyte cultures prelabelled with either (3H)inositol or 45Ca2+ were exposed to ATP and its hydrolysis products. ATP and ADP, but not AMP and adenosine, produced increases in the accumulation of intracellular 3H-labelled inositol phosphates (IP), efflux of 45Ca2+, and release of thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Whereas ATP-stimulated 3H-IP accumulation was unaffected, its ability to promote TXA2 release was markedly reduced by mepacrine, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). ATP-evoked 3H-IP production was also spared following treatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. We conclude that ATP-induced phosphoinositide (PPI) breakdown and 45Ca2+ mobilization occurred in parallel with, if not preceded, the release of TXA2. Following depletion of intracellular Ca2+ with a brief preexposure to ATP in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, the release of TXA2 in response to a subsequent ATP challenge was greatly reduced when compared with control. These results suggest that mobilization of cytosolic Ca2+ may be the stimulus for PLA2 activation and, thus, TXA2 release. Stimulation of alpha 1-adrenoceptors also caused PPI breakdown and 45Ca2+ efflux but not TXA2 release. The effects of ATP and noradrenaline (NA) on 3H-IP accumulation were additive, but their combined ability to increase 45Ca2+ efflux was not. Interestingly, in the presence of NA, ATP-stimulated TXA2 release was reduced. Our data provide evidence that functional P2-purinergic receptors are present on astrocytes and that ATP is the first physiologically relevant stimulus found to initiate prostanoid release from these cells.

  17. Increased Intracellular [dATP] Enhances Cardiac Contraction in Embryonic Chick Cardiomyocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Schoffstall, Brenda; Chase, P. Bryant

    2008-01-01

    Although ATP is the physiological substrate for cardiac contraction, cardiac contractility is significantly enhanced in vitro when only 10% of ATP substrate is replaced with 2’-deoxy-ATP (dATP). To determine the functional effects of increased intracellular [dATP] ([dATP]i) within living cardiac cells, we used hypertonic loading with varying exogenous dATP/ATP ratios, but constant total nucleotide concentration, to elevate [dATP]i in contractile monolayers of embryonic chick cardiomyocytes. T...

  18. Regulation of mitochondrial translation of the ATP8/ATP6 mRNA by Smt1p

    OpenAIRE

    Rak, Malgorzata; Su, Chen Hsien; Xu, Jonathan Tong; Azpiroz, Ricardo; Singh, Angela Mohan; Tzagoloff, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the mitochondrially encoded ATP6 and ATP8 genes is translationally regulated by F1 ATPase. We report a translational repressor (Smt1p) of the ATP6/8 mRNA that, when mutated, restores translation of the encoded Atp6p and Atp8p subunits of the ATP synthase. Heterozygous smt1 mutants fail to rescue the translation defect, indicating that the mutations are recessive. Smt1p is an intrinsic inner membrane protein, which, based on its sedimentation, has a native size twice that of the ...

  19. ATP-consuming and ATP-generating enzymes secreted by pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yegutkin, Gennady G; Samburski, Sergei S; Jalkanen, Sirpa;

    2006-01-01

    -generating enzymes in pancreatic juice, adenylate kinase, and NDP kinase, capable of sequentially phosphorylating AMP via ADP to ATP. Activities of nonspecific phosphatases, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases, and adenosine deaminase were negligible. Taken together, CCK-8 stimulation of pancreas causes...

  20. Synthesis and fluorescence characteristics of ATP-based FRET probes

    OpenAIRE

    Hardt, Normann; Hacker, Stephan M.; Marx, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogues labelled with two dyes suitable for undergoing Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) have the potential to be valuable tools to continuously study the enzymatic activity of ATP consuming enzymes. Here, we present a synthesis strategy that allows obtaining these ATP analogues in a straight-forward manner. Earlier studies indicate that modifying ATP at the O2′- and the γ-position is a very promising starting point for the design of these probes. We synt...

  1. Mechanical Control of ATP Synthase Function: Activation Energy Difference between Tight and Loose Binding Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás

    2010-01-26

    Despite exhaustive chemical and crystal structure studies, the mechanistic details of how FoF1-ATP synthase can convert mechanical energy to chemical, producing ATP, are still not fully understood. On the basis of quantum mechanical calculations using a recent highresolution X-ray structure, we conclude that formation of the P-O bond may be achieved through a transition state (TS) with a planar PO3 - ion. Surprisingly, there is a more than 40 kJ/mol difference between barrier heights of the loose and tight binding sites of the enzyme. This indicates that even a relatively small change in active site conformation, induced by the γ-subunit rotation, may effectively block the back reaction in βTP and, thus, promote ATP. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. Metabolic networks to generate pyruvate, PEP and ATP from glycerol in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasawi, Azhar; Thomas, Sean C; Appanna, Vasu D

    2016-04-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of the biodiesel industry. In this study we report on the metabolic networks involved in its transformation into pyruvate, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ATP. When the nutritionally-versatile Pseudomonas fluorescens was exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a mineral medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source, the microbe reconfigured its metabolism to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) primarily via substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). This alternative ATP-producing stratagem resulted in the synthesis of copious amounts of PEP and pyruvate. The production of these metabolites was mediated via the enhanced activities of such enzymes as pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). The high energy PEP was subsequently converted into ATP with the aid of pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PEPS) and pyruvate kinase (PK) with the concomitant formation of pyruvate. The participation of the phospho-transfer enzymes like adenylate kinase (AK) and acetate kinase (ACK) ensured the efficiency of this O2-independent energy-generating machinery. The increased activity of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) in the stressed bacteria provided the necessary precursors to fuel this process. This H2O2-induced anaerobic life-style fortuitously evokes metabolic networks to an effective pathway that can be harnessed into the synthesis of ATP, PEP and pyruvate. The bioconversion of glycerol to pyruvate will offer interesting economic benefit. PMID:26920481

  3. Extracellular ATP stimulates exocytosis via localized Ca(2+) release from acidic stores in rat pancreatic beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Zhengxing; Ding, Jiuping; Chen, Liangyi; Xu, Tao

    2006-04-01

    Three different methods, membrane capacitance (C(m)) measurement, amperometry and FM dye labeling were used to investigate the role of extracellular ATP in insulin secretion from rat pancreatic beta cells. We found that extracellular application of ATP mobilized intracellular Ca(2+) stores and synchronously triggered vigorous exocytosis. No influence of ATP on the readily releasable pool of vesicles was observed, which argues against a direct modulation of the secretory machinery at a level downstream of Ca(2+) elevation. The stimulatory effects of ATP were greatly reduced by intracellular perfusion of BAPTA but not EGTA, suggesting a close spatial association of fusion sites with intracellular Ca(2+) releasing sites. ATP-induced Ca(2+) transients and exocytosis were not blocked by thapsigargin (TG), by a ryanodine receptor antagonist or by dissipation of pH in acidic stores by monensin alone, but they were greatly attenuated by IP(3) receptor inhibition as well as ionomycin plus monensin, suggesting involvement of IP(3)-sensitive acidic Ca(2+) stores. Taken together, our data suggest that extracellular ATP triggers exocytosis by mobilizing spatially limited acidic Ca(2+) stores through IP(3) receptors. This mechanism may explain how insulin secretion from the pancreas is coordinated through diffusible ATP that is co-released with insulin. PMID:16536741

  4. Comparative Features of Copper ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B Heterologously Expressed in COS-1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yueyong; Pilankatta, Rajendra; Hatori, Yuta; Lewis, David; Inesi, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    ATP7A and ATP7B are P-type ATPases required for copper homeostasis and involved in the etiology of Menkes and Wilson diseases. We used heterologous expression of ATP7A or ATP7B in COS-1 cells infected with adenovirus vectors to characterize differential features pertinent to each protein expressed in the same mammalian cell type, rather than to extrinsic factors related to different cells sustaining expression. Electrophoretic analysis of the expressed protein, before and after purification, ...

  5. H+/ATP ratio during ATP hydrolysis by mitochondria: modification of the chemiosmotic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1977-05-01

    The stoichiometry of H+ ejection by mitochondria during hydrolysis of a small pulse of ATP (the H+/ATP ratio) has been reexamined in the light of our recent observation that the stoichiometry of H+ ejection during mitochondrial electron transport (the H+/site ratio) was previously underestimated. We show that earlier estimates of the H+/ATP ratio in intact mitochondria were based upon an invalid correction for scaler H+ production and describe a modified method for determination of this ratio which utilizes mersalyl or N-ethylmaleimide to prevent complicating transmembrane movements of phosphate and H+. This method gives a value for the H+/ATP ratio of 2.0 without the need for questionable corrections, compared with a value of 3.0 for the H+/site ratio also obtained by pulse methods. A modified version of the chemiosmotic theory is presented, in which 3 H+ are ejected per pair of electrons traversing each energy-conserving site of the respiratory chain. Of these, 2 H+ return to the matrix through the ATPase to form ATP from ADP and phosphate, and 1 H+ returns through the combined action of the phosphate and adenine nucleotide exchange carriers of the inner membrane to allow the energy-requiring influx of Pi and ADP3- and efflux of ATP4-. Thus, up to one-third of the energy input into synthesis of extramitochondrial ATP may be required for transport work. Since other methods suggest that the H+/site significantly exceeds 3.0, an alternative possibility is that 4 h+ are ejected per site, followed by return of 3 H+ through the ATPase and 1 H+ through the operation of the proton-coupled membrane transport systems. PMID:17116

  6. Loss of LRPPRC causes ATP synthase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier, Arnaud; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Brandt, Tobias; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-05-15

    Defects of the oxidative phosphorylation system, in particular of cytochrome-c oxidase (COX, respiratory chain complex IV), are common causes of Leigh syndrome (LS), which is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with severe progressive neurological symptoms that usually present during infancy or early childhood. The COX-deficient form of LS is commonly caused by mutations in genes encoding COX assembly factors, e.g. SURF1, SCO1, SCO2 or COX10. However, other mutations affecting genes that encode proteins not directly involved in COX assembly can also cause LS. The leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC) regulates mRNA stability, polyadenylation and coordinates mitochondrial translation. In humans, mutations in Lrpprc cause the French Canadian type of LS. Despite the finding that LRPPRC deficiency affects the stability of most mitochondrial mRNAs, its pathophysiological effect has mainly been attributed to COX deficiency. Surprisingly, we show here that the impaired mitochondrial respiration and reduced ATP production observed in Lrpprc conditional knockout mouse hearts is caused by an ATP synthase deficiency. Furthermore, the appearance of inactive subassembled ATP synthase complexes causes hyperpolarization and increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Our findings shed important new light on the bioenergetic consequences of the loss of LRPPRC in cardiac mitochondria. PMID:24399447

  7. Pyrazinoic Acid Decreases the Proton Motive Force, Respiratory ATP Synthesis Activity, and Cellular ATP Levels▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, P.; Haagsma, A.C.; Pham, H.; Maaskant, J. J.; Mol, S; Lill, H.; Bald, D

    2011-01-01

    Pyrazinoic acid, the active form of the first-line antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide, decreased the proton motive force and respiratory ATP synthesis rates in subcellular mycobacterial membrane assays. Pyrazinoic acid also significantly lowered cellular ATP levels in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These results indicate that the predominant mechanism of killing by this drug may operate by depletion of cellular ATP reserves.

  8. The distribution of ATP within tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) embryos correlates with germination whee as total ATP concentration does not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, P.; Joosen, R.V.L.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of ATP in tomato seeds was visualized by monitoring the luminescence of frozen sections on top of a gel containing all the components of the luciferase reaction, but excluding ATP. ATP was imaged in germinating tomato seeds at intervals of 3, 6, 17, 24 and 48 h and in seeds with pri

  9. Inhibition of ATP Synthase by Chlorinated Adenosine Analogue

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lisa S.; Nowak, Billie J.; Ayres, Mary L.; Krett, Nancy L.; Rosen, Steven T.; Zhang, Shuxing; Gandhi, Varsha

    2009-01-01

    8-Chloroadenosine (8-Cl-Ado) is a ribonucleoside analogue that is currently in clinical trial for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Based on the decline in cellular ATP pool following 8-Cl-Ado treatment, we hypothesized that 8-Cl-ADP and 8-Cl-ATP may interfere with ATP synthase, a key enzyme in ATP production. Mitochondrial ATP synthase is composed of two major parts; FO intermembrane base and F1 domain, containing α and β subunits. Crystal structures of both α and β subunits that bind to the sub...

  10. Protection against Mitochondrial and Metal Toxicity Depends on Functional Lipid Binding Sites in ATP13A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The late endo-/lysosomal P-type ATPase ATP13A2 (PARK9 is implicated in Parkinson’s disease (PD and Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, early-onset atypical Parkinsonism. ATP13A2 interacts at the N-terminus with the signaling lipids phosphatidic acid (PA and phosphatidylinositol (3,5 bisphosphate (PI(3,5P2, which modulate ATP13A2 activity under cellular stress conditions. Here, we analyzed stable human SHSY5Y cell lines overexpressing wild-type (WT or ATP13A2 mutants in which three N-terminal lipid binding sites (LBS1–3 were mutated. We explored the regulatory role of LBS1–3 in the cellular protection by ATP13A2 against mitochondrial stress induced by rotenone and found that the LBS2-3 mutants displayed an abrogated protective effect. Moreover, in contrast to WT, the LBS2 and LBS3 mutants responded poorly to pharmacological inhibition of, respectively, PI(3,5P2 and PA formation. We further demonstrate that PA and PI(3,5P2 are also required for the ATP13A2-mediated protection against the toxic metals Mn2+, Zn2+, and Fe3+, suggesting a general lipid-dependent activation mechanism of ATP13A2 in various PD-related stress conditions. Our results indicate that the ATP13A2-mediated protection requires binding of PI(3,5P2 to LBS2 and PA to LBS3. Thus, targeting the N-terminal lipid binding sites of ATP13A2 might offer a therapeutic approach to reduce cellular toxicity of various PD insults including mitochondrial stress.

  11. ATP synthase of yeast mitochondria. Isolation of subunit j and disruption of the ATP18 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, I; Pfeiffer, K; Neupert, W; Stuart, R A; Schägger, H

    1999-01-01

    The subunit composition of the mitochondrial ATP synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was analyzed using blue native gel electrophoresis and high resolution SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We report here the identification of a novel subunit of molecular mass of 6,687 Da, termed subunit j (Su j). An open reading frame of 127 base pairs (ATP18), which encodes for Su j, was identified on chromosome XIII. Su j does not display sequence similarity to ATP synthase subunits from other organisms. Data base searches, however, identified a potential homolog from Schizosaccharomyces pombe with 51% identity to Su j of S. cerevisiae. Su j, a small protein of 59 amino acid residues, has the characteristics of an integral inner membrane protein with a single transmembrane segment. Deletion of the ATP18 gene encoding Su j led to a strain (Deltasu j) completely deficient in oligomycin-sensitive ATPase activity and unable to grow on nonfermentable carbon sources. The presence of Su j is required for the stable expression of subunits 6 and f of the F0 membrane sector. In the absence of Su j, spontaneously arising rho- cells were observed that lacked also ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome c oxidase activities. We conclude that Su j is a novel and essential subunit of yeast ATP synthase. PMID:9867807

  12. Effect of Chlamydia pneumoniae on Cellular ATP Content in Mouse Macrophages: Role of Toll-Like Receptor 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaraei, Kambiz; Campbell, Lee Ann; Zhu, Xiaodong; Liles, W. Conrad; Kuo, Cho-chou; Rosenfeld, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria and are dependent on the host cell for ATP. Thus, chlamydial infection may alter the intracellular levels of ATP and affect all energy-dependent processes within the cell. We have shown that both live C. pneumoniae and inactivated C. pneumoniae induce markers of cell death prior to completion of the bacterial growth cycle. As depletion of ATP could account for the observed increase in cell death, the effects of C. pneumoniae on ATP concentrations within mouse macrophages were investigated. Live, heat-killed, and UV-inactivated C. pneumoniae cultures (at multiplicities of infection [MOIs] of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0) were incubated with mouse bone marrow macrophages isolated from C57BL/6J mice and mice deficient in Toll-like receptors. Treatment of the macrophages with both live and inactivated C. pneumoniae increased the ATP content of the cells. In cells infected with live C. pneumoniae, the increase was inversely proportional to the MOI. In cells treated with inactivated C. pneumoniae, the increase in ATP content was smaller than that induced by infection with live organisms and was proportional to the MOI. The increase in ATP content early in the developmental cycle was independent of the growth of C. pneumoniae, while sustained induction required live organisms. The capacity of C. pneumoniae to increase the ATP content was ablated in macrophages deficient in expression of either Toll-like receptor 2 or the Toll-like receptor accessory protein MyD88. In contrast, no effect was observed in macrophages lacking expression of Toll-like receptor 4. PMID:15972526

  13. Fluorescent ATP analog mant-ATP reports dynein activity in the isolated Chlamydomonas axoneme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilova, Maria; Howard, Jonathon

    Eukaryotic flagella are long rod-like extensions of cells, which play a fundamental role in single cell movement, as well as in fluid transport. Flagella contain a highly evolutionary conserved mechanical structure called the axoneme. The motion of the flagellum is generated by dynein motor proteins located all along the length of the axoneme. How the force production of motors is controlled spatially and temporally is still an open question. Therefore, monitoring dynein activity in the axonemal structure is expected to provide novel insights in regulation of the beat. We use high sensitivity fluorescence microscopy to monitor the binding and hydrolysis kinetics of the fluorescently labeled ATP analogue mant-ATP (2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate), which is known to support dynein activity. By studying the kinetics of mant-ATP fluorescence, we identified distinct mant-ATP binding sites in the axoneme. The application of this method to axonemes with reduced amounts of dynein, showed evidence that one of the sites is associated with binding to dynein. In the future, we would like to use this method to find the spatial distribution of dynein activity in the axoneme.

  14. Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in primary disorders of ATP synthase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtíšková, Alena; Ješina, Pavel; Kalous, Martin; Kaplanová, Vilma; Houštěk, Josef; Tesařová, M.; Fornůsková, D.; Zeman, J.; Dubot, A.; Godinot, C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1-2 (2004), s. 7-11. ISSN 1537-6524 R&D Projects: GA MZd NE6533; GA MŠk LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : ATP6 * membrane potential * mitochondrial diseases Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2004

  15. Effects of ATP on calcium binding to synaptic plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of labeled norepinephrine from preloaded synaptosomes requires the presence of potassium and calcium. ATP-dependent binding of calcium to synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) may provide a means of maintaining the cation in a readily available pool for the triggering of transmitter release. A high Ca-binding capacity was demonstrated in SPM. The Km for calcium is 5.5 X 10(-5) M. The dependence of the system on the gamma phosphate of ATP was demonstrated by an increase in Ca-binding with increasing ATP concentration and by competitive inhibition of binding by ADP and AMP. Magnesium is also required for ATP-dependent Ca-binding. The optimum pH for the Ca binding was 7.0. Pretreatment of SPM with phospholipase A2 lowered the binding capacity. Sulfhydryl groups are also critical for ATP-dependent Ca binding to occur. A model for ATP-dependent Ca-binding was proposed

  16. Rate of hydrolysis in ATP synthase is fine-tuned by  -subunit motif controlling active site conformation

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, T.

    2013-01-23

    Computer-designed artificial enzymes will require precise understanding of how conformation of active sites may control barrier heights of key transition states, including dependence on structure and dynamics at larger molecular scale. F(o)F(1) ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP using a rotary motor. Isolated F(1) performs hydrolysis with a rate very sensitive to ATP concentration. Experimental and theoretical results show that, at low ATP concentrations, ATP is slowly hydrolyzed in the so-called tight binding site, whereas at higher concentrations, the binding of additional ATP molecules induces rotation of the central γ-subunit, thereby forcing the site to transform through subtle conformational changes into a loose binding site in which hydrolysis occurs faster. How the 1-Å-scale rearrangements are controlled is not yet fully understood. By a combination of theoretical approaches, we address how large macromolecular rearrangements may manipulate the active site and how the reaction rate changes with active site conformation. Simulations reveal that, in response to γ-subunit position, the active site conformation is fine-tuned mainly by small α-subunit changes. Quantum mechanics-based results confirm that the sub-Ångström gradual changes between tight and loose binding site structures dramatically alter the hydrolysis rate.

  17. Mismatch recognition-coupled stabilization of Msh2-Msh6 in an ATP-bound state at the initiation of DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Edwin; Hingorani, Manju M

    2003-07-01

    Mismatch repair proteins correct errors in DNA via an ATP-driven process. In eukaryotes, the Msh2-Msh6 complex recognizes base pair mismatches and small insertion/deletions in DNA and initiates repair. Both Msh2 and Msh6 proteins contain Walker ATP-binding motifs that are necessary for repair activity. To understand how these proteins couple ATP binding and hydrolysis to DNA binding/mismatch recognition, the ATPase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6 was examined under pre-steady-state conditions. Acid-quench experiments revealed that in the absence of DNA, Msh2-Msh6 hydrolyzes ATP rapidly (burst rate = 3 s(-1) at 20 degrees C) and then undergoes a slow step in the pathway that limits catalytic turnover (k(cat) = 0.1 s(-1)). ATP is hydrolyzed similarly in the presence of fully matched duplex DNA; however, in the presence of a G:T mismatch or +T insertion-containing DNA, ATP hydrolysis is severely suppressed (rate = 0.1 s(-1)). Pulse-chase experiments revealed that Msh2-Msh6 binds ATP rapidly in the absence or in the presence of DNA (rate = 0.1 microM(-1) s(-1)), indicating that for the Msh2-Msh6.mismatched DNA complex, a step after ATP binding but before or at ATP hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step in the pathway. Thus, mismatch recognition is coupled to a dramatic increase in the residence time of ATP on Msh2-Msh6. This mismatch-induced, stable ATP-bound state of Msh2-Msh6 likely signals downstream events in the repair pathway. PMID:12820877

  18. Protein import into mitochondria: the requirement for external ATP is precursor-specific whereas intramitochondrial ATP is universally needed for translocation into the matrix.

    OpenAIRE

    Wachter, C.; Schatz, G.; Glick, B S

    1994-01-01

    ATP is needed for the import of precursor proteins into mitochondria. However, the role of ATP and its site of action have been unclear. We have now investigated the ATP requirements for protein import into the mitochondrial matrix. These experiments employed an in vitro system that allowed ATP levels to be manipulated both inside and outside the mitochondrial inner membrane. Our results indicate that there are two distinct ATP requirements for mitochondrial protein import. ATP in the matrix ...

  19. A new system for rapid measurement of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, B; Zhou, Y; Ren, S

    1997-01-01

    The paper introduces a new type instrument for rapid measuring ATP. The system consists of a micromodule ATP sensor and an instrument for measuring weak light transmitted by optic fiber. The micromodule ATP sensor mainly is composed of enzyme membrane, a probe and a bundle of optic fiber. The instrument measuring weak light consists of photomultiplier, high voltage power, pulse amplifier and counter. The instrument was characterized by simple structure, small size, rapid response time (times, CV time (> 3 months). PMID:9812776

  20. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, J M; Yegutkin, G G; Novak, I

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan-1, and online luminescence measurement, we detected fast ATP release in response to pH changes, bile acid, mechanical stress and hypo-osmotic stress. ATP release following hypo-osmotic stress was sensitive to drugs affecting exocytosis, pannexin-1, connexins, maxi-anion channels and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) channels, and corresponding transcripts were expressed in duct cells. Direct stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP signalling and ethanol application had negligible effects on ATP release. The released ATP was sequentially dephosphorylated through ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase2) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, with respective generation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine and their maintenance in the extracellular medium at basal levels. In addition, Capan-1 cells express counteracting adenylate kinase (AK1) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) enzymes (NME1, 2), which contribute to metabolism and regeneration of extracellular ATP and other nucleotides (ADP, uridine diphosphate (UDP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP)). In conclusion, we illustrate a complex regulation of extracellular purine homeostasis in a pancreatic duct cell model involving: ATP release by several mechanisms and subsequent nucleotide breakdown and ATP regeneration via counteracting nucleotide

  1. ATP Freisetzung aus neutrophilen Granulozyten durch "Connexin 43 hemichannels"

    OpenAIRE

    Küper, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular ATP liberated during hypoxia and inflammation can either signal directly on purinergic receptors or can activate adenosine receptors following phosphohydrolysis to adenosine. Given the association of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with adenine-nucleotide/nucleoside signaling in the inflammatory milieu, we hypothesized that PMNs are a source of extracellular ATP. Initial studies using high-performance liquid chromatography and luminometric ATP detection assays revealed that ...

  2. The DNA gyrase-quinolone complex. ATP hydrolysis and the mechanism of DNA cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Maxwell, A

    1998-01-01

    Quinolone binding to the gyrase-DNA complex induces a conformational change that results in the blocking of supercoiling. Under these conditions gyrase is still capable of ATP hydrolysis which now proceeds through an alternative pathway involving two different conformations of the enzyme (Kampranis......, S. C., and Maxwell, A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 22606-22614). The kinetics of ATP hydrolysis via this pathway have been studied and found to differ from those of the reaction of the drug-free enzyme. The quinolone-characteristic ATPase rate is DNA-dependent and can be induced in the presence of...... DNA fragments as small as 20 base pairs. By observing the conversion of the ATPase rate to the quinolone characteristic rate, the formation and dissociation of the gyrase-DNA-quinolone complex can be monitored. Comparison of the time dependence of the conversion of the gyrase ATPase with that of DNA...

  3. Understanding structure, function, and mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multimeric enzyme complex with an overall molecular weight of about 600,000 Da. The ATP synthase is a molecular motor composed of two separable parts: F1 and Fo. The F1 portion contains the catalytic sites for ATP synthesis and protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Fo forms a proton turbine that is embedded in the inner membrane and connected to the rotor of F1. The flux of protons flowing down a potential gradient powers the rotation of the rotor driving the synthesis of ATP. Thus, the flow of protons though Fo is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. This review will discuss the structure/function relationship in the ATP synthase as determined by biochemical, crystallographic, and genetic studies. An emphasis will be placed on linking the structure/function relationship with understanding how disease causing mutations or putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes encoding the subunits of the ATP synthase, will affect the function of the enzyme and the health of the individual. The review will start by summarizing the current understanding of the subunit composition of the enzyme and the role of the subunits followed by a discussion on known mutations and their effect on the activity of the ATP synthase. The review will conclude with a summary of mutations in genes encoding subunits of the ATP synthase that are known to be responsible for human disease, and a brief discussion on SNPs.

  4. Carbon and energy metabolism of atp mutants of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Michelsen, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The membrane-bound H+-ATPase plays a key role in free-energy transduction of biological systems. We report how the carbon and energy metabolism of Escherichia coli changes in response to deletion of the atp operon that encodes this enzyme. Compared with the isogenic wild-type strain, the growth...... rate and growth yield were decreased less than expected for a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis alone as a source of ATP. Moreover, the respiration rate of a atp deletion strain was increased by 40% compared with the wild-type strain. This result is surprising, since the atp deletion...

  5. Effect of irradiation on bioluminescence spectrum of microbial ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation on bioluminescence spectrum of dehydrated cabbage microbial ATP was studied. The results showed that the spectral bandwidth of ATP standard was from 490 to 640 nm and the peak wavelength was at 563 nm. The spectral bandwidths of irradiated dehydrated cabbage microbial ATP and CK did not change. Peak wavelengths of dehydrated cabbage irradiated at different dosages were not significantly different from that of CK. The peaks of bioluminescence spectrum of irradiated samples were higher than that of CK, which may be because of the increasing concentration of ATP, and this effect would be kept for quite a long time after irradiation. (authors)

  6. ATP25, a New Nuclear Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Required for Expression and Assembly of the Atp9p Subunit of Mitochondrial ATPase

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Xiaomei; Barros, Mario H.; Shulman, Theodore; Tzagoloff, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    We report a new nuclear gene, designated ATP25 (reading frame YMR098C on chromosome XIII), required for expression of Atp9p (subunit 9) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial proton translocating ATPase. Mutations in ATP25 elicit a deficit of ATP9 mRNA and of its translation product, thereby preventing assembly of functional F0. Unlike Atp9p, the other mitochondrial gene products, including ATPase subunits Atp6p and Atp8p, are synthesized normally in atp25 mutants. Northern analysis of...

  7. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, P; Allaman, I; Rothenfusser, K; Fiumelli, H; Marquet, P; Magistretti, P J

    2016-01-01

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade. PMID:26893204

  8. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade

    KAUST Repository

    Jourdain, P.

    2016-02-19

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade.

