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Sample records for atopic dermatitis-like immune

  1. Effect of German chamomile oil application on alleviating atopic dermatitis-like immune alterations in mice.

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    Lee, Soon-Hee; Heo, Yong; Kim, Young-Chul

    2010-03-01

    Historically, German chamomile (GC) oil has been used for treatment of skin disorders. BALB/c mice were sensitized twice a week with 100 microL of 1% 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and challenged twice the following week with 100 microL of 0.2% DNCB for atopic dermatitis induction. Thereafter, 3% GC oil was applied daily (70 microL, 6 times week) on the dorsal skin for 4 weeks. Saline or jojoba oil was used for the control mice. Blood was collected after second DNCB challenge, and at 2 and 4 weeks after initiating oil application. Serum IgE levels were significantly lowered in the GC oil application group at the end of the 4-week application period. The GC oil application for 4 weeks resulted in reduction in serum IgG1 level compared with that after 2-week application. The GC oil application group showed a significantly lower serum histamine level than the control group 2 weeks after oil application. Scratching frequency of the GC oil application group was significantly lower than either control groups. This study is to demonstrate GC oil's immunoregulatory potential for alleviating atopic dermatitis through influencing of Th2 cell activation.

  2. Atopic dermatitis-like pre-Sézary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokolowska-Wojdylo, Malgorzata; Baranska-Rybak, Wioletta; Cegielska, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    We describe here 4 patients with Sézary syndrome masquerading as adult-onset atopic dermatitis. The patients presented with a clinical picture compatible with wide-spread atopic dermatitis and did not fulfil the criteria for Sézary syndrome (lack of lymphoadenopathy and blood involvement, skin...... histology without presence of atypical cells). In our patients, overt Sézary syndrome developed after immunosuppressive treatment (including cyclosporine). These cases support the validity of the concept of pre-Sézary syndrome, which is a long-lasting, pre-malignant condition, and which may develop to true...

  3. Salvia plebeia suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

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    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Salvia plebeia R. Br. (Lamiaceae) has been used for folk medicines in Asian countries, including Korea and China, to treat skin inflammatory diseases and asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract (SPE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions and defined underlying mechanisms of action. We established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like skin lesions. The oral administration of SPE decreased AD symptoms based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE and IgG2a levels. SPE suppressed mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. SPE inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4(+) T lymphocytes expansion in the lymph node and the expression of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the ear tissue. To define the underlying mechanisms of action, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model was used. SPE significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, and STAT1 in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SPE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  4. Diospyros lotus leaf and grapefruit stem extract synergistically ameliorate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion in mice by suppressing infiltration of mast cells in skin lesions.

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    Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong Hua; Shin, Jae Young; Jang, Seon Il

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing and pruritic inflammation of the skin also thought to be involved in, or caused by immune system destruction is an upsetting health problem due to its continuously increasing incidence especially in developed countries. Mast cell infiltration in atopic dermatitis skin lesions and its IgE-mediated activation releases various cytokines and chemokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This study was aimed at investigating synergistic anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic and anti-atopic dermatitis effects of Diospyros lotus leaf extract (DLE) and Muscat bailey A grapefruit stem extract (GFSE) in atopic dermatitis-like induced skin lesions in mice. Combinations of DLE and GFSE inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 production more than DLE or GFSE in PMA plus calcium ionophore A23187-activated HMC-1 cells. DLE and GFSE synergistically inhibited compound 48/80-induced dermal infiltration of mast cells and reduced scratching behavior than DLE or GFSE. Furthermore, DLE and GFSE synergistically showed a stronger ameliorative effect in skin lesions by reducing clinical scores; dermal infiltration of mast cells; ear and dorsal skin thickness; serum IgE and IL-4 production in atopic dermatitis-like mice. Collectively, these results suggest that DLE and GFSE synergistically exhibit anti-atopic dermatitis effects in atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. [Matricaria chamomilla (aqueous extract) improves atopic dermatitis-like lesions in a murine model].

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    Ortiz-Bautista, Raúl Julián; García-González, Laura Lucelly; Ocádiz-González, Marco Antonio; Flores-Tochihuitl, Julia; García-Villaseñor, Arturo; González-Hernández, Margarita; Muñoz-Hernández, Liliana; Ortiz-Figuero, María Del Consuelo; Ramírez-Anaya, Marisol; Reyna-Téllez, Silvia; Villanueva-Sánchez, Octavio

    2017-01-01

    Matricaria Chamomilla L. (Mch), popularly known as chamomile, has been used for centuries as an herbolary remedy due to its broad clinical spectrum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Mch associated to a vehicle with emollient function in induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like lesions in a murine model. AD was induced with dinitrochlorobenzene on 12 male seven-week old BALB/c mice. Animals were divided in three groups (control, GC; control negative, GCN; and experimental, GE). Liquid petrolatum was applied to the GCN and liquid petrolatum with aqueous extract of Mch at 7% to the GE. Induction and evolution of the lesions were verified by biopsy at 2nd and 6th week. Evaluation of peripheral blood cells to correlate inflammatory cells was made as well at the same weeks. Lesions were clinically evaluated at 2nd, 4th and 6th week. Scratching was monitored according to the observation methodology of Kobayashi et al. Mch aqueous extract associated to a vehicle with emollient function improves atopic dermatitis-like lesions after two weeks.

