WorldWideScience

Sample records for atp binding cassette

  1. Human ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliou Vasilis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There exist four fundamentally different classes of membrane-bound transport proteins: ion channels; transporters; aquaporins; and ATP-powered pumps. ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are an example of ATP-dependent pumps. ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in all prokaryotes, as well as plants, fungi, yeast and animals. These pumps can move substrates in (influx or out (efflux of cells. In mammals, ABC transporters are expressed predominantly in the liver, intestine, blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, placenta and kidney. ABC proteins transport a number of endogenous substrates, including inorganic anions, metal ions, peptides, amino acids, sugars and a large number of hydrophobic compounds and metabolites across the plasma membrane, and also across intracellular membranes. The human genome contains 49 ABC genes, arranged in eight subfamilies and named via divergent evolution. That ABC genes are important is underscored by the fact that mutations in at least I I of these genes are already known to cause severe inherited diseases (eg cystic fibrosis and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy [X-ALD]. ABC transporters also participate in the movement of most drugs and their metabolites across cell surface and cellular organelle membranes; thus, defects in these genes can be important in terms of cancer therapy, pharmacokinetics and innumerable pharmacogenetic disorders.

  2. Pharmacogenetics of ATP-binding cassette transporters and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascorbi, Ingolf; Haenisch, Sierk

    2010-01-01

    Drug resistance is a severe limitation of chemotherapy of various malignancies. In particular efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette family such as ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein), the ABCC (multidrug resistance-associated protein) family, and ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein) have been identified as major determinants of chemoresistance in tumor cells. Bioavailability depends not only on the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes but also to a major extent on the activity of drug transport across biomembranes. They are expressed in the apical membranes of many barrier tissues such as the intestine, liver, blood-brain barrier, kidney, placenta, testis, and in lymphocytes, thus contributing to plasma, liquor, but also intracellular drug disposition. Since expression and function exhibit a broad variability, it was hypothesized that hereditary variances in the genes of membrane transporters could explain at least in part interindividual differences of pharmacokinetics of a variety of anticancer drugs and many others contributing to the clinical outcome of certain leukemias and further malignancies.

  3. ATP-binding cassette transporters in reproduction: a new frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, E.; Ortiga-Carvalho, T.M.; Reis, F.M.; Lye, S.J.; Gibb, W.; Matthews, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters actively efflux an array of clinically relevant compounds across biological barriers, and modulate biodistribution of many physiological and pharmacological factors. To date, over 48 ABC transporters have been identified and shown to be directly and indirectly involved in peri-implantation events and fetal/placental development. They efflux cholesterol, steroid hormones, vitamins, cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, diverse xenobiotics and environmental toxins, playing a critical role in regulating drug disposition, immunological responses and lipid trafficking, as well as preventing fetal accumulation of drugs and environmental toxins. METHODS This review examines ABC transporters as important mediators of placental barrier functions and key reproductive processes. Expression, localization and function of all identified ABC transporters were systematically reviewed using PubMed and Google Scholar websites to identify relevant studies examining ABC transporters in reproductive tissues in physiological and pathophysiological states. Only reports written in English were incorporated with no restriction on year of publication. While a major focus has been placed on the human, extensive evidence from animal studies is utilized to describe current understanding of the regulation and function of ABC transporters relevant to human reproduction. RESULTS ABC transporters are modulators of steroidogenesis, fertilization, implantation, nutrient transport and immunological responses, and function as ‘gatekeepers’ at various barrier sites (i.e. blood-testes barrier and placenta) against potentially harmful xenobiotic factors, including drugs and environmental toxins. These roles appear to be species dependent and change as a function of gestation and development. The best-described ABC transporters in reproductive tissues (primarily in the placenta) are the multidrug transporters p-glycoprotein and

  4. Identification and Characterization of an ATP Binding Cassette l-Carnitine Transporter in Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Katy R.; Harvie, Duncan; Coote, Peter J.; O'Byrne, Conor P.

    2000-01-01

    We identified an operon in Listeria monocytogenes EGD with high levels of sequence similarity to the operons encoding the OpuC and OpuB compatible solute transporters from Bacillus subtilis, which are members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) substrate binding protein-dependent transporter superfamily. The operon, designated opuC, consists of four genes which are predicted to encode an ATP binding protein (OpuCA), an extracellular substrate binding protein (OpuCC), and two membrane-associated...

  5. Serum albumin promotes ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent sterol uptake in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marek, Magdalena; Silvestro, Daniele; Fredslund, Maria D.

    2014-01-01

    Sterol uptake in fungi is a multistep process that involves interaction between external sterols and the cell wall, incorporation of sterol molecules into the plasma membrane, and subsequent integration into intracellular membranes for turnover. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been....... cerevisiae requires the presence of serum or albumin for efficient cholesterol uptake. These results suggest that albumin can serve as sterol donor in ABC transporter-dependent sterol uptake, a process potentially important for growth of C. glabrata inside infected humans. Serum albumin can serve as sterol...... donor in ATP-binding cassette-transporter-dependent sterol uptake, a process potentially important for growth of Candida glabrata inside infected humans....

  6. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in normal and pathological lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Deen, M; de Vries, EGE; Timens, W; Scheper, RJ; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Postma, DS

    2005-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette ( ABC) transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes in an energy-dependent manner. Many ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein ( P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 ( MRP1) and

  7. Metabolism of ATP-binding cassette drug transporter inhibitors: complicating factor for multidrug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnubben, N.H.P.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Zanden, van J.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bladeren, van P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Membrane transport proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transport proteins play a central role in the defence of organisms against toxic compounds, including anticancer drugs. However, for compounds that are designed to display a toxic effect, this defence system diminishes

  8. Metabolism of ATP-binding cassette drug transporter inhibitors: complicating factor for multidrug resistance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnubben, N.H.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Zanden, J.J. van; Rietjens, I.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Membrane transport proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transport proteins play a central role in the defence of organisms against toxic compounds, including anticancer drugs. However, for compounds that are designed to display a toxic effect, this defence system diminishes

  9. Association of ATP-binding cassette transporter-A1 polymorphism ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    environment might be modified in a more personalized fash- ion to help prevent or delay ... Journal of Genetics, Vol. 90, No. 1, April 2011 ..... aged children. Metabolism 53, 182–186. Yin K., Liao D. F. and Tang C. K. 2010 ATP-binding mem- brane cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1): a possible link between inflammation and ...

  10. Evidence for two interacting ligand binding sites in human multidrug resistance protein 2 (ATP binding cassette C2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelcer, Noam; Huisman, Maarten T.; Reid, Glen; Wielinga, Peter; Breedveld, Pauline; Kuil, Annemieke; Knipscheer, Puck; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Schinkel, Alfred H.; Borst, Piet

    2003-01-01

    Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) belongs to the ATP binding cassette family of transporters. Its substrates include organic anions and anticancer drugs. We have used transport assays with vesicles derived from Sf9 insect cells overproducing MRP2 to study the interactions of drugs, organic

  11. Molecular basis of multidrug transport by ATP-binding cassette transporters : A proposed two-cylinder engine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, HW; Higgins, CF; Konings, WN

    ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporters are probably present in all living cells, and are able to export a variety of structurally unrelated compounds at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. The elevated expression of these proteins in multidrug resistant cells interferes with the drug-based control

  12. The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in pathogenesis and multidrug resistance of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.

    2003-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane proteins that utilise the energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to drive the transport of compounds over biological membranes. They are members of one of the largest protein families to date, present in both pro- and eukaryotic

  13. Selective substrate uptake: The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) importers in pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kari J; Song, Saemee; Mason, Kevin; Pinkett, Heather W

    2018-04-01

    The uptake of nutrients, including metals, amino acids and peptides are required for many biological processes. Pathogenic bacteria scavenge these essential nutrients from microenvironments to survive within the host. Pathogens must utilize a myriad of mechanisms to acquire these essential nutrients from the host while mediating the effects of toxicity. Bacteria utilize several transport proteins, including ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters to import and expel substrates. ABC transporters, conserved across all organisms, are powered by the energy from ATP to move substrates across cellular membranes. In this review, we will focus on nutrient uptake, the role of ABC importers at the host-pathogen interface, and explore emerging therapies to combat pathogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Luminescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy of ATP-binding cassette proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghbi, Maria E; Altenberg, Guillermo A

    2018-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily includes regulatory and transport proteins. Most human ABC exporters pump substrates out of cells using energy from ATP hydrolysis. Although major advances have been made toward understanding the molecular mechanism of ABC exporters, there are still many issues unresolved. During the last few years, luminescence resonance energy transfer has been used to detect conformational changes in real time, with atomic resolution, in isolated ABC nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) and full-length ABC exporters. NBDs are particularly interesting because they provide the power stroke for substrate transport. Luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) is a spectroscopic technique that can provide dynamic information with atomic-resolution of protein conformational changes under physiological conditions. Using LRET, it has been shown that NBD dimerization, a critical step in ABC proteins catalytic cycle, requires binding of ATP to two nucleotide binding sites. However, hydrolysis at just one of the sites can drive dissociation of the NBD dimer. It was also found that the NBDs of the bacterial ABC exporter MsbA reconstituted in a lipid bilayer membrane and studied at 37°C never separate as much as suggested by crystal structures. This observation stresses the importance of performing structural/functional studies of ABC exporters under physiologic conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Downregulation of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 increases sensitivity to neoadjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced rectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Chang; Wang, Hao; Lao, Xin-Yuan; Chai, Rui; Gao, Xian-Hua; Cao, Guang-Wen; Fu, Chuan-Gang

    2013-05-01

    This study was designed to verify the effect of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 on radiosensitivity of locally advanced rectal carcinoma. The expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 protein in 121 pretreatment tissue samples from locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients was detected by immunohistochemistry. Pathological response to radiotherapy was evaluated according to tumor regression grading by postoperative histological examinations after they received long-course preoperative neoadjuvant radiotherapy, and the association between clinicopathological data and tumor regression grading was analyzed retrospectively. For further validation, short hairpin RNA was constructed and transfected into colorectal carcinoma cell line HT29. The knockdown efficiency was confirmed at both RNA and protein levels. The altered radiosensitivity was evaluated by methylthiazolyl tetrazolium assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, and Hoechst 33258 staining. Univariate analysis revealed that ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 expression (p member 4 expression (p member 4 expression efficiently and persistently. Downregulation of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 expression significantly enhanced inhibition of cell proliferation, decreased colony formation capacity, and increased cell apoptosis induced by irradiation, as examined by a series of experiments in vitro. In addition, radiobiological parameters calculated according to the single-hit multitarget model were also decreased significantly. Our data indicate that ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 may be a useful molecular marker in predicting radiosensitivity, and a potential target in improving the response to neoadjuvant radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients.

  16. Effect of ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 on bovine blastocyst implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, M; Kuwano, T; Kamori, T; Isozaki, Y; Nishihara, T; Yamauchi, N; Hattori, M-A

    2014-03-15

    The ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) is an efflux transporter that excretes xenobiotics and waste matter. High expression of ABCB1 induced by forskolin (FSK) and rifampicin (RIF) in the bovine blastocysts reportedly improves the cellular quality. In the present study, interferon-α, similar to FSK and RIF, was highly potent in inducing the expression of ABCB1 in the bovine blastocysts but did not exhibit an additive effect with FSK and RIF. Bovine blastocysts stimulated by the combined treatment with FSK, RIF, and interferon-α to express high levels of ABCB1 displayed better freezing resistance as indicated by higher cell numbers in post thawing cultures. On transfer to recipients, such embryos established pregnancies with significantly higher frequencies in repeat breeder cows rather than normal ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of family D ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCD) in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaváč, Viktor; Souček, Pavel

    2015-10-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, belonging to the family D, are expressed in peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum or lysosomes. ABCD transporters play a role in transport of lipids, bile acids and vitamin B12 and associate with peroxisomal disorders. ABCD1 performs transport of coenzyme A esters of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in peroxisomes and a number of mutations in ABCD1 gene were linked to an X-linked adrenoleucodystrophy (X-ALD). The role of ABCD transporters in tumour growth has not been studied in detail, but there is some evidence that ABCDs levels differ between undifferentiated stem or tumour cells and differentiated cells suggesting a possible link to tumorigenesis. In this mini-review, we discuss the available information about the role of ABCD transporters in cancer. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  18. Cell and molecular biology of ATP-binding cassette proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Kazufumi; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Takanashi, Kojiro

    2009-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins constitute a large and diverse superfamily of membrane-bound and soluble proteins, which are involved in a wide range of biological processes in all organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Genome analyses of model plants, for example, Arabidopsis and rice, have revealed that plants have more than double numbers of this family member in their genomes compared to animals and insects. In recent years, various biochemical and physiological functions of ABC proteins in plants have been reported. Some are relevant for the defense mechanisms to biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas others are involved in the basic functions necessary for maintaining the plant life. Here, we provide an updated inventory of plant ABC proteins and summarize their tissue specificities, membrane localizations, and physiological functions.

  19. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family in three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Xu, Yongyu; Cui, Feng

    2016-09-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family functions in the ATP-dependent transportation of various substrates across biological membranes. ABC proteins participate in various biological processes and insecticide resistance in insects, and are divided into eight subfamilies (A-H). Mosquitoes are important vectors of human diseases, but the mechanism by which the ABC transporter family evolves in mosquitoes is unknown. In this study, we classified and compared the ABC transporter families of three mosquitoes, namely, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. The three mosquitoes have 55, 69, and 70 ABC genes, respectively. The C. p. quinquefasciatus had approximately 40% and 65% expansion in the ABCG subfamily, mainly in ABCG1/G4, compared with the two other mosquito species. The ABCB, ABCD, ABCE, and ABCF subfamilies were conserved in the three mosquito species. The C. p. quinquefasciatus transcriptomes during development showed that the ABCG and ABCC genes were mainly highly expressed at the egg and pupal stages. The pigment-transport relative brown, white, and scarlet, as well as the ABCF subfamily, were highly expressed at the egg stage. The highly expressed genes in larvae included three ABCA3 genes. The majority of the highly expressed genes in adults were ABCG1/4 genes. These results provided insights into the evolution of the ABC transporter family in mosquitoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in aquatic invertebrates: Evolutionary significance and application in marine ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Hui-Su; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is known to play a fundamental role in biological processes and is highly conserved across animal taxa. The ABC proteins function as active transporters for multiple substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. As this superfamily is derived from a common ancestor, ABC genes have evolved via lineage-specific duplications through the process of adaptation. In this review, we summarized information about the ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates, considering their evolution and putative functions in defense mechanisms. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to examine the evolutionary significance of ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates. Particularly, a massive expansion of multixenobiotic resistance (MXR)-mediated efflux transporters was identified in the absence of the ABCG2 (BCRP) gene in Ecdysozoa and Platyzoa, suggesting that a loss of Abcg2 gene occurred sporadically in these species during divergence of Protostome to Lophotrochozoa. Furthermore, in aquatic invertebrates, the ecotoxicological significance of MXR is discussed while considering the role of MXR-mediated efflux transporters in response to various environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of ATP-binding cassette transporter-A1 polymorphism ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    binding cassette transporter-A1 polymorphism with apolipoprotein AI level in Tehranian population. Sohrab Halalkhor Seyed Alireza Mesbah-Namin Maryam Sadat Daneshpour Mehdi Hedayati Fereidoun Azizi. Research Note Volume 90 Issue 1 ...

  3. Molecular Events Involved in a Single Cycle of Ligand Transfer from an ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, LolCDE, to a Molecular Chaperone, LolA*

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Naohiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    An ATP binding cassette transporter LolCDE complex releases lipoproteins from the inner membrane of Escherichia coli in an ATP-dependent manner, leading to the formation of a complex between a lipoprotein and a periplasmic chaperone, LolA. LolA is proposed to undergo a conformational change upon the lipoprotein binding. The lipoprotein is then transferred from the LolA-lipoprotein complex to the outer membrane via LolB. Unlike most ATP binding cassette transporters med...

  4. Predictive Structure and Topology of Peroxisomal ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Andreoletti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisomal ATP-binding Cassette (ABC transporters, which are called ABCD1, ABCD2 and ABCD3, are transmembrane proteins involved in the transport of various lipids that allow their degradation inside the organelle. Defective ABCD1 leads to the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids and is associated with a complex and severe neurodegenerative disorder called X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD. Although the nucleotide-binding domain is highly conserved and characterized within the ABC transporters family, solid data are missing for the transmembrane domain (TMD of ABCD proteins. The lack of a clear consensus on the secondary and tertiary structure of the TMDs weakens any structure-function hypothesis based on the very diverse ABCD1 mutations found in X-ALD patients. Therefore, we first reinvestigated thoroughly the structure-function data available and performed refined alignments of ABCD protein sequences. Based on the 2.85  Å resolution crystal structure of the mitochondrial ABC transporter ABCB10, here we propose a structural model of peroxisomal ABCD proteins that specifies the position of the transmembrane and coupling helices, and highlight functional motifs and putative important amino acid residues.

  5. Maltose-binding protein effectively stabilizes the partially closed conformation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter MalFGK2

    KAUST Repository

    Weng, Jingwei

    2017-02-23

    Maltose transporter MalFGK2 is a type-I importer in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. Upon the binding of its periplasmic binding protein, MalE, the ATPase activity of MalFGK2 can be greatly enhanced. Crystal structures of the MalFGK2-MalE-maltose complex in a so-called

  6. Expression of ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters in a HIV-1 transgenic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Kevin R; Hoque, Md Tozammel; Bendayan, Reina

    2014-02-21

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, product of Mdr1a and Mdr1b genes), multidrug resistance associated proteins (Mrps), and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), all members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane-associated drug transporters superfamily, can significantly restrict the entry of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into organs which exhibit a barrier function such as the central nervous system (CNS) and the male genital tract (MGT). In vitro, HIV-1 viral proteins such as glycoprotein-120 (gp120) and transcriptional transactivator (tat) have been shown to alter the expression of these transporters and ARVs permeability. The objective of this study was to compare mRNA expression of these transporters, in vivo, in several tissues obtained from HIV-1 transgenic rats (Tg-rat) (8 and 24 weeks) with those of age-matched wild-type rats. At 24 weeks, significant changes in several drug transporter mRNA expressions were observed, in particular, in brain, kidney, liver and testes. These findings suggest that HIV-1 viral proteins can alter the expression of ABC drug transporters, in vivo, in the context of HIV-1 and further regulate ARVs permeability in several organs including the CNS and MGT, two sites which have been reported to display very low ARVs permeability in the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ATP-binding cassette systems in Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titball Richard W

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP binding cassette (ABC systems are responsible for the import and export of a wide variety of molecules across cell membranes and comprise one of largest protein superfamilies found in prokarya, eukarya and archea. ABC systems play important roles in bacterial lifestyle, virulence and survival. In this study, an inventory of the ABC systems of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain K96243 and Burkholderia mallei strain ATCC 23344 has been compiled using bioinformatic techniques. Results The ABC systems in the genomes of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei have been reannotated and subsequently compared. Differences in the number and types of encoded ABC systems in belonging to these organisms have been identified. For example, ABC systems involved in iron acquisition appear to be correlated with differences in genome size and lifestyles between these two closely related organisms. Conclusion The availability of complete inventories of the ABC systems in B. pseudomallei and B. mallei has enabled a more detailed comparison of the encoded proteins in this family. This has resulted in the identification of ABC systems which may play key roles in the different lifestyles and pathogenic properties of these two bacteria. This information has the potential to be exploited for improved clinical identification of these organisms as well as in the development of new vaccines and therapeutics targeted against the diseases caused by these organisms.

  8. Molecular Characterization of LjABCG1, an ATP-Binding Cassette Protein in Lotus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akifumi Sugiyama

    Full Text Available LjABCG1, a full-size ABCG subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins of a model legume, Lotus japonicus, was reported as a gene highly expressed during the early stages of nodulation, but have not been characterized in detail. In this study we showed that the induction of LjABCG1 expression was remarkable by methyl jasmonate treatment, and reporter gene experiments indicated that LjABCG1 was strongly expressed in the nodule parenchyma and cell layers adjacent to the root vascular tissue toward the nodule. LjABCG1 was suggested to be localized at the plasma membrane based on the fractionation of microsomal membranes as well as separation via aqueous two-phase partitioning. The physiological functions of LjABCG1 in symbiosis and pathogenesis were analyzed in homologous and heterologous systems. LjABCG1 knock-down L. japonicus plants did not show clear phenotypic differences in nodule formation, and not in defense against Pseudomonas syringae, either. In contrast, when LjABCG1 was expressed in the Arabidopsis pdr8-1 mutant, the penetration frequency of Phytophthora infestans, a potato late blight pathogen, was significantly reduced in LjABCG1/pdr8-1 than in pdr8-1 plants. This finding indicated that LjABCG1, at least partially, complemented the phenotype of pdr8 in Arabidopsis, suggesting the multiple roles of this protein in plant-microbe interactions.

  9. ATP-binding cassette transporters in tumor endothelial cells and resistance to metronomic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Kyoko; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Maishi, Nako; Hida, Yasuhiro

    2017-08-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem in anticancer therapy. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have a role in the multidrug resistance. A new regimen of chemotherapy has been proposed, called "metronomic chemotherapy". Metronomic chemotherapy is the frequent, regular administration of drug doses designed to maintain low, but active, concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs over prolonged periods of time, without causing serious toxicities. Metronomic chemotherapy regimens were developed to optimize the antitumor efficacy of agents that target the tumor vasculature instead of tumor cells, and to reduce toxicity of antineoplastic drugs [1]. Nevertheless, recent studies revealed that ABC transporters are expressed at a higher level in the endothelium in the tumor. To avoid resistance to metronomic anti-angiogenic chemotherapy, ABC transporter inhibition of tumor endothelial cells may be a promising strategy. In this mini-review, we discuss the possible mechanism of resistance to metronomic chemotherapy from the viewpoint of tumor endothelial cell biology, focusing on ABC transporters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Role of pharmacogenetics of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the pharmacokinetics of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascorbi, Ingolf

    2006-11-01

    Interindividual differences of drug response are an important cause of treatment failures and adverse drug reactions. The identification of polymorphisms explaining distinct phenotypes of drug metabolizing enzymes contributed in part to the understanding of individual variations of drug plasma levels. However, bioavailability also depends on a major extent from the expression and activity of drug transport across biomembranes. In particular efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family such as ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein, P-gp), the ABCC (multidrug resistance-related protein, MRP) family and ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP) have been identified as major determinants of chemoresistance in tumor cells. They are expressed in the apical membranes of many barrier tissue such as the intestine, liver, blood-brain barrier, kidney, placenta, testis and in lymphocytes, thus contributing to plasma, liquor, but also intracellular drug disposition. Since expression and function exhibit a broad variability, it was hypothesized that hereditary variances in the genes of membrane transporters could explain at least in part interindividual differences of pharmacokinetics and clinical outcome of a variety of drugs. This review focuses on the functional significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, and ABCG2 in in vitro systems, in vivo tissues and drug disposition, as well as on the clinical outcome of major indications.

  11. Divergent action of calcium channel blockers on ATP-binding cassette protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Wakino, Shu; Kanda, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Kyoko; Tatematsu, Satoru; Homma, Koichiro; Takamatsu, Ichiro; Sugano, Naoki; Hayashi, Koichi

    2005-12-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used in clinical practice, and have been reported to be effective in preventing the progression of atherosclerosis. We examined whether various types of calcium channel blockers affected the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a factor contributing to anti-atherogenesis. Undifferentiated monocytic cell line, THP-1 cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 medium and treated with different kinds of calcium channel blockers. Among the calcium channel blockers tested, aranidipine and efonidipine increased ABCA1 protein expression without an increase in ABCA1 mRNA expression, whereas other calcium channel blockers (eg, nifedipine, amlodipine, and nicardipine) or T-type calcium channel blockers (eg, mibefradil and nickel chloride) failed to upregulate ABCA1 expression. H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor inhibited the aranidipine-induced ABCA1 protein expression, whereas genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor), or AG490 (a JAK-2 inhibitor) had no effects. Neither of these inhibitors suppressed the efonidipine-induced ABCA1 protein expression. Intracellular cAMP levels were elevated only by aranidipine, but not by efonidipine. In conclusion, aranidipine and efonidipine have the ability to induce ABCA1 protein by distinct mechanisms; protein kinase A is involved in the aranidipine-induced ABCA1 upregulation. This non-class effect of calcium channel blockers may potentially offer beneficial action in the treatment of hypertensive subjects with atherosclerosis.

  12. Hydrolysis at One of the Two Nucleotide-binding Sites Drives the Dissociation of ATP-binding Cassette Nucleotide-binding Domain Dimers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghbi, Maria E.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.

    2013-01-01

    The functional unit of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters consists of two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). ATP binding elicits association of the two NBDs, forming a dimer in a head-to-tail arrangement, with two nucleotides “sandwiched” at the dimer interface. Each of the two nucleotide-binding sites is formed by residues from the two NBDs. We recently found that the prototypical NBD MJ0796 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii dimerizes in response to ATP binding and dissociates completely following ATP hydrolysis. However, it is still unknown whether dissociation of NBD dimers follows ATP hydrolysis at one or both nucleotide-binding sites. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer to study heterodimers formed by one active (donor-labeled) and one catalytically defective (acceptor-labeled) NBD. Rapid mixing experiments in a stop-flow chamber showed that NBD heterodimers with one functional and one inactive site dissociated at a rate indistinguishable from that of dimers with two hydrolysis-competent sites. Comparison of the rates of NBD dimer dissociation and ATP hydrolysis indicated that dissociation followed hydrolysis of one ATP. We conclude that ATP hydrolysis at one nucleotide-binding site drives NBD dimer dissociation. PMID:24129575

  13. The role of ATP-binding cassette transporter A2 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia multidrug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Aberuyi, N; S. Rahgozar; Moafi, A

    2014-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most prevalent hematologic malignancies in children. Although the cure rate of ALL has improved over the past decades, the most important reason for ALL treatment failure is multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon. The current study aims to explain the mechanisms involved in multidrug resistance of childhood ALL, and introduces ATP-binding cassette transporterA2 (ABCA2) as an ABC transporter gene which may have a high impact on MDR. Benefiting fr...

  14. Structure, function, and evolution of bacterial ATP-binding cassette systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, A.L.; Dassa, E.; Orelle, C.; Chen, J. (Purdue)

    2010-07-27

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the largest superfamilies of paralogous sequences. All ABC systems share a highly conserved ATP-hydrolyzing domain or protein (the ABC; also referred to as a nucleotide-binding domain [NBD]) that is unequivocally characterized by three short sequence motifs (Fig. 1): these are the Walker A and Walker B motifs, indicative of the presence of a nucleotide-binding site, and the signature motif, unique to ABC proteins, located upstream of the Walker B motif (426). Other motifs diagnostic of ABC proteins are also indicated in Fig. 1. The biological significance of these motifs is discussed in Structure, Function, and Dynamics of the ABC. ABC systems are widespread among living organisms and have been detected in all genera of the three kingdoms of life, with remarkable conservation in the primary sequence of the cassette and in the organization of the constitutive domains or subunits (203, 420). ABC systems couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to an impressively large variety of essential biological phenomena, comprising not only transmembrane (TM) transport, for which they are best known, but also several non-transport-related processes, such as translation elongation (62) and DNA repair (174). Although ABC systems deserve much attention because they are involved in severe human inherited diseases (107), they were first discovered and characterized in detail in prokaryotes, as early as the 1970s (13, 148, 238, 468). The most extensively analyzed systems were the high-affinity histidine and maltose uptake systems of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Over 2 decades ago, after the completion of the nucleotide sequences encoding these transporters in the respective laboratories of Giovanna Ames and Maurice Hofnung, Hiroshi Nikaido and colleagues noticed that the two systems displayed a global similarity in the nature of their components and, moreover, that the primary sequences of MalK and

  15. A novel flow cytometric HTS assay reveals functional modulators of ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Polireddy

    Full Text Available ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS, can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6's ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity.

  16. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Alves Lara

    Full Text Available In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA, a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may

  17. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Flavio Alves; Pohl, Paula C.; Gandara, Ana Caroline; Ferreira, Jessica da Silva; Nascimento-Silva, Maria Clara; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Almeida, Igor C.; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA), a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may represent a new

  18. ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters in normal and pathological lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmer-Bosscha Hetty

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes in an energy-dependent manner. Many ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP are highly expressed in bronchial epithelium. This review aims to give new insights in the possible functions of ABC molecules in the lung in view of their expression in different cell types. Furthermore, their role in protection against noxious compounds, e.g. air pollutants and cigarette smoke components, will be discussed as well as the (malfunction in normal and pathological lung. Several pulmonary drugs are substrates for ABC transporters and therefore, the delivery of these drugs to the site of action may be highly dependent on the presence and activity of many ABC transporters in several cell types. Three ABC transporters are known to play an important role in lung functioning. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene can cause cystic fibrosis, and mutations in ABCA1 and ABCA3 are responsible for respectively Tangier disease and fatal surfactant deficiency. The role of altered function of ABC transporters in highly prevalent pulmonary diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have hardly been investigated so far. We especially focused on polymorphisms, knock-out mice models and in vitro results of pulmonary research. Insight in the function of ABC transporters in the lung may open new ways to facilitate treatment of lung diseases.

  19. Endothelial ATP-binding cassette G1 in mouse endothelium protects against hemodynamic-induced atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shanshan [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Department of Pediatrics, Baodi District People’s Hospital of Tianjin City, Tianjin, 301800 (China); Wang, Jiaxing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); Zhang, Xu; Shi, Ying; Li, Bochuan; Bao, Qiankun [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Pang, Wei [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); Ai, Ding [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Zhu, Yi [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); He, Jinlong, E-mail: hejinlong@tmu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China)

    2016-08-19

    Activated vascular endothelium inflammation under persistent hyperlipidemia is the initial step of atherogenesis. ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) is a crucial factor maintaining sterol and lipid homeostasis by transporting cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of ABCG1 in endothelial inflammation activation during early-stage atherogenesis in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific ABCG1 transgenic (EC-ABCG1-Tg) mice were generated and cross-bred with low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (Ldlr{sup −/−}) mice. After a 4-week Western-type diet, the mice were sacrificed for assessing atherosclerosis. Human umbilical vein ECs were treated with different flows, and ABCG1 was adenovirally overexpressed to investigate the mechanism in vitro. Compared with Ldlr{sup −/−} mouse aortas, EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr{sup −/−} aortas showed decreased early-stage lesions. Furthermore, the lesion area in the EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr{sup −/−} mouse aortic arch but not thoracic aorta was significantly reduced, which suggests a protective role of ABCG1 under atheroprone flow. In vitro, overexpression of ABCG1 attenuated EC activation caused by oscillatory shear stress. Overexpression of ABCG1 blunted cholesterol-activated ECs in vitro. In exploring the mechanisms of ABCG1 attenuating endothelial inflammation, we found that ABCG1 inhibited oscillatory flow-activated nuclear factor kappa B and NLRP3 inflammasome in ECs. ABCG1 may play a protective role in early-stage atherosclerosis by reducing endothelial activation induced by oscillatory shear stress via suppressing the inflammatory response. - Highlights: • EC-ABCG1-Tg mice in a Ldlr{sup −/−} background showed decreased atherosclerosis. • Overexpression of ABCG1 in ECs decreased OSS-induced EC activation. • NLRP3 and NF-κB might be an underlying mechanism of ABCG1 protective role.

  20. Identification and characterization of novel loss of function mutations in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in patients with low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candini, C.; Schimmel, A. W.; Peter, J.; Bochem, A. E.; Holleboom, A. G.; Vergeer, M.; Dullaart, R. P. F.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Hovingh, G. K.; Khoo, K. L.; Fasano, T.; Bocchi, L.; Calandra, S.; Kuivenhoven, J. A.; Motazacker, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The current literature provides little information on the frequency of mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels that are referred to the clinic. In 78 patients with low plasma levels of HDL

  1. Endocrine Disruptors Differentially Target ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in the Blood-Testis Barrier and Affect Leydig Cell Testosterone Secretion In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, A.C.A.; Roelofs, M.J.; Piersma, A.H.; Sweep, F.C.; Russel, F.G.M.; Berg, M. van den; Duursen, M.B. van; Masereeuw, R.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are considered to cause testicular toxicity primarily via interference with steroid hormone function. Alternatively, EDCs could possibly exert their effects by interaction with ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that are expressed in the blood-testis

  2. Regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters and cholesterol efflux by glucose in primary human monocytes and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. This may be partially attributable to suppression of macrophage ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediated cholesterol efflux by sustained elevated blood glucose concentrations. Two models were used...

  3. LrABCF1, a GCN-type ATP-binding cassette transporter from lilium regale, is involved in defense responses against viral and fungal pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are essential for membrane translocation in diverse biological processes, such as plant development and defense response. Here, a general control non-derepressible (GCN)-type ABC transporter gene, designated LrABCF1, was identified from Cucumber mosaic virus (...

  4. ATP-binding-cassette transporters in hematopoietic stem cells and their utility as therapeutical targets in acute and chronic myeloid leukemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, M.

    2007-01-01

    ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters are evolutionary extremely well-conserved transmembrane proteins that are highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The physiological function in human stem cells is believed to be protection against genetic damage caused by both environmental and

  5. Control of Mycosphaerella graminicola on wheat seedlings by medical drugs known to modulate the activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roohparvar, R.; Huser, A.; Zwiers, L.H.; Waard, de M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Medical drugs known to modulate the activity of human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins (modulators) were tested for the ability to potentiate the activity of the azole fungicide cyproconazole against in vitro growth of Mycosphaerella graminicola and to control disease development due

  6. Relation between hepatic expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters G5 and G8 and biliary cholesterol secretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosters, A; Frijters, RJJM; Schaap, FG; Vink, E; Plosch, T; Ottenhoff, R; Jirsa, M; De Cuyper, IM; Kuipers, F; Groen, AK

    Background/Aims: Mutations in genes encoding the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 underlie sitosterolemia, which is characterized by elevated plasma levels of phytosterols due to increased intestinal absorption and impaired biliary secretion of sterols. The aim of our study

  7. Oct-3/4 modulates the drug-resistant phenotype of glioblastoma cells through expression of ATP binding cassette transporter G2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yuki; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Inoue, Akihiro; Kawabe, Yuya; Funahashi, Yu; Kameda, Kenji; Sugimoto, Kana; Yano, Hajime; Harada, Hironobu; Kohno, Shohei; Ohue, Shiro; Ohnishi, Takanori; Tanaka, Junya

    2015-06-01

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle for the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatment of tumors. Oct-3/4, a self-renewal regulator in stem cells, is expressed in various kinds of solid tumors including glioblastoma. Although Oct-3/4 expression has been implicated in the malignancy and prognosis of glioblastomas, little is known of its involvement in drug resistances of glioblastoma. The involvement of Oct-3/4 in drug resistance of glioblastoma cells was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase assay, efflux assay of an anticancer drug, poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, and in vivo xenograft experiments. Involvement of a drug efflux pump ATP binding cassette transporter G2 in Oct-3/4-induced drug resistance was evaluated by quantitative PCR analysis and knockdown by shRNA. Oct-3/4 decreased the susceptibility to chemotherapeutic drugs by enhancing excretion of drugs through a drug efflux pump gene, ATP binding cassette transporter G2. Moreover, the expression of Oct-3/4 was well correlated to ATP binding cassette transporter G2 expression in clinical GB tissues. Oct-3/4 elevated the ATP binding cassette transporter G2 expression, leading to acquisition of a drug-resistant phenotype by glioblastoma cells. If the drug-resistance of glioblastoma cells could be suppressed, it should be a highly ameliorative treatment for glioblastoma patients. Therefore, signaling pathways from Oct-3/4 to ATP binding cassette transporter G2 should be intensively elucidated to develop new therapeutic interventions for better efficacy of anti-cancer drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulating the function of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) with inhibitor cabozantinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Nan; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, Yi-Jun; Barbuti, Anna Maria; Zhu, Xi-Jun; Yu, Xin-Yue; Wen, Ai-Wen; Wurpel, John N D; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Cabozantinib (XL184) is a small molecule tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, which targets c-Met and VEGFR2. Cabozantinib has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat advanced medullary thyroid cancer and renal cell carcinoma. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of cabozantinib to modulate the function of the ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) by sensitizing cells that are resistant to ABCG2 substrate antineoplastic drugs. We used a drug-selected resistant cell line H460/MX20 and three ABCG2 stable transfected cell lines ABCG2-482-R2, ABCG2-482-G2, and ABCG2-482-T7, which overexpress ABCG2. Cabozantinib, at non-toxic concentrations (3 or 5μM), sensitized the ABCG2-overexpressing cells to mitoxantrone, SN-38, and topotecan. Our results indicate that cabozantinib reverses ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance by antagonizing the drug efflux function of the ABCG2 transporter instead of downregulating its expression. The molecular docking analysis indicates that cabozantinib binds to the drug-binding site of the ABCG2 transporter. Overall, our findings demonstrate that cabozantinib inhibits the ABCG2 transporter function and consequently enhances the effect of the antineoplastic agents that are substrates of ABCG2. Cabozantinib may be a useful agent in anticancer treatment regimens for patients who are resistant to ABCG2 substrate drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. D-helix influences dimerization of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1 nucleotide-binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet S Vakkasoglu

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters form a large family of transmembrane importers and exporters. Using two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs, which form a canonical ATP-sandwich dimer at some point within the transport cycle, the transporters harness the energy from ATP binding and hydrolysis to drive substrate transport. However the structural elements that enable and tune the dimerization propensity of the NBDs have not been fully elucidated. Here we compared the biochemical properties of the NBDs of human and rat TAP1, a subunit of the heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP. The isolated human TAP1 NBD was monomeric in solution, in contrast to the previously observed ATP-mediated homodimerization of the isolated rat TAP1 NBD. Using a series of human-rat chimeric constructs, we identified the D-helix, an α-helix N-terminal to the conserved D-loop motif, as an important determinant of NBD dimerization. The ATPase activity of our panel of TAP1 NBD constructs largely correlated with dimerization ability, indicating that the observed dimerization uses the canonical ATP-sandwich interface. The N-terminus of the D-helix from one protomer interacts with the ATP-binding Walker A motif of the second protomer at the ATP-sandwich interface. However, our mutational analysis indicated that residues farther from the interface, within the second and third turn of the D-helix, also influence dimerization. Overall, our data suggest that although the D-helix sequence is not conserved in ABC transporters, its precise positioning within the NBD structure has a critical role in NBD dimerization.

  10. A selective ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 efflux inhibitor revealed via high-throughput flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, J Jacob; Ivnitski-Steele, Irena; Khawaja, Hadya M; Perez, Dominique; Ricci, Jerec; Yao, Tuanli; Weiner, Warren S; Schroeder, Chad E; Simpson, Denise S; Maki, Brooks E; Li, Kelin; Golden, Jennifer E; Foutz, Terry D; Waller, Anna; Evangelisti, Annette M; Young, Susan M; Chavez, Stephanie E; Garcia, Matthew J; Ursu, Oleg; Bologa, Cristian G; Carter, Mark B; Salas, Virginia M; Gouveia, Kristine; Tegos, George P; Oprea, Tudor I; Edwards, Bruce S; Aubé, Jeffrey; Larson, Richard S; Sklar, Larry A

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapeutics tumor resistance is a principal reason for treatment failure, and clinical and experimental data indicate that multidrug transporters such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B1 and ABCG2 play a leading role by preventing cytotoxic intracellular drug concentrations. Functional efflux inhibition of existing chemotherapeutics by these pumps continues to present a promising approach for treatment. A contributing factor to the failure of existing inhibitors in clinical applications is limited understanding of specific substrate/inhibitor/pump interactions. We have identified selective efflux inhibitors by profiling multiple ABC transporters against a library of small molecules to find molecular probes to further explore such interactions. In our primary screening protocol using JC-1 as a dual-pump fluorescent reporter substrate, we identified a piperazine-substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine substructure with promise for selective efflux inhibition. As a result of a focused structure-activity relationship (SAR)-driven chemistry effort, we describe compound 1 (CID44640177), an efflux inhibitor with selectivity toward ABCG2 over ABCB1. Compound 1 is also shown to potentiate the activity of mitoxantrone in vitro as well as preliminarily in vivo in an ABCG2-overexpressing tumor model. At least two analogues significantly reduce tumor size in combination with the chemotherapeutic topotecan. To our knowledge, low nanomolar chemoreversal activity coupled with direct evidence of efflux inhibition for ABCG2 is unprecedented.

  11. Acridone suppresses the proliferation of human breast cancer cellsin vitrovia ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Licheng; Li, Shuyan; Liang, Zhi; Lin, Haixia; Fu, Rongzhan

    2018-02-01

    In the past decades, the tricyclic acridone ring system has become a focus of major research by medicinal chemists due to the biological significance of this moiety in drug design and discovery. Acridone has substantial bio-potential since it performs crucial functions, including antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral and anti-neoplastic activities. However, the anticancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of acridone on breast cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, the anti-tumor function and the underlying mechanisms of acridone were evaluated in vitro . Firstly, an MTT assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of acridone. Subsequently, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to investigate whether ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) was associated with the function of acridone. Finally, western blotting was used to confirm the results of RT-qPCR. The present study demonstrated that acridone may decrease the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells dose-dependently. Further experiments revealed that acridone may downregulate the mRNA and protein expression levels of ABCG2, supporting the potential application of acridone in breast cancer treatment. These findings suggested that acridone is a potential agent in the treatment of human breast cancer.

  12. Sorafenib modulates the gene expression of multi-drug resistance mediating ATP-binding cassette proteins in experimental hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Katrin; Franz, Clemens; Xiao, Zhi; Mohr, Elvira; Serba, Susanne; Büchler, Markus W; Schemmer, Peter

    2010-11-01

    High ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein expression leads to intrinsic drug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential chemosensitizing effects of sorafenib on the multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The ABC-protein gene expression and the cellular survival were determined by RT-PCR analysis and MTT assay in HUH7 cells. Sorafenib inhibits MDR. The ABC-protein mRNA expression decreased by up to 51% (p ≤ 0.01). Addition of sorafenib to conventional chemotherapy restored the chemosensitivity. Combination of gemcitabine plus sorafenib decreased the ABC-protein mRNA levels by up to 77%, compared to gemcitabine monotherapy (p ≤ 0.001). Doxorubicin plus sorafenib decreased the ABC-protein mRNA levels up to 74% compared to doxorubicin monotherapy (p ≤ 0.001). This study provides evidence that the MDR phenotype of HCC cells can be modulated by the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib and consequentially may lead towards personalized therapies in patients with highly resistant tumors.

  13. Whole-genome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette transporter family genes in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily constitutes one of the largest protein families known in plants. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of ABC protein genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with ABC protein members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified 135 putative ABC proteins with 1 or 2 NBDs in V. vinifera. Of these, 120 encode intrinsic membrane proteins, and 15 encode proteins missing TMDs. V. vinifera ABC proteins can be divided into 13 subfamilies with 79 "full-size," 41 "half-size," and 15 "soluble" putative ABC proteins. The main feature of the Vitis ABC superfamily is the presence of 2 large subfamilies, ABCG (pleiotropic drug resistance and white-brown complex homolog) and ABCC (multidrug resistance-associated protein). We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative ABC transporters in different species. This work represents the first complete inventory of ABC transporters in V. vinifera. The identification of Vitis ABC transporters and their comparative analysis with the Arabidopsis counterparts revealed a strong conservation between the 2 species. This inventory could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these transporters in V. vinifera.

  14. Association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 rs4148217 SNP and serum lipid levels in Mulao and Han nationalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qing

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 gene (ABCG8 rs4148217 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Mulao nationality is an isolated minority in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Methods A total of 634 subjects of Mulao nationality and 717 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotyping of the ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The genotypic and allelic frequencies of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP were different between the two nationalities (P P P P P P P  Conclusions The ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP is associated with serum TG, HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in our study populations, but this association is different between the Mulao and Han populations. There is a sex (female-specific association in both ethnic groups.

  15. ATP-binding cassette transporter G5 and G8 polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wei, Xian-Liang; Yan, Ting-Ting; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Liu, Cheng-Wu; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2012-01-01

    The association of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ABCG5/G8 SNPs and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels. Genotyping of the ABCG5 (rs4131229 and rs6720173) and ABCG8 (rs3806471 and rs4148211) SNPs was performed in 719 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationality and 782 participants of Han nationality. There were no differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of four SNPs between the two ethnic groups besides the genotypic frequencies of rs4131229 SNP in Han. The levels of triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB (rs6720173); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han were different among their genotypes (PG8 SNPs and serum lipid levels are different between the Mulao and Han populations, or between males and females, suggesting that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between ABCG5/G8 SNPs and some serum lipid parameters.

  16. Targeted Deletion of Adipocyte Abca1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1) Impairs Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, Helen; Liu, Mingxia; Key, Chia-Chi C; Boudyguina, Elena; Sawyer, Janet K; Weckerle, Allison; Bashore, Alexander; Fried, Susan K; Chung, Soonkyu; Parks, John S

    2018-01-18

    Adipose tissue cholesterol increases with adipocyte triglyceride content and size during development of obesity. However, how adipocyte cholesterol affects adipocyte function is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the cellular cholesterol exporter, Abca1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1), on adipose tissue function during diet-induced obesity. Adiponectin Cre recombinase transgenic mice were crossed with Abca1flox/flox mice to generate ASKO (adipocyte-specific Abca1 knockout) mice. Control and ASKO mice were then fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (45% calories as fat and 0.2% cholesterol) diet for 16 weeks. Compared with control mice, ASKO mice had a 2-fold increase in adipocyte plasma membrane cholesterol content and significantly lower body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, and adipocyte size. ASKO versus control adipose tissue had decreased PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein expression, nuclear SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1) protein, lipogenesis, and triglyceride accretion but similar Akt activation after acute insulin stimulation. Acute siRNA-mediated Abca1 silencing during 3T3L1 adipocyte differentiation reduced adipocyte Abca1 and PPARγ protein expression and triglyceride content. Systemic stimulated triglyceride lipolysis and glucose homeostasis was similar between control and ASKO mice. Adipocyte Abca1 is a key regulator of adipocyte lipogenesis and lipid accretion, likely because of increased adipose tissue membrane cholesterol, resulting in decreased activation of lipogenic transcription factors PPARγ and SREBP1. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), a "multitasking" ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Susan P C

    2014-11-07

    The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) encoded by ABCC1 was originally discovered as a cause of multidrug resistance in tumor cells. However, it is now clear that MRP1 serves a broader role than simply mediating the ATP-dependent efflux of drugs from cells. The antioxidant GSH and the pro-inflammatory cysteinyl leukotriene C4 have been identified as key physiological organic anions effluxed by MRP1, and an ever growing body of evidence indicates that additional lipid-derived mediators are also substrates of this transporter. As such, MRP1 is a multitasking transporter that likely influences the etiology and progression of a host of human diseases. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Disruption of lolCDE, Encoding an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter, Is Lethal for Escherichia coli and Prevents Release of Lipoproteins from the Inner Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Kimie; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter LolCDE was previously identified, by using reconstituted proteoliposomes, as an apparatus catalyzing the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Mutations resulting in defective LolD were previously shown to be lethal for E. coli. The amino acid sequences of LolC and LolE are similar to each other, but the necessity of both proteins for lipoprotein release has not been proved. Moreover, previous reconstituti...

  19. Genetic Analysis of the Mode of Interplay between an ATPase Subunit and Membrane Subunits of the Lipoprotein-Releasing ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter LolCDE†

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Yasuko; Matsuzawa, Hitomi; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    The LolCDE complex, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, releases lipoproteins from the inner membrane, thereby initiating lipoprotein sorting to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. The LolCDE complex is composed of two copies of an ATPase subunit, LolD, and one copy each of integral membrane subunits LolC and LolE. LolD hydrolyzes ATP on the cytoplasmic side of the inner membrane, while LolC and/or LolE recognize and release lipoproteins anchored to the periplasmic leaflet of the i...

  20. ATP-binding cassette transporter enhances tolerance to DDT in Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, YingZhi; Dang, Huai; Liu, GuangLong; Xiong, Jie; Yuan, DongXia; Feng, LiFang; Miao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    The reuse of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) as an indoor residual spray was permitted by the World Health Organization in 2007, and approximately 14 countries still use DDT to control disease vectors. The extensive exposure of insects to DDT has resulted in the emergence of DDT resistance, especially in mosquitoes, and the mechanism for this resistance in mosquitoes has been widely reported. Spraying can also introduce DDT directly into surface water, and DDT can subsequently accumulate in microorganisms, but the mechanism for the resistance to DDT degradation in microorganisms is unclear. Using whole-genome microarray analysis, we detected an abcb15 gene that was up-regulated in a specific manner by DDT treatment in T. thermophile. The deduced ABCB15 peptide sequence had two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) to form the structure TMD-NBD-TMD-NBD, and each NBD contained three conserved motifs: Walker-A, C-loop, and Walker-B, which indicated the T. thermophila abcb15 was a typical ABC transporter gene. The expression of ABCB15 fused with a C-terminal green fluorescent protein was found to be on the periphery of the cell, suggesting that ABCB15 was a membrane pump protein. In addition, cells with abcb15 partially knocked down (abcb15-KD) grew slower than wild-type cells in the presence of 256 mg L(-1) DDT, indicating the tolerance of abcb15-KD strain to DDT exposure was decreased. Thus, we suggest that in Tetrahymena, the membrane pump protein encoded by ABCT gene abcb15 can enhance the tolerance to DDT and protect cells from this exogenous toxin by efficiently pumping it to the extracellular space.

  1. Insulin stimulates uric acid reabsorption via regulating urate transporter 1 and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoki, Daigo; Shibata, Shigeru; Kuribayashi-Okuma, Emiko; Xu, Ning; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Uchida, Shunya

    2017-09-01

    Accumulating data indicate that renal uric acid (UA) handling is altered in diabetes and by hypoglycemic agents. In addition, hyperinsulinemia is associated with hyperuricemia and hypouricosuria. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate how diabetes and hypoglycemic agents alter the levels of renal urate transporters. In insulin-depleted diabetic rats with streptozotocin treatment, both UA excretion and fractional excretion of UA were increased, suggesting that tubular handling of UA is altered in this model. In the membrane fraction of the kidney, the expression of urate transporter 1 (URAT1) was significantly decreased, whereas that of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) was increased, consistent with the increased renal UA clearance. Administration of insulin to the diabetic rats decreased UA excretion and alleviated UA transporter-level changes, while sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) ipragliflozin did not change renal UA handling in this model. To confirm the contribution of insulin in the regulation of urate transporters, normal rats received insulin and separately, ipragliflozin. Insulin significantly increased URAT1 and decreased ABCG2 levels, resulting in increased UA reabsorption. In contrast, the SGLT2i did not alter URAT1 or ABCG2 levels, although blood glucose levels were similarly reduced. Furthermore, we found that insulin significantly increased endogenous URAT1 levels in the membrane fraction of NRK-52E cells, the kidney epithelial cell line, demonstrating the direct effects of insulin on renal UA transport mechanisms. These results suggest a previously unrecognized mechanism for the anti-uricosuric effects of insulin and provide novel insights into the renal UA handling in the diabetic state. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. The role of ATP-binding cassette transporter A2 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia multidrug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberuyi, N; Rahgozar, S; Moafi, A

    2014-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most prevalent hematologic malignancies in children. Although the cure rate of ALL has improved over the past decades, the most important reason for ALL treatment failure is multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon. The current study aims to explain the mechanisms involved in multidrug resistance of childhood ALL, and introduces ATP-binding cassette transporterA2 (ABCA2) as an ABC transporter gene which may have a high impact on MDR. Benefiting from articles published inreputable journals from1994 to date and experiments newly performed by our group, a comprehensive review is written about ABCA2 and its role in MDR regarding childhood ALL. ABCA2 transports drugs from the cytoplasm into the lysosomal compartment, where they may become degraded and exported from the cell. The aforementioned mechanism may contribute to MDR. It has been reported that ABCA2 may induce resistance to mitoxantrone, estrogen derivatives and estramustine. It is resistant to the aforementioned compounds. Furthermore, the overexpression ofABCA2 in methotrexate, vinblastine and/or doxorubicin treated Jurkat cells are observed in several publications. The recent study of our group showsthatthe overexpression ofABCA2 gene in children with ALL increases the risk of MDR by 15 times. ABCA2 is the second identified member of the ABCA; ABC transporters' subfamily. ABCA2 gene expression profile is suggested to be an unfavorable prognostic factor in ALL treatment. Better understanding of the MDR mechanisms and the factors involved may improve the therapeutic outcome of ALL by modifying the treatment protocols. PMID:25254091

  3. ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1): a possible link between inflammation and reverse cholesterol transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kai; Liao, Duan-fang; Tang, Chao-ke

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by a chronic inflammatory condition that involves numerous cellular and molecular inflammatory components. A wide array of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and proteins produced by macrophages and other cells, play a critical role in the development and progression of the disease. ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is crucial for cellular cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and is also identified as an important target in antiatherosclerosis treatment. Evidence from several recent studies indicates that inflammation, along with other atherogenic-related mediators, plays distinct regulating roles in ABCA1 expression. Proatherogenic cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-1β have been shown to inhibit the expression of ABCA1, while antiatherogenic cytokines, including IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, have been shown to promote the expression of ABCA1. Moreover, some cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α seem to regulate ABCA1 expression in species-specific and dose-dependent manners. Inflammatory proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 are likely to inhibit ABCA1 expression during inflammation, and inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was also found to block the expression of ABCA1. Interestingly, recent experiments revealed ABCA1 can function as an antiinflammatory receptor to suppress the expression of inflammatory factors, suggesting that ABCA1 may be the molecular basis for the interaction between inflammation and RCT. This review aims to summarize recent findings on the role of inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory proteins, inflammatory lipids, and the endotoxin-mediated inflammatory process in expression of ABCA1. Also covered is the current understanding of the function of ABCA1 in modulating the immune response and inflammation through its direct and indirect antiinflammatory mechanisms

  4. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of an ATP-binding cassette transporter OtrC from Streptomyces rimosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The otrC gene of Streptomyces rimosus was previously annotated as an oxytetracycline (OTC resistance protein. However, the amino acid sequence analysis of OtrC shows that it is a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter with multidrug resistance function. To our knowledge, none of the ABC transporters in S. rimosus have yet been characterized. In this study, we aimed to characterize the multidrug exporter function of OtrC and evaluate its relevancy to OTC production. Results In order to investigate OtrC’s function, otrC is cloned and expressed in E. coli The exporter function of OtrC was identified by ATPase activity determination and ethidium bromide efflux assays. Also, the susceptibilities of OtrC-overexpressing cells to several structurally unrelated drugs were compared with those of OtrC-non-expressing cells by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC assays, indicating that OtrC functions as a drug exporter with a broad range of drug specificities. The OTC production was enhanced by 1.6-fold in M4018 (P = 0.000877 and 1.4-fold in SR16 (P = 0.00973 duplication mutants, while it decreased to 80% in disruption mutants (P = 0.0182 and 0.0124 in M4018 and SR16, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that OtrC is an ABC transporter with multidrug resistance function, and plays an important role in self-protection by drug efflux mechanisms. This is the first report of such a protein in S. rimosus, and otrC could be a valuable target for genetic manipulation to improve the production of industrial antibiotics.

  5. Genome-wide identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 50 catfish ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikai Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a large set of full-length transcripts was recently assembled in catfish, annotation of large gene families, especially those with duplications, is still a great challenge. Most often, complexities in annotation cause mis-identification and thereby much confusion in the scientific literature. As such, detailed phylogenetic analysis and/or orthology analysis are required for annotation of genes involved in gene families. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter gene superfamily is a large gene family that encodes membrane proteins that transport a diverse set of substrates across membranes, playing important roles in protecting organisms from diverse environment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we identified a set of 50 ABC transporters in catfish genome. Phylogenetic analysis allowed their identification and annotation into seven subfamilies, including 9 ABCA genes, 12 ABCB genes, 12 ABCC genes, 5 ABCD genes, 2 ABCE genes, 4 ABCF genes and 6 ABCG genes. Most ABC transporters are conserved among vertebrates, though cases of recent gene duplications and gene losses do exist. Gene duplications in catfish were found for ABCA1, ABCB3, ABCB6, ABCC5, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF2 and ABCG2. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The whole set of catfish ABC transporters provide the essential genomic resources for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of ABC drug efflux transporters. The establishment of orthologies should allow functional inferences with the information from model species, though the function of lineage-specific genes can be distinct because of specific living environment with different selection pressure.

  6. ATP-binding cassette transporter G26 is required for male fertility and pollen exine formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilichini, Teagen D; Friedmann, Michael C; Samuels, A Lacey; Douglas, Carl J

    2010-10-01

    The highly resistant biopolymer, sporopollenin, gives the outer wall (exine) of spores and pollen grains their unparalleled strength, shielding these structures from terrestrial stresses. Despite a limited understanding of the composition of sporopollenin, it appears that the synthesis of sporopollenin occurs in the tapetum and requires the transport of one or more sporopollenin constituents to the surface of developing microspores. Here, we describe ABCG26, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, which is required for pollen exine formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). abcg26 mutants are severely reduced in fertility, with most siliques failing to produce seeds by self-fertilization and mature anthers failing to release pollen. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed an absence of an exine wall on abcg26-1 mutant microspores. Phenotypic abnormalities in pollen wall formation were first apparent in early uninucleate microspores as a lack of exine formation and sporopollenin deposition. Additionally, the highest levels of ABCG26 mRNA were in the tapetum, during early pollen wall formation, sporopollenin biosynthesis, and sporopollenin deposition. Accumulations resembling the trilamellar lipidic coils in the abcg11 and abcg12 mutants defective in cuticular wax export were observed in the anther locules of abcg26 mutants. A yellow fluorescent protein-ABCG26 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. Our results show that ABCG26 plays a critical role in exine formation and pollen development and are consistent with a model by which ABCG26 transports sporopollenin precursors across the tapetum plasma membrane into the locule for polymerization on developing microspore walls.

  7. Functional analysis of an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein from Aspergillus fumigatus by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sanjoy; Moye-Rowley, W Scott

    2013-08-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the major filamentous fungal pathogen in humans. Although A. fumigatus can be treated with many of the available antifungal drugs, including azole compounds, drug resistant isolates are being recovered at an increasing rate. In other fungal pathogens such as the Candida species, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins play important roles in development of clinically-significant azole resistance phenotypes. Central among these ABC transporter proteins are homologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pdr5 multidrug transporter. In this work, we test the two A. fumigatus genes encoding proteins sharing the highest degree of sequence similarity to S. cerevisiae Pdr5 for their ability to be function in a heterologous pdr5Δ strain of S. cerevisiae. Expression of full-length cDNAs for these two Afu proteins failed to suppress the drug sensitive phenotype of a pdr5Δ strain and no evidence could be obtained for their expression as green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions. To improve the expression of one of these Afu ABC transporters (XP_755847), we changed the sequence of the cDNA to use codons corresponding to the major tRNA species in S. cerevisiae. This codon-optimized (CO Afu abcA) cDNA was efficiently expressed in pdr5Δ cells and able to be detected as a GFP fusion protein. The CO Afu abcA did not correct the drug sensitivity of the pdr5Δ strain and exhibited a high degree of perinuclear fluorescence suggesting that this fusion protein was localized to the S. cerevisiae ER. Interestingly, when these experiments were repeated at 37 °C, the CO Afu abcA was able to complement the drug sensitive phenotype of pdr5Δ cells and exhibited less intracellular fluorescence. Additionally, we found that the CO Afu abcA was able to reduce resistance to drugs like phytosphingosine that act via causing mislocalization of amino acid permeases in fungi. These data suggest that the Afu abcA protein can carry out two different functions of Pdr5: drug

  8. ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 induces rearrangement of actin cytoskeletons possibly through Cdc42/N-WASP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, K; Hirano, K; Tsujii, K; Ikegami, C; Zhongyan, Z; Nishida, Y; Ohama, T; Matsuura, F; Yamashita, S; Matsuzawa, Y

    2001-09-28

    Positional cloning approaches revealed that Tangier disease (TD), a genetic high density lipoprotein deficiency, is associated with mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABCA1) gene. However, the biological function of ABCA1 is still not fully investigated. Recently, we have reported that the cells from the patients with TD had abnormal actin cytoskeletons in association with decreased expression of Cdc42, a member of RhoGTPases family. In the present study, we have found that actin cytoskeletons were altered in HEK293 cells transfected with human ABCA1 (hABCA1) cDNA. Cells expressing hABCA1 were divided into the following two groups by the distinct morphology with altered actin cytoskeletons: one had increased formation of filopodia (designated as Type I) and the other had long protrusions (designated as Type II). Type I cells had morphology similar to that of cells transfected with dominant active form of Cdc42 (Cdc42-DA, V12Cdc42Hs-DA). Type II cells had morphology similar to that of cells transfected with neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP),one of the established downstream effector molecules of Cdc42. We have obtained the data showing a possible pathway of ABCA1/Cdc42/N-WASP by the following experiments. Introduction of mutant of Cdc42 (dominant negative form of Cdc42, N17Cdc42Hs-DN) and N-WASP (N-WASP lacking verprolin homology domain, N-WASPDeltaVPH), both of which are supposed to have potential to inhibit rearrangement of actin cytoskeletons, significantly inhibited the morphological changes induced by expression of hABCA1. Immunoprecipitation study with FLAG-tagged ABCA1 (hABCA1-FLAG) revealed that Cdc42 was coimmunoprecipitated with hABCA1-FLAG. In addition, we have demonstrated possible intracellular colocalization of these two molecules in the overexpressing cells by the confocal laser microscopy. These results may suggest that hABCA1 regulates actin organization through the possible interaction with Cdc42Hs. Copyright 2001

  9. Association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 rs4148217 SNP and serum lipid levels in Mulao and Han nationalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Wei, Xian-Liang; Yin, Rui-Xing

    2012-05-01

    The association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 gene (ABCG8) rs4148217 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Mulao nationality is an isolated minority in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 634 subjects of Mulao nationality and 717 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotyping of the ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP were different between the two nationalities (P < 0.01 for each), the frequency of A allele was higher in Mulao than in Han. The A allele carriers in Han had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 levels than the A allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the A allele carriers in Mulao had lower ApoA1 levels than the A allele noncarriers (P < 0.05). Subgroup analyses showed that the A allele carriers in Han had lower HDL-C and higher triglyceride (TG) levels in females but not in males than the A allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for each), and the A allele carriers in Mulao had lower ApoA1 levels in females but not in males than the A allele noncarriers (P < 0.05). The levels of TG and HDL-C in Han, and ApoA1 in Mulao were associated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05-0.01). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors (P < 0.05-0.001). The ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP is associated with serum TG, HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in our study populations, but this association is different between the Mulao and Han populations. There is a sex (female

  10. Evaluation of the role of ATP-binding cassette transporters as a defence mechanism against temephos in populations of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelita Pereira Lima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters in the efflux of the insecticide, temephos, was assessed in the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Bioassays were conducted using mosquito populations that were either susceptible or resistant to temephos by exposure to insecticide alone or in combination with sublethal doses of the ABC transporter inhibitor, verapamil (30, 35 and 40 μM. The best result in the series was obtained with the addition of verapamil (40 μM, which led to a 2x increase in the toxicity of temephos, suggesting that ABC transporters may be partially involved in conferring resistance to the populations evaluated.

  11. ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transport System Solute-binding Protein-guided Identification of Novel d-Altritol and Galactitol Catabolic Pathways in Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichelecki, Daniel J; Vetting, Matthew W; Chou, Liyushang; Al-Obaidi, Nawar; Bouvier, Jason T; Almo, Steven C; Gerlt, John A

    2015-11-27

    Innovations in the discovery of the functions of uncharacterized proteins/enzymes have become increasingly important as advances in sequencing technology flood protein databases with an exponentially growing number of open reading frames. This study documents one such innovation developed by the Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI; U54GM093342), the use of solute-binding proteins for transport systems to identify novel metabolic pathways. In a previous study, this strategy was applied to the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters. Here, we apply this strategy to the ATP-binding cassette transporters and report the discovery of novel catabolic pathways for d-altritol and galactitol in Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. These efforts resulted in the description of three novel enzymatic reactions as follows: 1) oxidation of d-altritol to d-tagatose via a dehydrogenase in Pfam family PF00107, a previously unknown reaction; 2) phosphorylation of d-tagatose to d-tagatose 6-phosphate via a kinase in Pfam family PF00294, a previously orphan EC number; and 3) epimerization of d-tagatose 6-phosphate C-4 to d-fructose 6-phosphate via a member of Pfam family PF08013, another previously unknown reaction. The epimerization reaction catalyzed by a member of PF08013 is especially noteworthy, because the functions of members of PF08013 have been unknown. These discoveries were assisted by the following two synergistic bioinformatics web tools made available by the Enzyme Function Initiative: the EFI-Enzyme Similarity Tool and the EFI-Genome Neighborhood Tool. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Fructose Uptake in Sinorhizobium meliloti Is Mediated by a High-Affinity ATP-Binding Cassette Transport System

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Annie; Østerås, Magne; Mandon, Karine; Poggi, Marie-Christine; Le Rudulier, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    By transposon mutagenesis, we have isolated a mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti which is totally unable to grow on fructose as sole carbon source as a consequence of its inability to transport this sugar. The cloning and sequencing analysis of the chromosomal DNA region flanking the TnphoA insertion revealed the presence of six open reading frames (ORFs) organized in two loci, frcRS and frcBCAK, transcribed divergently. The frcBCA genes encode the characteristic components of an ATP-binding ca...