  9. Nitric oxide differentially regulates renal ATP-binding cassette transporters during endotoxemia

    OpenAIRE

    Heemskerk, Suzanne; van Koppen, Arianne; van den Broek, Luc; Poelen, Geert J. M.; Wouterse, Alfons C; Dijkman, Henry B. P. M.; Russel, Frans G. M.; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of renal transport processes. In the present study, we investigated the role of NO, produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), in the regulation of renal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in vivo during endotoxemia. Wistar–Hannover rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS+) alone or in combination with the iNOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine. Controls received detoxified LPS (LPS−). After LPS+, proximal tubular damage and a reduction in renal...

  10. Long-range cooperative binding of kinesin to a microtubule in the presence of ATP

    OpenAIRE

    Muto, Etsuko; Sakai, Hiroyuki; Kaseda, Kuniyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Interaction of kinesin-coated latex beads with a single microtubule (MT) was directly observed by fluorescence microscopy. In the presence of ATP, binding of a kinesin bead to the MT facilitated the subsequent binding of other kinesin beads to an adjacent region on the MT that extended for micrometers in length. This cooperative binding was not observed in the presence of ADP or 5′-adenylylimidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), where binding along the MT was random. Cooperative binding also was induced ...

  11. Prohibitins Interact Genetically with Atp23, a Novel Processing Peptidase and Chaperone for the F1FO-ATP Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Christof; Wilmes, Claudia; Tatsuta, Takashi; Langer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The generation of cellular energy depends on the coordinated assembly of nuclear and mitochondrial-encoded proteins into multisubunit respiratory chain complexes in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Here, we describe the identification of a conserved metallopeptidase present in the intermembrane space, termed Atp23, which exerts dual activities during the biogenesis of the F1FO-ATP synthase. On one hand, Atp23 serves as a processing peptidase and mediates the maturation of the mitochondrial...

  12. Structural models of the human copper P-type ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourdon, Pontus Emanuel; Sitsel, Oleg; Karlsen, Jesper Lykkegaard;

    2012-01-01

    The human copper exporters ATP7A and ATP7B contain domains common to all P-type ATPases as well as class-specific features such as six sequential heavy-metal binding domains (HMBD1-HMBD6) and a type-specific constellation of transmembrane helices. Despite the medical significance of ATP7A and ATP7B...... Legionella pneumophila. The models and sequence analyses show that the domains and residues involved in the catalytic phosphorylation events and copper transfer are highly conserved. In addition, there are only minor differences in the core structures of the two human proteins and the bacterial template...

  13. Modelling the ATP production in mitochondria

    CERN Document Server

    Saa, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We revisit here the mathematical model for ATP production in mitochondria introduced recently by Bertram, Pedersen, Luciani, and Sherman (BPLS) as a simplification of the more complete but intricate Magnus and Keizer's model. We correct some inaccuracies in the BPLS original approximations and then analyze some of the dynamical properties of the model. We infer from exhaustive numerical explorations that the enhanced BPLS equations have a unique attractor fixed point for physiologically acceptable ranges of mitochondrial variables and respiration inputs. We determine, in the stationary regime, the dependence of the mitochondrial variables on the respiration inputs, namely the cytosolic concentration of calcium ${\\rm Ca}_{\\rm c}$ and the substrate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate FBP. The same effect of calcium saturation reported for the original BPLS model is observed here. We find out, however, an interesting non-stationary effect: the inertia of the model tends to increase considerably for high concentrations of ...

  14. Behavior and stability of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during chlorine disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescerecka, Alina; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2016-09-15

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis is a cultivation-independent alternative method for the determination of bacterial viability in both chlorinated and non-chlorinated water. Here we investigated the behavior and stability of ATP during chlorination in detail. Different sodium hypochlorite doses (0-22.4 mg-Cl2 L(-1); 5 min exposure) were applied to an Escherichia coli pure culture suspended in filtered river water. We observed decreasing intracellular ATP with increasing chlorine concentrations, but extracellular ATP concentrations only increased when the chlorine dose exceeded 0.35 mg L(-1). The release of ATP from chlorine-damaged bacteria coincided with severe membrane damage detected with flow cytometry (FCM). The stability of extracellular ATP was subsequently studied in different water matrixes, and we found that extracellular ATP was stable in sterile deionized water and also in chlorinated water until extremely high chlorine doses (≤11.2 mg-Cl2 L(-1); 5 min exposure). In contrast, ATP decreased relatively slowly (k = 0.145 h(-1)) in 0.1 μm filtered river water, presumably due to degradation by either extracellular enzymes or the fraction of bacteria that were able to pass through the filter. Extracellular ATP decreased considerably faster (k = 0.368 h(-1)) during batch growth of a river water bacterial community. A series of growth potential tests showed that extracellular ATP molecules were utilized as a phosphorus source during bacteria proliferation. From the combined data we conclude that ATP released from bacteria at high chlorine doses could promote bacteria regrowth, contributing to biological instability in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:27295623

  15. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether injures cell viability and mitochondrial function of mouse spermatocytes by decreasing mitochondrial proteins Atp5b and Uqcrc1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoping; Wang, Jing; Cui, Yiqiang

    2016-09-01

    Our object was to explore direct effects and mechanism of BDE47 on GC2 (immortalized mouse spermatocyte). GC2 were exposed to DMSO, 0.1, 1, 10, 100μM BDE47 for 48h. Cell viability was detected by trypan-blue exclusion; ultrastructure by electron-microscopy; cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane motential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) by flow-cytometry; ATP production by luminometer; Atp5b, Uqcrc1, Bcl-2 level by WB. To explore whether the decreased mitochondrial proteins play an important role in apoptosis, MMP and apoptosis were detected after Atp5b or Uqcrc1 knockdown in GC2. Results showed BDE47 reduced cell viability, caused condensation of nuclear and vacuolated mitochondria, decreased MMP and ATP, induced ROS, cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phase, reduced Atp5b, Uqcrc1, Bcl-2 in GC2. Knockdown of Atp5b or Uqcrc1 decreased MMP, induced apoptosis in GC2. Results suggested that BDE47 reduced cell viability, injured mitochondria in spermatocytes probably by decreasing mitochondrial protein Atp5b and Uqcrc1. PMID:27525561

  16. Exon duplications in the ATP7A gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mie; Skjørringe, Tina; Kodama, Hiroko;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Menkes disease (MD) is an X-linked, fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper metabolism, caused by mutations in the ATP7A gene. Thirty-three Menkes patients in whom no mutation had been detected with standard diagnostic tools were screened for exon duplications in the ATP7A gene. ME...

  17. ATP measurements for monitoring microbial drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin

    carrying molecule in living cells, thus ATP can be used as a parameter for microbial activity. ATP is extracted from cells through cell lysis and subsequently assayed with the luciferase enzyme and its substrate luciferin, resulting in bioluminescence, i.e. light emission which can be quantified...

  18. ATP storage and uptake by isolated pancreatic zymogen granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Novak, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    ATP is released from pancreatic acini in response to cholinergic and hormonal stimulation. The same stimuli cause exocytosis of ZG (zymogen granules) and release of digestive enzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ZG stored ATP and to characterize the uptake mechanism for...... ATP transport into the ZG. ZG were isolated and the ATP content was measured using luciferin/luciferase assays and was related to protein in the sample. The estimate of ATP concentration in freshly isolated granules was 40-120 µM. The ATP uptake had an apparent Km value of 4.9±2.1 mM when granules...... were incubated without Mg2+ and a Km value of 0.47±0.05 mM in the presence of Mg2+, both in pH 6.0 buffers. The uptake of ATP was significantly higher at pH 7.2 compared with pH 6.0 solutions. The anion transport blockers DIDS (4,4'-di-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate) and Evans Blue inhibited ATP...

  19. NITRIC OXIDE INHIBITS A RISE OF ATP-INTRODUCED CYTOSOLIC FREE Ca2 + CONCENTRATION AND RELEASE FROM INTRACELLULAR STORED Ca2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽君; 邓艳春; 于德洁; 鲍光宏

    2000-01-01

    Object. The effects of ATP-introduced a rise in cytosolic free Ca2 + concentration and inhibition of nitric oxide were investigated. Method. Measurement of f ree Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]i)of cultured rat tail arterial smooth muscle cells using Fura-2/AM dual excitation wavelength spoctrofluorometer. Results. There are two components of [ Ca2 + ]i can be evoked by ATP. One part is Ca2 + ertry from Ca2 + channel and formed a plateau. The another part is a peak that released f rom Ca2 + store. Both of them can be inhibited by NO. Conclusion. The ATP induced [ Ga2 + ]i rise that release Ca2 + from both InsP3 and ryanochine receptors and Ga2 + entry through calcium channels. The inhibition of NO on ATP induced [ Ca2 + ]i rise that was mediated by cGMP.

  20. P2X receptor-mediated ATP purinergic signaling in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lin-Hua JiangSchool of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United KingdomAbstract: Purinergic P2X receptors are plasma membrane proteins present in a wide range of mammalian cells where they act as a cellular sensor, enabling cells to detect and respond to extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP, an important signaling molecule. P2X receptors function as ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable cationic channels that open upon ATP binding to elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and cause membrane depolarization. In response to sustained activation, P2X receptors induce formation of a pore permeable to large molecules. P2X receptors also interact with distinct functional proteins and membrane lipids to form specialized signaling complexes. Studies have provided compelling evidence to show that such P2X receptor-mediated ATP-signaling mechanisms determine and regulate a growing number and diversity of important physiological processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and cytokine release. There is accumulating evidence to support strong causative relationships of altered receptor expression and function with chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, cancers, and other pathologies or diseases. Numerous high throughput screening drug discovery programs and preclinical studies have thus far demonstrated the proof of concepts that the P2X receptors are druggable targets and selective receptor antagonism is a promising therapeutics approach. This review will discuss the recent progress in understanding the mammalian P2X receptors with respect to the ATP-signaling mechanisms, physiological and pathophysiological roles, and development and preclinical studies of receptor antagonists.Keywords: extracellular ATP, ion channel, large pore, signaling complex, chronic pain, inflammatory diseases

  1. Inhibition of ATP synthesis by fenbufen and its conjugated metabolites in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Muzeeb; Skonberg, Christian; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2016-03-01

    Fenbufen is an arylpropionic acid derivative belonging to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Even though fenbufen is considered a safe drug, some adverse reactions including hepatic events have been reported. To investigate whether mitochondrial damage could be involved in the drug induced liver injury (DILI) by fenbufen, the inhibitory effect of fenbufen and its conjugated metabolites on oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria was investigated. Fenbufen glucuronide (F-GlcA), fenbufen-N-acetyl cysteine-thioester (F-NAC) and fenbufen-S-glutathione thioester (F-SG) were found to be more potent inhibitors compared to parent fenbufen (F), whereas fenbufen-O-carnitine (F-carn), fenbufen-glycine (F-gly) and fenbufen-N-acetyl lysine amide (F-NAL) were less potent compared to fenbufen. Fenbufen-CoA thioester (F-CoA) was equally potent as fenbufen in inhibiting ATP synthesis. Fenbufen showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of ATP synthesis with Kinact of 4.4 min(-1) and KI of 0.88 μM and Kinact/KI ratio of 5.01 min(-1) μM(-1). Data show that fenbufen did not act through opening MPT pore, nor did incubation of mitochondria with reduced GSH and fenbufen show any protective effect on fenbufen mediated inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. Inclusion of NADPH in mitochondrial preparations with fenbufen did not modulate the inhibitory effects, suggesting no role of CYP mediated oxidative metabolites on the ATP synthesis in isolated mitochondria. The results from the present experiments provide evidence that fenbufen and its metabolites could be involved in mitochondrial toxicity through inhibition of ATP synthesis. PMID:26612354

  2. An ATP transport system in the intracellular bacterium, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby, E G; McCabe, J B

    1986-01-01

    The intracellularly growing bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J transports intact ATP by a specific, energy-requiring process. ATP transport does not involve either an ADP-ATP or an AMP-ATP exchange mechanism but, instead, has characteristics of an active transport permease. Kinetically distinct systems for ATP transport are expressed by the two developmental stages of the bdellovibrio life cycle.

  3. Expression of ATP7B in normal human liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Fanni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ATP7B is a copper transporting P-type ATPase, also known as Wilson disease protein, which plays a key role in copper distribution inside cells. Recent experimental data in cell culture have shown that ATP7B putatively serves a dual function in hepatocytes: when localized to the Golgi apparatus, it has a biosynthetic role, delivering copper atoms to apoceruloplasmin; when the hepatocytes are under copper stress, ATP7B translocates to the biliary pole to transport excess copper out of the cell and into the bile canaliculus for subsequent excretion from the body via the bile. The above data on ATP7B localization have been mainly obtained in tumor cell systems in vitro. The aim of the present work was to assess the presence and localization of the Wilson disease protein in the human liver. We tested immunoreactivity for ATP7B in 10 human liver biopsies, in which no significant pathological lesion was found using a polyclonal antiserum specific for ATP7B. In the normal liver, immunoreactivity for ATP7B was observed in hepatocytes and in biliary cells. In the hepatocytes, immunoreactivity for ATP7B was observed close to the plasma membrane, both at the sinusoidal and at the biliary pole. In the biliary cells, ATP7B was localized close to the cell membrane, mainly concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. The data suggest that, in human liver, ATP7B is localized to the plasma membrane of both hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells.

  4. Involvement of ATP in the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic inhibitory neurotransmission of lamb isolated coronary small arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Ulf; García-Sacristán, Albino; Prieto, Dolores

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) transmitters, such as nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), in the neurogenic relaxation of lamb coronary small arteries was investigated in vessel segments with an internal lumen diameter of 200–550 μm, isolated from the left ventricle of the heart, and suspended for isometric tension recording in microvascular myographs.In both endothelium-intact and -denuded coronary small arteries treated with phentolamine (3×10−6 M), propranolol (3×10−6 M), and atropine (10−6 M) and contracted to 3×10−7 M of the thromboxane analogue U46619, electrical field stimulation (EFS) evoked frequency-dependent relaxations, which were markedly reduced in the presence of tetrodotoxin (10−6 M).Exogenous NO added as acidified sodium nitrite (10−6–10−3 M) and L-nitrosocysteine induced potent relaxations of lamb coronary small arteries. However, both inhibition of NO synthase with NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 3×10−5 M), and mechanical endothelial cell removal increased rather than inhibited relaxations to EFS. In small arteries processed for NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, activity was only observed within endothelial cells.In arteries contracted to U46619, exogenously added ATP caused concentration-dependent relaxations with pD2 and maximum responses of 4.72±0.12 and 89.6±3.8% (n=12), respectively. ADP and the P2Y-agonist, 2-methylthio-ATP, induced relaxations equipotent to ATP, while the P2X-agonist, α, β-methylene ATP (10−9–10−4 M), and the P2U-agonist, UTP (10−9–10−4 M) only caused small transient relaxations at the highest concentrations (10−4 and 10−3 M).ATP and EFS-induced relaxations were unchanged in the presence of the P1-purinoceptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (10−5 M), while this antagonist inhibited the concentration-dependent relaxations to adenosine. In contrast, the P2-purinoceptor antagonist, suramin (3×10−5

  5. Local release of ATP into the arterial inflow and venous drainage of human skeletal muscle: insight from ATP determination with the intravascular microdialysis technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Thaning, Pia; Nyberg, Michael Permin;

    2011-01-01

    Intraluminal ATP could play an important role in the local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow, but the stimuli that cause ATP release and the levels of plasma ATP in vessels supplying and draining human skeletal muscle remain unclear. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which ATP is...... released into plasma, we measured plasma [ATP] with the intravascular microdialysis technique at rest and during dynamic exercise (normoxia and hypoxia), passive exercise, thigh compressions and arterial ATP, tyramine and ACh infusion in a total of 16 healthy young men. Femoral arterial and venous[ATP...

  6. ATP analog-sensitive Pat1 protein kinase for synchronous fission yeast meiosis at physiological temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Cipak, Lubos; Hyppa, Randy; Smith, Gerald; Gregan, Juraj

    2012-01-01

    To study meiosis, synchronous cultures are often indispensable, especially for physical analyses of DNA and proteins. A temperature-sensitive allele of the Pat1 protein kinase (pat1-114) has been widely used to induce synchronous meiosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, but pat1-114-induced meiosis differs from wild-type meiosis, and some of these abnormalities might be due to higher temperature needed to inactivate the Pat1 kinase. Here, we report an ATP analog-sensitive allel...

  7. Extracellular ATP-dependent activation of plasma membrane Ca2+ pump in HEK-293 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Z.; Murase, K.; Obata, S.; Sokabe, M

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that extracellular ATP (ATPo) elevates the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by inducing Ca2+ influx or mobilizing Ca2+ from internal stores via activation of purinoceptors in the plasma membrane. This study shows that ATPo also activates the plasma membrane Ca2+ pumps (PMCPs) to bring the elevated [Ca2+]i back to the resting level in human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK-293) cells.The duration of ATPo-induced intracellular Ca2+ transients was significantly increased by P...

  8. The glycolytic flux in Escherichia coli is controlled by the demand for ATP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Westerhoff, H.V.; Snoep, J.L.; Nilsson, D.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2002-01-01

    The nature of the control of glycolytic flux is one of the central, as-yet-uncharacterized issues in cellular metabolism. We developed a molecular genetic tool that specifically induces ATP hydrolysis in living cells without interfering with other aspects of metabolism. Genes encoding the F-1 par.......e., the cells are mostly "carbon" limited. Ways to increase the efficiency and productivity of industrial fermentation processes are discussed....... optimizing additional ATP hydrolysis, we increased the flux through glycolysis to 1.7 times that of the wild-type flux. The results demonstrate why attempts in the past to increase the glycolytic flux through overexpression of glycolytic enzymes have been unsuccessful: the majority of flux control (> 75...

  9. Effect of Strength Training on Oxidative Stress and the Correlation of the Same with Forearm Vasodilatation and Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Elderly Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Filipe Fernandes Oliveira; Batista, Rafael Marinho Falcão; do Nascimento, Leone Severino; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto Cançado; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of strength training on oxidative stress and the correlation of the same with forearm vasodilatation and mean blood pressure of hypertensive elderly women, at rest (basal) and during a static handgrip exercise. Insufficiently active hypertensive elderly women (N = 25; mean age = 66.1 years) were randomized into a 10 week strength training group (n = 13) or control (n = 12) group. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), plasma nitrite (NO2-), forearm blood flow (FBF), mean blood pressure (MBP) and vascular conductance ([FBF / MBP] x 100) were evaluated before and after the completion of the interventions. The strength training group increased the TAC (pre: Median = 39.0; Interquartile range = 34.0–41.5% vs post: Median = 44.0; Interquartile range = 38.0–51.5%; p = 0.006) and reduced the MDA (pre: 4.94 ± 1.10 μM vs post: 3.90 ± 1.35 μM; p = 0.025; CI-95%: -1.92 –-0.16 μM). The strength training group increased basal vascular conductance (VC) (pre: 3.56 ±0.88 units vs post: 5.21 ±1.28 units; p = 0.001; CI-95%: 0.93–2.38 units) and decreased basal MBP (pre: 93.1 ±6.3 mmHg vs post: 88.9 ±5.4 mmHg; p = 0.035; CI-95%: -8.0 –-0.4 mmHg). Such changes were also observed during static handgrip exercise. A moderate correlation was observed between changes in basal VC and MBP with changes in NO2- (ΔVC → r = -0.56, p = 0.047; ΔMBP → r = -0.41, p = 0.168) and MDA (ΔVC → r = 0.64, p = 0.019; ΔMBP → r = 0.31, p = 0.305). The strength training program reduced the oxidative stress of the hypertensive elderly women and this reduction was moderately correlated with their cardiovascular benefits. Trial Registration: ensaiosclinicos.gov.br RBR-48c29w PMID:27529625

  10. Role of divalent metal cations in ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase: Magnesium provides a bridge for ATP to fuel unwinding

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, David N.; Banik, Sukalyani; Rypma, Ryan S.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the role of magnesium ions in coupling ATP hydrolysis to the nucleic acid unwinding catalyzed by the NS3 protein encoded by the hepatitis C virus. Analyses of steady-state ATP hydrolysis rates at various RNA and magnesium concentrations were used to determine values for the 15 dissociation constants describing the formation of a productive enzyme-metal-ATP-RNA complex and the 4 rate constants describing hydrolysis of ATP by the possible enzyme-ATP complexes. These valu...

  11. [The effect of magnesium pool isotopy on reactivation of mitochondrial ATP synthesis suppressed by 1-methyl-nicotine amide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, D A; Aliautdin, R N; Markarian, A A; Berdieva, A G; Khasigov, P Z; Gatagonova, T M; Ktsoeva, S A; Orlova, M A

    2006-01-01

    The ATP-generating activity of both rat myocardial mitochondria and intramitochondrial creatine phosphokinase (CPK) was examined as a function of the incubation medium magnesium pool isotopy. The in vitro systems tested were prepared from the hearts of animals treated with single injection of 1-methyl-nicotine amide (MNA) suppressing the NAD(P)-dependent reactions in vivo. The presense of the 25Mg paramagnetic cations leads to essential compensation of intramitochondrial ATP deficiency caused by the MNA induced blockade of oxidative phosphorylation. This effect is merely unreachable in those systems where the magnesium pool consists of isotopes with a zero nuclear spin (24Mg, 26Mg). The reactivation of mitochondrial ATP synthesis described here involves CPK activity which does not depends on MNA. In this case, a high efficiency of this reactivation seems to be a spin selective phenomenon which requires, predominantly, 25Mg2+ cations. PMID:16805385

  12. Photosystem 0, a proposed ancestral photosystem without reducing power that synthesizes ATP during light-dark cycling

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, A W J

    2005-01-01

    Photosystem 0 is a proposed membrane-based mechanism for free energy gain as ATP from fluctuating light. The PS0 reaction centers have no reducing power: charge transport is only temporary. Light induces within the reaction centers metastable dipoles that generate a membrane potential that drives ATP synthesis while protons move through the ATPsynthase enzyme. After the decay of the dipole potential in the dark, the protons either (1) return across the membrane by conduction or (2) are pumped back by ATPsynthase, backwards active as ATPase at a higher H+/ATP ratio. PS0 constitutes a link to previously proposed free energy sources for early evolution that work on thermal cycling. Several contemporary photosynthetic phenomena may be relics of PS0.

  13. Synthesis and fluorescence characteristics of ATP-based FRET probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Norman; Hacker, Stephan M; Marx, Andreas

    2013-12-28

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogues labelled with two dyes suitable for undergoing Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) have the potential to be valuable tools to continuously study the enzymatic activity of ATP consuming enzymes. Here, we present a synthesis strategy that allows obtaining these ATP analogues in a straight-forward manner. Earlier studies indicate that modifying ATP at the O2'- and the γ-position is a very promising starting point for the design of these probes. We synthesized probes modified with five different combinations of dyes attached to these positions and investigated their fluorescence characteristics in the non-cleaved state as well as after enzymatic hydrolysis. All presented probes largely change their fluorescence characteristics upon cleavage. They include ratiometric FRET probes as well as dark quenched analogues. For typical in vitro applications a combination of the sulfonated polymethine dyes Sulfo-Cy3 and Sulfo-Cy5 seems to be most promising due to their excellent solubility in aqueous buffer and a large change of fluorescence characteristics upon cleavage. For this combination of dyes we also synthesized analogues modified at the γ- and the C2- or the O3'-position, respectively, as these attachment sites are also well accepted by certain ATP consuming enzymes. These analogues show comparably large changes in fluorescence characteristics. Overall, we present new ATP-based FRET probes that have the potential to enable monitoring the enzymatic activity of ATP consuming enzymes. PMID:24173528

  14. The origin of cytosolic ATP in photosynthetic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardeström, Per; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2016-07-01

    In photosynthetically active cells, both chloroplasts and mitochondria have the capacity to produce ATP via photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. Thus, theoretically, both organelles could provide ATP for the cytosol, but the extent, to which they actually do this, and how the process is regulated, both remain unclear. Most of the evidence discussed comes from experiments with rapid fractionation of isolated protoplasts subjected to different treatments in combination with application of specific inhibitors. The results obtained indicate that, under conditions where ATP demand for photosynthetic CO2 fixation is sufficiently high, the mitochondria supply the bulk of ATP for the cytosol. In contrast, under stress conditions where CO2 fixation is severely limited, ATP will build up in chloroplasts and it can then be exported to the cytosol, by metabolite shuttle mechanisms. Thus, depending on the conditions, either mitochondria or chloroplasts can supply the bulk of ATP for the cytosol. This supply of ATP is discussed in relation to the idea that mitochondrial functions may be tuned to provide an optimal environment for the chloroplast. By balancing cellular redox states, mitochondria can contribute to an optimal photosynthetic capacity. PMID:27087668

  15. ATP and potassium ions: a deadly combination for astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David G.; Wang, Junjie; Keane, Robert W.; Scemes, Eliana; Dahl, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    The ATP release channel Pannexin1 (Panx1) is self-regulated, i.e. the permeant ATP inhibits the channel from the extracellular space. The affinity of the ATP binding site is lower than that of the purinergic P2X7 receptor allowing a transient activation of Panx1 by ATP through P2X7R. Here we show that the inhibition of Panx1 by ATP is abrogated by increased extracellular potassium ion concentration ([K+]o) in a dose-dependent manner. Since increased [K+]o is also a stimulus for Panx1 channels, it can be expected that a combination of ATP and increased [K+]o would be deadly for cells. Indeed, astrocytes did not survive exposure to these combined stimuli. The death mechanism, although involving P2X7R, does not appear to strictly follow a pyroptotic pathway. Instead, caspase-3 was activated, a process inhibited by Panx1 inhibitors. These data suggest that Panx1 plays an early role in the cell death signaling pathway involving ATP and K+ ions. Additionally, Panx1 may play a second role once cells are committed to apoptosis, since Panx1 is also a substrate of caspase-3.

  16. Endothelin receptor-mediated vasodilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, David; Wackenfors, Angelica; Gustafsson, Lotta;

    2008-01-01

    Culture of intact arteries is a frequently employed experimental model for investigating the mechanisms governing the regulation of vascular endothelin receptors. Endothelin type A (ET(A)) and type B (ET(B)) receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells are up-regulated in organ culture and the...... enhanced vasoconstriction mimics the changes that occur in cardiovascular disease. The effect of organ culture on endothelial dilatory endothelin ET(B) receptors is not known. We hypothesize that organ culture decreases the endothelin receptor-mediated dilatation and that this is one possible mechanism by...... denudation. The increase in sarafotoxin 6c contraction after removal of the endothelium was more pronounced before than after organ culture, suggesting down-regulated endothelial endothelin ET(B) receptors. Also, the immunofluorescence staining intensities for endothelial endothelin ET(B) receptors were...

  17. ATP released by injured neurons activates Schwann cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele eNegro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Injured nerve terminals of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs can regenerate. This remarkable and complex response is governed by molecular signals that are exchanged among the cellular components of this synapse: motor axon nerve terminal (MAT, perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs, and muscle fibre. The nature of signals that govern MAT regeneration is ill-known. In the present study the spider toxin α-Latrotoxin has been used as tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying peripheral neuroregeneration. Indeed this neurotoxin induces an acute, specific, localized and fully reversible damage of the presynaptic nerve terminal, and its action mimics the cascade of events that leads to nerve terminal degeneration in injured patients and in many neurodegenerative conditions. Here we provide evidence of an early release by degenerating neurons of ATP as alarm messenger, that contributes to the activation of a series of intracellular pathways within SCs that are crucial for nerve regeneration: Ca2+, cAMP, ERK1/2, and CREB. These results contribute to define the cross-talk taking place among degenerating nerve terminals and PSCs, involved in the functional recovery of the NMJ.

  18. Effect of LLLT on the level of ATP and ROS from organ of corti cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, ChungKu; Chang, So-Young; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Suh, Myung-Whan; Jung, Jae Yun

    2014-03-01

    It is well established that ototoxic antibiotics and acoustic trauma can damage cochlear hair cells and cause hearing loss. Previous studies using transcanal LLLT (Low level laser therapy) showed that LLLT can promote recovery of hearing thresholds and cochlear hair cells. However, its mechanism has not been studied. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of hearing recovery from gentamicin induced ototoxic hearing loss by LLLT. Methods: HEI- OC1 (House ear institute organ of Corti) cells were cultured for 18 hours and ototoxicity was induced by gentamicin (GM) treatment to the cells. Cultured cells were divided into 6 groups, No treatment control, LLLT only, GM 6.6 mM and GM 13.1 mM, GM 6.6 mM+LLLT and GM 13.1 mM+LLLT cells. LD laser 808 nm, 15 mW, was irradiated to the cultured cells for 15 min, at 4 hours after GM treatment to the cells. ATP was assayed using the ATP assay Kit. ROS was measured using confocal microscope after application of H2DCFDA dye. Results: ATP was decreased in GM 13.1 mM cells and increased in LLLT only cells and GM 13.1 mM+LLLT cells compared to control and 13.1 mM cells. ROS was increased in GM 6.6 mM and GM 13.1 mM cells, and decreased in GM 6.6 mM+LLLT and GM 13.1 mM+LLLT cells compared to GM 6.6 and 13.1 mM cells immediately after laser irradiation. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that LLLT on GM treated HEI-OC1 cells increased ATP and decreased ROS that may contribute to the recovery of hearing.