  6. Extracellular vesicles derived from Staphylococcus aureus induce atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation.

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    Hong, S-W; Kim, M-R; Lee, E-Y; Kim, J H; Kim, Y-S; Jeon, S G; Yang, J-M; Lee, B-J; Pyun, B-Y; Gho, Y S; Kim, Y-K

    2011-03-01

    Recently, we found that Staphylococcus aureus produces extracellular vesicles (EV) that contain pathogenic proteins. Although S. aureus infection has been linked with atopic dermatitis (AD), the identities of the causative agents from S. aureus are controversial. We evaluated whether S. aureus-derived EV are causally related to the pathogenesis of AD. Extracellular vesicles were isolated by the ultracentrifugation of S. aureus culture media. The EV were applied three times per week to tape-stripped mouse skin. Inflammation and immune dysfunction were evaluated 48 h after the final application in hairless mice. Extracellular vesicles-specific IgE levels were measured by ELISA in AD patients and healthy subjects. The in vitro application of S. aureus EV increased the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-6, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and eotaxin) by dermal fibroblasts. The in vivo application of S. aureus EV after tape stripping caused epidermal thickening with infiltration of the dermis by mast cells and eosinophils in mice. These changes were associated with the enhanced cutaneous production of IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, and IL-17. Interestingly, the serum levels of S. aureus EV-specific IgE were significantly increased in AD patients relative to healthy subjects. These results indicate that S. aureus EV induce AD-like inflammation in the skin and that S. aureus-derived EV are a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for the control of AD. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Application of concentrated deep sea water inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice

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    Bak Jong-Phil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mineral water from deep-sea bedrock, formed over thousands of years, is rich in minerals such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and others. Our present study was to investigate the preventive effects of natural deep-sea water on developing atopic dermatitis (AD. Methods We elicited AD by application of DNCB (2,4-dinitro-chlorobezene in Nc/Nga mouse dorsal skin. Deep Sea water (DSW was filtered and concentrated by a nanofiltration process and reverse osmosis. We applied concentrated DSW (CDSW to lesions five times per week for six weeks, followed by evaluation. 1% pimecrolimus ointment was used as positive control. The severity of skin lesions was assessed macroscopically and histologically. Levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in the serum were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ spleen lymphocytes were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Results DNCB-treated mice showed atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. Treatment of mice with CDSW reduced the severity of symptoms in the skin lesions, including edema, erythema, dryness, itching, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Histological analyses demonstrated that epidermal thickness and infiltration of inflammatory cells were decreased after CDSW treatment. Given these interesting observations, we further evaluated the effect of CDSW on immune responses in this AD model. Treatment AD mice with CDSW inhibited up-regulation of IgE, histamine, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum. Also, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in spleen lymphocyte was down-regulated after treatment with CDSW. Finally, cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-10 which are important for Th2 cell development, were reduced. Conclusions Our data suggests that topical application of CDSW could be useful in preventing the development of atopic dermatitis.

  8. Application of concentrated deep sea water inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mineral water from deep-sea bedrock, formed over thousands of years, is rich in minerals such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and others. Our present study was to investigate the preventive effects of natural deep-sea water on developing atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods We elicited AD by application of DNCB (2,4-dinitro-chlorobezene) in Nc/Nga mouse dorsal skin. Deep Sea water (DSW) was filtered and concentrated by a nanofiltration process and reverse osmosis. We applied concentrated DSW (CDSW) to lesions five times per week for six weeks, followed by evaluation. 1% pimecrolimus ointment was used as positive control. The severity of skin lesions was assessed macroscopically and histologically. Levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in the serum were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ spleen lymphocytes were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Results DNCB-treated mice showed atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. Treatment of mice with CDSW reduced the severity of symptoms in the skin lesions, including edema, erythema, dryness, itching, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Histological analyses demonstrated that epidermal thickness and infiltration of inflammatory cells were decreased after CDSW treatment. Given these interesting observations, we further evaluated the effect of CDSW on immune responses in this AD model. Treatment AD mice with CDSW inhibited up-regulation of IgE, histamine, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum. Also, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in spleen lymphocyte was down-regulated after treatment with CDSW. Finally, cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-10 which are important for Th2 cell development, were reduced. Conclusions Our data suggests that topical application of CDSW could be useful in preventing the development of atopic dermatitis. PMID:22834904

  9. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Ameliorates House Dust Mite Extract Induced Atopic Dermatitis Like Skin Lesions in Mice.