  13. Overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette half-transporter, ABCG2 (Mxr/BCrp/ABCP1), in flavopiridol-resistant human breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robey, R W; Medina-Pérez, W Y; Nishiyama, K

    2001-01-01

    We sought to characterize the interactions of flavopiridol with members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Cells overexpressing multidrug resistance-1 (MDR-1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) did not exhibit appreciable flavopiridol resistance, whereas cell lines...... overexpressing the ABC half-transporter, ABCG2 (MXR/BCRP/ABCP1), were found to be resistant to flavopiridol. Flavopiridol at a concentration of 10 microM was able to prevent MRP-mediated calcein efflux, whereas Pgp-mediated transport of rhodamine 123 was unaffected at flavopiridol concentrations of up to 100...... analysis revealed overexpression of the ABCG2 gene. Western blot confirmed overexpression of ABCG2; neither P-glycoprotein nor MRP overexpression was detected. These results suggest that ABCG2 plays a role in resistance to flavopiridol....

  14. Isolation and characterization of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system genes from loofah witches' broom phytoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Lin; Ho, Kuo-Chieh

    2007-10-01

    A clone containing a 3903 bp EcoRI-restriction fragment was obtained from a lambda(ZAP) genomic library of loofah witches' broom (LfWB) phytoplasma by plaque hybridization using a PCR fragment as a probe. Sequence analysis revealed that this fragment contained three open reading frames (ORFs). The deduced amino acid sequences of ORF 1 and ORF 2 showed a high homology with the ATP-binding proteins of the ABC transporter system genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and encoded proteins with a molecular mass of 36 and 30 kDa, respectively. Based on amino acid sequence similarity, secondary structure, hydrophilicity and a signal peptide sequence at the N-terminus, we predicted that ORF 3 might encode a specific solute-binding prolipoprotein of the ABC transporter system with a molecular mass of 62 kDa. The cleavage site of this prolipoprotein signal peptide was similar to those of gram-positive bacteria. In addition to nutrient uptake, ABC transporter systems of bacteria also play a role in signal transduction, drug-resistance and perhaps virulence. The possible implications of the system to the survival and the pathogenesis of phytoplasma were discussed.

  15. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activates Human Multidrug Resistance Transporter 3/ATP-Binding Cassette Protein Subfamily B4 Transcription and Increases Rat Biliary Phosphatidylcholine Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonem, Nisanne S.; Ananthanarayanan, Meenakshisundaram; Soroka, Carol J.; Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance transporter 3/ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B4 (MDR3/ABCB4) is a critical determinant of biliary phosphatidylcholine (PC) secretion. Clinically, mutations and partial deficiencies in MDR3 result in cholestatic liver injury. Thus, MDR3 is a potential therapeutic target for cholestatic liver disease. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α ligand that has antiinflammatory actions and regulates bile acid detoxification. Here we examined the mechanism by which fenofibrate regulates MDR3 gene expression. Fenofibrate significantly up-regulated MDR3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in primary cultured human hepatocytes, and stimulated MDR3 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. In silico analysis of 5′-upstream region of human MDR3 gene revealed a number of PPARα response elements (PPRE). Electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated specific binding of PPARα to the human MDR3 promoter. Targeted mutagenesis of three novel PPREs reduced inducibility of the MDR3 promoter by fenofibrate. In collagen sandwich cultured rat hepatocytes, treatment with fenofibrate increased secretion of fluorescent PC into bile canaliculi. Conclusion Fenofibrate transactivates MDR3 gene transcription by way of the binding of PPARα to three novel and functionally critical PPREs in the MDR3 promoter. Fenofibrate treatment further stimulates biliary phosphatidylcholine secretion in rat hepatocytes, thereby providing a functional correlate. We have established a molecular mechanism that may contribute to the beneficial use of fenofibrate therapy in human cholestatic liver disease. PMID:24122873

  16. The yeast ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter Ycf1p enhances the recruitment of the soluble SNARE Vam7p to vacuoles for efficient membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Terry L; Lawrence, Gus; Karunakaran, Surya; Brown, Christopher; Fratti, Rutilio A

    2013-06-21

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuole contains five ATP-binding cassette class C (ABCC) transporters, including Ycf1p, a family member that was originally characterized as a Cd(2+) transporter. Ycf1p has also been found to physically interact with a wide array of proteins, including factors that regulate vacuole homeostasis. In this study, we examined the role of Ycf1p and other ABCC transporters in the regulation of vacuole homotypic fusion. We found that deletion of YCF1 attenuated in vitro vacuole fusion by up to 40% relative to wild-type vacuoles. Plasmid-expressed wild-type Ycf1p rescued the deletion phenotype; however, Ycf1p containing a mutation of the conserved Lys-669 to Met in the Walker A box of the first nucleotide-binding domain (Ycf1p(K669M)) was unable to complement the fusion defect of ycf1Δ vacuoles. This indicates that the ATPase activity of Ycf1p is required for its function in regulating fusion. In addition, we found that deleting YCF1 caused a striking decrease in vacuolar levels of the soluble SNARE Vam7p, whereas total cellular levels were not altered. The attenuated fusion of ycf1Δ vacuoles was rescued by the addition of recombinant Vam7p to in vitro experiments. Thus, Ycf1p contributes in the recruitment of Vam7p to the vacuole for efficient membrane fusion.

  17. The Yeast ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Ycf1p Enhances the Recruitment of the Soluble SNARE Vam7p to Vacuoles for Efficient Membrane Fusion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Terry L.; Lawrence, Gus; Karunakaran, Surya; Brown, Christopher; Fratti, Rutilio A.

    2013-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuole contains five ATP-binding cassette class C (ABCC) transporters, including Ycf1p, a family member that was originally characterized as a Cd2+ transporter. Ycf1p has also been found to physically interact with a wide array of proteins, including factors that regulate vacuole homeostasis. In this study, we examined the role of Ycf1p and other ABCC transporters in the regulation of vacuole homotypic fusion. We found that deletion of YCF1 attenuated in vitro vacuole fusion by up to 40% relative to wild-type vacuoles. Plasmid-expressed wild-type Ycf1p rescued the deletion phenotype; however, Ycf1p containing a mutation of the conserved Lys-669 to Met in the Walker A box of the first nucleotide-binding domain (Ycf1pK669M) was unable to complement the fusion defect of ycf1Δ vacuoles. This indicates that the ATPase activity of Ycf1p is required for its function in regulating fusion. In addition, we found that deleting YCF1 caused a striking decrease in vacuolar levels of the soluble SNARE Vam7p, whereas total cellular levels were not altered. The attenuated fusion of ycf1Δ vacuoles was rescued by the addition of recombinant Vam7p to in vitro experiments. Thus, Ycf1p contributes in the recruitment of Vam7p to the vacuole for efficient membrane fusion. PMID:23658021

  18. Molecular phylogenetic study and expression analysis of ATP-binding cassette transporter gene family in Oryza sativa in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Jayita; Sengupta, Atreyee; Gupta, Kamala; Gupta, Bhaskar

    2015-02-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter is a large gene superfamily that utilizes the energy released from ATP hydrolysis for transporting myriad of substrates across the biological membranes. Although many investigations have been done on the structural and functional analysis of the ABC transporters in Oryza sativa, much less is known about molecular phylogenetic and global expression pattern of the complete ABC family in rice. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis constructing neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood trees based on various statistical methods of different ABC protein subfamily of five plant lineages including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (green algae), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Selaginella moellendorffii (lycophyte), Arabidopsis thaliana (dicot) and O. sativa (monocot) to explore the origin and evolutionary patterns of these ABC genes. We have identified several conserved motifs in nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of ABC proteins among all plant lineages during evolution. Amongst the different ABC protein subfamilies, 'ABCE' has not yet been identified in lower plant genomes (algae, moss and lycophytes). The result indicated that gene duplication and diversification process acted upon these genes as a major operative force creating new groups and subgroups and functional divergence during evolution. We have demonstrated that rice ABCI subfamily consists of only half size transporters that represented highly dynamic members showing maximum sequence variations among the other rice ABC subfamilies. The evolutionary and the expression analysis contribute to a deep insight into the evolution and diversity of rice ABC proteins and their roles in response to salt stress that facilitate our further understanding on rice ABC transporters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flavone Glucoside Uptake into Barley Mesophyll and Arabidopsis Cell Culture Vacuoles. Energization Occurs by H+-Antiport and ATP-Binding Cassette-Type Mechanisms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangne, Nathalie; Eggmann, Thomas; Koblischke, Carsten; Weissenböck, Gottfried; Martinoia, Enrico; Klein, Markus

    2002-01-01

    In many cases, secondary plant products accumulate in the large central vacuole of plant cells. However, the mechanisms involved in the transport of secondary compounds are only poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the transport mechanisms for the major barley (Hordeum vulgare) flavonoid saponarin (apigenin 6-C-glucosyl-7-O-glucoside) are different in various plant species: Uptake into barley vacuoles occurs via a proton antiport and is competitively inhibited by isovitexin (apigenin 6-C-glucoside), suggesting that both flavone glucosides are recognized by the same transporter. In contrast, the transport into vacuoles from Arabidopsis, which does not synthesize flavone glucosides, displays typical characteristics of ATP-binding cassette transporters. Transport of saponarin into vacuoles of both the species is saturable with a Km of 50 to 100 μm. Furthermore, the uptake of saponarin into vacuoles from a barley mutant exhibiting a strongly reduced flavone glucoside biosynthesis is drastically decreased when compared with the parent variety. Thus, the barley vacuolar flavone glucoside/H+ antiporter could be modulated by the availability of the substrate. We propose that different vacuolar transporters may be responsible for the sequestration of species-specific/endogenous and nonspecific/xenobiotic secondary compounds in planta. PMID:11842175

  20. Lobular Distribution and Variability in Hepatic ATP Binding Cassette Protein B1 (ABCB1, P-gp: Ontogenetic Differences and Potential for Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngu Njei Abanda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ATP Binding Cassette B1 (ABCB1 transporter has critical roles in endo- and xenobiotic efficacy and toxicity. To understand population variability in hepatic transport we determined ABCB1 mRNA and protein levels in total liver lysates sampled from 8 pre-defined sites (n = 24, 18–69 years, and in S9 from randomly acquired samples (n = 87, 7 days–87 years. ABCB1 levels did not differ significantly throughout individual livers and showed 4.4-fold protein variation between subjects. Neither mRNA nor protein levels varied with sex, ethnicity, obesity or triglycerides in lysates or S9 (that showed the same relationships, but protein levels were lower in pediatric S9 (p < 0.0001, with 76% of adult ABCB1 present at birth and predicted to mature in 5 years. Pediatric total liver lysates were not available. In summary, opportunistic collection for studying human hepatic ABCB1 is acceptable. Additionally, ABCB1 may be lower in children, indicating differential potential for toxicity and response to therapy in this special population.

  1. ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1, HDL metabolism, cholesterol efflux, and inflammation: important targets for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dan; Lammers, Bart; Zhao, Ying; Meurs, Illiana; Van Berkel, T J; Van Eck, Miranda

    2011-05-01

    Atherosclerosis has been characterized as a chronic inflammatory response to cholesterol deposition in arteries. Plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels bear a strong independent inverse relationship with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. One central antiatherogenic role of HDL is believed to be its ability to remove excessive peripheral cholesterol back to the liver for subsequent catabolism and excretion, a physiologic process termed reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, the initial step of RCT is the most relevant step with respect to atherosclerosis. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 play crucial roles in the efflux of cellular cholesterol to HDL and its apolipoproteins. Moreover, ABCA1 and ABCG1 affect cellular inflammatory cytokine secretion by modulating cholesterol content in the plasma membrane and within intracellular compartments. In humans, ABCA1 mutations can cause a severe HDL-deficiency syndrome characterized by cholesterol deposition in tissue macrophages and prevalent atherosclerosis. Disrupting Abca1 or Abcg1 in mice promotes accumulation of excessive cholesterol in macrophages, and physiological manipulation of ABCA1 expression affects atherogenesis. Here we review recent advances in the role of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in HDL metabolism, macrophage cholesterol efflux, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Next, we summarize the structure, expression, and regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Finally, we give an update on the progress and pitfalls of therapeutic approaches that target ABCA1 and ABCG1 to stimulate the flux of lipids through the RCT pathway.

  2. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Deficiency in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Abrogates HDL Biogenesis and Enhances Triglyceride Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recognized role of the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1 in high-density lipoprotein (HDL metabolism, our understanding of ABCA1 deficiency in human hepatocytes is limited. To define the functional effects of human hepatocyte ABCA1 deficiency, we generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs from Tangier disease (TD and matched control subjects. Control HLCs exhibited robust cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I and formed nascent HDL particles. ABCA1-deficient HLCs failed to mediate lipid efflux or nascent HDL formation, but had elevated triglyceride (TG secretion. Global transcriptome analysis revealed significantly increased ANGPTL3 expression in ABCA1-deficient HLCs. Angiopoietin-related protein 3 (ANGPTL3 was enriched in plasma of TD relative to control subjects. These results highlight the required role of ABCA1 in cholesterol efflux and nascent HDL formation by hepatocytes. Furthermore, our results suggest that hepatic ABCA1 deficiency results in increased hepatic TG and ANGPTL3 secretion, potentially underlying the elevated plasma TG levels in TD patients.

  3. The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure by promoting angiogenesis and antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Sainz, Julie; Nakamura, Kazuto; Takaoka, Minoru; Enomoto, Soichiro; Iwata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kimie; Sahara, Makoto; Hirata, Yasunobu; Nagai, Ryozo; Sata, Masataka

    2012-03-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), expressed in microvascular endothelial cells in the heart, has been suggested to regulate several tissue defense mechanisms. This study was performed to elucidate its role in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Pressure overload was induced in 8- to 12-week-old wild-type and Abcg2-/- mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Abcg2-/- mice showed exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular remodeling after TAC compared with wild-type mice. In the early phase after TAC, functional impairment in angiogenesis and antioxidant response in myocardium was found in Abcg2-/- mice. In vitro experiments demonstrated that ABCG2 regulates transport of glutathione, an important endogenous antioxidant, from microvascular endothelial cells. Besides, glutathione transported from microvascular endothelial cells in ABCG2-dependent manner ameliorated oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In vivo, glutathione levels in plasma and the heart were increased in wild-type mice but not in Abcg2-/- mice after TAC. Treatment with the superoxide dismutase mimetic ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy in Abcg2-/- mice after TAC to the same extent as that in wild-type mice, although cardiac dysfunction with impaired angiogenesis was observed in Abcg2-/- mice. ABCG2 protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure by promoting angiogenesis and antioxidant response.

  4. Role of NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic motif in the subcellular localization of ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily D: Common features in eukaryotic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Asaka; Asahina, Kota; Okamoto, Takumi; Kawaguchi, Kosuke [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kostsin, Dzmitry G. [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Institute of Biophysics and Cell Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Academicheskaya Str. 27, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Kashiwayama, Yoshinori [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Takanashi, Kojiro; Yazaki, Kazufumi [Laboratory of Plant Gene Expression, Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoko University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Imanaka, Tsuneo, E-mail: imanaka@pha.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Morita, Masashi [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • ABCD proteins classifies based on with or without NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic segment. • The ABCD proteins with the segment are targeted peroxisomes. • The ABCD proteins without the segment are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum. • The role of the segment in organelle targeting is conserved in eukaryotic organisms. - Abstract: In mammals, four ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 possesses the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic region and are targeted to peroxisomes, while ABCD4 lacking the region is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Based on hydropathy plot analysis, we found that several eukaryotes have ABCD protein homologs lacking the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic segment (H0 motif). To investigate whether the role of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif in subcellular localization is conserved across species, we expressed ABCD proteins from several species (metazoan, plant and fungi) in fusion with GFP in CHO cells and examined their subcellular localization. ABCD proteins possessing the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif were localized to peroxisomes, while ABCD proteins lacking this region lost this capacity. In addition, the deletion of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif of ABCD protein resulted in their localization to the ER. These results suggest that the role of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif in organelle targeting is widely conserved in living organisms.

  5. An ATP-binding cassette subfamily G full transporter is essential for the retention of leaf water in both wild barley and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Nawrath, Christiane; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Tagiri, Akemi; Hu, Yin-Gang; Sameri, Mohammad; Li, Xinrong; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Li, Chao; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Aidong; Nair, Sudha; Wang, Ning; Miyao, Akio; Sakuma, Shun; Yamaji, Naoki; Zheng, Xiuting; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-07-26

    Land plants have developed a cuticle preventing uncontrolled water loss. Here we report that an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G (ABCG) full transporter is required for leaf water conservation in both wild barley and rice. A spontaneous mutation, eibi1.b, in wild barley has a low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. Map-based cloning revealed that Eibi1 encodes an HvABCG31 full transporter. The gene was highly expressed in the elongation zone of a growing leaf (the site of cutin synthesis), and its gene product also was localized in developing, but not in mature tissue. A de novo wild barley mutant named "eibi1.c," along with two transposon insertion lines of rice mutated in the ortholog of HvABCG31 also were unable to restrict water loss from detached leaves. HvABCG31 is hypothesized to function as a transporter involved in cutin formation. Homologs of HvABCG31 were found in green algae, moss, and lycopods, indicating that this full transporter is highly conserved in the evolution of land plants.

  6. Whole-Transcriptome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Family Genes in the Latex-Producing Laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 ‘full-size’, 21 ‘half-size’ and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis. PMID:25615936

  7. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    Full Text Available The ATP-binding cassette (ABC gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp.

  8. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp. PMID:27058731

  9. Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1), a “Multitasking” ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Susan P. C.

    2014-01-01

    The multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) encoded by ABCC1 was originally discovered as a cause of multidrug resistance in tumor cells. However, it is now clear that MRP1 serves a broader role than simply mediating the ATP-dependent efflux of drugs from cells. The antioxidant GSH and the pro-inflammatory cysteinyl leukotriene C4 have been identified as key physiological organic anions effluxed by MRP1, and an ever growing body of evidence indicates that additional lipid-derived mediators are also substrates of this transporter. As such, MRP1 is a multitasking transporter that likely influences the etiology and progression of a host of human diseases. PMID:25281745

  10. SALL4, a stem cell factor, affects the side population by regulation of the ATP-binding cassette drug transport genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Won Jeong

    Full Text Available Our previous work shows that the stem cell factor SALL4 plays a central role in embryonic and leukemic stem cells. In this study, we report that SALL4 expression was higher in drug resistant primary acute myeloid leukemic patients than those from drug-responsive cases. In addition, while overexpression of SALL4 led to drug resistance in cell lines, cells with decreased SALL4 expression were more sensitive to drug treatments than the parental cells. This led to our investigation of the implication of SALL4 in drug resistance and its role in side population (SP cancer stem cells. SALL4 expression was higher in SP cells compared to non-SP cells by 2-4 fold in various malignant hematopoietic cell lines. Knocking down of SALL4 in isolated SP cells resulted in a reduction of SP cells, indicating that SALL4 is required for their self-renewal. The SP phenotype is known to be mediated by members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC drug transport protein family, such as ABCG2 and ABCA3. Using chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assay(EMSA, we demonstrated that SALL4 was able to bind to the promoter region of ABCA3 and activate its expression while regulating the expression of ABCG2 indirectly. Furthermore, SALL4 expression was positively correlated to those of ABCG2 and ABCA3 in primary leukemic patient samples. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for SALL4 in drug sensitivity, at least in part through the maintenance of SP cells, and therefore may be responsible for drug-resistance in leukemia. We are the first to demonstrate a direct link between stem cell factor SALL4, SP and drug resistance in leukemia.

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Mediate Transcriptional Activation of the ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB6 Gene via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    Liver is endowed with a mechanism to induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) in response to therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants, leading to increased detoxification and elimination of the xenobiotics. Each CYP450 is composed of an apoprotein moiety and a heme prosthetic group, which is required for CYP450 activity. Thus, under conditions of CYP450 induction, there is a coordinate increase in heme biosynthesis to compensate for the increased expression of CYP450s. ABCB6, a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter, which regulates coproporphyrinogen transport from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria to complete heme biosynthesis, represents a previously unrecognized rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis. However, it is not known if exposure to drugs and environmental contaminants induces ABCB6 expression, to assure an adequate and apparently coordinated supply of heme for the generation of functional cytochrome holoprotein. In the present study, we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the widely distributed environmental toxicants shown to induce porphyrin accumulation causing hepatic porphyria, up-regulate ABCB6 expression in both mice and humans. Using siRNA technology and Abcb6 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that PAH-mediated increase in hepatic porphyrins is compromised in the absence of ABCB6. Moreover, in vivo studies in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knock-out mice demonstrate that PAH induction of ABCB6 is mediated by AhR. Promoter activation studies combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate direct interactions between the AhR binding sites in the ABCB6 promoter and the AhR receptor, implicating drug activation mechanisms for ABCB6 similar to those found in inducible cytochrome P450s. These studies are the first to describe direct transcriptional activation of both mouse and human ABCB6 by xenobiotics. PMID:22761424

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mediate transcriptional activation of the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6 gene via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-09-14

    Liver is endowed with a mechanism to induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) in response to therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants, leading to increased detoxification and elimination of the xenobiotics. Each CYP450 is composed of an apoprotein moiety and a heme prosthetic group, which is required for CYP450 activity. Thus, under conditions of CYP450 induction, there is a coordinate increase in heme biosynthesis to compensate for the increased expression of CYP450s. ABCB6, a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter, which regulates coproporphyrinogen transport from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria to complete heme biosynthesis, represents a previously unrecognized rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis. However, it is not known if exposure to drugs and environmental contaminants induces ABCB6 expression, to assure an adequate and apparently coordinated supply of heme for the generation of functional cytochrome holoprotein. In the present study, we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the widely distributed environmental toxicants shown to induce porphyrin accumulation causing hepatic porphyria, up-regulate ABCB6 expression in both mice and humans. Using siRNA technology and Abcb6 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that PAH-mediated increase in hepatic porphyrins is compromised in the absence of ABCB6. Moreover, in vivo studies in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knock-out mice demonstrate that PAH induction of ABCB6 is mediated by AhR. Promoter activation studies combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate direct interactions between the AhR binding sites in the ABCB6 promoter and the AhR receptor, implicating drug activation mechanisms for ABCB6 similar to those found in inducible cytochrome P450s. These studies are the first to describe direct transcriptional activation of both mouse and human ABCB6 by xenobiotics.

  13. MicroRNA-20a/b regulates cholesterol efflux through post-transcriptional repression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bin; Wang, Xin; Song, Xiaosu; Bai, Rui; Yang, Huiyu; Yang, Zhiming; Xiao, Chuanshi; Bian, Yunfei

    2017-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a crucial role in reverse cholesterol transport and exhibits anti-atherosclerosis effects. Some microRNAs (miRs) regulate ABCA1 expression, and recent studies have shown that miR-20a/b might play a critical role in atherosclerotic diseases. Here, we attempted to clarify the potential contribution of miR-20a/b in post-transcriptional regulation of ABCA1, cholesterol efflux, and atherosclerosis. We performed bioinformatics analysis and found that miR-20a/b was highly conserved and directly bound to ABCA1 mRNA with low binding free energy. Luciferase-reporter assay also confirmed that miR-20a/b significantly reduced luciferase activity associated with the ABCA1 3' untranslated region reporter construct. Additionally, miR-20a/b decreased ABCA1 expression, which, in turn, decreased cholesterol efflux and increased cholesterol content in THP-1 and RAW 264.7 macrophage-derived foam cells. In contrast, miR-20a/b inhibitors increased ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux, decreased cholesterol content, and inhibited foam-cell formation. Consistent with our in vitro results, miR-20a/b-treated ApoE -/- mice showed decreased ABCA1expression in the liver and reductions of reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Furthermore, miR-20a/b regulated the formation of nascent high-density lipoprotein and promoted atherosclerotic development, whereas miR-20a/b knockdown attenuated atherosclerotic formation. miR-20 is a new miRNA capable of targeting ABCA1 and regulating ABCA1 expression. Therefore, miR-20 inhibition constitutes a new strategy for ABCA1-based treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pravastatin Modulate Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 and ATP-Binding Cassette G5 and G8 to Influence Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Atsushi; Hata, Seiji; Takagi, Mai; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5, and ABCG8 mediate intestinal cholesterol absorption. It is unclear whether pravastatin (PR) or ezetimibe (EZ) affect expression of these transporters. We examined the effects of PR and EZ on NPC1L1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the murine small intestine. We also assessed expression of the transcription factors liver X receptor (LXR)a, LXRb and sterol regulatory element-binding protein. Transporter mRNA levels were determined in murine small intestines 6 and 24 h after oral PR and EZ administration by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In PR- and EZ-treated HepG2 cells, transporter and transcription factor mRNA and protein levels were examined by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Significant decreases in NPC1L1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 mRNA expression were observed in the duodenum, but not jejunum and ileum, of mice 24 h after treatment with PR, but not EZ. In HepG2 cells, PR but not EZ treatment for 24 h also significantly decreased NPC1L1 protein and ABCG5, and ABCG8 mRNA expression, while increasing LXRa mRNA levels. PR but not EZ treatment reduced duodenal cholesterol transporter expression in mice. PR-induced increases in LXRa mRNA levels may be involved in attenuation of NPC1L1 expression, subsequently decreasing intestinal cholesterol absorption.

  15. Evidence for direct physical association between a K+ channel (Kir6.2) and an ATP-binding cassette protein (SUR1) which affects cellular distribution and kinetic behavior of an ATP-sensitive K+ channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, E; Alekseev, A E; Krapivinsky, G B; Carrasco, A J; Clapham, D E; Terzic, A

    1998-03-01

    Structurally unique among ion channels, ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels are essential in coupling cellular metabolism with membrane excitability, and their activity can be reconstituted by coexpression of an inwardly rectifying K+ channel, Kir6.2, with an ATP-binding cassette protein, SUR1. To determine if constitutive channel subunits form a physical complex, we developed antibodies to specifically label and immunoprecipitate Kir6.2. From a mixture of Kir6.2 and SUR1 in vitro-translated proteins, and from COS cells transfected with both channel subunits, the Kir6.2-specific antibody coimmunoprecipitated 38- and 140-kDa proteins corresponding to Kir6.2 and SUR1, respectively. Since previous reports suggest that the carboxy-truncated Kir6.2 can form a channel independent of SUR, we deleted 114 nucleotides from the carboxy terminus of the Kir6.2 open reading frame (Kir6.2deltaC37). Kir6.2deltaC37 still coimmunoprecipitated with SUR1, suggesting that the distal carboxy terminus of Kir6.2 is unnecessary for subunit association. Confocal microscopic images of COS cells transfected with Kir6.2 or Kir6.2deltaC37 and labeled with fluorescent antibodies revealed unique honeycomb patterns unlike the diffuse immunostaining observed when cells were cotransfected with Kir6.2-SUR1 or Kir6.2deltaC37-SUR1. Membrane patches excised from COS cells cotransfected with Kir6.2-SUR1 or Kir6.2deltaC37-SUR1 exhibited single-channel activity characteristic of pancreatic KATP channels. Kir6.2deltaC37 alone formed functional channels with single-channel conductance and intraburst kinetic properties similar to those of Kir6.2-SUR1 or Kir6.2deltaC37-SUR1 but with reduced burst duration. This study provides direct evidence that an inwardly rectifying K+ channel and an ATP-binding cassette protein physically associate, which affects the cellular distribution and kinetic behavior of a KATP channel.

  16. Galectin-3 silencing inhibits epirubicin-induced ATP binding cassette transporters and activates the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway via β-catenin/GSK-3β modulation in colorectal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuo Lee

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR, an unfavorable factor compromising the treatment efficacy of anticancer drugs, involves the upregulation of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters and induction of galectin-3 signaling. Galectin-3 plays an anti-apoptotic role in many cancer cells and regulates various pathways to activate MDR. Thus, the inhibition of galectin-3 has the potential to enhance the efficacy of the anticancer drug epirubicin. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanisms of silencing galectin-3 via RNA interference (RNAi on the β-catenin/GSK-3β pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Galectin-3 knockdown increased the intracellular accumulation of epirubicin in Caco-2 cells; suppressed the mRNA expression of galectin-3, β-catenin, cyclin D1, c-myc, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR-associated protein (MRP 1, and MRP2; and downregulated the protein expression of P-gp, cyclin D1, galectin-3, β-catenin, c-Myc, and Bcl-2. Moreover, galectin-3 RNAi treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of GSK-3β, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9; remarkably increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio; and upregulated the GSK-3β and Bax protein expressions. Apoptosis was induced by galectin-3 RNAi and/or epirubicin as demonstrated by chromatin condensation, a higher sub-G1 phase proportion, and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, indicating an intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Epirubicin-mediated resistance was effectively inhibited via galectin-3 RNAi treatment. However, these phenomena could be rescued after galectin-3 overexpression. We show for the first time that the silencing of galectin-3 sensitizes MDR cells to epirubicin by inhibiting ABC transporters and activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis through modulation of the β-catenin/GSK-3β pathway in human colon cancer cells.

  17. Regression of atherosclerosis with apple procyanidins by activating the ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Fumoto, Toshio; Masumoto, Saeko; Shoji, Toshihiko; Miura, Tomisato; Naraoka, Masato; Matsuda, Naoya; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu; Ohkuma, Hiroki

    2017-03-01

    Apple polyphenol contains abundant procyanidins, which have been associated with an anti-atherosclerosis and cholesterol-lowering effect. The aim of this study was to investigate whether apple procyanidins (APCs) feature therapeutic efficacy in terms of regressing atherosclerosis and whether this efficacy is due to mechanisms other than a cholesterol-lowering effect. After eight weeks on an atherogenic diet, rabbits were given a normal diet for another eight weeks to normalize the increased serum lipids level. The rabbits in the baseline group were sacrificed at this stage. The control group was subsequently fed a normal diet for eight weeks, while the APCs group was administrated 50 mg/kg/day of APCs in addition to the normal diet. Serum lipids and aortic intimal-medial thickness (IMT) were serially examined, and the resected aorta was examined histologically and through molecular biology. Aortic IMT on ultrasonography and the lipid accumulation area examined using Sudan IV staining were significantly reduced in the APCs group as compared to the control group. Serum lipid profiles were not different between the groups. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly decreased staining of an oxidative stress marker and significantly increased staining of ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) in the APCs group. Western blotting and RT-PCR also showed increased expression of ABCA1 mRNA and its protein in the APCs group. This study revealed that APCs administration causes a regression of atherosclerosis. APCs might hold promise as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) is elevated in prion disease and affects PrPC and PrPSc concentrations in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; McClain, Denise; Young, Rebecca; Carlson, George A

    2008-06-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders of prion protein (PrP) conformation. Prion replication by conversion of benign PrPC isoforms into disease-specific PrPSc isoforms is intimately involved in prion disease pathogenesis and may be initiated in cholesterol-rich caveolae-like domains (CLD). Concentrations of the cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette A1 protein (ABCA1) are elevated in pre-clinical scrapie prion-infected mice and in prion-infected cells in vitro. Elevation of ABCA1 in prion-infected brain is not a direct consequence of local PrPSc accumulation, indeed levels of ABCA1 are comparable in brain regions that differ dramatically in the amount of PrPSc. Similarly, ABCA1 concentrations are identical in normal mice, transgenic mice overexpressing PrP and PrP knockout mice. In contrast, PrPC and PrPSc levels, but not Prnp mRNA, were increased by overexpression of ABCA1 in N2a neuroblastoma cells and scrapie prion-infected N2a cells (ScN2a). Conversely, RNAi-mediated knock down of Abca1 expression decreased the concentrations of PrPC in N2a cells and of PrPSc in ScN2a cells. These results suggest that ABCA1's effects on PrPC levels are post-translational and may reflect an increase in of PrPC stability, mediated either indirectly by increasing membrane cholesterol and CLD formation or by other functions of ABCA1. The increased supply of PrPC available for conversion would lead to increased PrPSc formation.

  19. MicroRNA-144 regulates hepatic ATP binding cassette transporter A1 and plasma high-density lipoprotein after activation of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q; Tarling, Elizabeth J; Kim, Tammy; Civelek, Mete; Baldán, Ángel; Esau, Christine; Edwards, Peter A

    2013-06-07

    The bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates many aspects of lipid metabolism by variouscomplex and incompletely understood molecular mechanisms. We set out to investigate the molecular mechanisms for FXR-dependent regulation of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. To identify FXR-regulated microRNAs that were subsequently involved in regulating lipid metabolism. ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a major determinant of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Here, we show that activation of the nuclear receptor FXR in vivo increases hepatic levels of miR-144, which in turn lowers hepatic ABCA1 and plasma HDL levels. We identified 2 complementary sequences to miR-144 in the 3' untranslated region of ABCA1 mRNA that are necessary for miR-144-dependent regulation. Overexpression of miR-144 in vitro decreased both cellular ABCA1 protein and cholesterol efflux to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I protein, whereas overexpression in vivo reduced hepatic ABCA1 protein and plasma HDL-cholesterol. Conversely, silencing miR-144 in mice increased hepatic ABCA1 protein and HDL-cholesterol. In addition, we used tissue-specific FXR-deficient mice to show that induction of miR-144 and FXR-dependent hypolipidemia requires hepatic, but not intestinal, FXR. Finally, we identified functional FXR response elements upstream of the miR-144 locus, consistent with direct FXR regulation. We have identified a novel pathway involving FXR, miR-144, and ABCA1 that together regulate plasma HDL-cholesterol.

  20. The capacity of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame deletions in putative ATP-binding cassette transporters to form biofilms and comparison with the wild type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ceruso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (Lm is a food-borne pathogen responsible for human listeriosis, an invasive infection with high mortality rates. Lm has developed efficient strategies for survival under stress conditions such as starvation and wide variations in temperature, pH, and osmolarity. Therefore, Lm can survive in food under multiple stress conditions. Detailed studies to determine the mode of action of this pathogen for survival under stress conditions are important to control Lm in food. It has been shown that genes encoding for ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are induced in Lm in food, in particular under stress conditions. Previous studies showed that these genes are involved in sensitivity to nisin, acids, and salt. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of some ABC transporters in biofilm formation. Therefore, deletion mutants of ABC transporter genes (LMOf2365_1875 and LMOf2365_1877 were created in Lm F2365, and then were compared to the wild type for their capacity to form biofilms. Lm strain F2365 was chosen as reference since the genome is fully sequenced and furthermore this strain is particularly involved in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis. Our results showed that DLMOf2365_1875 had an increased capacity to form biofilms compared to the wild type, indicating that LMOf2365_1875 negatively regulates biofilm formation. A deeper knowledge on the ability to form biofilms in these mutants may help in the development of intervention strategies to control Lm in food and in the environment.

  1. Localized Induction of the ATP-Binding Cassette B19 Auxin Transporter Enhances Adventitious Root Formation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Poornima; Maloney, Gregory S.; Muday, Gloria K.

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious roots emerge from aerial plant tissues, and the induction of these roots is essential for clonal propagation of agriculturally important plant species. This process has received extensive study in horticultural species but much less focus in genetically tractable model species. We have explored the role of auxin transport in this process in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings in which adventitious root initiation was induced by excising roots from low-light-grown hypocotyls. Inhibition of auxin transport from the shoot apex abolishes adventitious root formation under these conditions. Root excision was accompanied by a rapid increase in radioactive indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport and its accumulation in the hypocotyl above the point of excision where adventitious roots emerge. Local increases in auxin-responsive gene expression were also observed above the site of excision using three auxin-responsive reporters. These changes in auxin accumulation preceded cell division events, monitored by a cyclin B1 reporter (pCYCB1;1:GUS), and adventitious root initiation. We examined excision-induced adventitious root formation in auxin influx and efflux mutants, including auxin insensitive1, pin-formed1 (pin1), pin2, pin3, and pin7, with the most profound reductions observed in ATP-binding cassette B19 (ABCB19). An ABCB19 overexpression line forms more adventitious roots than the wild type in intact seedlings. Examination of transcriptional and translational fusions between ABCB19 and green fluorescent protein indicates that excision locally induced the accumulation of ABCB19 transcript and protein that is temporally and spatially linked to local IAA accumulation leading to adventitious root formation. These experiments are consistent with localized synthesis of ABCB19 protein after hypocotyl excision leads to enhanced IAA transport and local IAA accumulation driving adventitious root formation. PMID:23677937

  2. Functional roles of YPT31 and YPT32 in clotrimazole resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through effects on vacuoles and ATP-binding cassette transporter(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Takase, Daisuke; Okano, Hajime; Tomari, Naohiro; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Matsui, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We identified YPT31, which is involved in Golgi traffic, as a clotrimazole (CTZ)-resistance gene in a multicopy library screen. Multicopies of the YPT31 homolog YPT32 also conferred resistance to CTZ, and single disruption of YPT31 or YPT32 resulted in sensitivity to CTZ. Pdr5p, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter at the plasma membrane, was the most important factor for mediating basal resistance to CTZ, suggesting that Ypt31p and Ypt32p might be involved in the trafficking of Pdr5p to the plasma membrane. However, the activity of Pdr5p was independent of YPT31 or YPT32, and multicopies of YPT31 or YPT32 still conferred resistance to CTZ in pdr5 cells. To elucidate the roles of YPT31 and YPT32 in CTZ resistance, we analyzed mutants of 11 genes that are involved in the following vesicular trafficking: Golgi traffic (kes1, trs33, trs65, gyp1, trs85, and gyp2), vacuole inheritance (ypt7), endocytosis (rcy1 and ypt51) and exocytosis (msb3 and msb4). All of the mutant cells except ypt51, msb3 and msb4 were sensitive to CTZ, indicating that vacuoles were involved in CTZ resistance, since vacuole formation requires proper Golgi-trafficking and endocytosis. Microscopic analysis showed abnormal vacuoles in ypt31 cells. Multicopies of YPT31 or YPT32 conferred resistance to CTZ in AD1-8 cells, which are defective in seven major drug transporters, and in pdr5 ypt7 cells, but not in ypt7 or AD1-8-7 (AD1-8/ypt7) cells. These results indicated that Ypt31p and Ypt32p played minor but compensatory roles in cellular resistance to CTZ through vacuoles and specific ABC transporter(s) other than Pdr5p. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fasting Induces Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2 and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters via Protein Kinase A and Sirtuin-1 in Mouse and Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Donepudi, Ajay C.; Xu, Jialin; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Qiuqiong C.; Driscoll, Maureen V.; Johnson, Delinda A.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Li, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) dependent mechanisms modulate ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transport protein expression. ABC transport proteins (ABCC2–4) are essential for chemical elimination from hepatocytes and biliary excretion. Nuclear factor-E2 related-factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that mediates ABCC induction in response to chemical inducers and liver injury. However, a role for NRF2 in the regulation of transporter expression in nonchemical models of liver perturbation is largely undescribed. Results: Here we show that fasting increased NRF2 target gene expression through NRF2- and SIRT1–dependent mechanisms. In intact mouse liver, fasting induces NRF2 target gene expression by at least 1.5 to 5-fold. In mouse and human hepatocytes, treatment with 8-Bromoadenosine-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, increased NRF2 target gene expression and antioxidant response element activity, which was decreased by the PKA inhibitor, H-89. Moreover, fasting induced NRF2 target gene expression was decreased in liver and hepatocytes of SIRT1 liver-specific null mice and NRF2-null mice. Lastly, NRF2 and SIRT1 were recruited to MAREs and Antioxidant Response Elements (AREs) in the human ABCC2 promoter. Innovation: Oxidative stress mediated NRF2 activation is well described, yet the influence of basic metabolic processes on NRF2 activation is just emerging. Conclusion: The current data point toward a novel role of nutrient status in regulation of NRF2 activity and the antioxidant response, and indicates that cAMP/PKA and SIRT1 are upstream regulators for fasting-induced activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 15–30. PMID:23725046

  4. Hydrogen Sulfide Up-Regulates the Expression of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 via Promoting Nuclear Translocation of PPARα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 plays a key role in atherogenesis. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, a gasotransmitter, has been reported to play an anti-atherosclerotic role. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study we examined whether and how H2S regulates ABCA1 expression. The effect of H2S on ABCA1 expression and lipid metabolism were assessed in vitro by cultured human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and in vivo by ApoE−/− mice with a high-cholesterol diet. NaHS (an exogenous H2S donor treatment significantly increased the expression of ABCA1, ApoA1, and ApoA2 and ameliorated intracellular lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Depletion of the endogenous H2S generator cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE by small RNA interference (siRNA significantly decreased the expression of ABCA1 and resulted in the accumulation of lipids in HepG2 cells. In vivo NaHS treatment significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, diminished atherosclerotic plaque size, and increased hepatic ABCA1 expression in fat-fed ApoE−/− mice. Further study revealed that NaHS upregulated ABCA1 expression by promoting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα nuclear translocation. H2S up-regulates the expression of ABCA1 by promoting the nuclear translocation of PPARα, providing a fundamental mechanism for the anti-atherogenic activity of H2S. H2S may be a promising potential drug candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  5. Polymorphisms in ATP-binding cassette transporters associated with maternal methylmercury disposition and infant neurodevelopment in mother-infant pairs in the Seychelles Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Karin; Love, Tanzy M; Watson, Gene E; Zareba, Grazyna; Yeates, Alison; Wahlberg, Karin; Alhamdow, Ayman; Thurston, Sally W; Mulhern, Maria; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Myers, G J; Rand, Matthew D; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Broberg, Karin

    2016-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been associated with methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in experimental animal models. To evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in maternal ABC transporter genes with 1) maternal hair MeHg concentrations during pregnancy and 2) child neurodevelopmental outcomes. Nutrition Cohort 2 (NC2) is an observational mother-child cohort recruited in the Republic of Seychelles from 2008-2011. Total mercury (Hg) was measured in maternal hair growing during pregnancy as a biomarker for prenatal MeHg exposure (N=1313) (mean 3.9ppm). Infants completed developmental assessments by Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II) at 20months of age (N=1331). Genotyping for fifteen SNPs in ABCC1, ABCC2 and ABCB1 was performed for the mothers. Seven of fifteen ABC SNPs (ABCC1 rs11075290, rs212093, and rs215088; ABCC2 rs717620; ABCB1 rs10276499, rs1202169, and rs2032582) were associated with concentrations of maternal hair Hg (p<0.001 to 0.013). One SNP (ABCC1 rs11075290) was also significantly associated with neurodevelopment; children born to mothers with rs11075290 CC genotype (mean hair Hg 3.6ppm) scored on average 2 points lower on the Mental Development Index (MDI) and 3 points lower on the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) than children born to mothers with TT genotype (mean hair Hg 4.7ppm) while children with the CT genotype (mean hair Hg 4.0ppm) had intermediate BSID scores. Genetic variation in ABC transporter genes was associated with maternal hair Hg concentrations. The implications for MeHg dose in the developing child and neurodevelopmental outcomes need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter G2 Activity in the Bovine Spermatozoa Is Modulated Along the Epididymal Duct and at Ejaculation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Julieta; Frenette, Gilles; D'Amours, Olivier; Dufour, Maurice; Oko, Richard; Sullivan, Robert

    2012-01-01

    During their epididymal maturation, stabilizing factors such as cholesterol sulfate are associated with the sperm plasma membrane. Cholesterol is sulfated in epididymal spermatozoa by the enzyme estrogen sulfotransferase. Because of its role in the efflux of sulfate conjugates formed intracellularly by sulfotransferases, the ATP-binding cassette membrane transporter G2 (ABCG2) might have a role in the translocation of this compound across the plasma membrane. In the present study we showed that ABCG2 is present in the plasma membrane overlaying the acrosomal region of spermatozoa recovered from testis, epididymis, and after ejaculation. Although ABCG2 is also present in epididymosomes, the transporter is not transferred to spermatozoa via this mechanism. Furthermore, although epididymal sperm ABCG2 was shown to be functional, as determined by its ability to extrude Hoechst 33342 in the presence of the specific inhibitor Fumitremorgin C, ABCG2 present in ejaculated sperm was found to be nonfunctional. Additional experiments demonstrated that phosphorylation of ABCG2 tyrosyl residues, but not its localization in lipid rafts, is the mechanism responsible for its functionality. Dephosphorylation of ABCG2 in ejaculated spermatozoa is proposed to cause a partial protein relocalization to other intracellular compartments. Prostasomes are proposed to have a role in this process because incubation with this fraction of seminal plasma induces a decrease in the amount of ABCG2 in the associated sperm membrane fraction. These results demonstrate that ABCG2 plays a role in epididymal sperm maturation, but not after ejaculation. The loss of ABCG2 function after ejaculation is proposed to be regulated by prostasomes. PMID:22441796

  7. RCN1/OsABCG5, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, is required for hypodermal suberization of roots in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Katsuhiro; Ando, Miho; Nishiuchi, Shunsaku; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Kohtaro; Nakamura, Motoaki; Matsuo, Yuichi; Yasuno, Naoko; Yamanouchi, Utako; Fujimoto, Masaru; Takanashi, Hideki; Ranathunge, Kosala; Franke, Rochus B; Shitan, Nobukazu; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Takamure, Itsuro; Yano, Masahiro; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Schreiber, Lukas; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Nakazono, Mikio; Kato, Kiyoaki

    2014-10-01

    Suberin is a complex polymer composed of aliphatic and phenolic compounds. It is a constituent of apoplastic plant interfaces. In many plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa), the hypodermis in the outer part of roots forms a suberized cell wall (the Casparian strip and/or suberin lamellae), which inhibits the flow of water and ions and protects against pathogens. To date, there is no genetic evidence that suberin forms an apoplastic transport barrier in the hypodermis. We discovered that a rice reduced culm number1 (rcn1) mutant could not develop roots longer than 100 mm in waterlogged soil. The mutated gene encoded an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter named RCN1/OsABCG5. RCN1/OsABCG5 gene expression in the wild type was increased in most hypodermal and some endodermal roots cells under stagnant deoxygenated conditions. A GFP-RCN1/OsABCG5 fusion protein localized at the plasma membrane of the wild type. Under stagnant deoxygenated conditions, well suberized hypodermis developed in wild types but not in rcn1 mutants. Under stagnant deoxygenated conditions, apoplastic tracers (periodic acid and berberine) were blocked at the hypodermis in the wild type but not in rcn1, indicating that the apoplastic barrier in the mutant was impaired. The amount of the major aliphatic suberin monomers originating from C(28) and C(30) fatty acids or ω-OH fatty acids was much lower in rcn1 than in the wild type. These findings suggest that RCN1/OsABCG5 has a role in the suberization of the hypodermis of rice roots, which contributes to formation of the apoplastic barrier. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of the in vitro expression of ATP binding-cassette (ABC) proteins in an Ixodes ricinus cell line exposed to ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangia, Carlo; Vismarra, Alice; Kramer, Laura; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Porretta, Daniele; Otranto, Domenico; Epis, Sara; Grandi, Giulio

    2016-04-18

    Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens causing human and animal disease. Acaricides are used to control tick infestation, although there are increasing reports of resistance. Recently, over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins (P-glycoproteins, PgP) has been implicated in resistance to the acaricide ivermectin in the ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ixodid tick cell lines have been used to investigate drug resistance mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate expression of several PgPs in the Ixodes ricinus-derived cell line IRE/CTVM19 and to determine modulation of expression following treatment with ivermectin. IRE/CTVM19 cells were treated with different concentrations of ivermectin (0, 11, 22 or 33 μM) and incubated for 10 days. Evaluation of viability and relative expression of ABCB1, ABCB6, ABCB8 and ABCB10 genes were carried out at day 10 post treatment. Cell viability ranged between 84% and 92% with no significant differences between untreated and treated cells. qRT-PCR showed that ABC pump expression was not significantly modulated by ivermectin treatment. Expression of the ABCB8 PgP subfamily revealed a biphasic trend, based on the ivermectin concentration. ABCB6 and ABCB10 gene expression was not modulated by ivermectin treatment and ABCB1 expression was not detected. This is the first report of PgP expression in an I. ricinus-derived tick cell line. Development of an in vitro model for the study of acaricide resistance mechanisms would greatly facilitate screening for drug resistance in ticks.

  9. Drug resistance is conferred on the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of full-length melanoma-associated human ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCB5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keniya, Mikhail V; Holmes, Ann R; Niimi, Masakazu; Lamping, Erwin; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Gottesman, Michael M; Cannon, Richard D

    2014-10-06

    ABCB5, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, is highly expressed in melanoma cells, and may contribute to the extreme resistance of melanomas to chemotherapy by efflux of anti-cancer drugs. Our goal was to determine whether we could functionally express human ABCB5 in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to demonstrate an efflux function for ABCB5 in the absence of background pump activity from other human transporters. Heterologous expression would also facilitate drug discovery for this important target. DNAs encoding ABCB5 sequences were cloned into the chromosomal PDR5 locus of a S. cerevisiae strain in which seven endogenous ABC transporters have been deleted. Protein expression in the yeast cells was monitored by immunodetection using both a specific anti-ABCB5 antibody and a cross-reactive anti-ABCB1 antibody. ABCB5 function in recombinant yeast cells was measured by determining whether the cells possessed increased resistance to known pump substrates, compared to the host yeast strain, in assays of yeast growth. Three ABCB5 constructs were made in yeast. One was derived from the ABCB5-β mRNA, which is highly expressed in human tissues but is a truncation of a canonical full-size ABC transporter. Two constructs contained full-length ABCB5 sequences: either a native sequence from cDNA or a synthetic sequence codon-harmonized for S. cerevisiae. Expression of all three constructs in yeast was confirmed by immunodetection. Expression of the codon-harmonized full-length ABCB5 DNA conferred increased resistance, relative to the host yeast strain, to the putative substrates rhodamine 123, daunorubicin, tetramethylrhodamine, FK506, or clorgyline. We conclude that full-length ABCB5 can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae and confers drug resistance.

  10. Human ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABC1): Genomic organization and identification of the genetic defect in the original Tangier disease kindred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaley, Alan T.; Rust, Stephan; Rosier, Marie; Knapper, Cathy; Naudin, Laurent; Broccardo, Cyril; Peterson, Katherine M.; Koch, Christine; Arnould, Isabelle; Prades, Catherine; Duverger, Nicholas; Funke, Harald; Assman, Gerd; Dinger, Maria; Dean, Michael; Chimini, Giovanna; Santamarina-Fojo, Silvia; Fredrickson, Donald S.; Denefle, Patrice; Brewer, H. Bryan

    1999-01-01

    Tangier disease is characterized by low serum high density lipoproteins and a biochemical defect in the cellular efflux of lipids to high density lipoproteins. ABC1, a member of the ATP-binding cassette family, recently has been identified as the defective gene in Tangier disease. We report here the organization of the human ABC1 gene and the identification of a mutation in the ABC1 gene from the original Tangier disease kindred. The organization of the human ABC1 gene is similar to that of the mouse ABC1 gene and other related ABC genes. The ABC1 gene contains 49 exons that range in size from 33 to 249 bp and is over 70 kb in length. Sequence analysis of the ABC1 gene revealed that the proband for Tangier disease was homozygous for a deletion of nucleotides 3283 and 3284 (TC) in exon 22. The deletion results in a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon starting at nucleotide 3375. The product is predicted to encode a nonfunctional protein of 1,084 aa, which is approximately half the size of the full-length ABC1 protein. The loss of a Mnl1 restriction site, which results from the deletion, was used to establish the genotype of the rest of the kindred. In summary, we report on the genomic organization of the human ABC1 gene and identify a frameshift mutation in the ABC1 gene of the index case of Tangier disease. These results will be useful in the future characterization of the structure and function of the ABC1 gene and the analysis of additional ABC1 mutations in patients with Tangier disease. PMID:10535983

  11. Galectin-3 Silencing Inhibits Epirubicin-Induced ATP Binding Cassette Transporters and Activates the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway via β-Catenin/GSK-3β Modulation in Colorectal Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Kuo; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Chuan-Fa; Lo, Yu-Li

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR), an unfavorable factor compromising the treatment efficacy of anticancer drugs, involves the upregulation of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters and induction of galectin-3 signaling. Galectin-3 plays an anti-apoptotic role in many cancer cells and regulates various pathways to activate MDR. Thus, the inhibition of galectin-3 has the potential to enhance the efficacy of the anticancer drug epirubicin. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanisms of silencing galectin-3 via RNA interference (RNAi) on the β-catenin/GSK-3β pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Galectin-3 knockdown increased the intracellular accumulation of epirubicin in Caco-2 cells; suppressed the mRNA expression of galectin-3, β-catenin, cyclin D1, c-myc, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), MDR-associated protein (MRP) 1, and MRP2; and downregulated the protein expression of P-gp, cyclin D1, galectin-3, β-catenin, c-Myc, and Bcl-2. Moreover, galectin-3 RNAi treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of GSK-3β, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9; remarkably increased the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio; and upregulated the GSK-3β and Bax protein expressions. Apoptosis was induced by galectin-3 RNAi and/or epirubicin as demonstrated by chromatin condensation, a higher sub-G1 phase proportion, and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, indicating an intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Epirubicin-mediated resistance was effectively inhibited via galectin-3 RNAi treatment. However, these phenomena could be rescued after galectin-3 overexpression. We show for the first time that the silencing of galectin-3 sensitizes MDR cells to epirubicin by inhibiting ABC transporters and activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis through modulation of the β-catenin/GSK-3β pathway in human colon cancer cells. PMID:24303084

  12. An ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates the Uptake of α-(1,6)-Linked Dietary Oligosaccharides in Bifidobacterium and Correlates with Competitive Growth on These Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Ejby; Fredslund, Folmer; Andersen, Joakim Mark

    2016-01-01

    The molecular details and impact of oligosaccharide uptake by distinct human gut microbiota (HGM) are currently not well understood. Non-digestible dietary galacto- and gluco--(1,6)-oligosaccharides from legumes and starch, respectively, are preferentially fermented by mainly bifidobacteria...... and lactobacilli in the human gut. Here we show that the solute binding protein (BlG16BP) associated with an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter from the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 binds -(1,6)-linked glucosides and galactosides of varying size, linkage, and monosaccharide...

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 interacts with the putative ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter Rv1747 to regulate mycobacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Lisa N; Swapna, Ganduri; Chavadi, Sivagami Sundaram; Tufariello, JoAnn M; Mi, Kaixia; Drumm, Joshua E; Lam, TuKiet T; Zhu, Guofeng; Zhan, Chenyang; Vilchéze, Catherine; Arcos, Jesus; Chen, Yong; Bi, Lijun; Mehta, Simren; Porcelli, Steven A; Almo, Steve C; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Jacobs, William R; Torrelles, Jordi B; Chan, John

    2017-07-01

    We have previously shown that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth and may be required for the establishment of tuberculous persistence. Here, yeast two-hybrid and affinity chromatography experiments have demonstrated that Rv2623 interacts with one of the two forkhead-associated domains (FHA I) of Rv1747, a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter annotated to export lipooligosaccharides. FHA domains are signaling protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions to modulate a wide variety of biological processes via binding to conserved phosphorylated threonine (pT)-containing oligopeptides of the interactors. Biochemical, immunochemical and mass spectrometric studies have shown that Rv2623 harbors pT and specifically identified threonine 237 as a phosphorylated residue. Relative to wild-type Rv2623 (Rv2623WT), a mutant protein in which T237 has been replaced with a non-phosphorylatable alanine (Rv2623T237A) exhibits decreased interaction with the Rv1747 FHA I domain and diminished growth-regulatory capacity. Interestingly, compared to WT bacilli, an M. tuberculosis Rv2623 null mutant (ΔRv2623) displays enhanced expression of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs), while the ΔRv1747 mutant expresses decreased levels of PIMs. Animal studies have previously shown that ΔRv2623 is hypervirulent, while ΔRv1747 is growth-attenuated. Collectively, these data have provided evidence that Rv2623 interacts with Rv1747 to regulate mycobacterial growth; and this interaction is mediated via the recognition of the conserved Rv2623 pT237-containing FHA-binding motif by the Rv1747 FHA I domain. The divergent aberrant PIM profiles and the opposing in vivo growth phenotypes of ΔRv2623 and ΔRv1747, together with the annotated lipooligosaccharide exporter function of Rv1747, suggest that Rv2623 interacts with Rv1747 to modulate mycobacterial growth by negatively regulating the activity of Rv1747; and that Rv

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 interacts with the putative ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter Rv1747 to regulate mycobacterial growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N Glass

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth and may be required for the establishment of tuberculous persistence. Here, yeast two-hybrid and affinity chromatography experiments have demonstrated that Rv2623 interacts with one of the two forkhead-associated domains (FHA I of Rv1747, a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter annotated to export lipooligosaccharides. FHA domains are signaling protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions to modulate a wide variety of biological processes via binding to conserved phosphorylated threonine (pT-containing oligopeptides of the interactors. Biochemical, immunochemical and mass spectrometric studies have shown that Rv2623 harbors pT and specifically identified threonine 237 as a phosphorylated residue. Relative to wild-type Rv2623 (Rv2623WT, a mutant protein in which T237 has been replaced with a non-phosphorylatable alanine (Rv2623T237A exhibits decreased interaction with the Rv1747 FHA I domain and diminished growth-regulatory capacity. Interestingly, compared to WT bacilli, an M. tuberculosis Rv2623 null mutant (ΔRv2623 displays enhanced expression of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs, while the ΔRv1747 mutant expresses decreased levels of PIMs. Animal studies have previously shown that ΔRv2623 is hypervirulent, while ΔRv1747 is growth-attenuated. Collectively, these data have provided evidence that Rv2623 interacts with Rv1747 to regulate mycobacterial growth; and this interaction is mediated via the recognition of the conserved Rv2623 pT237-containing FHA-binding motif by the Rv1747 FHA I domain. The divergent aberrant PIM profiles and the opposing in vivo growth phenotypes of ΔRv2623 and ΔRv1747, together with the annotated lipooligosaccharide exporter function of Rv1747, suggest that Rv2623 interacts with Rv1747 to modulate mycobacterial growth by negatively regulating the activity of Rv1747

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 interacts with the putative ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter Rv1747 to regulate mycobacterial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufariello, JoAnn M.; Mi, Kaixia; Zhu, Guofeng; Zhan, Chenyang; Vilchéze, Catherine; Arcos, Jesus; Chen, Yong; Bi, Lijun; Porcelli, Steven A.; Almo, Steve C.; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Jacobs, William R.; Torrelles, Jordi B.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth and may be required for the establishment of tuberculous persistence. Here, yeast two-hybrid and affinity chromatography experiments have demonstrated that Rv2623 interacts with one of the two forkhead-associated domains (FHA I) of Rv1747, a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter annotated to export lipooligosaccharides. FHA domains are signaling protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions to modulate a wide variety of biological processes via binding to conserved phosphorylated threonine (pT)-containing oligopeptides of the interactors. Biochemical, immunochemical and mass spectrometric studies have shown that Rv2623 harbors pT and specifically identified threonine 237 as a phosphorylated residue. Relative to wild-type Rv2623 (Rv2623WT), a mutant protein in which T237 has been replaced with a non-phosphorylatable alanine (Rv2623T237A) exhibits decreased interaction with the Rv1747 FHA I domain and diminished growth-regulatory capacity. Interestingly, compared to WT bacilli, an M. tuberculosis Rv2623 null mutant (ΔRv2623) displays enhanced expression of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs), while the ΔRv1747 mutant expresses decreased levels of PIMs. Animal studies have previously shown that ΔRv2623 is hypervirulent, while ΔRv1747 is growth-attenuated. Collectively, these data have provided evidence that Rv2623 interacts with Rv1747 to regulate mycobacterial growth; and this interaction is mediated via the recognition of the conserved Rv2623 pT237-containing FHA-binding motif by the Rv1747 FHA I domain. The divergent aberrant PIM profiles and the opposing in vivo growth phenotypes of ΔRv2623 and ΔRv1747, together with the annotated lipooligosaccharide exporter function of Rv1747, suggest that Rv2623 interacts with Rv1747 to modulate mycobacterial growth by negatively regulating the activity of Rv1747; and that Rv

  16. Implications of cerebrovascular ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) and apolipoprotein M in cholesterol transport at the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Alexandra Carmen; Manavalan, Anil Paul Chirackal; Tam-Amersdorfer, Carmen; Holmér, Andreas; Saeed, Ahmed; Fanaee-Danesh, Elham; Zandl, Martina; Albrecher, Nicole Maria; Björkhem, Ingemar; Kostner, Gerhard M; Dahlbäck, Björn; Panzenboeck, Ute

    2017-06-01

    Impaired cholesterol/lipoprotein metabolism is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cerebral cholesterol homeostasis is maintained by the highly efficient blood-brain barrier (BBB) and flux of the oxysterols 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol, potent liver-X-receptor (LXR) activators. HDL and their apolipoproteins are crucial for cerebral lipid transfer, and loss of ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC)G1 and G4 results in toxic accumulation of oxysterols in the brain. The HDL-associated apolipoprotein (apo)M is positively correlated with pre-β HDL formation in plasma; its presence and function in the brain was thus far unknown. Using an in vitro model of the BBB, we examined expression, regulation, and functions of ABCG1, ABCG4, and apoM in primary porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (pBCEC). RT Q-PCR analyses and immunoblotting revealed that in addition to ABCA1 and scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI), pBCEC express high levels of ABCG1, which was up-regulated by LXR activation. Immunofluorescent staining, site-specific biotinylation and immunoprecipitation revealed that ABCG1 is localized both to early and late endosomes and on apical and basolateral plasma membranes. Using siRNA interference to silence ABCG1 (by 50%) reduced HDL-mediated [3H]-cholesterol efflux (by 50%) but did not reduce [3H]-24(S)-hydroxycholesterol efflux. In addition to apoA-I, pBCEC express and secrete apoM mainly to the basolateral (brain) compartment. HDL enhanced expression and secretion of apoM by pBCEC, apoM-enriched HDL promoted cellular cholesterol efflux more efficiently than apoM-free HDL, while apoM-silencing diminished cellular cholesterol release. We suggest that ABCG1 and apoM are centrally involved in regulation of cholesterol metabolism/turnover at the BBB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mycophenolic acid induces ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression through the PPAR{gamma}-LXR{alpha}-ABCA1 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yanni; Lai, Fangfang; Xu, Yang; Wu, Yexiang; Liu, Qi; Li, Ni; Wei, Yuzhen; Feng, Tingting; Zheng, Zhihui; Jiang, Wei; Yu, Liyan; Hong, Bin [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050 (China); Si, Shuyi, E-mail: sisyimb@hotmail.com [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using an ABCA1p-LUC HepG2 cell line, we found that MPA upregulated ABCA1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPA induced ABCA1 and LXR{alpha} protein expression in HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 markedly inhibited MPA-induced ABCA1 and LXR{alpha} protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of MPA upregulating ABCA1 was due mainly to activation of the PPAR{gamma}-LXR{alpha}-ABCA1 pathway. -- Abstract: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) promotes cholesterol and phospholipid efflux from cells to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I and plays an important role in atherosclerosis. In a previous study, we developed a high-throughput screening method using an ABCA1p-LUC HepG2 cell line to find upregulators of ABCA1. Using this method in the present study, we found that mycophenolic acid (MPA) upregulated ABCA1 expression (EC50 = 0.09 {mu}M). MPA upregulation of ABCA1 expression was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis in HepG2 cells. Previous work has indicated that MPA is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}; EC50 = 5.2-9.3 {mu}M). Liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}) is a target gene of PPAR{gamma} and may directly regulate ABCA1 expression. Western blot analysis showed that MPA induced LXR{alpha} protein expression in HepG2 cells. Addition of PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 markedly inhibited MPA-induced ABCA1 and LXR{alpha} protein expression. These data suggest that MPA increased ABCA1 expression mainly through activation of PPAR{gamma}. Thus, the effects of MPA on upregulation of ABCA1 expression were due mainly to activation of the PPAR{gamma}-LXR{alpha}-ABCA1 signaling pathway. This is the first report that the antiatherosclerosis activity of MPA is due to this mechanism.

  18. Host response transcriptional profiling reveals extracellular components and ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporters gene enrichment in typhoid fever-infected Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resau James H

    2011-09-01

    bacterial invasion. Distinct gene expression profiles can also be obtained from acute vs. convalescent phase during typhoid fever infection. We found novel down-regulation of ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporters genes such as ABCA7, ABCC5, and ABCD4 and ATPase activity as the highest enriched pathway. Conclusions We identified unique extracellular components and ABC transporters gene enrichments in typhoid fever-infected Nigerian children, which have never been reported. These enriched gene clusters may represent novel targeted pathways to improve diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic and next-generation vaccine strategies for typhoid fever in Africa.