  19. Cloning, expression and bioinformatics analysis of ATP sulfurylase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Michael L; Abanto, Michel; Quispe, Ruth L; Calderón, Julio; del Valle, Luís J; Talledo, Miguel; Ramírez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Molecular studies of enzymes involved in sulfite oxidation in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans have not yet been developed, especially in the ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) of these acidophilus tiobacilli that have importance in biomining. This enzyme synthesizes ATP and sulfate from adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) and pyrophosphate (PPi), final stage of the sulfite oxidation by these organisms in order to obtain energy. The atpS gene (1674 bp) encoding the ATPS from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC ...

  20. Cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ channels. Evidence for preferential regulation by glycolysis

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The ability of glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, the creatine kinase system, and exogenous ATP to suppress ATP-sensitive K+ channels and prevent cell shortening were compared in patch-clamped single guinea pig ventricular myocytes. In cell-attached patches on myocytes permeabilized at one end with saponin, ATP-sensitive K+ channels were activated by removing ATP from the bath, and could be closed equally well by exogenous ATP or substrates for endogenous ATP production by glycolysis (wit...

  1. Impairment of ATP hydrolysis decreases adenosine A1 receptor tonus favoring cholinergic nerve hyperactivity in the obstructed human urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Ramos, M; Silva, I; Faria, M; Magalhães-Cardoso, M T; Correia, J; Ferreirinha, F; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether reduced adenosine formation linked to deficits in extracellular ATP hydrolysis by NTPDases contributes to detrusor neuromodulatory changes associated with bladder outlet obstruction in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The kinetics of ATP catabolism and adenosine formation as well as the role of P1 receptor agonists on muscle tension and nerve-evoked [(3)H]ACh release were evaluated in mucosal-denuded detrusor strips from BPH patients (n = 31) and control organ donors (n = 23). The neurogenic release of ATP and [(3)H]ACh was higher (P bladders. Relaxation of detrusor contractions induced by acetylcholine required 30-fold higher concentrations of adenosine. Despite VAChT-positive cholinergic nerves exhibiting higher A(1) immunoreactivity in BPH bladders, the endogenous adenosine tonus revealed by adenosine deaminase is missing. Restoration of A1 inhibition was achieved by favoring (1) ATP hydrolysis with apyrase (2 U mL(-1)) or (2) extracellular adenosine accumulation with dipyridamole or EHNA, as these drugs inhibit adenosine uptake and deamination, respectively. In conclusion, reduced ATP hydrolysis leads to deficient adenosine formation and A(1) receptor-mediated inhibition of cholinergic nerve activity in the obstructed human bladder. Thus, we propose that pharmacological manipulation of endogenous adenosine levels and/or A(1) receptor activation might be useful to control bladder overactivity in BPH patients. PMID:26521170

  2. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena; Yegutkin, G.G.; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our...... dephosphorylated through ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase2) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, with respective generation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine and their maintenance in the extracellular medium at basal levels. In addition, Capan-1 cells express counteracting...

  3. Characterisation of ATP analogues to cross-link and label P2X receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Agboh, Kelvin C.; Andrew J. Powell; Evans, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    P2X receptors are a distinct family of ATP-gated ion channels with a number of physiological roles ranging from smooth muscle contractility to the regulation of blood clotting. In this study we determined whether the UV light-reactive ATP analogues 2-azido ATP, ATP azidoanilide (ATP-AA) and 2′,3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) can be used to label the ATP binding site of P2X1 receptors. These analogues were agonists, and in patch clamp studies evoked inward currents from HEK293 cells stably...

  4. ATP, a partial agonist for the P2Z receptor of human lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Gargett, Caroline E.; Cornish, Jean E; Wiley, James S.

    1997-01-01

    Although extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) is the natural ligand for the P2Z receptor of human lymphocytes it is less potent than 3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) in opening the associated ion channel, which conducts a range of permeants including Ba2+ and ethidium+. We have quantified the influx of ethidium+ into lymphocytes produced by BzATP, ATP, 2-methylthio-ATP (2MeSATP) and ATPγS, studied competition between ATP and BzATP and investigated the effects of KN-62, a new and p...

  5. Effect of dexamethasone on protein extravasation in the brain in acute hypertension induced by amphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphetamine produces protein leakage in the brain when given to rats under nitrous oxide anesthesia. The blood-brain barrier dysfunction is caused by the combined effect of blood pressure increase and vasodilatation. In the present experiments pretreatment with dexamethasone, 2 mg. kg-1, diminished the amphetamine-induced extravasation of Evans blue albumin and 125IHSA in the rats' brain. Possible explanations to the effect of dexamethasone on cerebrovascular permeability are discussed. (author)

  6. Mitochondrial ATP synthasome: Expression and structural interaction of its components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nůsková, Hana; Mráček, Tomáš; Mikulová, Tereza; Vrbacký, Marek; Kovářová, Nikola; Kovalčíková, Jana; Pecina, Petr; Houštěk, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 464, č. 3 (2015), s. 787-793. ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1363; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 1160214 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondria * oxidative phosphorylation * supercomplexes * ATP synthasome * ATP synthase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.297, year: 2014

  7. Connexins regulate calcium signaling by controlling ATP release

    OpenAIRE

    Cotrina, Maria Luisa; Lin, Jane H.-C.; Alves-Rodrigues, Alexandra; Liu, Shujun; Li, Jiang; Azmi-Ghadimi, Hooman; Kang, Jian; Naus, Christian C.G.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    1998-01-01

    Forced expression of gap junction proteins, connexins, enables gap junction-deficient cell lines to propagate intercellular calcium waves. Here, we show that ATP secretion from the poorly coupled cell lines, C6 glioma, HeLa, and U373 glioblastoma, is potentiated 5- to 15-fold by connexin expression. ATP release required purinergic receptor-activated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and was inhibited by Cl− channel blockers. Calcium wave propagation also was reduced by purinergic receptor antag...

  8. ATP-sensitive K(+) channels in rat colonic epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouokam, Ervice; Bader, Sandra; Brück, Brigitta; Schmidt, Bärbel; Diener, Martin

    2013-06-01

    ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels couple the metabolic state of a cell to its electrical activity. They consist of a hetero-octameric complex with pore-forming Kir6.x (Kir6.1, Kir6.2) and regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. Functional data indicate that KATP channels contribute to epithelial K(+) currents at colonic epithelia. However, their molecular identity and their properties are largely unknown. Therefore, changes in short-circuit current (I sc) induced by the KATP channel opener pinacidil (5 10(-4) mol l(-1)) were measured in Ussing chambers under control conditions and in the presence of different blockers of KATP channels. The channel subunits expressed by the colonic epithelium were identified by immunohistochemistry and by RT-PCR. The K(+) channel opener, when administered at the serosal side, induced an increase in I sc consistent with the induction of transepithelial Cl(-) secretion after activation of basolateral K(+) channels, whereas mucosal administration of pinacidil resulted in a negative I sc. The increase in I sc evoked by serosal pinacidil was inhibited by serosal administration of glibenclamide (5 10(-4) mol l(-1)) and gliclazide (10(-6) mol l(-1)), but was resistant even against a high concentration (10(-2) mol l(-1)) of tolbutamide. In contrast, none of these inhibitors (administered at the mucosal side) reduced significantly the negative I sc induced by mucosal pinacidil. Instead, pinacidil inhibited Cl(-) currents across apical Cl(-) channels in basolaterally depolarized epithelia indicating that the negative I sc induced by mucosal pinacidil is due to a transient inhibition of Cl(-) secretion. In mRNA prepared from isolated colonic crypts, messenger RNA for both pore-forming subunits, Kir6.1 and Kir6.2, and two regulatory subunits (SUR1 and SUR2B) was found. Expression within the colonic epithelium was confirmed for these subunits by immunohistochemistry. In consequence, KATP channels are present in the basolateral membrane

  9. A reciprocating motion-driven rotation mechanism for the ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiafeng; Fu, Xinmiao; Chang, Zengyi

    2016-01-01

    The ATP synthase (having a typical subunit composition of α3β3γδεab2c8-15) employs an intriguing rotary mechanism for the generation of ATP from ADP and Pi, using energy stored in a transmembrane proton gradient. The conventional rotary model, although being generally accepted, remains difficult to explain certain experimental observations. Here we propose an alternative rotary model for the ATP synthase such that what rotates is the catalytic α3β3 cylinder rather than the central stalk and the membrane-embedded c-ring. Specifically, the membrane translocation of protons would induce a cycled conformational change in the c-ring, leading to a reciprocating motion of the attached central stalk, which in turn drives the unidirectional rotation of the α3β3 cylinder. Such a reciprocating motion-driven rotation mechanism is somehow analogous to the working mechanism of a retractable click ballpoint pen. Our new model not only explains the experimental observations that have been difficult to reconcile with the conventional model but also avoids its theoretical illogicality. PMID:26718355

  10. Effects of spermine NONOate and ATP on the thermal stability of hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Rasha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minor changes in protein structure induced by small organic and inorganic molecules can result in significant metabolic effects. The effects can be even more profound if the molecular players are chemically active and present in the cell in considerable amounts. The aim of our study was to investigate effects of a nitric oxide donor (spermine NONOate, ATP and sodium/potassium environment on the dynamics of thermal unfolding of human hemoglobin (Hb. The effect of these molecules was examined by means of circular dichroism spectrometry (CD in the temperature range between 25°C and 70°C. The alpha-helical content of buffered hemoglobin samples (0.1 mg/ml was estimated via ellipticity change measurements at a heating rate of 1°C/min. Results Major results were: 1 spermine NONOate persistently decreased the hemoglobin unfolding temperature Tuirrespectively of the Na + /K + environment, 2 ATP instead increased the unfolding temperature by 3°C in both sodium-based and potassium-based buffers and 3 mutual effects of ATP and NO were strongly influenced by particular buffer ionic compositions. Moreover, the presence of potassium facilitated a partial unfolding of alpha-helical structures even at room temperature. Conclusion The obtained data might shed more light on molecular mechanisms and biophysics involved in the regulation of protein activity by small solutes in the cell.

  11. Quantitative proteomic analysis of human lung tumor xenografts treated with the ectopic ATP synthase inhibitor citreoviridin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Wu

    Full Text Available ATP synthase is present on the plasma membrane of several types of cancer cells. Citreoviridin, an ATP synthase inhibitor, selectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of lung cancer without affecting normal cells. However, the global effects of targeting ectopic ATP synthase in vivo have not been well defined. In this study, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ and provided a comprehensive insight into the complicated regulation by citreoviridin in a lung cancer xenograft model. With high reproducibility of the quantitation, we obtained quantitative proteomic profiling with 2,659 proteins identified. Bioinformatics analysis of the 141 differentially expressed proteins selected by their relative abundance revealed that citreoviridin induces alterations in the expression of glucose metabolism-related enzymes in lung cancer. The up-regulation of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and storage of glucose indicated that citreoviridin may reduce the glycolytic intermediates for macromolecule synthesis and inhibit cell proliferation. Using comprehensive proteomics, the results identify metabolic aspects that help explain the antitumorigenic effect of citreoviridin in lung cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the links between metabolism and tumorigenesis in cancer therapy.

  12. Axin is expressed in mitochondria and suppresses mitochondrial ATP synthesis in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jee-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Many recent studies have revealed that axin is involved in numerous cellular functions beyond the negative regulation of β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling. Previously, an association of ectopic axin with mitochondria was observed. In an effort to investigate the relationship between axin and mitochondria, we found that axin expression suppressed cellular ATP production, which was more apparent as axin expression levels increased. Also, mitochondrial expression of axin was observed using two axin-expressing HeLa cell models: doxycycline-inducible ectopic axin expression (HeLa-axin) and axin expression enhanced by long-term treatment with XAV939 (HeLa-XAV). In biochemical analysis, axin is associated with oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex IV and is involved in defects in the assembly of complex IV-containing supercomplexes. Functionally, axin expression reduced the activity of OXPHOS complex IV and the oxygen consumption rate (OCR), suggesting axin-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Subsequent studies using various inhibitors of Wnt signaling showed that the reduction in cellular ATP levels was weaker in cases of ICAT protein expression and treatment with iCRT3 or NSC668036 compared with XAV939 treatment, suggesting that XAV939 treatment affects ATP synthesis in addition to suppressing Wnt signaling activity. Axin-mediated regulation of mitochondrial function may be an additional mechanism to Wnt signaling for regulation of cell growth. PMID:26704260

  13. The Parkinson's disease-associated genes ATP13A2 and SYT11 regulate autophagy via a common pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Carla F; Ashkenazi, Avraham; Jimenez-Sanchez, Maria; Rubinsztein, David C

    2016-01-01

    Forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with lysosomal and autophagic dysfunction. ATP13A2, which is mutated in some types of early-onset Parkinsonism, has been suggested as a regulator of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. However, little is known about the ATP13A2 effectors and how they regulate this pathway. Here we show that ATP13A2 depletion negatively regulates another PD-associated gene (SYT11) at both transcriptional and post-translational levels. Decreased SYT11 transcription is controlled by a mechanism dependent on MYCBP2-induced ubiquitination of TSC2, which leads to mTORC1 activation and decreased TFEB-mediated transcription of SYT11, while increased protein turnover is regulated by SYT11 ubiquitination and degradation. Both mechanisms account for a decrease in the levels of SYT11, which, in turn, induces lysosomal dysfunction and impaired degradation of autophagosomes. Thus, we propose that ATP13A2 and SYT11 form a new functional network in the regulation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway, which is likely to contribute to forms of PD-associated neurodegeneration. PMID:27278822

  14. ATP1A3 Mutation in Adult Rapid-Onset Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweadner, Kathleen J.; Toro, Camilo; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Snively, Beverly M.; Cook, Jared F.; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Markello, Thomas C.; Brashear, Allison

    2016-01-01

    A 21-year old male presented with ataxia and dysarthria that had appeared over a period of months. Exome sequencing identified a de novo missense variant in ATP1A3, the gene encoding the α3 subunit of Na,K-ATPase. Several lines of evidence suggest that the variant is causative. ATP1A3 mutations can cause rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) with a similar age and speed of onset, as well as severe diseases of infancy. The patient’s ATP1A3 p.Gly316Ser mutation was validated in the laboratory by the impaired ability of the expressed protein to support the growth of cultured cells. In a crystal structure of Na,K-ATPase, the mutated amino acid was directly apposed to a different amino acid mutated in RDP. Clinical evaluation showed that the patient had many characteristics of RDP, however he had minimal fixed dystonia, a defining symptom of RDP. Successive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed progressive cerebellar atrophy, explaining the ataxia. The absence of dystonia in the presence of other RDP symptoms corroborates other evidence that the cerebellum contributes importantly to dystonia pathophysiology. We discuss the possibility that a second de novo variant, in ubiquilin 4 (UBQLN4), a ubiquitin pathway component, contributed to the cerebellar neurodegenerative phenotype and differentiated the disease from other manifestations of ATP1A3 mutations. We also show that a homozygous variant in GPRIN1 (G protein-regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1) deletes a motif with multiple copies and is unlikely to be causative. PMID:26990090

  15. Mitochondrial ATP synthase deficiency due to a mutation in the ATP5E gene for the F1 e subunit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayr, J. A.; Havlíčková, Vendula; Zimmermann, F.; Magler, I.; Kaplanová, Vilma; Ješina, Pavel; Pecinová, Alena; Nůsková, Hana; Koch, J.; Sperl, W.; Houštěk, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 17 (2010), s. 3430-3439. ISSN 0964-6906 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS9759; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant ostatní: Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 97807 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : ATP-synthase * ATP5E * disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.058, year: 2010

  16. Receptor-Induced Dilatation in the Systemic and Intrarenal Adaptation to Pregnancy in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Gomes, Thiago S.; Reis, Luciana A.; Ferreira, Alice T.; Razvickas, Clara V.; Schor, Nestor; Boim, Mirian A.

    2009-01-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with systemic and intrarenal vasodilatation resulting in an increased glomerular filtration rate. This adaptive response occurs in spite of elevated circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang II). In the present study, we evaluated the potential mechanisms responsible for this adaptation. The reactivity of the mesangial cells (MCs) cultured from 14-day-pregnant rats to Ang II was measured through changes in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Cai]). The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the Ang II-induced vasodilatation receptor AT2, and the relaxin (LGR7) receptor were evaluated in cultured MCs and in the aorta, renal artery and kidney cortex by real time-PCR. The intrarenal distribution of LGR7 was further analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The MCs displayed a relative insensitivity to Ang II, which was paralleled by an impressive increase in the expression level of iNOS, AT2 and LGR7. These results suggest that the MCs also adapt to the pregnancy, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the glomerular surface area even in the presence of high levels of Ang II. The mRNA expression levels of AT2 and LGR7 also increased in the aorta, renal artery and kidney of the pregnant animals, whereas the expression of the AT1 did not significantly change. This further suggests a role of these vasodilatation-induced receptors in the systemic and intrarenal adaptation during pregnancy. LGR7 was localized in the glomeruli and on the apical membrane of the tubular cells, with stronger labeling in the kidneys of pregnant rats. These results suggest a role of iNOS, AT2, and LGR7 in the systemic vasodilatation and intrarenal adaptation to pregnancy and also suggest a pivotal role for relaxin in the tubular function during gestation. PMID:19287481

  17. Iptakalim protects against hypoxic brain injury through multiple pathways associated with ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H-L; Luo, W-Q; Wang, H

    2008-12-10

    The rapid and irreversible brain injury produced by anoxia when stroke occurs is well known. Cumulative evidence suggests that the activation of neuronal ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels may have inherent protective effects during cerebral hypoxia, yet little information regarding the therapeutic effects of KATP channel openers is available. We hypothesized that pretreatment with a KATP channel opener might protect against brain injury induced by cerebral hypoxia. In this study, adult Wistar rats were treated with iptakalim, a new KATP channel opener, which is selective for SUR2 type KATP channels, by intragastric administration at doses of 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg/day for 7 days before being exposed to simulated high altitude equivalent to 8000 m in a decompression chamber for 8 h leading to hypoxic brain injury. By light and electron microscopic images, we observed that hypobaric hypoxia-induced brain injury could be prevented by pretreatment with iptakalim. It was also observed that the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, water content, Na+ and Ca2+ concentration, and activities of Na+,K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase in rat cerebral cortex were increased and the gene expression of the occludin or aquaporin-4 was down- or upregulated respectively, which could also be prevented by the pretreatment with iptakalim at doses of 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that in an oxygen-and-glucose-deprived model in ECV304 cells and rat cortical astrocytes, pretreatment with iptakalim significantly increased survived cell rates and decreased lactate dehydrogenate release, which were significantly antagonized by glibenclamide, a K(ATP) channel blocker. We conclude that iptakalim is a promising drug that may protect against brain injury induced by acute hypobaric hypoxia through multiple pathways associated with SUR2-type K(ATP) channels, suggesting a new therapeutic strategy for stroke treatment. PMID:18951957

  18. Close association of B2 bradykinin receptors with P2Y2 ATP receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, Sayo; Shimazaki, Ayaka; Mitoma, Junya; Nakagawa, Tetsuto; Abe, Maya; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Higashi, Hideyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that couple with Gαq/11, B2 bradykinin (BK) receptor (B2R) and ATP/UTP receptor P2Y2 (P2Y2R), are ubiquitously expressed and responsible for vascular tone, inflammation, and pain. We analysed the cellular signalling of P2Y2Rs in cells that express B2Rs. B2R desensitization induced by BK or B2R internalization-inducing glycans cross-desensitized the P2Y2R response to ATP/UTP. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer from P2Y2R-AcGFP to B2R-DsRed was detected in the cells and on the cell surfaces, showing the close association of these GPCRs. BK- and ATP-induced cross-internalization of P2Y2R and B2R, respectively, was shown in a β-galactosidase complementation assay using P2Y2R or B2R fused to the H31R substituted α donor peptide of a β-galactosidase reporter enzyme (P2Y2R-α or B2R-α) with coexpression of the FYVE domain of endofin, an early endosome protein, fused to the M15 acceptor deletion mutant of β-galactosidase (the ω peptide, FYVE-ω). Arrestin recruitment to the GPCRs by cross-activation was also shown with the similar way. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that B2R and P2Y2R were closely associated in the cotransfected cells. These results indicate that B2R couples with P2Y2R and that these GPCRs act together to fine-tune cellular responsiveness. The collaboration between these receptors may permit rapid onset and turning off of biological events. PMID:25713410

  19. Comparison of methods for specific depletion of ATP in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, M. S.; Taylor, B L

    1993-01-01

    Three methods of ATP depletion in Salmonella typhimurium were compared. ATP concentrations were lowest after arsenate treatment. Arsenate or alpha-methylglucoside-plus-azide treatment nonspecifically lowered all nucleotide triphosphate levels. Histidine starvation in a hisF mutant was relatively specific for ATP depletion and therefore has potential in distinguishing ATP-dependent processes from processes dependent on other nucleotides.

  20. Glycolysis and ATP degradation in cod ( Gadus morhua ) at subzero temperatures in relation to thaw rigor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    Glycolysis was shown to occur during freezing of cod of decrease in glycogen and an increase in lactate. In addition, the ATP content decreased during freezing. Synthesis of ATP was measured as degradation of glycogen. During storage at -9 and - 12 degreesC it was found that degradation of ATP was...... faster than synthesis of ATP. This was leading to presence of glycogen even at low ATP concentrations. The ATP and glycogen degradation rates and lactate formation rate reached an optimum (both in small samples as well as in whole fish) when stored at -9 degreesC compared to -12 degreesC. Evidence of ATP...

  1. ATP increases within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum upon intracellular Ca2+ release

    OpenAIRE

    Vishnu, Neelanjan; Jadoon Khan, Muhammad; Karsten, Felix; Groschner, Lukas N.; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Rost, Rene; Hallström, Seth; Imamura, Hiromi; Graier, Wolfgang F; Malli, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Multiple functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) essentially depend on ATP within this organelle. However, little is known about ER ATP dynamics and the regulation of ER ATP import. Here we describe real-time recordings of ER ATP fluxes in single cells using an ER-targeted, genetically encoded ATP sensor. In vitro experiments prove that the ATP sensor is both Ca2+ and redox insensitive, which makes it possible to monitor Ca2+-coupled ER ATP dynamics specifically. The approach uncovers a c...

  2. Phospholipid Flippase ATP10A Translocates Phosphatidylcholine and Is Involved in Plasma Membrane Dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Naito, Tomoki; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Rie; Takada, Naoto; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2015-01-01

    We showed previously that ATP11A and ATP11C have flippase activity toward aminophospholipids (phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)) and ATP8B1 and that ATP8B2 have flippase activity toward phosphatidylcholine (PC) (Takatsu, H., Tanaka, G., Segawa, K., Suzuki, J., Nagata, S., Nakayama, K., and Shin, H. W. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 33543-33556). Here, we show that the localization of class 5 P4-ATPases to the plasma membrane (ATP10A and ATP10D) and late endosomes (ATP10B) ...

  3. Using yeast two-hybrid system to detect interactions of ATP synthase subunits from Spinacia oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晓冰; 魏家绵; 沈允钢

    2000-01-01

    Subunit interactions among the chloroplast ATP synthase subunits were studied using the yeast two-hybrid system. Various pairwise combinations of genes encoding a, p, y, 8 and e subunits of Spinach ATP synthase fused to the binding domain or activation domain of GAL4 DNA were introduced into yeast and then expression of a reporter gene encoding p-galactosidase was detected. Of all the combinations, that of y and e subunit genes showed the highest level of reporter gene expression, while those of a and p, a and e, p and e and p and 8 induced stable and significant reporter gene expression. The combination of 8 and e as well as that of 8 and y induced weak and unstable reporter gene expression. However, combinations of a and y, p and y and a and 8 did not induce reporter gene expression. These results suggested that specific and strong interactions between y and e, a and p, a and e, p and e and p and 8 subunits, and weak and transient interactions between 8 and e and 8 and y subunits occurred in the yeast

  4. Optimization of ATP synthase function in mitochondria and chloroplasts via the adenylate kinase equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Igamberdiev, Abir U.; Kleczkowski, Leszek A.

    2015-01-01

    The bulk of ATP synthesis in plants is performed by ATP synthase, the main bioenergetics engine of cells, operating both in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. The reaction mechanism of ATP synthase has been studied in detail for over half a century; however, its optimal performance depends also on the steady delivery of ATP synthase substrates and the removal of its products. For mitochondrial ATP synthase, we analyze here the provision of stable conditions for (i) the supply of ADP and Mg2+, ...

  5. ATP hydrolysis is required for DEAD-box protein recycling but not for duplex unwinding

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fei; Putnam, Andrea; Jankowsky, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins, the largest helicase family, catalyze ATP-dependent remodeling of RNA–protein complexes and the unwinding of RNA duplexes. Because DEAD-box proteins hydrolyze ATP in an RNA-dependent fashion, the energy provided by ATP hydrolysis is commonly assumed to drive the energetically unfavorable duplex unwinding. Here, we show efficient unwinding of stable duplexes by several DEAD-box proteins in the presence of the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog ADP-beryllium fluoride. Another ATP ana...

  6. Co-release of endogenous ATP and [3H]noradrenaline from rat hypothalamic slices: origin and modulation by α2-adrenoceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of endogenous ATP, measured by the luciferin-luciferase assay, and of [3H]noradrenaline from the in vitro superfused rat hypothalamic slices were studied. ATP and [3H]noradrenaline were released simultaneously during resting conditions and in response to low and high frequency field electrical stimulation; the release of both substances were frequency dependent between 2 Hz and 16 Hz. The stimulation-induced release of ATP and [3H]noradrenaline was diminished by more than 80% under Ca2+-free conditions. Tetrodotoxin inhibited the majority of the evoked release of both ATP and [3H]noradrenaline, however, it was less effective in reducing the release of [3H]noradrenaline, than that of ATP. Bilateral stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (4 μg/side) to the ventral part of the ventral noradrenergic bundle, originating from the A1 cell group in the brainstem, resulted in a 55% reduction of endogenous noradrenaline content of the hypothalamic slices, and the tritium uptake and the stimulation-evoked release of [3H]noradrenaline was also markedly reduced. While the basal release of ATP was not affected, the evoked release was diminished by 72% by this treatment. Perfusion of the slices with noradrenaline (100 μM) initiated rapid and continuous tritium release; on the other hand, it did not release any ATP. In contrast, 6 min perfusion of (-)nicotine and 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium iodide evoked parallel release of ATP and [3H]noradrenaline which was inhibited by the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine; 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the ventral part of the ventral noradrenergic bundle did not affect the nicotine-evoked ATP and [3H]noradrenaline release. While CH 38083, a non subtype-selective α2-antagonist and BRL44408, the subtype-selective α2AD antagonist augmented the evoked release of [3H]noradrenaline, ARC239, a selective α2BC antagonist was without effect. In contrast, neither of the α2-antagonists significantly affected the evoked

  7. ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener protects PC12 Cells against ischemia/hypoxia-induced apoptosis through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway%ATP敏感性钾通道开放剂通过PI3K/Akt信号通路对缺血缺氧诱导PC12细胞凋亡发挥保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿; 贾春红; 赵丹阳; 王占强; 鲁阳; 王润玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究ATP敏感性钾通道(KATP)开放剂对缺血缺氧诱导PC12细胞凋亡及Akt蛋白和mRNA表达的影响.探讨KATP开放剂的保护作用机制.方法 取传代后3d Pc12细胞,分为对照组,缺血缺氧组,KATP通道开放剂组,KATP通道开放剂+阻断剂组.采用Annexin-v FITC/PI双染流式细胞分析仪检测凋亡率,应用免疫荧光染色和Western-blotting及RT-PCR方法检测P-Akt蛋白及mRNA表达水平.结果 缺血缺氧组细胞凋亡率高于对照组,24h达高峰,KATP开放剂组低于缺血缺氧组,KATP通道开放剂+阻断剂组高于KATP通道开放剂组(0.01).缺血缺氧后p-Akt蛋白及mRNA表达高于对照组,12h达高峰;KATP通道开放剂组高于缺血缺氧组,KATP通道开放剂+阻断剂组低于KATP通道开放剂组(P<0.01).结论 KATP开放剂可能通过激活PI3K/Akt信号通路,对缺血后PC12细胞凋亡发挥保护作用.%Objective To investigate the effect of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) openers on iscbemia-hypoxia-induced PC12 cell apoptosis and the expression of Akt mRNA and protein.Methods PC12 cells 3 days after passage were divided into control group, ischemia-hypoxia group, KATP channel opener group and KATP channel opener+blocker group.Apoptosis rate was detected using Annexin-v FITC/PI double staining flow cytometry, mRNA and protein levels of p-Akt were measured by immunofluorescent staining, Western-blotting and RT-PCR methods.Results The percentage of apoptotic PC12 cells is higher in iscbemia-hypoxia group than in control, peaked at 24h, lower in KATP channel opener group than in iscbemia-hypoxia 8roup, higher in KATP channel opener+blocker group than in KATP channel opener (P<0.01).The mRNA and protein levels of p-Akt were increased, reached peak at 12h, in ischemia-hypoxia group compared with control, higher in KATP channel opener group than in ischemia-hypoxia group, lower in KATP channel opener+blocker group than in KATP channel opener (P<0.01).Conclusion The

  8. ATP and AMP Mutually Influence Their Interaction with the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) at Separate Binding Sites*

    OpenAIRE

    Randak, Christoph O.; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Elcock, Adrian H.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, ...

  9. Rotation and structure of FoF1-ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Daichi; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase is one of the most ubiquitous enzymes; it is found widely in the biological world, including the plasma membrane of bacteria, inner membrane of mitochondria and thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. However, this enzyme has a unique mechanism of action: it is composed of two mechanical rotary motors, each driven by ATP hydrolysis or proton flux down the membrane potential of protons. The two molecular motors interconvert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis and proton electrochemical potential via the mechanical rotation of the rotary shaft. This unique energy transmission mechanism is not found in other biological systems. Although there are other similar man-made systems like hydroelectric generators, F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase operates on the nanometre scale and works with extremely high efficiency. Therefore, this enzyme has attracted significant attention in a wide variety of fields from bioenergetics and biophysics to chemistry, physics and nanoscience. This review summarizes the latest findings about the two motors of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase as well as a brief historical background. PMID:21524994

  10. Phenomenological analysis of ATP dependence of motor protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, through phenomenological comparison of the velocity-force data of processive motor proteins, including conventional kinesin, cytoplasmic dynein and myosin V, we found that, the ratio between motor velocities of two different ATP concentrations is almost invariant for any substall, superstall or negative external loads. Therefore, the velocity of motor can be well approximated by a Michaelis-Menten like formula $V=\\atp k(F)L/(\\atp +K_M)$, with $L$ the step size, and $k(F)$ the external load $F$ dependent rate of one mechanochemical cycle of motor motion in saturated ATP solution. The difference of Michaelis-Menten constant $K_M$ for substall, superstall and negative external load indicates, the ATP molecule affinity of motor head for these three cases are different, though the expression of $k(F)$ as a function of $F$ might be unchanged for any external load $F$. Verifications of this Michaelis-Menten like formula has also been done by fitting to the recent experimental data.

  11. FeMo cofactor synthesis by a nifH mutant with altered MgATP reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavini, N; Burgess, B K

    1992-10-15

    We have characterized a Nif- mutant of Azotobacter vinelandii, designated UW91 (Shah, V. K., Davis, L. C., Gordon, J. K., Orme-Johnson, W. H., and Brill, W. J. (1973) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 292, 246-255). The specific Fe protein mutation giving rise to the Nif- phenotype was shown by DNA sequencing and site-directed mutagenesis to be the substitution of a conserved alanine at position 157 by a serine. The UW91 Fe protein was purified and shown to have a normal [4Fe-4S] cluster and normal MgATP binding activity. The substitution of alanine 157 by serine, however, prevents the MgATP-induced conformational change that occurs for the wild-type Fe protein, prevents MgATP hydrolysis, and prevents productive electron transfer to the MoFe protein. The UW91 Fe protein does bind to the MoFe protein to give a normal cross-linking pattern; however, it does not compete very successfully with wild-type Fe protein in an activity assay. The UW91 MoFe protein was also purified and characterized and shown to be indistinguishable from the wild-type protein. Thus, the substitution of Fe protein residue alanine 157 by serine does not change the Fe protein's ability to function in FeMo cofactor biosynthesis or insertion. This demonstrates that these events do not require the MgATP-induced conformational change, MgATP hydrolysis, or productive electron transfer to the MoFe protein. PMID:1400428

  12. The effect of medium viscosity on kinetics of ATP hydrolysis by the chloroplast coupling factor CF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyan, Alexander N

    2016-05-01

    The coupling factor CF1 is a catalytic part of chloroplast ATP synthase which is exposed to stroma whose viscosity is many-fold higher than that of reaction mixtures commonly used to measure kinetics of CF1-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis. This study is focused on the effect of medium viscosity modulated by sucrose or bovine serum albumin (BSA) on kinetics of Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-dependent ATP hydrolysis by CF1. These agents were shown to reduce the maximal rate of Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase without changing the apparent Michaelis constant (К m), thus supporting the hypothesis on viscosity dependence of CF1 activity. For the sulfite- and ethanol-stimulated Mg(2+)-dependent reaction, the presence of sucrose increased К m without changing the maximal rate that is many-fold as high as that of Ca(2+)-dependent hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction was shown to be stimulated by low concentrations of BSA and inhibited by its higher concentrations, with the increasing maximal reaction rate estimated by extrapolation. Sucrose- or BSA-induced inhibition of the Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase reaction is believed to result from diffusion-caused deceleration, while its BSA-induced stimulation is probably caused by optimization of the enzyme structure. Molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of viscosity are discussed. Taking into account high protein concentrations in the chloroplast stroma, it was suggested that kinetic parameters of ATP hydrolysis, and probably those of ATP synthesis in vivo as well, must be quite different from measurements taken at a viscosity level close to that of water. PMID:26754050

  13. Statins and ATP regulate nuclear pAkt via the P2X7 purinergic receptor in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many studies have documented P2X7 receptor functions in cells of mesenchymal origin. P2X7 is also expressed in epithelial cells and its role in these cells remains largely unknown. Our data indicate that P2X7 regulate nuclear pAkt in epithelial cells. We show that low concentration of atorvastatin, a drug inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol metabolism, or the natural agonist extracellular ATP rapidly decreased the level of insulin-induced phosphorylated Akt in the nucleus. This effect was seen within minutes and was inhibited by P2X7 inhibitors. Experiments employing P2X7 siRNA and HEK293 cells heterologously expressing P2X7 and in vivo experiments further supported an involvement of P2X7. These data indicate that extracellular ATP and statins via the P2X7 receptor modulate insulin-induced Akt signaling in epithelial cells

  14. Sperm motility and ATP content in seminal hyperviscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeluk, G R; Munuce, M J; Carizza, C; Sardi, M; Bregni, C

    1997-01-01

    Objective spermatic motility (Hamilton Thorne Research), the rapid progressive spermatozoa (grade A) recovery after swim-up, and the spermatozoa ATP content (bioluminescence) were studied in normoviscous and hyperviscous asthenospermic samples. The amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) was significantly lower in hyperviscous semen (normal: 4.6 +/- 0.7 microns [n = 20], high: 3.5 +/- 1.2 microns [n = 16]; p semens with high consistency (normal: 71.0 +/- 38.0 [n = 14], high: 181.3 +/- 108.9 [n = 6]; p < .05). The ATP content per living spermatozoa was in the normal consistency group 449.4 +/- 65.1 pmol per million living spermatozoa (n = 29) and in the high consistency batch 605.1 +/- 242.8 (n = 9), p < .05. In asthenospermia, the spermatozoa from hyperviscous samples have minor ALH values, better response to swim-up, and high ATP content than those from normoviscous ejaculates. PMID:9352034

  15. Structure of the yeast F1Fo-ATP synthase dimer and its role in shaping the mitochondrial cristae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Karen M; Anselmi, Claudio; Wittig, Ilka; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2012-08-21

    We used electron cryotomography of mitochondrial membranes from wild-type and mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the structure and organization of ATP synthase dimers in situ. Subtomogram averaging of the dimers to 3.7 nm resolution revealed a V-shaped structure of twofold symmetry, with an angle of 86° between monomers. The central and peripheral stalks are well resolved. The monomers interact within the membrane at the base of the peripheral stalks. In wild-type mitochondria ATP synthase dimers are found in rows along the highly curved cristae ridges, and appear to be crucial for membrane morphology. Strains deficient in the dimer-specific subunits e and g or the first transmembrane helix of subunit 4 lack both dimers and lamellar cristae. Instead, cristae are either absent or balloon-shaped, with ATP synthase monomers distributed randomly in the membrane. Computer simulations indicate that isolated dimers induce a plastic deformation in the lipid bilayer, which is partially relieved by their side-by-side association. We propose that the assembly of ATP synthase dimer rows is driven by the reduction in the membrane elastic energy, rather than by direct protein contacts, and that the dimer rows enable the formation of highly curved ridges in mitochondrial cristae. PMID:22864911

  16. The alpha-subunit of Leishmania F1 ATP synthase hydrolyzes ATP in presence of tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Srikanta; Adhya, Samit

    2006-07-14

    Import of tRNAs into the mitochondria of the kinetoplastid protozoon Leishmania requires the tRNA-dependent hydrolysis of ATP leading to the generation of membrane potential through the pumping of protons. Subunit RIC1 of the inner membrane RNA import complex is a bi-functional protein that is identical to the alpha-subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase and specifically binds to a subset (Type I) of importable tRNAs. We show that recombinant, purified RIC1 is a Type I tRNA-dependent ATP hydrolase. The activity was insensitive to oligomycin, sensitive to mutations within the import signal of the tRNA, and required the cooperative interaction between the ATP-binding and C-terminal domains of RIC1. The ATPase activity of the intact complex was inhibited by anti-RIC1 antibody, while knockdown of RIC1 in Leishmania tropica resulted in deficiency of the tRNA-dependent ATPase activity of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Moreover, RIC1 knockdown extracts failed to generate a membrane potential across reconstituted proteoliposomes, as shown by a rhodamine 123 uptake assay, but activity was restored by adding back purified RIC1. These observations identify RIC1 as a novel form of the F1 ATP synthase alpha-subunit that acts as the major energy transducer for tRNA import. PMID:16735512

  17. Authentic role of ATP signaling in micturition reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Takezawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Makoto; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Norichika; Soda, Tetsuji; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Matsumoto-Miyai, Kazumasa; Ishida, Yusuke; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Ogawa, Osamu; Nonomura, Norio; Shimada, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a signaling molecule that regulates cellular processes. Based on previous studies of bladder function over the past decade, bladder ATP signaling was thought to have an essential role in the normal micturition reflex. In this study, we performed detailed analyses of bladder function in purinergic receptor-deficient mice using the automated voided stain on paper method and video-urodynamics. Unexpectedly, a lack of P2X2 or P2X3 receptors did not affect bladder f...

  18. Structure and mechanism of ATP-dependent phospholipid transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; Bailly, Aurélien;

    2015-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and P4-ATPases are two large and seemingly unrelated families of primary active pumps involved in moving phospholipids from one leaflet of a biological membrane to the other. Scope of review This review aims to identify common mechanistic features...... in the way phospholipid flipping is carried out by two evolutionarily unrelated families of transporters. Major conclusions Both protein families hydrolyze ATP, although they employ different mechanisms to use it, and have a comparable size with twelve transmembrane segments in the functional unit...

  19. Effects of Irradiation on bacterial atp luminous intensity of cooled pork and chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation on cooled pork and chicken was detected with ATP luminous intensity method. The influences of other factors to ATP luminous intensity were also discussed. There was positive correlation between ATP standard concentration and ATP luminous intensity, and negative correlation between irradiation dosage and ATP luminous intensity. The trend of ATP luminous intensity of cooled pork and chicken after irradiation was inverse S, and the maximum ATP luminous intensity appeared at 6.0 kGy, and minimum at 4.0 and 8.0 kGy. Sterilized water and sterilized pork had no interference to ATP luminous intensity of the samples. There was significant positive correlation between E. coli 10003 concentration and ATP luminous intensity, the coefficient correlation was 0.9437. (authors)

  20. Cloning, expression and bioinformatics analysis of ATP sulfurylase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Michael L; Abanto, Michel; Quispe, Ruth L; Calderón, Julio; Del Valle, Luís J; Talledo, Miguel; Ramírez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Molecular studies of enzymes involved in sulfite oxidation in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans have not yet been developed, especially in the ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) of these acidophilus tiobacilli that have importance in biomining. This enzyme synthesizes ATP and sulfate from adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) and pyrophosphate (PPi), final stage of the sulfite oxidation by these organisms in order to obtain energy. The atpS gene (1674 bp) encoding the ATPS from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 was amplified using PCR, cloned in the pET101-TOPO plasmid, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli obtaining a 63.5 kDa ATPS recombinant protein according to SDS-PAGE analysis. The bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses determined that the ATPS from A. ferrooxidans presents ATP sulfurylase (ATS) and APS kinase (ASK) domains similar to ATPS of Aquifex aeolicus, probably of a more ancestral origin. Enzyme activity towards ATP formation was determined by quantification of ATP formed from E. coli cell extracts, using a bioluminescence assay based on light emission by the luciferase enzyme. Our results demonstrate that the recombinant ATP sulfurylase from A. ferrooxidans presents an enzymatic activity for the formation of ATP and sulfate, and possibly is a bifunctional enzyme due to its high homology to the ASK domain from A. aeolicus and true kinases. PMID:23055613

  1. Elucidation of the ATP7B N-domain Mg2+-ATP coordination site and its allosteric regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Hercend

    Full Text Available The diagnostic of orphan genetic disease is often a puzzling task as less attention is paid to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of these rare disorders at the molecular level. We present here a multidisciplinary approach using molecular modeling tools and surface plasmonic resonance to study the function of the ATP7B protein, which is impaired in the Wilson disease. Experimentally validated in silico models allow the elucidation in the Nucleotide binding domain (N-domain of the Mg(2+-ATP coordination site and answer to the controversial role of the Mg(2+ ion in the nucleotide binding process. The analysis of protein motions revealed a substantial effect on a long flexible loop branched to the N-domain protein core. We demonstrated the capacity of the loop to disrupt the interaction between Mg(2+-ATP complex and the N-domain and propose a role for this loop in the allosteric regulation of the nucleotide binding process.

  2. Effects of nucleotides on ATP-dependent protein translocation into Escherichia coli membrane vesicles.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, L.; Tai, P C

    1986-01-01

    We have shown previously that Escherichia coli can translocate the same protein either co- or posttranslationally and that ATP hydrolysis is essential for the posttranslational translocation of the precursors of alkaline phosphatase and OmpA protein into inverted E. coli membrane vesicles. ATP-dependent protein translocation has now been further characterized. In the absence of exogenous Mg2+, dATP, formycin A-5'-triphosphate, ATP-alpha-S, and N1-oxide-ATP could replace ATP, but many other nu...

  3. Carbon and energy metabolism of atp mutants of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Michelsen, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The membrane-bound H+-ATPase plays a key role in free-energy transduction of biological systems. We report how the carbon and energy metabolism of Escherichia coli changes in response to deletion of the atp operon that encodes this enzyme. Compared with the isogenic wild-type strain, the growth...

  4. [Suggested mitochondrial ancestry of non-mitochondrial ATP/ADP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'ianov, V V

    2007-01-01

    One of the major evolutionary events that transformed endosymbiotic bacterium into mitochondrion was an acquisition of ATP/ADP carrier in order to supply the host with respiration-derived ATP. Along with mitochondrial carrier, unrelated carrier is known which is characteristic of intracellular chlamydiae, plastids, parasitic intracellular eukaryote Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and the genus Rickettsia of obligate endosymbiotic alpha-Proteobacteria. This non-mitochondrial ATP/ADP carrier was recently described in rickettsia-like endosymbionts - a group of obligate intracellular bacteria, classified with the order Rickettsiales, which have diverged after free-living alpha-Proteobacteria but before sister groups of the Rickettsiaceae assemblage (true rickettsiae) and mitochondria. Published controversial phylogenetic data on the non-mitochondrial carrier were reanalysed in the present work using both DNA and protein sequences, and various methods including Bayesian analysis. The data presented are consistent with classic endosymbiont theory for the origin of mitochondria and also suggest that even last but one common ancestor of rickettsiae and organelles may have been an endosymbiotic bacterium in which ATP/ADP carrier has first originated. PMID:17380892

  5. Motor pathway excitability in ATP13A2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zittel, S; Kroeger, J; van der Vegt, J P M;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe excitability of motor pathways in Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (PARK9), an autosomal recessive nigro-striatal-pallidal-pyramidal neurodegeneration caused by a mutation in the ATP13A2 gene, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Five members of a Chilean family with...

  6. ATP synthesis during exogenous NADH oxidation. A reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, P; Azzone, G F

    1982-01-20

    This paper reports a reinvestigation on the pathway for mitochondrial oxidation of exogenous NADH and on the related ATP synthesis, first reported 30 years ago (Lehninger, A.L. (1951) J. Biol. Chem. 190, 345-359). NADH oxidation, both in intact and in water-treated mitochondria, is 90% inhibited by mersalyl, an inhibitor of the outer membrane NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, and 10% inhibited by rotenone. The mersalyl-sensitive, but not the rotenone-sensitive, portion of NADH oxidation is stimulated by exogenous cytochrome c. Part of ATP synthesis is independent of exogenous NADH and cytochrome c, and is inhibited by rotenone and antimycin A, and is therefore due to oxidation of endogenous substrates. Another part of ATP synthesis is dependent on exogenous NADH and cytochrome c, is insensitive to rotenone and antimycin A, and is due to operation of cytochrome oxidase. It is concluded that (i) oxidation of exogenous NADH in the presence of cytochrome c proceeds mostly through NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5 on the outer membrane and then through cytochrome oxidase via the cytochrome c shuttle, and (ii) ATP synthesis during oxidation of exogenous NADH is partly due to oxidation of endogenous substrates and partly to operation of cytochrome oxidase receiving electrons from the outer membrane via cytochrome c. PMID:6275889

  7. Detection of ATP and NADH: A Bioluminescent Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Ted C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Described is a bioluminescent assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced nicotineamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) that meets the requirements of an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. The 3-hour experiment provides students with experience in bioluminescence and analytical biochemistry yet requires limited instrumentation,…

  8. Animation Model to Conceptualize ATP Generation: A Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Ananta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the molecular unit of intracellular energy and it is the product of oxidative phosphorylation of cellular respiration uses in cellular processes. The study explores the growth of the misconception levels amongst the learners and evaluates the effectiveness of animation model over traditional methods. The data…

  9. ATP economy of force maintenance in human tibialis anterior muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Mizuno, Masao;

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was investigate ATP economy of force maintenance in the human tibialis anterior muscle during 60 s of anaerobic voluntary contraction at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). METHODS: ATP turnover rate was evaluated using P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P...... +/- SEM) of the total ankle dorsiflexor muscle volume, which was 267 +/- 10 cm. Relative cross-sectional areas occupied by Type I, IIA, and IIB fibers in the tibialis anterior were 69.3 +/- 2.2, 27.4 +/- 2.76, and 3.2 +/- 1.0%, respectively. ATP economy of force maintenance did not change significantly...... during the 60-s contraction. It averaged at 4.81 +/- 0.42 N.s.micromol-1, and correlated with the relative cross-sectional area of the muscle occupied by Type I fiber (r = 0.73, P < 0.01). For the second half of the contraction, subjects dropping in force showed lower ATP economy compared with those...

  10. Teacher Development Program for ATP 2000. Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, Dean; And Others

    Agri Tech Prep 2000 (ATP 2000) is a 4-year tech prep program linking high school and postsecondary curricula designed to prepare New York students for careers in agriculture or acceptance into a college program in agriculture. Because teacher development was designated an integral project component for fiscal year 1991-1992, a weeklong teacher…

  11. Abiogenic photophosphorylation of ADP to ATP sensitized by flavoproteinoid microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Michael P; Telegina, Taisiya A; Lyudnikova, Tamara A; Kritsky, Mikhail S

    2008-06-01

    A model for abiogenic photophosphorylation of ADP by orthophosphate to yield ATP was studied. The model is based on the photochemical activity of flavoproteinoid microspheres that are formed by aggregation in an aqueous medium of products of thermal condensation of a glutamic acid, glycine and lysine mixture (8:3:1) and contain, along with amino acid polymers (proteinoids), abiogenic isoalloxazine (flavin) pigments. Irradiation of aqueous suspensions of microspheres with blue visible light or ultraviolet in the presence of ADP and orthophosphate resulted in ATP formation. The yield of ATP in aerated suspensions was 10-20% per one mol of starting ADP. Deaeration reduced the photophosphorylating activity of microspheres five to 10 times. Treatment of aerated microsphere suspensions with superoxide dismutase during irradiation partially suppressed ATP formation. Deaerated microspheres restored completely their photophosphorylating activity after addition of hydrogen peroxide to the suspension. The photophosphorylating activity of deaerated suspensions of flavoproteinoid microspheres was also recovered by introduction of Fe3+-cytochrome c, an electron acceptor alternative to oxygen. On the basis of the results obtained, a chemical mechanism of phosphorylation is proposed in which the free radical form of reduced flavin sensitizer (F1H*) and ADP are involved. PMID:18386156

  12. Paradox applications integration ATP's for MAC and mass balance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system were set up to run under one common applications program. This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness. The scope of the tests is minimal, since both MAC and MBA have already been tested in detail as stand-alone programs

  13. Flow- and acetylcholine-induced dilation in small arteries from rats with renovascular hypertension - effect of tempol treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frank Holden; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Hansen, Thomas;

    2007-01-01

    ). In isolated pressurized mesenteric small arteries NO-mediated dilatation was obtained by increasing flow rate and EDHF-mediated dilatation by acetylcholine. In arteries from hypertensive rats, flow-induced dilatation was blunted, as compared to normotensive and tempol-treated rats, while......We investigated whether renovascular hypertension alters vasodilatation mediated by nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and the influence of the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol on vasodilatation. One-kidney one-clip hypertensive Sprague–Dawley rats, treated...... with either vehicle or tempol (from weeks 5 to 10 after placement of the clip), and uninephrectomized control rats were investigated. In renal hypertensive rats systolic blood pressure increased to 171±6 mmHg (n=10), while in tempol-treated rats systolic blood pressure remained normal (139±7 mmHg, n=5...

  14. Astrocytes protect neurons against methylmercury via ATP/P2Y(1 receptor-mediated pathways in astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Noguchi

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a well known environmental pollutant that induces serious neuronal damage. Although MeHg readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and should affect both neurons and glial cells, how it affects glia or neuron-to-glia interactions has received only limited attention. Here, we report that MeHg triggers ATP/P2Y1 receptor signals in astrocytes, thereby protecting neurons against MeHg via interleukin-6 (IL-6-mediated pathways. MeHg increased several mRNAs in astrocytes, among which IL-6 was the highest. For this, ATP/P2Y1 receptor-mediated mechanisms were required because the IL-6 production was (i inhibited by a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, MRS2179, (ii abolished in astrocytes obtained from P2Y1 receptor-knockout mice, and (iii mimicked by exogenously applied ATP. In addition, (iv MeHg released ATP by exocytosis from astrocytes. As for the intracellular mechanisms responsible for IL-6 production, p38 MAP kinase was involved. MeHg-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM showed neuro-protective effects against MeHg, which was blocked by anti-IL-6 antibody and was mimicked by the application of recombinant IL-6. As for the mechanism of neuro-protection by IL-6, an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated pathway in neurons seems to be involved. Taken together, when astrocytes sense MeHg, they release ATP that autostimulates P2Y1 receptors to upregulate IL-6, thereby leading to A1 receptor-mediated neuro-protection against MeHg.

  15. Carnosine inhibits KRAS-mediated HCT116 proliferation by affecting ATP and ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Nocella, Francesca; Pricolo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2012-02-28

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide that has generated particular interest for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially for its antiproliferative properties. In this study, we demonstrate that carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human HCT116 colon cancer cells. In this cell line, the activating KRAS mutation induces mitochondrial ROS, the signaling molecules for cell proliferation. We observed that 50-100 mM carnosine decreases ATP and ROS concentration and induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In HCT116 cells these effects are related to decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased p21waf1 protein. Our findings support the concept that carnosine could inhibit HCT116 cell growth via its antioxidant activity and its ability to affect glycolysis. PMID:22137144

  16. Potential therapeutic target for malignant paragangliomas: ATP synthase on the surface of paraganglioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, Stephanie MJ; Yang, Chunzhang; Thompson, Eli; Abu-Asab, Mones; Hsu, Chang-Mei; Lampert, Gary; Eiden, Lee; Tischler, Arthur S; Wesley, Robert; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lehnert, Hendrik; Pacak, Karel

    2015-01-01

    F1FoATP synthase (ATP synthase) is a ubiquitous enzyme complex in eukaryotes. In general it is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane and serves as the last step in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, utilizing a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane built by the complexes of the electron transfer chain. However some cell types, including tumors, carry ATP synthase on the cell surface. It was suggested that cell surface ATP synthase helps tumor cells thriving on glycolysis to survive their high acid generation. Angiostatin, aurovertin, resveratrol, and antibodies against the α and β subunits of ATP synthase were shown to bind and selectively inhibit cell surface ATP synthase, promoting tumor cell death. Here we show that ATP synthase β (ATP5B) is present on the cell surface of mouse pheochromocytoma cells as well as tumor cells of human SDHB-derived paragangliomas (PGLs), while being virtually absent on chromaffin primary cells from bovine adrenal medulla by confocal microscopy. The cell surface location of ATP5B was verified in the tissue of an SDHB-derived PGL by immunoelectron microscopy. Treatment of mouse pheochromocytoma cells with resveratrol as well as ATP5B antibody led to statistically significant proliferation inhibition. Our data suggest that PGLs carry ATP synthase on their surface that promotes cell survival or proliferation. Thus, cell surface ATP synthase may present a novel therapeutic target in treating metastatic or inoperable PGLs. PMID:26101719

  17. ATP P2x receptors studied by quantitative autoradiography of [3H]α,β- methylene-ATP binding in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: P2x receptors are ligand-gated cationic channels widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The probable natural P2x ligand is ATP but the 3H-labelled form of the stable ATP analogue α,β-methylene-ATP is the only compound currently used in radioligand binding studies of P2x receptors. In order to further test its specificity for P2x receptor binding sites in the CNS we have examined the effects of several ATP analogues, and other ATP-related substances on the binding of [3]α,β-methylene-ATP to fresh-frozen sections of rat brain. Sprague-Dawley rats were decapitated under halothane anaesthesia (5% in the mixture of N2C/O2, 65:35), 20 μM thick brain sections were incubated in the presence of 10 μM [3H]α,β-methylene-ATP and 2.5 μM Ca2+ -in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer. Autoradiograms were evaluated by quantitative densitometry. [3H]α,β-Methylene-ATP binding was sensitive to the P2 antagonist suramin (IC50 ∼ 20 μM) but it was only moderately inhibited by Reactive Blue 2 and related dyes (IC50 - 200 - 400 μM ). Two ATP analogues (3'-O-(trinitrophenyl)-adenosine-5'-triphosphate and β,γ-imido-ATP) produced IC50 -1-2 μM but β,γ-methylene-ATP was less potent. ATP analogues with other than adenine residues (inosine-5'-triphosphate, guanosine-5'-triphosphate, uridine-5'-triphosphate and cytidine-5'-triphosphate) were inactive. Cations (K+, Rb+, Cs+ and Mg2+ at 5 mM and Na+ at 150 mM) moderately reduced [3H]α,β-methylene-ATP binding but HgCl2 and p-chloromercuriphenyl sulphonate caused strong inhibitions. Several compounds known to interact with other ATP binding sites (ATPases: ouabain, thapsigargin; ATP or adenosine receptors: adenosine, 2-Cl-ATP, 2-methyl-S-ATP) and cationic channels (glibenclamide, dantrolene) had no effect. We conclude that [3H]α,β-methylene-ATP at low μM concentrations binds predominantly to P2x receptors. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  18. Role of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the mild head hypothermia induced attenuation of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats%线粒体ATP敏感性钾通道在头部浅低温减轻大鼠全脑缺血再灌注损伤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董振明; 薄立军; 韩建民; 黄立宁; 康荣田; 曹瑞旗; 吴文浩

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价线粒体ATP敏感性钾通道在头部浅低温减轻大鼠全脑缺血再灌注损伤中的作用.方法 健康雄性SD大鼠32只,体重200~250 g,随机分为4组(n=8):假手术组(S组)、全脑缺血再灌注组(I/R组)、头部浅低温组(H组)和5-羟基葵酸钠组(5-HD组).采用三血管阻断法建立大鼠全脑缺血再灌注模型.S组仅分离血管,不阻断;I/R组制备大鼠全脑缺血再灌注模型;H组于再灌注前即刻实施头部浅低温(使鼓膜温度在1 min内降至32~34℃),维持3 h后复温;5-HD组于缺血前30 min腹腔注射5-羟基葵酸钠10 mg/kg,于再灌注前即刻实施头部浅低温.于再灌注12 h时评估大鼠神经行为学(跨格次数和转体时间),采用EIJSA法测定血清神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)的浓度,电镜下观察额叶皮质神经元的超微结构.结果 与S组比较,I/R组、H组和5-HD组跨格次数减少,转体时间延长,I/R组和5-HD组血清NSE浓度升高(P<0.05),H组血清NSE浓度差异无统计学意义(P0.05);与I/R组比较,H组跨格次数增多,转体时间缩短,血清NSE浓度降低,5-HD组转体时间缩短(P<0.05),其余指标差异无统计学意义(P0.05);与H组比较,5-HD组跨格次数减少,转体时间延长,血清NSE浓度升高(P<0.05).H组额叶皮质神经元病理学改变较I/R组和5-HD组减轻,5-HD组与I/R组损伤程度相似.结论 头部浅低温减轻大鼠全脑缺血再灌注损伤可能与开放线粒体ATP敏感性钾通道有关.%Objective To investigate the role of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mito-KATP) in the mild head hypothermia induced attenuation of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods Thirty-two healthy male SD rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=8each): group Ⅰ sham operation (S);group Ⅱ I/R;group Ⅲ mild head hypothermia + I/R (H) and group 5-HD + mild head hypothermia + I/R (5-HD). The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 10% chloral

  19. A functional 12T-insertion polymorphism in the ATP1A1 promoter confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension in a male Sardinian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    -reabsorption in the kidney thereby decreasing sodium-associated risk for hypertension and sodium-induced endothelial stiffness and dysfunction. Altogether, data support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in a male Sardinian population, and mandate further investigation of its involvement in hypertension in the general population.