  19. Diosgenin inhibits atherosclerosis via suppressing the MiR-19b-induced downregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yun-cheng; Yang, Jing; Yao, Feng; Xie, Wei; Tang, Yan-yan; Ouyang, Xin-ping; He, Ping-ping; Tan, Yu-lin; Li, Liang; Zhang, Min; Liu, Dan; Cayabyab, Francisco S; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Chao-ke

    2015-05-01

    Diosgenin (Dgn), a structural analogue of cholesterol, has been reported to have the hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic properties, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Given the key roles of macrophages in cholesterol metabolism and atherogenesis, it is critical to investigate macrophage cholesterol efflux and development of atherosclerotic lesion after Dgn treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the potential effects of Dgn on macrophage cholesterol metabolism and the development of aortic atherosclerosis, and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Dgn significantly up-regulated the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) protein, but didn't affect liver X receptor α levels in foam cells derived from human THP-1 macrophages and mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) as determined by western blotting. The miR-19b levels were markedly down-regulated in Dgn-treated THP-1 macrophages/MPM-derived foam cells. Cholesterol transport assays revealed that treatment with Dgn alone or together with miR-19b inhibitor notably enhanced ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux, resulting in the reduced levels of total cholesterol, free cholesterol and cholesterol ester as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fecal 3H-sterol originating from cholesterol-laden MPMs was increased in apolipoprotein E knockout mice treated with Dgn or both Dgn and antagomiR-19b. Treatment with Dgn alone or together with antagomiR-19b elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein levels, but reduced plasma low-density lipoprotein levels. Accordingly, aortic lipid deposition and plaque area were reduced, and collagen content and ABCA1 expression were increased in mice treated with Dgn alone or together with antagomiR-19b. However, miR-19b overexpression abrogated the lipid-lowering and atheroprotective effects induced by Dgn. The present study demonstrates that Dgn enhances ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux and inhibits aortic atherosclerosis

  20. A role for calcium in the regulation of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 3 (ABCC3) gene expression in a model of epidermal growth factor-mediated breast cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Azimi, Iman; Thompson, Erik W; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-03-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process implicated in cancer metastasis, is associated with the transcriptional regulation of members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux pumps, and drug resistance in breast cancer cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is calcium signal dependent. In this study induction of EMT was shown to result in the transcriptional up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 3 (ABCC3), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, which has a recognized role in multidrug resistance. Buffering of cytosolic free calcium inhibited EGF-mediated ABCC3 increases, indicating a calcium-dependent mode of regulation. Silencing of TRPM7 (an ion channel involved in EMT associated vimentin induction) did not inhibit ABCC3 up-regulation. Silencing of the store operated calcium entry (SOCE) pathway components ORAI1 and STIM1 also did not alter ABCC3 induction by EGF. However, the calcium permeable ion channel transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1) appears to contribute to the regulation of both basal and EGF-induced ABCC3 mRNA. Improved understanding of the relationship between calcium signaling, EMT and the regulation of genes important in therapeutic resistance may help identify novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rosuvastatin activates ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-dependent efflux ex vivo and promotes reverse cholesterol transport in macrophage cells in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tomohiko; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Tanigawa, Hiroyuki; Kuwano, Takashi; Zhang, Bo; Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2014-10-01

    It is controversial whether statins improve high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function, which plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on reverse cholesterol transport in macrophage cells in vivo and their underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL mice were divided into 3 groups (rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, and control groups) and orally administered rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, or placebo for 6 weeks under feeding with a 0.5% cholesterol+10% coconut oil diet. After administration, although there were no changes in plasma HDL cholesterol levels among the groups, plasma from the rosuvastatin group showed an increased ability to promote ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated cholesterol efflux ex vivo. In addition, capillary electrophoresis revealed a shift in HDL toward the pre-β HDL fraction only in the rosuvastatin group. Mice in all 3 groups were intraperitoneally injected with (3)H-cholesterol-labeled and cholesterol-loaded macrophages and then were monitored for the appearance of (3)H-tracer in plasma and feces. The amount of (3)H-tracer excreted into feces during 48 hours in the rosuvastatin group was greater than that in the control group. Finally, (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-HDL was intravenously injected into all groups, blood samples were taken, and the count of (3)H-cholesterol was analyzed. Plasma (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-HDL changed similarly, and no differences in fractional catabolic rates were observed. Rosuvastatin enhanced the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-dependent HDL efflux function of reverse cholesterol transport, and this finding highlights the potential of rosuvastatin for the regression of atherosclerosis. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. The bovine ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 Tyr581Ser single-nucleotide polymorphism increases milk secretion of the fluoroquinolone danofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Jon A; Real, Rebeca; de la Fuente, Álvaro; Prieto, Julio G; Marqués, Margarita; Álvarez, Ana I; Merino, Gracia

    2013-03-01

    The bovine adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein) polymorphism Tyr581Ser (Y581S) has recently been shown to increase in vitro transepithelial transport of antibiotics. Since this transporter has been extensively related to the active secretion of drugs into milk, the potential in vivo effect of this polymorphism on secretion of xenobiotics in livestock could have striking consequences for milk production, the dairy industry, and public health. Our purpose was to study the in vivo effect of this polymorphism on the secretion of danofloxacin, a widely used veterinary antibiotic, into milk. Danofloxacin (1.25 mg/kg) was administered to six Y/Y 581 homozygous and six Y/S 581 heterozygous lactating cows, and plasma and milk samples were collected and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. No differences were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of danofloxacin in plasma between the two groups of animals. In contrast, Y/S heterozygous cows showed a 2-fold increase in danofloxacin levels in milk. In addition, the pharmacokinetic elimination parameters, mean residence time and elimination half-life, were significantly lower in the milk of the animals carrying the Y/S polymorphism. These in vivo results are in agreement with our previously published in vitro data, which showed a greater capacity of the S581 variant in accumulation assays, and demonstrate, for the first time, an important effect of the Y581S single-nucleotide polymorphism on antibiotic secretion into cow milk. These findings could be extended to other ABCG2 substrates, and may be relevant for the treatment of mastitis and for the design of accurate and novel strategies to handle milk residues.

  3. Suppression of c-Myc is involved in multi-walled carbon nanotubes' down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters in human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaojing [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan (China); Xu, Yonghong [Institute of Ophthalmological Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 430060 Wuhan (China); Meng, Xiangning [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Watari, Fumio [Department of Biomedical, Dental Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Liu, Hudan, E-mail: hudanliu@hust.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan (China); Chen, Xiao, E-mail: mornsmile@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan (China)

    2015-01-01

    Over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a large family of integral membrane proteins that decrease cellular drug uptake and accumulation by active extrusion, is one of the major causes of cancer multi-drug resistance (MDR) that frequently leads to failure of chemotherapy. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based drug delivery devices hold great promise in enhancing the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. However, CNTs' effects on the ABC transporters remain under-investigated. In this study, we found that multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reduced transport activity and expression of ABC transporters including ABCB1/Pgp and ABCC4/MRP4 in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Proto-oncogene c-Myc, which directly regulates ABC gene expression, was concurrently decreased in MWCNT-treated cells and forced over-expression of c-Myc reversed MWCNTs' inhibitory effects on ABCB1 and ABCC4 expression. MWCNT-cell membrane interaction and cell membrane oxidative damage were observed. However, antioxidants such as vitamin C, β-mecaptoethanol and dimethylthiourea failed to antagonize MWCNTs' down-regulation of ABC transporters. These data suggest that MWCNTs may act on c-Myc, but not through oxidative stress, to down-regulate ABC transporter expression. Our findings thus shed light on CNTs' novel cellular effects that may be utilized to develop CNTs-based drug delivery devices to overcome ABC transporter-mediated cancer chemoresistance.

  4. Opposing Gatekeepers of Apical Sterol Transport: Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters G5 and G8 (ABCG5/ABCG8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. Mark; Yu, Liqing

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential for the growth and function of all mammalian cells, but abnormally elevated levels of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). For many years, statin drugs have been used to effectively lower LDL-C, but ASCVD still persists in most of the world. Hence, additional LDL-C lowering is now recommended, and the search for therapeutic strategies that work in synergy with statins has now begun. Intestinal absorption and biliary excretion of cholesterol represent two major pathways and continue to show promise as druggable processes. Importantly, both of these complex physiological pathways are tightly regulated by key proteins located at the apical surface of the small intestine and the liver. One of these proteins, the target of ezetimibe Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1), was recently identified to be essential for intestinal cholesterol absorption and protect against excessive biliary sterol loss. In direct opposition of NPC1L1, the heterodimer of ATP-binding cassette transporters G5 and G8 (ABCG5/ABCG8) has been shown to be critical for promoting biliary cholesterol secretion in the liver, and has also been proposed to play a direct role in intestinal disposal of sterols. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the function of these opposing apical cholesterol transporters, and provide a framework for future studies examining these proteins. PMID:20174593

  5. A common highly conserved cadmium detoxification mechanism from bacteria to humans: heavy metal tolerance conferred by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter SpHMT1 requires glutathione but not metal-chelating phytochelatin peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévéral, Sandra; Gayet, Landry; Moldes, Cristina; Hoffmann, Jonathan; Mounicou, Sandra; Gruet, Antoine; Reynaud, Florie; Lobinski, Ryszard; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Vavasseur, Alain; Forestier, Cyrille

    2009-02-20

    Cadmium poses a significant threat to human health due to its toxicity. In mammals and in bakers' yeast, cadmium is detoxified by ATP-binding cassette transporters after conjugation to glutathione. In fission yeast, phytochelatins constitute the co-substrate with cadmium for the transporter SpHMT1. In plants, a detoxification mechanism similar to the one in fission yeast is supposed, but the molecular nature of the transporter is still lacking. To investigate further the relationship between SpHMT1 and its co-substrate, we overexpressed the transporter in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain deleted for the phytochelatin synthase gene and heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Escherichia coli. In all organisms, overexpression of SpHMT1 conferred a markedly enhanced tolerance to cadmium but not to Sb(III), AgNO(3), As(III), As(V), CuSO(4), or HgCl(2). Abolishment of the catalytic activity by expression of SpHMT1(K623M) mutant suppressed the cadmium tolerance phenotype independently of the presence of phytochelatins. Depletion of the glutathione pool inhibited the SpHMT1 activity but not that of AtHMA4, a P-type ATPase, indicating that GSH is necessary for the SpHMT1-mediated cadmium resistance. In E. coli, SpHMT1 was targeted to the periplasmic membrane and led to an increased amount of cadmium in the periplasm. These results demonstrate that SpHMT1 confers cadmium tolerance in the absence of phytochelatins but depending on the presence of GSH and ATP. Our results challenge the dogma of the two separate cadmium detoxification pathways and demonstrate that a common highly conserved mechanism has been selected during the evolution from bacteria to humans.

  6. Genome-wide identification and evolution of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila: A case of functional divergence in a multigene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Dongxia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, ABC transporters that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to expel cellular substrates into the environment are responsible for most of the efflux from cells. Many members of the superfamily of ABC transporters have been linked with resistance to multiple drugs or toxins. Owing to their medical and toxicological importance, members of the ABC superfamily have been studied in several model organisms and warrant examination in newly sequenced genomes. Results A total of 165 ABC transporter genes, constituting a highly expanded superfamily relative to its size in other eukaryotes, were identified in the macronuclear genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on ortholog comparisons, phylogenetic topologies and intron characterizations, each highly expanded ABC transporter family of T. thermophila was classified into several distinct groups, and hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships are presented. A comprehensive microarray analysis revealed divergent expression patterns among the members of the ABC transporter superfamily during different states of physiology and development. Many of the relatively recently formed duplicate pairs within individual ABC transporter families exhibit significantly different expression patterns. Further analysis showed that multiple mechanisms have led to functional divergence that is responsible for the preservation of duplicated genes. Conclusion Gene duplications have resulted in an extensive expansion of the superfamily of ABC transporters in the Tetrahymena genome, making it the largest example of its kind reported in any organism to date. Multiple independent duplications and subsequent divergence contributed to the formation of different families of ABC transporter genes. Many of the members within a gene family exhibit different expression patterns. The combination of gene duplication followed by both sequence divergence and acquisition of new patterns of

  7. Brucella abortus mutants lacking ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins are highly attenuated in virulence and confer protective immunity against virulent B. abortus challenge in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Park, Soyeon; Park, Bo-Kyoung; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Brucella abortus RB51 is an attenuated vaccine strain that has been most frequently used for bovine brucellosis. Although it is known to provide good protection in cattle, it still has some drawbacks including resistance to rifampicin, residual virulence and pathogenicity in humans. Thus, there has been a continuous interest on new safe and effective bovine vaccine candidates. In the present study, we have constructed unmarked mutants by deleting singly cydD and cydC genes, which encode ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, from the chromosome of the virulent Brucella abortus isolate from Korean cow (referred to as IVK15). Both IVK15ΔcydD and ΔcydC mutants showed increased sensitivity to metal ions, hydrogen peroxide and acidic pH, which are mimic to intracellular environment during host infection. Additionally, the mutants exhibited a significant growth defect in RAW264.7 cells and greatly attenuated in mice. Vaccination of mice with either IVK15ΔcydC or IVK15ΔcydD mutant could elicit an anti-Brucella specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclass responses as well as enhance the secretion of interferon-gamma, and provided better protection against challenge with B. abortus strain 2308 than with the commercial B. abortus strain RB51 vaccine. Collectively, these results suggest that both IVK15ΔcydC and IVK15ΔcydD mutants could be an attenuated vaccine candidate against B. abortus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The non-synonymous Arg230Cys variant (R230C) of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 is associated with low HDL cholesterol concentrations in Mexican adults: a population based nation wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Mehta, Roopa; Rodriguez-Guillén, Rosario; Ordoñez-Sanchez, María Luisa; Riba, Laura; Tusié-Luna, María Teresa

    2011-05-01

    To search for an association between the non-synonymous Arg230Cys variant (R230C) of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and low HDL cholesterol levels in a Mexican, population-based nation wide survey. The 2000 National Health Survey is a cross sectional study that included individuals from 400 cities. All individuals who had a 9-12-h fasted blood sample and a DNA sample were selected (n = 1729). These cases were randomly distributed; no bias was detected for sex, education, region or socioeconomic status. The R230C variant was genotyped using TaqMan assays. In individuals with the R230C/C230C genotypes (39.03 mg/dl (36.63-41.43)) lower HDL-C levels (p cholesterol levels between alleles was 5.73 ± 1.4 mg/dl. The magnitude of the effect was significantly greater in males. The C230 allele of ABCA1 was associated with an increased risk for hypoalphalipoproteinemia (OR 1.66 (95%CI 1.08-2.54), p effect of waist circumference and gender, was 12.2% (95%CI 1.4-24.2%). The non-synonymous Arg230Cys variant of ABCA1 is associated with low levels of HDL cholesterol levels in Mexican adults. The HDL cholesterol lowering effect of the variant is greater in males. The size of the effect is greater compared to that reported for other ABCA1 variants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural elucidation of transmembrane domain zero (TMD0) of EcdL: A multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family of ATP-binding cassette transporter protein revealed by atomistic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Krishnendu; Rani, Priyanka; Kishor, Gaurav; Agarwal, Shikha; Kumar, Antresh; Singh, Durg Vijay

    2017-09-20

    ATP-Binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an extensive role in the translocation of diverse sets of biologically important molecules across membrane. EchnocandinB (antifungal) and EcdL protein of Aspergillus rugulosus are encoded by the same cluster of genes. Co-expression of EcdL and echinocandinB reflects tightly linked biological functions. EcdL belongs to Multidrug Resistance associated Protein (MRP) subfamily of ABC transporters with an extra transmembrane domain zero (TMD0). Complete structure of MRP subfamily comprising of TMD0 domain, at atomic resolution is not known. We hypothesized that the transportation of echonocandinB is mediated via EcdL protein. Henceforth, it is pertinent to know the topological arrangement of TMD0, with other domains of protein and its possible role in transportation of echinocandinB. Absence of effective template for TMD0 domain lead us to model by I-TASSER, further structure has been refined by multiple template modelling using homologous templates of remaining domains (TMD1, NBD1, TMD2, NBD2). The modelled structure has been validated for packing, folding and stereochemical properties. MD simulation for 0.1 μs has been carried out in the biphasic environment for refinement of modelled protein. Non-redundant structures have been excavated by clustering of MD trajectory. The structural alignment of modelled structure has shown Z-score -37.9; 31.6, 31.5 with RMSD; 2.4, 4.2, 4.8 with ABC transporters; PDB ID 4F4C, 4M1 M, 4M2T, respectively, reflecting the correctness of structure. EchinocandinB has been docked to the modelled as well as to the clustered structures, which reveals interaction of echinocandinB with TMD0 and other TM helices in the translocation path build of TMDs.

  10. The human ATP binding cassette gene ABCA13, located on chromosome 7p12.3, encodes a 5058 amino acid protein with an extracellular domain encoded in part by a 4.8-kb conserved exon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prades, C; Arnould, I; Annilo, T; Shulenin, S; Chen, Z Q; Orosco, L; Triunfol, M; Devaud, C; Maintoux-Larois, C; Lafargue, C; Lemoine, C; Denèfle, P; Rosier, M; Dean, M

    2002-01-01

    The ABCA subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters includes eleven members to date. In this study, we describe a new, unusually large gene on chromosome 7p12.3, ABCA13. This gene spans over 450 kb and is split into 62 exons. The predicted ABCA13 protein consists of 5,058 ami- no acid residues making it the largest ABC protein described to date. Like the other ABCA subfamily members, ABCA13 contains a hydrophobic, predicted transmembrane segment at the N-terminus, followed by a large hydrophilic region. In the case of ABCA13, the hydrophilic region is unexpectedly large, more than 3,500 amino acids, encoded by 30 exons, two of which are 4.8 and 1.7 kb in length. These two large exons are adjacent to each other and are conserved in the mouse Abca13 gene. Tissue profiling of the major transcript reveals the highest expression in human trachea, testis, and bone marrow. The expression of the gene was also determined in 60 tumor cell lines and the highest expression was detected in the SR leukemia, SNB-19 CNS tumor and DU-145 prostate tumor cell lines. ABCA13 has high similarity with other ABCA subfamily genes which are associated with human inherited diseases: ABCA1 with the cholesterol transport disorders Tangier disease and familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia, and ABCA4 with several retinal degeneration disorders. The ABCA13 gene maps to chromosome 7p12.3, a region that contains an inherited disorder affecting the pancreas (Shwachman-Diamond syndrome) as well as a locus involved in T-cell tumor invasion and metastasis (INM7), and therefore is a positional candidate for these pathologies. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Polymorphisms in ATP-binding cassette transporter genes and interaction with diet and life style factors in relation to colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family transports various molecules across the enterocytes in the gut protecting the intestine against potentially harmful substances. Moreover, ABC transporters are involved in mucosal immune defence through interaction with cytokines. The study aimed to assess whether polymorphisms in ABCB1, ABCC2 and ABCG2 were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and to investigate gene-environment (dietary factors, smoking and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and gene-gene interactions between previously studied polymorphisms in IL1B and IL10 and ABC transporter genes in relation to CRC risk. We used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Incidence rate ratios were calculated based on Cox' proportional hazards model. None of the polymorphisms were associated with CRC, but ABCB1 and ABCG2 haplotypes were associated with risk of CRC. ABCB1/rs1045642 interacted with intake of cereals and fiber (p-Value for interaction (P(int)) = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). In a three-way analysis, both ABCB1/rs1045642 and ABCG2/rs2231137 in combination with IL10/rs3024505 interacted with fiber intake in relation to risk of CRC (P(int) = 0.0007 and 0.009). Our results suggest that the ABC transporters P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance 1 and BRCP, in cooperation with IL-10, are involved in the biological mechanism underlying the protective effect of fiber intake in relation to CRC. These results should be replicated in other cohorts to rule out chance findings.

  12. ATP-Binding Cassette Systems of Brucella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic C. Jenner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a prevalent zoonotic disease and is endemic in the Middle East, South America, and other areas of the world. In this study, complete inventories of putative functional ABC systems of five Brucella species have been compiled and compared. ABC systems of Brucella melitensis 16M, Brucella abortus 9-941, Brucella canis RM6/66, Brucella suis 1330, and Brucella ovis 63/290 were identified and aligned. High numbers of ABC systems, particularly nutrient importers, were found in all Brucella species. However, differences in the total numbers of ABC systems were identified (B. melitensis, 79; B. suis, 72; B. abortus 64; B. canis, 74; B. ovis, 59 as well as specific differences in the functional ABC systems of the Brucella species. Since B. ovis is not known to cause human brucellosis, functional ABC systems absent in the B. ovis genome may represent virulence factors in human brucellosis.

  13. Pharmacophore modeling of nilotinib as an inhibitor of ATP-binding cassette drug transporters and BCR-ABL kinase using a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Suneet; Kouanda, Abdul; Silverton, Latoya; Talele, Tanaji T; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2014-07-07

    Nilotinib (Tasigna) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved by the FDA to treat chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients. It is also a transport substrate of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux transporters ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein, P-gp) and ABCG2 (BCRP), which may have an effect on the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of this drug. The goal of this study was to identify pharmacophoric features of nilotinib in order to potentially develop specific inhibitors of BCR-ABL kinase with minimal interactions with ABC drug transporters. Three-dimensional pharmacophore modeling and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were carried out on a series of nilotinib analogues to identify chemical features that contribute to inhibitory activity of nilotinib against BCR-ABL kinase activity, P-gp, and ABCG2. Twenty-five derivatives of nilotinib were synthesized and were then tested to measure their activity to inhibit BCR-ABL kinase and to inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters. A set of in vitro experiments including kinase activity and cell-based transport assays and photolabeling of P-gp and ABCG2 with a transport substrate, [(125)I]-iodoarylazido-prazosin (IAAP), were carried out in isolated membranes to evaluate the potency of the derivatives to inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters and BCR-ABL kinase. Sixteen, fourteen, and ten compounds were selected as QSAR data sets, respectively, to generate PHASE v3.1 pharmacophore models for BCR-ABL kinase, ABCG2, and P-gp inhibitors. The IC50 values of these derivatives against P-gp, ABCG2, or BCR-ABL kinase were used to generate pharmacophore features required for optimal interactions with these targets. A seven-point pharmacophore (AADDRRR) for BCR-ABL kinase inhibitory activity, a six-point pharmacophore (ADHRRR) for ABCG2 inhibitory activity, and a seven-point pharmacophore (AADDRRR) for P-gp inhibitory activity were generated. The derived models clearly demonstrate high predictive power

  14. ATP Binding and Hydrolysis Properties of ABCB10 and Their Regulation by Glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Liesa, Marc; Carpenter, Elizabeth P.; Shirihai, Orian S.

    2015-01-01

    ABCB10 (ATP binding cassette sub-family B10) is a mitochondrial inner-membrane ABC transporter. ABCB10 has been shown to protect the heart from the impact of ROS during ischemia-reperfusion and to allow for proper hemoglobin synthesis during erythroid development. ABC transporters are proteins that increase ATP binding and hydrolysis activity in the presence of the transported substrate. However, molecular entities transported by ABCB10 and its regulatory mechanisms are currently unknown. Here we characterized ATP binding and hydrolysis properties of ABCB10 by using the 8-azido-ATP photolabeling technique. This technique can identify potential ABCB10 regulators, transported substrates and amino-acidic residues required for ATP binding and hydrolysis. We confirmed that Gly497 and Lys498 in the Walker A motif, Glu624 in the Walker B motif and Gly602 in the C-Loop motif of ABCB10 are required for proper ATP binding and hydrolysis activity, as their mutation changed ABCB10 8-Azido-ATP photo-labeling. In addition, we show that the potential ABCB10 transported entity and heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (dALA) does not alter 8-azido-ATP photo-labeling. In contrast, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) stimulates ATP hydrolysis without affecting ATP binding, whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) inhibits ATP binding and hydrolysis. Indeed, we detectABCB10 glutathionylation in Cys547 and show that it is one of the exposed cysteine residues within ABCB10 structure. In all, we characterize essential residues for ABCB10 ATPase activity and we provide evidence that supports the exclusion of dALA as a potential substrate directly transported by ABCB10. Last, we show the first molecular mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative status, through GSH/GSSG, can regulate ABCB10. PMID:26053025

  15. MicroRNA-320a and microRNA-4496 attenuate Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA)-induced cancer-initiating potential and chemoresistance by targeting β-catenin and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong Woo; Yang, Eun Sun; Noh, Yu Na; Hwang, Won Chan; Jo, Se-Young; Suh, Young-Ah; Park, Won Sang; Choi, Kang-Yell; Min, Do Sik

    2017-04-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is closely linked to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Although cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), a major virulence factor of H. pylori, is known to be a causal factor for gastric carcinogenesis, the molecular link between CagA and gastric cancer-initiating cell (CIC)-like properties remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that CagA is required for increased expression of β-catenin and its target CIC markers via downregulation of microRNA (miR)-320a and miR-4496. CagA promoted gastric CIC properties and was responsible for chemoresistance. miR-320a and miR-4496 attenuated the in vitro self-renewal and tumour-initiating capacity of CagA-expressing CICs by targeting β-catenin. Moreover, miR-320a and miR-4496 decreased CagA-induced chemoresistance by targeting ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2) at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, respectively. Combination therapy with 5-fluorouracil and miR-320a/miR-4496 suppressed gastric tumourigenesis and metastatic potential in an orthotopic mouse model, probably via suppression of CagA-induced CIC properties and chemoresistance. Our results provide novel evidence that CIC properties, chemoresistance and tumourigenesis associated with H. pylori are linked to CagA-induced upregulation of β-catenin and ABCG2. These data provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of CagA-induced carcinogenisis and the therapeutic potential of of miR-320a and miR-4496. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Expression and regulation of prostaglandin transporters, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 1 and 9, and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 and 5A1 in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwanhee; Choi, Yohan; Yoo, Inkyu; Han, Jisoo; Kim, Minjeong; Ka, Hakhyun

    2017-05-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) function in various reproductive processes, including luteolysis, maternal pregnancy recognition, conceptus development, and parturition. Our earlier study has shown that PG transporters ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 4 ( ABCC4 ) and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 ( SLCO2A1 ) are expressed in the uterine endometrium in pigs. Since several other PG transporters such as ABCC1 , ABCC9 , SLCO4C1 , and SLCO5A1 are known to be present in the uterine endometrium, this study investigated the expression of these PG transporters in the porcine uterine endometrium and placenta. Uterine endometrial tissues were obtained from gilts on day (D) 12 and D15 of the estrous cycle and days 12, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 114 of pregnancy. ABCC1 , ABCC9 , SLCO4C1 , and SLCO5A1 mRNAs were expressed in the uterine endometrium, and levels of expression changed during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Expression of ABCC1 and ABCC9 mRNAs was localized mainly to luminal and glandular epithelial cells in the uterine endometrium, and chorionic epithelial cells during pregnancy. Conceptuses during early pregnancy and chorioallantoic tissues from mid to late pregnancy also expressed these PG transporters. Estradiol-17β increased the expression of ABCC1 and SLCO5A1 , but not ABCC9 and SLCO4C1 mRNAs and increasing doses of interleukin-1β induced the expression of ABCC9 , SLCO4C1 , and SLCO5A1 mRNAs in endometrial explant tissues. These data showed that several PG transporters such as ABCC1 , ABCC9 , SLCO4C1 , and SLCO5A1 were expressed at the maternal-conceptus interface, suggesting that these PG transporters may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy by regulating PG transport in the uterine endometrium and placenta in pigs.

  17. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter genes up-regulation in untreated hepatocellular carcinoma is mediated by cellular microRNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borel, Florie; Han, Ruiqi; Visser, Allerdien; Petry, Harald; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Konstantinova, Pavlina

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are drug efflux pumps responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype causing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment failure. Here we studied the expression of 15 ABC transporters relevant for multidrug resistance in 19 paired HCC

  18. The structural basis of a high affinity ATP binding ε subunit from a bacterial ATP synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krah

    Full Text Available The ε subunit from bacterial ATP synthases functions as an ATP sensor, preventing ATPase activity when the ATP concentration in bacterial cells crosses a certain threshold. The R103A/R115A double mutant of the ε subunit from thermophilic Bacillus PS3 has been shown to bind ATP two orders of magnitude stronger than the wild type protein. We use molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations to derive the structural basis of the high affinity ATP binding to the R103A/R115A double mutant. Our results suggest that the double mutant is stabilized by an enhanced hydrogen-bond network and fewer repulsive contacts in the ligand binding site. The inferred structural basis of the high affinity mutant may help to design novel nucleotide sensors based on the ε subunit from bacterial ATP synthases.

  19. Functional Analysis of Detergent‐Solubilized and Membrane‐Reconstituted ATP‐Binding Cassette Transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Bert; Doeven, Mark K.; Geertsma, Eric R.; Biemans‐Oldehinkel, Esther; Konings, Wil N.; Rees, Douglas C.

    2005-01-01

    ATP‐binding cassette (ABC) transporters are vital to any living system and are involved in the translocation of a wide variety of substances, from ions and nutrients to high molecular weight proteins. This chapter describes methods used to purify and membrane reconstitute ABC transporters in a fully

  20. Functional Analysis of Detergent‐Solubilized and Membrane‐Reconstituted ATP‐Binding Cassette Transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Poolman, Bert; Doeven, Mark K.; Geertsma, Eric R.; Biemans‐Oldehinkel, Esther; Konings, Wil N.; Rees, Douglas C.

    2005-01-01

    ATP‐binding cassette (ABC) transporters are vital to any living system and are involved in the translocation of a wide variety of substances, from ions and nutrients to high molecular weight proteins. This chapter describes methods used to purify and membrane reconstitute ABC transporters in a fully functional state. The procedures are largely based on our experience with substrate‐binding protein‐dependent ABC uptake systems from bacteria, but the approaches should be applicable to multisubu...

  1. Kinetics of signaling-DNA-aptamer-ATP binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Issei; Shi, An-Chang; Nutiu, Razvan; Yu, Jasmine M. Y.; Li, Yingfu

    2009-03-01

    DNA aptamers are molecular biosensors consisting of single functionalized DNA molecules, which can bind to specific targets or complementary DNA sequences. The binding kinetics of DNA aptamers is studied by fluorescence quenching at 23°C . A kinetic model for the binding reaction of DNA aptamer, antisense DNA, and ATP target is developed to describe experimental observations. The approach leads to a simple procedure to deduce relevant kinetic reactions and their rate constants. A comparison between theory and experiments indicates that the previously established bimolecular DNA-ATP binding does not provide a complete description of the experimental data. Side reactions such as trimolecular complexation are proposed. Rate constants of the model are determined by comparing the model predictions and experiments. Good agreements between the model and experiments have been obtained. Possible blocking reactions by the misfolded DNA aptamer are also discussed.

  2. Melanin binding study of clinical drugs with cassette dosing and rapid equilibrium dialysis inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkonen, Laura; Tengvall-Unadike, Unni; Ruponen, Marika; Kidron, Heidi; Del Amo, Eva M; Reinisalo, Mika; Urtti, Arto

    2017-11-15

    Melanin pigment is a negatively charged polymer found in pigmented human tissues. In the eye, iris, ciliary body, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are heavily pigmented. Several drug molecules are known to bind to melanin, but larger sets of drugs have not been compared often in similar test conditions. In this study, we introduce a powerful tool for screening of melanin binding. The binding of a set of 34 compounds to isolated porcine RPE melanin was determined by cassette (n-in-one) dosing in rapid equilibrium dialysis inserts and the binding was quantitated with LC-MS/MS analytics. The compounds represented large variety in melanin binding (from 8.6%, ganciclovir) to over 95% bound (ampicillin and ciprofloxacin). The data provides information on melanin binding of small molecular weight compounds that are used for ocular (e.g. brinzolamide, ganciclovir) and systemic (e.g. tizanidine, indomethacin) therapy. Interestingly, competition among compounds was seen for melanin binding and the binding did not show any correlation with plasma protein binding. These results increase the understanding of melanin binding of ocular drugs and can be further exploited to predict pharmacokinetics in the eye. Pigment binding provides an interesting option for improved drug distribution to retina and choroid that are difficult target tissues in drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How Native and Alien Metal Cations Bind ATP: Implications for Lithium as a Therapeutic Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudev, Todor; Grauffel, Cédric; Lim, Carmay

    2017-02-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the major energy currency of the cell, exists in solution mostly as ATP-Mg. Recent experiments suggest that Mg2+ interacts with the highly charged ATP triphosphate group and Li+ can co-bind with the native Mg2+ to form ATP-Mg-Li and modulate the neuronal purine receptor response. However, it is unclear how the negatively charged ATP triphosphate group binds Mg2+ and Li+ (i.e. which phosphate group(s) bind Mg2+/Li+) and how the ATP solution conformation depends on the type of metal cation and the metal-binding mode. Here, we reveal the preferred ATP-binding mode of Mg2+/Li+ alone and combined: Mg2+ prefers to bind ATP tridentately to each of the three phosphate groups, but Li+ prefers to bind bidentately to the terminal two phosphates. We show that the solution ATP conformation depends on the cation and its binding site/mode, but it does not change significantly when Li+ binds to Mg2+-loaded ATP. Hence, ATP-Mg-Li, like Mg2+-ATP, can fit in the ATP-binding site of the host enzyme/receptor, activating specific signaling pathways.

  4. Equilibrated atomic models of outward-facing P-glycoprotein and effect of ATP binding on structural dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lurong; Aller, Stephen G

    2015-01-20

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that alternates between inward- and outward-facing conformations to capture and force substrates out of cells like a peristaltic pump. The high degree of similarity in outward-facing structures across evolution of ABC transporters allowed construction of a high-confidence outward-facing Pgp atomic model based on crystal structures of outward-facing Sav1866 and inward-facing Pgp. The model adhered to previous experimentally determined secondary- and tertiary- configurations during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in the presence or absence of MgATP. Three long lasting (>100 ns) meta-stable states were apparent in the presence of MgATP revealing new insights into alternating access. The two ATP-binding pockets are highly asymmetric resulting in differential control of overall structural dynamics and allosteric regulation of the drug-binding pocket. Equilibrated Pgp has a considerably different electrostatic profile compared to Sav1866 that implicates significant kinetic and thermodynamic differences in transport mechanisms.

  5. Dynamics of the metal binding domains and regulation of the human copper transporters ATP7B and ATP7A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Corey H; Dolgova, Natalia V; Dmitriev, Oleg Y

    2017-04-01

    Copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B regulate copper levels in the human cells and deliver copper to the biosynthetic pathways. ATP7A and ATP7B belong to the P-type ATPases and share much of the domain architecture and the mechanism of ATP hydrolysis with the other, well-studied, enzymes of this type. A unique structural feature of the copper ATPases is the chain of six cytosolic metal-binding domains (MBDs), which are believed to be involved in copper-dependent regulation of the activity and intracellular localization of these enzymes. Although the structures of all the MBDs have been solved, the mechanism of copper-dependent regulation of ATP7B and ATP7A, the roles of individual MBDs, and the relationship between the regulatory and catalytic copper binding are still unknown. We describe the structure and dynamics of the MBDs, review the current knowledge about their functional roles and propose a mechanism of regulation of ATP7B by copper-dependent changes in the dynamics and conformation of the MBD chain. Transient interactions between the MBDs, rather than transitions between distinct static conformations are likely to form the structural basis of regulation of the ATP-dependent copper transporters in human cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 69(4):226-235, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. ATP-binding cassette transporter controls leaf surface secretion of anticancer drug components in Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is highly specialized for the biosynthesis of many different monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), many of which have powerful biological activities. Such MIAs include the commercially important chemotherapy drugs vinblastine, vincristine, and other synthetic derivatives that are derived from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline. However, previous studies have shown that biosynthesis of these MIAs involves extensive movement of metabolites between specialized internal leaf cells and the leaf epidermis that require the involvement of unknown secretory processes for mobilizing catharanthine to the leaf surface and vindoline to internal leaf cells. Spatial separation of vindoline and catharanthine provides a clear explanation for the low levels of dimers that accumulate in intact plants. The present work describes the molecular cloning and functional identification of a unique catharanthine transporter (CrTPT2) that is expressed predominantly in the epidermis of young leaves. CrTPT2 gene expression is activated by treatment with catharanthine, and its in planta silencing redistributes catharanthine to increase the levels of catharanthine–vindoline drug dimers in the leaves. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CrTPT2 is closely related to a key transporter involved in cuticle assembly in plants and that may be unique to MIA-producing plant species, where it mediates secretion of alkaloids to the plant surface. PMID:24019465

  7. ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 deficiency causes hypertriglyceridemia by affecting multiple metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-González, Jesús; Julve, Josep; Rotllan, Noemí; Llaverias, Gemma; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

    2011-12-01

    Mutations in ABCG5 or ABCG8 transporters are responsible for sitosterolemia, an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the accumulation of plant sterols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ABCG5 and ABCG8 deficiency on TG metabolism in mice. Experiments were carried out in wild-type (G5/G8+/+) mice, mice heterozygous for ABCG5 and ABCG8 deficiency (G5/G8+/-) and ABCG5/G8-deficient (G5/G8-/-) mice fed a chow diet. Plasma TG were 2.6 and 4.3-fold higher in fasted G5/G8+/- and G5/G8-/- mice, respectively, than in G5/G8+/+ mice. Postprandial TG were 5-fold higher in G5/G8-/- mice. TG metabolism studies indicate that: first, the fractional catabolic rate was significantly lower in G5/G8+/- (1.3-fold) and G5/G8-/- mice (1.5-fold) compared to G5/G8+/+ and postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase activities were significantly lower in G5/G8+/- (1.8-fold) and G5/G8-/- mice (5.4-fold) than in G5/G8+/+. Second, liver TG secretion was 1.3-fold higher in G5/G8+/- and G5/G8-/- than in G5/G8+/+ mice and this was associated with an increase in liver LXR, FAS, ACAC and CD36 gene expression. Third, TG intestinal secretion, determined after an oral fat gavage of glycerol tri[9,10(n)-(3)H] oleate, was 5.8-fold higher in G5/G8-/- than in G5/G8+/+ mice. Also, the HOMA index was 2.6-fold higher in G5/G8-/- than in G5/G8+/+ mice, reflecting a degree of insulin resistance. In conclusion, ABCG5/G8 deficiency in mice fed a chow diet markedly raises TG levels by impairing TG catabolism and by increasing liver and intestinal TG secretion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Crystal structure of an integron gene cassette-associated protein from Vibrio cholerae identifies a cationic drug-binding module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrika N Deshpande

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron gene cassettes.We report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of Cass2, an integron-associated protein derived from an environmental V. cholerae. The structure defines a monomeric beta-barrel protein with a fold related to the effector-binding portion of AraC/XylS transcription activators. The closest homologs of Cass2 are multi-drug binding proteins, such as BmrR. Consistent with this, a binding pocket made up of hydrophobic residues and a single glutamate side chain is evident in Cass2, occupied in the crystal form by polyethylene glycol. Fluorescence assays demonstrate that Cass2 is capable of binding cationic drug compounds with submicromolar affinity. The Cass2 module possesses a protein interaction surface proximal to its drug-binding cavity with features homologous to those seen in multi-domain transcriptional regulators.Genetic analysis identifies Cass2 to be representative of a larger family of independent effector-binding proteins associated with lateral gene transfer within Vibrio and closely-related species. We propose that the Cass2 family not only has capacity to form functional transcription regulator complexes, but represents possible evolutionary precursors to multi-domain regulators associated with cationic drug compounds.

  9. Facile conversion of ATP-binding RNA aptamer to quencher-free molecular aptamer beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoojin; Nim-Anussornkul, Duangrat; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Morii, Takashi; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2018-01-15

    We have developed RNA-based quencher-free molecular aptamer beacons (RNA-based QF-MABs) for the detection of ATP, taking advantage of the conformational changes associated with ATP binding to the ATP-binding RNA aptamer. The RNA aptamer, with its well-defined structure, was readily converted to the fluorescence sensors by incorporating a fluorophore into the loop region of the hairpin structure. These RNA-based QF-MABs exhibited fluorescence signals in the presence of ATP relative to their low background signals in the absence of ATP. The fluorescence emission intensity increased upon formation of a RNA-based QF-MAB·ATP complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette member A3 gene mutation in children from one family from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Gawahir Mohamed Ahmed; Al Otaibi, Wadha Hilal; Al-Mobaireek, Khalid Fahad Abdullah; Al-Saleh, Suhail

    2016-01-01

    Mutation in ABCA3, which is adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette member A3, a member of protein transporter family for phospholipids into the lamellar bodies during synthesis of surfactant, can cause lung disease related to surfactant dysfunction with autosomal recessive pattern. We reported three cases from same family with ABCA3 mutation, their gene, clinical course, and outcomes mentioning that one patient had successful lung transplantation, one started the process of the lung transplantation while the third one died during infancy. We concluded that the patients with ABCA3 gene mutations are increasing in numbers may be due to the availability of the genetic testing and high index of suspicion among physicians. Lung transplantation is the definitive treatment, but availability is limited in our region.

  11. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette member A3 gene mutation in children from one family from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawahir Mohamed Ahmed Mukhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutation in ABCA3, which is adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette member A3, a member of protein transporter family for phospholipids into the lamellar bodies during synthesis of surfactant, can cause lung disease related to surfactant dysfunction with autosomal recessive pattern. We reported three cases from same family with ABCA3 mutation, their gene, clinical course, and outcomes mentioning that one patient had successful lung transplantation, one started the process of the lung transplantation while the third one died during infancy. We concluded that the patients with ABCA3 gene mutations are increasing in numbers may be due to the availability of the genetic testing and high index of suspicion among physicians. Lung transplantation is the definitive treatment, but availability is limited in our region.

  12. Isolated cerebellar variant of adrenoleukodystrophy with a de novo adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette D1 (ABCD1) gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joon Won; Lee, Sang Mi; Koo, Kyo Yeon; Lee, Young-Mock; Nam, Hyo Suk; Quan, Zhejiu; Kang, Hoon-Chul

    2014-07-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) shows a wide range of phenotypic expression, but clinical presentation as an isolated lesion of the cerebellar white matter and dentate nuclei has not been reported. We report an unusual presentation of X-ALD only with an isolated lesion of the cerebellar white matter and dentate nuclei. The proband, a 37-year-old man presented with bladder incontinence, slurred speech, dysmetria in all limbs, difficulties in balancing, and gait ataxia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an isolated signal change of white matter around the dentate nucleus in cerebellum. With high level of very long chain fatty acid, gene study showed a de novo mutation in exon 1 at nucleotide position c.277_296dup20 (p.Ala100Cysfs*10) of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette D1 gene. It is advised to consider X-ALD as a differential diagnosis in patients with isolated cerebellar degeneration symptoms.

  13. Conformation of nanoconfined DNA as a function of ATP, AMP, CTP, Mg2+, and dye binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Maedeh; Riehn, Robert

    2014-03-01

    DNA molecules stretch in nanochannels with a channel cross-section of 100x100 nm2, thereby allowing analysis by observation of a fluorescent dye. The length and configuration of DNA can be directly observed, and the effect of different DNA-binding proteins on DNA configuration can be studied. Recently, we reported on the ability of T4 ligase to transiently manipulate DNA as a function of ATP and magnesium exposure. In this process we have extensively probed the interactions of dyes and enzyme co-factors with DNA under nanoconfinement. We find negligible effects if DNA is visualized using groove-binding dyes such as DAPI. However, if an intercalating dye (YOYO-1) is used, we find a significant shortening of the DNA in the presence of ATP that we attribute to an interaction of dye and ATP (as well as AMP and CTP). We did not record a noticeable effect due to Mg2+.

  14. Sterol transporter adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G8, gallstones, and biliary cancer in 62,000 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Gallstone disease, a risk factor for biliary cancer, has a strong heritable component, but the underlying genes are largely unknown. To test the hypothesis that ABCG8 (adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G8) Asp19His (D19H) genotype predicted risk of gallstones and biliary cancer...

  15. Construction of deletion mutants in the phosphotransferase transport system and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters in Listeria monocytogenes and analysis of their growth under different stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ceruso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional genomics approaches enable us to investigate the biochemical, cellular, and physiological properties of each gene product and are nowadays applied to enhance food safety by understanding microbial stress responses in food and host-pathogen interactions. Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that causes listeriosis and is difficult to eliminate this pathogen since it can survive under multiple stress conditions such as low pH and low temperature. Detailed studies are needed to determine its mode of action and to understand the mechanisms that protect the pathogen when it is subjected to stress. In this study, deletion mutants of phosphotransferase transport system genes (PTS and adenosine triphosphate(ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC of Listeria monocytogenes F2365 were created using molecular techniques. These mutants and the wild-type were tested under different stress conditions, such as in solutions with different NaCl concentration, pH value and for nisin resistance. Results demonstrate that the behaviour of these deletion mutants is different from the wild type. In particular, deleted genes may be involved in L. monocytogenes resistance to nisin and to acid and salt concentrations. Functional genomics research on L. monocytogenes allows a better understanding of the genes related to stress responses and this knowledge may help in intervention strategies to control this food-borne pathogen. Furthermore, specific gene markers can be used to identify and subtype L. monocytogenes. Thus, future development of this study will focus on additional functional analyses of important stress response-related genes, as well as on methods for rapid and sensitive detection of L. monocytogenes such as using DNA microarrays.

  16. Mechanical Control of ATP Synthase Function: Activation Energy Difference between Tight and Loose Binding Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás

    2010-01-26

    Despite exhaustive chemical and crystal structure studies, the mechanistic details of how FoF1-ATP synthase can convert mechanical energy to chemical, producing ATP, are still not fully understood. On the basis of quantum mechanical calculations using a recent highresolution X-ray structure, we conclude that formation of the P-O bond may be achieved through a transition state (TS) with a planar PO3 - ion. Surprisingly, there is a more than 40 kJ/mol difference between barrier heights of the loose and tight binding sites of the enzyme. This indicates that even a relatively small change in active site conformation, induced by the γ-subunit rotation, may effectively block the back reaction in βTP and, thus, promote ATP. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  17. Plasmodium falciparum expressing domain cassette 5 type PfEMP1 (DC5-PfEMP1 bind PECAM1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne S Berger

    Full Text Available Members of the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 family expressed on the surface of malaria-infected erythrocytes mediate binding of the parasite to different receptors on the vascular lining. This process drives pathologies, and severe childhood malaria has been associated with the expression of particular subsets of PfEMP1 molecules. PfEMP1 are grouped into subtypes based on upstream sequences and the presence of semi-conserved PfEMP1 domain compositions named domain cassettes (DCs. Earlier studies have indicated that DC5-containing PfEMP1 (DC5-PfEMP1 are more likely to be expressed in children with severe malaria disease than in children with uncomplicated malaria, but these PfEMP1 subtypes only dominate in a relatively small proportion of the children with severe disease. In this study, we have characterised the genomic sequence characteristic for DC5, and show that two genetically different parasite lines expressing DC5-PfEMP1 bind PECAM1, and that anti-DC5-specific antibodies inhibit binding of DC5-PfEMP1-expressing parasites to transformed human bone marrow endothelial cells (TrHBMEC. We also show that antibodies against each of the four domains characteristic for DC5 react with native PfEMP1 expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes, and that some of these antibodies are cross-reactive between the two DC5-containing PfEMP1 molecules tested. Finally, we confirm that anti-DC5 antibodies are acquired early in life by individuals living in malaria endemic areas, that individuals having high levels of these antibodies are less likely to develop febrile malaria episodes and that the antibody levels correlate positively with hemoglobin levels.

  18. Oligomycin frames a common drug-binding site in the ATP synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symersky, Jindrich; Osowski, Daniel; Walters, D. Eric; Mueller, David M. (Rosalind)

    2015-12-01

    We report the high-resolution (1.9 {angstrom}) crystal structure of oligomycin bound to the subunit c10 ring of the yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase. Oligomycin binds to the surface of the c10 ring making contact with two neighboring molecules at a position that explains the inhibitory effect on ATP synthesis. The carboxyl side chain of Glu59, which is essential for proton translocation, forms an H-bond with oligomycin via a bridging water molecule but is otherwise shielded from the aqueous environment. The remaining contacts between oligomycin and subunit c are primarily hydrophobic. The amino acid residues that form the oligomycin-binding site are 100% conserved between human and yeast but are widely different from those in bacterial homologs, thus explaining the differential sensitivity to oligomycin. Prior genetics studies suggest that the oligomycin-binding site overlaps with the binding site of other antibiotics, including those effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and thereby frames a common 'drug-binding site.' We anticipate that this drug-binding site will serve as an effective target for new antibiotics developed by rational design.

  19. Zinc and ATP Binding of the Hexameric AAA-ATPase PilF from Thermus thermophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Ralf; Herzberg, Martin; Nies, Dietrich H.; Joos, Friederike; Rathmann, Barbara; Thielmann, Yvonne; Averhoff, Beate

    2014-01-01

    The traffic AAA-ATPase PilF is essential for pilus biogenesis and natural transformation of Thermus thermophilus HB27. Recently, we showed that PilF forms hexameric complexes containing six zinc atoms coordinated by conserved tetracysteine motifs. Here we report that zinc binding is essential for complex stability. However, zinc binding is neither required for pilus biogenesis nor natural transformation. A number of the mutants did not exhibit any pili during growth at 64 °C but still were transformable. This leads to the conclusion that type 4 pili and the DNA translocator are distinct systems. At lower growth temperatures (55 °C) the zinc-depleted multiple cysteine mutants were hyperpiliated but defective in pilus-mediated twitching motility. This provides evidence that zinc binding is essential for the role of PilF in pilus dynamics. Moreover, we found that zinc binding is essential for complex stability but dispensable for ATPase activity. In contrast to many polymerization ATPases from mesophilic bacteria, ATP binding is not required for PilF complex formation; however, it significantly increases complex stability. These data suggest that zinc and ATP binding increase complex stability that is important for functionality of PilF under extreme environmental conditions. PMID:25202014

  20. Conformational changes produced by ATP binding to the plasma membrane calcium pump

    OpenAIRE

    Mangialavori, Irene C.; Ferreira Gomes, Mariela S.; Saffioti, Nicolas A.; Gonzalez-Lebrero, Rodolfo Martin; Rossi, Rolando Carlos; Rossi, Juan Pablo Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA) reaction cycle by characterizing conformational changes associated with calcium, ATP, and vanadate binding to purified PMCA. This was accomplished by studying the exposure of PMCA to surrounding phospholipids by measuring the incorporation of the photoactivatable phosphatidylcholine analog 1-O-hexadecanoyl-2-O-[9-[[[2-[125I]iodo-4-(trifluoromethyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)benzyl]oxy]carbonyl]nonanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholin...

  1. Long-range coupling between ATP-binding and lever-arm regions in myosin via dielectric allostery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takato; Ohnuki, Jun; Takano, Mitsunori

    2017-12-01

    A protein molecule is a dielectric substance, so the binding of a ligand is expected to induce dielectric response in the protein molecule, considering that ligands are charged or polar in general. We previously reported that binding of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to molecular motor myosin actually induces such a dielectric response in myosin due to the net negative charge of ATP. By this dielectric response, referred to as "dielectric allostery," spatially separated two regions in myosin, the ATP-binding region and the actin-binding region, are allosterically coupled. In this study, from the statistically stringent analyses of the extensive molecular dynamics simulation data obtained in the ATP-free and the ATP-bound states, we show that there exists the dielectric allostery that transmits the signal of ATP binding toward the distant lever-arm region. The ATP-binding-induced electrostatic potential change observed on the surface of the main domain induced a movement of the converter subdomain from which the lever arm extends. The dielectric response was found to be caused by an underlying large-scale concerted rearrangement of the electrostatic bond network, in which highly conserved charged/polar residues are involved. Our study suggests the importance of the dielectric property for molecular machines in exerting their function.

  2. Long-range coupling between ATP-binding and lever-arm regions in myosin via dielectric allostery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takato; Ohnuki, Jun; Takano, Mitsunori

    2017-12-07

    A protein molecule is a dielectric substance, so the binding of a ligand is expected to induce dielectric response in the protein molecule, considering that ligands are charged or polar in general. We previously reported that binding of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to molecular motor myosin actually induces such a dielectric response in myosin due to the net negative charge of ATP. By this dielectric response, referred to as "dielectric allostery," spatially separated two regions in myosin, the ATP-binding region and the actin-binding region, are allosterically coupled. In this study, from the statistically stringent analyses of the extensive molecular dynamics simulation data obtained in the ATP-free and the ATP-bound states, we show that there exists the dielectric allostery that transmits the signal of ATP binding toward the distant lever-arm region. The ATP-binding-induced electrostatic potential change observed on the surface of the main domain induced a movement of the converter subdomain from which the lever arm extends. The dielectric response was found to be caused by an underlying large-scale concerted rearrangement of the electrostatic bond network, in which highly conserved charged/polar residues are involved. Our study suggests the importance of the dielectric property for molecular machines in exerting their function.

  3. Binding Stoichiometry of a Recombinant Selenophosphate Synthetase with One Synonymic Substitution E197D to a Fluorescent Nucleotide Analog of ATP, TNP-ATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Preobrazhenskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the strain DH5αTM-T1R with plasmid vector pET11a containing the cloned gene of bacterial selenophosphate synthetase (SPS, selD, from the E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3 strain gives an overproducing strain of SPS with one synonymic substitution, E197D. The transformation efficiency was estimated as 8 × 108 CFU/μg plasmid DNA. 28 mg of highly purified preparation of recombinant SPS capable of binding TNP-ATP was eluted from DEAE-Sephadex column in amount of 15 % from the total soluble protein in crude extract. The fluorescent derivative of ATP, 2′(3′-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyladenosine-5′-triphosphate (TNP-ATP, was used as a synthetic analog of the substrate for the monitoring and quantitative analysis of the functional activity of SPS. The non-linear regression analysis of the saturation curve of TNP-ATP binding to D197 SPS with GraphPad Prism software fits to a model with 2 distinct binding sites with KDs different in order. The SPS existence in a form of tetramer in given reaction conditions, in accordance with the concentration stoichiometry of 4 moles of TNP-ATP to 1 mole of recombinant protein, is being discussed. The tetramer structure was predicted with molecular modelling software YASARA and modelled in vacuum using steepest descent minimization energy method. We hypothesize here the recombinant SPS exists as a dimer in solution with two active sites capable of ATP binding in each subunit.

  4. Identification of the magnesium-binding domain of the high affinity ATP binding-site of the Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli seca protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wolk, J.P.W.; Klose, M; de Wit, Janny; Blaauwen, T.den; Freudl, R; Driessen, A.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The homodimeric SecA protein is the peripheral subunit of the translocase, and couples the hydrolysis of ATP to the translocation of precursor proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. The high affinity ATP binding activity of SecA resides in the amino-terminal domain of SecA. This domain

  5. ATP-independent cooperative binding of yeast Isw1a to bare and nucleosomal DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne De Cian

    Full Text Available Among chromatin remodeling factors, the ISWI family displays a nucleosome-enhanced ATPase activity coupled to DNA translocation. While these enzymes are known to bind to DNA, their activity has not been fully characterized. Here we use TEM imaging and single molecule manipulation to investigate the interaction between DNA and yeast Isw1a. We show that Isw1a displays a highly cooperative ATP-independent binding to and bridging between DNA segments. Under appropriate tension, rare single nucleation events can sometimes be observed and loop DNA with a regular step. These nucleation events are often followed by binding of successive complexes bridging between nearby DNA segments in a zipper-like fashion, as confirmed by TEM observations. On nucleosomal substrates, we show that the specific ATP-dependent remodeling activity occurs in the context of cooperative Isw1a complexes bridging extranucleosomal DNA. Our results are interpreted in the context of the recently published partial structure of Isw1a and support its acting as a "protein ruler" (with possibly more than one tick.

  6. Linoleic acid suppresses cholesterol efflux and ATP-binding cassette transporters in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly associated with elevated plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Paradoxically, evidence suggests that unsaturated, compared to saturated fatty acids, suppress macrophage chole...

  7. Structural organization of essential iron-sulfur clusters in the evolutionarily highly conserved ATP-binding cassette protein ABCE1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthelme, Dominik; Scheele, Urte; Dinkelaker, Stephanie; Janoschka, Adam; MacMillan, Fraser; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Stagni, Marco Salamone; Bill, Eckhard; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Schuenemann, Volker; Tampe, Robert; Schünemann, Volker

    2007-01-01

    The ABC protein ABCE1, formerly named RNase L inhibitor RLI1, is one of the most conserved proteins in evolution and is expressed in all organisms except eubacteria. Because of its fundamental role in translation initiation and/or ribosome biosynthesis, ABCE1 is essential for life. Its molecular

  8. The effects of ADF/cofilin and profilin on the conformation of the ATP-binding cleft of monomeric actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Roland; Pozsonyi, Kinga; Nevalainen, Elisa; Lappalainen, Pekka; Nyitrai, Miklós; Hild, Gábor

    2009-03-18

    Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin and profilin are small actin-binding proteins, which have central roles in cytoskeletal dynamics in all eukaryotes. When bound to an actin monomer, ADF/cofilins inhibit the nucleotide exchange, whereas most profilins accelerate the nucleotide exchange on actin monomers. In this study the effects of ADF/cofilin and profilin on the accessibility of the actin monomer's ATP-binding pocket was investigated by a fluorescence spectroscopic method. The fluorescence of the actin bound epsilon-ATP was quenched with a neutral quencher (acrylamide) in steady-state and time dependent experiments, and the data were analyzed with a complex form of the Stern-Volmer equation. The experiments revealed that in the presence of ADF/cofilin the accessibility of the bound epsilon-ATP decreased, indicating a closed and more compact ATP-binding pocket induced by the binding of ADF/cofilin. In the presence of profilin the accessibility of the bound epsilon-ATP increased, indicating a more open and approachable protein matrix around the ATP-binding pocket. The results of the fluorescence quenching experiments support a structural mechanism regarding the regulation of the nucleotide exchange on actin monomers by ADF/cofilin and profilin.

  9. ATP binding by NLRP7 is required for inflammasome activation in response to bacterial lipopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radian, Alexander D; Khare, Sonal; Chu, Lan H; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligimerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in innate immune responses. NLRs encode a central nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) consisting of the NAIP, CIITA, HET-E and TP1 (NACHT) domain and the NACHT associated domain (NAD), which facilitates receptor oligomerization and downstream inflammasome signaling. The NBD contains highly conserved regions, known as Walker motifs, that are required for nucleotide binding and hydrolysis. The NLR containing a PYRIN domain (PYD) 7 (NLRP7) has been recently shown to assemble an ASC and caspase-1-containing high molecular weight inflammasome complex in response to microbial acylated lipopeptides and Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for NLRP7 inflammasome activation is still elusive. Here we demonstrate that the NBD of NLRP7 is an ATP binding domain and has ATPase activity. We further show that an intact nucleotide-binding Walker A motif is required for NBD-mediated nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, oligomerization, and NLRP7 inflammasome formation and activity. Accordingly, THP-1 cells expressing a mutated Walker A motif display defective NLRP7 inflammasome activation, interleukin (IL)-1β release and pyroptosis in response to acylated lipopeptides and S. aureus infection. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the mechanism of NLRP7 inflammasome assembly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The intranuclear mobility of messenger RNA binding proteins is ATP dependent and temperature sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapez, Alexandre; Pereira, Henrique M; Calado, Angelo; Braga, José; Rino, José; Carvalho, Célia; Tavanez, João Paulo; Wahle, Elmar; Rosa, Agostinho C; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    2002-12-09

    After being released from transcription sites, messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) must reach the nuclear pore complexes in order to be translocated to the cytoplasm. Whether the intranuclear movement of mRNPs results largely from Brownian motion or involves molecular motors remains unknown. Here we have used quantitative photobleaching techniques to monitor the intranuclear mobility of protein components of mRNPs tagged with GFP. The results show that the diffusion coefficients of the poly(A)-binding protein II (PABP2) and the export factor TAP are significantly reduced when these proteins are bound to mRNP complexes, as compared with nonbound proteins. The data further show that the mobility of wild-type PABP2 and TAP, but not of a point mutant variant of PABP2 that fails to bind to RNA, is significantly reduced when cells are ATP depleted or incubated at 22 degrees C. Energy depletion has only minor effects on the intranuclear mobility of a 2,000-kD dextran (which corresponds approximately in size to 40S mRNP particles), suggesting that the reduced mobility of PABP2 and TAP is not caused by a general alteration of the nuclear environment. Taken together, the data suggest that the mobility of mRNPs in the living cell nucleus involves a combination of passive diffusion and ATP-dependent processes.

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Universal Stress Protein Rv2623 Regulates Bacillary Growth by ATP Binding: Requirement for Establishing Chronic Persistent Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumm, J.; Mi, K; Bilder, P; Sun, M; Lim, J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Basaraba, R; So, M; Zhu, G; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosisuniversal stress protein (USP) homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress, conditions thought to promote latency. Induction of rv2623 also occurs when M. tuberculosis encounters conditions associated with growth arrest, such as the intracellular milieu of macrophages and in the lungs of mice with chronic tuberculosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Rv2623 regulates tuberculosis latency. We observed that an Rv2623-deficient mutant fails to establish chronic tuberculous infection in guinea pigs and mice, exhibiting a hypervirulence phenotype associated with increased bacterial burden and mortality. Consistent with this in vivo growth-regulatory role, constitutive overexpression of rv2623 attenuates mycobacterial growth in vitro. Biochemical analysis of purified Rv2623 suggested that this mycobacterial USP binds ATP, and the 2.9-A-resolution crystal structure revealed that Rv2623 engages ATP in a novel nucleotide-binding pocket. Structure-guided mutagenesis yielded Rv2623 mutants with reduced ATP-binding capacity. Analysis of mycobacteria overexpressing these mutants revealed that the in vitro growth-inhibitory property of Rv2623 correlates with its ability to bind ATP. Together, the results indicate that i M. tuberculosis Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth in vitro and in vivo, and ii Rv2623 is required for the entry of the tubercle bacillus into the chronic phase of infection in the host; in addition, iii Rv2623 binds ATP; and iv the growth-regulatory attribute of this USP is dependent on its ATP-binding activity. We propose that Rv2623 may function as an ATP-dependent signaling intermediate in a pathway that promotes persistent infection.

  12. Studies on ATP-diphosphohydrolase nucleotide-binding sites by intrinsic fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kettlun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Potato apyrase, a soluble ATP-diphosphohydrolase, was purified to homogeneity from several clonal varieties of Solanum tuberosum. Depending on the source of the enzyme, differences in kinetic and physicochemical properties have been described, which cannot be explained by the amino acid residues present in the active site. In order to understand the different kinetic behavior of the Pimpernel (ATPase/ADPase = 10 and Desirée (ATPase/ADPase = 1 isoenzymes, the nucleotide-binding site of these apyrases was explored using the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan. The intrinsic fluorescence of the two apyrases was slightly different. The maximum emission wavelengths of the Desirée and Pimpernel enzymes were 336 and 340 nm, respectively, suggesting small differences in the microenvironment of Trp residues. The Pimpernel enzyme emitted more fluorescence than the Desirée apyrase at the same concentration although both enzymes have the same number of Trp residues. The binding of the nonhydrolyzable substrate analogs decreased the fluorescence emission of both apyrases, indicating the presence of conformational changes in the neighborhood of Trp residues. Experiments with quenchers of different polarities, such as acrylamide, Cs+ and I- indicated the existence of differences in the nucleotide-binding site, as further shown by quenching experiments in the presence of nonhydrolyzable substrate analogs. Differences in the nucleotide-binding site may explain, at least in part, the kinetic differences of the Pimpernel and Desirée isoapyrases.

  13. ATP-binding site of adenylate kinase: mechanistic implications of its homology with ras-encoded p21, F1-ATPase, and other nucleotide-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D C; Kuby, S A; Mildvan, A S

    1986-02-01

    The MgATP binding site of adenylate kinase, located by a combination of NMR and x-ray diffraction, is near three protein segments, five to seven amino acids in length, that are homologous in sequence to segments found in other nucleotide-binding phosphotransferases, such as myosin and F1-ATPase, ras p21 and transducin GTPases, and cAMP-dependent and src protein kinases, suggesting equivalent mechanistic roles of these segments in all of these proteins. Segment 1 is a glycine-rich flexible loop that, on adenylate kinase, may control access to the ATP-binding site by changing its conformation. Segment 2 is an alpha-helix containing two hydrophobic residues that interact with the adenine-ribose moiety of ATP, and a lysine that may bind to the beta- and gamma-phosphates of ATP. Segment 3 is a hydrophobic strand of parallel beta-pleated sheet, terminated by a carboxylate, that flanks the triphosphate binding site. The various reported mutations of ras p21 that convert it to a transforming agent all appear to involve segment 1, and such substitutions may alter the properties of p21 by hindering a conformational change at this segment. In F1-ATPase, the flexible loop may, by its position, control both the accessibility and the ATP/ADP equilibrium constant on the enzyme.

  14. Trimeric form of intracellular ATP synthase subunit β of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans binds human interleukin-1β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamari Paino

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilms resist host defenses and antibiotics partly because of their decreased metabolism. Some bacteria use proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-1β, as cues to promote biofilm formation and to alter virulence. Although one potential bacterial IL-1β receptor has been identified, current knowledge of the bacterial IL-1β sensing mechanism is limited. In chronic biofilm infection, periodontitis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans requires tight adherence (tad-locus to form biofilms, and tissue destroying active lesions contain more IL-1β than inactive ones. The effect of IL-1β on the metabolic activity of A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm was tested using alamarBlue™. The binding of IL-1β to A. actinomycetemcomitans cells was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. To identify the proteins which interacted with IL-1β, different protein fractions from A. actinomycetemcomitans were run in native-PAGE and blotted using biotinylated IL-1β and avidin-HRP, and identified using mass spectroscopy. We show that although IL-1β slightly increases the biofilm formation of A. actinomycetemcomitans, it reduces the metabolic activity of the biofilm. A similar reduction was observed with all tad-locus mutants except the secretin mutant, although all tested mutant strains as well as wild type strains bound IL-1β. Our results suggest that IL-1β might be transported into the A. actinomycetemcomitans cells, and the trimeric form of intracellular ATP synthase subunit β interacted with IL-1β, possibly explaining the decreased metabolic activity. Because ATP synthase is highly conserved, it might universally enhance biofilm resistance to host defense by binding IL-1β during inflammation.