  20. Mechanisms by which reactions catalyzed by chloroplast coupling factor 1 are inhibited: ATP synthesis and ATP-H2O oxygen exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATP-H2O back-exchange reaction catalyzed by membrane-bound chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1) in the light is known to be extensive; each reacting ATP molecule nearly equilibrates its gamma-PO2 oxygens with H2O before it dissociates from the enzyme. Pi, ASi, ADP, and GDP, alternate substrates of photophosphorylation, each inhibit the exchange reaction. At all concentrations of these substrate/inhibitor molecules tested, the high extent of exchange per molecule of ATP that reacts remains the same, while the number of ATP molecules experiencing exchange decreases. Thus, these inhibitors appear to act in a competitive-type manner, decreasing ATP turnover, as opposed to modulating the rate constants responsible for the partitioning of E X ATP during the exchange reaction. This is consistent with the identity of CF1 catalytic sites for ATP-H2O back-exchange and ATP synthesis. The extent of ATP-H2O forward oxygen exchange, which occurs during net ATP synthesis prior to product dissociation, is unaffected by uncouplers, whether catalyzed by native CF1 (ATPase latent) or the dithiothreitol/light-activated ATPase form

  1. Structure of the oxalate-ATP complex with pyruvate kinase: ATP as a bridging ligand for the two divalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2 equiv of divalent cation that are required cofactors for pyruvate kinase reside in sites of different affinities for different species of cation. The intrinsic selectivity of the protein-based site for Mn(II) and of the nucleotide-based site for Mg(II) has been exploited in electron paramagnetic resonance (EOR) investigations of ligands for Mn(II) at the protein-based site. Oxalate, a structural analogue of the enolate of pyruvate, has been used as a surrogate for the reactive form of pyruvate in complexes with enzyme, Mn(II), Mg(II), and ATP. Superhyperfine coupling between the unpaired electron spin of Mn(II) and the nuclear spin of 17O, specifically incorporated into oxalate, shows that oxalate is bound at the active site as a bidentate chelate with Mn(II). Coordination of the γ-phosphate of ATP to this same Mn(II) center is revealed by observation of superhyperfine coupling from 17O regiospecifically incorporated into the γ-phosphate group of ATP. By contrast, 17O in the α-phosphate or in the β-phosphate groups of ATP does not influence the spectrum. Experiments in 17O-enriched water show that there is also a single water ligand bound to the Mn(II). These data indicate that ATP bridges Mn(II) and Mg(II) at the active site. A close spacing of the two divalent cations is also evident from the occurrence of magnetic interactions for complexes in which 2 equiv of Mn(II) are present at the active site. The structure for the enzyme-Mn(II)-oxalate-Mg(II)-ATP complex suggests a scheme for the normal reverse reaction of pyruvate kinase in which the divalent cation at the protein-based site activates the keto acid substrate through chelation and promotes phospho transfer by simultaneous coordination to the enolate oxygen and to a pendant oxygen from the γ-phosphate of ATP

  2. Comparison of in vivo postexercise phosphocreatine recovery and resting ATP synthesis flux for the assessment of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, N M A; Ciapaite, J; Nicolay, K; Prompers, J J

    2010-11-01

    (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used to assess skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in vivo by measuring 1) phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery after exercise or 2) resting ATP synthesis flux with saturation transfer (ST). In this study, we compared both parameters in a rat model of mitochondrial dysfunction with the aim of establishing the most appropriate method for the assessment of in vivo muscle mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial dysfunction was induced in adult Wistar rats by daily subcutaneous injections with the complex I inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for 2 wk. In vivo (31)P MRS measurements were supplemented by in vitro measurements of oxygen consumption in isolated mitochondria. Two weeks of DPI treatment induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as evidenced by a 20% lower maximal ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption rate in isolated mitochondria from DPI-treated rats oxidizing pyruvate plus malate. This was paralleled by a 46% decrease in in vivo oxidative capacity, determined from postexercise PCr recovery. Interestingly, no significant difference in resting, ST-based ATP synthesis flux was observed between DPI-treated rats and controls. These results show that PCr recovery after exercise has a more direct relationship with skeletal muscle mitochondrial function than the ATP synthesis flux measured with (31)P ST MRS in the resting state. PMID:20668212

  3. Metabolomic Analysis of Differential Changes in Metabolites during ATP Oscillations in Chondrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck Joon Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prechondrogenic condensation is a critical step for skeletal pattern formation. Recent studies reported that ATP oscillations play an essential role in prechondrogenic condensation. However, the molecular mechanism to underlie ATP oscillations remains poorly understood. In the present study, it was investigated how changes in metabolites are implicated in ATP oscillations during chondrogenesis by using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS. CE-TOF-MS detected 93 cationic and 109 anionic compounds derived from known metabolic pathways. 15 cationic and 18 anionic compounds revealed significant change between peak and trough of ATP oscillations. These results implicate that glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration and uronic acid pathway oscillate in phase with ATP oscillations, while PPRP and nucleotides synthesis pathways oscillate in antiphase with ATP oscillations. This suggests that the ATP-producing glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration oscillate in antiphase with the ATP-consuming PPRP/nucleotide synthesis pathway during chondrogenesis.

  4. Role of the P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B in brain copper homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Hui Hung

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of copper homeostasis and the pathological consequences of copper dysregulation. Cumulative evidence is revealing a complex regulatory network of proteins and pathways that maintain copper homeostasis. The recognition of copper dysregulation as a key pathological feature in prominent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and prion diseases has led to increased research focus on the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in the brain. The copper-transporting P-Type ATPases (copper-ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are critical components of the copper regulatory network. Our understanding of the biochemistry and cell biology of these complex proteins has grown significantly since their discovery in 1993. They are large polytopic transmembrane proteins with six copper-binding motifs within the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, eight transmembrane domains and highly conserved catalytic domains. These proteins catalyze ATP-dependent copper transport across cell membranes for the metallation of many essential cuproenzymes, as well as for the removal of excess cellular copper to prevent copper toxicity. A key functional aspect of these copper transporters is their copper-responsive trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell periphery. ATP7A- and ATP7B-deficiency, due to genetic mutation, underlie the inherited copper transport disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Their importance in maintaining brain copper homeostasis is underscored by the severe neuropathological deficits in these disorders. Herein we will review and update our current knowledge of these copper transporters in the brain and the central nervous system, their distribution and regulation, their role in normal brain copper homeostasis and how their absence or dysfunction contributes to disturbances in copper homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

  5. Urinary ATP may be a dynamic biomarker of detrusor overactivity in women with overactive bladder syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Silva-Ramos; Isabel Silva; Olga Oliveira; Sónia Ferreira; Maria Júlia Reis; José Carlos de Oliveira; Paulo Correia-de-Sá

    2013-01-01

    Background Nowadays, there is a considerable bulk of evidence showing that ATP has a prominent role in the regulation of human urinary bladder function and in the pathophysiology of detrusor overactivity. ATP mediates nonadrenergic-noncholinergic detrusor contractions in overactive bladders. In vitro studies have demonstrated that uroepithelial cells and cholinergic nerves from overactive human bladder samples (OAB) release more ATP than controls. Here, we compared the urinary ATP concent...

  6. Nanoseconds molecular dynamics simulation of primary mechanical energy transfer steps in F-1-ATP synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Böckmann, R.; Grubmueller, H.

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial membrane protein FoF1-ATP synthase synthesizes adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal currency of energy in the cell. This process involves mechanochemical energy transfer from rotating asymmetric gamma- 'stalk' to the three active sites of the F-1 unit, which drives the bound ATP out of the binding pocket. Here, the primary structural changes associated with this energy transfer in F-1- ATP synthase were studied with multi-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. By ...

  7. Stable ATP binding mediated by a partial NBD dimer of the CFTR chloride channel

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, is an ATP-gated chloride channel. Like other ABC proteins, CFTR encompasses two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), NBD1 and NBD2, each accommodating an ATP binding site. It is generally accepted that CFTR’s opening–closing cycles, each completed within 1 s, are driven by rapid ATP binding and hydrolysis events in NBD2. Here, by recording CFTR currents in...

  8. Regulation of CFTR Cl− channel gating by ATP binding and hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Welsh, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Opening and closing of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel is regulated by the interaction of ATP with its two cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains (NBD). Although ATP hydrolysis by the NBDs is required for normal gating, the influence of ATP binding versus hydrolysis on specific steps in the gating cycle remains uncertain. Earlier work showed that the absence of Mg2+ prevents hydrolysis. We found that even in the absence of Mg2+, ATP could support cha...

  9. Purinergic and muscarinic modulation of ATP release from the urothelium and its paracrine actions

    OpenAIRE

    Sui, Guiping; Fry, Chris H.; Montgomery, Bruce; Roberts, Max; Wu, Rui; Wu, Changhao

    2013-01-01

    The urothelium is a newly recognized sensory structure that detects bladder fullness. Pivotal to this sensory role is the release of ATP from the urothelium. However, the routes for urothelial ATP release, its modulation by receptor-mediated pathways, and the autocrine/paracrine role of ATP are poorly understood, especially in native tissue. We examined the action of key neurotransmitters: purinergic and muscarinic agonists on ATP release and its paracrine effect. Guinea pig and human urothel...

  10. Structural basis for allosteric regulation of human ribonucleotide reductase by nucleotide-induced oligomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairman, James Wesley; Wijerathna, Sanath Ranjan; Ahmad, Md Faiz; Xu, Hai; Nakano, Ryo; Jha, Shalini; Prendergast, Jay; Welin, R. Martin; Flodin, Susanne; Roos, Annette; Nordlund, Pär; Li, Zongli; Walz, Thomas; Dealwis, Chris Godfrey (Case Western); (Harvard-Med); (Karolinska); (Tennessee-K)

    2011-07-25

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is an {alpha}{sub n}{beta}{sub n} (RR1-RR2) complex that maintains balanced dNTP pools by reducing NDPs to dNDPs. RR1 is the catalytic subunit, and RR2 houses the free radical required for catalysis. RR is allosterically regulated by its activator ATP and its inhibitor dATP, which regulate RR activity by inducing oligomerization of RR1. Here, we report the first X-ray structures of human RR1 bound to TTP alone, dATP alone, TTP-GDP, TTP-ATP, and TTP-dATP. These structures provide insights into regulation of RR by ATP or dATP. At physiological dATP concentrations, RR1 forms inactive hexamers. We determined the first X-ray structure of the RR1-dATP hexamer and used single-particle electron microscopy to visualize the {alpha}{sub 6}-{beta}{beta}'-dATP holocomplex. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional assays confirm that hexamerization is a prerequisite for inhibition by dATP. Our data indicate a mechanism for regulating RR activity by dATP-induced oligomerization.

  11. ATP-Mediated Compositional Change in Peripheral Myelin Membranes: A Comparative Raman Spectroscopy and Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kutuzov

    Full Text Available In the present paper we addressed a mechanism of the myelin reorganization initiated by extracellular ATP and adenosine in sciatic nerves of the frog Rana temporaria. In combination with Raman microspectroscopy, allowing noninvasive live-cell measurements, we employed time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS to follow the underlying changes in chemical composition of myelin membranes triggered by the purinergic agents. The simultaneous increase in lipid ordering degree, decrease in membrane fluidity and the degree of fatty acid unsaturation were induced by both ATP and adenosine. Mass spectrometry measurements revealed that ATP administration also led to the marked elevation of membrane cholesterol and decrease of phosphotidylcholine amounts. Vesicular lipid transport pathways are considered as possible mechanisms of compositional and structural changes of myelin.

  12. Measurement and interpretation of microbial adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Frederik; Goldschmidt, Felix; Vital, Marius; Wang, Yingying; Egli, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    There is a widespread need for cultivation-free methods to quantify viability of natural microbial communities in aquatic environments. Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) is the energy currency of all living cells, and therefore a useful indicator of viability. A luminescence-based ATP kit/protocol was optimised in order to detect ATP concentrations as low as 0.0001 nM with a standard deviation of water samples from a variety of aquatic environments (drinking water, groundwater, bottled water, river water, lake water and wastewater effluent) were analysed for extracellular ATP and microbial ATP in comparison with flow-cytometric (FCM) parameters. Microbial ATP concentrations ranged between 3% and 97% of total ATP concentrations, and correlated well (R(2)=0.8) with the concentrations of intact microbial cells (after staining with propidium iodide). From this correlation, we calculated an average ATP-per-cell value of 1.75x10(-10)nmol/cell. An even better correlation (R(2)=0.88) was observed between intact biovolume (derived from FCM scatter data) and microbial ATP concentrations, and an average ATP-per-biovolume value of 2.95x10(-9)nmol/microm(3) was calculated. These results support the use of ATP analysis for both routine monitoring and research purposes, and contribute towards a better interpretation of ATP data. PMID:20605621

  13. 7 CFR 3300.88 - Fees for U.S. ATP certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for U.S. ATP certificates. 3300.88 Section 3300... EQUIPMENT TO BE USED FOR SUCH CARRIAGE (ATP); INSPECTION, TESTING, AND CERTIFICATION OF SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Other Provisions § 3300.88 Fees for U.S. ATP certificates. The fee schedule for issuance of U.S....

  14. Characterization of an ATP translocase identified in the plant pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP/ADP translocases allow for the transport of ATP across a lipid bilayer, which is normally impermeable to this molecule due to its size and charge. These transport proteins appear to be unique to mitochondria, plant plastids, and obligate-intracellular bacteria. Of the bacterial ATP/ADP translo...

  15. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP synthesis and ATP consumption is lower in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    or not in the mitochondria of diabetic skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes. ATP synthesis was measured on mitochondria isolated from cultured myotubes established from lean (11/9), obese (9/11) and subjects with type 2 diabetes (9/11) (female/male, n=20 in each group), precultured under normophysiological...... conditions in order to verify intrinsic impairments. To resemble dynamic equilibrium present in whole cells between ATP synthesis and utilization, ATP was measured in the presence of an ATP consuming enzyme, hexokinase, under steady state. Mitochondria were isolated using an affinity based method which...... selects the mitochondria based on an antibody recognizing the mitochondrial outer membrane and not by size through gradient centrifugation. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP synthesis and ATP consumption is 35% lower in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects...

  16. UV-B exposure reduces locomotor performance by impairing muscle function but not mitochondrial ATP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh Kazerouni, Ensiyeh; Franklin, Craig E; Seebacher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) can reduce swimming performance by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. High concentrations of ROS can damage mitochondria, resulting in reduced ATP production. ROS can also damage muscle proteins, thereby leading to impaired muscle contractile function. We have shown previously that UV-B exposure reduces locomotor performance in mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) without affecting metabolic scope. Our aim was therefore to test whether UV-B influences swimming performance of mosquitofish by ROS-induced damage to muscle proteins without affecting mitochondrial function. In a fully factorial design, we exposed mosquitofish to UV-B and no-UV-B controls in combination with exposure to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) plus no-NAC controls. We used NAC, a precursor of glutathione, as an antioxidant to test whether any effects of UV-B on swimming performance were at least partly due to UV-B-induced ROS. UV-B significantly reduced critical sustained swimming performance and tail beat frequencies, and it increased ROS-induced damage (protein carbonyl concentrations and lipid peroxidation) in muscle. However, UV-B did not affect the activity of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (SERCA), an enzyme associated with muscle calcium cycling and muscle relaxation. UV-B did not affect ADP phosphorylation (state 3) rates of mitochondrial respiration, and it did not alter the amount of ATP produced per atom of oxygen consumed (P:O ratio). However, UV-B reduced the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio. Under UV-B exposure, fish treated with NAC showed greater swimming performance and tail beat frequencies, higher glutathione concentrations, and lower protein carbonyl concentrations and lipid peroxidation than untreated fish. Tail beat amplitude was not affected by any treatment. Our results showed, firstly, that the effects of UV-B on locomotor performance were mediated by ROS and, secondly, that reduced swimming performance was not caused by

  17. ATP binding to a multisubunit enzyme: statistical thermodynamics analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2012-01-01

    Due to inter-subunit communication, multisubunit enzymes usually hydrolyze ATP in a concerted fashion. However, so far the principle of this process remains poorly understood. In this study, from the viewpoint of statistical thermodynamics, a simple model is presented. In this model, we assume that the binding of ATP will change the potential of the corresponding enzyme subunit, and the degree of this change depends on the state of its adjacent subunits. The probability of enzyme in a given state satisfies the Boltzmann's distribution. Although it looks much simple, this model can fit the recent experimental data of chaperonin TRiC/CCT well. From this model, the dominant state of TRiC/CCT can be obtained. This study provided a new way to understand biophysical processes by statistical thermodynamics analysis.

  18. Students' Interdisciplinary Reasoning about "High-Energy Bonds" and ATP

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W; Sawtelle, Vashti; Svoboda, Julia; Turpen, Chandra; Redish, Edward F

    2012-01-01

    Students' sometimes contradictory ideas about ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and the nature of chemical bonds have been studied in the biology and chemistry education literatures, but these topics are rarely part of the introductory physics curriculum. We present qualitative data from an introductory physics course for undergraduate biology majors that seeks to build greater interdisciplinary coherence and therefore includes these topics. In these data, students grapple with the apparent contradiction between the energy released when the phosphate bond in ATP is broken and the idea that an energy input is required to break a bond. We see that students' perceptions of how each scientific discipline bounds the system of interest can influence how they justify their reasoning about a topic that crosses disciplines. This has consequences for a vision of interdisciplinary education that respects disciplinary perspectives while bringing them into interaction in ways that demonstrate consistency amongst the perspectiv...

  19. Efficacy and Limitations of an ATP-Based Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Danielle E; Daugherity, Erin K.; Altier, Craig; Maurer, Kirk J.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of sanitation is an essential function of laboratory animal facilities. The purpose of the current study was to assess the ability of an ATP-based system to detect microbes and organic contaminants. Serial dilutions of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Toxocara canis eggs, Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, epithelial cells, and rodent blood, urine, and feces were analyzed according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The limit of E. coli detection was 104 organisms; sonicati...

  20. Alternative mitochondrial functions in cell physiopathology: beyond ATP production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowaltowski A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mitochondria are the main site for ATP generation within most tissues. However, mitochondria also participate in a surprising number of alternative activities, including intracellular Ca2+ regulation, thermogenesis and the control of apoptosis. In addition, mitochondria are the main cellular generators of reactive oxygen species, and may trigger necrotic cell death under conditions of oxidative stress. This review concentrates on these alternative mitochondrial functions, and their role in cell physiopathology.

  1. Students' Interdisciplinary Reasoning about "High-Energy Bonds" and ATP

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Geller, Benjamin D.; Sawtelle, Vashti; Svoboda, Julia; Turpen, Chandra; Redish, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    Students' sometimes contradictory ideas about ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and the nature of chemical bonds have been studied in the biology and chemistry education literatures, but these topics are rarely part of the introductory physics curriculum. We present qualitative data from an introductory physics course for undergraduate biology majors that seeks to build greater interdisciplinary coherence and therefore includes these topics. In these data, students grapple with the apparent contra...

  2. Yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers are monomeric in detergents

    OpenAIRE

    Bamber, Lisa; Harding, Marilyn; Butler, P. Jonathan G.; Kunji, Edmund R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial carriers are believed widely to be homodimers both in the inner membrane of the organelle and in detergents. The dimensions and molecular masses of the detergent and protein–detergent micelles were measured for yeast ADP/ATP carriers in a range of different detergents. The radius of the carrier at the midpoint of the membrane, its average radius, its Stokes' radius, its molecular mass, and its excluded volume were determined. These parameters are consistent with the known struct...

  3. Reliability of a bioluminescence ATP assay for detection of bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Selan, L.; Berlutti, F; Passariello, C.; Thaller, M C; Renzini, G

    1992-01-01

    The reliability of bioluminescence assays which employ the luciferin-luciferase ATP-dependent reaction to evaluate bacterial counts was studied, both in vitro and on urine specimens. Bioluminescence and cultural results for the most common urinary tract pathogens were analyzed. Furthermore, the influence of the culture medium, of the assaying method, and of the phase of growth on bioluminescence readings was studied. Results show that Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella strains are not corre...

  4. Inhibition of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by amphibian antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Thomas F; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2010-04-01

    Previously melittin, the alpha-helical basic honey bee venom peptide, was shown to inhibit F(1)-ATPase by binding at the beta-subunit DELSEED motif of F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase. Herein, we present the inhibitory effects of the basic alpha-helical amphibian antimicrobial peptides, ascaphin-8, aurein 2.2, aurein 2.3, carein 1.8, carein 1.9, citropin 1.1, dermaseptin, maculatin 1.1, maganin II, MRP, or XT-7, on purified F(1) and membrane bound F(1)F(0)Escherichia coli ATP synthase. We found that the extent of inhibition by amphibian peptides is variable. Whereas MRP-amide inhibited ATPase essentially completely (approximately 96% inhibition), carein 1.8 did not inhibit at all (0% inhibition). Inhibition by other peptides was partial with a range of approximately 13-70%. MRP-amide was also the most potent inhibitor on molar scale (IC(50) approximately 3.25 microM). Presence of an amide group at the c-terminal of peptides was found to be critical in exerting potent inhibition of ATP synthase ( approximately 20-40% additional inhibition). Inhibition was fully reversible and found to be identical in both F(1)F(0) membrane preparations as well as in isolated purified F(1). Interestingly, growth of E. coli was abrogated in the presence of ascaphin-8, aurein 2.2, aurein 2.3, citropin 1.1, dermaseptin, magainin II-amide, MRP, MRP-amide, melittin, or melittin-amide but was unaffected in the presence of carein 1.8, carein 1.9, maculatin 1.1, magainin II, or XT-7. Hence inhibition of F(1)-ATPase and E. coli cell growth by amphibian antimicrobial peptides suggests that their antimicrobial/anticancer properties are in part linked to their actions on ATP synthase. PMID:20100509

  5. A mitochondrial import receptor for the ADP/ATP carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Söllner, Thomas; Griffiths, Gareth; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Neupert, Walter

    1990-01-01

    We have identified a mitochondrial outer membrane protein of 72 kd (MOM72) that exhibits the properties of an import receptor for the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC), the most abundant mitochondrial protein. Monospecific antibodies and Fab fragments against MOM72 selectively inhibit import of AAC at the level of specific binding to the mitochondria. AAC bound to the mitochondrial surface is coprecipitated with antibodies against MOM72 after lysis of mitochondria with detergent. MOM72 thus has a complem...

  6. Effect of ATP sulfurylase overexpression in bright yellow 2 tobacco cells: regulation of ATP sulfurylase and SO4(-2) transport activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if the ATP sulfurylase reaction is a regulatory step for the SO4(2-)-assimilation pathway in plants, an Arabidopsis thaliana ATP sulfurylase cDNA, APS2, was fused to the 355 promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus and introduced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation into isolated Bright Yellow 2 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. The ATP sulfurylase activity in transgenic cells was 8-fold that in control cells, and was correlated with the expression of a specific polypeptide revealed by western analysis using an anti-ATP sulfurylase antibody. The molecular mass of this polypeptide agreed with that for the overexpressed mature protein. ATP sulfurylase overexpression had no effect on [35S]SO4(2-) influx or ATP sulfurylase activity regulation by S availability, except that ATP sulfurylase activity variations in response to S starvation in transgenic cells were 8 times higher than in the wild type. There were also no differences in cell growth or sensitivity to SeO4(2-) (a toxic SO4(2-) analog) between transgenic and wild-type cells. We propose that in Bright Yellow 2 tobacco cells, the ATP sulfurylase derepression by S deficiency may involve a posttranscriptional mechanism, and that the ATP sulfurylase abundance is not limiting for cell metabolism

  7. ATP5A1 and ATP5B are highly expressed in glioblastoma tumor cells and endothelial cells of microvascular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guiyan; Li, Jian Yi

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor. Microvascular proliferation is one of the characteristic pathologic features of GBM. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GBM. In this study, microvascular proliferation from GBM and normal brain blood vessels were laser microdissected and total RNA was isolated from these microvasculatures. The difference of mRNA expression profiles among GBM microvasculature, normal brain blood vessels and GBM tumor cells was evaluated by mitochondria and metabolism PCR gene arrays. It was found that the mRNA levels of ATP5A1 and ATP5B in GBM tumor cells as well as microvascular proliferation were significantly higher compared with normal brain blood vessels. Immunohistochemical stains with anti-ATP5A1 antibody or anti-ATP5B antibody were performed on tissue microarray, which demonstrated strongly positive expression of ATP5A1 and ATP5B in GBM tumor cells and GBM microvascular proliferation while normal blood vessels were negative. By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas data sets for GBM and other cancers, genomic DNA alterations (mutation, amplification or deletion) were less likely the reason for the high expression of ATP5A1 and ATP5B in GBM. Our miRNA microarray data showed that miRNAs that target ATP5A1 or ATP5B were down-regulated, which might be the most likely reason for the high expression of ATP5A1 and ATP5B in GBM tumor cells and microvascular proliferation. These findings help us better understand the pathogenesis of GBM, and agents against ATP5A1 and/or ATP5B might effectively kill both tumor cells and microvascular proliferation in GBM. MiRNAs, such as Let-7f, miR-16, miR-23, miR-100 and miR-101, that target ATP5A1 or ATP5B, might be potential therapeutic agents for GBM. PMID:26526033

  8. Human ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliou Vasilis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There exist four fundamentally different classes of membrane-bound transport proteins: ion channels; transporters; aquaporins; and ATP-powered pumps. ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are an example of ATP-dependent pumps. ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in all prokaryotes, as well as plants, fungi, yeast and animals. These pumps can move substrates in (influx or out (efflux of cells. In mammals, ABC transporters are expressed predominantly in the liver, intestine, blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, placenta and kidney. ABC proteins transport a number of endogenous substrates, including inorganic anions, metal ions, peptides, amino acids, sugars and a large number of hydrophobic compounds and metabolites across the plasma membrane, and also across intracellular membranes. The human genome contains 49 ABC genes, arranged in eight subfamilies and named via divergent evolution. That ABC genes are important is underscored by the fact that mutations in at least I I of these genes are already known to cause severe inherited diseases (eg cystic fibrosis and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy [X-ALD]. ABC transporters also participate in the movement of most drugs and their metabolites across cell surface and cellular organelle membranes; thus, defects in these genes can be important in terms of cancer therapy, pharmacokinetics and innumerable pharmacogenetic disorders.

  9. The collagen type I segment long spacing (SLS) and fibrillar forms: Formation by ATP and sulphonated diazo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J Robin; Lewis, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    The collagen type I segment long spacing (SLS) crystallite is a well-ordered rod-like molecular aggregate, ∼300nm in length, which is produced in vitro under mildly acidic conditions (pH 2.5-3.5) in the presence of 1mM ATP. The formation of the SLS crystallite amplifies the inherent linear structural features of individual collagen heterotrimers, due to the punctate linear distribution and summation of the bulkier amino acid side chains along the length of individual collagen heterotrimers. This can be correlated structurally with the 67nm D-banded collagen fibril that is found in vivo, and formed in vitro. Although first described many years ago, the range of conditions required for ATP-induced SLS crystallite formation from acid-soluble collagen have not been explored extensively. Consequently, we have addressed biochemical parameters such as the ATP concentration, pH, speed of formation and stability so as to provide a more complete structural understanding of the SLS crystallite. Treatment of collagen type I with 1mM ATP at neutral and higher pH (6.0-9.0) also induced the formation of D-banded fibrils. Contrary to previous studies, we have shown that the polysulphonated diazo dyes Direct red (Sirius red) and Evans blue, but not Congo red and Methyl blue, can also induce the formation of SLS-like aggregates of collagen, but under markedly different ionic conditions to those employed in the presence of ATP. Specifically, pre-formed D-banded collagen fibrils, prepared in a higher than the usual physiological NaCl concentration (e.g. 500mM NaCl, 20mM Tris-HCl pH7.4 or x3 PBS), readily form SLS aggregates when treated with 0.1mM Direct red and Evans blue, but this did not occur at lower NaCl concentrations. These new data are discussed in relation to the anion (Cl(-)) and polyanion (phosphate and sulphonate) binding by the collagen heterotrimer and their likely role in collagen fibrillogenesis and SLS formation. PMID:27162200

  10. Human keratinocyte ATP2C1 localizes to the Golgi and controls Golgi Ca2+ stores

    OpenAIRE

    Behne, M J; Tu, Chia-Ling L; Aronchik, I; Epstein, E; Bench, G.; Bikle, D D; Pozzan, T; Mauro, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Hailey-Hailey disease (MIM16960) is a blistering skin disease caused by mutations in the Ca2+ ATPase ATP2C1. We found that the abnormal Ca2+ signaling seen in Hailey-Hailey disease keratinocytes correlates with decreased protein levels of ATP2C1. Human ATP2C1 protein approximated 115 kDa in size. The ATP2C1 is localized to the Golgi apparatus in human keratinocytes, similar to its localization in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans. To test whether the ATP2C1 controls Golgi Ca2+ stores, we measu...

  11. ATP synthesis is impaired in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2010-01-01

    obese and eight subjects with type 2 diabetes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, mitochondria were isolated and ATP production was measured by luminescence at baseline and during acute insulin stimulation with or without concomitant ATP utilization by hexokinase. Mitochondrial...... mass and the ATP synthesis rate, neither at baseline nor during acute insulin stimulation, were not different between groups. The ratio of ATP synthesis rate at hexokinase versus ATP synthesis rate at baseline was lower in diabetic mitochondria compared to lean mitochondria. Thus the lower content...

  12. Human MTH1 protein hydrolyzes the oxidized ribonucleotide, 2-hydroxy-ATP

    OpenAIRE

    Fujikawa, Katsuyoshi; Kamiya, Hiroyuki; Yakushiji, Hiroyuki; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Kasai, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    The human nucleotide pool sanitization enzyme, MTH1, hydrolyzes 2-hydroxy-dATP and 8-hydroxy-dATP in addition to 8-hydroxy-dGTP. We report here that human MTH1 is highly specific for 2-hydroxy-ATP, among the cognate ribonucleoside triphosphates. The pyrophosphatase activities for 8-hydroxy-GTP, 2-hydroxy-ATP and 8-hydroxy-ATP were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The kinetic parameters thus obtained indicate that the catalytic efficiencies of MTH1 ar...

  13. A metabolic link between mitochondrial ATP synthesis and liver glycogen metabolism: NMR study in rats re-fed with butyrate and/or glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauvieux Marie-Christine

    2011-06-01

    phosphorylation yield and to induce a glucose-sparing effect, delayed the transient increase in mitochondrial ATP turnover and hence energy contribution to glycogen metabolism.

  14. Coassembly of Photosystem II and ATPase as Artificial Chloroplast for Light-Driven ATP Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiyun; Jia, Yi; Cai, Peng; Fei, Jinbo; Li, Junbai

    2016-01-26

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is one of the most important energy sources in living cells, which can drive serial key biochemical processes. However, generation of a proton gradient for ATP production in an artificial way poses a great challenge. In nature, photophosphorylation occurring in chloroplasts is an ideal prototype of ATP production. In this paper we imitate the light-to-ATP conversion process occurring in the thylakoid membrane by construction of FoF1-ATPase proteoliposome-coated PSII-based microspheres with well-defined core@shell structures using molecular assembly. Under light illumination, PSII can split water into protons, oxygen, and electrons and can generate a proton gradient for ATPase to produce ATP. Thus, an artificially designed chloroplast for PSII-driven ATP synthesis is realized. This biomimetic system will help to understand the photophosphorylation process and may facilitate the development of ATP-driven devices by remote light control. PMID:26615669

  15. Effect of irradiation on detection of bacteria in dehydrated vegetables with ATP bioluminescence assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATP bioluminescence intensity of 4 kinds of irradiated dehydrated vegetables was inconsistent with the bacteria number, the reasons were investigated in this paper. Results showed that irradiation had little effect on background luminescence, and there was no effect on luciferase-luminous system. When irradiation killed the bacteria, the ATPase activity also decreased. As a result, the ATP content in bacteria didn't decreased with the killed of bacteria, which contributed to the increase of free ATP in ATP extract and finally led to the disagreement between the bioluminescence intensity and the actual number of bacteria. When the free ATP in the dehydrated vegetable was removed, the bioluminescence intensity of ATP extract was consistent with the actual number of bacteria in irradiated dehydrated vegetable and ATP bioluminescence technology could be used in bacteria detection of irradiated samples. (authors)

  16. Pharmacological and molecular comparison of K(ATP) channels in rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Edvinsson, Lars; Olesen, Jes;

    2006-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels play an important role in the regulation of cerebral vascular tone. In vitro studies using synthetic K(ATP) channel openers suggest that the pharmacological profiles differ between rat basilar arteries and rat middle cerebral arteries. To address this issue......, we studied the possible involvement of endothelial K(ATP) channels by pressurized arteriography after luminal administration of synthetic K(ATP) channel openers to rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries. Furthermore, we examined the mRNA and protein expression profile of K(ATP) channels to rat...... basilar and middle cerebral arteries using quantitative real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and Western blotting, respectively. In the perfusion system, we found no significant responses after luminal application of three K(ATP) channel openers to rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries. In...

  17. Fine-tuned ATP signals are acute mediators in osteocyte mechanotransduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelbach, Tina M.; Aslan, Derya; Novak, Ivana;

    2015-01-01

    effects on bone remodeling. Therefore, we hypothesized that ATP signaling is also applied by osteocytes in mechanotransduction. We applied a short fluid pulse on MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells during real-time detection of ATP and demonstrated that mechanical stimulation activates the acute release of ATP...... and that these acute ATP signals are fine-tuned according to the magnitude of loading. ATP release was then challenged by pharmacological inhibitors, which indicated a vesicular release pathway for acute ATP signals. Finally, we showed that osteocytes express functional P2X2 and P2X7 receptors and...... respond to even low concentrations of nucleotides by increasing intracellular calcium concentration. These results indicate that in osteocytes, vesicular ATP release is an acute mediator of mechanical signals and the magnitude of loading. These and previous results, therefore, implicate purinergic...

  18. Lysosomal ATP imaging in living cells by a water-soluble cationic polythiophene derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing-Huan; Geng, Zhi-Rong; Ma, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Cui; Zhang, Zhi-Yang; Wang, Zhi-Lin

    2016-09-15

    Lysosomes in astrocytes and microglia can release ATP as the signaling molecule for the cells through ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis in response to various stimuli. At present, fluorescent probes that can detect ATP in lysosomes have not been reported. In this work, we have developed a new water-soluble cationic polythiophene derivative that can be specifically localized in lysosomes and can be utilized as a fluorescent probe to sense ATP in cells. PEMTEI exhibits high selectivity and sensitivity to ATP at physiological pH values and the detection limit of ATP is as low as 10(-11)M. The probe has low cytotoxicity, good permeability and high photostability in living cells and has been applied successfully to real-time monitoring of the change in concentrations of ATP in lysosomes though fluorescence microscopy. We also demonstrated that lysosomes in Hela cells can release ATP through Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis in response to drug stimuli. PMID:27131993

  19. TSH increases synthesis of hepatic ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 in hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Cong Cong; Shi, Hong; Zhou, Xinli

    2016-07-22

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that thyrotropin (TSH) levels are closely correlated with the severity of hypercholesterolemia. Reverse cholesterol transfer (RCT) plays an important role in regulating bloodcholesterol. However, the molecular mechanism of hypercholesterolemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has not been fully clarified. The SCH mouse model, which is characterized by elevated serum TSH but not thyroid hormone levels, demonstrated a significant increase in plasma cholesterol compared with controls. Interestingly, Tshr KO mice, with normal thyroid hormone levels after thyroid hormone supplementation, showed lower plasma cholesterol levels compared with their wild-type littermates. ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1(ABCA1) is a member of the ABC superfamily, which induces transfer of intracellular cholesterol to extracellular apolipoprotein. TSH upregulated hepatic ABCA1 to promote the efflux of intercellular cumulative cholesterol, resulting in increased plasma cholesterol. These data might partially explain the pathogenesis of hypercholesterolemia in SCH. PMID:27179782

  20. Arsenic alters ATP-dependent Ca²+ signaling in human airway epithelial cell wound response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Cara L; Lantz, R Clark; Burgess, Jefferey L; Boitano, Scott

    2011-05-01

    Arsenic is a natural metalloid toxicant that is associated with occupational inhalation injury and contaminates drinking water worldwide. Both inhalation of arsenic and consumption of arsenic-tainted water are correlated with malignant and nonmalignant lung diseases. Despite strong links between arsenic and respiratory illness, underlying cell responses to arsenic remain unclear. We hypothesized that arsenic may elicit some of its detrimental effects on the airway through limitation of innate immune function and, specifically, through alteration of paracrine ATP (purinergic) Ca²+ signaling in the airway epithelium. We examined the effects of acute (24 h) exposure with environmentally relevant levels of arsenic (i.e., immune functions (e.g., ciliary beat, salt and water transport, bactericide production, and wound repair). Arsenic-induced compromise of such airway defense mechanisms may be an underlying contributor to chronic lung disease. PMID:21357385

  1. [Stabilization of Cadmium Contaminated Soils by Ferric Ion Modified Attapulgite (Fe/ATP)--Characterizations and Stabilization Mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yang; Li, Rong-bo; Zhou, Yong-li; Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-ling; Lu, Xiao-hua

    2015-08-01

    Ferric ion modified attapulgite (Fe/ATP) was prepared by impregnation and its structure and morphology were characterized. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effect of Cadmium( Cd) stabilization in soil with the addition of attapulgite (ATP) and Fe/ATP. The stabilization mechanism of Cd was further elucidated by comparing the morphologies and structure of ATP and Fe/ATP before and after Cd adsorption. Fe/ATP exhibited much better adsorption capacity than ATP, suggesting different adsorption mechanisms occurred between ATP and Fe/ATP. The leaching concentrations of Cd in soil decreased by 45% and 91% respectively, with the addition of wt. 20% ATP and Fe/ATP. The former was attributed to the interaction between Cd2 and --OH groups by chemical binding to form inner-sphere complexes in ATP and the attachment between Cd2+ and the defect sites in ATP framework. Whereas Cd stabilization with Fe/ATP was resulted from the fact that the active centers (--OH bonds or O- sites) on ATP could react with Fe3+ giving Fe--O--Cd-- bridges, which helped stabilize Cd in surface soil. What'more, the ferric oxides and metal hydroxides on the surface of ATP could interact with Cd, probably by the formation of cadmium ferrite. In conclusion, Fe/ATP, which can be easily prepared, holds promise as a potential low-cost and environmental friendly stabilizing agent for remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:26592037

  2. An ATP-activated channel is involved in mitogenic stimulation of human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricordi, O R; Ferrari, D; Melchiorri, L; Chiozzi, P; Hanau, S; Chiari, E; Rubini, M; Di Virgilio, F

    1996-01-15

    We investigated the effect of pharmacologic modulation of the ATP receptor on intracellular ion changes and proliferative response of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and purified T lymphocytes. Extracellular ATP (ATPe) triggered in these cells an increase in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and plasma membrane depolarization. Whereas both Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and influx across the plasma membrane were detected in the whole PBL population, only Ca2+ influx was observed in T cells. In the presence of near physiologic extracellular Na+ concentrations (125 mmol/L), Ca2+ permeability through the ATPe-gated channel was very low, suggesting a higher selectivity for monovalent over divalent cations. The selective P2Z agonist benzoylbenzoic ATP (BzATP) increased [Ca2+]i in the presence but not the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and also caused plasma membrane depolarization. The covalent blocker oxidized ATP (oATP), an inhibitor of P2X and P2Z receptors, prevented Ca2+ influx and plasma membrane depolarization, but had no effect on Ca2+ release from stores. Stimulation with ATPe alone had no significant effects on PBL 3H-thymidine incorporation. On the contrary, ATPe or BzATP had a synergistic effect on DNA synthesis stimulated by selective T-cell mitogens such as phytohemagglutinin, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, or allogenic PBLs (mixed lymphocyte cultures). Treatment with oATP inhibited mitogenic stimulation by these receptor-directed agents but not by the combined application of the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin and phorbol myristate acetate. Interleukin-2 partially relieved inhibition by oATP. These results suggest that human T lymphocytes express a plasma membrane channel gated by ATPe that is involved in mitogenic stimulation. PMID:8555491

  3. X-ray effects on the activity of a Mg2+-dependent, Na+- and K+-activable microsomal membrane ATP-ase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bahviour of a Mg2+-dependent, Na+- and K+-activable ATP-ase sytem on irradiation was investigated using a microsome fraction of guinea pig myocardial cells prepared by fractionated centrifugation. The Na+- and K+-activable component, transport-ATPase, was particularly radiation-sensitive. Three stages of development were observed for a 1,500 R radiation damage until 24 h p.r.. In the first stage, until 30 minutes p.r., the activity of transport-ATP-ase was inhibited. This was followed by repair processes which had reached a peak value clearly higher than the control values at 4 hours p.r.. In the third stage, the activity was reduced again; 15 and 24 hours after termination of exposure, values again were nearly the same as after 30 minutes where a maximum was observed for this radiation dose. Radiation-induced electrolyte displacements, active transport, and radiation-induced inhibition of transport-ATP-ase were correlated and discussed; the assumption was that changes in, the electrolyte conditions in the membranes on irradiation are at least partly due to the described inhibition of transport-ATP-ase. (orig./AJ)

  4. Reduced cardiolipin content decreases respiratory chain capacities and increases ATP synthesis yield in the human HepaRG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyta, Laure; Jarnouen, Kathleen; Pinault, Michelle; Guimaraes, Cyrille; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Chevalier, Stephan; Dumas, Jean-François; Maillot, François; Hatch, Grant M; Loyer, Pascal; Servais, Stephane

    2016-04-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique mitochondrial phospholipid potentially affecting many aspects of mitochondrial function/processes, i.e. energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. Most data focusing on implication of CL content and mitochondrial bioenergetics were performed in yeast or in cellular models of Barth syndrome. Previous work reported that increase in CL content leads to decrease in liver mitochondrial ATP synthesis yield. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effects of moderate decrease in CL content on mitochondrial bioenergetics in human hepatocytes. For this purpose, we generated a cardiolipin synthase knockdown (shCLS) in HepaRG hepatoma cells showing bioenergetics features similar to primary human hepatocytes. shCLS cells exhibited a 55% reduction in CLS gene and a 40% decrease in protein expression resulting in a 45% lower content in CL compared to control (shCTL) cells. Oxygen consumption was significantly reduced in shCLS cells compared to shCTL regardless of substrate used and energy state analyzed. Mitochondrial low molecular weight supercomplex content was higher in shCLS cells (+60%) compared to shCTL. Significant fragmentation of the mitochondrial network was observed in shCLS cells compared to shCTL cells. Surprisingly, mitochondrial ATP synthesis was unchanged in shCLS compared to shCTL cells but exhibited a higher ATP:O ratio (+46%) in shCLS cells. Our results suggest that lowered respiratory chain activity induced by moderate reduction in CL content may be due to both destabilization of supercomplexes and mitochondrial network fragmentation. In addition, CL content may regulate mitochondrial ATP synthesis yield. PMID:26768115

  5. Structural and functional changes of mitochondrial ATP synthase caused by mtDNA 9205delTA mutation in ATP6 gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ješina, Pavel; Tesařová, M.; Fornůsková, D.; Vojtíšková, Alena; Pecina, Petr; Kaplanová, Vilma; Hansíková, H.; Zeman, J.; Houštěk, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 29, S1 (2006), s. 117-117. ISSN 0141-8955. [International Congress of Inborn Errors of Metabolism /10./. 12.09.2006-16.09.2006, Chiba] R&D Projects: GA MZd NR7790 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : ATP synthase * ATP6 gene * mitochondria Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  6. Somatic mutations in ATP1A1 and ATP2B3 lead to aldosterone-producing adenomas and secondary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuschlein, Felix; Boulkroun, Sheerazed; Osswald, Andrea;

    2013-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism is the most prevalent form of secondary hypertension. To explore molecular mechanisms of autonomous aldosterone secretion, we performed exome sequencing of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). We identified somatic hotspot mutations in the ATP1A1 (encoding an Na+/K+ ATPase α...... subunit) and ATP2B3 (encoding a Ca2+ ATPase) genes in three and two of the nine APAs, respectively. These ATPases are expressed in adrenal cells and control sodium, potassium and calcium ion homeostasis. Functional in vitro studies of ATP1A1 mutants showed loss of pump activity and strongly reduced...... affinity for potassium. Electrophysiological ex vivo studies on primary adrenal adenoma cells provided further evidence for inappropriate depolarization of cells with ATPase alterations. In a collection of 308 APAs, we found 16 (5.2%) somatic mutations in ATP1A1 and 5 (1.6%) in ATP2B3. Mutation...

  7. Optimum ratio of AET, ATP and serotonin applied in combinations determined with a reference to their toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments on mice, a study was made of the quantitative dependence of toxicity of AET, ATP and serotonin applied in combinations. The toxicity decreased when ATP was combined with AET and increased when ATP of AET were combined with serotonin. The toxicity of a combination of all three substances was reduced by introducing high doses of ATP

  8. Insights into the subunit in-teractions of the chloroplast ATP synthase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Subunit interactions of the chloroplast F0F1- ATP synthase were studied using the yeast two-hybrid system. The coding sequences of all the nine subunits of spinach chloroplast ATP synthase were cloned in two-hybrid vectors. The vectors were transformed into the yeast strains HF7c and SFY526 by various pairwise combinations, and the protein interactions were analyzed by measuring the yeast growth on minimal SD medium without serine, lucine and histidine. Interactions of γ Subunit with wild type or two truncated mutants of γ sununit, △εN21 and △εC45, which lose their abilities to inhibit the ATP hydrolysis, were also detected by in vitro and in vivo binding assay. The present results are largely accordant to the common structure model of F0F1-ATP synthase. Different from that in the E. Coli F0F1-ATP synthase, the δ subunit of chloroplast ATP syn- thase could interact with β,γ,ε and all the CF0 subunits in the two-hybrid system. These results suggested that though the chloroplast ATP synthase shares the similar structure and composition of subunits with the enzyme from E. Coli, it may be different in the subunit interactions and con- formational change during catalysis between these two sources of ATP synthase. Based on the present results and our knowledge of structure model of E. Coli ATP synthase, a deduced structure model of chloroplast ATP synthase was proposed.

  9. Modeling the effects of hypoxia on ATP turnover in exercising muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, P. G.; Hogan, M. C.; Bebout, D. E.; Wagner, P. D.; Hochachka, P. W.

    1992-01-01

    Most models of metabolic control concentrate on the regulation of ATP production and largely ignore the regulation of ATP demand. We describe a model, based on the results of Hogan et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 73: 728-736, 1992), that incorporates the effects of ATP demand. The model is developed from the premise that a unique set of intracellular conditions can be measured at each level of ATP turnover and that this relationship is best described by energetic state. Current concepts suggest that cells are capable of maintaining oxygen consumption in the face of declines in the concentration of oxygen through compensatory changes in cellular metabolites. We show that these compensatory changes can cause significant declines in ATP demand and result in a decline in oxygen consumption and ATP turnover. Furthermore we find that hypoxia does not directly affect the rate of anaerobic ATP synthesis and associated lactate production. Rather, lactate production appears to be related to energetic state, whatever the PO2. The model is used to describe the interaction between ATP demand and ATP supply in determining final ATP turnover.

  10. Inhibition of ATP-sensitive potassium channels by haloperidol

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shi-Bing; Proks, Peter; Ashcroft, Frances M.; Rupnik, Marjan

    2004-01-01

    Chronic haloperidol treatment has been associated with an increased incidence of glucose intolerance and type-II diabetes mellitus. We studied the effects of haloperidol on native ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in mouse pancreatic β cells and on cloned Kir6.2/SUR1 channels expressed in HEK293 cells.The inhibitory effect of haloperidol on the KATP channel was not mediated via the D2 receptor signaling pathway, as both D2 agonists and antagonists blocked the channel.KATP currents were ...

  11. Detection of ATP hydrolysis through motion of nanoconfined DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Maedeh; Livshits, Gideon; Azad, Zubair; Wang, Hong; Riehn, Robert

    Confinement of DNA to nanochannels with a cross-section of 100 ×100 nm2 and hundreds of micrometer long has previously been used to investigate the equilibrium binding properties of proteins to DNA. Here we report on the observation that a range of proteins which catalyze a modification of DNA, and that do so by hydrolyzing ATP, cause a net directed motion of nanochannel-confined DNA. We present a model for this observation that does not require any motor-like action of the protein and that is purely dependent on the catalytic properties.

  12. Import of ADP/ATP carrier into mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Steger, Heinrich F.; Söllner, Thomas; Kiebler, Michael; Dietmeier, Klaus A.; Pfaller, Rupert; Trülzsch, Konrad S.; Tropschug, Maximilian; Neupert, Walter; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    1990-01-01

    We have identified the yeast homologue of Neurospora crassa MOM72, the mitochondrial import receptor for the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC), by functional studies and by cDNA sequencing. Mitochondria of a yeast mutant in which the gene for MOM72 was disrupted were impaired in specific binding and import of AAC. Unexpectedly, we found a residual, yet significant import of AAC into mitochondria lacking MOM72 that occurred via the receptor MOM19. We conclude that both MOM72 and MOM19 can direct AAC into ...

  13. CELL-SPECIFIC TRAFFICKING SUGGESTS A NEW ROLE FOR RENAL ATP7B IN THE INTRACELLULAR COPPER STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Natalie; Bartee, Mee Y; Braiterman, Lita; Gupta, Arnab; Ustiyan, Vladimir; Zuzel, Vesna; Kaplan, Jack H.; Hubbard, Ann L.; Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Human Cu-ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B maintain copper homeostasis through regulated trafficking between intracellular compartments. Inactivation of these transporters causes Menkes disease and Wilson disease, respectively. In Menkes disease, copper accumulates in kidneys and causes tubular damage, indicating that the renal ATP7B does not compensate for the loss of ATP7A function. We show that this is likely due to a kidney-specific regulation of ATP7B. Unlike ATP7A (or hepatic ATP7B) which traffic...

  14. Genetic variation in ATP5O is associated with skeletal muscle ATP50 mRNA expression and glucose uptake in young twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Rönn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle mitochondria contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Furthermore, mRNA expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, including ATP5O, is reduced in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. Our aims were to investigate mechanisms regulating ATP5O expression in skeletal muscle and association with glucose metabolism, and the relationship between ATP5O single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and risk of T2D. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ATP5O mRNA expression was analyzed in skeletal muscle from young (n = 86 and elderly (n = 68 non-diabetic twins before and after a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. 11 SNPs from the ATP5O locus were genotyped in the twins and a T2D case-control cohort (n = 1466. DNA methylation of the ATP5O promoter was analyzed in twins (n = 22 using bisulfite sequencing. The mRNA level of ATP5O in skeletal muscle was reduced in elderly compared with young twins, both during basal and insulin-stimulated conditions (p<0.0005. The degree of DNA methylation around the transcription start of ATP5O was <1% in both young and elderly twins and not associated with mRNA expression (p = 0.32. The mRNA level of ATP5O in skeletal muscle was positively related to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (regression coefficient = 6.6; p = 0.02. Furthermore, two SNPs were associated with both ATP5O mRNA expression (rs12482697: T/T versus T/G; p = 0.02 and rs11088262: A/A versus A/G; p = 0.004 and glucose uptake (rs11088262: A/A versus A/G; p = 0.002 and rs12482697: T/T versus T/G; p = 0.005 in the young twins. However, we could not detect any genetic association with T2D. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genetic variation and age are associated with skeletal muscle ATP5O mRNA expression and glucose disposal rate, suggesting that combinations of genetic and non-genetic factors may cause the reduced expression of ATP5O in T2D muscle. These findings propose a role for ATP5O, in

  15. GABA transmission via ATP-dependent K+ channels regulates α-synuclein secretion in mouse striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouilidou, Evangelia; Minakaki, Georgia; Keramioti, Maria V; Xylaki, Mary; Balafas, Evangelos; Chrysanthou-Piterou, Margarita; Kloukina, Ismini; Vekrellis, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    α-Synuclein is readily released in human and mouse brain parenchyma, even though the normal function of the secreted protein has not been yet elucidated. Under pathological conditions, such as in Parkinson's disease, pathologically relevant species of α-synuclein have been shown to propagate between neurons in a prion-like manner, although the mechanism by which α-synuclein transfer induces degeneration remains to be identified. Due to this evidence extracellular α-synuclein is now considered a critical target to hinder disease progression in Parkinson's disease. Given the importance of extracellular α-synuclein levels, we have now investigated the molecular pathway of α-synuclein secretion in mouse brain. To this end, we have identified a novel synaptic network that regulates α-synuclein release in mouse striatum. In this brain area, the majority of α-synuclein is localized in corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals. Absence of α-synuclein from the lumen of brain-isolated synaptic vesicles suggested that they are unlikely to mediate its release. To dissect the mechanism of α-synuclein release, we have used reverse microdialysis to locally administer reagents that locally target specific cellular pathways. Using this approach, we show that α-synuclein secretion in vivo is a calcium-regulated process that depends on the activation of sulfonylurea receptor 1-sensitive ATP-regulated potassium channels. Sulfonylurea receptor 1 is distributed in the cytoplasm of GABAergic neurons from where the ATP-dependent channel regulates GABA release. Using a combination of specific agonists and antagonists, we were able to show that, in the striatum, modulation of GABA release through the sulfonylurea receptor 1-regulated ATP-dependent potassium channels located on GABAergic neurons controls α-synuclein release from the glutamatergic terminals through activation of the presynaptic GABAB receptors. Considering that sulfonylurea receptors can be selectively targeted, our

  16. Efficacy and limitations of an ATP-based monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Danielle E; Daugherity, Erin K; Altier, Craig; Maurer, Kirk J

    2010-03-01

    Monitoring of sanitation is an essential function of laboratory animal facilities. The purpose of the current study was to assess the ability of an ATP-based system to detect microbes and organic contaminants. Serial dilutions of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Toxocara canis eggs, Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, epithelial cells, and rodent blood, urine, and feces were analyzed according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The limit of E. coli detection was 10(4) organisms; sonication of E. coli significantly improved detection, indicating incomplete bacterial lysis in the detection system. Detection of S. aureus was significantly greater than that of E. coli with a limit of detection of 10(2); sonication did not alter results. In contrast, detection of T. canis, T. gondii, RBC, and epithelial cells was robust and ranged from 2 T. canis eggs to 10 epithelial cells. Urine was weakly detected, with a limit of detection at 1:10 dilution. Detection of all cell types except epithelia had a strong linear correlation to total cell number. In addition, our data demonstrate that the efficacy of the detection system can be affected adversely by residual disinfectants and that sample-bearing swabs are stable for more than 7 h after swabbing. These data demonstrate that this ATP based system sensitively detects pure cells and organic contaminants with a strong degree of linear predictability. A limitation of the system is its inability to detect gram-negative bacteria efficiently because of incomplete cell lysis. PMID:20353694

  17. Minimum energy reaction profiles for ATP hydrolysis in myosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Bella L; Kaliman, Ilya A; Nemukhin, Alexander V

    2011-11-01

    The minimum energy reaction profiles corresponding to two possible reaction mechanisms of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis in myosin are computed in this work within the framework of the quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method by using the same partitioning of the model system to the QM and MM parts and the same computational protocol. On the first reaction route, one water molecule performs nucleophilic attack at the phosphorus center P(γ) from ATP while the second water molecule in the closed protein cleft serves as a catalytic base assisted by the Glu residue from the myosin salt bridge. According to the present QM/MM calculations consistent with the results of kinetic studies this reaction pathway is characterized by a low activation energy barrier about 10 kcal/mol. The computed activation energy barrier for the second mechanism, which assumes the penta-coordinated oxyphosphorane transition state upon involvement of single water molecule in the reaction, is considerably higher than that for the two-water mechanism. PMID:21839658

  18. ATP- and ADP-dnaA protein, a molecular switch in gene regulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Speck, C.; Weigel, C; Messer, W

    1999-01-01

    DnaA protein functions by binding to asymmetric 9mer DNA sites, the DnaA boxes. ATP-DnaA and ADP-DnaA bind to 9mer DnaA boxes with equal affinity, but only ATP-DnaA protein binds in addition to an as yet unknown 6mer site, the ATP-DnaA box AGATCT, or a close match to it. ATP-DnaA protein binding to ATP-DnaA boxes is restricted to sites located in close proximity to DnaA boxes, suggesting that protein-protein interaction is required for its stabilization. We show that ATP-DnaA represses dnaA t...