  15. A structural classification of substrate-binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsson, Ronnie P. -A.; Smits, Sander H. J.; Schmitt, Lutz; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Substrate-binding proteins (SBP) are associated with a wide variety of protein complexes. The proteins are part of ATP-binding cassette transporters for substrate uptake, ion gradient driven transporters, DNA-binding proteins, as well as channels and receptors from both pro-and eukaryotes. A wealth

  16. Decipher the mechanisms of protein conformational changes induced by nucleotide binding through free-energy landscape analysis: ATP binding to Hsp70.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Nicolaï

    Full Text Available ATP regulates the function of many proteins in the cell by transducing its binding and hydrolysis energies into protein conformational changes by mechanisms which are challenging to identify at the atomic scale. Based on molecular dynamics (MD simulations, a method is proposed to analyze the structural changes induced by ATP binding to a protein by computing the effective free-energy landscape (FEL of a subset of its coordinates along its amino-acid sequence. The method is applied to characterize the mechanism by which the binding of ATP to the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD of Hsp70 propagates a signal to its substrate-binding domain (SBD. Unbiased MD simulations were performed for Hsp70-DnaK chaperone in nucleotide-free, ADP-bound and ATP-bound states. The simulations revealed that the SBD does not interact with the NBD for DnaK in its nucleotide-free and ADP-bound states whereas the docking of the SBD was found in the ATP-bound state. The docked state induced by ATP binding found in MD is an intermediate state between the initial nucleotide-free and final ATP-bound states of Hsp70. The analysis of the FEL projected along the amino-acid sequence permitted to identify a subset of 27 protein internal coordinates corresponding to a network of 91 key residues involved in the conformational change induced by ATP binding. Among the 91 residues, 26 are identified for the first time, whereas the others were shown relevant for the allosteric communication of Hsp70 s in several experiments and bioinformatics analysis. The FEL analysis revealed also the origin of the ATP-induced structural modifications of the SBD recently measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. The pathway between the nucleotide-free and the intermediate state of DnaK was extracted by applying principal component analysis to the subset of internal coordinates describing the transition. The methodology proposed is general and could be applied to analyze allosteric communication in

  17. Rational design of substrate binding pockets in polyphosphate kinase for use in cost-effective ATP-dependent cascade reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hao; Nie, Kaili; Li, Chengcheng; Xu, Haijun; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Luo

    2017-07-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the energy equivalent of the living system. Polyphosphate (polyP) is the ancient energy storage equivalent of organisms. Polyphosphate kinases (PPKs) catalyze the polyP formation or ATP formation, to store energy or to regenerate ATP, respectively. However, most PPKs are active only in the presence of long polyPs, which are more difficult and more expensive to generate than the short polyPs. We investigated the PPK preference towards polyPs by site-directed mutagenesis and computational simulation, to understand the mechanism and further design enzymes for effective ATP regeneration using short polyPs for in vitro cascade reactions, which are highly desired for research and applications. The results suggest that the short polyPs inhibit PPK by blocking the ADP-binding pocket. Structural comparison between PPK (Corynebacterium glutamicum) and PPK (Sinorhizobium meliloti) indicates that three amino acid residues, i.e., lysine, glutamate, and threonine, are involved in the activity towards short polyP by fixing the adenosine group of ADP in between the subunits of the dimer, while the terminal phosphate group of ADP still offers an active site, which presents a binding pocket for ADP. A proposed triple mutant PPK (SMc02148-KET) demonstrates significant activity towards short polyP to form ATP from ADP. The obtained high glutathione titer (38.79 mM) and glucose-6-phosphate titer (87.35 mM) in cascade reactions with ATP regeneration using the triple mutant PPK (SMc02148-KET) reveal that the tailored PPK establishes the effective ATP regeneration system for ATP-dependent reactions.

  18. Discovery of a new ATP-binding motif involved in peptidic azoline biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Kyle L; Chekan, Jonathan R; Cox, Courtney L; Burkhart, Brandon J; Nair, Satish K; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2014-10-01

    Despite intensive research, the cyclodehydratase responsible for azoline biogenesis in thiazole/oxazole-modified microcin (TOMM) natural products remains enigmatic. The collaboration of two proteins, C and D, is required for cyclodehydration. The C protein is homologous to E1 ubiquitin-activating enzymes, whereas the D protein is within the YcaO superfamily. Recent studies have demonstrated that TOMM YcaOs phosphorylate amide carbonyl oxygens to facilitate azoline formation. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of an uncharacterized YcaO from Escherichia coli (Ec-YcaO). Ec-YcaO harbors an unprecedented fold and ATP-binding motif. This motif is conserved among TOMM YcaOs and is required for cyclodehydration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the C protein regulates substrate binding and catalysis and that the proline-rich C terminus of the D protein is involved in C protein recognition and catalysis. This study identifies the YcaO active site and paves the way for the characterization of the numerous YcaO domains not associated with TOMM biosynthesis.

  19. Mevalonate 5-diphosphate mediates ATP binding to the mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase from the bacterial pathogen Enterococcus faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Mermoud, James C.; Paul, Lake N.; Steussy, Calvin Nicklaus; Stauffacher, Cynthia V. (Purdue)

    2017-10-12

    The mevalonate pathway produces isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), a building block for polyisoprenoid synthesis, and is a crucial pathway for growth of the human bacterial pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The final enzyme in this pathway, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD), acts on mevalonate diphosphate (MVAPP) to produce IPP while consuming ATP. This essential enzyme has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections. Here, we report functional and structural studies on the mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase from E. faecalis (MDDEF). The MDDEF crystal structure in complex with ATP (MDDEF–ATP) revealed that the phosphate-binding loop (amino acids 97–105) is not involved in ATP binding and that the phosphate tail of ATP in this structure is in an outward-facing position pointing away from the active site. This suggested that binding of MDDEF to MVAPP is necessary to guide ATP into a catalytically favorable position. Enzymology experiments show that the MDDEF performs a sequential ordered bi-substrate reaction with MVAPP as the first substrate, consistent with the isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments. On the basis of ITC results, we propose that this initial prerequisite binding of MVAPP enhances ATP binding. In summary, our findings reveal a substrate-induced substrate-binding event that occurs during the MDDEF-catalyzed reaction. The disengagement of the phosphate-binding loop concomitant with the alternative ATP-binding configuration may provide the structural basis for antimicrobial design against these pathogenic enterococci.

  20. ATP binding to p97/VCP D1 domain regulates selective recruitment of adaptors to its proximal N-domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sheng Chia

    Full Text Available p97/Valosin-containing protein (VCP is a member of the AAA-ATPase family involved in many cellular processes including cell division, intracellular trafficking and extraction of misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD. It is a homohexamer with each subunit containing two tandem D1 and D2 ATPase domains and N- and C-terminal regions that function as adaptor protein binding domains. p97/VCP is directed to its many different functional pathways by associating with various adaptor proteins. The regulation of the recruitment of the adaptor proteins remains unclear. Two adaptor proteins, Ufd1/Npl4 and p47, which bind exclusively to the p97/VCP N-domain and direct p97/VCP to either ERAD-related processes or homotypic fusion of Golgi fragments, were studied here. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based assays allowed the study of binding kinetics in real time. In competition experiments, it was observed that in the presence of ATP, Ufd1/Npl4 was able to compete more effectively with p47 for binding to p97/VCP. By using non-hydrolysable ATP analogues and the hexameric truncated p97/N-D1 fragment, it was shown that binding rather than hydrolysis of ATP to the proximal D1 domain strengthened the Ufd1/Npl4 association with the N-domain, thus regulating the recruitment of either Ufd1/Npl4 or p47. This novel role of ATP and an assigned function to the D1 AAA-ATPase domain link the multiple functions of p97/VCP to the metabolic status of the cell.

  1. A Novel Domain Cassette Identifies Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1 Proteins Binding ICAM-1 and Is a Target of Cross-Reactive, Adhesion-Inhibitory Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Anja; Jørgensen, Louise; Rask, Thomas Salhøj

    2013-01-01

    adhesion ligands and to IEs with affinity for ICAM-1. However, recent evidence has cast doubt on both these associations, tempering hopes of the feasibility of developing a vaccine based on ICAM-1-binding PfEMP1. In this study, we report the identification of a domain cassette (DC) present in group A var...... genes from six genetically distinct P. falciparum parasites. The three domains in the cassette, which we call DC4, had a high level of sequence identity and cluster together phylogenetically. Erythrocytes infected by these parasites and selected in vitro for expression of DC4 adhered specifically...

  2. Solution structure and function in trifluoroethanol of PP-50, an ATP-binding peptide from F1ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, W J; Abeygunawardana, C; Gittis, A G; Pedersen, P L; Mildvan, A S

    1995-05-10

    PP-50, a synthetic peptide, based on residues 141-190 of the beta-subunit of mitochondrial F1ATPase, containing the GX4GKT consensus sequence for nucleoside triphosphate binding, binds ATP tightly (Kd = 17.5 microM) as found by fluorescence titration at pH 4.0. CD and 2D proton NMR studies at pH 4.0 revealed two beta-turns, regions of extended secondary structure, transient tertiary structure, and flexibility in the GX4GKT region (W.J. Chuang, C. Abeygunawardana, P. L. Pedersen, and A. S. Mildvan, 1992, Biochemistry 31, 7915-7921). CD titration of PP-50 with trifluoroethanol (TFE) reveals a decrease in ellipticity at 208 and 222 nm, saturating at 25% TFE. Computer analysis indicates that 25% TFE increases the helix content from 5.8 to 28.6%, decreases the beta-structure from 30.2 to 20.2% and decreases the coil content from 64 to 51.2%. Fluorescence titrations of H2ATP2- with PP-50 in 25% TFE yields a Kd of 7.3 microM, 2.4-fold tighter than in H2O, probably due to TFE increasing the activity of H2ATP2- . PP-50 completely quenches the fluorescence of H2ATP2- in 25% TFE, while in H2O the fluorescence quenching is only 62%. In H2O the binding of H2ATP2- increases the structure of PP-50 as detected by CD, but in 25% TFE no significant change in CD is found on binding either H2ATP2- or Mg2+ HATP (Kd = 14 microM). The complete proton NMR spectrum of PP-50 in 25% TFE has been assigned. The solution structure, determined by distance geometry, molecular dynamics with simulated annealing, and energy minimization, consists of a coil (residues 1-8), a strand (residues 9-12), a loop (residues 13-22) containing the GX4GKT consensus sequence (residues 16-23), an alpha-helix (residues 23-36), a turn (residues 38-41), and a coil (residues 42-50), similar to that of the corresponding region of the X-ray structure of F1ATPase (J.P. Abrahams, A.G.W. Leslie, R. Lutter, and J. E. Walker, 1994 Nature 370, 621-628) and to the structure of a homologous peptide from the ATP-binding site of

  3. Plasmodium falciparum Expressing Domain Cassette 5 Type PfEMP1 (DC5-PfEMP1) Bind PECAM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Sanne S; Turner, Louise; Wang, Christian W

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family expressed on the surface of malaria-infected erythrocytes mediate binding of the parasite to different receptors on the vascular lining. This process drives pathologies, and severe childhood malaria has been...

  4. ATP binding and hydrolysis by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh3 are differentially modulated by mismatch and double-strand break repair DNA substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Charanya; Eichmiller, Robin; Wang, Bangchen; Williams, Gregory M; Bianco, Piero R; Surtees, Jennifer A

    2014-06-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Msh2-Msh3-mediated mismatch repair (MMR) recognizes and targets insertion/deletion loops for repair. Msh2-Msh3 is also required for 3' non-homologous tail removal (3'NHTR) in double-strand break repair. In both pathways, Msh2-Msh3 binds double-strand/single-strand junctions and initiates repair in an ATP-dependent manner. However, we recently demonstrated that the two pathways have distinct requirements with respect to Msh2-Msh3 activities. We identified a set of aromatic residues in the nucleotide binding pocket (FLY motif) of Msh3 that, when mutated, disrupted MMR, but left 3'NHTR largely intact. One of these mutations, msh3Y942A, was predicted to disrupt the nucleotide sandwich and allow altered positioning of ATP within the pocket. To develop a mechanistic understanding of the differential requirements for ATP binding and/or hydrolysis in the two pathways, we characterized Msh2-Msh3 and Msh2-msh3Y942A ATP binding and hydrolysis activities in the presence of MMR and 3'NHTR DNA substrates. We observed distinct, substrate-dependent ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide turnover by Msh2-Msh3, indicating that the MMR and 3'NHTR DNA substrates differentially modify the ATP binding/hydrolysis activities of Msh2-Msh3. Msh2-msh3Y942A retained the ability to bind DNA and ATP but exhibited altered ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide turnover. We propose that both ATP and structure-specific repair substrates cooperate to direct Msh2-Msh3-mediated repair and suggest an explanation for the msh3Y942A separation-of-function phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ATP binding and hydrolysis by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh3 are differentially modulated by Mismatch and Double-strand Break Repair DNA substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Charanya; Eichmiller, Robin; Wang, Bangchen; Williams, Gregory M.; Bianco, Piero R.; Surtees, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Msh2-Msh3-mediated mismatch repair (MMR) recognizes and targets insertion/deletion loops for repair. Msh2-Msh3 is also required for 3′ non-homologous tail removal (3′NHTR) in double-strand break repair. In both pathways, Msh2-Msh3 binds double-strand/single-strand junctions and initiates repair in an ATP-dependent manner. However, we recently demonstrated that the two pathways have distinct requirements with respect to Msh2-Msh3 activities. We identified a set of aromatic residues in the nucleotide binding pocket (FLY motif) of Msh3 that, when mutated, disrupted MMR, but left 3′ NHTR largely intact. One of these mutations, msh3Y942A, was predicted to disrupt the nucleotide sandwich and allow altered positioning of ATP within the pocket. To develop a mechanistic understanding of the differential requirements for ATP binding and/or hydrolysis in the two pathways, we characterized Msh2-Msh3 and Msh2-msh3Y942A ATP binding and hydrolysis activities in the presence of MMR and 3′ NHTR DNA substrates. We observed distinct, substrate-dependent ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide turnover by Msh2-Msh3, indicating that the MMR and 3′ NHTR DNA substrates differentially modify the ATP binding/hydrolysis activities of Msh2-Msh3. Msh2-msh3Y942A retained the ability to bind DNA and ATP but exhibited altered ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide turnover. We propose that both ATP and structure-specific repair substrates cooperate to direct Msh2-Msh3-mediated repair and suggest an explanation for the msh3Y942A separation-of-function phenotype. PMID:24746922

  6. Structural models of zebrafish (Danio rerio NOD1 and NOD2 NACHT domains suggest differential ATP binding orientations: insights from computational modeling, docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Maharana

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1 and NOD2 are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors playing pivotal roles in innate immune signaling. NOD1 and NOD2 recognize bacterial peptidoglycan derivatives iE-DAP and MDP, respectively and undergoes conformational alternation and ATP-dependent self-oligomerization of NACHT domain followed by downstream signaling. Lack of structural adequacy of NACHT domain confines our understanding about the NOD-mediated signaling mechanism. Here, we predicted the structure of NACHT domain of both NOD1 and NOD2 from model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio using computational methods. Our study highlighted the differential ATP binding modes in NOD1 and NOD2. In NOD1, γ-phosphate of ATP faced toward the central nucleotide binding cavity like NLRC4, whereas in NOD2 the cavity was occupied by adenine moiety. The conserved 'Lysine' at Walker A formed hydrogen bonds (H-bonds and Aspartic acid (Walker B formed electrostatic interaction with ATP. At Sensor 1, Arg328 of NOD1 exhibited an H-bond with ATP, whereas corresponding Arg404 of NOD2 did not. 'Proline' of GxP motif (Pro386 of NOD1 and Pro464 of NOD2 interacted with adenine moiety and His511 at Sensor 2 of NOD1 interacted with γ-phosphate group of ATP. In contrast, His579 of NOD2 interacted with the adenine moiety having a relatively inverted orientation. Our findings are well supplemented with the molecular interaction of ATP with NLRC4, and consistent with mutagenesis data reported for human, which indicates evolutionary shared NOD signaling mechanism. Together, this study provides novel insights into ATP binding mechanism, and highlights the differential ATP binding modes in zebrafish NOD1 and NOD2.

  7. Design and synthesis of a heterocyclic compound collection for probing the spatial charactistics of ATP binding sites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kenyon, CP

    2006-02-28

    Full Text Available stream_source_info parkinson_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3323 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name parkinson_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Design and Synthesis of a... Heterocyclic Compound Collection for Probing the Spatial Charactistics of ATP Binding Sites Presented at the CSIR Conference Centre CSIR Biosciences C.P. Kenyon, P.M. Matlaba, C.J. Parkinson, A.L. Rousseau and C.W. van der Westhuyzen February 28, 2006...

  8. Functional Diversity of Tandem Substrate-Binding Domains in ABC Transporters from Pathogenic Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulyani, Faizah; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Vujicic - Zagar, Andreja; Guskov, Albert; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter GInPQ is an essential uptake system for amino acids in gram-positive pathogens and related nonpathogenic bacteria. The transporter has tandem substrate-binding domains (SBDs) fused to each transmembrane domain, giving rise to four SBDs per functional

  9. Distorted octahedral coordination of tungstate in a subfamily of specific binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollenstein, K.; Comellas-Bigler, M.; Bevers, L.E.; Feiters, M.C.; Meyer-Klaucke, W.; Hagedoorn, P.L.; Locher, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea import molybdenum and tungsten from the environment in the form of the oxyanions molybdate (MoO4 2?) and tungstate (WO4 2?). These substrates are captured by an external, high-affinity binding protein, and delivered to ATP binding cassette transporters, which move them across

  10. Strategies for maximizing ATP supply in the microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi: direct binding of mitochondria to the parasitophorous vacuole and clustering of the mitochondrial porin VDAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Christian; Howell, Matthew; Bhella, David; Lucocq, John

    2014-04-01

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites with extremely reduced genomes and a dependence on host-derived ATP. The microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi proliferates within a membranous vacuole and we investigated how the ATP supply is optimized at the vacuole-host interface. Using spatial EM quantification (stereology), we found a single layer of mitochondria coating substantial proportions of the parasitophorous vacuole. Mitochondrial binding occurred preferentially over the vegetative 'meront' stages of the parasite, which bulged into the cytoplasm, thereby increasing the membrane surface available for mitochondrial interaction. In a broken cell system mitochondrial binding was maintained and was typified by electron dense structures (vacuole membranes. In broken cells mitochondrial binding was sensitive to a range of protease treatments. The function of directly bound mitochondria, as measured by the membrane potential sensitive dye JC-1, was indistinguishable from other mitochondria in the cell although there was a generalized depression of the membrane potential in infected cells. Finally, quantitative immuno-EM revealed that the ATP-delivering mitochondrial porin, VDAC, was concentrated atthe mitochondria-vacuole interaction site. Thus E. cuniculi appears to maximize ATP supply by direct binding of mitochondria to the parasitophorous vacuole bringing this organelle within 0.020 microns of the growing vegetative form of the parasite. ATP-delivery is further enhanced by clustering of ATP transporting porins in those regions of the outer mitochondrial membrane lying closest to the parasite. © 2013 The Authors. Cellular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. ABCC6-mediated ATP secretion by the liver is the main source of the mineralization inhibitor inorganic pyrophosphate in the systemic circulation-brief report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Robert S.; Duijst, Suzanne; Mahakena, Sunny; Sommer, Daniela; Szeri, Flóra; Váradi, András; Plomp, Astrid; Bergen, Arthur A.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Borst, Piet; van de Wetering, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in ABCC6 underlie the ectopic mineralization disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and some forms of generalized arterial calcification of infancy, both of which affect the cardiovascular system. Using cultured cells, we recently showed that ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 6

  12. ABCC6-mediated ATP secretion by the liver is the main source of the mineralization inhibitor inorganic pyrophosphate in the systemic circulation-brief report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Robert S; Duijst, Suzanne; Mahakena, Sunny; Sommer, Daniela; Szeri, Flóra; Váradi, András; Plomp, A.S.; Bergen, Arthur A; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Borst, Piet; van de Wetering, Koen

    OBJECTIVE: Mutations in ABCC6 underlie the ectopic mineralization disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and some forms of generalized arterial calcification of infancy, both of which affect the cardiovascular system. Using cultured cells, we recently showed that ATP-binding cassette subfamily C

  13. Data-driven homology modelling of P-glycoprotein in the ATP-bound state indicates flexibility of the transmembrane domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stockner, T.; de Vries, S.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837717; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238; Ecker, G.F.; Chiba, P.

    2009-01-01

    Human P-glycoprotein is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that plays an important role in the defence against potentially harmful molecules from the environment. It is involved in conferring resistance against cancer therapeutics and plays an important role for the pharmacokinetics of drugs. The

  14. The Specialized Hsp70 (HscA) Interdomain Linker Binds to Its Nucleotide-Binding Domain and Stimulates ATP Hydrolysis in Both cis and trans Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Proteins from the isc operon of Escherichia coli constitute the machinery used to synthesize iron–sulfur (Fe–S) clusters for delivery to recipient apoproteins. Efficient and rapid [2Fe-2S] cluster transfer from the holo-scaffold protein IscU depends on ATP hydrolysis in the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of HscA, a specialized Hsp70-type molecular chaperone with low intrinsic ATPase activity (0.02 min−1 at 25 °C, henceforth reported in units of min–1). HscB, an Hsp40-type cochaperone, binds to HscA and stimulates ATP hydrolysis to promote cluster transfer, yet while the interactions between HscA and HscB have been investigated, the role of HscA’s interdomain linker in modulating ATPase activity has not been explored. To address this issue, we created three variants of the 40 kDa NBD of HscA: NBD alone (HscA386), NBD with a partial linker (HscA389), and NBD with the full linker (HscA395). We found that the rate of ATP hydrolysis of HscA395 (0.45 min–1) is nearly 15-fold higher than that of HscA386 (0.035 min–1), although their apparent affinities for ATP are equivalent. HscA395, which contains the full covalently linked linker peptide, exhibited intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence emission and basal thermostability that were higher than those of HscA386. Furthermore, HscA395 displayed narrower 1HN line widths in its two-dimensional 1H–15N TROSY-HSQC spectrum in comparison to HscA386, indicating that the peptide in the cis configuration binds to and stabilizes the structure of the NBD. The addition to HscA386 of a synthetic peptide with a sequence identical to that of the interdomain linker (L387LLDVIPLS395) stimulated its ATPase activity and induced widespread NMR chemical shift perturbations indicative of a binding interaction in the trans configuration. PMID:25372495

  15. Involvement of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 in the augmentation of triacylglycerol excretion by Propionibacterium acnes in differentiated hamster sebocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koji; Akimoto, Noriko; Kawamura, Mina; Nakase, Keisuke; Noguchi, Norihisa; Sato, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    An onset of acne, a common inflammatory skin disease, is associated with excess sebum production and secretion in sebaceous glands. Because Propionibacterium acnes has been reported to augment intracellular sebum accumulation in sebaceous glands in hamsters, it remains unclear whether P. acnes influences sebum secretion from differentiated sebocytes. Both P. acnes culture media (Acnes73-CM) and formalin-killed P. acnes (F-Acnes73) dose-dependently increased the extracellular levels of triacylglycerol (TG), a major sebum component, and Rhodamine 123, a substrate of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, from differentiated hamster sebocytes (DHS). In addition, the gene expression of the ABC subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) was dose-dependently augmented by adding Acnes73-CM and F-Acnes73 into DHS. Furthermore, the F-Acnes73-induced increase of TG excretion was suppressed by PSC833, a selective ABCB1 inhibitor. On the other hand, peptidoglycan (PGN), which is a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand in P. acnes, increased extracellular TG levels, transporter activity and ABCB1 mRNA expression in DHS. The PGN-augmented TG excretion was suppressed by PSC833. Thus, these results provide novel evidence that P. acnes facilitates sebum secretion due to the activation of ABCB1 concomitantly with the increased ABCB1 expression, which may result from the activation of the TLR2 pathway in DHS. Therefore, the ABCB1 inhibitor is likely to become a candidate as a possible therapeutic for the treatment of acne. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Involvement of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent signal in the diet-induced canalicular trafficking of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter g5/g8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Kenta; Hashizume, Takahiro; Suto, Arisa; Mori, Ayaka; Murata, Yuzuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Ikari, Akira; Sugatani, Junko

    2015-10-01

    The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) half-transporters Abcg5 and Abcg8 promote the secretion of neutral sterol into bile. Studies have demonstrated the diet-induced gene expression of these transporters, but the regulation of their trafficking when the nutritional status changes in the liver remains to be elucidated. Here, we generated a novel in vivo kinetic analysis that can monitor the intracellular trafficking of Abcg5/Abcg8 in living mouse liver by in vivo transfection of the genes of fluorescent protein-tagged transporters and investigated how hypernutrition affects the canalicular trafficking of these transporters. The kinetic analysis showed that lithogenic diet consumption accelerated the translocation of newly synthesized fluorescent-tagged transporters to intracellular pools in an endosomal compartment and enhanced the recruitment of these pooled gene products into the bile canalicular membrane in mouse liver. Because some ABC transporters are reported to be recruited from intracellular pools to the bile canaliculi by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, we next evaluated the involvement of this machinery in a diet-induced event. Administration of a protein kinase A inhibitor, N-(2-{[3-(4-bromophenyl)-2-propenyl]amino}ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, decreased the canalicular expression of native Abcg5/Abcg8 in lithogenic diet-fed mice, and injection of a cAMP analog, dibutyryl cAMP, transiently increased their levels in standard diet-fed mice, indicating the involvement of cAMP signaling. Indeed, canalicular trafficking of the fluorescent-tagged Abcg5/Abcg8 was enhanced by dibutyryl cAMP administration. These observations suggest that diet-induced lipid loading into liver accelerates the trafficking of Abcg5/Abcg8 to the bile canalicular membrane through cAMP signaling machinery. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Ceramide-CD300f binding suppresses experimental colitis by inhibiting ATP-mediated mast cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Toshihiro; Izawa, Kumi; Isobe, Masamichi; Takahashi, Mariko; Maehara, Akie; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Kaitani, Ayako; Okumura, Ko; Teshima, Takanori; Kitamura, Toshio; Kitaura, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective Extracellular ATP mediates mast cell-dependent intestinal inflammation via P2X7 purinoceptors. We have previously shown that CD300f (also called the leucocyte mono-immunoglobulin-like receptor 3 (LMIR3)) suppresses immunoglobulin E-dependent and mast cell-dependent allergic responses by binding to ceramide. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of ceramide–LMIR3 interaction in the development of IBD. Design The dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model was used in wild-type (WT), LMIR3−/−, mast cell-deficient KitW-sh/W-sh, KitW-sh/W-shLMIR3−/− or KitW-sh/W-sh mice engrafted with WT or LMIR3−/− bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). The severity of colitis was determined by clinical and histological criteria. Lamina propria cell populations were assessed by flow cytometry. Production of chemical mediators from lamina propria cells was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Production of chemical mediators from ATP-stimulated BMMCs in the presence or absence of ceramide was measured by ELISA. The severity of DSS-induced colitis was assessed in mice given either an Fc fusion protein containing an extracellular domain of LMIR3, and anticeramide antibody, or ceramide liposomes. Results LMIR3 deficiency exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in mice. KitW-sh/W-sh mice harbouring LMIR3−/− mast cells exhibited more severe colitis than those harbouring WT mast cells. Ceramide–LMIR3 interaction inhibited ATP-stimulated activation of BMMCs. DSS-induced colitis was aggravated by disrupting the ceramide–LMIR3 interaction, whereas it was suppressed by treating with ceramide liposomes. Conclusions LMIR3-deficient colonic mast cells were pivotal in the exacerbation of DSS-induced colitis in LMIR3−/− mice. Ceramide liposomes attenuated DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting ATP-mediated activation of colonic mast cells through ceraimide–LMIR3 binding. PMID:25673319

  18. Computer modelling reveals new conformers of the ATP binding loop of Na+/K+-ATPase involved in the transphosphorylation process of the sodium pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracian Tejral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of ATP by Na+/K+-ATPase, a P-Type ATPase, catalyzing active Na+ and K+ transport through cellular membranes leads transiently to a phosphorylation of its catalytical α-subunit. Surprisingly, three-dimensional molecular structure analysis of P-type ATPases reveals that binding of ATP to the N-domain connected by a hinge to the P-domain is much too far away from the Asp369 to allow the transfer of ATP’s terminal phosphate to its aspartyl-phosphorylation site. In order to get information for how the transfer of the γ-phosphate group of ATP to the Asp369 is achieved, analogous molecular modeling of the M4–M5 loop of ATPase was performed using the crystal data of Na+/K+-ATPase of different species. Analogous molecular modeling of the cytoplasmic loop between Thr338 and Ile760 of the α2-subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase and the analysis of distances between the ATP binding site and phosphorylation site revealed the existence of two ATP binding sites in the open conformation; the first one close to Phe475 in the N-domain, the other one close to Asp369 in the P-domain. However, binding of Mg2+•ATP to any of these sites in the “open conformation” may not lead to phosphorylation of Asp369. Additional conformations of the cytoplasmic loop were found wobbling between “open conformation”  “semi-open conformation  “closed conformation” in the absence of 2Mg2+•ATP. The cytoplasmic loop’s conformational change to the “semi-open conformation”—characterized by a hydrogen bond between Arg543 and Asp611—triggers by binding of 2Mg2+•ATP to a single ATP site and conversion to the “closed conformation” the phosphorylation of Asp369 in the P-domain, and hence the start of Na+/K+-activated ATP hydrolysis.

  19. [Pulmonary surfactant protein adenosine triphosphate-binding-cassette-A3 gene composite mutations in infant congenital interstitial lung disease: report of a case and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, N; Chen, D H; Lin, Y N; Wu, S Z; Gu, Y Y; Zeng, Q S; Zhai, Y Y; Yang, L Y; Xu, J X

    2016-10-02

    Objective: To report a case of the pulmonary surfactant protein(SP) adenosine triphosphate-binding-cassette-A3 (ABCA3) gene mutations in infant congenital interstitial lung disease(ILD), and review the related literature, to investigate the relationships of ABCA3 gene mutation associated with ILD in infants. Method: A 6-months-old boy was hospitalized in the department of Pediatrics of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. The clinical, radiological, histological information from transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and genetic testing in this case was analyzed; 12 reports retrieved on literature search at Pubmed, OVID databases from 2004 to 2015 by using the ABCA3 as keyword were reviewed and analyzed. Result: (1)The patient, a 6-months-old boy, had progressive tachypnea and dyspnea since 4 months old. Physical examination on admission revealed respiratory rate of 78 times/min , heart rate of 187 times/min, SpO2 0.93(mask oxygen-inspiration with 6 L/min), scattered fine moist crackles could be heard over the both lungs, clubbing fingers were found. High-resolution computed tomography(HRCT) revealed diffuse ground-glass opacity, interlobular and intralobular septal thickening. Lung biopsies showed evidences of the alveolar cavity atelectatic changes and interstitial fibrosis. SP-A and SP-B were negative in immunohistochemical stainting. SP-related gene sequence analysis found that there was compound heterozygous missense mutation of ABCA3 gene in c. 1942A>G, c.2701-33G>C and c. 991-105C>A. (2)The review of related literature found that totally 12 cases were reported. The main manifestations were progressive tachypnea and dyspnea, age of onset was between birth and 4 years of age. The imaging characteristics of chest HRCT revealed diffuse infiltration or diffuse ground-glass pattern in the lung. 6 cases died, and 6 cases survived, including 4 cases with pulmonary function disturbance to different degrees; 12 cases had ABCA3 gene mutations, 9

  20. Evidence that the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette G5/G8-independent pathway plays a determinant role in cholesterol gallstone formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helen H; Li, Xiaodan; Patel, Shailendra B; Wang, David Q-H

    2016-09-01

    The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) sterol transporter, Abcg5/g8, is Lith9 in mice, and two gallstone-associated variants in ABCG5/G8 have been identified in humans. Although ABCG5/G8 plays a critical role in determining hepatic sterol secretion, cholesterol is still secreted to bile in sitosterolemic patients with a defect in either ABCG5 or ABCG8 and in either Abcg5/g8 double- or single-knockout mice. We hypothesize that in the defect of ABCG5/G8, an ABCG5/G8-independent pathway is essential for regulating hepatic secretion of biliary sterols, which is independent of the lithogenic mechanism of the ABCG5/G8 pathway. To elucidate the effect of the ABCG5/G8-independent pathway on cholelithogenesis, we investigated the biliary and gallstone characteristics in male wild-type (WT), ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-), and ABCG8 (-/-) mice fed a lithogenic diet or varying amounts of cholesterol, treated with a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, or injected intravenously with [(3) H]sitostanol- and [(14) C]cholesterol-labeled high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We found that ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-) and ABCG8 (-/-) mice displayed the same biliary and gallstone phenotypes. Although both groups of knockout mice showed a significant reduction in hepatic cholesterol output compared to WT mice, they still formed gallstones. The LXR agonist significantly increased biliary cholesterol secretion and gallstones in WT, but not ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-) or ABCG8 (-/-), mice. The 6-hour recovery of [(14) C]cholesterol in hepatic bile was significantly lower in both groups of knockout mice than in WT mice and [(3) H]sitostanol was detected in WT, but not ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-) or ABCG8 (-/-), mice. The ABCG5/G8-independent pathway plays an important role in regulating biliary cholesterol secretion, the transport of HDL-derived cholesterol from plasma to bile, and gallstone formation, which works independently of the ABCG5/G8 pathway. Further studies are needed to observe whether this pathway is also

  1. Sterol transporter adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G8, gallstones, and biliary cancer in 62,000 individuals from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-02-01

    Gallstone disease, a risk factor for biliary cancer, has a strong heritable component, but the underlying genes are largely unknown. To test the hypothesis that ABCG8 (adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G8) Asp19His (D19H) genotype predicted risk of gallstones and biliary cancer in the general population, we studied 62,279 white individuals from The Copenhagen City Heart Study and The Copenhagen General Population Study, randomly selected to reflect the adult Danish population aged 20 to 80+ years. Endpoints were recorded from January 1976 through May 2009. During a mean follow-up of, respectively, 31 and 4.4 years, 3124 participants developed symptomatic gallstone disease and 30 developed biliary cancer. The multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for symptomatic gallstone disease was 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-2.1) in DH heterozygotes (prevalence, 12%), and 3.3 (2.3-4.6) in HH homozygotes (0.4%) versus noncarriers (P for trend <0.001). Mean age at onset of symptomatic gallstone disease was 56 years for noncarriers, 54 for DH heterozygotes, and 52 for HH homozygotes (P for trend <0.001). The fraction of all gallstones attributed to D19H was 11%. The multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for biliary cancer was 4.0 (1.9-8.4) in DH heterozygotes and HH homozygotes combined versus noncarriers (P < 0.001). The fraction of all biliary cancers attributed to the D19H genotype was 27%. Finally, D19H genotype associated with stepwise increases in plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltransferase of up to 14% and 25% in HH homozygotes, and with corresponding stepwise reductions in plasma levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of up to 5% versus noncarriers (all comparisons, P for trend <0.001). In this general population cohort, ABCG8 D19H genotype was an important predictor of both symptomatic gallstone disease and biliary cancer. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Design and synthesis of ATP-based nucleotide analogues and profiling of nucleotide-binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Justina. C.; Roelfes, Gerard; Poolman, Bert

    Two nucleotide-based probes were designed and synthesized in order to enrich samples for specific classes of proteins by affinity-based protein profiling. We focused on the profiling of adenine nucleotide-binding proteins. Two properties were considered in the design of the probes: the bait needs to

  3. A New Metal-Binding Site for Yeast Phosphoglycerate Kinase as Determined by the Use of a Metal-ATP Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Kameshwari M.; Kunnumal, Baburaj; Serpersu, Engin H.

    1997-01-01

    Suicide substrate β, γ-bidentate Rh(III)ATP (RhATP) was used to map the metal ion-binding site in yeast phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK). Cleavage of the RhATP-inactivated enzyme with pepsin and subsequent separation of peptides by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography gave two Rh-nucleotide bound peptides. One of the peptides corresponded to the C-terminal residues of PGK, and the other to a part of helix V. Of the four glutamates present in the C-terminal peptide, Glu 398 may be a likely metal coordination site. Therefore, importance of the C-terminal residues in PGK catalysis may be attributed, in part, to the coordination of metal ion of the metal-ATP substrate. Metal coordination may then align the C-terminal peptide to extend toward the N-terminal domain and form the “closed” active site. Results presented in this paper suggest that one or more side chains of the enzyme may be coordinated to the metal ion in the PGK·3-phospho-D-glycerate·RhATP complex, and that exchange-inert metal-ATP analogs could be used to determine metal coordination sites on kinases and other metal-ATP-utilizing enzymes. ImagesFIGURE 6 PMID:9017217

  4. Asymmetric ATP Binding and Hydrolysis Activity of the Thermus aquaticus MutS Dimer Is Key to Modulation of Its Interactions with Mismatched DNA†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Edwin; Hingorani, Manju M.

    2010-01-01

    Prokaryotic MutS and eukaryotic Msh proteins recognize base pair mismatches and insertions or deletions in DNA and initiate mismatch repair. These proteins function as dimers (and perhaps higher order oligomers) and possess an ATPase activity that is essential for DNA repair. Previous studies of Escherichia coli MutS and eukaryotic Msh2–Msh6 proteins have revealed asymmetry within the dimer with respect to both DNA binding and ATPase activities. We have found the Thermus aquaticus MutS protein amenable to detailed investigation of the nature and role of this asymmetry. Here, we show that (a) in a MutS dimer one subunit (S1) binds nucleotide with high affinity and the other (S2) with 10-fold weaker affinity, (b) S1 hydrolyzes ATP rapidly while S2 hydrolyzes ATP at a 30–50-fold slower rate, (c) mismatched DNA binding to MutS inhibits ATP hydrolysis at S1 but slow hydrolysis continues at S2, and (d) interaction between mismatched DNA and MutS is weakened when both subunits are occupied by ATP but remains stable when S1 is occupied by ATP and S2 by ADP. These results reveal key MutS species in the ATPase pathway; S1ADP–S2ATP is formed preferentially in the absence of DNA or in the presence of fully matched DNA, while S1ATP–S2ATP and S1ATP–S2ADP are formed preferentially in the presence of mismatched DNA. These MutS species exhibit differences in interaction with mismatched DNA that are likely important for the mechanism of MutS action in DNA repair. PMID:15476405

  5. Membrane topology of the lactococcal bacteriocin ATP-binding cassette transporter protein LcnC : Involvement of LcnC in lactococcin A maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, CM; Tiemersma, J; Venema, G; Kok, J

    1999-01-01

    Many non-lantibiotic bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria are produced as precursors with N-terminal leader peptides different from those present in preproteins exported by the general sec-dependent (type II) secretion pathway. These bacteriocins utilize a dedicated (type I) secretion system for

  6. Genetic association analysis of ATP binding cassette protein family reveals a novel association of ABCB1 genetic variants with epilepsy risk, but not with drug-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeesh Balan

    Full Text Available Epilepsy constitutes a heterogeneous group of disorders that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures due to widely different etiologies. Multidrug resistance remains a major issue in clinical epileptology, where one third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. Role of efflux transporters in multidrug resistant epilepsy has been attributed to drug-resistant epilepsy although, with discrepant observation in genetic studies. These discrepancies could be attributed to variety of factors such as variable definition of the anti-epileptic drug (AED-resistance, variable epilepsy phenotypes and ethnicities among the studies. In the present study we inquired the role of multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants in determining AED-resistance and susceptibility to epilepsy in three well-characterized cohorts comprising of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS (prototype for AED-resistant epilepsy; juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME (prototype for AED-responsive epilepsy; and healthy non-epileptic controls, in 738 subjects of Malayalam speaking south Indian ancestry. ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants were not found to be associated with drug resistance when AED-resistant and AED-responsive cohorts were compared. However, a significant association was observed between ABCB1 (C3435T rs1045642 and risk of having epilepsy (MTLE-HS and JME pooled cohort; genotypic p-value = 0.0002; allelic p-value = 0.004. This association was seen persistent with MTLE-HS (genotypic p-value = 0.0008; allelic p-value = 0.004 and also with JME (genotypic p-value = 0.01; allelic p-value = 0.05 cohort individually. In-silico functional prediction indicated that ABCB1 rs1045642 has a deleterious impact on protein coding function and in splicing regulation. We conclude that the ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants do not confer to AED-resistance in the study population. However, ABCB1 rs1045642 increases vulnerability to epilepsy with greater tendency for MTLE-HS in south Indian ancestry from Kerala.

  7. Versatile inhibitory effects of the flavonoid-derived PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, on ATP-binding cassette transporters that characterize stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Yasuo; Yamagishi, Hidetsugu; Ono, Yuko; Ueda, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of proliferation, self-renewal, and production of a large number of differentiated progeny. Stem cells exist even in malignancies. They are called cancer stem cells, which may represent the origin of these tumors and may be one of the reasons of chemoresistance. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is important for the maintenance of pluripotency in stem cells. Flow cytometry assay for identifying stem cells defines a side populati...

  8. Impact of genetic variants of ATP binding cassette B1, AICAR transformylase/IMP cyclohydrolase, folyl-polyglutamatesynthetase, and methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase on methotrexate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Icardo, Luis; Lamana, Amalia; Ortiz, Ana María; García Lorenzo, Elena; Moreno Fresneda, Pablo; García-Vicuña, Rosario; González-Álvaro, Isidoro

    To analyze the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with well-known functional impact of methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR; rs1801131 and rs1801133), the membrane transporter ABCB1 (rs1045642), the AICAR transformylase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC; rs2372536) and folyl-polyglutamatesynthetase (FPGS; rs1544105), on liver and bone marrow toxicity of methotrexate (MTX). We analyzed 1415 visits from 350 patients of the PEARL (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal) study: (732 with MTX, 683 without MTX). The different SNPs were genotyped using specific TaqMan probes (Applied Biosystems). Multivariate analyzes were performed using generalized linear models in which the dependent variables were the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (liver toxicity), leukocytes, platelets or hemoglobin (hematologic toxicity) and adjusted for clinical variables (disease activity, etc.), analytical (renal function, etc.), sociodemographic (age, sex, etc.) and genetic variants of MTHFR, ABCB1, ATIC and FPGS. The effect of these variables on the MTX doses prescribed throughout follow-up was also analyzed through multivariate analysis nested by visit and patient. When taking MTX, those patients carrying the CC genotype of rs1045642 in ABCB1 showed significantly higher GPT levels (7.1±2.0 U/L; P<.001). Carrying at least one G allele of rs1544105 in FPGS was associated with lower leukocyte (-0.67±0.32; 0.038), hemoglobin (-0.34±0.11g/dL; P=.002), and platelet (-11.8±4.7; P=.012) levels. The presence of the G allele of rs1544105 in FPGS, and the T allele of rs1801133 in MTHFR, was significantly associated with the use of lower doses of MTX. Our data suggest that genotyping functional variants in FGPS and MTHFR enzymes and the transporter ABCB1 could help to identify patients with increased risk of MTX toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  9. Deficiency of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters A1 and G1 in Macrophages Increases Inflammation and Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, Marit; Murphy, Andrew J.; Wang, Mi; Pagler, Tamara A.; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Kappus, Mojdeh S.; Gorman, Darren J.; Nagareddy, Prabhakara R.; Zhu, Xuewei; Abramowicz, Sandra; Parks, John S.; Welch, Carrie; Fisher, Edward A.; Wang, Nan; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Tall, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Plasma high-density lipoprotein levels are inversely correlated with atherosclerosis. Although it is widely assumed that this is attributable to the ability of high-density lipoprotein to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, direct experimental support for this

  10. Tiaozhi Tongmai Granules reduce atherogenesis and promote the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in rabbit atherosclerotic plaque macrophages and the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Sun

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Tiaozhi Tongmai Granules appear to have an anti-atherogenic effect that is most likely mediated by simultaneously upregulating the protein expression of ABCA1 in rabbit atherosclerotic plaque macrophages and in the liver.

  11. Population-Specific Resequencing Associates the ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily C Member 4 Gene With Gout in New Zealand Māori and Pacific Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Callum; Boocock, James; Stahl, Eli A; Dobbyn, Amanda; Mandal, Asim K; Cadzow, Murray; Phipps-Green, Amanda J; Topless, Ruth K; Hindmarsh, Jennie Harré; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Choi, Hyon K; Mount, David B; Merriman, Tony R

    2017-07-01

    There is no evidence for a genetic association between organic anion transporters 1-3 (SLC22A6, SLC22A7, and SLC22A8) and multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4; encoded by ABCC4) with the levels of serum urate or gout. The Māori and Pacific (Polynesian) population of New Zealand has the highest prevalence of gout worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine whether any Polynesian population-specific genetic variants in SLC22A6-8 and ABCC4 are associated with gout. All participants had ≥3 self-reported Māori and/or Pacific grandparents. Among the total sample set of 1,808 participants, 191 hyperuricemic and 202 normouricemic individuals were resequenced over the 4 genes, and the remaining 1,415 individuals were used for replication. Regression analyses were performed, adjusting for age, sex, and Polynesian ancestry. To study the functional effect of nonsynonymous variants of ABCC4, transport assays were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. A total of 39 common variants were detected, with an ABCC4 variant (rs4148500) significantly associated with hyperuricemia and gout. This variant was monomorphic for the urate-lowering allele in Europeans. There was evidence for an association of rs4148500 with gout in the resequenced samples (odds ratio [OR] 1.62 [P = 0.012]) that was replicated (OR 1.25 [P = 0.033]) and restricted to men (OR 1.43 [P = 0.001] versus OR 0.98 [P = 0.89] in women). The gout risk allele was associated with fractional excretion of uric acid in male individuals (β = -0.570 [P = 0.01]). A rare population-specific allele (P1036L) with predicted strong functional consequence reduced the uric acid transport activity of ABCC4 by 30%. An association between ABCC4 and gout and fractional excretion of uric acid is consistent with the established role of MRP4 as a unidirectional renal uric acid efflux pump. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Association of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms of ATP binding cassette G8 gene with gallstone disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Cai, Qu; Chen, Er-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the association between these polymorphisms and gallstone disease using meta-analysis and compared the hepatic ABCG5/G8 mRNA expression and biliary lipids composition in patients with different genotypes of T400K and Y54C. Data were analyzed using the Stata/SE 11.0 software and a random- effects model was applied irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Hepatic mRNA expression of ABCG5/G8 genes in 182 patients with gallstone disease and 35 gallstone-free patients who underwent cholecystectomy were determined using real-time PCR. Genotypes of Y54C and T400K in the ABCG8 gene were determined by allelic discrimination using either genomic DNA or hepatic cDNA as template by Taqman assays. Biliary compostion in gallbladder bile was assayed in these patients as well. Ten papers including 13 cohorts were included for the final analysis. In the genotype model, the overall association between genotype with gallstone was significant for D19H (OR = 2.43, 95%CI: 2.23-2.64, P<0.001), and for Y54C (OR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.01-1.83, P = 0.044), or T400K (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 0.96-1.43. P = 0.110). In allele model, minor alleles of D19H polymorphism (allele D: OR = 2.25, 95%CI: 2.10-2.42, P<0.001) and of T400K polymorphism (allele K: OR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.06-1.31, P<0.001) were related with an increased risk of gallstone disease. However, minor allele of Y54C polymorphism (allele Y, OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.96-1.21, P = 0.146) was not related with gallstone disease. I(2) statistics indicated no significant between-study heterogeneity for all genetic models for any of the three polymorphisms. Funnel plot and Egger's test suggested the absence of publication bias as well. However, no association of T400K and Y54C polymorphism with hepatic ABCG8/G5 mRNA expression or biliary lipids composition was found. Our study showed strong association of D19H polymorphism with gallstone disease. T400K and Y54C polymorphism, though to a less extent, may also relate with gallstone disease.

  13. Association of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms of ATP binding cassette G8 gene with gallstone disease: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Yan Jiang

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the association between these polymorphisms and gallstone disease using meta-analysis and compared the hepatic ABCG5/G8 mRNA expression and biliary lipids composition in patients with different genotypes of T400K and Y54C.Data were analyzed using the Stata/SE 11.0 software and a random- effects model was applied irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Hepatic mRNA expression of ABCG5/G8 genes in 182 patients with gallstone disease and 35 gallstone-free patients who underwent cholecystectomy were determined using real-time PCR. Genotypes of Y54C and T400K in the ABCG8 gene were determined by allelic discrimination using either genomic DNA or hepatic cDNA as template by Taqman assays. Biliary compostion in gallbladder bile was assayed in these patients as well.Ten papers including 13 cohorts were included for the final analysis. In the genotype model, the overall association between genotype with gallstone was significant for D19H (OR = 2.43, 95%CI: 2.23-2.64, P<0.001, and for Y54C (OR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.01-1.83, P = 0.044, or T400K (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 0.96-1.43. P = 0.110. In allele model, minor alleles of D19H polymorphism (allele D: OR = 2.25, 95%CI: 2.10-2.42, P<0.001 and of T400K polymorphism (allele K: OR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.06-1.31, P<0.001 were related with an increased risk of gallstone disease. However, minor allele of Y54C polymorphism (allele Y, OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.96-1.21, P = 0.146 was not related with gallstone disease. I(2 statistics indicated no significant between-study heterogeneity for all genetic models for any of the three polymorphisms. Funnel plot and Egger's test suggested the absence of publication bias as well. However, no association of T400K and Y54C polymorphism with hepatic ABCG8/G5 mRNA expression or biliary lipids composition was found.Our study showed strong association of D19H polymorphism with gallstone disease. T400K and Y54C polymorphism, though to a less extent, may also relate with gallstone disease.

  14. HIV-1 Nef interaction influences the ATP-binding site of the Src-family kinase, Hck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pene-Dumitrescu Teodora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nef is an HIV-1 accessory protein essential for viral replication and AIDS progression. Nef interacts with a multitude of host cell signaling partners, including members of the Src kinase family. Nef preferentially activates Hck, a Src-family kinase (SFK strongly expressed in macrophages and other HIV target cells, by binding to its regulatory SH3 domain. Recently, we identified a series of kinase inhibitors that preferentially inhibit Hck in the presence of Nef. These compounds also block Nef-dependent HIV replication, validating the Nef-SFK signaling pathway as an antiretroviral drug target. Our findings also suggested that by binding to the Hck SH3 domain, Nef indirectly affects the conformation of the kinase active site to favor inhibitor association. Results To test this hypothesis, we engineered a "gatekeeper" mutant of Hck with enhanced sensitivity to the pyrazolopyrimidine tyrosine kinase inhibitor, NaPP1. We also modified the RT loop of the Hck SH3 domain to enhance interaction of the kinase with Nef. This modification stabilized Nef:Hck interaction in solution-based kinase assays, as a way to mimic the more stable association that likely occurs at cellular membranes. Introduction of the modified RT loop rendered Hck remarkably more sensitive to activation by Nef, and led to a significant decrease in the Km for ATP as well as enhanced inhibitor potency. Conclusions These observations suggest that stable interaction with Nef may induce Src-family kinase active site conformations amenable to selective inhibitor targeting.

  15. L1198F Mutation Resensitizes Crizotinib to ALK by Altering the Conformation of Inhibitor and ATP Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Sun, Rong; Wu, Yuehong; Song, Mingzhu; Li, Jia; Yang, Qianye; Chen, Xiaoyi; Bao, Jinku; Zhao, Qi

    2017-02-24

    The efficacy of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment with small molecule inhibitors is greatly challenged by acquired resistance. A recent study reported the newest generation inhibitor resistant mutation L1198F led to the resensitization to crizotinib, which is the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug for the treatment of ALK-positive NSCLC. It is of great importance to understand how this extremely rare event occurred for the purpose of overcoming the acquired resistance of such inhibitors. In this study, we exploited molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to dissect the molecular mechanisms. Our MD results revealed that L1198F mutation of ALK resulted in the conformational change at the inhibitor site and altered the binding affinity of ALK to crizotinib and lorlatinib. L1198F mutation also affected the autoactivation of ALK as supported by the identification of His1124 and Tyr1278 as critical amino acids involved in ATP binding and phosphorylation. Our findings are valuable for designing more specific and potent inhibitors for the treatment of ALK-positive NSCLC and other types of cancer.

  16. L1198F Mutation Resensitizes Crizotinib to ALK by Altering the Conformation of Inhibitor and ATP Binding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC treatment with small molecule inhibitors is greatly challenged by acquired resistance. A recent study reported the newest generation inhibitor resistant mutation L1198F led to the resensitization to crizotinib, which is the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved drug for the treatment of ALK-positive NSCLC. It is of great importance to understand how this extremely rare event occurred for the purpose of overcoming the acquired resistance of such inhibitors. In this study, we exploited molecular dynamics (MD simulation to dissect the molecular mechanisms. Our MD results revealed that L1198F mutation of ALK resulted in the conformational change at the inhibitor site and altered the binding affinity of ALK to crizotinib and lorlatinib. L1198F mutation also affected the autoactivation of ALK as supported by the identification of His1124 and Tyr1278 as critical amino acids involved in ATP binding and phosphorylation. Our findings are valuable for designing more specific and potent inhibitors for the treatment of ALK-positive NSCLC and other types of cancer.

  17. The crustacean gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase: allosteric modulation of high- and low-affinity ATP-binding sites by sodium and potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, D C; Silva, E C C; Mantelatto, F L M; McNamara, J C; Barrabin, H; Scofano, H M; Fontes, C F L; Furriel, R P M; Leone, F A

    2008-11-15

    The blue crab, Callinectes danae, tolerates exposure to a wide salinity range employing mechanisms of compensatory ion uptake when in dilute media. Although the gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase is vital to hyperosmoregulatory ability, the interactions occurring at the sites of ATP binding on the molecule itself are unknown. Here, we investigate the modulation by Na+ and K+ of homotropic interactions between the ATP-binding sites, and of phosphoenzyme formation of the (Na+,K+)-ATPase from the posterior gills of this euryhaline crab. The contribution of the high- and low-affinity ATP-binding sites to maximum velocity was similar for both Na+ and K+. However, in contrast to Na+, a threshold K+ concentration triggers the appearance of the high-affinity binding sites, displacing the saturation curve to lower ATP concentrations.Further, a low-affinity site for phosphorylation is present on the enzyme. These findings reveal notable differences in the catalytic mechanism of the crustacean (Na+,K+)-ATPase compared to the vertebrate enzyme.

  18. ATP-binding motifs play key roles in Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, function for bi-polar growth control in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Dong Keun; Cho, Bon A; Kim, Hyong Bai

    2005-06-03

    Kinesin is a microtubule-based motor protein with various functions related to the cell growth and division. It has been reported that Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, which belongs to the kinesin heavy chain superfamily, localizes on microtubules and may play an important role in cytokinesis. However, the function of Krp1p has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we overexpressed an intact form and three different mutant forms of Krp1p in fission yeast constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in two ATP-binding motifs or by truncation of the leucine zipper-like motif (LZiP). We observed hyper-extended microtubules and the aberrant nuclear shape in Krp1p-overexpressed fission yeast. As a functional consequence, a point mutation of ATP-binding domain 1 (G89E) in Krp1p reversed the effect of Krp1p overexpression in fission yeast, whereas the specific mutation in ATP-binding domain 2 (G238E) resulted in the altered cell polarity. Additionally, truncation of the leucine zipper-like domain (LZiP) at the C-terminal of Krp1p showed a normal nuclear division. Taken together, we suggest that krp1p is involved in regulation of cell-polarized growth through ATP-binding motifs in fission yeast.

  19. Cooperative binding of the bisubstrate analog N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate to aspartate transcarbamoylase and the heterotropic effects of ATP and CTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J.O.; Markby, D.W.; Schachman, H.K.

    1989-02-15

    Most investigations of the allosteric properties of the regulatory enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from Escherichia coli are based on the sigmoidal dependence of enzyme activity on substrate concentration and the effects of the inhibitor, CTP, and the activator, ATP, on the saturation curves. Interpretations of these effects in terms of molecular models are complicated by the inability to distinguish between changes in substrate binding and catalytic turnover accompanying the allosteric transition. In an effort to eliminate this ambiguity, the binding of the 3H-labeled bisubstrate analog N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) to aspartate transcarbamoylase in the absence and presence of the allosteric effectors ATP and CTP has been measured directly by equilibrium dialysis at pH 7 in phosphate buffer. PALA binds with marked cooperativity to the holoenzyme with an average dissociation constant of 110 nM. ATP and CTP alter both the average affinity of ATCase for PALA and the degree of cooperativity in the binding process in a manner analogous to their effects on the kinetic properties of the enzyme; the average dissociation constant of PALA decreases to 65 nM in the presence of ATP and increases to 266 nM in the presence of CTP while the Hill coefficient, which is 1.95 in the absence of effectors, becomes 1.35 and 2.27 in the presence of ATP and CTP, respectively. The dissociation constant of PALA from the catalytic subunit is 95 nM. Interpretation of these results in terms of a thermodynamic scheme linking PALA binding to the assembly of ATCase from catalytic and regulatory subunits demonstrates that saturation of the enzyme with PALA shifts the equilibrium between holoenzyme and subunits slightly toward dissociation.

  20. NMR studies of the MgATP binding site of adenylate kinase and of a 45-residue peptide fragment of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D C; Kuby, S A; Mildvan, A S

    1985-08-13

    Proton NMR was used to study the interaction of beta,gamma-bidentate Cr3+ATP and MgATP with rabbit muscle adenylate kinase, which has 194 amino acids, and with a synthetic peptide consisting of residues 1-45 of the enzyme, which has previously been shown to bind MgepsilonATP [Hamada, M., Palmieri, R. H., Russell, G. A., & Kuby, S. A. (1979) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 195, 155-177]. The peptide is globular and binds Cr3+ATP competitively with MgATP with a dissociation constant, KD(Cr3+ATP) = 35 microM, comparable to that of the complete enzyme [KI(Cr3+ATP) = 12 microM]. Time-dependent nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE's) were used to measure interproton distances on enzyme- and peptide-bound MgATP. The correlation time was measured directly for peptide-bound MgATP by studying the frequency dependence of the NOE's at 250 and 500 MHz. The H2' to H1' distance so obtained (3.07 A) was within the range established by X-ray and model-building studies of nucleotides (2.9 +/- 0.2 A). Interproton distances yielded conformations of enzyme- and peptide-bound MgATP with indistinguishable anti-glycosyl torsional angles (chi = 63 +/- 12 degrees) and 3'-endo/O1'-endo ribose puckers (sigma = 96 +/- 12 degrees). Enzyme- and peptide-bound MgATP molecules exhibited different C4'-C5' torsional angles (gamma) of 170 degrees and 50 degrees, respectively. Ten intermolecular NOE's from protons of the enzyme and four such NOE's from protons of the peptide to protons of bound MgATP were detected, which indicated proximity of the adenine ribose moiety to the same residues on both the enzyme and the peptide. Paramagnetic effects of beta,gamma-bidentate Cr3+ATP on the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons of the peptide provided a set of distances to the side chains of five residues, which allowed the location of the bound Cr3+ atom to be uniquely defined. Distances from enzyme-bound Cr3+ATP to the side chains of three residues of the protein agreed with those measured for the peptide. The mutual

  1. Simulated microgravity alters the expression of cytoskeleton- and ATP-binding-related genes in MLO-Y4 osteocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihao; Zhao, Fan; Qi, Yiduo; Hu, Lifang; Li, Dijie; Yin, Chong; Su, Peihong; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Jianhua; Qian, Jing; Zhou, Hongpo; Zou, Yiwei; Qian, Airong

    2016-12-01

    Bone undergoes dynamic modelling and remodelling processes, and it requires gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for the maintenance of mineral content and structure. Osteocytes are the most commonly found cells in the mature bone, and they are sensitive to mechanical changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microgravity simulated with a random position machine (RPM) on the gene expression profile of osteocytes. Genes sensitive to RPM treatment were sorted on the basis of biological processes, interactions and signalling pathways. Overall, 504 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in osteocytes cultured under RPM conditions were found. The DEGs were further analysed using bioinformatics tools such as DAVID and iReport. A total of 15 ATP-binding and cytoskeleton-related genes were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our findings demonstrate that the RPM affected the expression of genes involved in cytoskeleton remodelling and the energy-transfer process in osteocytes. The identification of mechanosensitive genes may enhance our understanding of the roles of osteocytes in mechanosensation and may provide some potential targets for preventing and treating bone-related diseases.

  2. Solution structure of the 45-residue MgATP-binding peptide of adenylate kinase as examined by 2-D NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D C; Byler, D M; Susi, H; Brown, E M; Kuby, S A; Mildvan, A S

    1988-05-17

    The structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 1-45 of rabbit muscle adenylate kinase has been studied in aqueous solution by two-dimensional NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy. This peptide, which binds MgATP and is believed to represent most of the MgATP-binding site of the enzyme [Fry, D.C., Kuby, S.A., & Mildvan, A.S. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 4680-4694], appears to maintain a conformation similar to that of residues 1-45 in the X-ray structure of intact porcine adenylate kinase [Sachsenheimer, W., & Schulz, G.E. (1977) J. Mol. Biol. 114, 23-26], with 42% of the residues of the peptide showing NOEs indicative of phi and psi angles corresponding to those found in the protein. The NMR studies suggest that the peptide is composed of two helical regions of residues 4-7 and 23-29, and three stretches of beta-strand at residues 8-15, 30-32, and 35-40, yielding an overall secondary structure consisting of 24% alpha-helix, 38% beta-structure, and 38% aperiodic. Although the resolution-enhanced amide I band of the peptide FTIR spectrum is broad and rather featureless, possibly due to disorder, it can be fit by using methods developed on well-characterized globular proteins. On this basis, the peptide consists of 35 +/- 10% beta-structure, 60 +/- 12% turns and aperiodic structure, and not more than 10% alpha-helix. The CD spectrum is best fit by assuming the presence of at most 13% alpha-helix in the peptide, 24 +/- 2% beta-structure, and 66 +/- 4% aperiodic. The inability of the high-frequency FTIR and CD methods to detect helices in the amount found by NMR may result from the short helical lengths as well as from static and dynamic disorder in the peptide. Upon binding of MgATP, numerous conformational changes in the backbone of the peptide are detected by NMR, with smaller alterations in the overall secondary structure as assessed by CD. Detailed assignments of resonances in the peptide spectrum and intermolecular NOEs between protons of bound MgATP and

  3. Zinc and ATP binding of the hexameric AAA-ATPase PilF from Thermus thermophilus: role in complex stability, piliation, adhesion, twitching motility, and natural transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Ralf; Herzberg, Martin; Nies, Dietrich H; Joos, Friederike; Rathmann, Barbara; Thielmann, Yvonne; Averhoff, Beate

    2014-10-31

    The traffic AAA-ATPase PilF is essential for pilus biogenesis and natural transformation of Thermus thermophilus HB27. Recently, we showed that PilF forms hexameric complexes containing six zinc atoms coordinated by conserved tetracysteine motifs. Here we report that zinc binding is essential for complex stability. However, zinc binding is neither required for pilus biogenesis nor natural transformation. A number of the mutants did not exhibit any pili during growth at 64 °C but still were transformable. This leads to the conclusion that type 4 pili and the DNA translocator are distinct systems. At lower growth temperatures (55 °C) the zinc-depleted multiple cysteine mutants were hyperpiliated but defective in pilus-mediated twitching motility. This provides evidence that zinc binding is essential for the role of PilF in pilus dynamics. Moreover, we found that zinc binding is essential for complex stability but dispensable for ATPase activity. In contrast to many polymerization ATPases from mesophilic bacteria, ATP binding is not required for PilF complex formation; however, it significantly increases complex stability. These data suggest that zinc and ATP binding increase complex stability that is important for functionality of PilF under extreme environmental conditions. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Structure and mechanism of ATP-dependent phospholipid transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; Bailly, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    , despite differences in overall architecture, both appear to operate by an alternating access mechanism and during transport they might allow access of phospholipids to the internal part of the transmembrane domain. The latter feature is obvious for ABC transporters, but phospholipids and other hydrophobic......Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and P4-ATPases are two large and seemingly unrelated families of primary active pumps involved in moving phospholipids from one leaflet of a biological membrane to the other. Scope of review This review aims to identify common mechanistic features...... in the way phospholipid flipping is carried out by two evolutionarily unrelated families of transporters. Major conclusions Both protein families hydrolyze ATP, although they employ different mechanisms to use it, and have a comparable size with twelve transmembrane segments in the functional unit. Further...

  5. Solution structure of the 45-residue MgATP-binding peptide of adenylate kinase as examined by 2-D NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, D.C.; Byler, D.M.; Susi, H.; Brown, M.; Kuby, S.A.; Mildvan A.S.

    1988-05-17

    The structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 1-45 of rabbit muscle adenylate kinase has been studied in aqueous solution by two-dimensional NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy. This peptide, which binds MgATP and is believed to represent most of the MgATP-binding site of the enzyme, appears to maintain a conformation similar to that of residues 1-45 in the X-ray structure of intact porcine adenylate kinase, with 42% of the residues of the peptide showing NOEs indicative of phi and psi angles corresponding to those found in the protein. The NMR studies suggest that the peptide is composed of two helical regions of residues 4-7 and 23-29, and three stretches of ..beta..-strand at residues 8-15, 30-32, and 35-40, yielding an overall secondary structure consisting of 24% ..cap alpha..-helix, 38% ..beta..-structure, and 38% aperiodic. Although the resolution-enhanced amide I band of the peptide FTIR spectrum is broad and rather featureless, possible due to disorder, it can be fit by using methods developed on well-characterized globular proteins. The CD spectrum is best fit by assuming the presence of at most 13% ..cap alpha..-helix in the peptide, 24 +/- 2% ..beta..-structure, and 66 +/- 4% aperiodic. The inability of the high-frequency FTIR and CD methods to detect helices in the amount found by NMR may result from the short helical lengths as well as from static and dynamic disorder in the peptide. Upon binding of MgATP, numerous conformation changes in the backbone of the peptide are detected by NMR, with smaller alterations in the overall secondary structure as assess by CD.