  19. ATP-loading 201Tl myocardial SPECT for the detection of ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness for the detection of ischemic heart disease, ATP myocrdial SPECT was performed in 35 patients (mean; 59±9.4 years) with angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography (CAG) was performed in all patients. The ultra-short half-life of ATP required a continuous infusion for its use. ATP was infused intravenously at a rate of 0.16 mg/kg/min for 5 min, with 201Tl injection taking place at 3 min. Myocardial SPECT imaging was begun 5 min and 4 hr later after the end of ATP infusion. ATP caused a significant decrease in arterial blood pressure (p201Tl myocardial SPECT for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) was evaluated using CAG as a golden standard. The sensitivity and specificity for CAD detection were 82% and 90%, respectively. ATP myocardial SPECT is a promising new test for the detection of ischemic heart disease. (author)

  20. Bile acid effects are mediated by ATP release and purinergic signalling in exocrine pancreatic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena; Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Christensen, Nynne;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many cells, bile acids (BAs) have a multitude of effects, some of which may be mediated by specific receptors such the TGR5 or FXR receptors. In pancreas systemic BAs, as well as intra-ductal BAs from bile reflux, can affect pancreatic secretion. Extracellular ATP and purinergic......) and duct cells (Capan-1). Taurine and glycine conjugated forms of CDCA had smaller effects on ATP release in Capan-1 cells. In duct monolayers, CDCA stimulated ATP release mainly from the luminal membrane; the releasing mechanisms involved both vesicular and non-vesicular secretion pathways. Duct...... cells were not depleted of intracellular ATP with CDCA, but acinar cells lost some ATP, as detected by several methods including ATP sensor AT1.03(YEMK). In duct cells, CDCA caused reversible increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2 +)]i, which could be significantly inhibited by...

  1. ATP consumption of eukaryotic flagella measured at a single-cell level

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Daniel T N; Fraden, Seth; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    The motility of cilia and flagella is driven by thousands of dynein motors that hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Despite decades of genetic, biochemical, structural and biophysical studies, some aspects of ciliary motility remain elusive, such as the regulation of beating patterns and the energetic efficiency of these nanomachines. Here, we introduce an experimental method to measure ATP consumption of actively beating axonemes on a single-cell level. We encapsulated individual sea urchin sperm with demembranated flagellum inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets and measured the axonemes ATP consumption by monitoring fluorescence intensity of a fluorophore-coupled reporter system for ATP turnover in the droplet. Concomitant phase contrast imaging allowed us to extract a linear dependence between the ATP consumption rate and the flagellar beating frequency, with ~2.3e5 ATP molecules consumed per beat of a demembranated flagellum. Increasing the viscosity of the aqueous medium led to modified beating wavef...

  2. Genetic dysfunction of MT-ATP6 causes axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pitceathly, Robert D S

    2012-09-11

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, affecting 1 in 2,500 individuals. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are not generally considered within the differential diagnosis of patients with uncomplicated inherited neuropathy, despite the essential requirement of ATP for axonal function. We identified the mtDNA mutation m.9185T>C in MT-ATP6, encoding the ATP6 subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase (OXPHOS complex V), at homoplasmic levels in a family with mitochondrial disease in whom a severe motor axonal neuropathy was a striking feature. This led us to hypothesize that mutations in the 2 mtDNA complex V subunit encoding genes, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8, might be an unrecognized cause of isolated axonal CMT and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN).

  3. ATP release and extracellular nucleotidase activity in erythrocytes and coronary circulation of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo; Agnisola, Claudio; Novak, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that rainbow trout erythrocytes release ATP upon deoxygenation, a mechanism that enables mammalian erythrocytes to produce local vasodilation. We also investigated ATP release and ectonucleotidase activity in the coronary circulation of the isolated trout...... heart. Erythrocytes suspended in an albumin-containing saline and equilibrated at physiological Pco2 showed negligible hemolysis (<0.1%), and notably they released small amounts of ATP. The elevation of extracellular [ATP] was higher in the presence of the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL 67156 than in...... its absence, revealing the presence of ectonucleotidase activity. The induction of either a slow (minutes) or a fast (seconds) decrease in hemoglobin O2 saturation did not lead to additional ATP release. An elevation of Pco2 was also without influence on erythrocyte ATP release. In the saline...

  4. ATP release and extracellular nucleotidase activity in erythrocytes and coronary circulation of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank B; Agnisola, Claudio; Novak, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that rainbow trout erythrocytes release ATP upon deoxygenation, a mechanism that enables mammalian erythrocytes to produce local vasodilation. We also investigated ATP release and ectonucleotidase activity in the coronary circulation of the isolated trout...... heart. Erythrocytes suspended in an albumin-containing saline and equilibrated at physiological Pco(2) showed negligible hemolysis (<0.1%), and notably they released small amounts of ATP. The elevation of extracellular [ATP] was higher in the presence of the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL 67156 than in...... its absence, revealing the presence of ectonucleotidase activity. The induction of either a slow (minutes) or a fast (seconds) decrease in hemoglobin O(2) saturation did not lead to additional ATP release. An elevation of Pco(2) was also without influence on erythrocyte ATP release. In the saline...

  5. Parkinson's disease and ATP13A2 gene%帕金森病与ATP13A2基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁卉; 郑文; 邓昊

    2011-01-01

    ATP13A2基因是帕金森病(PD)的致病基因,早发型帕金森病(EOPD)和Kufor-Rakeb综合征(KRS)患者中均发现ATP13A2基因突变.基因突变类型与疾病的严重程度和发病年龄相关,PD患者中黑质多巴胺能神经元也存在ATP13A2基因mRNA表达升高.因此,对ATP13A2基因的研究将有助于该病的基因诊断、病理生理学机制的阐明和治疗.%ATP13A2 gene was identified as the causative gene of Parkinson's disease, and its mutations occurred in early-onset Parkinson's disease ( EOPD) and Kufor-Rakeb syndrome ( KRS) patients. The types of mutations were associated with the severity of disease and the age of onset, and the expression of ATP13A2 mRNA was higher in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons of PD patients. Study of ATP13A2 gene will be helpful for gene diagnosis, elucidation of pathophysiologic mechanism and treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  6. A futile cycle, formed between two ATP-dependant -glutamyl cycle enzymes, -glutamyl cysteine synthetase and 5-oxoprolinase: the cause of cellular ATP depletion in nephrotic cystinosis?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh Kumar; Anand Kumar Bachhawat

    2010-03-01

    Cystinosis, an inherited disease caused by a defect in the lysosomal cystine transporter (CTNS), is characterized by renal proximal tubular dysfunction. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion appears to be a key event in the pathophysiology of the disease, even though the manner in which ATP depletion occurs is still a puzzle. We present a model that explains how a futile cycle that is generated between two ATP-utilizing enzymes of the -glutamyl cycle leads to ATP depletion. The enzyme -glutamyl cysteine synthetase (-GCS), in the absence of cysteine, forms 5-oxoproline (instead of the normal substrate, -glutamyl cysteine) and the 5-oxoproline is converted into glutamate by the ATP-dependant enzyme, 5-oxoprolinase. Thus, in cysteine-limiting conditions, glutamate is cycled back into glutamate via 5-oxoproline at the cost of two ATP molecules without production of glutathione and is the cause of the decreased levels of glutathione synthesis, as well as the ATP depletion observed in these cells. The model is also compatible with the differences seen in the human patients and the mouse model of cystinosis, where renal failure is not observed.

  7. Intracellular ATP Levels are a Pivotal Determinant of Chemoresistance in Colon Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yunfei; Tozzi, Federico; Chen, Jinyu; Fan, Fan; Xia, Ling; Wang, JinRong; Gao, Guang; Zhang, Aijun; Xia, Xuefeng; Brasher, Heather; Widger, William; Ellis, Lee M.; Weihua, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Altered metabolism in cancer cells is suspected to contribute to chemoresistance but the precise mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that intracellular ATP levels are a core determinant in the development of acquired cross-drug resistance of human colon cancer cells that harbor different genetic backgrounds. Drug-resistant cells were characterized by defective mitochondrial ATP production, elevated aerobic glycolysis, higher absolute levels of intracellular ATP and enhanced HIF-1α-mediated s...

  8. Computational Insights for the Discovery of Non-ATP Competitive Inhibitors of MAP Kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Schnieders, Michael J; Kaoud, Tamer S.; Yan, Chunli; Dalby, Kevin N.; Ren, Pengyu

    2012-01-01

    Due to their role in cellular signaling mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases represent targets of pharmaceutical interest. However, the majority of known MAP kinase inhibitors compete with cellular ATP and target an ATP binding pocket that is highly conserved in the 500 plus representatives of the human protein kinase family. Here we review progress toward the development of non-ATP competitive MAP kinase inhibitors for the extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2), the c-jun N-termi...

  9. Mechanical Stress and ATP Synthesis are coupled by Mitochondrial Oxidants in Articular Cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Katherine J; Ramakrishnan, Prem S.; Brouillette, Marc J.; Journot, Brice; Mckinley, Todd O; Buckwalter, JA; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic adaptation of articular cartilage under joint loading is evident and matrix synthesis seems to be critically tied to ATP. Chondrocytes utilize the glycolytic pathway for energy requirements but seem to require mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) to sustain ATP synthesis. The role of ROS in regulating ATP reserves under a mechanically active environment is not clear. It is believed that physiological strains cause deformation of the mitochondria, potentially releasing ROS for...

  10. 31P magnetization transfer measurements of Pi→ATP flux in exercising human muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, David B.; Williams, Guy B.; Porter, David; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Brindle, Kevin M.; Kemp, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental criticisms have been made over the use of 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) magnetization transfer estimates of inorganic phosphate (Pi)→ATP flux (VPi-ATP) in human resting skeletal muscle for assessing mitochondrial function. Although the discrepancy in the magnitude of VPi-ATP is now acknowledged, little is known about its metabolic determinants. Here we use a novel protocol to measure VPi-ATP in human exercising muscle for the first time. Steady-state VPi-ATP was measured at rest and over a range of exercise intensities and compared with suprabasal oxidative ATP synthesis rates estimated from the initial rates of postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis (VATP). We define a surplus Pi→ATP flux as the difference between VPi-ATP and VATP. The coupled reactions catalyzed by the glycolytic enzymes GAPDH and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) have been shown to catalyze measurable exchange between ATP and Pi in some systems and have been suggested to be responsible for this surplus flux. Surplus VPi-ATP did not change between rest and exercise, even though the concentrations of Pi and ADP, which are substrates for GAPDH and PGK, respectively, increased as expected. However, involvement of these enzymes is suggested by correlations between absolute and surplus Pi→ATP flux, both at rest and during exercise, and the intensity of the phosphomonoester peak in the 31P NMR spectrum. This peak includes contributions from sugar phosphates in the glycolytic pathway, and changes in its intensity may indicate changes in downstream glycolytic intermediates, including 3-phosphoglycerate, which has been shown to influence the exchange between ATP and Pi catalyzed by GAPDH and PGK. PMID:26744504

  11. ROLE OF ATP IN REGULATING RENAL MICROVASCULAR FUNCTION AND IN HYPERTENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Zhengrong; Inscho, Edward W.

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an essential energy substrate for cellular metabolism but it can also influence many biological processes when released into the extracellular milieu. Research has established that extracellular ATP acts as an autocrine/paracrine factor that regulates many physiological functions. Alternatively, excessive extracellular ATP levels contribute to pathophysiological processes such as inflammation, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and atherosclerosis. Renal P2 rece...

  12. A receptor that is highly specific for extracellular ATP in developing chick skeletal muscle in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, S A; Zawisa, M. J.; Lin, X.; Hume, R. I.

    1991-01-01

    1. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activated an early excitatory conductance followed by a late potassium conductance in developing chick skeletal muscle. A series of ATP analogues were tested for their ability to activate these two conductances. All compounds tested were either agonists for both responses or for neither. Furthermore, the potency of agonists was similar for the two responses. 2. The order of potency for agonists was ATP approximately adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotripho...

  13. Biochemical and structural analysis of F-type ATP synthases and its subcomplexes

    OpenAIRE

    Matthies, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    ATP synthases are multi-subunit membrane enzymes, which utilize the energy stored in a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient to produce adenosine-5´-triphosphate (ATP), the universal energy carrier in biological systems. Research on these important enzymes goes back more than 50 years and has produced innumerable studies. The F-type ATP synthase consists of two functionally distinct, but tightly coupled subcomplexes, the water-soluble F1 and the membrane-embedded Fo complex. In its simpl...

  14. Identification of the Inorganic Pyrophosphate Metabolizing, ATP Substituting Pathway in Mammalian Spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Joo Yi; Miriam Sutovsky; Chelsey Kennedy; Peter Sutovsky

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) is generated by ATP hydrolysis in the cells and also present in extracellular matrix, cartilage and bodily fluids. Fueling an alternative pathway for energy production in cells, PPi is hydrolyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) in a highly exergonic reaction that can under certain conditions substitute for ATP-derived energy. Recombinant PPA1 is used for energy-regeneration in the cell-free systems used to study the zymology of ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteas...

  15. Intracellular ATP levels are a pivotal determinant of chemoresistance in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunfei; Tozzi, Federico; Chen, Jinyu; Fan, Fan; Xia, Ling; Wang, Jinrong; Gao, Guang; Zhang, Aijun; Xia, Xuefeng; Brasher, Heather; Widger, William; Ellis, Lee M; Weihua, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Altered metabolism in cancer cells is suspected to contribute to chemoresistance, but the precise mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that intracellular ATP levels are a core determinant in the development of acquired cross-drug resistance of human colon cancer cells that harbor different genetic backgrounds. Drug-resistant cells were characterized by defective mitochondrial ATP production, elevated aerobic glycolysis, higher absolute levels of intracellular ATP, and enhanced HIF-1α-mediated signaling. Interestingly, direct delivery of ATP into cross-chemoresistant cells destabilized HIF-1α and inhibited glycolysis. Thus, drug-resistant cells exhibit a greater "ATP debt" defined as the extra amount of ATP needed to maintain homeostasis of survival pathways under genotoxic stress. Direct delivery of ATP was sufficient to render drug-sensitive cells drug resistant. Conversely, depleting ATP by cell treatment with an inhibitor of glycolysis, 3-bromopyruvate, was sufficient to sensitize cells cross-resistant to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. In revealing that intracellular ATP levels are a core determinant of chemoresistance in colon cancer cells, our findings may offer a foundation for new improvements to colon cancer treatment. PMID:22084398

  16. Isolierung, Kristallisation und Röntgenstrukturanalyse der ATP-Sulfurylase aus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrich, Tobias Christian

    2007-01-01

    ATP-Sulfurylase (ATPS) ist das erste in einer Kaskade von Enzymen, die im Stoffwechselweg der Sulfataktivierung die intrazelluläre Aktivierung und den Einbau von Sulfat in organische Komponenten katalysieren. Nach der Aufnahme von Sulfat in die Zelle wird dieses durch die ATPS mit ATP zu Adenosin-5‘-phosphosulfat (APS) und Pyrophosphat umgesetzt. Dieses „aktivierte Sulfat“ wird dann nach enzymatischer 3‘-Phosphorylierung durch die APS-Kinase zu PAPS stufenweise zu Sulfid reduziert und in orga...

  17. Modulation of Nucleotide Specificity of Thermophilic FoF1-ATP Synthase by ϵ-Subunit

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Toshiharu; Wakabayashi, Chiaki; TANAKA, Kazumi; Feniouk, Boris A.; Yoshida, Masasuke

    2011-01-01

    The C-terminal two α-helices of the ϵ-subunit of thermophilic Bacillus FoF1-ATP synthase (TFoF1) adopt two conformations: an extended long arm (“up-state”) and a retracted hairpin (“down-state”). As ATP becomes poor, ϵ changes the conformation from the down-state to the up-state and suppresses further ATP hydrolysis. Using TFoF1 expressed in Escherichia coli, we compared TFoF1 with up- and down-state ϵ in the NTP (ATP, GTP, UTP, and CTP) synthesis reactions. TFoF1 with the up-state ϵ was achi...

  18. The activity of phosphorothioate analogues of ATP in various smooth muscle systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Phosphorothioate analogues of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) have been tested on the rat and guinea-pig vas deferens, the guinea-pig taenia coli and urinary bladder. Adenosine 5'0-(2-thiotriphosphate) (ATP beta S) was more active than adenosine 5'0(1-thiotriphosphate) (ATP alpha S) and ATP in producing contractile responses on the vas deferens of rat and guinea-pig, and guinea-pig bladder, though the difference of potency was less marked for producing relaxation of the carbachol-contracted t...

  19. New soluble ATP-dependent protease, Ti, in Escherichia coli that is distinct from protease La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. coli must contain other ATP-requiring proteolytic systems in addition to protease La (the lon gene product). A new ATP-dependent protease was purified from lon cells which lack protease La, as shown by immuno-blotting. This enzyme hydrolyzes [3H]casein to acid-soluble products in the presence of ATP (or dATP) and Mg2+. Nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs, other nucleoside triphosphates and AMP can not replace ATP. Therefore, ATP hydrolysis appears necessary for proteolysis. The enzyme appears to be a serine protease, but also contains essential thiol residues. Unlike protease La, it is not inhibited by vanadate, heparin, or the defective R9 subunit of protease La. On gel filtration, this enzyme has an apparent Mr of 340,000 and is comprised of two components of 190,000D and 130,000D, which can be separated by phosphocellulose chromatography. By themselves, these components do not show ATP-dependent proteolysis, but when mixed, full activity is restored. These finding and similar ones of Maurizi and Gottesman indicate that E. coli contain two soluble ATP-dependent proteases, which function by different mechanisms. This new enzyme may contribute to the rapid breakdown of abnormal polypeptides or of normal proteins during starvation. The authors propose to name it protease Ti

  20. Fluorimetric study of the interaction between ATP and ciprofloxacin-Y~(3+) complex and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shailaja; R.Patil; Umesh; S.Mote; Shivajirao; R.Patil; Sang-Hak; Lee; Govind; B.Kolekar

    2010-01-01

    A simple spectrofluorimetric method was developed for determination of trace amount of adenosine disodium triphosphate(ATP).Under the optimum conditions,we studied the interaction between CIP-Y3+-ATP complex by using absorption and fluorescence spectra.It was observed that ATP remarkably enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the CIP-Y3+ complex at λem=415 nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Y3+ ion remained proportional to the concentration of ATP.The developed method was successfully applied for...

  1. Glycolysis-related gene induction and ATP reduction during fractionated irradiation. Markers for radiation responsiveness of human tumor xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetze, K.; Meyer, S.S.; Mueller-Klieser, W. [University Medical Center Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physiology and Pathophysiology; Yaromina, A. [Technical Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Zips, D. [University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Baumann, M. [Technical Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; University Hospital Dresden Technical Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-09-15

    Background and purpose: Lactate was previously shown to be a prognostic but not a predictive pre-therapeutic marker for radiation response of tumor xenografts. We hypothesize that metabolic changes during fractionated irradiation may restrict the predictiveness of lactate regarding tumor radiosensitivity. Materials and methods: Tumor xenografts were generated in nude mice by implanting 4 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma lines with different sensitivities to fractionated irradiation. Tumors were irradiated with up to 15 fractions of 2 Gy over a period of 3 weeks, and ATP and lactate levels were measured in vital tumor areas with induced metabolic bioluminescence imaging. Corresponding changes in mRNA expression of glycolysis-related genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Results: Lactate content decreased significantly in 3 out of 4 cell lines in the course of irradiation showing no correlation with cell line-specific radiosensitivity. Radiation-induced changes in ATP levels and glycolysis-related mRNA expression, however, only occurred in radiosensitive or intermediately radioresistant xenografts, whereas these parameters remained unchanged in radioresistant tumors. Conclusion: Sensitivity-related differences in the transcriptional response of tumors to radiotherapy may be exploited in the clinic for better individualization of tumor treatment. (orig.)

  2. An Allosteric Cross-Talk Between the Activation Loop and the ATP Binding Site Regulates the Activation of Src Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucheta-Martínez, Encarna; Saladino, Giorgio; Morando, Maria Agnese; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge; Lelli, Moreno; Sutto, Ludovico; D’Amelio, Nicola; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorylation of the activation loop is a fundamental step in the activation of most protein kinases. In the case of the Src tyrosine kinase, a prototypical kinase due to its role in cancer and its historic importance, phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 in the activation loop is known to rigidify the structure and contribute to the switch from the inactive to a fully active form. However, whether or not phosphorylation is able per-se to induce a fully active conformation, that efficiently binds ATP and phosphorylates the substrate, is less clear. Here we employ a combination of solution NMR and enhanced-sampling molecular dynamics simulations to fully map the effects of phosphorylation and ATP/ADP cofactor loading on the conformational landscape of Src tyrosine kinase. We find that both phosphorylation and cofactor binding are needed to induce a fully active conformation. What is more, we find a complex interplay between the A-loop and the hinge motion where the phosphorylation of the activation-loop has a significant allosteric effect on the dynamics of the C-lobe.

  3. ATP-binding cassette transporters as pitfalls in selection of transgenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theile, Dirk; Staffen, Bianca; Weiss, Johanna

    2010-04-15

    Puromycin, hygromycin, and geneticin (G418) are antibiotics frequently used to select genetically engineered eukaryotic cells after transfection or transduction. Because intrinsic or acquired high expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp/ABCB1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP/ABCC1), can hamper efficient selection, it is important to know whether these antibiotics are substrates and/or inducers of efflux transporters. Therefore, we investigated the influence of these antibiotics on drug transporter expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in the induction model cell line LS180. Moreover, we assessed whether ABC transporters influence the growth inhibitory effects of these antibiotics by proliferation assays using Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells overexpressing the particular transporter. The results obtained indicate that puromycin and G418 are substrates of several ABC transporters, mainly Pgp/ABCB1. In contrast, hygromycin seems to be no good substrate for any of the ABC transporters investigated. Puromycin induced ABCC1/MRP1, whereas G418 suppressed ABCB1/Pgp, at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level. In contrast, hygromycin had no effect on ABC transporter mRNA expressions. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the significance of ABC transporters for the efficacy of selection processes. Consciousness of the results is supposed to guide the molecular biologist to the right choice of adequate experimental conditions for successful selection of genetically engineered eukaryotic cells. PMID:20018165

  4. Visualization and measurement of ATP levels in living cells replicating hepatitis C virus genome RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Ando

    Full Text Available Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP is the primary energy currency of all living organisms and participates in a variety of cellular processes. Although ATP requirements during viral lifecycles have been examined in a number of studies, a method by which ATP production can be monitored in real-time, and by which ATP can be quantified in individual cells and subcellular compartments, is lacking, thereby hindering studies aimed at elucidating the precise mechanisms by which viral replication energized by ATP is controlled. In this study, we investigated the fluctuation and distribution of ATP in cells during RNA replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV, a member of the Flaviviridae family. We demonstrated that cells involved in viral RNA replication actively consumed ATP, thereby reducing cytoplasmic ATP levels. Subsequently, a method to measure ATP levels at putative subcellular sites of HCV RNA replication in living cells was developed by introducing a recently-established Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based ATP indicator, called ATeam, into the NS5A coding region of the HCV replicon. Using this method, we were able to observe the formation of ATP-enriched dot-like structures, which co-localize with non-structural viral proteins, within the cytoplasm of HCV-replicating cells but not in non-replicating cells. The obtained FRET signals allowed us to estimate ATP concentrations within HCV replicating cells as ∼5 mM at possible replicating sites and ∼1 mM at peripheral sites that did not appear to be involved in HCV replication. In contrast, cytoplasmic ATP levels in non-replicating Huh-7 cells were estimated as ∼2 mM. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate changes in ATP concentration within cells during replication of the HCV genome and increased ATP levels at distinct sites within replicating cells. ATeam may be a powerful tool for the study of energy metabolism during replication of the viral genome.

  5. NASA ATP Force Measurement Technology Capability Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    2008-01-01

    The Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) initiated a strategic planning effort to re-vitalize the force measurement capability within NASA. The team responsible for developing the plan included members from three NASA Centers (Langley, Ames and Glenn) as well as members from the Air Force s Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC). After visiting and discussing force measurement needs and current capabilities at each participating facility as well as selected force measurement companies, a strategic plan was developed to guide future NASA investments. This paper will provide the details of the strategic plan and include asset management, organization and technology research and development investment priorities as well as efforts to date.

  6. Splice Site Mutations in the ATP7A Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjørringe, Tina; Tümer, Zeynep; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2011-01-01

    Menkes disease (MD) is caused by mutations in the ATP7A gene. We describe 33 novel splice site mutations detected in patients with MD or the milder phenotypic form, Occipital Horn Syndrome. We review these 33 mutations together with 28 previously published splice site mutations. We investigate 12...... mutations for their effect on the mRNA transcript in vivo. Transcriptional data from another 16 mutations were collected from the literature. The theoretical consequences of splice site mutations, predicted with the bioinformatics tool Human Splice Finder, were investigated and evaluated in relation to in...... vivo results. Ninety-six percent of the mutations identified in 45 patients with classical MD were predicted to have a significant effect on splicing, which concurs with the absence of any detectable wild-type transcript in all 19 patients investigated in vivo. Sixty-seven percent of the mutations...

  7. The Phylogenetic Signature Underlying ATP Synthase c-Ring Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandini, Alessandro; Kleinjung, Jens; Taylor, Willie R; Junge, Wolfgang; Khan, Shahid

    2015-09-01

    The proton-driven ATP synthase (FOF1) is comprised of two rotary, stepping motors (FO and F1) coupled by an elastic power transmission. The elastic compliance resides in the rotor module that includes the membrane-embedded FO c-ring. Proton transport by FO is firmly coupled to the rotation of the c-ring relative to other FO subunits (ab2). It drives ATP synthesis. We used a computational method to investigate the contribution of the c-ring to the total elastic compliance. We performed principal component analysis of conformational ensembles built using distance constraints from the bovine mitochondrial c-ring x-ray structure. Angular rotary twist, the dominant ring motion, was estimated to show that the c-ring accounted in part for the measured compliance. Ring rotation was entrained to rotation of the external helix within each hairpin-shaped c-subunit in the ring. Ensembles of monomer and dimers extracted from complete c-rings showed that the coupling between collective ring and the individual subunit motions was independent of the size of the c-ring, which varies between organisms. Molecular determinants were identified by covariance analysis of residue coevolution and structural-alphabet-based local dynamics correlations. The residue coevolution gave a readout of subunit architecture. The dynamic couplings revealed that the hinge for both ring and subunit helix rotations was constructed from the proton-binding site and the adjacent glycine motif (IB-GGGG) in the midmembrane plane. IB-GGGG motifs were linked by long-range couplings across the ring, while intrasubunit couplings connected the motif to the conserved cytoplasmic loop and adjacent segments. The correlation with principal collective motions shows that the couplings underlie both ring rotary and bending motions. Noncontact couplings between IB-GGGG motifs matched the coevolution signal as well as contact couplings. The residue coevolution reflects the physiological importance of the dynamics that may

  8. Analysis on Phase Transformation (ATP) Using Computational Thermal Principles (CTP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Alagurmurthi; K.Palaniradja; V. Soundararajan

    2004-01-01

    Computer analysis based on computational thermal principles to predict the transformation kinetics in steels at varying temperatures is of great practical importance in different areas of heat treatment. As a result, using the theory of transient state heat conduction with convective boundary conditions, an efficient program named "ATP" (Analysis on Phase Transformation) has been developed to determine the temperature distribution under different quenching conditions for different geometries such as plate, cylinder and sphere. In addition to these the microstructures and the corresponding hardness developed during quenching are predicted using Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) diagram incorporated in the analysis. To approve our work, dilation curves, Heisler charts and time-temperature history curve have been generated. This paper deals with basic objective of the program (ATP) determination of temperature, microstructure and hardness distribution and also includes an online prediction of austenite-pearlite and austenite-martensite transformation in steels along with the corresponding retained fractions. The quenching of a cylinder in gases, liquids and liquid metals is analyzed to show the non-liner effect of cylinder diameter on the temperature and microstructures. Further in the program we have considered a typical 1080 steel cylinders quenched in water for predicting and comparing the program results with experimental values and can be extended even to other grades of steels. The numerical results of program are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. Finally the quenching process analysis described in the study appears to be a promising tool for the design of heat-treatment process parameters for steels.