  6. The rem mutations in the ATP-binding groove of the Rad3/XPD helicase lead to Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome-like phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Moyano, Emilia; Moriel-Carretero, María; Montelone, Beth A; Aguilera, Andrés

    2014-12-01

    The eukaryotic TFIIH complex is involved in Nucleotide Excision Repair and transcription initiation. We analyzed three yeast mutations of the Rad3/XPD helicase of TFIIH known as rem (recombination and mutation phenotypes). We found that, in these mutants, incomplete NER reactions lead to replication fork breaking and the subsequent engagement of the homologous recombination machinery to restore them. Nevertheless, the penetrance varies among mutants, giving rise to a phenotype gradient. Interestingly, the mutations analyzed reside at the ATP-binding groove of Rad3 and in vivo experiments reveal a gain of DNA affinity upon damage of the mutant Rad3 proteins. Since mutations at the ATP-binding groove of XPD in humans are present in the Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne Syndrome (XP-CS), we recreated rem mutations in human cells, and found that these are XP-CS-like. We propose that the balance between the loss of helicase activity and the gain of DNA affinity controls the capacity of TFIIH to open DNA during NER, and its persistence at both DNA lesions and promoters. This conditions NER efficiency and transcription resumption after damage, which in human cells would explain the XP-CS phenotype, opening new perspectives to understand the molecular basis of the role of XPD in human disease.

  7. The rem mutations in the ATP-binding groove of the Rad3/XPD helicase lead to Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome-like phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Herrera-Moyano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic TFIIH complex is involved in Nucleotide Excision Repair and transcription initiation. We analyzed three yeast mutations of the Rad3/XPD helicase of TFIIH known as rem (recombination and mutation phenotypes. We found that, in these mutants, incomplete NER reactions lead to replication fork breaking and the subsequent engagement of the homologous recombination machinery to restore them. Nevertheless, the penetrance varies among mutants, giving rise to a phenotype gradient. Interestingly, the mutations analyzed reside at the ATP-binding groove of Rad3 and in vivo experiments reveal a gain of DNA affinity upon damage of the mutant Rad3 proteins. Since mutations at the ATP-binding groove of XPD in humans are present in the Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne Syndrome (XP-CS, we recreated rem mutations in human cells, and found that these are XP-CS-like. We propose that the balance between the loss of helicase activity and the gain of DNA affinity controls the capacity of TFIIH to open DNA during NER, and its persistence at both DNA lesions and promoters. This conditions NER efficiency and transcription resumption after damage, which in human cells would explain the XP-CS phenotype, opening new perspectives to understand the molecular basis of the role of XPD in human disease.

  8. Split tasks of asymmetric nucleotide-binding sites in the heterodimeric ABC exporter EfrCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Lea M; Hohl, Michael; Seeger, Markus A

    2017-06-01

    Many heterodimeric ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporters evolved asymmetric ATP-binding sites containing a degenerate site incapable of ATP hydrolysis due to noncanonical substitutions in conserved sequence motifs. Recent studies revealed that nucleotide binding to the degenerate site stabilizes contacts between the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of the inward-facing transporter and regulates ATP hydrolysis at the consensus site via allosteric coupling mediated by the D-loops. However, it is unclear whether nucleotide binding to the degenerate site is strictly required for substrate transport. In this study, we examined the functional consequences of a systematic set of mutations introduced at the degenerate and consensus site of the multidrug efflux pump EfrCD of Enterococcus faecalis. Mutating motifs which differ among the two ATP-binding sites (Walker B, switch loop, and ABC signature) or which are involved in interdomain communication (D-loop and Q-loop) led to asymmetric results in the functional assays and were better tolerated at the degenerate site. This highlights the importance of the degenerate site to allosterically regulate the events at the consensus site. Mutating invariant motifs involved in ATP binding and NBD closure (A-loop and Walker A) resulted in equally reduced transport activities, regardless at which ATP-binding site they were introduced. In contrast to previously investigated heterodimeric ABC exporters, mutation of the degenerate site Walker A lysine completely inactivated ATPase activity and substrate transport, indicating that ATP binding to the degenerate site is essential for EfrCD. This study provides novel insights into the split tasks of asymmetric ATP-binding sites of heterodimeric ABC exporters. © 2017 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. ATP Hydrolysis Induced Conformational Changes in the Vitamin B12 Transporter BtuCD Revealed by MD Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chao; Weng, Jingwei; Wang, Wenning

    2016-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to uni-directionally transport substrates across cell membrane. ATP hydrolysis occurs at the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) dimer interface of ABC transporters, whereas substrate translocation takes place at the translocation pathway between the transmembrane domains (TMDs), which is more than 30 angstroms away from the NBD dimer interface. This raises the question of how the hydrolysis energy released at NBDs is "transmitted" to trigger the conformational changes at TMDs. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we studied the post-hydrolysis state of the vitamin B12 importer BtuCD. Totally 3-μs MD trajectories demonstrate a predominantly asymmetric arrangement of the NBD dimer interface, with the ADP-bound site disrupted and the ATP-bound site preserved in most of the trajectories. TMDs response to ATP hydrolysis by separation of the L-loops and opening of the cytoplasmic gate II, indicating that hydrolysis of one ATP could facilitate substrate translocation by opening the cytoplasmic end of translocation pathway. It was also found that motions of the L-loops and the cytoplasmic gate II are coupled with each other through a contiguous interaction network involving a conserved Asn83 on the extended stretch preceding TM3 helix plus the cytoplasmic end of TM2/6/7 helix bundle. These findings entail a TMD-NBD communication mechanism for type II ABC importers.

  10. Cyclic AMP Inhibits the Activity and Promotes the Acetylation of Acetyl-CoA Synthetase through Competitive Binding to the ATP/AMP Pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaobiao; Shen, Liqiang; Wang, Qijun; Cen, Xufeng; Wang, Jin; Wu, Meng; Li, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Guoping

    2017-01-27

    The high-affinity biosynthetic pathway for converting acetate to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is catalyzed by the central metabolic enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (Acs), which is finely regulated both at the transcriptional level via cyclic AMP (cAMP)-driven trans-activation and at the post-translational level via acetylation inhibition. In this study, we discovered that cAMP directly binds to Salmonella enterica Acs (SeAcs) and inhibits its activity in a substrate-competitive manner. In addition, cAMP binding increases SeAcs acetylation by simultaneously promoting Pat-dependent acetylation and inhibiting CobB-dependent deacetylation, resulting in enhanced SeAcs inhibition. A crystal structure study and site-directed mutagenesis analyses confirmed that cAMP binds to the ATP/AMP pocket of SeAcs, and restrains SeAcs in an open conformation. The cAMP contact residues are well conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, suggesting a general regulatory mechanism of cAMP on Acs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Solution structure of the 45-residue ATP-binding peptide of adenylate kinase as determined by 2-D NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, D.C.; Byler, D.M.; Susi, H.; Brown, E.M.; Kuby, S.A.; Mildyan, A.S.

    1986-05-01

    In the X-ray structure of adenylate kinase residues 1-45 exist as 47% ..cap alpha..-helix, 29% ..beta..-structure (strands and turns) and 24% coil. The solution structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 1-45, which constitutes the MgATP binding site was studied by 3 independent spectroscopic methods. Globularity of the peptide was shown by its broad NMR resonances which narrow upon denaturation, and by its ability to bind MgATP with similar affinity and conformation as the intact enzyme does. COSY and NOESY NMR methods at 250 and 500 MHz reveal proximities among NH, C..cap alpha.., and C..beta.. protons indicative of >20% ..cap alpha..-helix, and >20% ..beta..-structure. Correlation of regions of secondary structure with the primary sequence by 2D NMR indicates at least one ..cap alpha..-helix (res. 23 to 29) and two ..beta..-strands (res. 12 to 15 and 34 to 38). The broad amide I band in the deconvoluted FTIR spectrum could be fit as the sum of 4 peaks due to specific secondary structures, yielding less than or equal to=45% ..cap alpha..-helix, less than or equal to=40% ..beta..-structure and greater than or equal to=15% coil. The CD spectrum, from 185-250 nm, interpreted with a 3-parameter basis set, yielded 20 +/- 5% ..cap alpha..=helix, and less than or equal to=20% ..beta..-structure. The solution structure of peptide 1-45 thus approximates that of residues 1-45 in the crystal.

  12. Determination of structure of the MinD-ATP complex reveals the orientation of MinD on the membrane and the relative location of the binding sites for MinE and MinC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Park, Kyung-Tae; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Summary The three Min proteins spatially regulate Z ring positioning in E. coli and are dynamically associated with the membrane. MinD binds to vesicles in the presence of ATP and can recruit MinC or MinE. Biochemical and genetic evidence indicate the binding sites for these two proteins on MinD overlap. Here we solved the structure of a hydrolytic-deficient mutant of MinD truncated for the C-terminal amphipathic helix involved in binding to the membrane. The structure solved in the presence of ATP is a dimer and reveals the face of MinD abutting the membrane. Using a combination of random and extensive site-directed mutagenesis additional residues important for MinE and MinC binding were identified. The location of these residues on the MinD structure confirms that the binding sites overlap and reveals that the binding sites are at the dimer interface and exposed to the cytosol. The location of the binding sites at the dimer interface offers a simple explanation for the ATP-dependency of MinC and MinE binding to MinD. PMID:21231967

  13. The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes CHD6, CHD7, and CHD8 exhibit distinct nucleosome binding and remodeling activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Benjamin J; Yusufzai, Timur

    2017-07-14

    Proper chromatin regulation is central to genome function and maintenance. The group III chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding (CHD) family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes, comprising CHD6, CHD7, CHD8, and CHD9, has well-documented roles in transcription regulation, impacting both organism development and disease etiology. These four enzymes are similar in their constituent domains, but they fill surprisingly non-redundant roles in the cell, with deficiencies in individual enzymes leading to dissimilar disease states such as CHARGE syndrome or autism spectrum disorders. The mechanisms explaining their divergent, non-overlapping functions are unclear. In this study, we performed an in-depth biochemical analysis of purified CHD6, CHD7, and CHD8 and discovered distinct differences in chromatin remodeling specificities and activities among them. We report that CHD6 and CHD7 both bind with high affinity to short linker DNA, whereas CHD8 requires longer DNA for binding. As a result, CHD8 slides nucleosomes into positions with more flanking linker DNA than CHD7. Moreover, we found that, although CHD7 and CHD8 slide nucleosomes, CHD6 disrupts nucleosomes in a distinct non-sliding manner. The different activities of these enzymes likely lead to differences in chromatin structure and, thereby, transcriptional control, at the enhancer and promoter loci where these enzymes bind. Overall, our work provides a mechanistic basis for both the non-redundant roles and the diverse mutant disease states of these enzymes in vivo. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Two different point mutations in ABL gene ATP-binding domain conferring Primary Imatinib resistance in a Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Zafar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Imatinib (Gleevec is the effective therapy for BCR-ABL positive CML patients. Point mutations have been detected in ATP-binding domain of ABL gene which disturbs the binding of Gleevec to this target leading to resistance. Detection of mutations is helpful in clinical management of imatinib resistance. We established a very sensitive (ASO PCR to detect mutations in an imatinib-resistant CML patient. Mutations C944T and T1052C were detected which cause complete partial imatinib resistance, respectively. This is the first report of multiple point mutations conferring primary imatinib resistance in same patient at the same time. Understanding the biological reasons of primary imatinib resistance is one of the emerging issues of pharmacogenomics and will be helpful in understanding primary resistance of molecularly-targeted cancer therapies. It will also be of great utilization in clinical management of imatinib resistance. Moreover, this ASO-PCR assay is very effective in detecting mutations related to imatinib resistance.

  15. Studies on adenosine triphosphate transphosphorylases. XVIII. Synthesis and preparation of peptides and peptide fragments of rabbit muscle ATP-AMP transphosphorylase (adenylate kinase) and their nucleotide-binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, S A; Hamada, M; Johnson, M S; Russell, G A; Manship, M; Palmieri, R H; Fleming, G; Bredt, D S; Mildvan, A S

    1989-08-01

    Two peptide fragments, derived from the head and tail of rabbit muscle myokinase, were found to possess remarkable and specific ligand-binding properties (Hamada et al., 1979). By initiating systematic syntheses and measurements of equilibrium substrate-binding properties of these two sets of peptides, or portions thereof, which encompass the binding sites for (a) the magnesium complexes of the nucleotide substrates (MgATP2- and MgADP-) and (b) the uncomplexed nucleotide substrates (ADP3- and AMP2-) of rabbit muscle myokinase, some of the requirements for binding of the substrates to ATP-AMP transphosphorylase are being deduced and chemically outlined. One requirement for tight nucleotide binding appears to be a minimum peptide length of 15-25 residues. In addition, Lys-172 and/or Lys-194 may be involved in the binding of epsilon AMP. The syntheses are described as a set of peptides corresponding to residues 31-45, 20-45, 5-45, and 1-45, and a set of peptides corresponding to residues 178-192, 178-194, and 172-194 of rabbit muscle adenylate kinase. The ligand-binding properties of the first set of synthetic peptides to the fluorescent ligands: epsilon MgATP/epsilon ATP and epsilon MgADP/epsilon ADP are quantitatively presented in terms of their intrinsic dissociation constants (K'd) and values of N (maximal number of moles bound per mole of peptide); and compared with the peptide fragment MT-I (1-44) obtained from rabbit muscle myokinase (Kuby et al., 1984) and with the native enzyme (Hamada et al., 1979). In addition, the values of N and K'd are given for the second set of synthetic peptides to the fluorescent ligands epsilon AMP and epsilon ADP as well as for the peptide fragments MT-XII(172-194) and CB-VI(126-194) (Kuby et al., 1984) and, in turn, compared with the native enzyme. A few miscellaneous dissociation constants which had been derived kinetically are also given for comparison (e.g., the Ki for epsilon AMP and the value of KMg epsilon ATP obtained for

  16. Rad51 ATP binding but not hydrolysis is required to recruit Rad10 in synthesis-dependent strand annealing sites in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Justin; Fischhaber, Paula L

    2013-06-01

    Several modes of eukaryotic of DNA double strand break repair (DSBR) depend on synapsis of complementary DNA. The Rad51 ATPase, the S. cerevisiae homolog of E. coli RecA, plays a key role in this process by catalyzing homology searching and strand exchange between an invading DNA strand and a repair template (e.g. sister chromatid or homologous chromosome). Synthesis dependent strand annealing (SDSA), a mode of DSBR, requires Rad51. Another repair enzyme, the Rad1-Rad10 endonuclease, acts in the final stages of SDSA, hydrolyzing 3' overhanging single-stranded DNA. Here we show in vivo by fluorescence microscopy that the ATP binding function of yeast Rad51 is required to recruit Rad10 SDSA sites indicating that Rad51 pre-synaptic filament formation must occur prior to the recruitment of Rad1-Rad10. Our data also show that Rad51 ATPase activity, an important step in Rad51 filament disassembly, is not absolutely required in order to recruit Rad1-Rad10 to DSB sites.

  17. ATP-dependent Conformational Changes Trigger Substrate Capture and Release by an ECF-type Biotin Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenwirth, Friedrich; Sippach, Michael; Landmesser, Heidi; Kirsch, Franziska; Ogienko, Anastasia; Grunzel, Miriam; Kiesler, Cornelia; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Schneider, Erwin; Eitinger, Thomas

    2015-07-03

    Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters for vitamins and metal ions in prokaryotes consist of two ATP-binding cassette-type ATPases, a substrate-specific transmembrane protein (S component) and a transmembrane protein (T component) that physically interacts with the ATPases and the S component. The mechanism of ECF transporters was analyzed upon reconstitution of a bacterial biotin transporter into phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs. ATPase activity was not stimulated by biotin and was only moderately reduced by vanadate. A non-hydrolyzable ATP analog was a competitive inhibitor. As evidenced by cross-linking of monocysteine variants and by site-specific spin labeling of the Q-helix followed by EPR-based interspin distance analyses, closure and reopening of the ATPase dimer (BioM2) was a consequence of ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. A previously suggested role of a stretch of small hydrophobic amino acid residues within the first transmembrane segment of the S units for S unit/T unit interactions was structurally and functionally confirmed for the biotin transporter. Cross-linking of this segment in BioY (S) using homobifunctional thiol-reactive reagents to a coupling helix of BioN (T) indicated a reorientation rather than a disruption of the BioY/BioN interface during catalysis. Fluorescence emission of BioY labeled with an environmentally sensitive fluorophore was compatible with an ATP-induced reorientation and consistent with a hypothesized toppling mechanism. As demonstrated by [(3)H]biotin capture assays, ATP binding stimulated substrate capture by the transporter, and subsequent ATP hydrolysis led to substrate release. Our study represents the first experimental insight into the individual steps during the catalytic cycle of an ECF transporter in a lipid environment. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. ATP-dependent Conformational Changes Trigger Substrate Capture and Release by an ECF-type Biotin Transporter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenwirth, Friedrich; Sippach, Michael; Landmesser, Heidi; Kirsch, Franziska; Ogienko, Anastasia; Grunzel, Miriam; Kiesler, Cornelia; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Schneider, Erwin; Eitinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters for vitamins and metal ions in prokaryotes consist of two ATP-binding cassette-type ATPases, a substrate-specific transmembrane protein (S component) and a transmembrane protein (T component) that physically interacts with the ATPases and the S component. The mechanism of ECF transporters was analyzed upon reconstitution of a bacterial biotin transporter into phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs. ATPase activity was not stimulated by biotin and was only moderately reduced by vanadate. A non-hydrolyzable ATP analog was a competitive inhibitor. As evidenced by cross-linking of monocysteine variants and by site-specific spin labeling of the Q-helix followed by EPR-based interspin distance analyses, closure and reopening of the ATPase dimer (BioM2) was a consequence of ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. A previously suggested role of a stretch of small hydrophobic amino acid residues within the first transmembrane segment of the S units for S unit/T unit interactions was structurally and functionally confirmed for the biotin transporter. Cross-linking of this segment in BioY (S) using homobifunctional thiol-reactive reagents to a coupling helix of BioN (T) indicated a reorientation rather than a disruption of the BioY/BioN interface during catalysis. Fluorescence emission of BioY labeled with an environmentally sensitive fluorophore was compatible with an ATP-induced reorientation and consistent with a hypothesized toppling mechanism. As demonstrated by [3H]biotin capture assays, ATP binding stimulated substrate capture by the transporter, and subsequent ATP hydrolysis led to substrate release. Our study represents the first experimental insight into the individual steps during the catalytic cycle of an ECF transporter in a lipid environment. PMID:25991724

  19. Apolipoprotein A-I and HDL Have Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Adipocytes via Cholesterol Transporters: ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) A-1, ABCG-1 and Scavenger Receptor B-1(SRB-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Tomio; Han, Chang Yeop; Mitra, Poulami; Averill, Michelle M.; Tang, Chongren; Goodspeed, Leela; Omer, Mohamed; Subramanian, Savitha; Wang, Shari; Den Hartigh, Laura J.; Wei, Hao; Kim, Eung Ju; Kim, Jinkyu; O'Brien, Kevin D.; Chait, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue associates with insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease risk. We previously have shown that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and monocyte chemotactic factors after exposure of adipocytes to saturated fatty acids (SFAs) such as palmitate occurs via translocation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) into lipid rafts (LRs). The anti-inflammatory effects of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL on macrophages and endothelial cells appears to occur via cholesterol depletion of LRs. However, little is known concerning anti-inflammatory effects of HDL and apoA-I on adipocytes. Objective To determine whether apoA-I and HDL inhibit inflammation in adipocytes and adipose tissue, and whether this is dependent on LRs. Methods and Results In 3T3L-1 adipocytes, apoA-I, HDL and methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibited chemotactic factor expression. ApoA-I and HDL also disrupted LRs, reduced plasma membrane cholesterol content, inhibited NOX4 translocation into LRs, and reduced palmitate-induced ROS generation and monocyte chemotactic factor expression. Silencing ABCA-1 abrogated the effect of apoA-I, but not HDL, while silencing ABCG-1 or SRB-1 abrogated the effect of HDL but not apoA-I. In vivo, apoA-I transgenic mice fed a high fat, high sucrose, cholesterol-containing diet showed reduced chemotactic factor and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. Conclusion ApoA-I and HDL have anti-inflammatory effects in adipocytes and adipose tissue similar to their effects in other cell types. These effects are consistent with disruption and removal of cholesterol from LRs, which are regulated by cholesterol transporters such as ABCA-1, ABCG-1 and SRB-1. PMID:23501697

  20. Polymorphisms in ATP-binding cassette transporter genes and interaction with diet and life style factors in relation to colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjonneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    to assess whether polymorphisms in ABCB1, ABCC2 and ABCG2 were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and to investigate gene-environment (dietary factors, smoking and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and gene-gene interactions between previously studied polymorphisms in IL1B and IL10...... and ABC transporter genes in relation to CRC risk. We used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Incidence rate ratios were calculated based on Cox' proportional hazards model. None...

  1. Distinct Conformation of ATP Molecule in Solution and on Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eri; Yura, Kei; Nagai, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a versatile molecule used mainly for energy and a phosphate source. The hydrolysis of γ phosphate initiates the reactions and these reactions almost always start when ATP binds to protein. Therefore, there should be a mechanism to prevent spontaneous hydrolysis reaction and a mechanism to lead ATP to a pure energy source or to a phosphate source. To address these questions, we extensively analyzed the effect of protein to ATP conformation based on the sampling of the ATP solution conformations obtained from molecular dynamics simulation and the sampling of ATP structures bound to protein found in a protein structure database. The comparison revealed mainly the following three points; 1) The ribose ring in ATP molecule, which puckers in many ways in solution, tends to assume either C2' exo or C2' endo when it binds to protein. 2) The adenine ring in ATP molecule, which takes open-book motion with the two ring structures, has two distinct structures when ATP binds to protein. 3) The glycosyl-bond and the bond between phosphate and the ribose have unique torsion angles, when ATP binds to protein. The combination of torsion angles found in protein-bound forms is under-represented in ATP molecule in water. These findings suggest that ATP-binding protein exerts forces on ATP molecule to assume a conformation that is rarely found in solution, and that this conformation change should be a trigger for the reactions on ATP molecule.

  2. CryoEM and Molecular Dynamics of the Circadian KaiB-KaiC Complex Indicates That KaiB Monomers Interact with KaiC and Block ATP Binding Clefts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarreal, Seth A.; Pattanayek, Rekha; Williams, Dewight R.; Mori, Tetsuya; Qin, Ximing; Johnson, Carl H.; Egli, Martin; Stewart, Phoebe L. [Case Western; (Vanderbilt); (Vanderbilt-MED)

    2014-10-02

    The circadian control of cellular processes in cyanobacteria is regulated by a posttranslational oscillator formed by three Kai proteins. During the oscillator cycle, KaiA serves to promote autophosphorylation of KaiC while KaiB counteracts this effect. Here, we present a crystallographic structure of the wild-type Synechococcus elongatus KaiB and a cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) structure of a KaiBC complex. The crystal structure shows the expected dimer core structure and significant conformational variations of the KaiB C-terminal region, which is functionally important in maintaining rhythmicity. The KaiBC sample was formed with a C-terminally truncated form of KaiC, KaiC-Δ489, which is persistently phosphorylated. The KaiB–KaiC-Δ489 structure reveals that the KaiC hexamer can bind six monomers of KaiB, which form a continuous ring of density in the KaiBC complex. We performed cryoEM-guided molecular dynamics flexible fitting simulations with crystal structures of KaiB and KaiC to probe the KaiBC protein–protein interface. This analysis indicated a favorable binding mode for the KaiB monomer on the CII end of KaiC, involving two adjacent KaiC subunits and spanning an ATP binding cleft. A KaiC mutation, R468C, which has been shown to affect the affinity of KaiB for KaiC and lengthen the period in a bioluminescence rhythm assay, is found within the middle of the predicted KaiBC interface. The proposed KaiB binding mode blocks access to the ATP binding cleft in the CII ring of KaiC, which provides insight into how KaiB might influence the phosphorylation status of KaiC.

  3. Genetic analysis of the Staphylococcus epidermidis macromolecular synthesis operon: Serp1129 is an ATP binding protein and sigA transcription is regulated by both sigma(A)- and sigma(B)-dependent promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kendall A; Kinkead, Lauren C; Larson, Marilynn A; Hinrichs, Steven H; Fey, Paul D

    2010-01-12

    The highly conserved macromolecular synthesis operon (MMSO) contains both dnaG (primase) and sigA (primary sigma factor). However, in previously evaluated gram-positive species, the MMSO is divergent upstream of dnaG. The MMSO of Bacillus subtilis contains three open reading frames (ORFs) that are differentially regulated by multiple promoters. In conjunction with studies to determine the expression profile of dnaG, the MMSO of Staphylococus epidermidis was characterized. The ORFs of S. epidermidis were compared to the previously described MMSO of B. subtilis and two additional ORFs in S. epidermidis, serp1129 and serp1130, were identified. The largest transcript, 4.8 kb in length, was expressed only in exponential growth and encompassed all four ORFs (serp1130, serp1129, dnaG, and sigA). A separate transcript (1.5 kb) comprising serp1130 and serp1129 was expressed in early exponential growth. Two smaller transcripts 1.3 and 1.2 kb in size were detected with a sigA probe in both exponential and post-exponential phases of growth. Western blot analysis correlated with the transcriptional profile and demonstrated that Serp1129 was detected only in the exponential phase of growth. Computational analysis identified that Serp1130 contained a CBS motif whereas Serp1129 contained an ATP/GTP binding motif. Functional studies of Serp1129 demonstrated that it was capable of binding both ATP and GTP. Comparisons with a sigB:dhfr mutant revealed that the 1.3 kb sigA transcript was regulated by a sigma(B)-dependent promoter. These studies demonstrated that the S. epidermidis 1457 MMSO contains two ORFs (serp1129 and serp1130) not described within the B. subtilis MMSO and at least three promoters, one of which is sigma(beta)-dependent. The transcriptional regulation of sigA by sigma(B) provides evidence that the staphylococcal sigma(B)-dependent response is controlled at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The conservation of serp1129 across multiple gram

  4. Genetic analysis of the Staphylococcus epidermidis Macromolecular Synthesis Operon: Serp1129 is an ATP binding protein and sigA transcription is regulated by both σA- and σB-dependent promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichs Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly conserved macromolecular synthesis operon (MMSO contains both dnaG (primase and sigA (primary sigma factor. However, in previously evaluated gram-positive species, the MMSO is divergent upstream of dnaG. The MMSO of Bacillus subtilis contains three open reading frames (ORFs that are differentially regulated by multiple promoters. In conjunction with studies to determine the expression profile of dnaG, the MMSO of Staphylococus epidermidis was characterized. Results The ORFs of S. epidermidis were compared to the previously described MMSO of B. subtilis and two additional ORFs in S. epidermidis, serp1129 and serp1130, were identified. The largest transcript, 4.8 kb in length, was expressed only in exponential growth and encompassed all four ORFs (serp1130, serp1129, dnaG, and sigA. A separate transcript (1.5 kb comprising serp1130 and serp1129 was expressed in early exponential growth. Two smaller transcripts 1.3 and 1.2 kb in size were detected with a sigA probe in both exponential and post-exponential phases of growth. Western blot analysis correlated with the transcriptional profile and demonstrated that Serp1129 was detected only in the exponential phase of growth. Computational analysis identified that Serp1130 contained a CBS motif whereas Serp1129 contained an ATP/GTP binding motif. Functional studies of Serp1129 demonstrated that it was capable of binding both ATP and GTP. Comparisons with a sigB:dhfr mutant revealed that the 1.3 kb sigA transcript was regulated by a σB-dependent promoter. Conclusions These studies demonstrated that the S. epidermidis 1457 MMSO contains two ORFs (serp1129 and serp1130 not described within the B. subtilis MMSO and at least three promoters, one of which is σβ-dependent. The transcriptional regulation of sigA by σB provides evidence that the staphylococcal σB-dependent response is controlled at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The conservation of

  5. Phosphorylation at Ser²⁶ in the ATP-binding site of Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent kinase II as a mechanism for switching off the kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Mehtap; Gangopadhyay, Samudra S; Leavis, Paul; Grabarek, Zenon; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2013-02-07

    CaMKII (Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) is a serine/threonine phosphotransferase that is capable of long-term retention of activity due to autophosphorylation at a specific threonine residue within each subunit of its oligomeric structure. The γ isoform of CaMKII is a significant regulator of vascular contractility. Here, we show that phosphorylation of CaMKII γ at Ser²⁶, a residue located within the ATP-binding site, terminates the sustained activity of the enzyme. To test the physiological importance of phosphorylation at Ser²⁶, we generated a phosphospecific Ser²⁶ antibody and demonstrated an increase in Ser²⁶ phosphorylation upon depolarization and contraction of blood vessels. To determine if the phosphorylation of Ser²⁶ affects the kinase activity, we mutated Ser²⁶ to alanine or aspartic acid. The S26D mutation mimicking the phosphorylated state of CaMKII causes a dramatic decrease in Thr²⁸⁷ autophosphorylation levels and greatly reduces the catalytic activity towards an exogenous substrate (autocamtide-3), whereas the S26A mutation has no effect. These data combined with molecular modelling indicate that a negative charge at Ser²⁶ of CaMKII γ inhibits the catalytic activity of the enzyme towards its autophosphorylation site at Thr²⁸⁷ most probably by blocking ATP binding. We propose that Ser²⁶ phosphorylation constitutes an important mechanism for switching off CaMKII activity.

  6. A cassette of N-terminal amino acids of histone H2B are required for efficient cell survival, DNA repair and Swi/Snf binding in UV irradiated yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Ronita; Kyriss, McKenna; Smerdon, John W.; Wyrick, John J.; Smerdon, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The highly charged histone N-terminal domains are engaged in inter- and intra-nucleosomal interactions, and contain a host of sites used for posttranslational modification. We have studied the effect of deleting residues 30–37 from the N-terminal domain of histone H2B in yeast cells, on nucleotide excision repair (NER) following UV irradiation, as these cells are quite sensitive to UV. We find that H2B Δ30–37 cells exhibit reduced NER efficiency at three specific chromatin loci: the transcriptionally active, RPB2 locus; the transcriptionally silenced, nucleosome-loaded HML locus; and the transcriptionally repressed, non-silenced, GAL10 locus. Nuclease digestion studies indicate that H2B Δ30–37 chromatin has increased nucleosome accessibility and/or nucleosome mobility. In addition, H2B Δ30–37 mutants acquire more DNA damage, compared to wt cells, following the same dose of UV radiation. Reducing the level of damage in H2B Δ30–37 cells to match that of wt cells restores the NER rate to wt levels in the RPB2 and GAL10 loci, but NER efficiency remains low in the silenced HML locus. Interestingly, recruitment of Snf5 to the HML locus is reduced in H2B Δ30–37 cells and more transient following UV irradiation. This may reflect a lower binding affinity of the SWI/SNF complex to H2B Δ30–37 nucleosomes. PMID:20007597

  7. ATP synthases from archaea: the beauty of a molecular motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüber, Gerhard; Manimekalai, Malathy Sony Subramanian; Mayer, Florian; Müller, Volker

    2014-06-01

    Archaea live under different environmental conditions, such as high salinity, extreme pHs and cold or hot temperatures. How energy is conserved under such harsh environmental conditions is a major question in cellular bioenergetics of archaea. The key enzymes in energy conservation are the archaeal A1AO ATP synthases, a class of ATP synthases distinct from the F1FO ATP synthase ATP synthase found in bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts and the V1VO ATPases of eukaryotes. A1AO ATP synthases have distinct structural features such as a collar-like structure, an extended central stalk, and two peripheral stalks possibly stabilizing the A1AO ATP synthase during rotation in ATP synthesis/hydrolysis at high temperatures as well as to provide the storage of transient elastic energy during ion-pumping and ATP synthesis/-hydrolysis. High resolution structures of individual subunits and subcomplexes have been obtained in recent years that shed new light on the function and mechanism of this unique class of ATP synthases. An outstanding feature of archaeal A1AO ATP synthases is their diversity in size of rotor subunits and the coupling ion used for ATP synthesis with H(+), Na(+) or even H(+) and Na(+) using enzymes. The evolution of the H(+) binding site to a Na(+) binding site and its implications for the energy metabolism and physiology of the cell are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural Basis for a Ribofuranosyl Binding Protein: Insights into the Furanose Specific Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagaria, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Kumaran, D.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC-transporters) are members of one of the largest protein superfamilies, with representatives in all extant phyla. These integral membrane proteins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to carry out certain biological processes, including translocation of various substrates across membranes and non-transport related processes such as translation of RNA and DNA repair. Typically, such transport systems in bacteria consist of an ATP binding component, a transmembrane permease, and a periplasmic receptor or binding protein. Soluble proteins found in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria serve as the primary receptors for transport of many compounds, such as sugars, small peptides, and some ions. Ligand binding activates these periplasmic components, permitting recognition by the membrane spanning domain, which supports for transport and, in some cases, chemotaxis. Transport and chemotaxis processes appear to be independent of one another, and a few mutants of bifunctional periplasmic components reveal the absence of one or the other function. Previously published high-resolution X-ray structures of various periplasmic ligand binding proteins include Arabinose binding protein (ABP), Allose binding protein (ALBP), Glucose-galactose binding protein (GBP) and Ribose binding protein (RBP). Each of these proteins consists of two structurally similar domains connected by a three-stranded hinge region, with ligand buried between the domains. Upon ligand binding and release, various conformational changes have been observed. For RBP, open (apo) and closed (ligand bound) conformations have been reported and so for MBP. The closed/active form of the protein interacts with the integral membrane component of the system in both transport and chemotaxis. Herein, we report 1.9{angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the R{sub f}BP periplasmic component of an ABC-type sugar transport system from Hahella chejuensis (UniProt Id Q2S7D2) bound to

  9. Finger-Actuated, Self-Contained Immunoassay Cassettes

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Xianbo; Thompson, Jason A.; Chen, Zongyuan; Liu, Changchun; Chen, Dafeng; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Mauk, Michael G; Ongagna, Serge; Barber, Cheryl; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Paul L A M Corstjens; Bau, Haim H.

    2009-01-01

    The building blocks for an inexpensive, disposable, luminescence-based microfluidic immunoassay cassette are described, and their integration in a point-of-care diagnostic system is demonstrated. Fluid motion in the cassette is driven by depressing finger-actuated pouches. All reagents needed for the immunoassay can be stored in the cassette in liquid form. Prior to use, the cassette consists of two separate parts. A top storage component contains pouches, sealed storage chambers, a metering ...

  10. The first nucleotide binding domain of the sulfonylurea receptor 2A contains regulatory elements and is folded and functions as an independent module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Elvin D; Ikeda, Lynn K; Tzvetkova, Svetlana; Kanelis, Voula

    2011-08-09

    The sulfonylurea receptor 2A (SUR2A) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein that forms the regulatory subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels in the heart. ATP binding and hydrolysis at the SUR2A nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) control gating of K(ATP) channels, and mutations in the NBDs that affect ATP hydrolysis and cellular trafficking cause cardiovascular disorders. To date, there is limited information on the SUR2A NBDs and the effects of disease-causing mutations on their structure and interactions. Structural and biophysical studies of NBDs, especially from eukaryotic ABC proteins like SUR2A, have been hindered by low solubility of the isolated domains. We hypothesized that the solubility of heterologously expressed SUR2A NBDs depends on the precise definition of the domain boundaries. Putative boundaries of SUR2A NBD1 were identified by structure-based sequence alignments and subsequently tested by exploring the solubility of SUR2A NBD1 constructs with different N and C termini. We have determined boundaries of SUR2A NBD1 that allow for soluble heterologous expression of the protein, producing a folded domain with ATP binding activity. Surprisingly, our alignment and screening data indicate that SUR2A NBD1 contains two putative, previously unidentified, regulatory elements: a large insert within the β-sheet subdomain and a C-terminal extension. Our approach, which combines the use of structure-based sequence alignments and predictions of disordered regions combined with biochemical and biophysical studies, may be applied as a general method for developing suitable constructs of other NBDs of ABC proteins. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Effect of attC structure on cassette excision by integron integrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larouche André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrons are genetic elements able to integrate and disseminate genes as cassettes by a site-specific recombination mechanism. These elements contain a gene coding for an integrase that carries out recombination by interacting with two different target sites; the attI site in cis with the integrase and the palindromic attC site of a gene cassette. Integron integrases (IntIs bind specifically to the bottom strand of attC sites. The extrahelical bases resulting from folding of attC bottom strands are important for the recognition by integrases. These enzymes are directly involved in the accumulation and formation of new cassette arrangements in the variable region of integrons. Thus, it is important to better understand interactions between IntIs and their substrates. Results We compared the ability of five IntIs to carry out excision of several cassettes flanked by different attC sites. The results showed that for most cassettes, IntI1 was the most active integrase. However, IntI2*179E and SonIntIA could easily excise cassettes containing the attCdfrA1 site located upstream, whereas IntI1 and IntI3 had only a weak excision activity for these cassettes. Analysis of the secondary structure adopted by the bottom strand of attCdfrA1 has shown that the identity of the extrahelical bases and the distance between them (A-N7-8-C differ from those of attCs contained in the cassettes most easily excisable by IntI1 (T-N6-G. We used the attCdfrA1 site upstream of the sat2 gene cassette as a template and varied the identity and spacing between the extrahelical bases in order to determine how these modifications influence the ability of IntI1, IntI2*179E, IntI3 and SonIntIA to excise cassettes. Our results show that IntI1 is more efficient in cassette excision using T-N6-G or T-N6-C attCs while IntI3 recognizes only a limited range of attCs. IntI2*179E and SonIntIA are more tolerant of changes to the identity and spacing of extrahelical

  12. Fuel cell cassette with compliant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Haltiner, Jr. J.; Anthony, Derose J.; Klotzbach, Darasack C.; Schneider, Jonathan R.

    2017-11-07

    A fuel cell cassette for forming a fuel cell stack along a fuel cell axis includes a cell retainer, a plate positioned axially to the cell retainer and defining a space axially with the cell retainer, and a fuel cell having an anode layer and a cathode layer separated by an electrolyte layer. The outer perimeter of the fuel cell is positioned in the space between the plate and the cell retainer, thereby retaining the fuel cell and defining a cavity between the cell retainer, the fuel cell, and the plate. The fuel cell cassette also includes a seal disposed within the cavity for sealing the edge of the fuel cell. The seal is compliant at operational temperatures of the fuel cell, thereby allowing lateral expansion and contraction of the fuel cell within the cavity while maintaining sealing at the edge of the fuel cell.

  13. Activation of ATP/UTP-selective receptors increases blood flow and blunts sympathetic vasoconstriction in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yegutkin, G.G.; Gonzalez-Alonso, J.; Rosenmeier, Jaya Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    and sympatholytic effects of exogenous ATP in the skeletal muscle vasculature are largely mediated via ATP itself rather than its dephosphorylated metabolites, most likely via binding to endothelial ATP/UTP-selective P2Y(2) receptors. These data are consistent with a role of ATP in skeletal muscle hyperaemia...

  14. Structural features of PhoX, one of the phosphate-binding proteins from Pho regulon of Xanthomonas citri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegos, Vanessa R.; Santos, Rodrigo M. L.; Medrano, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the ATP-Binding Cassette transporter for phosphate is encoded by the pstSCAB operon. PstS is the periplasmic component responsible for affinity and specificity of the system and has also been related to a regulatory role and chemotaxis during depletion of phosphate. Xanthomonas citri has two phosphate-binding proteins: PstS and PhoX, which are differentially expressed under phosphate limitation. In this work, we focused on PhoX characterization and comparison with PstS. The PhoX three-dimensional structure was solved in a closed conformation with a phosphate engulfed in the binding site pocket between two domains. Comparison between PhoX and PstS revealed that they originated from gene duplication, but despite their similarities they show significant differences in the region that interacts with the permeases. PMID:28542513

  15. Structural features of PhoX, one of the phosphate-binding proteins from Pho regulon of Xanthomonas citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegos, Vanessa R; Santos, Rodrigo M L; Medrano, Francisco J; Balan, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the ATP-Binding Cassette transporter for phosphate is encoded by the pstSCAB operon. PstS is the periplasmic component responsible for affinity and specificity of the system and has also been related to a regulatory role and chemotaxis during depletion of phosphate. Xanthomonas citri has two phosphate-binding proteins: PstS and PhoX, which are differentially expressed under phosphate limitation. In this work, we focused on PhoX characterization and comparison with PstS. The PhoX three-dimensional structure was solved in a closed conformation with a phosphate engulfed in the binding site pocket between two domains. Comparison between PhoX and PstS revealed that they originated from gene duplication, but despite their similarities they show significant differences in the region that interacts with the permeases.

  16. The Role of ATP in the Regulation of NCAM Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübschmann, Martin; Skladchikova, Galina

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular ATP is an abundant signaling molecule that has a number of functions in the nervous system. It is released by both neurons and glial cells, activates purinergic receptors and acts as a trophic factor as well as a neurotransmitter. In this review, we summarize the evidence for a dire...... shedding, possibly affecting the structural plasticity associated with learning and memory.......Extracellular ATP is an abundant signaling molecule that has a number of functions in the nervous system. It is released by both neurons and glial cells, activates purinergic receptors and acts as a trophic factor as well as a neurotransmitter. In this review, we summarize the evidence for a direct...... ATP-NCAM interaction and discuss its functional implications. The ectodomain of NCAM contains the ATP binding Walker motif A and has intrinsic ATPase activity, which could modulate NCAM-dependent signaling processes. NCAM interacts directly with and signals through FGFR. The NCAM binding site to ATP...

  17. Trinucleotide cassettes increase diversity of T7 phage-displayed peptide library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon James B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amino acid sequence diversity is introduced into a phage-displayed peptide library by randomizing library oligonucleotide DNA. We recently evaluated the diversity of peptide libraries displayed on T7 lytic phage and M13 filamentous phage and showed that T7 phage can display a more diverse amino acid sequence repertoire due to differing processes of viral morphogenesis. Methods In this study, we evaluated and compared the diversity of a 12-mer T7 phage-displayed peptide library randomized using codon-corrected trinucleotide cassettes with a T7 and an M13 12-mer phage-displayed peptide library constructed using the degenerate codon randomization method. Results We herein demonstrate that the combination of trinucleotide cassette amino acid codon randomization and T7 phage display construction methods resulted in a significant enhancement to the functional diversity of a 12-mer peptide library. This novel library exhibited superior amino acid uniformity and order-of-magnitude increases in amino acid sequence diversity as compared to degenerate codon randomized peptide libraries. Comparative analyses of the biophysical characteristics of the 12-mer peptide libraries revealed the trinucleotide cassette-randomized library to be a unique resource. Conclusion The combination of T7 phage display and trinucleotide cassette randomization resulted in a novel resource for the potential isolation of binding peptides for new and previously studied molecular targets.

  18. Electron transfer precedes ATP hydrolysis during nitrogenase catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Simon; Danyal, Karamatullah; Shaw, Sudipta; Lytle, Anna K.; Dean, Dennis R.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Antony, Edwin; Seefeldt, Lance C.

    2013-01-01

    The biological reduction of N2 to NH3 catalyzed by Mo-dependent nitrogenase requires at least eight rounds of a complex cycle of events associated with ATP-driven electron transfer (ET) from the Fe protein to the catalytic MoFe protein, with each ET coupled to the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules. Although steps within this cycle have been studied for decades, the nature of the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and ET, in particular the order of ET and ATP hydrolysis, has been elusive. Here, we have measured first-order rate constants for each key step in the reaction sequence, including direct measurement of the ATP hydrolysis rate constant: kATP = 70 s−1, 25 °C. Comparison of the rate constants establishes that the reaction sequence involves four sequential steps: (i) conformationally gated ET (kET = 140 s−1, 25 °C), (ii) ATP hydrolysis (kATP = 70 s−1, 25 °C), (iii) Phosphate release (kPi = 16 s−1, 25 °C), and (iv) Fe protein dissociation from the MoFe protein (kdiss = 6 s−1, 25 °C). These findings allow completion of the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the Fe protein, showing that the energy of ATP binding and protein–protein association drive ET, with subsequent ATP hydrolysis and Pi release causing dissociation of the complex between the Feox(ADP)2 protein and the reduced MoFe protein. PMID:24062462

  19. Disinfection Effect of Film Cassettes by Ultraviolet Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Park, Peom [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    A bacteria infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department. Studies have demonstrated a bactericidal effect of ultraviolet irradiation, and to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevent from nosocomial infection. The study showed that the laboratory result was identified non-pathologic and pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection practices suitable for bacteria. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In conclusion, ultraviolet irradiate on film cassette over the surface more than 2 minutes. Ultraviolet dose of 1565 {mu}W {center_dot} s/cm{sup 2}Win in 30 second relative to ultraviolet dose in time.

  20. Structural Basis for a Ribofuranosyl Binding Protein: Insights into the Furanose Specific Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Bagaria; D Kumaran; S Burley; S Swaminathan

    2011-12-31

    The APT-binding cassette transporters (ABC-transporters) are members of one of the largest protein superfamilies, with representatives in all extant phyla. These integral membrane proteins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to carry out certain biological processes, including translocation of various substrates across membranes and nontransport related processes such as translation of RNA and DNA repair. typically, such transport systems in bacteria consist of an ATP binding component, a transmembrane permease, and a periplasmic receptor or binding protein. Soluble proteins found in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria serve as the primary receptors for transport of many compounds, such as sugars, small peptides, and some ions. Ligand binding activates these periplasmic components, permitting recognition by the membrane spanning domain, which supports for transport, and, in some cases, chemotaxis. Transport and chemotaxis processes appear to be independent of one another, and a few mutants of bifunctional periplasmic components reveal the absence of one or the other function. Previously published high-resolution X-ray structures of various periplasmic ligand binding proteins include Arabinose binding protein (ABP), Allose binding protein (ALBP), Glucose-galactose binding protein (GBP), and Ribose binding protein (RBP). Each of these proteins consits of two structurally similar domains connected by a three-stranded hinge region, with ligand buried between the domains. Upon ligand binding and release, various conformational changes have been observed. For RBP, open (apo) and closed (ligand bound) conformations hafve been reported and so for MBP. The closed/active form of the protein interacts with the ingral membrane component of the system in both transport and chemotaxis. Herein, they report 1.9 {angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the R{sub f}BP periplasmic component of an ABC-type sugar transport system from Hahella chejuensis (UniProt Id Q2S7D2) bound

  1. A study on contamination and disinfection of film cassette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Chung, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ji Won [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2000-04-15

    In July 2000, a bacteria infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient to prevent from nosocomial infection. The study showed that the laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the four different cassette size of the contact surface. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. Also the education of nosocomial infection for radiographer will be required.

  2. A Cassette Based System for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Wayne E.

    2006-11-29

    A hydrogen storage system is described and evaluated. This is based upon a cassette, that is a container for managing hydrogen storage materials. The container is designed to be safe, modular, adaptable to different chemistries, inexpensive, and transportable. A second module receives the cassette and provides the necessary infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from the cassette according to enduser requirements. The modular concept has a number of advantages over approaches that are all in one stand alone systems. The advantages of a cassette based system are discussed, along with results from model and laboratory testing.

  3. Finger-Actuated, Self-Contained Immunoassay Cassettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xianbo; Thompson, Jason A.; Chen, Zongyuan; Liu, Changchun; Chen, Dafeng; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Mauk, Michael G.; Ongagna, Serge; Barber, Cheryl; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L.A.M.; Bau, Haim H.

    2010-01-01

    The building blocks for an inexpensive, disposable, luminescence-based microfluidic immunoassay cassette are described, and their integration in a point-of-care diagnostic system is demonstrated. Fluid motion in the cassette is driven by depressing finger-actuated pouches. All reagents needed for the immunoassay can be stored in the cassette in liquid form. Prior to use, the cassette consists of two separate parts. A top storage component contains pouches, sealed storage chambers, a metering chamber, and needle seats. The bottom processing component contains connection needles, a mixing chamber, and a detection chamber with immobilized proteins. Subsequent to sample introduction, the storage and processing components are mated. The needles form hydraulic connections between the two parts and, in some cases, close valves. The pouches are then actuated sequentially to induce flow of various reagents and facilitate process operations. The cassette is compatible with different detection modalities. Both a cassette with immunochromatographic-based detection and a cassette with microbead-based detection were constructed and evaluated. The immunochromatographic cassette was used to detect antibodies to HIV in saliva samples. The bead-based cassette was used to detect the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8. The experimental data demonstrates good repeatability and reasonable sensitivity. PMID:19597994

  4. Definition of the domain boundaries is critical to the expression of the nucleotide-binding domains of P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Ian D; Berridge, Georgina; Linton, Kenneth J; Higgins, Christopher F; Callaghan, Richard

    2003-11-01

    Heterologous expression of domains of eukaryotic proteins is frequently associated with formation of inclusion bodies, consisting of aggregated mis-folded protein. This phenomenon has proved a significant barrier to the characterization of domains of eukaryotic ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We hypothesized that the solubility of heterologously expressed nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of ABC transporters is dependent on the definition of the domain boundaries. In this paper we have defined a core NBD, and tested the effect of extensions to and deletions of this core domain on protein expression. Of 10 NBDs constructed, only one was expressed as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli, with expression of the remaining NBDs being associated with inclusion body formation. The soluble NBD protein we have obtained corresponds to residues 386-632 of P-glycoprotein and represents an optimally defined domain. The NBD has been isolated and purified to 95% homogeneity by a two-step purification protocol, involving affinity chromatography and gel filtration. Although showing no detectable ATP hydrolysis, the protein retains specific ATP binding and has a secondary structure compatible with X-ray crystallographic data on bacterial NBDs. We have interpreted our results in terms of homology models, which suggest that the N-terminal NBD of P-glycoprotein can be produced as a stable, correctly folded, isolate domain with judicious design of the expression construct.

  5. Recombination between the dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 Cassette Array and an aadA1 Gene Cassette Creates a Hybrid Cassette, aadA8b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestal, Alicia M.; Stokes, H. W.; Partridge, Sally R.; Hall, Ruth M.

    2005-01-01

    Homologous recombination between closely related gene cassettes, such as aadA1 and aadA2, which are 89% identical, can create hybrid cassettes and hybrids of existing cassette arrays. A new cassette array, dfrA12-orfF-aadA8b, which was created by such a recombination event occurring within the aadA2 cassette in the dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 array, has been identified. PMID:16251327

  6. SwissProt search result: AK120079 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120079 J013012G06 (O95477) ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ATP-binding casset...te transporter 1) (ATP-binding cassette 1) (ABC-1) (Cholesterol efflux regulatory protein) ABCA1_HUMAN 2e-11 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK059549 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059549 001-029-F10 (O95477) ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ATP-binding casset...te transporter 1) (ATP-binding cassette 1) (ABC-1) (Cholesterol efflux regulatory protein) ABCA1_HUMAN 9e-11 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK070374 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070374 J023051G10 (O95477) ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ATP-binding casset...te transporter 1) (ATP-binding cassette 1) (ABC-1) (Cholesterol efflux regulatory protein) ABCA1_HUMAN 6e-12 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK119274 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119274 001-130-B06 (O95477) ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ATP-binding casset...te transporter 1) (ATP-binding cassette 1) (ABC-1) (Cholesterol efflux regulatory protein) ABCA1_HUMAN 8e-55 ...

  10. Associations between dru Types and SCCmec Cassettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette D; Boye, Kit; Oliveira, Duarte C

    2013-01-01

    isolates with dru type variants indicating that dru typing is not useful as a first line epidemiological typing tool. However, MRSA isolates cultured from a single patient over a three year period exhibited a single dru type. The finding of dt10a in most SCCmec types suggests that dru and mecA originate......Molecular typing is an important tool in the investigation of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks and in following the evolution of MRSA. The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) contains a hypervariable region with a variable number of 40 bp repeats named direct...... repeat units (dru). The dru region has been suggested as a supplementary typing method for MRSA and an international nomenclature exists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity and variability of the dru region in a diverse collection of MRSA. We studied 302 MRSA isolates harbouring...

  11. Electric field driven torque in ATP synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Miller

    Full Text Available FO-ATP synthase (FO is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1 overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring.

  12. An Aromatic Cap Seals the Substrate Binding Site in an ECF-Type S Subunit for Riboflavin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpowich, Nathan K.; Song, Jinmei; Wang, Da-Neng

    2016-06-13

    ECF transporters are a family of active membrane transporters for essential micronutrients, such as vitamins and trace metals. Found exclusively in archaea and bacteria, these transporters are composed of four subunits: an integral membrane substrate-binding subunit (EcfS), a transmembrane coupling subunit (EcfT), and two ATP-binding cassette ATPases (EcfA and EcfA'). We have characterized the structural basis of substrate binding by the EcfS subunit for riboflavin from Thermotoga maritima, TmRibU. TmRibU binds riboflavin with high affinity, and the protein–substrate complex is exceptionally stable in solution. The crystal structure of riboflavin-bound TmRibU reveals an electronegative binding pocket at the extracellular surface in which the substrate is completely buried. Analysis of the intermolecular contacts indicates that nearly every available substrate hydrogen bond is satisfied. A conserved aromatic residue at the extracellular end of TM5, Tyr130, caps the binding site to generate a substrate-bound, occluded state, and non-conservative mutation of Tyr130 reduces the stability of this conformation. Using a novel fluorescence binding assay, we find that an aromatic residue at this position is essential for high-affinity substrate binding. Comparison with other S subunit structures suggests that TM5 and Loop5-6 contain a dynamic, conserved motif that plays a key role in gating substrate entry and release by S subunits of ECF transporters.

  13. Human small cell lung cancer NYH cells selected for resistance to the bisdioxopiperazine topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor ICRF-187 demonstrate a functional R162Q mutation in the Walker A consensus ATP binding domain of the alpha isoform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessel, I; Jensen, L H; Jensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    Bisdioxopiperazine drugs such as ICRF-187 are catalytic inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase II, with at least two effects on the enzyme: namely, locking it in a closed-clamp form and inhibiting its ATPase activity. This is in contrast to topoisomerase II poisons as etoposide and amsacrine (m...... inactive at enzyme at 1 mM ATP was not resistant to ICRF-187 compared to wt, whereas it was clearly less sensitive than wt to ICRF-187 at low ATP concentrations. This suggests that it is a shift in the equilibrium to an open......-AMSA), which act by stabilizing enzyme-DNA-drug complexes at a stage in which the DNA gate strand is cleaved and the protein is covalently attached to DNA. Human small cell lung cancer NYH cells selected for resistance to ICRF-187 (NYH/187) showed a 25% increase in topoisomerase IIalpha level and no change...

  14. A Therapeutic Connection between Dietary Phytochemicals and ATP Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Hassan, Sherif S; Azim, Sofiya

    2017-11-20

    For centuries, phytochemicals have been used to prevent and cure multiple health ailments. Phytochemicals have been reported to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, antitussive, antiparasitic, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties. Generally, the therapeutic use of phytochemicals is based on tradition or word of mouth with few evidence-based studies. Moreover, molecular level interactions or molecular targets for the majority of phytochemicals are unknown. In recent years, antibiotic resistance by microbes has become a major healthcare concern. As such, the use of phytochemicals with antimicrobial properties has become pertinent. Natural compounds from plants, vegetables, herbs, and spices with strong antimicrobial properties present an excellent opportunity for preventing and combating antibiotic resistant microbial infections. ATP synthase is the fundamental means of cellular energy. Inhibition of ATP synthase may deprive cells of required energy leading to cell death, and a variety of dietary phytochemicals are known to inhibit ATP synthase. Structural modifications of phytochemicals have been shown to increase the inhibitory potency and extent of inhibition. Sitedirected mutagenic analysis has elucidated the binding site(s) for some phytochemicals on ATP synthase. Amino acid variations in and around the phytochemical binding sites can result in selective binding and inhibition of microbial ATP synthase. In this review, the therapeutic connection between dietary phytochemicals and ATP synthase is summarized based on the inhibition of ATP synthase by dietary phytochemicals. Research suggests selective targeting of ATP synthase is a valuable alternative molecular level approach to combat antibiotic resistant microbial infections. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Structural basis of PP2A activation by PTPA, an ATP-dependent activation chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng; Stanevich, Vitali; Wlodarchak, Nathan; Sengupta, Rituparna; Jiang, Li; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Xing, Yongna

    2013-10-08

    Proper activation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit is central for the complex PP2A regulation and is crucial for broad aspects of cellular function. The crystal structure of PP2A bound to PP2A phosphatase activator (PTPA) and ATPγS reveals that PTPA makes broad contacts with the structural elements surrounding the PP2A active site and the adenine moiety of ATP. PTPA-binding stabilizes the protein fold of apo-PP2A required for activation, and orients ATP phosphoryl groups to bind directly to the PP2A active site. This allows ATP to modulate the metal-binding preferences of the PP2A active site and utilize the PP2A active site for ATP hydrolysis. In vitro, ATP selectively and drastically enhances binding of endogenous catalytic metal ions, which requires ATP hydrolysis and is crucial for acquisition of pSer/Thr-specific phosphatase activity. Furthermore, both PP2A- and ATP-binding are required for PTPA function in cell proliferation and survival. Our results suggest novel mechanisms of PTPA in PP2A activation with structural economy and a unique ATP-binding pocket that could potentially serve as a specific therapeutic target.

  16. Hydrolysis of ATP at only one GyrB subunit is sufficient to promote supercoiling by DNA gyrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Maxwell, A

    1998-01-01

    Mutation of Glu42 to Ala in the B subunit of DNA gyrase abolishes ATP hydrolysis but not nucleotide binding. Gyrase complexes that contain one wild-type and one Ala42 mutant B protein were formed, and the ability of such complexes to hydrolyze ATP was investigated. We found that ATP hydrolysis...

  17. Nanomolar ambient ATP decelerates P2X3 receptor kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Alexander; Hans, Michael; Boldogkoi, Zsolt; Zimmer, Andreas; Steinhäuser, Christian; Jabs, Ronald

    2008-12-01

    Homomeric P2X receptors differ in their electrophysiological and pharmacological profiles. The rapidly activating and desensitizing P2X3 receptors are known for their involvement in pain signalling pathways. Modulatory effects on P2X3 receptors have been reported for low concentrations of ATP ([ATP]). This includes both, enhancement and reduction of receptor currents. The first has been reported to be mediated by activation of ectoprotein kinases and high affinity desensitization (HAD), respectively. Both processes influence receptor current amplitudes. Here we describe a new phenomenon, the modulatory influence of ambient low [ATP] on P2X3 receptor kinetics. First, we studied in HEK cells whether persistent ATP affects current decay. To this end, P2X3 receptor mediated currents, elicited by pressure application of saturating [ATP], were analyzed after pre-application of low [ATP]. Second, UV-flash photolysis of ATP was employed to investigate whether submicromolar [ATP] affects receptor activation. Finally we confirmed the action of nanomolar [ATP] on native P2X3 receptors of neurons freshly isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia. We found that persistent low [ATP] caused pronounced deceleration of receptor current activation and decay. This priming effect indicates a mechanism different from HAD. It could be explained by a pre-opening receptor isomerization, induced by the occupation of a high affinity binding site already at the resting state. The observed modulation of the receptor kinetics could be considered as a physiological fine tuning mechanism of the nociceptive system, driven by the actual ambient agonist concentration.

  18. Observing cassette culture: user interface implications for digital music libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Toal, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Many people keep their collections of music on cassette tape even if they rarely listen to them. Images of these collections can be found online on photo sharing websites. What can we learn from such collections and what might they tell us about designing interfaces for new digital music libraries? The author conducts an online ethnographic study of over two hundred cassette tape collections, and over sixty participants with the aim of guiding future design of music collections. The author pr...

  19. Transcription, Processing, and Function of CRISPR Cassettes in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Pougach, Ksenia; Semenova, Ekaterina; Bogdanova, Ekaterina; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Djordjevic, Marko; Wanner, Barry L.; Severinov, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas, bacterial and archaeal systems of interference with foreign genetic elements such as viruses or plasmids, consist of DNA loci called CRISPR cassettes (a set of variable spacers regularly separated by palindromic repeats) and associated cas genes. When a CRISPR spacer sequence exactly matches a sequence in a viral genome, the cell can become resistant to the virus. The CRISPR/Cas systems function through small RNAs originating from longer CRISPR cassette transcripts. While laborato...

  20. A specific interdomain interaction preserves the structural and binding properties of the ModA protein from the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri domain interaction and transport in ModA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz-Perez, Carolina; Pegos, Vanessa Rodrigues; Honorato, Rodrigo V; Verli, Hugo; Lindahl, Erik; Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves; Balan, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    The periplasmic-binding proteins in ATP-binding cassette systems (ABC Transporters) are responsible for the capture and delivery of ligands to their specific transporters, triggering a series of ATP-driven conformational changes that leads to the transport of the ligand. Structurally consisting of two lobes, the proteins change conformation after interaction with the ligand. The structure of the molybdate-binding protein (ModA) from Xanthomonas citri, bound to molybdate, was previously solved by our group and an interdomain interaction, mediated by a salt bridge between K127 and D59, apparently supports the binding properties and keeps the domains closed. To determinate the importance of this interaction, we built two ModA mutants, K127S and D59A, and analysed their functional and structural properties. Based on a set of spectroscopic experiments, crystallisation trials, structure determination and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we showed that the salt bridge is essential to maintain the structure and binding properties. Additionally, the MD simulations revealed that this mutant adopted a more compact structure that packed down the ligand-binding pocket. From the closed bound to open structure, the positioning of the helices forming the dipole and the salt bridge are essential to induce an intermediate state. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Binding of Divalent Magnesium by Escherichia coli Phosphoribosyl Diphosphate Synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoës, Martin; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of binding of the substrates MgATP and ribose 5-phosphate as well as Mg2+ to the enzyme 5-phospho-d-ribosyl a-1-diphosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli has been analyzed. By use of the competive inhibitors of ATP and ribose 5-phosphate binding, a,ß-methylene ATP and (+)-1-a,2-a...

  2. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-Interactome using the iTRAQ-SPROX Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, M. Ariel; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2016-02-01

    The stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) technique was used in combination with an isobaric mass tagging strategy to identify adenosine triphosphate (ATP) interacting proteins in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome. The SPROX methodology utilized in this work enabled 373 proteins in a yeast cell lysate to be assayed for ATP interactions (both direct and indirect) using the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). A total of 28 proteins were identified with AMP-PNP-induced thermodynamic stability changes. These protein hits included 14 proteins that were previously annotated as ATP-binding proteins in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). The 14 non-annotated ATP-binding proteins included nine proteins that were previously found to be ATP-sensitive in an earlier SPROX study using a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based approach. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein hits identified here and in the earlier SILAC-SPROX experiments revealed that many of the previously annotated ATP-binding protein hits were kinases, ligases, and chaperones. In contrast, many of the newly discovered ATP-sensitive proteins were not from these protein classes, but rather were hydrolases, oxidoreductases, and nucleic acid-binding proteins.

  3. [Integrons and resistance gene cassettes: structure and role against antimicrobials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Gerardo; Mella, Sergio; Zemelman, Raúl; Bello, Helia; Domínguez, Mariana

    2004-05-01

    Bacteria have developed sophisticated and successful genetic mechanisms to evade the action of antimicrobials. Bacterial multiresistance has caused serious problems in the treatment of nosocomial infections. Integrons and gene cassettes are considered the main genetic elements in the evolution of plasmids and transposons that actively participate in the mobilization of genes, codifying different bacterial resistance mechanisms. This article reviews the historical and structural aspects of integrons and resistance gene cassettes and the presence of these structures in gram negative bacteria isolated from Chilean hospitals in the last ten years.

  4. An ATP-competitive inhibitor modulates the allosteric function of the HER3 pseudokinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Peter; Moasser, Mark M.; Jura, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that lacks catalytic activity, but is essential for cellular homeostasis due to its ability to allosterically activate EGFR/HER2. Though catalytically inactive, HER3 binds ATP tightly, hinting at a possible role of the nucleotide-binding pocket in modulating HER3 function. We report a structure of the HER3 pseudokinase bound to the ATP-competitive inhibitor bosutinib. Previously solved structures show that bosutinib can potently interact with multiple kinase domain conformations. In complex with HER3, bosutinib binds to yet another conformation, which is nearly identical to that observed in the HER3/ATP complex. Interestingly, occupation of the ATP-binding site by bosutinib improves the ability of HER3 to act as an allosteric activator of EGFR in vitro by increasing the affinity of the HER3/EGFR heterodimer in a membrane-dependent manner. PMID:24656791

  5. Identification of the first archaeal oligopeptide-binding protein from the hyperthermophile Aeropyrum pernix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Gianna; Casbarra, Annarita; Fiume, Immacolata; Catara, Giuliana; Capasso, Antonio; Marino, Gennaro; Onesti, Silvia; Rossi, Mosé

    2006-10-01

    The archaeon Aeropyrum pernix grows optimally at 90 degrees C and derives energy primarily from aerobic degradation of complex proteinaceous substrates. The ability of these nutrients to sustain growth is generally associated with the presence of oligopeptide transport systems, such as the well-known protein-dependent ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. This study is concerned with the isolation and characterisation of the first archaeal oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA(Ap)) from the extracellular medium of A. pernix. The protein shows a pI of 3.9 and a molecular mass of about 90 kDa under native conditions. By using a proteomic approach, the OppA(Ap)-encoding gene was identified (APE1583) and about 55% of the protein amino-acid sequence was validated. The extracellular purified protein was able to efficiently bind oligopeptide substrates such as Xenopsin. The amount of a liganded peptide to OppA(Ap) was about 70% at 90 degrees C using a 1/100 (w/w) OppA(Ap)/substrate ratio. Sequence comparisons showed a weak but significant similarity of OppA(Ap) with bacterial oligopeptide binding proteins. Furthermore, APE1583 neighbouring genes encode for the cognate components of an ABC transport system, suggesting that these ORFs are organised in an operon-like structure, with OppA(Ap )as the extracellular component for the uptake of oligopeptides.

  6. The Real World Spanish Cassette Program. Script Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternburg, Sheldon G.

    This dual cassette program, accompanied by a script book, is designed to give students listening practice in Spanish, particularly for regional differences of pronunciation and for variety in idiomatic construction. The program may be integrated with texts used in intermediate and advanced levels of instruction. The announcements, jingles, and…

  7. [Integrons and antimicrobial resistance gene cassettes in Shigella flexneri strains ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Jeannette; Bello, Helia; Domínguez, Mariana; Mella, Sergio; Zemelman, Raúl; González, Gerardo

    2003-07-01

    The resistance of Shigella flexneri to antimicrobial agents can be associated to the presence of integrons that may contain and express antimicrobial resistance gene cassettes. To study antimicrobial resistance and the presence of integrons and antimicrobial gene cassettes in Shigella flexneri strains. In vitro susceptibility to 27 antimicrobials was studied in twenty four Shigella flexneri strains isolated from stools. The presence of integrons class 1, 2 and 3 and antimicrobial resistance gene cassettes was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for each gene. Most strains were resistant to one of the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, sulphonamide, trimethoprim, tetracycline, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or chloramphenicol. Twenty nine percent were simultaneously resistant to all these antimicrobials. Integrons class 1 and 2 were found in 19 strains (79%). Class 3 integrons were not found. Gene cassettes dfrA1 and ant(3")I were associated to integrons class 2 in most strains (15/20, 75%). Genes cat, tetB and blarTEM were detected in 18/24 (75%), 7/24 (29%) and 4/24 (17%) of the strains, respectively and were not associated to any of the studied integrons. Genes that codify enzymes AAC(6')Ib and APH(3')VI were not detected in any strain. The high frequency of integrons found in the studied strains, could partly explain the increasing antimicrobial resistance of Shigella flexneri strains, isolated in Chile.

  8. The role of the C8 proton of ATP in the regulation of phosphoryl transfer within kinases and synthetases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kenyon, CP

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available and KIE. Effect of the concentration of ATP and C8D-ATP on the specific activity (A) and KIE (B) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae hexokinase. (A) ?black circle ? = ATP, black square? = C8D-ATP, (B) Black = KIE, Blue = KIED. The specific enzyme activity... of the residues in facilitating binding and cat- alysis associated with the C8H-ATP. Methods Enzyme source and protein expression and purification Hexokinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Type F-300 (Sigma, H4502), Fructose Phosphokinase (Sigma, F0137...

  9. Competitive fluorescence anisotropy/polarization assay for ATP using aptamer as affinity ligand and dye-labeled ATP as fluorescence tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yapiao; Sun, Linlin; Zhao, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    We developed an aptamer-based competitive fluorescence anisotropy (FA)/fluorescence polarization (FP) assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Different from the traditional fluorescence polarization immunoassays for small molecules, here DNA aptamer against ATP was used as affinity ligand, and tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) labeled ATP served as fluorescent tracer. The binding between TMR-labeled ATP and aptamer gave large FA due to molecular volume increase and restricted rotation of the dye-labeled ATP. When ATP was added in solution, ATP competitively displaced the TMR-labeled ATP from aptamer affinity complex, causing decrease of FA of TMR-labeled ATP. The buffer containing MgCl 2 and incubation at low temperature were preferred for large FA change in the FA assay. The FA change was further enhanced in this competitive FA assay by increasing the molecular weight of aptamer through extension of aptamer sequences or conjugating streptavidin protein on aptamer. This method allowed for the detection of ATP in the range from 0.5μM to 1mM, generating the maximum FA change about 0.187 (corresponding maximum FP change about 0.242). The detection of ATP spiked in diluted urine or serum sample was achieved, showing capability for analysis in complex sample matrix. This assay also enabled the detection of the analogues of ATP, e.g. adenosine, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) with similar sensitivity. This aptamer-based competitive FA assay takes advantages of aptamer in ease of synthesis, good thermal stability, and facile modulating the molecular mass of aptamer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-assortment in integron-associated gene cassette assemblages in environmental DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Carolyn A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that integron-associated gene cassettes exist largely in tandem arrays of variable size, ranging from antibiotic resistance arrays of three to five cassettes up to arrays of more than 100 cassettes associated with the vibrios. Further, the ecology of the integron/gene cassette system has been investigated by showing that very many different cassettes are present in even small environmental samples. In this study, we seek to extend the ecological perspective on the integron/gene cassette system by investigating the way in which this diverse cassette metagenome is apportioned amongst prokaryote lineages in a natural environment. Results We used a combination of PCR-based techniques applied to environmental DNA samples and ecological analytical techniques to establish co-assortment within cassette populations, then establishing the relationship between this co-assortment and genomic structures. We then assessed the distribution of gene cassettes within the environment and found that the majority of gene cassettes existed in large co-assorting groups. Conclusions Our results suggested that the gene cassette diversity of a relatively pristine sampling environment was structured into co-assorting groups, predominantly containing large numbers of cassettes per group. These co-assorting groups consisted of different gene cassettes in stoichiometric relationship. Conservatively, we then attributed co-assorting cassettes to the gene cassette complements of single prokaryote lineages and by implication, to large integron-associated arrays. The prevalence of large arrays in the environment raises new questions about the assembly, maintenance and utility of large cassette arrays in prokaryote populations.

  11. Co-assortment in integron-associated gene cassette assemblages in environmental DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Carolyn A; Andrew, Nigel R

    2010-08-10

    It has been shown that integron-associated gene cassettes exist largely in tandem arrays of variable size, ranging from antibiotic resistance arrays of three to five cassettes up to arrays of more than 100 cassettes associated with the vibrios. Further, the ecology of the integron/gene cassette system has been investigated by showing that very many different cassettes are present in even small environmental samples. In this study, we seek to extend the ecological perspective on the integron/gene cassette system by investigating the way in which this diverse cassette metagenome is apportioned amongst prokaryote lineages in a natural environment. We used a combination of PCR-based techniques applied to environmental DNA samples and ecological analytical techniques to establish co-assortment within cassette populations, then establishing the relationship between this co-assortment and genomic structures. We then assessed the distribution of gene cassettes within the environment and found that the majority of gene cassettes existed in large co-assorting groups. Our results suggested that the gene cassette diversity of a relatively pristine sampling environment was structured into co-assorting groups, predominantly containing large numbers of cassettes per group. These co-assorting groups consisted of different gene cassettes in stoichiometric relationship. Conservatively, we then attributed co-assorting cassettes to the gene cassette complements of single prokaryote lineages and by implication, to large integron-associated arrays. The prevalence of large arrays in the environment raises new questions about the assembly, maintenance and utility of large cassette arrays in prokaryote populations.

  12. Reaching Out: The Role of Audio Cassette Communication in Rural Development. Occasional Paper 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikarya, Ronny; Colle, Royal D.

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of audio cassette technology (ACT) and reports findings from field tests, case studies, and pilot projects in several countries which demonstrate the potential of audio cassettes as a medium for communicating with rural people. Specific guidance is also offered on how a project can use cassettes as a…

  13. Arabidopsis fructokinase-like protein associations are regulated by ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, John W; Callis, Judy

    2017-05-10

    The Arabidopsis thaliana fructokinase-like proteins FLN1 and FLN2 are required for the differentiation of plastids into photosynthetically competent chloroplasts. However, their specific roles are unknown. FLN1 and FLN2 localize in a multisubunit prokaryotic-type polymerase (plastid-encoded RNA polymerase) complex that transcribes genes encoding components of photosynthesis-related assemblies. Despite sequence identity with fructokinases, which are members of the pfkB (phosphofructokinase B) family of enzymes, kinase activity of FLN1 and FLN2 has not been demonstrated. Homology modeling using pfkB X-ray structures, sequence comparisons, and mutational analyses suggests that FLN proteins may bind their substrates differently from other pfkB proteins. We provide evidence that purified recombinant FLN1 undergoes an ATP-mediated change in binding affinity with both itself and recombinant FLN2. The ATP-mediated change in the affinity of FLN1 for FLN2 is not affected by mutations in conserved active-site residues known to affect catalysis in active pfkB enzymes. In contrast, recombinant FLN2 hetero-oligomerizes independently of ATP concentration. At ATP concentrations that promote FLN1 homomeric interactions, the FLN1-FLN2 hetero-oligomer is the dominant form in vitro We further present evidence that FLN1 associates with a large protein complex in chloroplasts independently of ATP. Given that ATP levels fluctuate between light-dark cycles in the 1-5 mM range, we propose that changes in FLN1 and FLN2 interactions are biologically meaningful. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. ATP as a biological hydrotrope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Avinash; Malinovska, Liliana; Saha, Shambaditya; Wang, Jie; Alberti, Simon; Krishnan, Yamuna; Hyman, Anthony A

    2017-05-19

    Hydrotropes are small molecules that solubilize hydrophobic molecules in aqueous solutions. Typically, hydrotropes are amphiphilic molecules and differ from classical surfactants in that they have low cooperativity of aggregation and work at molar concentrations. Here, we show that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has properties of a biological hydrotrope. It can both prevent the formation of and dissolve previously formed protein aggregates. This chemical property is manifested at physiological concentrations between 5 and 10 millimolar. Therefore, in addition to being an energy source for biological reactions, for which micromolar concentrations are sufficient, we propose that millimolar concentrations of ATP may act to keep proteins soluble. This may in part explain why ATP is maintained in such high concentrations in cells. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. The molecular motor F-ATP synthase is targeted by the tumoricidal protein HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, James; Sielaff, Hendrik; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina; Grüber, Gerhard

    2015-05-22

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) interacts with multiple tumor cell compartments, affecting cell morphology, metabolism, proteasome function, chromatin structure and viability. This study investigated if these diverse effects of HAMLET might be caused, in part, by a direct effect on the ATP synthase and a resulting reduction in cellular ATP levels. A dose-dependent reduction in cellular ATP levels was detected in A549 lung carcinoma cells, and by confocal microscopy, co-localization of HAMLET with the nucleotide-binding subunits α (non-catalytic) and β (catalytic) of the energy converting F1F0 ATP synthase was detected. As shown by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, HAMLET binds to the F1 domain of the F1F0 ATP synthase with a dissociation constant (KD) of 20.5μM. Increasing concentrations of the tumoricidal protein HAMLET added to the enzymatically active α3β3γ complex of the F-ATP synthase lowered its ATPase activity, demonstrating that HAMLET binding to the F-ATP synthase effects the catalysis of this molecular motor. Single-molecule analysis was applied to study HAMLET-α3β3γ complex interaction. Whereas the α3β3γ complex of the F-ATP synthase rotated in a counterclockwise direction with a mean rotational rate of 3.8±0.7s(-1), no rotation could be observed in the presence of bound HAMLET. Our findings suggest that direct effects of HAMLET on the F-ATP synthase may inhibit ATP-dependent cellular processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolutionary Origin of the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolo, Joana; Worning, Peder; Nielsen, Jesper Boye

    2017-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the most primitive staphylococcal species, those of the Staphylococcus sciuri group, were involved in the first stages of evolution of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), the genetic element carrying the β-lactam resistance gene mecA. Howev....... aureus clones) originated in S. sciuri possibly by a recombination event in a human host or a human-created environment and later was transferred to S. aureus....

  17. Polycistronic transcription of fused cassettes and identification of translation initiation signals in an unusual gene cassette array from Pseudomonas aeruginosa [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica L. Fonseca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gene cassettes found in class 1 integrons are generally promoterless units composed by an open reading frame (ORF, a short 5’ untranslated region (UTR and a 3’ recombination site (attC. Fused gene cassettes are generated by partial or total loss of the attC from the first cassette in an array, creating, in some cases, a fusion with the ORF from the next cassette. These structures are rare and little is known about their mechanisms of mobilization and expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamic of mobilization and transcription of the gcu14-blaGES-1/aacA4 gene cassette array, which harbours a fused gene cassette represented by blaGES-1/aacA4. The cassette array was analyzed by Northern blot and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in order to assess the transcription mechanism of blaGES-1/aacA4 fused cassette. Also, inverse polymerase chain reactions (PCR were performed to detect the free circular forms of gcu14, blaGES-1 and aacA4. The Northern blot and real time RT-PCR revealed a polycistronic transcription, in which the fused cassette blaGES-1/aacA4 is transcribed as a unique gene, while gcu14 (with a canonical attC recombination site has a monocistronic transcription. The gcu14 cassette, closer to the weak configuration of cassette promoter (PcW, had a higher transcription level than blaGES-1/aacA4, indicating that the cassette position affects the transcript amounts. The presence of ORF-11 at attI1, immediately preceding gcu14, and of a Shine-Dalgarno sequence upstream blaGES-1/aacA4 composes a scenario for the occurrence of array translation. Inverse PCR generated amplicons corresponding to gcu14, gcu14-aacA4 and gcu14-blaGES-1/aacA4 free circular forms, but not to blaGES-1 and aacA4 alone, indicating that the GES-1 truncated attC is not substrate of integrase activity and that these genes are mobilized together as a unique cassette. This study was original in showing the transcription

  18. The ATP Sites of AAA+ Clamp Loaders Work Together as a Switch to Assemble Clamps on DNA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzahn, Melissa R.; Hayner, Jaclyn N.; Finkelstein, Jeff; O'Donnell, Mike; Bloom, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Clamp loaders belong to a family of proteins known as ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+). These proteins utilize the energy from ATP binding and hydrolysis to perform cellular functions. The clamp loader is required to load the clamp onto DNA for use by DNA polymerases to increase processivity. ATP binding and hydrolysis are coordinated by several key residues, including a conserved Lys located within the Walker A motif (or P-loop). This residue is required for each subunit to bind ATP. The specific function of each ATP molecule bound to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae clamp loader is unknown. A series of point mutants, each lacking a single Walker A Lys residue, was generated to study the effects of abolishing ATP binding in individual clamp loader subunits. A variety of biochemical assays were used to analyze the function of ATP binding during discrete steps of the clamp loading reaction. All mutants reduced clamp binding/opening to different degrees. Decreased clamp binding activity was generally correlated with decreases in the population of open clamps, suggesting that differences in the binding affinities of Walker A mutants stem from differences in stabilization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in an open conformation. Walker A mutations had a smaller effect on DNA binding than clamp binding/opening. Our data do not support a model in which each ATP site functions independently to regulate a different step in the clamp loading cycle to coordinate these steps. Instead, the ATP sites work in unison to promote conformational changes in the clamp loader that drive clamp loading. PMID:24436332

  19. The ATP sites of AAA+ clamp loaders work together as a switch to assemble clamps on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzahn, Melissa R; Hayner, Jaclyn N; Finkelstein, Jeff; O'Donnell, Mike; Bloom, Linda B

    2014-02-28

    Clamp loaders belong to a family of proteins known as ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+). These proteins utilize the energy from ATP binding and hydrolysis to perform cellular functions. The clamp loader is required to load the clamp onto DNA for use by DNA polymerases to increase processivity. ATP binding and hydrolysis are coordinated by several key residues, including a conserved Lys located within the Walker A motif (or P-loop). This residue is required for each subunit to bind ATP. The specific function of each ATP molecule bound to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae clamp loader is unknown. A series of point mutants, each lacking a single Walker A Lys residue, was generated to study the effects of abolishing ATP binding in individual clamp loader subunits. A variety of biochemical assays were used to analyze the function of ATP binding during discrete steps of the clamp loading reaction. All mutants reduced clamp binding/opening to different degrees. Decreased clamp binding activity was generally correlated with decreases in the population of open clamps, suggesting that differences in the binding affinities of Walker A mutants stem from differences in stabilization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in an open conformation. Walker A mutations had a smaller effect on DNA binding than clamp binding/opening. Our data do not support a model in which each ATP site functions independently to regulate a different step in the clamp loading cycle to coordinate these steps. Instead, the ATP sites work in unison to promote conformational changes in the clamp loader that drive clamp loading.

  20. ATP synthase in slow- and fast-growing mycobacteria is active in ATP synthesis and blocked in ATP hydrolysis direction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, A.C.; Driessen, N.N.; Hahn, M.M.; Lill, H.; Bald, D.

    2010-01-01

    ATP synthase is a validated drug target for the treatment of tuberculosis, and ATP synthase inhibitors are promising candidate drugs for the treatment of infections caused by other slow-growing mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans. ATP synthase is an essential enzyme

  1. ATP synthase from slow and fast growing mycobacteria is active in ATP synthesis and blocked in ATP hydrolysis direction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, A.C.; Driessen, N.N.; Hahn, M.M.; Lill, H.; Bald, D.

    2010-01-01

    ATP synthase is a validated drug target for the treatment of tuberculosis, and ATP synthase inhibitors are promising candidate drugs for the treatment of infections caused by other slow-growing mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans. ATP synthase is an essential enzyme

  2. Recombinant synthesis, purification, and nucleotide binding characteristics of the first nucleotide binding domain of the cystic fibrosis gene product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J; Huang, Z; Rado, T A; Peng, S; Jilling, T; Muccio, D D; Sorscher, E J

    1992-04-05

    The majority of mutations which lead to clinical cystic fibrosis are located within the two predicted nucleotide binding domains of the cystic fibrosis gene product. We have used a prokaryotic expression system to synthesize and purify the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD-1, amino acids 426-588) with and without the most common mutation associated with the disease (the deletion of phenylalanine at position 508, delta F508). Both wild type and delta F508 NBD-1 bind ATP-agarose in a quantitatively comparable manner; this binding was inhibited by excess Na2ATP, trinitrophenol-ATP, or 8-azido-ATP. Irreversible NBD-1 labeling by an ATP analog was demonstrated using [32P]8-azido-ATP. This covalent labeling was inhibited by preincubation with Na2ATP, with half-maximal inhibition for Na2ATP occurring at approximately 5 mM for both the wild type and delta F508 nucleotide binding domain. These experiments are among the first to confirm the expectation that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator NBD-1 binds nucleotide. Since, under the conditions used in our study, NBD-1 without phenylalanine 508 displays very similar nucleotide binding characteristics to the wild type protein, our results support previous structural models which predict that the delta F508 mutation should not cause an alteration in ATP binding.

  3. ATP hydrolysis assists phosphate release and promotes reaction ordering in F1-ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Biu; Ueno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2015-01-01

    F1-ATPase (F1) is a rotary motor protein that can efficiently convert chemical energy to mechanical work of rotation via fine coordination of its conformational motions and reaction sequences. Compared with reactant binding and product release, the ATP hydrolysis has relatively little contributions to the torque and chemical energy generation. To scrutinize possible roles of ATP hydrolysis, we investigate the detailed statistics of the catalytic dwells from high-speed single wild-type F1 observations. Here we report a small rotation during the catalytic dwell triggered by the ATP hydrolysis that is indiscernible in previous studies. Moreover, we find in freely rotating F1 that ATP hydrolysis is followed by the release of inorganic phosphate with low synthesis rates. Finally, we propose functional roles of the ATP hydrolysis as a key to kinetically unlock the subsequent phosphate release and promote the correct reaction ordering. PMID:26678797

  4. ATP Release and Effects in Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Amstrup, Jan; Henriksen, Katrine Lütken

    2003-01-01

    ATP and other nucleotides are released from various cells, but the pathway and physiological stimulus for ATP release are often unclear. The focus of our studies is the understanding of ATP release and signaling in rat exocrine pancreas. In acinar suspension mechanical stimulation, hypotonic shock...

  5. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  6. The surface protein Shr of Streptococcus pyogenes binds heme and transfers it to the streptococcal heme-binding protein Shp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Benfang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heme acquisition machinery in Streptococcus pyogenes is believed to consist of the surface proteins, Shr and Shp, and heme-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter HtsABC. Shp has been shown to rapidly transfer its heme to the lipoprotein component, HtsA, of HtsABC. The function of Shr and the heme source of Shp have not been established. Results The objective of this study was to determine whether Shr binds heme and is a heme source of Shp. To achieve the objective, recombinant Shr protein was prepared. The purified Shr displays a spectrum typical of hemoproteins, indicating that Shr binds heme and acquires heme from Escherichia coli hemoproteins in vivo. Spectral analysis of Shr and Shp isolated from a mixture of Shr and heme-free Shp (apoShp indicates that Shr and apoShp lost and gained heme, respectively; whereas Shr did not efficiently lose its heme in incubation with apoHtsA under the identical conditions. These results suggest that Shr directly transfers its heme to Shp. In addition, the rates of heme transfer from human hemoglobin to apoShp are close to those of simple ferric heme dissociation from hemoglobin, suggesting that methemoglobin does not directly transfer its heme to apoShp. Conclusion We have demonstrated that recombinant Shr can acquire heme from E. coli hemoproteins in vivo and appears to directly transfer its heme to Shp and that Shp appears not to directly acquire heme from human methemoglobin. These results suggest the possibility that Shr is a source of heme for Shp and that the Shr-to-Shp heme transfer is a step of the heme acquisition process in S. pyogenes. Further characterization of the Shr/Shp/HtsA system would advance our understanding of the mechanism of heme acquisition in S. pyogenes.

  7. Symmetry broken and rebroken during the ATP hydrolysis cycle of the mitochondrial Hsp90 TRAP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnatan, Daniel; Betegon, Miguel; Liu, Yanxin; Ramelot, Theresa; Kennedy, Michael A; Agard, David A

    2017-07-25

    Hsp90 is a homodimeric ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that remodels its substrate 'client' proteins, facilitating their folding and activating them for biological function. Despite decades of research, the mechanism connecting ATP hydrolysis and chaperone function remains elusive. Particularly puzzling has been the apparent lack of cooperativity in hydrolysis of the ATP in each protomer. A crystal structure of the mitochondrial Hsp90, TRAP1, revealed that the catalytically active state is closed in a highly strained asymmetric conformation. This asymmetry, unobserved in other Hsp90 homologs, is due to buckling of one of the protomers and is most pronounced at the broadly conserved client-binding region. Here, we show that rather than being cooperative or independent, ATP hydrolysis on the two protomers is sequential and deterministic. Moreover, dimer asymmetry sets up differential hydrolysis rates for each protomer, such that the buckled conformation favors ATP hydrolysis. Remarkably, after the first hydrolysis, the dimer undergoes a flip in the asymmetry while remaining in a closed state for the second hydrolysis. From these results, we propose a model where direct coupling of ATP hydrolysis and conformational flipping rearranges client-binding sites, providing a paradigm of how energy from ATP hydrolysis can be used for client remodeling.

  8. Isomeric equilibria in complexes of adenosine 5'-triphosphate with divalent metal ions. Solution structures of M(ATP)2- complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, H

    1987-05-15

    Solution structures of M(ATP)2- complexes are reviewed. First the self-stacking properties of ATP4- and M(ATP)2- are shortly described. It is emphasized that for an evaluation of solution structures of M(ATP)2- complexes only results from diluted solutions (below 1 mM) should be used. Next, a comprehensive set of stability data obtained under such conditions from potentiometric pH titrations is summarized for the complexes of Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ with ATP, and for comparison also with pyrimidine nucleoside 5'-triphosphates (YTPs), i.e. CTP, UTP and TTP. The stabilities for the M(ATP)2- complexes are mostly larger than those for the corresponding M(YTP)2- species; this increased stability results from the metal ion back-binding to the base residue in M(ATP)2-, i.e. macrochelates are formed. Detailed analysis of the stability data allows calculation of the percentage of the closed form for the several M(ATP)2- complexes: back-binding is most pronounced in Cu(ATP)2- (67 +/- 2%), remarkable in Zn(ATP)2- (28 +/- 7%), and not observable for Ca(ATP)2- (2 +/- 6%). Comparison of these results with those from 1H-NMR and ultraviolet spectrophotometric studies allows the conclusion that two types of base back-bound macrochelates are formed: one with a direct, i.e. innersphere, M2+/N-7 coordination, and one with a water molecule between the metal ion and N-7, i.e. an outersphere interaction occurs [e.g. to about 10% in Mg(ATP)2-] through hydrogen bonding of a coordinated water to N-7. The formation degree of both forms of these closed isomers is quantified. The biological implications of these results are indicated and the versatility of ATP as a ligand is discussed by summarizing pertinent examples.

  9. p21-ras effector domain mutants constructed by "cassette" mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, J C; Vass, W C; Willumsen, B M

    1988-01-01

    A series of mutations encoding single-amino-acid substitutions within the v-rasH effector domain were constructed, and the ability of the mutants to induce focal transformation of NIH 3T3 cells was studied. The mutations, which spanned codons 32 to 40, were made by a "cassette" mutagenesis...... technique that involved replacing this portion of the v-rasH effector domain with a linker carrying two BspMI sites in opposite orientations. Since BspMI cleaves outside its recognition sequence, BspMI digestion of the plasmid completely removed the linker, creating a double-stranded gap whose missing ras...

  10. Is this charred material from a VHS video cassette?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchtenicht, Tara; Blackledge, Robert D.; Williams, Teresa R.

    2010-06-01

    At his residence, a victim in a double homicide had installed a home-built video surveillance system. The suspects either knew of or discovered this system and removed it. In a backyard at a location associated with the suspects was a barrel used for burning trash. Could charred debris recovered from a metal bowl found among the contents of the barrel be the remains of a VHS video cassette? A positive answer to the question was obtained through a combination of optical microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS).

  11. Recombinogenic engineering of conjugative plasmids with fluorescent marker cassettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Molin, Søren; Zechner, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    An efficient approach for the insertion of fluorescent marker genes with sequence specificity into conjugative plasmids in Escherichia coli is described. For this purpose, homologous recombination of linear double-stranded targeting DNA was mediated by the bacteriophage lambda recombination...... resistance genes and fluorescent markers. The choice of 5' non-homologous extensions in primer pairs used for amplifying the marker cassettes determines the site specificity of the targeting DNA. This methodology is applicable to the modification of all plasmids that replicate in E coli and is not restricted...

  12. Disinfection efficacy of an ultraviolet light on film cassettes for preventive of the nosocomial infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Yong Woong; Cho, Am [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    The bacterial infection on film cassette contact surface was examined at the diagnostic radiology department of the S. hospital. The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level on film cassette contact surface as a predictor of patient prevention from nosocomial infection and for improvement of the hospital environment. The laboratory result was identified non-pathologic bacterial in the five different cassette size of the contact surface. Film cassettes were exposed to ultraviolet light for 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Ultraviolet light disinfection is proven suitable for bacterial. The study concludes that presence of a bacterial infection will prevent a using antiseptic technique on film cassette contact surface. In addition education of nosocomial infection for radiographers will be required. In conclusion, ultraviolet is considered effective to irradiate bacterial. Additionally, two minutes are required to sterilize film cassettes.

  13. Cassettes for solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, K. Scott; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2012-10-23

    Solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack assembly designs are consistently investigated to develop an assembly that provides optimal performance, and durability, within desired cost parameters. A new design includes a repeat unit having a SOFC cassette and being characterized by a three-component construct. The three components include an oxidation-resistant, metal window frame hermetically joined to an electrolyte layer of a multi-layer, anode-supported ceramic cell and a pre-cassette including a separator plate having a plurality of vias that provide electrical contact between an anode-side collector within the pre-cassette and a cathode-side current collector of an adjacent cell. The third component is a cathode-side seal, which includes a standoff that supports a cathode channel spacing between each of the cassettes in a stack. Cassettes are formed by joining the pre-cassette and the window frame.

  14. Understanding the link between antimicrobial properties of dietary olive phenolics and bacterial ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Amon; Liu, Mason; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2017-08-01

    The naturally occurring olive phenolics tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), and oleuropein are known to have antioxidant, antitumor, and antibacterial properties. In the current study, we examined whether the antimicrobial properties of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, DHPG, and oleuropein were linked to the inhibition of bacterial ATP synthase. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, DHPG, and oleuropein inhibited Escherichia coli wild-type and mutant membrane-bound F1Fo ATP synthase to variable degrees. The growth properties of wild-type, null, and mutant strains in presence of above olive phenolics were also abrogated to variable degrees on limiting glucose and succinate. Tyrosol and oleuropein synergistically inhibited the wild-type enzyme. Comparative wild-type and mutant F1Fo ATP synthase inhibitory profiles suggested that αArg-283 is an important residue and olive phenolics bind at the polyphenol binding pocket of ATP synthase. Growth patterns of wild-type, null, and mutant strains in the presence of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, DHPG, and oleuropein also hint at the possibility of additional molecular targets. Our results demonstrated that ATP synthase can be used as a molecular target and the antimicrobial properties of olive phenolics in general and tyrosol in particular can be linked to the binding and inhibition of bacterial ATP synthase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A sensitive aptasensor for colorimetric detection of adenosine triphosphate based on the protective effect of ATP-aptamer complexes on unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuan; Qi, Liang; Lv, Xiao-Jun; Lai, Ting; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the most direct source of energy in organisms. This study is the first to demonstrate that ATP-aptamer complexes provide greater protection for unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against salt-induced aggregation than either aptamer or ATP alone. This protective effect was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential measurement, and fluorescence polarization techniques. Utilizing controlled particle aggregation/dispersion as a gauge, a sensitive and selective aptasensor for colorimetric detection of ATP was developed using ATP-binding aptamers as the identification element and unmodified AuNPs as the probe. This aptasensor exhibited a good linear relationship between the absorbance and the logarithm concentration of ATP within a 50-1000 nM range. ATP analogs such as guanosine triphosphate, uridine triphosphate and cytidine triphosphate resulted in little or no interference in the determination of ATP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Caffeine inhibits glucose transport by binding at the GLUT1 nucleotide-binding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Jay M.; Cura, Anthony J.; Lloyd, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is the primary glucose transport protein of the cardiovascular system and astroglia. A recent study proposes that caffeine uncompetitive inhibition of GLUT1 results from interactions at an exofacial GLUT1 site. Intracellular ATP is also an uncompetitive GLUT1 inhibitor and shares structural similarities with caffeine, suggesting that caffeine acts at the previously characterized endofacial GLUT1 nucleotide-binding site. We tested this by confirming that caffeine uncompetitively inhibits GLUT1-mediated 3-O-methylglucose uptake in human erythrocytes [Vmax and Km for transport are reduced fourfold; Ki(app) = 3.5 mM caffeine]. ATP and AMP antagonize caffeine inhibition of 3-O-methylglucose uptake in erythrocyte ghosts by increasing Ki(app) for caffeine inhibition of transport from 0.9 ± 0.3 mM in the absence of intracellular nucleotides to 2.6 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.5 mM in the presence of 5 mM intracellular ATP or AMP, respectively. Extracellular ATP has no effect on sugar uptake or its inhibition by caffeine. Caffeine and ATP displace the fluorescent ATP derivative, trinitrophenyl-ATP, from the GLUT1 nucleotide-binding site, but d-glucose and the transport inhibitor cytochalasin B do not. Caffeine, but not ATP, inhibits cytochalasin B binding to GLUT1. Like ATP, caffeine renders the GLUT1 carboxy-terminus less accessible to peptide-directed antibodies, but cytochalasin B and d-glucose do not. These results suggest that the caffeine-binding site bridges two nonoverlapping GLUT1 endofacial sites—the regulatory, nucleotide-binding site and the cytochalasin B-binding site. Caffeine binding to GLUT1 mimics the action of ATP but not cytochalasin B on sugar transport. Molecular docking studies support this hypothesis. PMID:25715702

  17. An AC electrokinetics facilitated biosensor cassette for rapid pathogen identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Mengxing; Mohan, Ruchika; Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Mach, Kathleen E; Sin, Mandy L Y; McComb, Mason; Joshi, Janhvi; Gau, Vincent; Wong, Pak Kin; Liao, Joseph C

    2013-07-07

    To develop a portable point-of-care system based on biosensors for common infectious diseases such as urinary tract infection, the sensing process needs to be implemented within an enclosed fluidic system. On chip sample preparation of clinical samples remains a significant obstacle to achieving robust sensor performance. Herein AC electrokinetics is applied in an electrochemical biosensor cassette to enhance molecular convection and hybridization efficiency through electrokinetics induced fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation. Using E. coli as an exemplary pathogen, we determined the optimal electrokinetic parameters for detecting bacterial 16S rRNA in the biosensor cassette based on the current output, signal-to-noise ratio, and limit of detection. In addition, a panel of six probe sets targeting common uropathogenic bacteria was demonstrated. The optimized parameters were also validated using patient-derived clinical urine samples. The effectiveness of electrokinetics for on chip sample preparation will facilitate the implementation of point-of-care diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the future.

  18. AC Electrokinetics Facilitated Biosensor Cassette for Rapid Pathogen Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Mengxing; Mohan, Ruchika; Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Mach, Kathleen E.; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; McComb, Mason; Joshi, Janhvi; Gau, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    To develop a portable point-of-care system based on biosensors for common infectious diseases such as urinary tract infection, the sensing process needs to be implemented within an enclosed fluidic system. On chip sample preparation of clinical samples remains a significant obstacle to achieve robust sensor performance. Herein AC electrokinetics is applied in an electrochemical biosensor cassette to enhance molecular convection and hybridization efficiency though electrokinetic induced fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation. Using E. coli as an exemplary pathogen, we determined the optimal electrokinetic parameters for detecting bacterial 16S rRNA in the biosensor cassette based on the current output, signal-to-noise ratio, and limit of detection. In addition, a panel of six probe sets targeting common uropathogenic bacteria was demonstrated. The optimized parameters were also validated using patient-derived clinical urine samples. The effectiveness of electrokinetic for on chip sample preparation will facilitate the implementation of point-of-care diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the future. PMID:23626988

  19. Defining the role of ATP hydrolysis in mitotic segregation of bacterial plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Ah-Seng

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of ATP by partition ATPases, although considered a key step in the segregation mechanism that assures stable inheritance of plasmids, is intrinsically very weak. The cognate centromere-binding protein (CBP, together with DNA, stimulates the ATPase to hydrolyse ATP and to undertake the relocation that incites plasmid movement, apparently confirming the need for hydrolysis in partition. However, ATP-binding alone changes ATPase conformation and properties, making it difficult to rigorously distinguish the substrate and cofactor roles of ATP in vivo. We had shown that mutation of arginines R36 and R42 in the F plasmid CBP, SopB, reduces stimulation of SopA-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis without changing SopA-SopB affinity, suggesting the role of hydrolysis could be analyzed using SopA with normal conformational responses to ATP. Here, we report that strongly reducing SopB-mediated stimulation of ATP hydrolysis results in only slight destabilization of mini-F, although the instability, as well as an increase in mini-F clustering, is proportional to the ATPase deficit. Unexpectedly, the reduced stimulation also increased the frequency of SopA relocation over the nucleoid. The increase was due to drastic shortening of the period spent by SopA at nucleoid ends; average speed of migration per se was unchanged. Reduced ATP hydrolysis was also associated with pronounced deviations in positioning of mini-F, though time-averaged positions changed only modestly. Thus, by specifically targeting SopB-stimulated ATP hydrolysis our study reveals that even at levels of ATPase which reduce the efficiency of splitting clusters and the constancy of plasmid positioning, SopB still activates SopA mobility and plasmid positioning, and sustains near wild type levels of plasmid stability.

  20. The metal chaperone Atox1 regulates the activity of the human copper transporter ATP7B by modulating domain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Corey H; Yang, Nan; Bothe, Jameson; Tonelli, Marco; Nokhrin, Sergiy; Dolgova, Natalia V; Braiterman, Lelita; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Dmitriev, Oleg Y

    2017-11-03

    The human transporter ATP7B delivers copper to the biosynthetic pathways and maintains copper homeostasis in the liver. Mutations in ATP7B cause the potentially fatal hepatoneurological disorder Wilson disease. The activity and intracellular localization of ATP7B are regulated by copper, but the molecular mechanism of this regulation is largely unknown. We show that the copper chaperone Atox1, which delivers copper to ATP7B, and the group of the first three metal-binding domains (MBD1-3) are central to the activity regulation of ATP7B. Atox1-Cu binding to ATP7B changes domain dynamics and interactions within the MBD1-3 group and activates ATP hydrolysis. To understand the mechanism linking Atox1-MBD interactions and enzyme activity, we have determined the MBD1-3 conformational space using small angle X-ray scattering and identified changes in MBD dynamics caused by apo-Atox1 and Atox1-Cu by solution NMR. The results show that copper transfer from Atox1 decreases domain interactions within the MBD1-3 group and increases the mobility of the individual domains. The N-terminal segment of MBD1-3 was found to interact with the nucleotide-binding domain of ATP7B, thus physically coupling the domains involved in copper binding and those involved in ATP hydrolysis. Taken together, the data suggest a regulatory mechanism in which Atox1-mediated copper transfer activates ATP7B by releasing inhibitory constraints through increased freedom of MBD1-3 motions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Initial rate and equilibrium isotope exchange studies on the ATP-dependent activity of polyphosphate Glucokinase from Propionibacterium shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, T H; Horn, P J; Pan, W H; Phillips, N F

    1996-05-28

    Polyphosphate glucokinase [EC 2.7.1.63] catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose using either inorganic polyphosphate [poly(P)] or ATP as the phosphoryl donor. Both activities purified from Propionibacterium shermanii are the functional properties of a single enzyme with separate binding sites for the two phosphoryl donor substrates. The enzyme was found to utilize poly(P) much more efficiently than it does ATP, with a kcat/Kpoly(P) to kcat/KATP ratio of 2800. The catalytic constant for poly(P) is about 2-fold higher than for ATP. Other nucleotides like GTP and dATP also served as substrates with good efficiencies. The ATP-dependent reaction was analyzed using steady-state kinetics and isotopic exchange kinetics at chemical equilibrium. Intersecting initial velocity patterns for both glucose and ATP indicate sequential addition of substrates. Product inhibition studies resulted in two competitive and two noncompetitive patterns, which is characteristic of a Theorell-Chance mechanism or a random mechanism with two dead-end complexes. Results of isotope exchange experiments, however, rule out a Theorell-Chance mechanism, as well as a truly random mechanism. They are not consistent with a partially random mechanism (although a kinetically compulsory order of substrate binding is not excluded), where glucose is preferentially bound to free enzyme before ATP, and ADP is preferentially released as the first product, followed by glucose 6-phosphate. Dead-end inhibition analysis confirms this order of substrate binding. Competitive inhibition of ADP vs ATP is explained as resulting primarily from binding as a dead-end inhibitor (E.Glc.ADP) and not as a product. Another weaker abortive complex, E.ATP.G6P, is also formed. The chemical transformation or the release of ADP is the rate-limiting step in ATP utilization.

  2. A survey of the radiographic cassettes disinfection of university hospitals in seoul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Park, Peom [College of School, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon Sun; Kim, Dong Sung [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to prevent nosocomial infection in patients through contact of radiographic cassettes. Data were collected from radiographers working in 29 university hospitals in Seoul in February and March 2001. Radiographic cassettes were disinfected daily in 5 hospitals, weekly in 4 hospitals, monthly in 5 hospitals, bimonthly in 1 hospital and once every three months in another hospital. 12 other hospitals do not practice regular disinfections of radiographic cassettes. Gauze soaked in disinfectant solution is used in 7 hospitals while 11 hospitals used cotton and cloth soaked in disinfectant solution to clean the radiographic cassettes. 26 hospitals used 99% alcohol based disinfectant solutions while 3 hospitals used 75% alcohol based disinfectant, 26 hospitals use of intercourse cassettes outpatients and in patients. In 26 hospitals, all patients shared the same set of radiographic cassettes used in the hospitals, or in 26 hospitals, separate sets of radiographic cassettes are used for outpatients and inpatients. Separate sets of cassettes are used for ICU and inpatients in 6 others hospitals. 23 hospitals used the same sets of radiographic cassettes for all their patients. radiographic cassettes are cleaned in wash area in the study room of the radiographic department in 17 hospitals. 12 other hospitals do not have designated cleaning areas for the cassettes. All radiographers practiced hands washing with soap. All 29 hospitals surveyed have infection control committee. However, only 9 out of the 29 hospitals surveyed provided Infection {center_dot} disinfections control education to radiographers. Only 3 hospitals have radiographers sitting in the infection control committee. Infection management education is conducted in 63 hospitals annually, twice a year in 1 hospital and once every 3 months in 2 hospitals.

  3. An investigation of infection control for x-ray cassettes in a diagnostic imaging department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Matthew [School of Allied Health Professions and Science, Faculty of Health, Wellbeing and Science, University Campus Suffolk, Rope Walk, Ipswich, Suffolk, IP4 1LT (United Kingdom); Harvey, Jane M. [School of Allied Health Professions and Science, Faculty of Health, Wellbeing and Science, University Campus Suffolk, Rope Walk, Ipswich, Suffolk, IP4 1LT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.harvey@ucs.ac.uk

    2008-11-15

    Introduction: This research was conducted to investigate if X-ray cassettes could be a possible source of pathogens capable of causing nosocomial infections, and if they could be a possible vector for cross infection within the hospital environment. Method: The research involved the swabbing of X-ray cassettes in a Diagnostic Imaging Department of a large hospital in the east of England. Two areas of the Diagnostic Imaging Department were included in the study. Research concentrated on X-ray cassettes used for mobile radiography, accident and emergency and inpatient use. Forty cassettes were swabbed in total specifically for general levels of bacterial contamination, also for the presence or absence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A mapping exercise was completed following the location of an X-ray cassette typically used in mobile radiography. The exercise noted the level of direct contact with patient's skin and other possible routes of infection. Results: The results demonstrated that there were large levels of growth of samples taken from cassettes and developed in the Microbiology Department. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Micrococci, Diptheroids and species of Bacillus were all identified. The mapping exercise in which the journey of a 35/43 cm cassette used for mobile radiography was tracked found that contact with patient's skin and potential pathogens or routes of cross infection was a common occurrence whilst undertaking mobile radiography. Conclusion: The research has identified the presence of bacterial contamination on cassettes. The research established that X-ray cassettes/imaging plates are often exposed to pathogens and possible routes of cross infection; also that patient's skin often comes directly in contact with the X-ray cassette/imaging plate. The research also shows that as cassettes/imaging plates are a potential source of cross infection, the Diagnostic Imaging Department may be partly responsible

  4. Identification of a site of ATP requirement for signal processing in bacterial chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Rowsell, E H; Shioi, J; Taylor, B L

    1988-06-01

    In Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, ATP is required for chemotaxis and for a normal probability of clockwise rotation of the flagellar motors, in addition to the requirement for S-adenosylmethionine (J. Shioi, R. J. Galloway, M. Niwano, R. E. Chinnock, and B. L. Taylor, J. Biol. Chem. 257:7969-7975, 1982). The site of the ATP requirement was investigated. The times required for S. typhimurium ST23 (hisF) to adapt to a step increase in serine, phenol, or benzoate were similar in cells depleted of ATP and in cells with normal levels of ATP. This established that ATP was not required for the chemotactic signal to cross the inner membrane or for adaptation to the transmembrane signal to occur. Depletion of ATP did not affect the probability of clockwise rotation in E. coli cheYZ scy strains that were defective in the cheY and cheZ genes and had a partially compensating mutation in the motor switch. Strain HCB326 (cheAWRBYZ tar tap tsr trg::Tn10), which was deficient in all chemotaxis components except the switch and motor, was transformed with the pCK63 plasmid (ptac-cheY+). Induction of cheY in the transformant increased the frequency of clockwise rotation, but except at the highest levels of CheY overproduction, clockwise rotation was abolished by depleting ATP. It is proposed that the CheY protein is normally in an inactive form and that ATP is required for formation of an active CheY* protein that binds to the switch on the flagellar motors and initiates clockwise rotation. Depletion of ATP partially inhibits feedback regulation of the cheB product, protein methylesterase, but this may reflect a second site of ATP action in chemotaxis.

  5. ATP-competitive inhibitors of the mitotic kinesin KSP that function via an allosteric mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lusong; Parrish, Cynthia A; Nevins, Neysa; McNulty, Dean E; Chaudhari, Amita M; Carson, Jeffery D; Sudakin, Valery; Shaw, Antony N; Lehr, Ruth; Zhao, Huizhen; Sweitzer, Sharon; Lad, Latesh; Wood, Kenneth W; Sakowicz, Roman; Annan, Roland S; Huang, Pearl S; Jackson, Jeffrey R; Dhanak, Dashyant; Copeland, Robert A; Auger, Kurt R

    2007-11-01

    The mitotic kinesin KSP (kinesin spindle protein, or Eg5) has an essential role in centrosome separation and formation of the bipolar mitotic spindle. Its exclusive involvement in the mitotic spindle of proliferating cells presents an opportunity for developing new anticancer agents with reduced side effects relative to antimitotics that target tubulin. Ispinesib is an allosteric small-molecule KSP inhibitor in phase 2 clinical trials. Mutations that attenuate ispinesib binding to KSP have been identified, which highlights the need for inhibitors that target different binding sites. We describe a new class of selective KSP inhibitors that are active against ispinesib-resistant forms of KSP. These ATP-competitive KSP inhibitors do not bind in the nucleotide binding pocket. Cumulative data from generation of resistant cells, site-directed mutagenesis and photo-affinity labeling suggest that they compete with ATP binding via a novel allosteric mechanism.

  6. [Kinetic regularities of the proceeding and possible reaction mechanism of Mg2+-dependent enzymatic hydrolysis of ATP in the fraction of plasmatic membranes of the smooth muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylovych, H V; Kosterin, S O

    2004-01-01

    Kinetic regularities of the reaction of Ca2+-independent Mg2+-dependent enzymatic hydrolysis of ATP catalyzed by the so-called "basal" Mg2+-ATPase localized in the plasmatic membrane of the uterus smooth-muscle cells have been studied using the methods of kinetic analysis performed under the equilibrium conditions. The analysis was based on the study of the concentration dependence of initial velocity of nucleoside triphosphate hydrolysis in EGTA-containing medium under the change of general concentrations of ATP [ATP]o and Mg2+[Mg2+]o in conditions of their equimolar ratio ([ATP]o/ [Mg2+]o)= 1; here the ratio between the concentrations of free reagents ([ATP4-]o/[Mg2+]o) was equal to 1.25. The obtained concentration dependence was interpreted in terms of two practically possible alternative mechanisms of Mg2+-dependent ATP-hydrolase enzymatic reaction. Mechanism I. Two separate independent centres of Mg ions and ATP binding by the enzymatic protein are supposed to exist, while Mg2+-dependent ATP-hydrolase enzymatic reaction proceeds independent of the equilibrium reaction of Mg ions chelatization of muscleside triphosphate. Mechanism II. The existence of the only centre of the chelate complex Mg2+ATP2- binding is postulated on the enzymatic protein; this process is also realized independent of the binding of Mg2+ and ATP-hydralase reaction catalized by it.

  7. Sensitive fluorescence detection of ATP based on host-guest recognition between near-infrared β-Cyclodextrin-CuInS2QDs and aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tianyu; Na, Weidan; Yan, Xu; Su, Xingguang

    2017-04-01

    We have developed a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent aptamer-based sensor for sensitive detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) by using a ATP-binding aptamer and β-Cyclodextrin-CuInS 2 quantum dots (β-CD-CuInS 2 QDs). The fluorescence of β-CD-CuInS 2 QDs has a slight enhancement with the addition of ATP-binding aptamer due to the host-guest recognition between aptamer and β-CD. When ATP is added, it will bind to aptamer to form G-quadruplexes. Aptamer-ATP complexes can enter into the hydrophobic cavities of β-CD and result in great enhancement of the fluorescence intensity. Under the optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of β-CD-CuInS 2 QDs is proportional to the concentration of ATP, which shows a good linear response toward ATP concentration range of 6-1200μmolL -1 , the detection limit for ATP is 3μmolL -1 . The present assay shows a good selectivity for ATP over other biologically important proteins, and it is applied to the determination of ATP in human serum sample with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of the P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B in brain copper homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eTelianidis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of copper homeostasis and the pathological consequences of copper dysregulation. Cumulative evidence is revealing a complex regulatory network of proteins and pathways that maintain copper homeostasis. The recognition of copper dysregulation as a key pathological feature in prominent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and prion diseases has led to increased research focus on the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in the brain. The copper-transporting P-Type ATPases (copper-ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are critical components of the copper regulatory network. Our understanding of the biochemistry and cell biology of these complex proteins has grown significantly since their discovery in 1993. They are large polytopic transmembrane proteins with six copper-binding motifs within the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, eight transmembrane domains and highly conserved catalytic domains. These proteins catalyze ATP-dependent copper transport across cell membranes for the metallation of many essential cuproenzymes, as well as for the removal of excess cellular copper to prevent copper toxicity. A key functional aspect of these copper transporters is their copper-responsive trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell periphery. ATP7A- and ATP7B-deficiency, due to genetic mutation, underlie the inherited copper transport disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Their importance in maintaining brain copper homeostasis is underscored by the severe neuropathological deficits in these disorders. Herein we will review and update our current knowledge of these copper transporters in the brain and the central nervous system, their distribution and regulation, their role in normal brain copper homeostasis and how their absence or dysfunction contributes to disturbances in copper homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

  9. Complex processing patterns of mRNAs of the large ATP synthase operon in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Malik Ghulam

    Full Text Available Chloroplasts are photosynthetic cell organelles which have evolved from endosymbiosis of the cyanobacterial ancestor. In chloroplasts, genes are still organized into transcriptional units as in bacteria but the corresponding poly-cistronic mRNAs undergo complex processing events, including inter-genic cleavage and 5' and 3' end-definition. The current model for processing proposes that the 3' end of the upstream cistron transcripts and the 5' end of the downstream cistron transcripts are defined by the same RNA-binding protein and overlap at the level of the protein-binding site. We have investigated the processing mechanisms that operate within the large ATP synthase (atp operon, in Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts. This operon is transcribed by the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase starting from two promoters, which are upstream and within the operon, respectively, and harbors four potential sites for RNA-binding proteins. In order to study the functional significance of the promoters and the protein-binding sites for the maturation processes, we have performed a detailed mapping of the atp transcript ends. Our data indicate that in contrast to maize, atpI and atpH transcripts with overlapping ends are very rare in Arabidopsis. In addition, atpA mRNAs, which overlap with atpF mRNAs, are even truncated at the 3' end, thus representing degradation products. We observe, instead, that the 5' ends of nascent poly-cistronic atp transcripts are defined at the first protein-binding site which follows either one of the two transcription initiation sites, while the 3' ends are defined at the subsequent protein-binding sites or at hairpin structures that are encountered by the progressing RNA polymerase. We conclude that the overlapping mechanisms of mRNA protection have only a limited role in obtaining stable processed atp mRNAs in Arabidopsis. Our findings suggest that during evolution of different plant species as maize and Arabidopsis, chloroplasts

  10. Mechanisms of constitutive and ATP-evoked ATP release in neonatal mouse olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayoz Sébastien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP is an extracellular signaling molecule with many ascribed functions in sensory systems, including the olfactory epithelium. The mechanism(s by which ATP is released in the olfactory epithelium has not been investigated. Quantitative luciferin-luciferase assays were used to monitor ATP release, and confocal imaging of the fluorescent ATP marker quinacrine was used to monitor ATP release via exocytosis in Swiss Webster mouse neonatal olfactory epithelial slices. Results Under control conditions, constitutive release of ATP occurs via exocytosis, hemichannels and ABC transporters and is inhibited by vesicular fusion inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin A and hemichannel and ABC transporter inhibitor probenecid. Constitutive ATP release is negatively regulated by the ATP breakdown product ADP through activation of P2Y receptors, likely via the cAMP/PKA pathway. In vivo studies indicate that constitutive ATP may play a role in neuronal homeostasis as inhibition of exocytosis inhibited normal proliferation in the OE. ATP-evoked ATP release is also present in mouse neonatal OE, triggered by several ionotropic P2X purinergic receptor agonists (ATP, αβMeATP and Bz-ATP and a G protein-coupled P2Y receptor agonist (UTP. Calcium imaging of P2X2-transfected HEK293 “biosensor” cells confirmed the presence of evoked ATP release. Following purinergic receptor stimulation, ATP is released via calcium-dependent exocytosis, activated P2X1,7 receptors, activated P2X7 receptors that form a complex with pannexin channels, or ABC transporters. The ATP-evoked ATP release is inhibited by the purinergic receptor inhibitor PPADS, Clostridium difficile toxin A and two inhibitors of pannexin channels: probenecid and carbenoxolone. Conclusions The constitutive release of ATP might be involved in normal cell turn-over or modulation of odorant sensitivity in physiological conditions. Given the growth-promoting effects of ATP, ATP-evoked ATP

  11. The Oligomycin-Sensitivity Conferring Protein of Mitochondrial ATP Synthase: Emerging New Roles in Mitochondrial Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Antoniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP of the mitochondrial FOF1 ATP synthase has long been recognized to be essential for the coupling of proton transport to ATP synthesis. Located on top of the catalytic F1 sector, it makes stable contacts with both F1 and the peripheral stalk, ensuring the structural and functional coupling between FO and F1, which is disrupted by the antibiotic, oligomycin. Recent data have established that OSCP is the binding target of cyclophilin (CyP D, a well-characterized inducer of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP, whose opening can precipitate cell death. CyPD binding affects ATP synthase activity, and most importantly, it decreases the threshold matrix Ca2+ required for PTP opening, in striking analogy with benzodiazepine 423, an apoptosis-inducing agent that also binds OSCP. These findings are consistent with the demonstration that dimers of ATP synthase generate Ca2+-dependent currents with features indistinguishable from those of the PTP and suggest that ATP synthase is directly involved in PTP formation, although the underlying mechanism remains to be established. In this scenario, OSCP appears to play a fundamental role, sensing the signal(s that switches the enzyme of life in a channel able to precipitate cell death.

  12. The role of the C8 proton of ATP in the regulation of phosphoryl transfer within kinases and synthetases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkosi Thokozani C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kinome comprises functionally diverse enzymes, with the current classification indicating very little about the extent of conserved regulatory mechanisms associated with phosphoryl transfer. The apparent Km of the kinases ranges from less than 0.4 μM to in excess of 1000 μM for ATP. It is not known how this diverse range of enzymes mechanistically achieves the regulation of catalysis via an affinity range for ATP varying by three-orders of magnitude. Results We have demonstrated a previously undiscovered mechanism in kinase and synthetase enzymes where the overall rate of reaction is regulated via the C8-H of ATP. Using ATP deuterated at the C8 position (C8D-ATP as a molecular probe it was shown that the C8-H plays a direct role in the regulation of the overall rate of reaction in a range of kinase and synthetase enzymes. Using comparative studies on the effect of the concentration of ATP and C8D-ATP on the activity of the enzymes we demonstrated that not only did C8D-ATP give a kinetic isotope effect (KIE but the KIE's obtained are clearly not secondary KIE effects as the magnitude of the KIE in all cases was at least 2 fold and in most cases in excess of 7 fold. Conclusions Kinase and synthetase enzymes utilise C8D-ATP in preference to non-deuterated ATP. The KIE obtained at low ATP concentrations is clearly a primary KIE demonstrating strong evidence that the bond to the isotopically substituted hydrogen is being broken. The effect of the ATP concentration profile on the KIE was used to develop a model whereby the C8H of ATP plays a role in the overall regulation of phosphoryl transfer. This role of the C8H of ATP in the regulation of substrate binding appears to have been conserved in all kinase and synthetase enzymes as one of the mechanisms associated with binding of ATP. The induction of the C8H to be labile by active site residues coordinated to the ATP purine ring may play a significant role in explaining the

  13. Primuline Derivatives That Mimic RNA to Stimulate Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Helicase-catalyzed ATP Hydrolysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Noreena L.; Shadrick, William R.; Mukherjee, Sourav; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J.; Schoenen, Frank J.; Frick, David N.

    2013-01-01

    ATP hydrolysis fuels the ability of helicases and related proteins to translocate on nucleic acids and separate base pairs. As a consequence, nucleic acid binding stimulates the rate at which a helicase catalyzes ATP hydrolysis. In this study, we searched a library of small molecule helicase inhibitors for compounds that stimulate ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 helicase, which is an important antiviral drug target. Two compounds were found that stimulate HCV helicase-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, both of which are amide derivatives synthesized from the main component of the yellow dye primuline. Both compounds possess a terminal pyridine moiety, which was critical for stimulation. Analogs lacking a terminal pyridine inhibited HCV helicase catalyzed ATP hydrolysis. Unlike other HCV helicase inhibitors, the stimulatory compounds differentiate between helicases isolated from various HCV genotypes and related viruses. The compounds only stimulated ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by NS3 purified from HCV genotype 1b. They inhibited helicases from other HCV genotypes (e.g. 1a and 2a) or related flaviviruses (e.g. Dengue virus). The stimulatory compounds interacted with HCV helicase in the absence of ATP with dissociation constants of about 2 μm. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that the stimulatory compounds bind in the HCV helicase RNA-binding cleft near key residues Arg-393, Glu-493, and Ser-231. PMID:23703611

  14. Glucose and the ATP paradox in yeast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, O.J.G.; Hoeben, M.A.; Esgalhado, M.E.L.M.; Snoep, J.L.; Visser, D.; van der Heijden, R.T.J.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2000-01-01

    A sustained decrease in the intracellular ATP concentration has been observed when extra glucose was added to yeast cells growing aerobically under glucose limitation. Because glucose degradation is the main source of ATP-derived free energy, this is a counter-intuitive phenomenon, which cannot be

  15. Optimisation of ATP determination in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    aliquots of standards increase quality control and ease daily operation. The medium (Lumin(PM) buffer, tap water or MilliQ water) for preparation of ATP-standard dilution significantly affected the rlu response of the ATP-standard dilutions (20% difference). The effect of dilution media and of sample...

  16. Double-lock ratchet mechanism revealing the role of  SER-344 in FoF1 ATP synthase

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, T.

    2011-03-07

    In a majority of living organisms, FoF1 ATP synthase performs the fundamental process of ATP synthesis. Despite the simple net reaction formula, ADP+Pi→ATP+H2O, the detailed step-by-step mechanism of the reaction yet remains to be resolved owing to the complexity of this multisubunit enzyme. Based on quantum mechanical computations using recent high resolution X-ray structures, we propose that during ATP synthesis the enzyme first prepares the inorganic phosphate for the γP-OADP bond-forming step via a double-proton transfer. At this step, the highly conserved αS344 side chain plays a catalytic role. The reaction thereafter progresses through another transition state (TS) having a planar ion configuration to finally form ATP. These two TSs are concluded crucial for ATP synthesis. Using stepwise scans and several models of the nucleotide-bound active site, some of the most important conformational changes were traced toward direction of synthesis. Interestingly, as the active site geometry progresses toward the ATP-favoring tight binding site, at both of these TSs, a dramatic increase in barrier heights is observed for the reverse direction, i.e., hydrolysis of ATP. This change could indicate a "ratchet" mechanism for the enzyme to ensure efficacy of ATP synthesis by shifting residue conformation and thus locking access to the crucial TSs.

  17. A two-cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product inclusion body formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dual cassette reporter system capable of assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding. The present invention further relates to vectors and host cells comprising the dual cassette reporter system. In addition the invention relates to the use...... of the dual cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding....

  18. Rate of hydrolysis in ATP synthase is fine-tuned by  -subunit motif controlling active site conformation

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, T.

    2013-01-23

    Computer-designed artificial enzymes will require precise understanding of how conformation of active sites may control barrier heights of key transition states, including dependence on structure and dynamics at larger molecular scale. F(o)F(1) ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP using a rotary motor. Isolated F(1) performs hydrolysis with a rate very sensitive to ATP concentration. Experimental and theoretical results show that, at low ATP concentrations, ATP is slowly hydrolyzed in the so-called tight binding site, whereas at higher concentrations, the binding of additional ATP molecules induces rotation of the central γ-subunit, thereby forcing the site to transform through subtle conformational changes into a loose binding site in which hydrolysis occurs faster. How the 1-Å-scale rearrangements are controlled is not yet fully understood. By a combination of theoretical approaches, we address how large macromolecular rearrangements may manipulate the active site and how the reaction rate changes with active site conformation. Simulations reveal that, in response to γ-subunit position, the active site conformation is fine-tuned mainly by small α-subunit changes. Quantum mechanics-based results confirm that the sub-Ångström gradual changes between tight and loose binding site structures dramatically alter the hydrolysis rate.

  19. Context-driven discovery of gene cassettes in mobile integrons using a computational grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafnat, Guy; Coiera, Enrico; Partridge, Sally R; Schaeffer, Jaron; Iredell, Jon R

    2009-09-08

    Gene discovery algorithms typically examine sequence data for low level patterns. A novel method to computationally discover higher order DNA structures is presented, using a context sensitive grammar. The algorithm was applied to the discovery of gene cassettes associated with integrons. The discovery and annotation of antibiotic resistance genes in such cassettes is essential for effective monitoring of antibiotic resistance patterns and formulation of public health antibiotic prescription policies. We discovered two new putative gene cassettes using the method, from 276 integron features and 978 GenBank sequences. The system achieved kappa = 0.972 annotation agreement with an expert gold standard of 300 sequences. In rediscovery experiments, we deleted 789,196 cassette instances over 2030 experiments and correctly relabelled 85.6% (alpha > or = 95%, E analysis demonstrated that for 72,338 missed deletions, two adjacent deleted cassettes were labeled as a single cassette, increasing performance to 94.8% (mean sensitivity = 0.92, specificity = 1, F-score = 0.96). Using grammars we were able to represent heuristic background knowledge about large and complex structures in DNA. Importantly, we were also able to use the context embedded in the model to discover new putative antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. The method is complementary to existing automatic annotation systems which operate at the sequence level.

  20. Context-driven discovery of gene cassettes in mobile integrons using a computational grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaeffer Jaron

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene discovery algorithms typically examine sequence data for low level patterns. A novel method to computationally discover higher order DNA structures is presented, using a context sensitive grammar. The algorithm was applied to the discovery of gene cassettes associated with integrons. The discovery and annotation of antibiotic resistance genes in such cassettes is essential for effective monitoring of antibiotic resistance patterns and formulation of public health antibiotic prescription policies. Results We discovered two new putative gene cassettes using the method, from 276 integron features and 978 GenBank sequences. The system achieved κ = 0.972 annotation agreement with an expert gold standard of 300 sequences. In rediscovery experiments, we deleted 789,196 cassette instances over 2030 experiments and correctly relabelled 85.6% (α ≥ 95%, E ≤ 1%, mean sensitivity = 0.86, specificity = 1, F-score = 0.93, with no false positives. Error analysis demonstrated that for 72,338 missed deletions, two adjacent deleted cassettes were labeled as a single cassette, increasing performance to 94.8% (mean sensitivity = 0.92, specificity = 1, F-score = 0.96. Conclusion Using grammars we were able to represent heuristic background knowledge about large and complex structures in DNA. Importantly, we were also able to use the context embedded in the model to discover new putative antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. The method is complementary to existing automatic annotation systems which operate at the sequence level.

  1. Metal-dependent regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in fibroblast cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenartowicz, Malgorzata; Moos, Torben; Ogórek, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD) or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD), respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured...... the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper, and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and 10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency...... for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6-8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A...

  2. ATP1A1-mediated Src signaling inhibits coronavirus entry into host cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Burkard (Christine); M.H. Verheije (Monique); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); F.J.M. van Kuppeveld (Frank ); P.J.M. Rottier (Peter); B.J. Bosch (Berend Jan); C.A.M. de Haan (Cornelis)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn addition to transporting ions, the multisubunit Na+,K+-ATPase also functions by relaying cardiotonic steroid (CTS)-binding- induced signals into cells. In this study, we analyzed the role of Na+,K+-ATPase and, in particular, of its ATP1A1 α subunit during coronavirus (CoV) infection.

  3. ATP1A1-mediated Src signaling inhibits coronavirus entry into host cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkard, Christine; Verheije, Monique H; Haagmans, Bart L; van Kuppeveld, Frank J; Rottier, Peter J M; Bosch, Berend-Jan; de Haan, Cornelis A M

    2015-01-01

    Besides by transporting ions the multi-subunit Na(+),K(+)-ATPase also functions by relaying cardiotonic steroid-binding induced signals into cells. In this study we analyzed the role of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and in particular of its ATP1A1 α-subunit during coronavirus (CoV) infection. As controls, the

  4. A clinical trial of a rare earth screen/film system in a periapical cassette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogon, S.L.; Stephens, R.G.; Reid, J.A.; Lubus, N.J.

    1984-04-01

    In a clinical trial, a slow rare earth screen/film system (Siemens Titan 2D/Kodak XG) was used to obtain intraoral radiographs at conventional monitoring stages in endodontic treatment. The screen film image proved to be an effective substitute for the direct-exposure Ultraspeed periapical film. The intraoral cassettes, designed and fabricated for the study, were an adaptation of the flexible, vacuum-sealed cassettes used in mammography. It is believed that when a practicable periapical cassette is manufactured, many additional indications for the system are probable. Major reductions in patient exposure of at least 85% to 90% per periapical film would be effected.

  5. Molecular devices for the regulation of chloroplast ATP synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hisabori, T.; Konno, H.; Ichimura, H.; Strotmann, H.; Bald, D.

    2002-01-01

    In chloroplasts, synthesis of ATP is energetically coupled with the utilization of a proton gradient formed by photosynthetic electron transport. The involved enzyme, the chloroplast ATP synthase, can potentially hydrolyze ATP when the magnitude of the transmembrane electrochemical potential

  6. Binding site of ABC transporter homology models confirmed by ABCB1 crystal structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Georg

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters ABCB1, ABCC4 and ABCC5 are involved in resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Here we present molecular models of ABCB1, ABCC4 and ABCC5 by homology based on a wide open inward-facing conformation of Escherichia coli MsbA, which were constructed in order to elucidate differences in the electrostatic and molecular features of their drug recognition conformations. As a quality assurance of the methodology, the ABCB1 model was compared to an ABCB1 X-ray crystal structure, and with published cross-linking and site directed mutagenesis data of ABCB1. Amino acids Ile306 (TMH5, Ile340 (TMH6, Phe343 (TMH6, Phe728 (TMH7, and Val982 (TMH12, form a putative substrate recognition site in the ABCB1 model, which is confirmed by both the ABCB1 X-ray crystal structure and the site-directed mutagenesis studies. The ABCB1, ABCC4 and ABCC5 models display distinct differences in the electrostatic properties of their drug recognition sites.