  9. ATP-loaded Liposomes Effectively Protect Mechanical Functions of the Myocardium from Global Ischemia in an Isolated Rat Heart Model

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, D.D.; Levchenko, T.S.; Bernstein, E.A.; Torchilin, V.P

    2005-01-01

    ATP-loaded liposomes (ATP-L) infused into Langendorff-instrumented isolated rat hearts protect the mechanical functions of the myocardium during ischemia/reperfusion. The left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) at the end of the reperfusion in the ATP-L group recovered to 72% of the baseline (preservation of the systolic function) compared to 26%, 40%, and 51% in the groups treated with Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, empty liposomes (EL), and free ATP (F-ATP), respectively. The ATP-L-treated...

  10. Genes encoding the alpha, gamma, delta, and four F0 subunits of ATP synthase constitute an operon in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    OpenAIRE

    McCarn, D F; R A Whitaker; Alam, J; Vrba, J M; Curtis, S E

    1988-01-01

    A cluster of genes encoding subunits of ATP synthase of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was cloned, and the nucleotide sequences of the genes were determined. This cluster, denoted atp1, consists of four F0 genes and three F1 genes encoding the subunits a (atpI), c (atpH), b' (atpG), b (atpF), delta (atpD), alpha (aptA), and gamma (atpC) in that order. Closely linked upstream of the ATP synthase subunit genes is an open reading frame denoted gene 1, which is equivalent to the uncI gene of Escher...

  11. An Aptamer-Based Nanobiosensor for Real-Time Measurements of ATP Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özalp, Cengiz; Nielsen, Lise Junker; Olsen, Lars Folke

    2010-01-01

    A nanosensor based on a new DNA aptamer can show changes in intracellular concentration of ATP of 0.5 to 8 mM and thereby the kinetics of ATP-consuming reactions in real-time. The biosensor was protected against nuclease attack by being buried in a polyacrylamide nanoparticle. This strategy can...

  12. Intradermal administration of ATP does not mitigate tyramine-stimulated vasoconstriction in human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Wingo, Jonathan E.; Brothers, R. Matthew; Coso, Juan Del; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous vasodilation associated with whole-body heat stress occurs via withdrawal of adrenergic vasoconstriction and engagement of cholinergic “active” vasodilation, the latter of which attenuates cutaneous vasoconstrictor responsiveness. However, the precise neurotransmitter(s) responsible for this sympatholytic-like effect remain unknown. In skeletal muscle, ATP inhibits adrenergically mediated vasoconstriction. ATP also may be responsible for attenuating cutaneous vasoconstriction since ...

  13. Effect of a whole-body gamma irradiation on glycemia and ATP blood level in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to establish possible correlations, during gamma irradiation, between glucose and ATP. The variations in their blood levels were studied, using specific enzymatic methods. The results obtained after a low dose irradiation (150 roentgens) demonstrated an increase of glycemia during the hours following the irradiation and a parallel decrease of ATP blood level

  14. ATP content and biomass activity in sequential anaerobic/aerobic reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红

    2004-01-01

    Specific ATP content of volatile solids was measured to characterize the sludge activity in a sequential anaerobic/aerobic wastewater treatment system, with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a three-phase aerobic fluidized bed (AFB) reactor. The wastewater COD level was 2000(3000 mg/L in simulation of real textile wastewater. The ATP content and the specific ATP contents of volatile solids at different heights of the UASB reactor and those of the suspended and immobilized biomass in the AFB reactor were measured. In the UASB reactor, the maximum value of specific ATP (0.85 mg ATP/g VS) was obtained at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) 7.14 h in the blanket solution. In the AFB reactor, the specific ATP content of suspended biomass was higher than that of immobilized biomass and increased with hydraulic retention time reaching a maximum value of 1.6 mg ATP/g VS at hydraulic retention time 4.35 h. The ATP content of anaerobes in the UASB effluent declined rapidly under aerobic conditions following a 2nd-order kinetic model.

  15. ATP content and biomass activity in sequential anaerobic/aerobic reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红

    2004-01-01

    Specific ATP content of volatile solids was measured to characterize the sludge activity in a sequential anaerobic/aerobic wastewater treatment system, with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a three-phase aerobic fluidized bed (AFB) reactor. The wastewater COD level was 2000-3000 mg/L in simulation of real textile wastewater. The ATP content and the specific ATP contents of volatile solids at different heights of the UASB reactor and those of the suspended and immobilized biomass in the AFB reactor were measured. In the UASB reactor, the maximum value of specific ATP (0.85 mg ATP/g VS) was obtained at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) 7.14 h in the blanket solution. In the AFB reactor, the specific ATP content of suspended biomass was higher than that of immobilized biomass and increased with hydraulic retention time reaching a maximum value of 1.6 mg ATP/g VS at hydraulic retention time 4.35 h. The ATP content of anaerobes in the UASB effluent declined rapidly under aerobic conditions following a 2nd-order kinetic model.

  16. Red blood cell ATP/ADP & nitric oxide: The best vasodilators in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiari Nuredin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. Inspired by previous report the release of ATP from RBCs, which may participate in vessel dilation by stimulating NO production in the endothelium through purinergic receptor signaling and so, the aim of this study is to clearly determined relationship between RBC ATP/ADP ratio with nitric oxide. Methods The ATP/ADP ratio of erythrocytes among four groups of normal individuals (young & middle age, athletes’ subjects and diabetic patients were compared and the relationship between ATP/ADP ratio and NO level of plasma was determined with AVOVA test and bioluminescence method. Results ATP/ADP level in four groups normal (young & middle age, athletes, diabetes] are measured and analyzed with ANOVA test that show a significant difference between groups (P-value Conclusion In this study, a positive relationship between RBC ATP/ADP ratio and NO was found. Based on the obtained result, higher RBC ATP/ADP content may control the ratio of plasma NO in different individuals, also this results show that ATP can activate endothelial cells in NO production and is a main factor in releasing of NO from endothelial cells.

  17. Expression of ATP7B in human gastric cardiac carcinomas in comparison with distal gastric carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Long Wu; Hui-Xing Yi; Feng-Ying Sui; Xiao-Hong Jiang; Xiao-Ming Jiang; Ying-Ying Zhao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze expression of ATP7B in gastric cardiac adenocarcinomas, its clinicopathologic significance, in comparison with distal gastric adenocarcinomas.METHODS: Immunohistochemical avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method was applied to detect the expression of ATP7B in 49 cases of cardiac carcinomas,the corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic epithelium and 55 cases of distal gastric carcinomas.RESULTS: The proportion of ATP7B positive samples in gastric cardiac carcinomas (51.0%, 25 of 49) was significantly higher than that in the corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic epithelium (22.4%, 11 of 49)(P = 0.003). ATP7B expression in poorly differentiated gastric cardiac carcinomas was significantly higher than that in well/moderately differentiated gastric cardiac carcinomas (P = 0.030). ATP7B expression in gastric cardiac carcinomas was independent of age, tumor size, nodal stage and metastasis status. ATP7B protein was detected in 30.9% (17/55 cases) of distal gastric carcinomas, markedly lower than that in gastric cardiac carcinomas (P = 0.037).CONCLUSION: ATP7B protein is frequently overexpressed in gastric cardiac carcinomas, and correlated with the differentiation of cardiac carcinoma. ATP7B expression in gastric cardiac carcinomas is significantly higher than that in distal gastric carcinomas, which might partially explain the difference of chemotherapy response and prognosis between these two gastric carcinomas.

  18. Optimization of ATP synthase function in mitochondria and chloroplasts via the adenylate kinase equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir U Igamberdiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of ATP synthesis in plants is performed by ATP synthase, the main bioenergetics engine of cells, operating both in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. The reaction mechanism of ATP synthase has been studied in detail for over half a century; however, its optimal performance depends also on the steady delivery of ATP synthase substrates and the removal of its products. For mitochondrial ATP synthase, we analyze here the provision of stable conditions for (i the supply of ADP and Mg2+, supported by adenylate kinase (AK equilibrium in the intermembrane space, (ii the supply of phosphate via membrane transporter in symport with H+, and (iii the conditions of outflow of ATP by adenylate transporter carrying out the exchange of free adenylates. We also show that, in chloroplasts, AK equilibrates adenylates and governs Mg2+ contents in the stroma, optimizing ATP synthase and Calvin cycle operation, and affecting the import of inorganic phosphate in exchange with triose phosphates. It is argued that chemiosmosis is not the sole component of ATP synthase performance, which also depends on AK-mediated equilibrium of adenylates and Mg2+, adenylate transport and phosphate release and supply.

  19. 76 FR 13069 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model ATP Airplanes; BAE Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... (Operations) Limited Model ATP Airplanes; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model HS 748 Airplanes AGENCY... specified products. The MCAI states: Early in the life of the ATP (circa 1989), a report was received that...

  20. Cation Transport Coupled to ATP Hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase: An Integrated, Animated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Francisco A.; Furriel, Rosa P. M.; McNamara, John C.; Horisberger, Jean D.; Borin, Ivana A.

    2010-01-01

    An Adobe[R] animation is presented for use in undergraduate Biochemistry courses, illustrating the mechanism of Na[superscript +] and K[superscript +] translocation coupled to ATP hydrolysis by the (Na, K)-ATPase, a P[subscript 2c]-type ATPase, or ATP-powered ion pump that actively translocates cations across plasma membranes. The enzyme is also…

  1. A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ASSAY TO MEASURE RUBISCO ACTIVASE ACTIVATION ACTIVITY UNDER VARYING ATP:ADP RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ratio of ATP to ADP in the stroma is an important regulatory mechanism for controlling the activation state of Rubisco via Rubisco activase (activase). Understanding the response of activase to a varying ATP:ADP ratio should reveal insights into the regulation of photosynthesis. However, the cur...

  2. Autism Post-Mortem Neuroinformatic Resource: The Autism Tissue Program (ATP) Informatics Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, Michael B.; Pickett, Richard; Pickett, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The Autism Tissue Program (ATP) was established to oversee and manage brain donations related to neurological research in autism. The ATP Informatics Portal (www.atpportal.org) is an integrated data access system based on Oracle technology, developed to provide access for researchers to information on this rare tissue resource. It also permits…

  3. Structure and mechanism of soybean ATP sulfurylase and the committed step in plant sulfur assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymes of the sulfur assimilation pathway are potential targets for improving nutrient content and environmental stress responses in plants. The committed step in this pathway is catalyzed by ATP sulfurylase, which synthesizes adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) from sulfate and ATP. To better unde...

  4. ATP: A Coherent View for School Advanced Level Studies in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayford, Chris

    1986-01-01

    Discusses how instruction of biological concepts as ATP cellular energetics is related to fundamental physical science understandings. Reviews areas of common misconceptions and confusions. Summarizes results of a study which investigated students' knowledge and perception of difficulty associated with the topic of energy and ATP. (ML)

  5. The Contribution of Red Blood Cell Dynamics to Intrinsic Viscosity and Functional ATP Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Alison; Abkarian, Manouk; Wan, Jiandi; Stone, Howard

    2010-11-01

    In shear flow, red blood cells (RBCs) exhibit a variety of behaviors such as rouleaux formation, tumbling, swinging, and tank-treading. The physiological consequences of these dynamic behaviors are not understood. In vivo, ATP is known to signal vasodilation; however, to our knowledge, no one has deciphered the relevance of RBC microrheology to the functional release of ATP. Previously, we correlated RBC deformation and ATP release in microfluidic constrictions (Wan et al., 2008). In this work, a cone-plate rheometer is used to shear a low hematocrit solution of RBCs at varying viscosity ratios (λ) between the inner cytoplasmic hemoglobin and the outer medium, to determine the intrinsic viscosity of the suspension. Further, using a luciferin-luciferase enzymatic reaction, we report the relative ATP release at varying shear rates. Results indicate that for λ = 1.6, 3.8 and 11.1, ATP release is constant up to 500 s-1, which suggests that the tumbling-tanktreading transition does not alter ATP release in pure shear. For lower viscosity ratios, λ = 1.6 and 3.8, at 500 s-1 a change in slope occurs in the intrinsic viscosity data and is marked by an increase in ATP release. Based on microfluidic observations, this simultaneous change in viscosity and ATP release occurs within the tank-treading regime.

  6. Physiological heart activation by adrenaline involves parallel activation of ATP usage and supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Deschodt-Arsac, Véronique; Calmettes, Guillaume; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Diolez, Philippe

    2008-07-15

    During low-to-high work transition in adult mammalian heart in vivo the concentrations of free ADP, ATP, PCr (phosphocreatine), P(i) and NADH are essentially constant, in striking contrast with skeletal muscle. The direct activation by calcium ions of ATP usage and feedback activation of ATP production by ADP (and P(i)) alone cannot explain this perfect homoeostasis. A comparison of the response to adrenaline (increase in rate-pressure product and [PCr]) of the intact beating perfused rat heart with the elasticities of the PCr producer and consumer to PCr concentration demonstrated that both the ATP/PCr-producing block and ATP/PCr-consuming block are directly activated to a similar extent during physiological heart activation. Our finding constitutes a direct evidence for the parallel-activation mechanism of the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in heart postulated previously in a theoretical way. PMID:18377364

  7. Small amounts of functional ATP7A protein permit mild phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2015-01-01

    . The location of missense mutations on structural models of the ATP7A protein suggests that affected conserved residues generally lead to a severe phenotype. The ATP7A protein traffics within the cells. At low copper levels, ATP7A locates to the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN) to load cuproenzymes with...... copper, whereas at higher concentrations, ATP7A shifts to the post-Golgi compartments or to the plasma membrane to export copper out of the cell. Impaired copper-regulation trafficking has been observed for ATP7A mutants, but its impact on the clinical outcome is not clear. The major problem in patients...... with MD seems to be insufficient amounts of copper in the brain. In fact, prenatal treatment of mottled mice as a model for human MD with a combination of chelator and copper, produces a slight increase in copper levels in the brain which perhaps leads to longer survival and more active behavior. In...

  8. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Smith, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface...... water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water....... To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly...

  9. ATP hydrolysis assists phosphate release and promotes reaction ordering in F1-ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Biu; Ueno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2015-12-01

    F1-ATPase (F1) is a rotary motor protein that can efficiently convert chemical energy to mechanical work of rotation via fine coordination of its conformational motions and reaction sequences. Compared with reactant binding and product release, the ATP hydrolysis has relatively little contributions to the torque and chemical energy generation. To scrutinize possible roles of ATP hydrolysis, we investigate the detailed statistics of the catalytic dwells from high-speed single wild-type F1 observations. Here we report a small rotation during the catalytic dwell triggered by the ATP hydrolysis that is indiscernible in previous studies. Moreover, we find in freely rotating F1 that ATP hydrolysis is followed by the release of inorganic phosphate with low synthesis rates. Finally, we propose functional roles of the ATP hydrolysis as a key to kinetically unlock the subsequent phosphate release and promote the correct reaction ordering.

  10. Altered localisation of the copper efflux transporters ATP7A and ATP7B associated with cisplatin resistance in human ovarian carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper homeostasis proteins ATP7A and ATP7B are assumed to be involved in the intracellular transport of cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to assess the relevance of sub cellular localisation of these transporters for acquired cisplatin resistance in vitro. For this purpose, localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells and their cisplatin-resistant variant, A2780cis, was investigated. Sub cellular localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B in sensitive and resistant cells was investigated using confocal fluorescence microscopy after immunohistochemical staining. Co-localisation experiments with a cisplatin analogue modified with a carboxyfluorescein-diacetate residue were performed. Cytotoxicity of the fluorescent cisplatin analogue in A2780 and A2780cis cells was determined using an MTT-based assay. The significance of differences was analysed using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney test as appropriate, p values of < 0.05 were considered significant. In the sensitive cells, both transporters are mainly localised in the trans-Golgi network, whereas they are sequestrated in more peripherally located vesicles in the resistant cells. Altered localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B in A2780cis cells is likely to be a consequence of major abnormalities in intracellular protein trafficking related to a reduced lysosomal compartment in this cell line. Changes in sub cellular localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B may facilitate sequestration of cisplatin in the vesicular structures of A2780cis cells, which may prevent drug binding to genomic DNA and thereby contribute to cisplatin resistance. Our results indicate that alterations in sub cellular localisation of transport proteins may contribute to cisplatin resistance in vitro. Investigation of intracellular protein localisation in primary tumour cell cultures and tumour tissues may help to develop markers of clinically relevant cisplatin resistance. Detection of resistant tumours in patients may in turn

  11. Altered localisation of the copper efflux transporters ATP7A and ATP7B associated with cisplatin resistance in human ovarian carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reedijk Jan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper homeostasis proteins ATP7A and ATP7B are assumed to be involved in the intracellular transport of cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to assess the relevance of sub cellular localisation of these transporters for acquired cisplatin resistance in vitro. For this purpose, localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells and their cisplatin-resistant variant, A2780cis, was investigated. Methods Sub cellular localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B in sensitive and resistant cells was investigated using confocal fluorescence microscopy after immunohistochemical staining. Co-localisation experiments with a cisplatin analogue modified with a carboxyfluorescein-diacetate residue were performed. Cytotoxicity of the fluorescent cisplatin analogue in A2780 and A2780cis cells was determined using an MTT-based assay. The significance of differences was analysed using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney test as appropriate, p values of Results In the sensitive cells, both transporters are mainly localised in the trans-Golgi network, whereas they are sequestrated in more peripherally located vesicles in the resistant cells. Altered localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B in A2780cis cells is likely to be a consequence of major abnormalities in intracellular protein trafficking related to a reduced lysosomal compartment in this cell line. Changes in sub cellular localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B may facilitate sequestration of cisplatin in the vesicular structures of A2780cis cells, which may prevent drug binding to genomic DNA and thereby contribute to cisplatin resistance. Conclusion Our results indicate that alterations in sub cellular localisation of transport proteins may contribute to cisplatin resistance in vitro. Investigation of intracellular protein localisation in primary tumour cell cultures and tumour tissues may help to develop markers of clinically relevant cisplatin resistance. Detection of resistant tumours

  12. Computational Analysis of the Ligand Binding Site of the Extracellular ATP Receptor, DORN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong The; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Cao, Yangrong; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Xu, Dong; Stacey, Gary

    2016-01-01

    DORN1 (also known as P2K1) is a plant receptor for extracellular ATP, which belongs to a large gene family of legume-type (L-type) lectin receptor kinases. Extracellular ATP binds to DORN1 with strong affinity through its lectin domain, and the binding triggers a variety of intracellular activities in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information on the tertiary structure of the ligand binding site of DORN1is lacking, which hampers efforts to fully elucidate the mechanism of receptor action. Available data of the crystal structures from more than 50 L-type lectins enable us to perform an in silico study of molecular interaction between DORN1 and ATP. In this study, we employed a computational approach to develop a tertiary structure model of the DORN1 lectin domain. A blind docking analysis demonstrated that ATP binds to a cavity made by four loops (defined as loops A B, C and D) of the DORN1 lectin domain with high affinity. In silico target docking of ATP to the DORN1 binding site predicted interaction with 12 residues, located on the four loops, via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The ATP binding pocket is structurally similar in location to the carbohydrate binding pocket of the canonical L-type lectins. However, four of the residues predicted to interact with ATP are not conserved between DORN1 and the other carbohydrate-binding lectins, suggesting that diversifying selection acting on these key residues may have led to the ATP binding activity of DORN1. The in silico model was validated by in vitro ATP binding assays using the purified extracellular lectin domain of wild-type DORN1, as well as mutated DORN1 lacking key ATP binding residues. PMID:27583834

  13. The molecular motor F-ATP synthase is targeted by the tumoricidal protein HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, James; Sielaff, Hendrik; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina; Grüber, Gerhard

    2015-05-22

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) interacts with multiple tumor cell compartments, affecting cell morphology, metabolism, proteasome function, chromatin structure and viability. This study investigated if these diverse effects of HAMLET might be caused, in part, by a direct effect on the ATP synthase and a resulting reduction in cellular ATP levels. A dose-dependent reduction in cellular ATP levels was detected in A549 lung carcinoma cells, and by confocal microscopy, co-localization of HAMLET with the nucleotide-binding subunits α (non-catalytic) and β (catalytic) of the energy converting F1F0 ATP synthase was detected. As shown by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, HAMLET binds to the F1 domain of the F1F0 ATP synthase with a dissociation constant (KD) of 20.5μM. Increasing concentrations of the tumoricidal protein HAMLET added to the enzymatically active α3β3γ complex of the F-ATP synthase lowered its ATPase activity, demonstrating that HAMLET binding to the F-ATP synthase effects the catalysis of this molecular motor. Single-molecule analysis was applied to study HAMLET-α3β3γ complex interaction. Whereas the α3β3γ complex of the F-ATP synthase rotated in a counterclockwise direction with a mean rotational rate of 3.8±0.7s(-1), no rotation could be observed in the presence of bound HAMLET. Our findings suggest that direct effects of HAMLET on the F-ATP synthase may inhibit ATP-dependent cellular processes. PMID:25681694

  14. Intercellular odontoblast communication via ATP mediated by pannexin-1 channel and phospholipase C-coupled receptor activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Sato

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP released via pannexin-1 channels, in response to the activation of mechanosensitive-TRP channels during odontoblast mechanical stimulation, mediates intercellular communication among odontoblasts in dental pulp slice preparation dissected form rat incisor. Recently, odontoblast cell lines, such as mouse odontoblast lineage cells, have been widely used to investigate physiological/pathological cellular functions. To clarify whether the odontoblast cell lines also communicate with each other by diffusible chemical substance(s, we investigated the chemical intercellular communication among cells from mouse odontoblast cell lines following mechanical stimulation. A single cell was stimulated using a glass pipette filled with standard extracellular solution. We measured intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i by fura-2 in stimulated cells, as well as in cells located nearby. Direct mechanical stimulation to a single odontoblast increased [Ca2+]i, which showed sensitivity to capsazepine. In addition, we observed increases in [Ca2+]i not only in the mechanically stimulated odontoblast, but also in nearby odontoblasts. We could observe mechanical stimulation-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in a stimulated human embryo kidney (HEK 293 cell, but not in nearby HEK293 cells. The increase in [Ca2+]i in nearby odontoblasts, but not in the stimulated odontoblast, was inhibited by adenosine triphosphate (ATP release channel (pannexin-1 inhibitor in a concentration- and spatial-dependent manner. Moreover, in the presence of phospholipase C (PLC inhibitor, the increase in [Ca2+]i in nearby odontoblasts, following mechanical stimulation of a single odontoblast, was abolished. We could record some inward currents evoked from odontoblasts near the stimulated odontoblast, but the currents were observed in only 4.8% of the recorded odontoblasts. The results of this study showed that ATP is released via pannexin-1, from a mechanically stimulated

  15. Pore-forming epsilon toxin causes membrane permeabilization and rapid ATP depletion-mediated cell death in renal collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, C; Bens, M; de Barry, J; Courjaret, R; Bossu, J L; Cluzeaud, F; Ben Mkaddem, S; Gibert, M; Poulain, B; Popoff, M R; Vandewalle, A

    2007-09-01

    Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ET) is a potent pore-forming cytotoxin causing fatal enterotoxemia in livestock. ET accumulates in brain and kidney, particularly in the renal distal-collecting ducts. ET binds and oligomerizes in detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) microdomains and causes cell death. However, the causal linkage between membrane permeabilization and cell death is not clear. Here, we show that ET binds and forms 220-kDa insoluble complexes in plasma membrane DRMs of renal mpkCCD(cl4) collecting duct cells. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C did not impair binding or the formation of ET complexes, suggesting that the receptor for ET is not GPI anchored. ET induced a dose-dependent fall in the transepithelial resistance and potential in confluent cells grown on filters, transiently stimulated Na+ absorption, and induced an inward ionic current and a sustained rise in [Ca2+]i. ET also induced rapid depletion of cellular ATP, and stimulated the AMP-activated protein kinase, a metabolic-sensing Ser/Thr kinase. ET also induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and mitochondrial-nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor, a potent caspase-independent cell death effector. Finally, ET induced cell necrosis characterized by a marked reduction in nucleus size without DNA fragmentation. DRM disruption by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin impaired ET oligomerization, and significantly reduced the influx of Na+ and [Ca2+]i, but did not impair ATP depletion and cell death caused by the toxin. These findings indicate that ET causes rapid necrosis of renal collecting duct cells and establish that ATP depletion-mediated cell death is not strictly correlated with the plasma membrane permeabilization and ion diffusion caused by the toxin. PMID:17567938

  16. Regulation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in insulinoma cells: Activation by somatostatin and protein kinase C and the role of cAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actions of somatostatin and of the phorbol ester 4β-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were studied in rat insulinoma (RINm5F) cells by electrophysiological and 86Rb+ flux techniques. Both PMA and somatostatin hyperpolarize insulinoma cells by activating ATP-sensitive K+ channels. The presence of intracellular GTP is required for the somatostatin effects. PMA- and somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization and channel activity are inhibited by the sulfonylurea glibenclamide. Glibenclamide-sensitive 86Rb+ efflux from insulinoma cells is stimulated by somatostatin in a dose-dependent manner (half maximal effect at 0.7 nM) and abolished by pertussis toxin pretreatment. Mutual roles of a GTP-binding protein, of protein kinase C, and of cAMP in the regulation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels are discussed

  17. Higher Dietary Fructose Is Associated with Impaired Hepatic ATP Homeostasis in Obese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmalek, Manal F; Lazo, Mariana; Horska, Alena; Bonekamp, Susanne; Lipkin, Edward W.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bantle, John P; Richard J Johnson; Diehl, Anna Mae; Clark, Jeanne M

    2012-01-01

    Fructose consumption predicts increased hepatic fibrosis in those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Due to its ability to lower hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, habitual fructose consumption could result in more hepatic ATP depletion and impaired ATP recovery. The degree of ATP depletion following an intravenous fructose challenge test in low versus high fructose consumers was assessed. We evaluated diabetic adults enrolled in the Look AHEAD Fatty Liver Ancillary Stud...

  18. Identification of a MAP 2-like ATP-binding protein associated with axoplasmic vesicles that translocate on isolated microtubules

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Axoplasmic vesicles were purified and observed to translocate on isolated microtubules in an ATP-dependent, trypsin-sensitive manner, implying that ATP-binding polypeptides essential for force generation were present on the vesicle surface. To identify these proteins [alpha 32P]8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate ([alpha 32P]8-N3ATP), a photoaffinity analogue of ATP, was used. The results presented here identify and characterize a vesicle-associated polypeptide having a relative molecular mass o...

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Thylakoid ATP/ADP Carrier Reveals New Insights into Its Function Restricted to Green Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Spetea, Cornelia; Pfeil, Bernard E.; Schoefs, Benoît

    2012-01-01

    ATP is the common energy currency of cellular metabolism in all living organisms. Most of them synthesize ATP in the cytosol or on the mitochondrial inner membrane, whereas land plants, algae, and cyanobacteria also produce it on the thylakoid membrane during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. From the site of synthesis, ATP is transported to the site of utilization via intracellular membrane transporters. One major type of ATP transporters is represented by the mitochondrial AD...

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the thylakoid ATP/ADP carrier reveals new insights into its function restricted to green plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia eSpetea; Pfeil, Bernard E.; Benoit eSchoefs

    2012-01-01

    ATP is the common energy currency of cellular metabolism in all living organisms. Most of them synthesize ATP in the cytosol or on the mitochondrial inner membrane, whereas land plants, algae and cyanobacteria also produce it on the thylakoid membrane during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. From the site of synthesis, ATP is transported to the site of utilization via intracellular membranes transporters. One major type of ATP transporter is represented by the mitochondrial ADP...