  7. Extracellular ATP Induces Calcium Signaling in Odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B M; Jo, H; Park, G; Kim, Y H; Park, C K; Jung, S J; Chung, G; Oh, S B

    2017-02-01

    Odontoblasts form dentin at the outermost surface of tooth pulp. An increasing level of evidence in recent years, along with their locational advantage, implicates odontoblasts as a secondary role as sensory or immune cells. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a well-characterized signaling molecule in the neuronal and immune systems, and its potential involvement in interodontoblast communications was recently demonstrated. In an effort to elaborate the ATP-mediated signaling pathway in odontoblasts, the current study performed single-cell reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescent detection to investigate the expression of ATP receptors related to calcium signal in odontoblasts from incisal teeth of 8- to 10-wk-old rats, and demonstrated an in vitro response to ATP application via calcium imaging experiments. While whole tissue RT-PCR analysis detected P2Y2, P2Y4, and all 7 subtypes (P2X1 to P2X7) in tooth pulp, single-cell RT-PCR analysis of acutely isolated rat odontoblasts revealed P2Y2, P2Y4, P2X2, P2X4, P2X6, and P2X7 expression in only a subset (23% to 47%) of cells tested, with no evidence for P2X1, P2X3, and P2X5 expression. An increase of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in response to 100μM ATP, which was repeated after pretreatment of thapsigargin or under the Ca(2+)-free condition, suggested function of both ionotropic and metabotropic ATP receptors in odontoblasts. The enhancement of ATP-induced calcium response by ivermectin and inhibition by 5-(3-bromophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzofuro[3,2-e]-1,4-diazepin-2-one (5-BDBD) confirmed a functional P2X4 subtype in odontoblasts. Positive calcium response to 2',3'-O-(benzoyl-4-benzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) and negative response to α,β-methylene ATP suggested P2X2, P2X4, and P2X7 as functional subunits in rat odontoblasts. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis of the cells with confirmed calcium response and immunofluorescent detection further corroborated the expression of P2X

  8. Ataxia Telangiectasia-Mutated (ATM) Kinase Activity Is Regulated by ATP-driven Conformational Changes in the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) Complex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Mand, Michael R.; Deshpande, Rajashree A.; Kinoshita, Eri; Yang, Soo-Hyun; Wyman, Claire; Paull, Tanya T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ataxia Telangiectasia-Mutated (ATM) protein kinase is recruited to sites of double-strand DNA breaks by the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex, which also facilitates ATM monomerization and activation. MRN exists in at least two distinct conformational states, dependent on ATP binding and hydrolysis by the Rad50 protein. Here we use an ATP analog-sensitive form of ATM to determine that ATP binding, but not hydrolysis, by Rad50 is essential for MRN stimulation of ATM. Mre11 nuclease activity is dispensable, although some mutations in the Mre11 catalytic domain block ATM activation independent of nuclease function, as does the mirin compound. The coiled-coil domains of Rad50 are important for the DNA binding ability of MRN and are essential for ATM activation, but loss of the zinc hook connection can be substituted by higher levels of the complex. Nbs1 binds to the “closed” form of the MR complex, promoted by the zinc hook and by ATP binding. Thus the primary role of the hook is to tether Rad50 monomers together, promoting the association of the Rad50 catalytic domains into a form that binds ATP and also binds Nbs1. Collectively, these results show that the ATP-bound form of MRN is the critical conformation for ATM activation. PMID:23525106

  9. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase activity is regulated by ATP-driven conformational changes in the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Mand, Michael R; Deshpande, Rajashree A; Kinoshita, Eri; Yang, Soo-Hyun; Wyman, Claire; Paull, Tanya T

    2013-05-03

    The Ataxia Telangiectasia-Mutated (ATM) protein kinase is recruited to sites of double-strand DNA breaks by the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex, which also facilitates ATM monomerization and activation. MRN exists in at least two distinct conformational states, dependent on ATP binding and hydrolysis by the Rad50 protein. Here we use an ATP analog-sensitive form of ATM to determine that ATP binding, but not hydrolysis, by Rad50 is essential for MRN stimulation of ATM. Mre11 nuclease activity is dispensable, although some mutations in the Mre11 catalytic domain block ATM activation independent of nuclease function, as does the mirin compound. The coiled-coil domains of Rad50 are important for the DNA binding ability of MRN and are essential for ATM activation, but loss of the zinc hook connection can be substituted by higher levels of the complex. Nbs1 binds to the "closed" form of the MR complex, promoted by the zinc hook and by ATP binding. Thus the primary role of the hook is to tether Rad50 monomers together, promoting the association of the Rad50 catalytic domains into a form that binds ATP and also binds Nbs1. Collectively, these results show that the ATP-bound form of MRN is the critical conformation for ATM activation.

  10. Metal-dependent regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in fibroblast cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenartowicz Malgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD, respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency obtained by treatment with the copper chelator led to a downregulation of ATP7A in the control fibroblasts, but surprisingly not in the WD fibroblasts. In contrast, the addition of copper led to an increased expression of ATP7A, but a decreased expression of ATP7B. Thus, whereas similar regulation patterns for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6-8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at high copper concentrations, whereas more surprisingly, cells that express the mutant ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at low copper concentrations. Thus, although the transcription of ATP7A is regulated by copper, clonal growth selection in mosaic cell cultures is affected by the level of copper. Female carriers of MD are rarely affected probably due to a skewed inactivation of the X-chromosome bearing the ATP7A mutation.

  11. Altered localisation of the copper efflux transporters ATP7A and ATP7B associated with cisplatin resistance in human ovarian carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reedijk Jan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper homeostasis proteins ATP7A and ATP7B are assumed to be involved in the intracellular transport of cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to assess the relevance of sub cellular localisation of these transporters for acquired cisplatin resistance in vitro. For this purpose, localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells and their cisplatin-resistant variant, A2780cis, was investigated. Methods Sub cellular localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B in sensitive and resistant cells was investigated using confocal fluorescence microscopy after immunohistochemical staining. Co-localisation experiments with a cisplatin analogue modified with a carboxyfluorescein-diacetate residue were performed. Cytotoxicity of the fluorescent cisplatin analogue in A2780 and A2780cis cells was determined using an MTT-based assay. The significance of differences was analysed using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney test as appropriate, p values of Results In the sensitive cells, both transporters are mainly localised in the trans-Golgi network, whereas they are sequestrated in more peripherally located vesicles in the resistant cells. Altered localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B in A2780cis cells is likely to be a consequence of major abnormalities in intracellular protein trafficking related to a reduced lysosomal compartment in this cell line. Changes in sub cellular localisation of ATP7A and ATP7B may facilitate sequestration of cisplatin in the vesicular structures of A2780cis cells, which may prevent drug binding to genomic DNA and thereby contribute to cisplatin resistance. Conclusion Our results indicate that alterations in sub cellular localisation of transport proteins may contribute to cisplatin resistance in vitro. Investigation of intracellular protein localisation in primary tumour cell cultures and tumour tissues may help to develop markers of clinically relevant cisplatin resistance. Detection of resistant tumours

  12. amdSYM, a new dominant recyclable marker cassette for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solis-Escalante, D.; Kuijpers, N.G.A.; Bongaerts, N.; Bolat, I.; Bosman, L.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large collection of selectable marker genes available for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, marker availability can still present a hurdle when dozens of genetic manipulations are required. Recyclable markers, counterselectable cassettes that can be removed from the targeted genome after use,

  13. Redox regulation of ATP sulfurylase in microalgae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prioretti, L.; Lebrun, R.; Gontero, B.; Giordano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 478, č. 4 (2016), s. 1555-1562 ISSN 0006-291X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ATP sulfurylase * cysteine * Sulfur metabolism Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.466, year: 2016

  14. A Label-Free Luminescent Switch-On Assay for ATP Using a G-Quadruplex-Selective Iridium(III) Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Ka-Ho Leung; Lihua Lu; Modi Wang; Tsun-Yin Mak; Daniel Shiu-Hin Chan; Fung-Kit Tang; Chung-Hang Leung; Hiu-Yee Kwan; Zhiling Yu; Dik-Lung Ma

    2013-01-01

    We report herein the G-quadruplex-selective property of a luminescent cyclometallated iridium(III) complex for the detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) in aqueous solution. The ATP-binding aptamer was employed as the ATP recognition unit, while the iridium(III) complex was used to monitor the formation of the G-quadruplex structure induced by ATP. The sensitivity and fold enhancement of the assay were higher than those of the previously reported assay using the organic dye crystal vio...

  15. Bile acids stimulate ATP hydrolysis in the purified cholesterol transporter ABCG5/G8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brandy J Harvey; Lee, Jyh-Yeuan; Pickert, Amanda; Urbatsch, Ina L

    2010-04-27

    ABCG5 and ABCG8 are half-size ABC transporters that function as heterodimers (ABCG5/G8) to reduce sterol absorption in the intestines and increase sterol excretion from the liver. Previous studies demonstrated that bile acids increased ABCG5/G8 specific cholesterol efflux in cell models. In this study we tested the effects of bile acids on ATP hydrolysis in Pichia pastoris purified ABCG5/G8 and found that they stimulated hydrolysis approximately 20-fold in wild-type ABCG5/G8 but not in a hydrolysis-deficient mutant. Nonconjugated cholate supported the highest ATPase activity in ABCG5/G8 (256 +/- 9 nmol min(-1) mg(-1)). ATP hydrolysis was also stimulated by other conjugated bile acids and a mixture of bile acids resembling human bile with activities ranging from 129 +/- 4 to 147 +/- 14 nmol min(-1) mg(-1). The kinetic parameters, inhibitor profiles, and lipid requirements of bile acid stimulated ATP hydrolysis were characterized. Cholate-stimulated ATP hydrolysis was maximal at concentrations of >or=10 mM MgATP and had a relatively high K(M) (MgATP) of approximately 1 mM. Orthovanadate, BeFx, and AlFx effectively inhibited ABCG5/G8 at concentrations of 1 mM. Various lipid mixtures supported bile acid-stimulated ATP hydrolysis, which increased when cholesterol was present. The data demonstrate that bile acids together with lipids and cholesterol increase ATP hydrolysis in purified ABCG5/G8. Bile acids may promote an active conformation of purified ABCG5/G8 either by global stabilization of the transporter or by binding to a specific site on ABCG5/G8.

  16. Human MSH2 (hMSH2) protein controls ATP processing by hMSH2-hMSH6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Christopher D; Cyr, Jennifer L; Cook, Christopher; Punja, Nidhi; Sakato, Miho; Forties, Robert A; Lopez, Juana Martin; Hingorani, Manju M; Fishel, Richard

    2011-11-18

    The mechanics of hMSH2-hMSH6 ATP binding and hydrolysis are critical to several proposed mechanisms for mismatch repair (MMR), which in turn rely on the detailed coordination of ATP processing between the individual hMSH2 and hMSH6 subunits. Here we show that hMSH2-hMSH6 is strictly controlled by hMSH2 and magnesium in a complex with ADP (hMSH2(magnesium-ADP)-hMSH6). Destabilization of magnesium results in ADP release from hMSH2 that allows high affinity ATP binding by hMSH6, which then enhances ATP binding by hMSH2. Both subunits must be ATP-bound to efficiently form a stable hMSH2-hMSH6 hydrolysis-independent sliding clamp required for MMR. In the presence of magnesium, the ATP-bound sliding clamps remain on the DNA for ∼8 min. These results suggest a precise stepwise kinetic mechanism for hMSH2-hMSH6 functions that appears to mimic G protein switches, severely constrains models for MMR, and may partially explain the MSH2 allele frequency in Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.

  17. Characterization of Myelin Sheath F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase and its regulation by IF(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Silvia; Panfoli, Isabella; Aluigi, Maria Grazia; Calzia, Daniela; Morelli, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase is the nanomotor responsible for most of ATP synthesis in the cell. In physiological conditions, it carries out ATP synthesis thanks to a proton gradient generated by the respiratory chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. We previously reported that isolated myelin vesicles (IMV) contain functional F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase and respiratory chain complexes and are able to conduct an aerobic metabolism, to support the axonal energy demand. In this study, by biochemical assay, Western Blot (WB) analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy, we characterized the IMV F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase. ATP synthase activity decreased in the presence of the specific inhibitors (olygomicin, DCCD, FCCP, valynomicin/nigericin) and respiratory chain inhibitors (antimycin A, KCN), suggesting a coupling of oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis. ATPase activity was inhibited in low pH conditions. WB and microscopy analyses of both IMV and optic nerves showed that the Inhibitor of F(1) (IF(1)), a small protein that binds the F(1) moiety in low pH when of oxygen supply is impaired, is expressed in myelin sheath. Data are discussed in terms of the role of IF(1) in the prevention of the reversal of ATP synthase in myelin sheath during central nervous system ischemic events. Overall, data are consistent with an energetic role of myelin sheath, and may shed light on the relationship among demyelination and axonal degeneration.

  18. A Preliminary Study on the Thermal Performance of a Ventilated Honey Cassette for Stingless Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basrawi Firdaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees are very sensitive to the changes of surrounding temperature. A report stated that fertility rate in broodcell is 0% when the broodcell temperature is higher than 34°C or lower than 26°C. In addition, propolis made honey pot in a honey cassette also could melt when temperature is high. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate the temperature profile of a ventilated honey cassette exposed to outdoor conditions, and to evaluate the temperature regulation in the hive using the ventilated honey cassette. To achieve these objectives, two hives with conventional and ventilated honey cassettes were exposed under sun light in cloudy and sunny day. Temperature inside each hive was measured at 3 points and was compared. It was found that there is no significant different between the hives when both hives were exposed under direct sunlight in a cloudy day. However, two significant improvements were found for ventilated hive in sunny day. It could help to reduce temperature at wall of honey cassette consistently below 33°C. This could avoid the melting of propolis around the ventilated wall area. Furthermore, it could facilitate in better temperature reduction as compared to the conventional honey cassette. However, further study when there is a colony inside the hives must also be conducted to validate the results.

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0896 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0896 ref|XP_001258991.1| ATP-binding cassette transporter [Neosartorya fischer...i NRRL 181] gb|EAW17094.1| ATP-binding cassette transporter [Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181] XP_001258991.1 3.5 26% ...

  20. Evaluation of Anti-tumor and Chemoresistance-lowering Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of breast cancer cells with pectolinarigenin reduced the chemoresistance of the cells to doxorubicin. At the same time, mRNA expression of chemoresistance genes (ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2, ABCG2 and ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1, MDR1) was repressed by pectolinarigenin.

  1. Characterization of the novel In1059 harbouring VIM gene cassette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongguo Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VIM-type enzyme encodes the most widely acquired metallo-β-lactamases in Gram- negative bacteria. To obtain current epidemiological data for integrons from enterobacteriae in hospital, the study characterizes the genetic structure in In1059 by comparison with In846 integrons harbouring VIM gene and other class 1 integrons including In37, In62, In843 and In1021 with the aim of identifying the putative mechanisms involved integron mobilization and infer evolution of relevant integrons. Methods Six of 69 recombinant plasmids from clinical strains were found to be class 1 integrons by digestion with BamHI, drug susceptibility testing, conjugation experiments, PCR amplification, integron cloning and sequencing, genome comparison, and detection of carbapenemase activity. Results The sequences of the six recombinant plasmids encoding In1021, In843, In846, In37, In62, and the novel In1059 integron had approximate lengths of ~4.8-, 4.1-, 5.1-, 5.3-, 5.3- and 6.6- kb, respectively. The genetic structures of these integrons were mapped and characterized, and the carbapenemase activities of their parental strains were assessed. Conclusions Our results suggest that the six variable integron structures and regular variations that exist in the gene cassettes provide a putative mechanism for the integron changes. Our study has also shown that the genetic features in the integrons named above fall within a scheme involving the stepwise and parallel evolution of class 1 integron variation likely under antibiotic selection pressure in clinical settings.

  2. The effect of pH and free Mg2+ on ATP linked enzymes and the calculation of Gibbs free energy of ATP hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Christian; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Veech, Richard L

    2010-12-16

    The apparent equilibrium constants, K′, of biochemical reactions containing substrates which bind [Mg2+] unequally can be significantly altered by changes in free intracellular [Mg2+]. Intracellular free [Mg2+] can be estimated by measurements of [citrate]/[isocitrate], a ratio known to vary with tissue free [Mg2+]. The combined equilibrium constant for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and triose phosphate isomerase for the three reactions (K(GG-TPI)′) was corrected using new binding constants for dihydroxyacetone-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate. The result of this calculation is demonstrated in the calculation of the free energy of ATP hydrolysis. In addition, the dependence of the equilibrium constant for the glutamine synthetase reaction on pH and free [Mg2+] was demonstrated. Furthermore, a theory linking the ΔG′ value of mitochondrial complex I−II and the cytosolic ΔG′ value of ATP hydrolysis is discussed with evidence from previous publications.

  3. Extracellular ATP is internalized by macropinocytosis and induces intracellular ATP increase and drug resistance in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yanrong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Yi; Li, Yunsheng; Colvin, Robert A; Tong, Lingying; Wu, Shiyong; Chen, Xiaozhuo

    2014-09-01

    ATP plays central roles in cancer metabolism and the Warburg effect. Intratumoral ATP concentrations are up to 10(4) times higher than those of interstitial ATP in normal tissues. However, extracellular ATP is not known to enter cancer cells. Here we report that human A549 lung cancer cells internalized extracellular ATP by macropinocytosis as demonstrated by colocalization of a nonhydrolyzable fluorescent ATP and a macropinocytosis tracer high-molecular-weight dextran, as well as by a macropinocytosis inhibitor study. Extracellular ATP also induced increase of intracellular ATP levels, without involving transcription and translation at significant levels, and cancer cells' resistance to ATP-competitor anticancer drugs, likely through the mechanism of ATP internalization. These findings, described for the first time, have profound implications in ATP-sharing among cancer cells in tumors and highlight a novel anticancer target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies with an immobilized metal affinity chromatography cassette system involving binuclear triazacyclononane-derived ligands: automation of batch adsorption measurements with tagged recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Martin; Coghlan, Campbell J; Hearn, Milton T W

    2014-07-18

    This study describes the determination of the adsorption isotherms and binding kinetics of tagged recombinant proteins using a recently developed IMAC cassette system and employing automated robotic liquid handling procedures for IMAC resin screening. These results confirm that these new IMAC resins, generated from a variety of different metal-charged binuclear 1,4,7-triaza-cyclononane (tacn) ligands, interact with recombinant proteins containing a novel N-terminal metal binding tag, NT1A, with static binding capacities similar to those obtained with conventional hexa-His tagged proteins, but with significantly increased association constants. In addition, higher kinetic binding rates were observed with these new IMAC systems, an attribute that can be positively exploited to increase process productivity. The results from this investigation demonstrate that enhancements in binding capacities and affinities were achieved with these new IMAC resins and chosen NT1A tagged protein. Further, differences in the binding performances of the bis(tacn) xylenyl-bridged ligands were consistent with the distance between the metal binding centres of the two tacn moieties, the flexibility of the ligand and the potential contribution from the aromatic ring of the xylenyl group to undergo π/π stacking interactions with the tagged proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Membrane fusion proteins of type I secretion system and tripartite efflux pumps share a binding motif for TolC in gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minho Lee

    Full Text Available The Hly translocator complex of Escherichia coli catalyzes type I secretion of the toxin hemolysin A (HlyA. In this complex, HlyB is an inner membrane ABC (ATP Binding Cassette-type transporter, TolC is an outer membrane channel protein, and HlyD is a periplasmic adaptor anchored in the inner membrane that bridges HlyB to TolC. This tripartite organization is reminiscent of that of drug efflux systems such as AcrA-AcrB-TolC and MacA-MacB-TolC of E. coli. We have previously shown the crucial role of conserved residues located at the hairpin tip region of AcrA and MacA adaptors during assembly of their cognate systems. In this study, we investigated the role of the putative tip region of HlyD using HlyD mutants with single amino acid substitutions at the conserved positions. In vivo and in vitro data show that all mutations abolished HlyD binding to TolC and resulted in the absence of HlyA secretion. Together, our results suggest that, similarly to AcrA and MacA, HlyD interacts with TolC in a tip-to-tip manner. A general model in which these conserved interactions induce opening of TolC during drug efflux and type I secretion is discussed.

  6. Pc promoter from class 2 integrons and the cassette transcription pattern it evokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Érica Lourenço; dos Santos Freitas, Fernanda; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo

    2011-04-01

    Integrons are considered expression systems due to the presence of Pc promoters that drive gene cassette transcription. The role and configurations of Pc are well known in class 1 integrons; however, this region has not yet been identified in class 2 integrons. This study aimed to characterize the Pc promoter from class 2 integrons and to determine the effect of gene cassette position on transcription driven by this promoter. The class 2 cassette arrays from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae strains were determined by sequencing. Transcription analyses were performed by real-time RT-PCR and relative quantification was carried out by comparing the transcripts of each normalized gene inserted in the integron to each other. The resistance profile was determined by the disc diffusion method. The class 2 Pc promoter was characterized by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and promoter prediction programs. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of the dfrA1-sat2-aadA1-ybeA and sat2-aadA1-ybeA arrangements in K. pneumoniae and V. cholerae strains, respectively. Real-time RT-PCR showed that the transcription of the first cassettes was higher than that of distal ones in wild-type and recombinant strains. All strains were resistant, indicating cassette expression. The Pc promoter of class 2 integrons (-35 TTTAAT |16 bp| -10 TAAAAT) was determined based on in silico analyses and on the transcription start site sequence of the class 2 integron cassette array. The Pc from class 2 integrons was characterized for the first time and the cassette position effect on transcription was demonstrated.

  7. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary Alan; DeSimone, Julia Carol; Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David

    2014-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. We performed ground testing to determine whether ARC EMCS seed cassettes could be adapted for use with tardigrades for future spaceflight experiments. Tardigrades (water bears) are small invertebrates that enter the tun state in response to desiccation or other environmental stresses. Tardigrade tuns have suspended metabolism and have been shown to be survive exposure to space vacuum, high pressure, temperature and other stresses. For spaceflight experiments using the EMCS, the organisms ideally must be able to survive desiccation and storage in the cassette at ambient temperature for several weeks prior to the initiation of the experiment by the infusion of water to the cassette during spaceflight. The ability of tardigrades to survive extremes by entering the tun state make them ideal candidates for growth experiments in the EMCS cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membrane contains dried growth medium. The goals of our study were to (1) determine whether tardigrades survive and reproduce on PES membranes, (2) develop a consistent method for dehydration of the tardigrades with high recovery rates upon rehydration, (3) to determine an appropriate food source for the tardigrades that can also be dehydrated/rehydrated and (4) successful mock rehydration experiment in cassettes with appropriate food source. We present results that show successful multigenerational growth of tardigrades on PES membranes with a variety of wet food sources. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration with tardigrades and at least one candidate food, protonema of the moss Polytrichum, that supports multigenerational growth and whose spores germinate quickly enough to match tardigrade feeding patterns post rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini

  8. ATP8B1 and ATP11C: Two Lipid Flippases Important for Hepatocyte Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naik, Jyoti; de Waart, Dirk R.; Utsunomiya, Karina; Duijst, Suzanne; Mok, Kam Ho; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Bosma, Piter J.; Paulusma, Coen C.

    2015-01-01

    P4 ATPases are lipid flippases and transport phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaflet of biological membranes. Lipid flipping is important for the biogenesis of transport vesicles. Recently it was shown that loss of the P4 ATPases ATP8B1 and ATP11C are associated with severe

  9. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    ATP has been proposed to play multiple roles in local skeletal muscle blood flow regulation by inducing vasodilation and modulating sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, but the mechanism remain unclear. Here we evaluated the effects of arterial ATP infusion and exercise on limb muscle interstitial...... local concentration. Key words: sympathetic nerve activity, vasodilation, endothelium, skeletal muscle....

  10. ATP-consuming and ATP-generating enzymes secreted by pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yegutkin, Gennady G; Samburski, Sergei S; Jalkanen, Sirpa

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic acini release ATP in response to various stimuli, including cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), as we show in the present study. There were indications that pancreatic juice also contains enzymes that could hydrolyze ATP during its passage through the ductal system. The aim of this st......Pancreatic acini release ATP in response to various stimuli, including cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), as we show in the present study. There were indications that pancreatic juice also contains enzymes that could hydrolyze ATP during its passage through the ductal system. The aim...... of this study was to determine which ATP-degrading and possibly ATP-generating enzymes were present in pancreatic secretion. For this purpose, pancreatic juice was collected from anesthetized rats stimulated with infusion of CCK-8. Purine-converting activities in juice samples were assayed by TLC using either...... [gamma-(32)P]ATP or (14)C/(3)H-labeled and unlabeled nucleotides as appropriate substrates. Data show that the juice contains the enzyme ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase that can hydrolyze both [(14)C]ATP and [(3)H]ADP about equally well, i.e. CD39. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid...

  11. ATP: The crucial component of secretory vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Domínguez, Natalia; Pardo, Marta R; González-Santana, Ayoze; Westhead, Edward W; Borges, Ricardo; Machado, José David

    2016-07-12

    The colligative properties of ATP and catecholamines demonstrated in vitro are thought to be responsible for the extraordinary accumulation of solutes inside chromaffin cell secretory vesicles, although this has yet to be demonstrated in living cells. Because functional cells cannot be deprived of ATP, we have knocked down the expression of the vesicular nucleotide carrier, the VNUT, to show that a reduction in vesicular ATP is accompanied by a drastic fall in the quantal release of catecholamines. This phenomenon is particularly evident in newly synthesized vesicles, which we show are the first to be released. Surprisingly, we find that inhibiting VNUT expression also reduces the frequency of exocytosis, whereas the overexpression of VNUT drastically increases the quantal size of exocytotic events. To our knowledge, our data provide the first demonstration that ATP, in addition to serving as an energy source and purinergic transmitter, is an essential element in the concentration of catecholamines in secretory vesicles. In this way, cells can use ATP to accumulate neurotransmitters and other secreted substances at high concentrations, supporting quantal transmission.

  12. Voltage Dependence of ATP Secretion in Mammalian Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Roman A.; Rogachevskaja, Olga A.; Khokhlov, Alexander A.; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S.

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian type II taste cells release the afferent neurotransmitter adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through ATP-permeable ion channels, most likely to be connexin (Cx) and/or pannexin hemichannels. Here, we show that ion channels responsible for voltage-gated (VG) outward currents in type II cells are ATP permeable and demonstrate a strong correlation between the magnitude of the VG current and the intensity of ATP release. These findings suggest that slowly deactivating ion channels transporting the VG outward currents can also mediate ATP secretion in type II cells. In line with this inference, we studied a dependence of ATP secretion on membrane voltage with a cellular ATP sensor using different pulse protocols. These were designed on the basis of predictions of a model of voltage-dependent transient ATP efflux. Consistently with curves that were simulated for ATP release mediated by ATP-permeable channels deactivating slowly, the bell-like and Langmuir isotherm–like potential dependencies were characteristic of ATP secretion obtained for prolonged and short electrical stimulations of taste cells, respectively. These observations strongly support the idea that ATP is primarily released via slowly deactivating channels. Depolarizing voltage pulses produced negligible Ca2+ transients in the cytoplasm of cells releasing ATP, suggesting that ATP secretion is mainly governed by membrane voltage under our recording conditions. With the proviso that natural connexons and pannexons are kinetically similar to exogenously expressed hemichannels, our findings suggest that VG ATP release in type II cells is primarily mediated by Cx hemichannels. PMID:19029378

  13. Cassettes for PCR-mediated gene tagging in Candida albicans utilizing nourseothricin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Stephen W; Cheetham, Jill; Lloyd, Deborah; Aves, Stephen; Bates, Steven

    2011-12-01

    In recent years a number of molecular tools have been reported for use in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, including PCR-mediated approaches for gene disruption, conditional expression and epitope tagging. Traditionally these methods have utilized auxotrophic markers; however, the availability of auxotrophic markers can be limiting and in some instances their use may also impact on the interpretation of results. As a result, the use of positive selection markers has now become more commonplace. Here we report the development and validation of a set of cassettes for PCR-mediated gene tagging and overexpression studies utilizing the nourseothricin resistance (CaNAT1) positive selection marker. In particular we have produced cassettes containing yeast-enhanced GFP, YFP, CFP, RFP and a combined V5-6xHis epitope tag. The cassettes are engineered for use in PCR-mediated gene tagging strategies where insertion is targeted to the 3' end of the gene of interest. In addition, to facilitate protein functional analysis and genetic suppression studies through the use of overexpression, we have also constructed a promoter replacement cassette containing the ENO1 promoter which is known to be expressed at a high level. These cassettes expand on the range of molecular tools available for working with C. albicans and may also be used in other Candida species that display sensitivity to nourseothricin. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Transcriptional organization of the large and the small ATP synthase operons, atpI/H/F/A and atpB/E, in Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Ghulam, Mustafa; Zghidi-Abouzid, Ouafa; Lambert, Emeline; Lerbs-Mache, Silva; Merendino, Livia

    2012-06-01

    The ATP synthase is a ubiquitous enzyme which is found in bacteria and eukaryotic organelles. It is essential in the photosynthetic and respiratory processes, by transforming the electrochemical proton gradient into ATP energy via proton transport across the membranes. In Escherichia coli, the atp genes coding for the subunits of the ATP synthase enzyme are grouped in the same transcriptional unit, while in higher plants the plastid atp genes are organized into a large (atpI/H/F/A) and a small (atpB/E) atp operon. By using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we have investigated the strategy evolved in chloroplasts to overcome the physical separation of the atp gene clusters and to coordinate their transcription. We show that all the identified promoters in the two atp operons are PEP dependent and require sigma factors for specific recognition. Our results indicate that transcription of the two atp operons is initiated by at least one common factor, the essential SIG2 factor. Our data show that SIG3 and SIG6 also participate in transcription initiation of the large and the small atp operon, respectively. We propose that SIG2 might be the factor responsible for coordinating the basal transcription of the plastid atp genes and that SIG3 and SIG6 might serve to modulate plastid atp expression with respect to physiological and environmental conditions. However, we observe that in the sigma mutants (sig2, sig3 and sig6) the deficiency in the recognition of specific atp promoters is largely balanced by mRNA stabilization and/or by activation of otherwise silent promoters, indicating that the rate-limiting step for expression of the atp operons is mostly post-transcriptional.

  15. SVOP is a nucleotide binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2 and SV2-related protein (SVOP are transporter-like proteins that localize to neurotransmitter-containing vesicles. Both proteins share structural similarity with the major facilitator (MF family of small molecule transporters. We recently reported that SV2 binds nucleotides, a feature that has also been reported for another MF family member, the human glucose transporter 1 (Glut1. In the case of Glut1, nucleotide binding affects transport activity. In this study, we determined if SVOP also binds nucleotides and assessed its nucleotide binding properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed in vitro photoaffinity labeling experiments with the photoreactive ATP analogue, 8-azido-ATP[gamma] biotin and purified recombinant SVOP-FLAG fusion protein. We found that SVOP is a nucleotide-binding protein, although both its substrate specificity and binding site differ from that of SV2. Within the nucleotides tested, ATP, GTP and NAD show same level of inhibition on SVOP-FLAG labeling. Dose dependent studies indicated that SVOP demonstrates the highest affinity for NAD, in contrast to SV2, which binds both NAD and ATP with equal affinity. Mapping of the binding site revealed a single region spanning transmembrane domains 9-12, which contrasts to the two binding sites in the large cytoplasmic domains in SV2A. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SVOP is the third MF family member to be found to bind nucleotides. Given that the binding sites are unique in SVOP, SV2 and Glut1, this feature appears to have arisen separately.

  16. Increased ethanol accumulation from glucose via reduction of ATP level in a recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkiv, Marta V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2014-05-15

    The production of ethyl alcohol by fermentation represents the largest scale application of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial biotechnology. Increased worldwide demand for fuel bioethanol is anticipated over the next decade and will exceed 200 billion liters from further expansions. Our working hypothesis was that the drop in ATP level in S. cerevisiae cells during alcoholic fermentation should lead to an increase in ethanol production (yield and productivity) with a greater amount of the utilized glucose converted to ethanol. Our approach to achieve this goal is to decrease the intracellular ATP level via increasing the unspecific alkaline phosphatase activity. Intact and truncated versions of the S. cerevisiae PHO8 gene coding for vacuolar or cytosolic forms of alkaline phosphatase were fused with the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1) promoter. The constructed expression cassettes used for transformation vectors also contained the dominant selective marker kanMX4 and S. cerevisiae δ-sequence to facilitate multicopy integration to the genome. Laboratory and industrial ethanol producing strains BY4742 and AS400 overexpressing vacuolar form of alkaline phosphatase were characterized by a slightly lowered intracellular ATP level and biomass accumulation and by an increase in ethanol productivity (13% and 7%) when compared to the parental strains. The strains expressing truncated cytosolic form of alkaline phosphatase showed a prolonged lag-phase, reduced biomass accumulation and a strong defect in ethanol production. Overexpression of vacuolar alkaline phosphatase leads to an increased ethanol yield in S. cerevisiae.

  17. Nitration of specific tyrosines in FoF1 ATP synthase and activity loss in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Virginia; Traaseth, Nathaniel J; Elfering, Sarah; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Giulivi, Cecilia

    2010-05-01

    It has been reported that C-nitration of proteins occurs under nitrative/oxidative stress; however, its role in pathophysiological situations is not fully understood. In this study, we determined that nitration of Tyr(345) and Tyr(368) in the beta-subunit of the mitochondrial F(o)F(1)-ATPase is a major target for nitrative stress in rat liver under in vivo conditions. The chemical characteristics of these Tyr make them suitable for a facilitated nitration (solvent accessibility, consensus sequence, and pK(a)). Moreover, beta-subunit nitration increased significantly with the age of the rats (from 4 to 80 weeks old) and correlated with decreased ATP hydrolysis and synthesis rates. Although its affinity for ATP binding was unchanged, maximal ATPase activity decreased between young and old rats by a factor of two. These changes directly impacted the available ATP concentration in vivo, and it was expected that they would affect multiple cellular ATP-dependent processes. For instance, at least 50% of available [ATP] in the liver of older rats would have to be committed to sustain maximal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, whereas only 30% would be required for young rats. If this requirement was not fulfilled, the osmoregulation and Na(+)-nutrient cotransport in liver of older rats would be compromised. On the basis of our studies, we propose that targeted nitration of the beta-subunit is an early marker for nitrative stress and aging.

  18. Arabidopsis ATP A2 peroxidase. Expression and high-resolution structure of a plant peroxidase with implications for lignification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, L; Teilum, K; Mirza, O

    2000-01-01

    to be involved in lignin biosynthesis. Recently we isolated an extracellular anionic peroxidase, ATP A2, from rapidly lignifying Arabidopsis cell suspension culture and cloned its cDNA. Here we show that the Atp A2 promoter directs GUS reporter gene expression in lignified tissues of transgenic plants. Moreover...... of ATP A2 was solved to 1.45 A resolution at 100 K. Docking of p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol in the substrate binding site of ATP A2 were analysed on the basis of the crystal structure of a horseradish peroxidase C-CN-ferulic acid complex. The analysis indicates that the precursors p......-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols are preferred by ATP A2, while the oxidation of sinapyl alcohol will be sterically hindered in ATP A2 as well as in all other plant peroxidases due to an overlap with the conserved Pro-139. We suggest ATP A2 is involved in a complex regulation of the covalent cross-linking in the plant...

  19. RH421 binds into the ATP-binding site on the Na+/K+-ATPase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huličiak, Miroslav; Bazgier, V.; Berka, K.; Kubala, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1859, č. 10 (2017), s. 2113-2122 ISSN 0005-2736 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : sodium-potassium pump * crystal-structure * conformational-changes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  20. Interaction of diazoxide and cromakalim with ATP-regulated K+ channels in rodent and clonal insulin-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggar, J H; Harding, E A; Ayton, B J; Dunne, M J

    1993-02-01

    The hyperglycaemia-inducing sulphonamide diazoxide has been previously shown to mediate its effects upon insulin secretion by opening K+ channels and hyperpolarizing the beta-cell membrane. The target site has been characterized as the ATP-regulated K+ (K+ATP) channel protein. In the present study, a detailed investigation of interactions of diazoxide and another K+ channel opener, cromakalim, with K+ATP channels has been performed in individual insulin-secreting cells using patch-clamp techniques. In agreement with previous studies, diazoxide and cromakalim were found to be effective only when ATP was present upon the inside face of the plasma membrane. The ability of both diazoxide and cromakalim to open channels was, however, found to diminish with time following isolation of inside-out patches. Within seconds of forming the recording configuration, the actions of both compounds were potent, and were found to decline steadily as the number of operational channels decreased ('run-down'). In open cells, where the plasma membrane remains partially intact, the rate of run-down was significantly reduced, and effects of channel openers were recorded up to 80 min following cell permeabilization. We also demonstrated that in the absence of ATP, but in the presence of ADP, both diazoxide and cromakalim were able to open K+ATP channels. Interestingly, once the effects of diazoxide and cromakalim on K+ATP channels in the presence of ATP were lost, both compounds opened channels in the presence of ADP. One implication of these data is that the actions of diazoxide and cromakalim involve regulatory proteins associated with the ion channel; this molecule is able to bind ATP, ADP and possibly other cytosolic nucleotides.

  1. Uncovering the basis of ATP hydrolysis activity in purified human p53 protein: a reinvestigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Verma

    Full Text Available p53 is one of the most well studied tumor suppressor proteins and regarded as the guardian of the genome. The protein mediates cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis in response to myriads of cellular stresses including DNA damage via its transcriptional as well as non-transcriptional roles. ATP binding/hydrolysis by p53 had been implicated in its DNA binding functions. However, till date, no ATP binding/hydrolysis domains have been mapped in p53. In the current study, we have reinvestigated the ATP hydrolysis activity associated with recombinant human p53 protein expressed and purified from E.coli. We confirmed the source of ATPase activity using various deletion constructs of p53 and an In-gel ATPase assay followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the activity band. The activity was associated with Hsp70 homologue in E.coli, DnaK, a known interactor of p53. We clarify that wildtype human p53, expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 strain, carries no ATPase activity.

  2. Novel streptomycin and spectinomycin resistance gene as a gene cassette within a class 1 integron isolated from Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, D.

    1999-01-01

    The aadA genes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin, have been found as gene cassettes in different gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species. The present study has revealed the sequence of a new gene, aadA5, integrated as a gene cassette together with the trimethoprim...

  3. A label-free luminescent switch-on assay for ATP using a G-quadruplex-selective iridium(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ho; Lu, Lihua; Wang, Modi; Mak, Tsun-Yin; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Tang, Fung-Kit; Leung, Chung-Hang; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Yu, Zhiling; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2013-01-01

    We report herein the G-quadruplex-selective property of a luminescent cyclometallated iridium(III) complex for the detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) in aqueous solution. The ATP-binding aptamer was employed as the ATP recognition unit, while the iridium(III) complex was used to monitor the formation of the G-quadruplex structure induced by ATP. The sensitivity and fold enhancement of the assay were higher than those of the previously reported assay using the organic dye crystal violet as a fluorescent probe. This label-free luminescent switch-on assay exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity towards ATP with a limit of detection of 2.5 µM.

  4. A label-free luminescent switch-on assay for ATP using a G-quadruplex-selective iridium(III complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Ho Leung

    Full Text Available We report herein the G-quadruplex-selective property of a luminescent cyclometallated iridium(III complex for the detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP in aqueous solution. The ATP-binding aptamer was employed as the ATP recognition unit, while the iridium(III complex was used to monitor the formation of the G-quadruplex structure induced by ATP. The sensitivity and fold enhancement of the assay were higher than those of the previously reported assay using the organic dye crystal violet as a fluorescent probe. This label-free luminescent switch-on assay exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity towards ATP with a limit of detection of 2.5 µM.

  5. Kinetics of extracellular ATP in mastoparan 7-activated human erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, María Florencia Leal; Incicco, J. Jeremías; Espelt, María Victoria; Verstraeten, Sandra V.; Pignataro, Omar P.; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background The peptide mastoparan 7 (MST7) stimulated ATP release in human erythrocytes. We explored intra- and extracellular processes governing the time-dependent accumulation of extracellular ATP (i.e., ATPe kinetics). Methods Human erythrocytes were treated with MST7 in the presence or absence of two blockers of pannexin 1. ATPe concentration was monitored by luciferin-luciferase based real-time luminometry. Results Exposure of human erythrocytes to MST7 led to an acute increase in [ATPe], followed by a slower increase phase. ATPe kinetics reflected a strong activation of ATP efflux and a low rate of ATPe hydrolysis by ectoATPase activity. Enhancement of [ATPe] by MST7 required adhesion of erythrocytes to poly-D-lysin-coated coverslips, and correlated with a 31% increase of cAMP and 10% cell swelling. However, when MST7 was dissolved in a hyperosmotic medium to block cell swelling, ATPe accumulation was inhibited by 49%. Erythrocytes pre-exposure to 10 μM of either carbenoxolone or probenecid, two blockers of pannexin 1, exhibited a partial reduction of ATP efflux. Erythrocytes from pannexin 1 knockout mice exhibited similar ATPe kinetics as those of wild type mice erythrocytes exposed to pannexin 1 blockers. Conclusions MST7 induced release of ATP required either cell adhesion or strong activation of cAMP synthesis. Part of this release required cell swelling. Kinetic analysis and a data driven model suggested that ATP efflux is mediated by two ATP conduits displaying different kinetics, with one conduit being fully blocked by pannexin 1 blockers. General Significance Kinetic analysis of extracellular ATP accumulation from human erythrocytes and potential effects on microcirculation. PMID:23742824

  6. Dietary fiber prevents obesity-related liver lipotoxicity by modulating sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shufen; Jiao, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Zhang, Weiguo; Gao, Xiaoran; Qin, Liqiang

    2015-10-29

    Adequate intake of dietary fibers has proven metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, molecular mechanisms remain still limited. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cereal dietary fiber on obesity-related liver lipotoxicity in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet and underlying mechanism. Forty-eight adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly given a reference chow diet, or a high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet supplemented with or without oat fiber or wheat bran fiber for 24 weeks. Our results showed mice fed oat or wheat bran fiber exhibited lower weight gain, lipid profiles and insulin resistance, compared with HFC diet. The two cereal dietary fibers potently decreased protein expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and key factors involved in lipogenesis, including fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in target tissues. At molecular level, the two cereal dietary fibers augmented protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma, liver X receptor alpha, and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in target tissues. Our findings indicated that cereal dietary fiber supplementation abrogated obesity-related liver lipotoxicity and dyslipidemia in C57BL/6J mice fed a HFC diet. In addition, the efficacy of oat fiber is greater than wheat bran fiber in normalizing these metabolic disorders and pathological profiles.

  7. Development of a modified gentamicin resistance cassette for genetic manipulation of the oral spirochete Treponema denticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jiang; Fenno, J Christopher; Li, Chunhao

    2012-03-01

    Herein, we report that a modified gentamicin cassette and a PCR-based method can be used for targeted mutagenesis of the oral spirochete Treponema denticola. This approach minimizes polar effects and spontaneous antibiotic resistance. Therefore, it can serve as a reliable tool for genetic manipulation of T. denticola.

  8. Engineered XcmI cassette-containing vector for PCR-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T-vector; direct cloning; XcmI cassette; sequencing; PCR; marine population genetics. Author Affiliations. Futoshi Aranishi1 2 Takane Okimoto1 3. Molecular Biology Division, National Institute of Fisheries Science, Yokohama 236-8648, Japan; Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Mirjazaki University, ...

  9. Simultaneous acquisition of storage phosphor and asymmetric screen-film chest images using a hybrid cassette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brent K.; Kimme-Smith, Carolyn; Johnson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Timothy; Aberle, Denise R.

    1994-05-01

    A hybrid cassette has been developed for simultaneous acquisition of storage phosphor and asymmetric screen-film chest images. This is important for the collection of images for Receiver Operating Characteristic studies comparing conventional radiography and computed radiography, without either increased exposure or non-identical imaging conditions. This hybrid radiographic cassette consists of a computed radiography imaging plate (in front) and an intact, high contrast variant of a commercially available asymmetric screen-film system (in the rear) with a speed of approximately 425. The high contrast, speed and efficiency of this screen-film system allow for positioning of the storage phosphor plate in the front of the cassette. As the imaging plate absorption is approximately 35%, the fast screen-film system provides high quality diagnostic images. There is minimal beam hardening, which is ameliorated by the high contrast of the asymmetric front screen. There is minimal differences in the Plexiglas step wedge phantom gray level values for CR and CR-hybrid images and in optical density values for InSightTM and InSightTM-hybrid films. The signal to noise ratio of either hybrid image, while fractionally less than their standard counterparts, is negligibly so. Only a slight modification in radiographic technique is required (10%) for use of this hybrid cassette, providing images that are virtually the same as those obtained through the standard CR and InSightTM ITC imaging methods.

  10. A fluorescent cassette-based strategy for engineering multiple domain fusion proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorchid Ahmad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of fusion proteins has become increasingly important and most recently has formed the basis of many biosensors, protein purification systems, and classes of new drugs. Currently, most fusion proteins consist of three or fewer domains, however, more sophisticated designs could easily involve three or more domains. Using traditional subcloning strategies, this requires micromanagement of restriction enzymes sites that results in complex workaround solutions, if any at all. Results Therefore, to aid in the efficient construction of fusion proteins involving multiple domains, we have created a new expression vector that allows us to rapidly generate a library of cassettes. Cassettes have a standard vector structure based on four specific restriction endonuclease sites and using a subtle property of blunt or compatible cohesive end restriction enzymes, they can be fused in any order and number of times. Furthermore, the insertion of PCR products into our expression vector or the recombination of cassettes can be dramatically simplified by screening for the presence or absence of fluorescence. Conclusions Finally, the utility of this new strategy was demonstrated by the creation of basic cassettes for protein targeting to subcellular organelles and for protein purification using multiple affinity tags.

  11. Identification of a novel streptococcal gene cassette mediating SOS mutagenesis in Streptococcus uberis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varhimo, Emilia; Savijoki, Kirsi; Jalava, Jari; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Varmanen, Pekka

    Streptococci have been considered to lack the classical SOS response, defined by increased mutation after UV exposure and regulation by LexA. Here we report the identification of a potential self-regulated SOS mutagenesis gene cassette in the Streptococcaceae family. Exposure to UV light was found

  12. Keys: Career Exploration. Cassettes and Films, Career Guidance and the Kuder Interest Inventories, and Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Jack; Grinager, Marilyn

    This set of 17 related items, intended for Grades 6-9, consists of 10 filmstrips, 5 cassettes, and a manual. The first filmstrip explains the Kuder E. interest profile and gives an overview of the filmstrip series, and the remaining filmstrips are divided along the 10 Kuder E. General Interest Survey categories. However, the filmstrips and…

  13. ATimer-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassette for Detecting Molecular Markers in Oral Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changchun; Qiu, Xianbo; Ongagna, Serge; Chen, Dafeng; Chen, Zongyuan; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L.A.M.; Bau, Haim H.

    2009-01-01

    An inexpensive, hand-held, point-of-care, disposable, self-contained, immunoassay cassette comprised of air pouches for pumping, a metering chamber, reagents storage chambers, a mixer, and a lateral flow strip was designed, constructed, and tested. The assay was carried out in a consecutive flow format. The detection was facilitated with up-converting, phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The automated, timely pumping of the various reagents was driven by a spring-loaded timer. The utility of the cassette was demonstrated by detecting antibodies to HIV in saliva samples and further evaluated with a non-contagious, haptenized DNA assay. The cassette has several advantages over dip sticks such as sample preprocessing, integrated storage of reagents, and automated operation that reduces operator errors and training. The cassette and actuator described herein can readily be extended to detect biomarkers of other diseases in body fluids and other fluids at the point of care. The system is particularly suitable for resource poor countries, where funds and trained personnel are in short supply. PMID:19255658

  14. A novel thin NIPAM gel cassette dosimeter for photon-beam radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ling Hsieh

    Full Text Available The response of thin polymer gel cassettes (called NIPAM gels to ionizing radiation was investigated in this study. The NIPAM gels were prepared from gelatin, N-isopropyl acrylamide, tetrakis (hydroxymethyl phosphoniumchloride, and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide. Gel cassettes were irradiated in a phantom using a linear accelerator, and the polymerization morphology of irradiated NIPAM gel was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The dose-response sensitivity of the NIPAM gels was evaluated using the differences in optical densities. The optical densities were obtained using a computer-controlled CCD camera that was connected to a planar illumination source for acquisition of optical transmission images. The central axis depth dose profiles of the phantom were extracted, and a comparison with ionization chamber measurements demonstrated similarities in profiles. The sensitivity, linearity of the response, accuracy, and reproducibility of the polymer gel cassettes were acceptable. However, the profiles of the half-blocked field irradiation showed no significant dispersion in the visible region. This study also extensively investigated the spatial stability of the NIPAM gel. The results showed that the gel cassette response remains stable for up to three months after irradiation.

  15. Kinetic analysis of PCNA clamp binding and release in the clamp loading reaction catalyzed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication factor C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzahn, Melissa R; Hayner, Jaclyn N; Meyer, Jennifer A; Bloom, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    DNA polymerases require a sliding clamp to achieve processive DNA synthesis. The toroidal clamps are loaded onto DNA by clamp loaders, members of the AAA+family of ATPases. These enzymes utilize the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to perform a variety of cellular functions. In this study, a clamp loader-clamp binding assay was developed to measure the rates of ATP-dependent clamp binding and ATP-hydrolysis-dependent clamp release for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae clamp loader (RFC) and clamp (PCNA). Pre-steady-state kinetics of PCNA binding showed that although ATP binding to RFC increases affinity for PCNA, ATP binding rates and ATP-dependent conformational changes in RFC are fast relative to PCNA binding rates. Interestingly, RFC binds PCNA faster than the Escherichia coli γ complex clamp loader binds the β-clamp. In the process of loading clamps on DNA, RFC maintains contact with PCNA while PCNA closes, as the observed rate of PCNA closing is faster than the rate of PCNA release, precluding the possibility of an open clamp dissociating from DNA. Rates of clamp closing and release are not dependent on the rate of the DNA binding step and are also slower than reported rates of ATP hydrolysis, showing that these rates reflect unique intramolecular reaction steps in the clamp loading pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically

  17. Highly Divergent Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Complexes in Tetrahymena thermophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nina, Praveen Balabaskaran; Dudkina, Natalya V.; Kane, Lesley A.; van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Mather, Michael W.; Vaidya, Akhil B.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    The F-type ATP synthase complex is a rotary nano-motor driven by proton motive force to synthesize ATP. Its F(1) sector catalyzes ATP synthesis, whereas the F(o) sector conducts the protons and provides a stator for the rotary action of the complex. Components of both F(1) and F(o) sectors are

  18. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena; Yegutkin, G.G.; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, ou...

  19. Limitations of ATP as a measure of microbial biomass | Stuart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimates of the total living biomass of micro-organisms on decomposing kelp detritus, calculated indirectly from the concentration of ATP, were compared with those obtained directly from cell numbers and volumes. Large overestimates in biomass were obtained from ATP x 250, and C:ATP ratios varied considerably with ...

  20. ATP Maintenance via Two Types of ATP Regulators Mitigates Pathological Phenotypes in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nakano

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease is assumed to be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction in the affected dopaminergic neurons in the brain. We have recently created small chemicals, KUSs (Kyoto University Substances, which can reduce cellular ATP consumption. By contrast, agonistic ligands of ERRs (estrogen receptor-related receptors are expected to raise cellular ATP levels via enhancing ATP production. Here, we show that esculetin functions as an ERR agonist, and its addition to culture media enhances glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, leading to elevated cellular ATP levels. Subsequently, we show the neuroprotective efficacies of KUSs, esculetin, and GSK4716 (an ERRγ agonist against cell death in Parkinson's disease models. In the surviving neurons, ATP levels and expression levels of α-synuclein and CHOP (an ER stress-mediated cell death executor were all rectified. We propose that maintenance of ATP levels, by inhibiting ATP consumption or enhancing ATP production, or both, would be a promising therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease.

  1. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Cellular Slime Mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanely, Julia C.; Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary A.; Freeman, John; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. To expand the use of flight verified hardware for various model organisms, we performed ground experiments to determine whether ARC EMCS Seed Cassettes could be adapted for use with cellular slime mold for future space flight experiments. Dictyostelium is a cellular slime mold that can exist both as a single-celled independent organism and as a part of a multicellular colony which functions as a unit (pseudoplasmodium). Under certain stress conditions, individual amoebae will aggregate to form multicellular structures. Developmental pathways are very similar to those found in Eukaryotic organisms, making this a uniquely interesting organism for use in genetic studies. Dictyostelium has been used as a genetic model organism for prior space flight experiments. Due to the formation of spores that are resistant to unfavorable conditions such as desiccation, Dictyostelium is also a good candidate for use in the EMCS Seed Cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membranes contains dried growth medium. The goals of this study were to (1) verify that Dictyostelium are capable of normal growth and development on PES membranes, (2) develop a method for dehydration of Dictyostelium spores with successful recovery and development after rehydration, and (3) successful mock rehydration experiments in cassettes. Our results show normal developmental progression in two strains of Dictyostelium discoideum on PES membranes with a bacterial food source. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration of spores with developmental progression from aggregation to slug formation, and production of morphologically normal spores within 9 days of rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum could potentially be performed in the flight verified hardware of

  2. H+/ATP ratio during ATP hydrolysis by mitochondria: modification of the chemiosmotic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1977-01-01

    The stoichiometry of H+ ejection by mitochondria during hydrolysis of a small pulse of ATP (the H+/ATP ratio) has been reexamined in the light of our recent observation that the stoichiometry of H+ ejection during mitochondrial electron transport (the H+/site ratio) was previously underestimated. We show that earlier estimates of the H+/ATP ratio in intact mitochondria were based upon an invalid correction for scaler H+ production and describe a modified method for determination of this ratio which utilizes mersalyl or N-ethylmaleimide to prevent complicating transmembrane movements of phosphate and H+. This method gives a value for the H+/ATP ratio of 2.0 without the need for questionable corrections, compared with a value of 3.0 for the H+/site ratio also obtained by pulse methods. A modified version of the chemiosmotic theory is presented, in which 3 H+ are ejected per pair of electrons traversing each energy-conserving site of the respiratory chain. Of these, 2 H+ return to the matrix through the ATPase to form ATP from ADP and phosphate, and 1 H+ returns through the combined action of the phosphate and adenine nucleotide exchange carriers of the inner membrane to allow the energy-requiring influx of Pi and ADP3- and efflux of ATP4-. Thus, up to one-third of the energy input into synthesis of extramitochondrial ATP may be required for transport work. Since other methods suggest that the H+/site significantly exceeds 3.0, an alternative possibility is that 4 h+ are ejected per site, followed by return of 3 H+ through the ATPase and 1 H+ through the operation of the proton-coupled membrane transport systems. PMID:17116

  3. Benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazine-dione (R)-BPO-27 Inhibits CFTR Chloride Channel Gating by Competition with ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonjung; Anderson, Marc O; Park, Jinhong; Lee, Min Goo; Namkung, Wan; Verkman, A S

    2015-10-01

    We previously reported that benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazinedione BPO-27 [6-(5-bromofuran-2-yl)-7,9-dimethyl-8,10-dioxo-11-phenyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[b]pyrimido [4',5':3,4]pyrrolo [1,2-d][1,4]oxazine-2-carboxylic acid] inhibits the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel with low nanomolar potency and reduces cystogenesis in a model of polycystic kidney disease. We used computational chemistry and patch-clamp to show that enantiomerically pure (R)-BPO-27 inhibits CFTR by competition with ATP, whereas (S)-BPO-27 is inactive. Docking computations using a homology model of CFTR structure suggested that (R)-BPO-27 binds near the canonical ATP binding site, and these findings were supported by molecular dynamics simulations showing a lower binding energy for the (R) versus (S) stereoisomers. Three additional lower-potency BPO-27 analogs were modeled in a similar fashion, with the binding energies predicted in the correct order. Whole-cell patch-clamp studies showed linear CFTR currents with a voltage-independent (R)-BPO-27 block mechanism. Single-channel recordings in inside-out patches showed reduced CFTR channel open probability and increased channel closed time by (R)-BPO-27 without altered unitary channel conductance. At a concentration of (R)-BPO-27 that inhibited CFTR chloride current by ∼50%, the EC50 for ATP activation of CFTR increased from 0.27 to 1.77 mM but was not changed by CFTRinh-172 [4-[[4-oxo-2-thioxo-3-[3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-thiazolidinylidene]methyl]benzoic acid], a thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor that acts at a site distinct from the ATP binding site. Our results suggest that (R)-BPO-27 inhibition of CFTR involves competition with ATP. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Direct interactions of adaptor protein complexes 1 and 2 with the copper transporter ATP7A mediate its anterograde and retrograde trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ling; Kaler, Stephen G

    2015-05-01

    ATP7A is a P-type ATPase in which diverse mutations lead to X-linked recessive Menkes disease or occipital horn syndrome. Recently, two previously unknown ATP7A missense mutations, T994I and P1386S, were shown to cause an isolated distal motor neuropathy without clinical or biochemical features of other ATP7A disorders. These mutant alleles cause subtle defects in ATP7A intracellular trafficking, resulting in preferential plasma membrane localization compared with wild-type ATP7A. We reported previously that ATP7A(P1386S) causes unstable insertion of the eighth and final transmembrane segment, preventing proper position of the carboxyl-terminal tail in a proportion of mutant molecules. Here, we utilize this and other naturally occurring and engineered mutant ATP7A alleles to identify mechanisms of normal ATP7A trafficking. We show that adaptor protein (AP) complexes 1 and 2 physically interact with ATP7A and that binding is mediated in part by a carboxyl-terminal di-leucine motif. In contrast to other ATP7A missense mutations, ATP7A(P1386S) partially disturbs interactions with both APs, leading to abnormal axonal localization in transfected NSC-34 motor neurons and altered calcium-signaling following glutamate stimulation. Our results imply that AP-1 normally tethers ATP7A at the trans-Golgi network in the somatodendritic segments of motor neurons and that alterations affecting the ATP7A carboxyl-terminal tail induce release of the copper transporter to the axons or axonal membranes. The latter effects are intensified by diminished interaction with AP-2, impeding ATP7A retrograde trafficking. Taken together, these findings further illuminate the normal molecular mechanisms of ATP7A trafficking and suggest a pathophysiological basis for ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP Is a Candidate Signaling Molecule in the Mitochondria-to-Nucleus Retrograde Response Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchang Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular communication from the mitochondria to the nucleus is achieved via the retrograde response. In budding yeast, the retrograde response, also known as the RTG pathway, is regulated positively by Rtg1, Rtg2, Rtg3 and Grr1 and negatively by Mks1, Lst8 and two 14-3-3 proteins, Bmh1/2. Activation of retrograde signaling leads to activation of Rtg1/3, two basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors. Rtg1/3 activation requires Rtg2, a cytoplasmic protein with an N-terminal adenosine triphosphate (ATP binding domain belonging to the actin/Hsp70/sugar kinase superfamily. The critical regulatory step of the retrograde response is the interaction between Rtg2 and Mks1. Rtg2 binds to and inactivates Mks1, allowing for activation of Rtg1/3 and the RTG pathway. When the pathway is inactive, Mks1 has dissociated from Rtg2 and bound to Bmh1/2, preventing activation of Rtg1/3. What signals association or disassociation of Mks1 and Rtg2 is unknown. Here, we show that ATP at physiological concentrations dissociates Mks1 from Rtg2 in a highly cooperative fashion. We report that ATP-mediated dissociation of Mks1 from Rtg2 is conserved in two other fungal species, K. lactis and K. waltii. Activation of Rtg1/3 upregulates expression of genes encoding enzymes catalyzing the first three reactions of the Krebs cycle, which is coupled to ATP synthesis through oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, we propose that the retrograde response is an ATP homeostasis pathway coupling ATP production with ATP-mediated repression of the retrograde response by releasing Mks1 from Rtg2.

  6. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a possible indicator of extraterrestrial biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The ubiquity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in terrestrial organisms provides the basis for proposing the assay of this vital metabolic intermediate for detecting extraterrestrial biological activity. If an organic carbon chemistry is present on the planets, the occurrence of ATP is possible either from biosynthetic or purely chemical reactions. However, ATP's relative complexity minimizes the probability of abiogenic synthesis. A sensitive technique for the quantitative detection of ATP was developed using the firefly bioluminescent reaction. The procedure was used successfully for the determination of the ATP content of soil and bacteria. This technique is also being investigated from the standpoint of its application in clinical medicine.

  7. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {beta} deletion increases mitochondrial function and protects mice from LXR-induced hepatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Shaikh M., E-mail: rmizanoor@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Choudhury, Mahua; Janssen, Rachel C.; Baquero, Karalee C. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Miyazaki, Makoto [Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Friedman, Jacob E. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LXR agonist activation increases liver TG accumulation by increasing lipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mouse prevents LXR activation-mediated induction of hepatic lipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta} deletion increases mitochondrial transport chain function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Beneficial effects of LXR activation on liver cholesterol metabolism did not change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta} inhibition might have important therapeutic potential. -- Abstract: Drugs designed specifically to activate liver X receptors (LXRs) have beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol metabolism and inflammation but unfortunately lead to severe hepatic steatosis. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP{beta}) is an important regulator of liver gene expression but little is known about its involvement in LXR-based steatosis and cholesterol metabolism. The present study investigated the role of C/EBP{beta} expression in LXR agonist (T0901317)-mediated alteration of hepatic triglyceride (TG) and lipogenesis in mice. C/EBP{beta} deletion in mice prevented LXR agonist-mediated induction of lipogenic gene expression in liver in conjunction with significant reduction of liver TG accumulation. Surprisingly, C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mice showed a major increase in liver mitochondrial electron chain function compared to WT mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mice increased the expression of liver ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1, a gene implicated in cholesterol efflux and reducing blood levels of total and LDL-cholesterol. Together, these findings establish a central role for C/EBP{beta} in the LXR-mediated steatosis and mitochondrial function, without impairing the influence of LXR activation on lowering LDL and increasing HDL-cholesterol. Inactivation of C/EBP{beta} might therefore be an important therapeutic strategy to prevent LXR

  8. Sublingual immunization with the phosphate-binding-protein (PstS) reduces oral colonization by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, E L; Batista, M T; Cavalcante, R C M; Pegos, V R; Passos, H M; Silva, D A; Balan, A; Ferreira, L C S; Ferreira, R C C

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a crucial role in the physiology and pathogenicity of different bacterial species. Components of ABC transporters have also been tested as target antigens for the development of vaccines against different bacterial species, such as those belonging to the Streptococcus genus. Streptococcus mutans is the etiological agent of dental caries, and previous studies have demonstrated that deletion of the gene encoding PstS, the substrate-binding component of the phosphate uptake system (Pst), reduced the adherence of the bacteria to abiotic surfaces. In the current study, we generated a recombinant form of the S. mutans PstS protein (rPstS) with preserved structural features, and we evaluated the induction of antibody responses in mice after sublingual mucosal immunization with a formulation containing the recombinant protein and an adjuvant derived from the heat-labile toxin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains. Mice immunized with rPstS exhibited systemic and secreted antibody responses, measured by the number of immunoglobulin A-secreting cells in draining lymph nodes. Serum antibodies raised in mice immunized with rPstS interfered with the adhesion of bacteria to the oral cavity of naive mice challenged with S. mutans. Similarly, mice actively immunized with rPstS were partially protected from oral colonization after challenge with the S. mutans NG8 strain. Therefore, our results indicate that S. mutans PstS is a potential target antigen capable of inducing specific and protective antibody responses after sublingual administration. Overall, these observations raise interesting perspectives for the development of vaccines to prevent dental caries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Heteronuclear multidimensional NMR and homology modelling studies of the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of the human mitochondrial ABC transporter ABCB6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashima-Ito, Kaori [RIKEN, Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory (Japan); Ikeya, Teppei [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), (Japan); Senbongi, Hiroshi [Mitochondrial Diseases Group, MRC Dunn Human NutritionUnit (United Kingdom); Tochio, Hidehito [International Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Supramolecular Biology, Yokohama City University, Molecular Biophysics Laboratory (Japan); Mikawa, Tsutomu [RIKEN, Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory (Japan); Shibata, Takehiko [RIKEN, Shibata Distinguished Senior Scientist Laboratory (Japan); Ito, Yutaka [RIKEN, Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory (Japan)], E-mail: ito-yutaka@center.tmu.ac.jp

    2006-05-15

    Human ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 6 (ABCB6) is a mitochondrial ABC transporter, and presumably contributes to iron homeostasis. Aimed at understanding the structural basis for the conformational changes accompanying the substrate-transportation cycle, we have studied the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of ABCB6 (ABCB6-C) in both the nucleotide-free and ADP-bound states by heteronuclear multidimensional NMR and homology modelling. A non-linear sampling scheme was utilised for indirectly acquired {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N dimensions of all 3D triple-resonance NMR experiments, in order to overcome the instability and the low solubility of ABCB6-C. The backbone resonances for approximately 25% of non-proline residues, which are mostly distributed around the functionally important loops and in the Helical domain, were not observed for nucleotide-free form of ABCB6-C. From the pH, temperature and magnetic field strength dependencies of the resonance intensities, we concluded that this incompleteness in the assignments is mainly due to the exchange between multiple conformations at an intermediate rate on the NMR timescale. These localised conformational dynamics remained in ADP-bound ABCB6-C except for the loops responsible for adenine base and {alpha}/{beta}-phosphate binding. These results revealed that the localised dynamic cooperativity, which was recently proposed for a prokaryotic ABC MJ1267, also exists in a higher eukaryotic ABC, and is presumably shared by all members of the ABC family. Since the Helical domain is the putative interface to the transmembrane domain, this cooperativity may explain the coupled functions between domains in the substrate-transportation cycle.

  10. Discovery and biochemical characterization of selective ATP competitive inhibitors of the human mitotic kinesin KSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Keith W; Schaber, Michael; Torrent, Maricel; Neilson, Lou Anne; Tasber, Edward S; Garbaccio, Robert; Coleman, Paul J; Harvey, Diane; Zhang, Yun; Yang, Yi; Marshall, Gary; Lee, Ling; Walsh, Eileen S; Hamilton, Kelly; Buser, Carolyn A

    2008-01-15

    The kinesin spindle protein (KSP, also known as Eg5) is essential for the proper separation of spindle poles during mitosis, and inhibition results in mitotic arrest and the formation of characteristic monoaster spindles. Several distinct classes of KSP inhibitors have been described previously in the public and patent literature. However, most appear to share a common induced-fit allosteric binding site, suggesting a common mechanism of inhibition. In a high-throughput screen for inhibitors of KSP, a novel class of thiazole-containing inhibitors was identified. Unlike the previously described allosteric KSP inhibitors, the thiazoles described here show ATP competitive kinetic behavior, consistent with binding within the nucleotide binding pocket. Although they bind to a pocket that is highly conserved across kinesins, these molecules exhibit significant selectivity for KSP over other kinesins and other ATP-utilizing enzymes. Several of these compounds are active in cells and produce a phenotype similar to that observed with previously published allosteric inhibitors of KSP.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of porcine Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase isoforms α1, α2, α3 and the ATP1A3 promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Henriksen

    Full Text Available Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase maintains electrochemical gradients of Na⁺ and K⁺ essential for a variety of cellular functions including neuronal activity. The α-subunit of the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase exists in four different isoforms (α1-α4 encoded by different genes. With a view to future use of pig as an animal model in studies of human diseases caused by Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase mutations, we have determined the porcine coding sequences of the α1-α3 genes, ATP1A1, ATP1A2, and ATP1A3, their chromosomal localization, and expression patterns. Our ATP1A1 sequence accords with the sequences from several species at five positions where the amino acid residue of the previously published porcine ATP1A1 sequence differs. These corrections include replacement of glutamine 841 with arginine. Analysis of the functional consequences of substitution of the arginine revealed its importance for Na⁺ binding, which can be explained by interaction of the arginine with the C-terminus, stabilizing one of the Na⁺ sites. Quantitative real-time PCR expression analyses of porcine ATP1A1, ATP1A2, and ATP1A3 mRNA showed that all three transcripts are expressed in the embryonic brain as early as 60 days of gestation. Expression of α3 is confined to neuronal tissue. Generally, the expression patterns of ATP1A1, ATP1A2, and ATP1A3 transcripts were found similar to their human counterparts, except for lack of α3 expression in porcine heart. These expression patterns were confirmed at the protein level. We also report the sequence of the porcine ATP1A3 promoter, which was found to be closely homologous to its human counterpart. The function and specificity of the porcine ATP1A3 promoter was analyzed in transgenic zebrafish, demonstrating that it is active and drives expression in embryonic brain and spinal cord. The results of the present study provide a sound basis for employing the ATP1A3 promoter in attempts to generate transgenic porcine models of neurological diseases caused by

  12. Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhagen, Jason Alan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca2+ imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca2+ signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K+ and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol

  13. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  14. Rare codons effect on expression of recombinant gene cassette in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghil Esmaeili-Bandboni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the sensitivity of expression of fusion genes to existence of a large number of rare codons in recombinant gene sequenced. Methods: Primers for amplification of cholera toxin B, Shiga toxin B and gfp genes were designed by Primer3 software and synthesized. All of these 3 genes were cloned. Then the genes were fused together by restriction sites and enzymatic method. Two linkers were used as a flexible bridge in connection of these genes. Results: Cloning and fusion of cholera toxin B, Shiga toxin B and gfp genes were done correctly. After that, expression of the recombinant gene construction was surveyed. Conclusions: According to what was seen, because of the accumulation of 12 rare codons of Shiga toxin B and 19 rare codons of cholera toxin B in this gene cassette, the expression of the recombinant gene cassette, in Escherichia coli BL21, failed.

  15. The Possible Role of Nonbilayer Structures in Regulating ATP Synthase Activity in Mitochondrial Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanov, S E; Kim, A A; Dagda, R K

    2016-07-01

    The effects of temperature and of the membrane-active protein CTII on the formation of nonbilayer structures in mitochondrial membranes were studied by (31)P-NMR. Increasing the temperature of isolated mitochondrial fractions correlated with an increase in ATP synthase activity and the formation of nonbilayer packed phospholipids with immobilized molecular mobility. Computer modeling was employed for analyzing the interaction of mitochondrial membrane phospholipids with the molecular surface of CTII, which behaves like a dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-binding protein (DCCD-BP) of the F0 group in a lipid phase. Overall, our studies suggest that proton permeability toroidal pores formed in mitochondrial membranes consist of immobilized nonbilayer-packed phospholipids formed via interactions with DCCD-BP. Our studies support the existence of a proton transport along a concentration gradient mediated via transit toroidal permeability pores which induce conformational changes necessary for mediating the catalytic activity of ATP synthase in the subunits of the F0-F1 complex.

  16. The DNA gyrase-quinolone complex. ATP hydrolysis and the mechanism of DNA cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Maxwell, A

    1998-01-01

    Quinolone binding to the gyrase-DNA complex induces a conformational change that results in the blocking of supercoiling. Under these conditions gyrase is still capable of ATP hydrolysis which now proceeds through an alternative pathway involving two different conformations of the enzyme (Kampranis......, S. C., and Maxwell, A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 22606-22614). The kinetics of ATP hydrolysis via this pathway have been studied and found to differ from those of the reaction of the drug-free enzyme. The quinolone-characteristic ATPase rate is DNA-dependent and can be induced in the presence...... of DNA fragments as small as 20 base pairs. By observing the conversion of the ATPase rate to the quinolone characteristic rate, the formation and dissociation of the gyrase-DNA-quinolone complex can be monitored. Comparison of the time dependence of the conversion of the gyrase ATPase with that of DNA...

  17. Concept design of DEMO divertor cassette remote handling: Simply supported beam approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozzillo, Rocco [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Di Gironimo, Giuseppei, E-mail: peppe.digironimo@gmail.com [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Mäkinen, Harri [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Miccichè, Gioacchino [ENEA – CR Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Määttä, Timo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • The present work focused on a new approach to the design of DEMO Divertor Cassette Remote Handling Equipment. • The work provides an alternative approach to the design based on the concept of a simply supported beam. • The approach proposed focuses a Divertor Cassette mover that performs the maintenance of the three cassettes at each port. • First rough dimensioning of the main components has been provided and demonstrating the feasibility of the design solutions. • The main idea of the work consisted on a design capable to use knowledge already adopted in industrial contexts. - Abstract: The present work focused on the development of a new approach to the concept design of DEMO Divertor Cassette (DC) Remote Handling Equipment (RHE). The approach is based on three main assumptions: the DC remote handling activities and the equipment shall be simplified as much as possible; technologies well known and consolidated in the industrial context can be adopted also in the nuclear fusion field; the design of the RHE should be based on a simply supported beam approach instead of cantilever approach. In detail, during the maintenance activities the barycentre of the DC is centred with respect to DC supports. This solution could simplify the design of RHE with a consequent reduction of the design and development costs. Moreover also the DC remote handling tasks shall be simplified in order to better manage the DC maintenance processes. For this reason the DC assembly and disassembly process has been simplified dividing the main sequences in basic movements. For each movement a dedicated tool has been conceived.

  18. A novel multi-purpose cassette for repeated integrative epitope tagging of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Antoni, A; Gallwitz, D

    2000-04-04

    Gene tagging can be achieved by homologous recombination in yeast. The kan(r) marker gene plays an important role in PCR-mediated gene disruption and PCR-mediated epitope tagging experiments. In this paper, new modules containing a tag-loxP-kanMX-loxP cassette are described that allow tagging of different genes by using the kan(r) marker repeatedly.

  19. Energy transfer cassettes based on organic fluorophores: construction and applications in ratiometric sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiangli; Hu, Mingming; Zhan, Peng; Peng, Xiaojun

    2013-01-07

    This tutorial review presents some recent developments in the construction and applications of cassettes based on resonance energy transfer between fluorescent dyes in the visible and infrared region. We focused on the contributions of different connections between the energy donor and acceptor according to the "through-space" and "through-bond" methods, and emphasised their applications in ratiometric sensing for the detection of ions and small molecules.

  20. Conservation of gene cassettes among diverse viruses of the human gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Minot

    Full Text Available Viruses are a crucial component of the human microbiome, but large population sizes, high sequence diversity, and high frequencies of novel genes have hindered genomic analysis by high-throughput sequencing. Here we investigate approaches to metagenomic assembly to probe genome structure in a sample of 5.6 Gb of gut viral DNA sequence from six individuals. Tests showed that a new pipeline based on DeBruijn graph assembly yielded longer contigs that were able to recruit more reads than the equivalent non-optimized, single-pass approach. To characterize gene content, the database of viral RefSeq proteins was compared to the assembled viral contigs, generating a bipartite graph with functional cassettes linking together viral contigs, which revealed a high degree of connectivity between diverse genomes involving multiple genes of the same functional class. In a second step, open reading frames were grouped by their co-occurrence on contigs in a database-independent manner, revealing conserved cassettes of co-oriented ORFs. These methods reveal that free-living bacteriophages, while usually dissimilar at the nucleotide level, often have significant similarity at the level of encoded amino acid motifs, gene order, and gene orientation. These findings thus connect contemporary metagenomic analysis with classical studies of bacteriophage genomic cassettes. Software is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/optitdba/.

  1. Optimized invertase expression and secretion cassette for improving Yarrowia lipolytica growth on sucrose for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Zbigniew; Rossignol, Tristan; Verbeke, Jonathan; Crutz-Le Coq, Anne-Marie; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Robak, Małgorzata

    2013-11-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica requires the expression of a heterologous invertase to grow on a sucrose-based substrate. This work reports the construction of an optimized invertase expression cassette composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Suc2p secretion signal sequence followed by the SUC2 sequence and under the control of the strong Y. lipolytica pTEF promoter. This new construction allows a fast and optimal cleavage of sucrose into glucose and fructose and allows cells to reach the maximum growth rate. Contrary to pre-existing constructions, the expression of SUC2 is not sensitive to medium composition in this context. The strain JMY2593, expressing this new cassette with an optimized secretion signal sequence and a strong promoter, produces 4,519 U/l of extracellular invertase in bioreactor experiments compared to 597 U/l in a strain expressing the former invertase construction. The expression of this cassette strongly improved production of invertase and is suitable for simultaneously high production level of citric acid from sucrose-based media.

  2. The 1.25 Å resolution structure of phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javid-Majd, Farah; Yang, Dong [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2128 (United States); Ioerger, Thomas R. [Department of Computer Science, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2128 (United States); Sacchettini, James C., E-mail: sacchett@tamu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2128 (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The crystal structure of M. tuberculosis phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase, the second enzyme in the histidine-biosynthetic pathway, is presented. The structural and inferred functional relationships between M. tuberculosis phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase and other members of the nucleoside-triphosphate pyrophosphatase-fold family are described. Phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase is the second enzyme in the histidine-biosynthetic pathway, irreversibly hydrolyzing phosphoribosyl-ATP to phosphoribosyl-AMP and pyrophosphate. It is encoded by the hisE gene, which is present as a separate gene in many bacteria and archaea but is fused to hisI in other bacteria, fungi and plants. Because of its essentiality for growth in vitro, HisE is a potential drug target for tuberculosis. The crystal structures of two native (uncomplexed) forms of HisE from Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been determined to resolutions of 1.25 and 1.79 Å. The structure of the apoenzyme reveals that the protein is composed of five α-helices with connecting loops and is a member of the α-helical nucleoside-triphosphate pyrophosphatase superfamily. The biological unit of the protein is a homodimer, with an active site on each subunit composed of residues exclusively from that subunit. A comparison with the Campylobacter jejuni dUTPase active site allowed the identification of putative metal- and substrate-binding sites in HisE, including four conserved glutamate and glutamine residues in the sequence that are consistent with a motif for pyrophosphohydrolase activity. However, significant differences between family members are observed in the loop region between α-helices H1 and H3. The crystal structure of M. tuberculosis HisE provides insights into possible mechanisms of substrate binding and the diversity of the nucleoside-triphosphate pyrophosphatase superfamily.

  3. Extending the Glucosyl Ceramide Cassette Approach: Application in the Total Synthesis of Ganglioside GalNAc-GM1b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miku Konishi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a novel cyclic glucosyl ceramide cassette acceptor for efficient glycolipid syntheses was investigated. p-Methoxybenzyl (PMB groups were selected as protecting groups at C2 and C3 of the glucose residue with the aim of improving the functionality of the cassette acceptor. The choice of the PMB group resulted in a loss of β-selectivity, which was corrected by using an appropriate tether to control the spatial arrangement and the nitrile solvent effect. To investigate the effect of linker structure on the β-selectivity of intramolecular glycosylation, several linkers for tethering the glucose and ceramide moiety were designed and prepared, namely, succinyl, glutaryl, dimethylmalonyl, and phthaloyl esters. The succinyl ester linker was the best for accessing the cassette form. The newly designed glucosyl ceramide cassette acceptor was then applied in the total synthesis of ganglioside GalNAc-GM1b.

  4. Synergistic modulation of KCNQ1/KCNE1 K(+) channels (IKs) by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and [ATP]i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, Marie-Cécile; Vladimirova, Dilyana

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels (IKs) are dependent on the concentration of membrane phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and on cytosolic ATP by two distinct mechanisms. In this study we measured IKs and FRET between PH-PLCδ-based fluorescent PIP2 sensors in a stable KCNQ1/KCNE1 CHO cell line. Effects of activating either a muscarinic M3 receptor or the switchable phosphatase Ci-VSP on IKs were analyzed. Recovery of IKs from inhibition induced by muscarinic stimulation was incomplete despite full PIP2 resynthesis. Recovery of IKs was completely suppressed under ATP-free conditions, but partially restored by the ATP analog AMP-PCP, providing evidence that depletion of intracellular ATP inhibits IKs independent of PIP2-depletion. Simultaneous patch-clamp and FRET measurements in cells co-expressing Ci-VSP and the PIP2-FRET sensor revealed a component of IKs inhibition directly related to dynamic PIP2-depletion. A second component of inhibition was independent of acute changes in PIP2 and could be mimicked by ATP-free pipette solution, suggesting that it results from intracellular ATP-depletion. The reduction of intracellular ATP upon Ci-VSP activation appears to be independent of its activity as a phosphoinositide phosphatase. Our data demonstrate that ATP-depletion slowed IKs activation but had no short-term effect on PIP2 regeneration, suggesting that impaired PIP2-resynthesis cannot account for the rapid IKs inhibition by ATP-depletion. Furthermore, the second component of IKs inhibition by Ci-VSP was reduced by AMP-PCP in the pipette filling solution, indicating that direct binding of ATP to the KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex is required for voltage activation of IKs. We suggest that fluctuations of the cellular metabolic state regulate IKs in parallel with Gq-coupled PLC activation and PIP2-depletion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jerome P; Sammons, Deborah L; Robertson, Shirley A; Snawder, John E

    2015-01-01

    Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton-tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0-10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0-25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point.

  6. Adenovirus DNA binding protein: helix destabilising properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, A; Webster, A; Hay, R T

    1994-01-01

    Adenovirus DNA binding protein is a multifunctional protein essential for viral DNA replication. To investigate the role of the DNA binding protein in this process its interaction with partial DNA duplexes was examined. Duplex regions of DNA, created when a short DNA strand is annealed to its complementary sequence present in the single stranded form of M13 phage DNA, were efficiently unwound by DNA binding protein in a reaction that required neither ATP nor MgCl2. The unwinding activity of D...

  7. Understanding structure, function, and mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multimeric enzyme complex with an overall molecular weight of about 600,000 Da. The ATP synthase is a molecular motor composed of two separable parts: F1 and Fo. The F1 portion contains the catalytic sites for ATP synthesis and protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Fo forms a proton turbine that is embedded in the inner membrane and connected to the rotor of F1. The flux of protons flowing down a potential gradient powers the rotation of the rotor driving the synthesis of ATP. Thus, the flow of protons though Fo is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. This review will discuss the structure/function relationship in the ATP synthase as determined by biochemical, crystallographic, and genetic studies. An emphasis will be placed on linking the structure/function relationship with understanding how disease causing mutations or putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes encoding the subunits of the ATP synthase, will affect the function of the enzyme and the health of the individual. The review will start by summarizing the current understanding of the subunit composition of the enzyme and the role of the subunits followed by a discussion on known mutations and their effect on the activity of the ATP synthase. The review will conclude with a summary of mutations in genes encoding subunits of the ATP synthase that are known to be responsible for human disease, and a brief discussion on SNPs.

  8. MRT letter: Expression of ATP sensor protein in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Jun-ichi; Fujikawa, Makoto; Imamura, Hiromi; Yasuda, Kayo; Noji, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Naoaki; Mitani, Shohei; Yokoyama, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy currency and is involved in many biological processes. The ATP-monitoring system for cells in animals can be helpful to study the relationship between energy metabolism and biological processes. The fluorescent ATP biosensor ATeam (ATP indicator based on Epsilon subunit for Analytical Measurements), which has been reported to monitor ATP levels in cultured cells on the basis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), was introduced into nematodes by microinjection and UV-irradiation method. To confirm whether ATeam functions as an ATP sensor in nematode cells, the authors measured FRET of ATeam in cells of transgenic nematode. The ATeam was expressed in target cells in nematode. In vulva cells, ATP levels in the cytosol were higher than those in mitochondria. ATeam also sensed ATP level change in cultured cells from the transgenic nematode. These experiments indicated that ATeam is available for detection of changes in ATP levels in nematode cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Severe MgADP inhibition of Bacillus subtilis F1-ATPase is not due to the absence of nucleotide binding to the noncatalytic nucleotide binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Ishikawa

    Full Text Available F1-ATPase from Bacillus subtilis (BF1 is severely suppressed by the MgADP inhibition. Here, we have tested if this is due to the loss of nucleotide binding to the noncatalytic site that is required for the activation. Measurements with a tryptophan mutant of BF1 indicated that the noncatalytic sites could bind ATP normally. Furthermore, the mutant BF1 that cannot bind ATP to the noncatalytic sites showed much lower ATPase activity. It was concluded that the cause of strong MgADP inhibition of BF1 is not the weak nucleotide binding to the noncatalytic sites but the other steps required for the activation.

  10. The two-hit hypothesis for neuroinflammation: role of exogenous ATP in modulating inflammation in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L. Fiebich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain inflammation is a common occurrence following responses to varied insults such as bacterial infections, stroke, traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders. A common mediator for these varied inflammatory responses is prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, produced by the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenases (COX 1 and 2. Previous attempts to reduce neuronal inflammation through COX inhibition, by use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, have met with limited success. We are proposing the two-hit model for neuronal injury – an initial localized inflammation mediated by PGE2 (first hit and the simultaneous release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP by injured cells (second hit, which significantly enhances the inflammatory response through increased synthesis of PGE2. Several evidences on the role of exogenous ATP in inflammation have been reported, including contrary instances where extracellular ATP reduces inflammatory events. In this review, we will examine the current literature on the role of P2 receptors, to which ATP binds, in modulating inflammatory reactions during neurodegeneration. Targeting the P2 receptors, therefore, provides a therapeutic alternative to reduce inflammation in the brain. P2 receptor-based anti-inflammatory drugs (PBAIDs will retain the activities of essential COX enzymes, yet will significantly reduce neuroinflammation by decreasing the enhanced production of PGE2 by extracellular ATP.

  11. Interactions of Phosphate Groups of ATP and Aspartyl Phosphate with the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase: An FTIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Krasteva, Maria; Barth, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Phosphate binding to the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase was studied by time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with ATP and isotopically labeled ATP ([β-18O2, βγ-18O]ATP and [γ-18O3]ATP). Isotopic substitution identified several bands that can be assigned to phosphate groups of bound ATP: bands at 1260, 1207, 1145, 1110, and 1085 cm−1 are affected by labeling of the β-phosphate, bands likely near 1154, and 1098–1089 cm−1 are affected by γ-phosphate labeling. The findings indicate that the strength of interactions of β- and γ- phosphate with the protein are similar to those in aqueous solution. Two bands, at 1175 and 1113 cm−1, were identified for the phosphate group of the ADP-sensitive phosphoenzyme Ca2E1P. They indicate terminal and bridging P-O bond strengths that are intermediate between those of ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme E2P and the model compound acetyl phosphate in water. The bridging bond of Ca2E1P is weaker than for acetyl phosphate, which will facilitate phosphate transfer to ADP, but is stronger than for E2P, which will make the Ca2E1P phosphate less susceptible to attack by water. PMID:16169973

  12. A new type of Na(+-driven ATP synthase membrane rotor with a two-carboxylate ion-coupling motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Schulz

    Full Text Available The anaerobic bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum uses glutamate decarboxylation to generate a transmembrane gradient of Na⁺. Here, we demonstrate that this ion-motive force is directly coupled to ATP synthesis, via an F₁F₀-ATP synthase with a novel Na⁺ recognition motif, shared by other human pathogens. Molecular modeling and free-energy simulations of the rotary element of the enzyme, the c-ring, indicate Na⁺ specificity in physiological settings. Consistently, activity measurements showed Na⁺ stimulation of the enzyme, either membrane-embedded or isolated, and ATP synthesis was sensitive to the Na⁺ ionophore monensin. Furthermore, Na⁺ has a protective effect against inhibitors targeting the ion-binding sites, both in the complete ATP synthase and the isolated c-ring. Definitive evidence of Na⁺ coupling is provided by two identical crystal structures of the c₁₁ ring, solved by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 and 2.6 Å resolution, at pH 5.3 and 8.7, respectively. Na⁺ ions occupy all binding sites, each coordinated by four amino acids and a water molecule. Intriguingly, two carboxylates instead of one mediate ion binding. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that this motif implies that a proton is concurrently bound to all sites, although Na⁺ alone drives the rotary mechanism. The structure thus reveals a new mode of ion coupling in ATP synthases and provides a basis for drug-design efforts against this opportunistic pathogen.

  13. Model study of ATP and ADP buffering, transport of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), and regulation of ion pumps in ventricular myocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailova, A.; McCulloch, A.

    2001-01-01

    We extended the model of the ventricular myocyte by Winslow et al. (Circ. Res 1999, 84:571-586) by incorporating equations for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) buffering and transport by ATP and ADP and equations for MgATP regulation of ion transporters (Na(+)-K(+) pump, sarcolemmal and sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) pumps). The results indicate that, under normal conditions, Ca(2+) binding by low-affinity ATP and diffusion of CaATP may affect the amplitude and time course of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. The model also suggests that a fall in ATP/ADP ratio significantly reduces sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) content, increases diastolic Ca(2+), lowers systolic Ca(2+), increases Ca(2+) influx through L-type channels, and decreases the efficiency of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in extruding Ca(2+) during periodic voltage-clamp stimulation. The analysis suggests that the most important reason for these changes during metabolic inhibition is the down-regulation of the sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase pump by reduced diastolic MgATP levels. High Ca(2+) concentrations developed near the membrane might have a greater influence on Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP concentrations than that of the lower Ca(2+) concentrations in the bulk myoplasm. The model predictions are in general agreement with experimental observations measured under normal and pathological conditions.

  14. ATP and MO25α Regulate the Conformational State of the STRADα Pseudokinase and Activation of the LKB1 Tumour Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeqiraj, Elton; Filippi, Beatrice Maria; Goldie, Simon; Navratilova, Iva; Boudeau, Jérôme; Deak, Maria; Alessi, Dario R.; van Aalten, Daan M. F.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudokinases lack essential residues for kinase activity, yet are emerging as important regulators of signal transduction networks. The pseudokinase STRAD activates the LKB1 tumour suppressor by forming a heterotrimeric complex with LKB1 and the scaffolding protein MO25. Here, we describe the structure of STRADα in complex with MO25α. The structure reveals an intricate web of interactions between STRADα and MO25α involving the αC-helix of STRADα, reminiscent of the mechanism by which CDK2 interacts with cyclin A. Surprisingly, STRADα binds ATP and displays a closed conformation and an ordered activation loop, typical of active protein kinases. Inactivity is accounted for by nonconservative substitution of almost all essential catalytic residues. We demonstrate that binding of ATP enhances the affinity of STRADα for MO25α, and conversely, binding of MO25α promotes interaction of STRADα with ATP. Mutagenesis studies reveal that association of STRADα with either ATP or MO25α is essential for LKB1 activation. We conclude that ATP and MO25α cooperate to maintain STRADα in an “active” closed conformation required for LKB1 activation. It has recently been demonstrated that a mutation in human STRADα that truncates a C-terminal region of the pseudokinase domain leads to the polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, symptomatic epilepsy (PMSE) syndrome. We demonstrate this mutation destabilizes STRADα and prevents association with LKB1. In summary, our findings describe one of the first structures of a genuinely inactive pseudokinase. The ability of STRADα to activate LKB1 is dependent on a closed “active” conformation, aided by ATP and MO25α binding. Thus, the function of STRADα is mediated through an active kinase conformation rather than kinase activity. It is possible that other pseudokinases exert their function through nucleotide binding and active conformations. PMID:19513107

  15. ATP and MO25alpha regulate the conformational state of the STRADalpha pseudokinase and activation of the LKB1 tumour suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeqiraj, Elton; Filippi, Beatrice Maria; Goldie, Simon; Navratilova, Iva; Boudeau, Jérôme; Deak, Maria; Alessi, Dario R; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2009-06-09

    Pseudokinases lack essential residues for kinase activity, yet are emerging as important regulators of signal transduction networks. The pseudokinase STRAD activates the LKB1 tumour suppressor by forming a heterotrimeric complex with LKB1 and the scaffolding protein MO25. Here, we describe the structure of STRADalpha in complex with MO25alpha. The structure reveals an intricate web of interactions between STRADalpha and MO25alpha involving the alphaC-helix of STRADalpha, reminiscent of the mechanism by which CDK2 interacts with cyclin A. Surprisingly, STRADalpha binds ATP and displays a closed conformation and an ordered activation loop, typical of active protein kinases. Inactivity is accounted for by nonconservative substitution of almost all essential catalytic residues. We demonstrate that binding of ATP enhances the affinity of STRADalpha for MO25alpha, and conversely, binding of MO25alpha promotes interaction of STRADalpha with ATP. Mutagenesis studies reveal that association of STRADalpha with either ATP or MO25alpha is essential for LKB1 activation. We conclude that ATP and MO25alpha cooperate to maintain STRADalpha in an "active" closed conformation required for LKB1 activation. It has recently been demonstrated that a mutation in human STRADalpha that truncates a C-terminal region of the pseudokinase domain leads to the polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, symptomatic epilepsy (PMSE) syndrome. We demonstrate this mutation destabilizes STRADalpha and prevents association with LKB1. In summary, our findings describe one of the first structures of a genuinely inactive pseudokinase. The ability of STRADalpha to activate LKB1 is dependent on a closed "active" conformation, aided by ATP and MO25alpha binding. Thus, the function of STRADalpha is mediated through an active kinase conformation rather than kinase activity. It is possible that other pseudokinases exert their function through nucleotide binding and active conformations.

  16. ATP and MO25alpha regulate the conformational state of the STRADalpha pseudokinase and activation of the LKB1 tumour suppressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Zeqiraj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudokinases lack essential residues for kinase activity, yet are emerging as important regulators of signal transduction networks. The pseudokinase STRAD activates the LKB1 tumour suppressor by forming a heterotrimeric complex with LKB1 and the scaffolding protein MO25. Here, we describe the structure of STRADalpha in complex with MO25alpha. The structure reveals an intricate web of interactions between STRADalpha and MO25alpha involving the alphaC-helix of STRADalpha, reminiscent of the mechanism by which CDK2 interacts with cyclin A. Surprisingly, STRADalpha binds ATP and displays a closed conformation and an ordered activation loop, typical of active protein kinases. Inactivity is accounted for by nonconservative substitution of almost all essential catalytic residues. We demonstrate that binding of ATP enhances the affinity of STRADalpha for MO25alpha, and conversely, binding of MO25alpha promotes interaction of STRADalpha with ATP. Mutagenesis studies reveal that association of STRADalpha with either ATP or MO25alpha is essential for LKB1 activation. We conclude that ATP and MO25alpha cooperate to maintain STRADalpha in an "active" closed conformation required for LKB1 activation. It has recently been demonstrated that a mutation in human STRADalpha that truncates a C-terminal region of the pseudokinase domain leads to the polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, symptomatic epilepsy (PMSE syndrome. We demonstrate this mutation destabilizes STRADalpha and prevents association with LKB1. In summary, our findings describe one of the first structures of a genuinely inactive pseudokinase. The ability of STRADalpha to activate LKB1 is dependent on a closed "active" conformation, aided by ATP and MO25alpha binding. Thus, the function of STRADalpha is mediated through an active kinase conformation rather than kinase activity. It is possible that other pseudokinases exert their function through nucleotide binding and active conformations.

  17. Modelling the ATP production in mitochondria

    CERN Document Server

    Saa, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We revisit here the mathematical model for ATP production in mitochondria introduced recently by Bertram, Pedersen, Luciani, and Sherman (BPLS) as a simplification of the more complete but intricate Magnus and Keizer's model. We correct some inaccuracies in the BPLS original approximations and then analyze some of the dynamical properties of the model. We infer from exhaustive numerical explorations that the enhanced BPLS equations have a unique attractor fixed point for physiologically acceptable ranges of mitochondrial variables and respiration inputs. We determine, in the stationary regime, the dependence of the mitochondrial variables on the respiration inputs, namely the cytosolic concentration of calcium ${\\rm Ca}_{\\rm c}$ and the substrate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate FBP. The same effect of calcium saturation reported for the original BPLS model is observed here. We find out, however, an interesting non-stationary effect: the inertia of the model tends to increase considerably for high concentrations of ...

  18. Discovery of ATP-Competitive Inhibitors of tRNAIle Lysidine Synthetase (TilS) by High-Throughput Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam B; Plant, Helen; Walsh, Jarrod; Sylvester, Mark; Hu, Jun; Gao, Ning; Livchak, Stephania; Tentarelli, Sharon; Thresher, Jason

    2014-09-01

    A novel, ultrahigh-throughput, fluorescence anisotropy-based assay was developed and used to screen a 1.4-million-sample library for compounds that compete with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for binding to Escherichia coli tRNA(Ile) lysidine synthetase (TilS), an essential, conserved, ATP-dependent, tRNA-modifying enzyme of bacterial pathogens. TilS modifies a cytidine base in the anticodon loop of Ile2 tRNA by attaching lysine, thereby altering codon recognition of the CAU anticodon from AUG (methionine) to AUA (isoleucine). A scintillation proximity assay for the incorporation of lysine into Ile2 tRNA was used to eliminate false positives in the initial screen resulting from detection artifacts as well as compounds competitive with the fluorescent label instead of ATP, and to measure inhibitor potencies against E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa TilS isozymes. The tRNA(Ile) substrate for P. aeruginosa TilS was identified for the first time to enable these measurements. ATP-competitive binding of inhibitors was confirmed by one-dimensional ligand-observe nuclear magnetic resonance. A preliminary structure-activity relationship is shown for two inhibitor series. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  19. Interference of ATP with the fluorescent probes YOYO-1 andYOYO-3 modifies the mechanical properties of intercalator-stained DNA confined in nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Maedeh; Azad, Zubair; Lim, Shuang Fang; Wang, Hong; Riehn, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Intercalating fluorescent probes are widely used to visualize DNA in studies on DNA-protein interactions. Some require the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). We have investigated the mechanical properties of DNA stained with the fluorescent intercalating dyes YOYO-1 and YOYO-3 as a function of ATP concentrations (up to 2 mM) by stretching single molecules in nanofluidic channels with a channel cross-section as small as roughly 100×100 nm2. The presence of ATP reduces the length of the DNA by up to 11 %. On the other hand, negligible effects are found if DNA is visualized with the minor groove-binding probe 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The apparent drop in extension under nanoconfinement is attributed to an interaction of the dye and ATP, and the resulting expulsion of YOYO-1 from the double helix.

  20. Dynamic assembly of MinD on phospholipid vesicles regulated by ATP and MinE

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zonglin; Gogol, Edward P.; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Selection of the division site in Escherichia coli is regulated by the min system and requires the rapid oscillation of MinD between the two halves of the cell under the control of MinE. In this study we have further investigated the molecular basis for this oscillation by examining the interaction of MinD with phospholipid vesicles. We found that MinD bound to phospholipid vesicles in the presence of ATP and, upon binding, assembled into a well-ordered helical array that deformed the vesicle...

  1. A minimum structured adenine nucleotide for ADP/ATP transport in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlimme, E; Boos, K S; Renz, H

    1988-10-01

    An ADP analogue, i.e. 3H- or 14C-labeled 5'-diphosphate of 6-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl-methyl)-4-pyrimidinamine, was synthesized, the structure of which was deduced from structure-activity studies on the substrate specificity of the nucleotide-binding center of the inner mitochondrial membrane integrated ADP/ATP carrier protein. Bearing only the minimal but substrate-essential recognition structures, minimum structured ADP (msADP) is bound to the cytosol-facing active center and transported by the highly specific carrier system across the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  2. Ectopic expression of the ATP synthase β subunit on the membrane of PC-3M cells supports its potential role in prostate cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yulin; Li, Gaiyun; Zhou, Zilong; Chang, Xiaona; Xia, Yang; Dong, Xinjie; Liu, Zhijing; Ren, Bo; Liu, Wei; Li, Yilei

    2017-04-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is associated with high mortality rates. Identification of metastasis-related proteins may facilitate the development of novel therapies for the treatment of metastatic disease. In the present study, we aimed to identify prostate cancer metastasis-associated membrane proteins. We developed a phage-displayed 7-mer peptide library to screen the target peptides that were specifically bound to PC-3M cells with subtractive panning from normal prostate cells and PC-3 prostate cancer cells. A novel short peptide (B04) was found to have high affinity to highly metastatic PC-3M cells. ATP synthase β subunit (ATP5B) was then identified as a binding partner of B04 on the PC-3M cell surface. ATP5B was expressed on the PC-3M cell membrane and on highly malignant human prostate cancer specimens, as shown using multiple methodologies. Furthermore, ATP5B-positive gold particles were detected on the cellular and mitochondrial membranes by immunoelectromicroscopy. These results implied the possibility that ATP5B may translocate from the inner mitochondrial membrane to the outer surface of PC-3M cells. Additional analysis showed that incubation of B04 with PC-3M cells reduced the detection of ATP5B by western blotting and flow cytometry and significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of PC-3M cells. In conclusion, ATP5B, as a binding partner of a metastasis-related short peptide (B04) on prostate cancer cells, is involved in promoting prostate cancer metastasis. In conclusion, ATP5B may be a promising biomarker and therapeutic target for highly metastatic malignancies.

  3. Binding mechanism and dynamic conformational change of C subunit of PKA with different pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wen-Ting; Chu, Xiakun; Wang, Jin

    2017-09-19

    The catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc) exhibits three major conformational states (open, intermediate, and closed) during the biocatalysis process. Both ATP and substrate/inhibitor can effectively induce the conformational changes of PKAc from open to closed states. Aiming to explore the mechanism of this allosteric regulation, we developed a coarse-grained model and analyzed the dynamics of conformational changes of PKAc during binding by performing molecular dynamics simulations for apo PKAc, binary PKAc (PKAc with ATP, PKAc with PKI), and ternary PKAc (PKAc with ATP and PKI). Our results suggest a mixed binding mechanism of induced fit and conformational selection, with the induced fit dominant. The ligands can drive the movements of Gly-rich loop as well as some regions distal to the active site in PKAc and stabilize them at complex state. In addition, there are two parallel pathways (pathway with PKAc-ATP as an intermediate and pathway PKAc-PKI as an intermediate) during the transition from open to closed states. By molecular dynamics simulations and rate constant analyses, we find that the pathway through PKAc-ATP intermediate is the main binding route from open to closed state because of the fact that the bound PKI will hamper ATP from successful binding and significantly increase the barrier for the second binding subprocess. These findings will provide fundamental insights of the mechanisms of PKAc conformational change upon binding.

  4. Exon duplications in the ATP7A gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mie; Skjørringe, Tina; Kodama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Menkes disease (MD) is an X-linked, fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper metabolism, caused by mutations in the ATP7A gene. Thirty-three Menkes patients in whom no mutation had been detected with standard diagnostic tools were screened for exon duplications in the ATP7A gene. ME...

  5. K ATP channels in pig and human intracranial arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Sørensen, Mette Aaskov; Strøbech, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Clinical trials suggest that synthetic ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel openers may cause headache and migraine by dilating cerebral and meningeal arteries. We studied the mRNA expression profile of K(ATP) channel subunits in the pig and human middle meningeal artery (MMA) and in the pig middle...... cerebral artery (MCA). We determined the order of potency of four K(ATP) channel openers when applied to isolated pig MMA and MCA, and we examined the potential inhibitory effects of the Kir6.1 subunit specific K(ATP) channel blocker PNU-37883A on K(ATP) channel opener-induced relaxation of the isolated...... pig MMA and MCA. Using conventional RT-PCR, we detected the mRNA transcripts of the K(ATP) channel subunits Kir6.1 and SUR2B in all the examined pig and human intracranial arteries. Application of K(ATP) channel openers to isolated pig MMA and MCA in myographs caused a concentration...

  6. ATP release and purinergic signaling in NLRP3 inflammasome activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eCOUILLIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The NLRP3 inflammasome is a protein complex involved in IL-1β and IL-18 processing that senses pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns. One step- or two step- models have been proposed to explain the tight regulation of IL-1β production during inflammation. Moreover, cellular stimulation triggers ATP release and subsequent activation of purinergic receptors at the cell surface. Importantly some studies have reported roles for extracellular ATP (eATP, in NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to PAMPs and DAMPs. In this mini review, we will discuss the link between active ATP release, purinergic signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We will focus on the role of autocrine or paracrine ATP export in particle-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and discuss how particle activators are competent to induce maturation and secretion of IL-1β through a process that involves, as a first event, extracellular release of endogenous ATP through hemichannel opening, and as a second event, signaling through purinergic receptors that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Finally, we will review the evidence for ATP as a key proinflammatory mediator released by dying cells. In particular we will discuss how cancer cells dying via autophagy trigger ATP-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the macrophages engulfing them, eliciting an immunogenic response against tumors.

  7. Cellular ATP release in the lung and airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Ito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP is a universal energy source synthesized by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cytosolic glycolysis and transported by the vesicular nucleotide transporter for storage in secretory vesicles. Extracellular ATP regulates physiological functions and homeostasis of the respiratory system and is associated with pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Thus, modulation of ATP and purinergic signaling may be a novel therapeutic approach to pulmonary disease. ATP is released from alveolar epithelial cells, airway epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells in response to various chemical and mechanical stimuli. In addition to conductive pathways such as connexins and pannexins, vesicular exocytosis is involved in the mechanisms of ATP release from the cells. Imaging approaches enable us to visualize ATP release from not only cultured cells but also lung tissue ex vivo. Extracellular vesicles, exosomes and membrane-derived microvesicles, containing cytoplasmic proteins, mRNA and microRNA, represent important mediators of cell-to-cell communication and the intercellular microenvironment. However, it is not known whether extracellular vesicles contain ATP as an intercellular messenger. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms of cellular ATP release and purinergic signaling in the respiratory system.

  8. Renal epithelial cells can release ATP by vesicular fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi G Bjaelde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal epithelial cells have the ability to release nucleotides as paracrine factors. In the intercalated cells of the collecting duct, ATP is released by connexin30 (cx30, which is selectively expressed in this cell type. However, ATP is released by virtually all renal epithelia and the aim of the present study was to identify possible alternative nucleotide release pathways in a renal epithelial cell model. We used MDCK (type1 cells to screen for various potential ATP release pathways. In these cells, inhibition of the vesicular H+-ATPases (bafilomycin reduced both the spontaneous and hypotonically (80%-induced nucleotide release. Interference with vesicular fusion using N-ethylamide markedly reduced the spontaneous nucleotide release, as did interference with trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A1 and vesicular transport (nocodazole. These findings were substantiated using a siRNA directed against SNAP-23, which significantly reduced spontaneous ATP release. Inhibition of pannexin and connexins did not affect the spontaneous ATP release in this cell type, which consists of ∼90% principal cells. TIRF-microscopy of either fluorescently-labeled ATP (MANT-ATP or quinacrine-loaded vesicles, revealed that spontaneous release of single vesicles could be promoted by either hypoosmolality (50% or ionomycin. This vesicular release decreased the overall cellular fluorescence by 5.8% and 7.6% respectively. In summary, this study supports the notion that spontaneous and induced ATP release can occur via exocytosis in renal epithelial cells.

  9. Natural transformation facilitates transfer of transposons, integrons and gene cassettes between bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Sara; Harms, Klaus; Fricke, W Florian; Johnsen, Pål J; da Silva, Gabriela J; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated to what extent natural transformation acting on free DNA substrates can facilitate transfer of mobile elements including transposons, integrons and/or gene cassettes between bacterial species. Naturally transformable cells of Acinetobacter baylyi were exposed to DNA from integron-carrying strains of the genera Acinetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, and Salmonella to determine the nature and frequency of transfer. Exposure to the various DNA sources resulted in acquisition of antibiotic resistance traits as well as entire integrons and transposons, over a 24 h exposure period. DNA incorporation was not solely dependent on integrase functions or the genetic relatedness between species. DNA sequence analyses revealed that several mechanisms facilitated stable integration in the recipient genome depending on the nature of the donor DNA; homologous or heterologous recombination and various types of transposition (Tn21-like and IS26-like). Both donor strains and transformed isolates were extensively characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, integron- and cassette-specific PCRs, DNA sequencing, pulsed field gel electrophoreses (PFGE), Southern blot hybridizations, and by re-transformation assays. Two transformant strains were also genome-sequenced. Our data demonstrate that natural transformation facilitates interspecies transfer of genetic elements, suggesting that the transient presence of DNA in the cytoplasm may be sufficient for genomic integration to occur. Our study provides a plausible explanation for why sequence-conserved transposons, IS elements and integrons can be found disseminated among bacterial species. Moreover, natural transformation of integron harboring populations of competent bacteria revealed that interspecies exchange of gene cassettes can be highly efficient, and independent on genetic relatedness between donor and recipient. In conclusion, natural transformation provides a much

  10. Natural transformation facilitates transfer of transposons, integrons and gene cassettes between bacterial species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Domingues

    Full Text Available We have investigated to what extent natural transformation acting on free DNA substrates can facilitate transfer of mobile elements including transposons, integrons and/or gene cassettes between bacterial species. Naturally transformable cells of Acinetobacter baylyi were exposed to DNA from integron-carrying strains of the genera Acinetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, and Salmonella to determine the nature and frequency of transfer. Exposure to the various DNA sources resulted in acquisition of antibiotic resistance traits as well as entire integrons and transposons, over a 24 h exposure period. DNA incorporation was not solely dependent on integrase functions or the genetic relatedness between species. DNA sequence analyses revealed that several mechanisms facilitated stable integration in the recipient genome depending on the nature of the donor DNA; homologous or heterologous recombination and various types of transposition (Tn21-like and IS26-like. Both donor strains and transformed isolates were extensively characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, integron- and cassette-specific PCRs, DNA sequencing, pulsed field gel electrophoreses (PFGE, Southern blot hybridizations, and by re-transformation assays. Two transformant strains were also genome-sequenced. Our data demonstrate that natural transformation facilitates interspecies transfer of genetic elements, suggesting that the transient presence of DNA in the cytoplasm may be sufficient for genomic integration to occur. Our study provides a plausible explanation for why sequence-conserved transposons, IS elements and integrons can be found disseminated among bacterial species. Moreover, natural transformation of integron harboring populations of competent bacteria revealed that interspecies exchange of gene cassettes can be highly efficient, and independent on genetic relatedness between donor and recipient. In conclusion, natural transformation

  11. Hygromycin B and apramycin antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cameron

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni genetic manipulation is restricted by the limited number of antibiotic resistance cassettes available for use in this diarrheal pathogen. In this study, two antibiotic resistance cassettes were developed, encoding for hygromycin B and apramycin resistance, for use in mutagenesis or for selection of gene expression and complementation constructs in C. jejuni. First, the marker genes were successfully modified to allow for insertional mutagenesis or deletion of a gene-of-interest, and were bracketed with restriction sites for the facilitation of site-specific cloning. These hygromycin B and apramycin markers are encoded by plasmids pAC1H and pAC1A, respectively. We also modified an insertional gene-delivery vector to create pRRH and pRRA, containing the hygromycin B and apramycin resistance genes, and 3 unique restriction sites for the directional introduction of genes into the conserved multi-copy rRNA gene clusters of the C. jejuni chromosome. We determined the effective antibiotic concentrations required for selection, and established that no harmful effects or fitness costs were associated with carrying hygromycin B or apramycin resistance under standard C. jejuni laboratory conditions. Using these markers, the arylsulfatase reporter gene astA was deleted, and the ability to genetically complement the astA deletion using pRRH and pRRA for astA gene insertion was demonstrated. Furthermore, the relative levels of expression from the endogenous astA promoter were compared to that of polycistronic mRNA expression from the constitutive promoter upstream of the resistance gene. The development of additional antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in Campylobacter will enable multiple gene deletion and expression combinations as well as more in-depth study of multi-gene systems important for the survival and pathogenesis of this important bacterium.

  12. The role of F1 ATP synthase beta subunit in WSSV infection in the shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the virus-host cell interaction could inform us of the molecular pathways exploited by the virus. Studies on viral attachment proteins (VAPs and candidate receptor proteins involved in WSSV infection, allow a better understanding of how these proteins interact in the viral life cycle. In this study, our aim was to find some host cellular membrane proteins that could bind with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Results Two proteins were evident by using a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA with WSSV. A protein with molecular weight 53 kDa, named BP53, was analyzed in this study, which was homologous with the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit by mass spectrometry analysis. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE PCR was performed to identify the full-length cDNA of the bp53 gene. The resulting full-length gene consisted of 1836 bp, encoding 525 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55.98 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence contained three conserved domains of the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit. BP53 was therefore designated the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit of L. vannamei. The binding of WSSV to BP53 were also confirmed by competitive ELISA binding assay and co-immunoprecipitation on magnetic beads. To investigate the function of BP53 in WSSV infection, it was mixed with WSSV before the mixture was injected intramuscularly into shrimp. The resulting mortality curves showed that recombinant (r BP53 could attenuate WSSV infection. Conclusions The results revealed that BP53 is involved in WSSV infection. Here is the first time showed the role of shrimp F1-ATP synthase beta subunit in WSSV infection.

  13. The role of F1 ATP synthase beta subunit in WSSV infection in the shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Yang, Bing; Huang, Jie

    2010-06-30

    Knowledge of the virus-host cell interaction could inform us of the molecular pathways exploited by the virus. Studies on viral attachment proteins (VAPs) and candidate receptor proteins involved in WSSV infection, allow a better understanding of how these proteins interact in the viral life cycle. In this study, our aim was to find some host cellular membrane proteins that could bind with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Two proteins were evident by using a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) with WSSV. A protein with molecular weight 53 kDa, named BP53, was analyzed in this study, which was homologous with the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit by mass spectrometry analysis. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR was performed to identify the full-length cDNA of the bp53 gene. The resulting full-length gene consisted of 1836 bp, encoding 525 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55.98 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence contained three conserved domains of the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit. BP53 was therefore designated the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit of L. vannamei. The binding of WSSV to BP53 were also confirmed by competitive ELISA binding assay and co-immunoprecipitation on magnetic beads. To investigate the function of BP53 in WSSV infection, it was mixed with WSSV before the mixture was injected intramuscularly into shrimp. The resulting mortality curves showed that recombinant (r) BP53 could attenuate WSSV infection. The results revealed that BP53 is involved in WSSV infection. Here is the first time showed the role of shrimp F1-ATP synthase beta subunit in WSSV infection.

  14. In vitro FRAP reveals the ATP-dependent nuclear mobilization of the exon junction complex protein SRm160

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Stefan; Chiosea, Simion; Ivshina, Maria; Nickerson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a new in vitro system for characterizing the binding and mobility of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)–labeled nuclear proteins by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in digitonin-permeabilized cells. This assay reveals that SRm160, a splicing coactivator and component of the exon junction complex (EJC) involved in RNA export, has an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–dependent mobility. Endogenous SRm160, lacking the EGFP moiety, could also be released from sites at splic...

  15. Cassette dosing for pharmacokinetic screening in drug discovery: comparison of clearance, volume of distribution, half-life, mean residence time, and oral bioavailability obtained by cassette and discrete dosing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagilla, Rakesh; Nord, Melanie; McAtee, Jeff J; Jolivette, Larry J

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare selected pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters obtained by cassette and discrete dosing of compounds in rats. The concordance of PK properties obtained by the two dosing strategies was evaluated for 116 compounds representing various therapeutic programs and diverse chemical structures. The correspondence between cassette- and discrete-dosing-derived PK properties was examined semiquantitatively and qualitatively. For semiquantitative comparison, compounds with cassette-to-discrete PK parameter ratios between 0.5 and 2 (inclusive) were considered to be in agreement. For qualitative comparison, compounds were divided into three categories (low, moderate, and high) based on the value of the PK parameter; compounds that fell into the same category following cassette and discrete dosing were considered to be in agreement. Of the 116 compounds evaluated, 89%, 91%, 80%, and 91% of the compounds were semiquantitatively equivalent for the intravenous PK parameters of clearance (CL), volume of distribution (Vdss), terminal elimination plasma half-life (HL), and mean residence time (MRT), respectively, whereas 79%, 80%, 79%, and 72% were qualitatively similar for CL, Vdss, MRT, and terminal elimination plasma HL, respectively. Following oral administration, bioavailability concordance was 72% when assessed qualitatively and 78% when determined semiquantitatively. Results from these analyses indicate that a cassette dosing strategy is a viable approach to screen compounds for PK properties within a drug discovery setting. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Dexamethasone Enhances ATP-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    The purinergic nucleotide ATP is released from stressed cells and is implicated in vascular inflammation. Glucocorticoids are essential to stress responses and are used therapeutically, yet little information is available that describes the effects of glucocorticoids on ATP-induced inflammation. In a human microvascular endothelial cell line, extracellular ATP-induced interleukin (IL)-6 secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. When cells were pretreated with dexamethasone, a prototypic glucocorticoid, ATP-induced IL-6 production was enhanced in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, blocked these effects. ATP-induced IL-6 release was significantly inhibited by a phospholipase C inhibitor [1-[6-[((17β)-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5[10]-trien-17-yl)amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122)] (63.2 ± 3%, p dexamethasone induced mRNA expression of the purinergic P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) 1.8- ± 0.1-fold and, when stimulated with ATP, enhanced Ca2+ release and augmented IL-6 mRNA expression. Silencing of the P2Y2R by its small interfering RNA decreased ATP-induced IL-6 production by 81 ± 1% (p Dexamethasone enhanced the transcription rate of P2Y2R mRNA and induced a dose-related increase in the activity of the P2Y2R promoter. Furthermore, dexamethasone-enhanced ATP induction of adhesion molecule transcription and augmented the release of IL-8. Dexamethasone leads to an unanticipated enhancement of endothelial inflammatory mediator production by extracellular ATP via a P2Y2R-dependent mechanism. These data define a novel positive feedback loop of glucocorticoids and ATP-induced endothelial inflammation. PMID:20826566

  17. Expression of ATP7B in normal human liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Fanni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ATP7B is a copper transporting P-type ATPase, also known as Wilson disease protein, which plays a key role in copper distribution inside cells. Recent experimental data in cell culture have shown that ATP7B putatively serves a dual function in hepatocytes: when localized to the Golgi apparatus, it has a biosynthetic role, delivering copper atoms to apoceruloplasmin; when the hepatocytes are under copper stress, ATP7B translocates to the biliary pole to transport excess copper out of the cell and into the bile canaliculus for subsequent excretion from the body via the bile. The above data on ATP7B localization have been mainly obtained in tumor cell systems in vitro. The aim of the present work was to assess the presence and localization of the Wilson disease protein in the human liver. We tested immunoreactivity for ATP7B in 10 human liver biopsies, in which no significant pathological lesion was found using a polyclonal antiserum specific for ATP7B. In the normal liver, immunoreactivity for ATP7B was observed in hepatocytes and in biliary cells. In the hepatocytes, immunoreactivity for ATP7B was observed close to the plasma membrane, both at the sinusoidal and at the biliary pole. In the biliary cells, ATP7B was localized close to the cell membrane, mainly concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. The data suggest that, in human liver, ATP7B is localized to the plasma membrane of both hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells.

  18. Expression of heterologous genes from an IRES translational cassette in replication competent murine leukemia virus vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Duch, Mogens R.; Carrasco, M L

    1999-01-01

    We describe replication competent retroviruses capable of expressing heterologous genes during multiple rounds of infection. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) from encephalomyocarditis virus was inserted in the U3 region of Akv- and SL3-3-murine leukemia viruses (MLV) to direct translation...... of neo or the enhanced green fluorescence protein gene (EGFP). Akv-MLV's with IRES-neo and IRES-EGFP cassettes replicated with titers of about 10(6) infectious units/ml while SL3-3-MLV with IRES-neo gave about 10(3)-fold lower titers. Interestingly, RNA analysis showed a drastic reduction in the amount...

  19. ATP Maintenance via Two Types of ATP Regulators Mitigates Pathological Phenotypes in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masaki; Imamura, Hiromi; Sasaoka, Norio; Yamamoto, Masamichi; Uemura, Norihito; Shudo, Toshiyuki; Fuchigami, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Kakizuka, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is assumed to be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction in the affected dopaminergic neurons in the brain. We have recently created small chemicals, KUSs (Kyoto University Substances), which can reduce cellular ATP consumption. By contrast, agonistic ligands of ERRs (estrogen receptor-related receptors) are expected to raise cellular ATP levels via enhancing ATP production. Here, we show that esculetin functions as an ERR agonist, and its addition to culture media enhances glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, leading to elevated cellular ATP levels. Subsequently, we show the neuroprotective efficacies of KUSs, esculetin, and GSK4716 (an ERRγ agonist) against cell death in Parkinson's disease models. In the surviving neurons, ATP levels and expression levels of α-synuclein and CHOP (an ER stress-mediated cell death executor) were all rectified. We propose that maintenance of ATP levels, by inhibiting ATP consumption or enhancing ATP production, or both, would be a promising therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A yeast two-hybrid system for the screening and characterization of small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions identifies a novel putative Mdm2-binding site in p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jin Huei; Alfatah, Mohammad; Sin, Mei Fang; Sim, Hong May; Verma, Chandra S; Lane, David P; Arumugam, Prakash

    2017-11-09

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are fundamental to the growth and survival of cells and serve as excellent targets to develop inhibitors of biological processes such as host-pathogen interactions and cancer cell proliferation. However, isolation of PPI inhibitors is extremely challenging. While several in vitro assays to screen for PPI inhibitors are available, they are often expensive, cumbersome, and require large amounts of purified protein. In contrast, limited in vivo assays are available to screen for small-molecule inhibitors of PPI. We have engineered a yeast strain that is suitable for screening of small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interaction using the Yeast 2-hybrid Assay. We have optimised and validated the assay using inhibitors of the p53-Mdm2 interaction and identified a hitherto unreported putative Mdm2-binding domain in p53. We report a significantly improved and thoroughly validated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay that can be used in a high throughput manner to screen for small-molecule PPI inhibitors. Using the p53-Mdm2 interaction to optimize the assay, we show that the p53-Mdm2 inhibitor nutlin-3 is a substrate for the yeast ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter Pdr5. By deleting nine ABC transporter-related genes, we generated a ABC9Δ yeast strain that is highly permeable to small molecules. In the ABC9Δ strain, p53-Mdm2 interaction inhibitors, like AMG232 and MI-773, completely inhibited the p53-Mdm2 interaction at nanomolar concentrations in the Y2H assay. In addition, we identified a conserved segment in the core DNA-binding domain of p53 that facilitates stable interaction with Mdm2 in yeast cells and in vitro. The Y2H assay can be utilized for high-throughput screening of small-molecule inhibitors of PPIs and to identify domains that stabilize PPIs.

  1. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5 kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like β propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the

  2. Differential expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 in adult rat dorsal root ganglion tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ip Virginia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1 are metal transporting proteins that control the cellular disposition of copper and platinum drugs, but their expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG tissue and their role in platinum-induced neurotoxicity are unknown. To investigate the DRG expression of ATP7A, ATP7B and CTR1, lumbar DRG and reference tissues were collected for real time quantitative PCR, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis from healthy control adult rats or from animals treated with intraperitoneal oxaliplatin (1.85 mg/kg or drug vehicle twice weekly for 8 weeks. Results In DRG tissue from healthy control animals, ATP7A mRNA was clearly detectable at levels similar to those found in the brain and spinal cord, and intense ATP7A immunoreactivity was localised to the cytoplasm of cell bodies of smaller DRG neurons without staining of satellite cells, nerve fibres or co-localisation with phosphorylated heavy neurofilament subunit (pNF-H. High levels of CTR1 mRNA were detected in all tissues from healthy control animals, and strong CTR1 immunoreactivity was associated with plasma membranes and vesicular cytoplasmic structures of the cell bodies of larger-sized DRG neurons without co-localization with ATP7A. DRG neurons with strong expression of ATP7A or CTR1 had distinct cell body size profiles with minimal overlap between them. Oxaliplatin treatment did not alter the size profile of strongly ATP7A-immunoreactive neurons but significantly reduced the size profile of strongly CTR1-immunoreactive neurons. ATP7B mRNA was barely detectable, and no specific immunoreactivity for ATP7B was found, in DRG tissue from healthy control animals. Conclusions In conclusion, adult rat DRG tissue exhibits a specific pattern of expression of copper transporters with distinct subsets of peripheral sensory neurons intensely expressing either ATP7A or CTR1, but not both or ATP7B. The neuron subtype-specific and largely non

  3. Catalytic inhibition of topoisomerase II by a novel rationally designed ATP-competitive purine analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chène, Patrick; Rudloff, Joëlle; Schoepfer, Joseph; Furet, Pascal; Meier, Peter; Qian, Zhiyan; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc; Schmitz, Rita; Radimerski, Thomas

    2009-01-07

    Topoisomerase II poisons are in clinical use as anti-cancer therapy for decades and work by stabilizing the enzyme-induced DNA breaks. In contrast, catalytic inhibitors block the enzyme before DNA scission. Although several catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase II have been described, preclinical concepts for exploiting their anti-proliferative activity based on molecular characteristics of the tumor cell have only recently started to emerge. Topoisomerase II is an ATPase and uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to orchestrate the movement of the DNA double strands along the enzyme. Thus, interfering with ATPase function with low molecular weight inhibitors that target the nucleotide binding pocket should profoundly affect cells that are committed to undergo mitosis. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of a novel purine diamine analogue as a potent ATP-competitive catalytic inhibitor of topoisomerase II. Quinoline aminopurine compound 1 (QAP 1) inhibited topoisomerase II ATPase activity and decatenation reaction at sub-micromolar concentrations, targeted both topoisomerase II alpha and beta in cell free assays and, using a quantitative cell-based assay and a chromosome segregation assay, displayed catalytic enzyme inhibition in cells. In agreement with recent hypothesis, we show that BRCA1 mutant breast cancer cells have increased sensitivity to QAP 1. The results obtained with QAP 1 demonstrate that potent and selective catalytic inhibition of human topoisomerase II function with an ATP-competitive inhibitor is feasible. Our data suggest that further drug discovery efforts on ATP-competitive catalytic inhibitors are warranted and that such drugs could potentially be developed as anti-cancer therapy for tumors that bear the appropriate combination of molecular alterations.

  4. Catalytic inhibition of topoisomerase II by a novel rationally designed ATP-competitive purine analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlaeppi Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topoisomerase II poisons are in clinical use as anti-cancer therapy for decades and work by stabilizing the enzyme-induced DNA breaks. In contrast, catalytic inhibitors block the enzyme before DNA scission. Although several catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase II have been described, preclinical concepts for exploiting their anti-proliferative activity based on molecular characteristics of the tumor cell have only recently started to emerge. Topoisomerase II is an ATPase and uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to orchestrate the movement of the DNA double strands along the enzyme. Thus, interfering with ATPase function with low molecular weight inhibitors that target the nucleotide binding pocket should profoundly affect cells that are committed to undergo mitosis. Results Here we describe the discovery and characterization of a novel purine diamine analogue as a potent ATP-competitive catalytic inhibitor of topoisomerase II. Quinoline aminopurine compound 1 (QAP 1 inhibited topoisomerase II ATPase activity and decatenation reaction at sub-micromolar concentrations, targeted both topoisomerase II alpha and beta in cell free assays and, using a quantitative cell-based assay and a chromosome segregation assay, displayed catalytic enzyme inhibition in cells. In agreement with recent hypothesis, we show that BRCA1 mutant breast cancer cells have increased sensitivity to QAP 1. Conclusion The results obtained with QAP 1 demonstrate that potent and selective catalytic inhibition of human topoisomerase II function with an ATP-competitive inhibitor is feasible. Our data suggest that further drug discovery efforts on ATP-competitive catalytic inhibitors are warranted and that such drugs could potentially be developed as anti-cancer therapy for tumors that bear the appropriate combination of molecular alterations.

  5. Ataxia Telangiectasia-Mutated (ATM) kinase activity is regulated by ATP-driven conformational changes in the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.-H. Lee (Ji-Hoon); M.R. Mand (Michael); R.A. Deshpande (Rajashree); E. Kinoshita (Eri); S.-H. Yang (Soo-Hyun); C. Wyman (Claire); T.T. Paull

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe Ataxia Telangiectasia-Mutated (ATM) protein kinase is recruited to sites of double-strand DNA breaks by the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex, which also facilitates ATM monomerization and activation. MRN exists in at least two distinct conformational states, dependent on ATP binding

  6. The second stalk composed of the b- and delta-subunits connects F0 to F1 via an alpha-subunit in the Escherichia coli ATP synthase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodgers, A J; Capaldi, R A

    1998-01-01

    The b- and delta-subunits of the Escherichia coli ATP synthase are critical for binding ECF1 to the F0 part, and appear to constitute the stator necessary for holding the alpha3beta3 hexamer as the c...

  7. A mechano-chemiosmotic model for the coupling of electron and proton transfer to ATP synthesis in energy-transforming membranes: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumov, Eldar A; Kasumov, Ruslan E; Kasumova, Irina V

    2015-01-01

    ATP is synthesized using ATP synthase by utilizing energy either from the oxidation of organic compounds, or from light, via redox reactions (oxidative- or photo phosphorylation), in energy-transforming membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacteria. ATP synthase undergoes several changes during its functioning. The generally accepted model for ATP synthesis is the well-known rotatory model (see e.g., Junge et al., Nature 459:364-370, 2009; Junge and Müller, Science 333:704-705, 2011). Here, we present an alternative modified model for the coupling of electron and proton transfer to ATP synthesis, which was initially developed by Albert Lester Lehninger (1917-1986). Details of the molecular mechanism of ATP synthesis are described here that involves cyclic low-amplitude shrinkage and swelling of mitochondria. A comparison of the well-known current model and the mechano-chemiosmotic model is also presented. Based on structural, and other data, we suggest that ATP synthase is a Ca(2+)/H(+)-K(+) Cl(-)-pump-pore-enzyme complex, in which γ-subunit rotates 360° in steps of 30°, and 90° due to the binding of phosphate ions to positively charged amino acid residues in the N-terminal γ-subunit, while in the electric field. The coiled coil b 2-subunits are suggested to act as ropes that are shortened by binding of phosphate ions to positively charged lysines or arginines; this process is suggested to pull the α 3 β 3-hexamer to the membrane during the energization process. ATP is then synthesized during the reverse rotation of the γ-subunit by destabilizing the phosphated N-terminal γ-subunit and b 2-subunits under the influence of Ca(2+) ions, which are pumped over from storage-intermembrane space into the matrix, during swelling of intermembrane space. In the process of ATP synthesis, energy is first, predominantly, used in the delivery of phosphate ions and protons to the α 3 β 3-hexamer against the energy barrier with the help of C-terminal alpha

  8. Impaired Insulin Secretion in Four Tangier Disease Patients with ABCA1 Mutations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koseki, Masahiro; Matsuyama, Akifumi; Nakatani, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Miwako; Nakaoka, Hajime; Kawase, Ryota; Yuasa-Kawase, Miyako; Tsubakio-Yamamoto, Kazumi; Masuda, Daisaku; C. Sandoval, Jose; Ohama, Tohru; Nakagawa-Toyama, Yumiko; Matsuura, Fumihiko; Nishida, Makoto; Ishigami, Masato; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Sakane, Naoki; Kumon, Yoshitaka; Suehiro, Tadashi; Nakamura, Tadashi; Shimomura, Iichiro; Yamashita, Shizuya

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Tangier disease (TD), caused by deficiency of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, is characterized by the absence of high density lipoprotein and the accumulation of cholesteryl esters in many tissues...

  9. Reference: 342 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lls and initiation of hyphae by B. g. hordei, suggesting that PEN3 contributes to defenses at the cell wall ...vate the salicylic acid pathway. Arabidopsis PEN3/PDR8, an ATP binding cassette transporter, contribute