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    Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Baek, Hyunjung; Kang, Manho; Kim, Namsik; Lee, Seung Young; Bae, Hyunsu

    2017-02-18

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a biphasic inflammatory skin disease that is provoked by epidermal barrier defects, immune dysregulation, and increased skin infections. Previously, we have demonstrated that bvPLA2 evoked immune tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and thus alleviated Th2 dominant allergic asthma in mice. Here, we would like to determine whether treatment with bvPLA2 exacerbates the AD-like allergic inflammations induced by house dust mite extract (DFE) in a murine model. Epidermal thickness, immune cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin, and cytokines were measured. Ear swelling, skin lesions, and the levels of total serum IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines were elevated in DFE/DNCB-induced AD mice. Topical application of bvPLA2 elicited significant suppression of the increased AD symptoms, including ear thickness, serum IgE concentration, inflammatory cytokines, and histological changes. Furthermore, bvPLA2 treatment inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear. On the other hand, Treg cell depletion abolished the anti-atopic effects of bvPLA2, suggesting that the effects of bvPLA2 depend on the existence of Tregs. Taken together, the results revealed that topical exposure to bvPLA2 aggravated atopic skin inflammation, suggesting that bvPLA2 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  10. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Ameliorates House Dust Mite Extract Induced Atopic Dermatitis Like Skin Lesions in Mice

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    Kyung-Hwa Jung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a biphasic inflammatory skin disease that is provoked by epidermal barrier defects, immune dysregulation, and increased skin infections. Previously, we have demonstrated that bvPLA2 evoked immune tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg, and thus alleviated Th2 dominant allergic asthma in mice. Here, we would like to determine whether treatment with bvPLA2 exacerbates the AD-like allergic inflammations induced by house dust mite extract (DFE in a murine model. Epidermal thickness, immune cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin, and cytokines were measured. Ear swelling, skin lesions, and the levels of total serum IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines were elevated in DFE/DNCB-induced AD mice. Topical application of bvPLA2 elicited significant suppression of the increased AD symptoms, including ear thickness, serum IgE concentration, inflammatory cytokines, and histological changes. Furthermore, bvPLA2 treatment inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear. On the other hand, Treg cell depletion abolished the anti-atopic effects of bvPLA2, suggesting that the effects of bvPLA2 depend on the existence of Tregs. Taken together, the results revealed that topical exposure to bvPLA2 aggravated atopic skin inflammation, suggesting that bvPLA2 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  11. Therapeutic application of human leukocyte antigen-G1 improves atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

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    Maeda, Naoyoshi; Yamada, Chisato; Takahashi, Ami; Kuroki, Kimiko; Maenaka, Katsumi

    2017-09-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is an immune checkpoint molecule that plays critical roles in immune response and in triggering inhibitory signaling to immune cells such as T cells, natural killer cells, and antigen-presenting cells. Thus, the application of HLA-G can be considered for treating immune response-related inflammatory disorders. We have previously reported that treatment with HLA-G1 and HLA-G2 ameliorates the joint swelling associated with collagen-induced arthritis of DBA/1 mice, an animal model for rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we further investigated the effects of HLA-G1 on atopic dermatitis (AD), the most common inflammatory skin disorder. AD-like lesions were induced with the extract of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae in NC/Nga mice. Continuous administration of HLA-G1 ameliorated the AD-like skin lesions in the mice. Furthermore, production of immunoglobulin E, interleukin (IL)-13, and IL-17A was significantly reduced in HLA-G1-treated mice, suggesting a Th2/Th17-mediated immune-inhibitory function of HLA-G1 in vivo. Our studies shed light on novel therapeutic strategies with recombinant HLA-G proteins for immune reaction-mediated chronic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Balneotherapeutic effects of high mineral spring water on the atopic dermatitis-like inflammation in hairless mice via immunomodulation and redox balance.

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    Bajgai, Johny; Fadriquela, Ailyn; Ara, Jesmin; Begum, Rahima; Ahmed, Md Faruk; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Shim, Kwang-Yong; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2017-10-13

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing allergic inflammatory skin disease that currently affects millions of children and adults worldwide. Drugs used to treat these inflammatory diseases include anti-histamines, corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors but these drugs have their limitations such as adverse effects with their long-term usage. Thus, researcher's interest in several alternative and complementary therapies are continually growing and balneotherapy is one of these approaches. Therefore, we investigate the bathing effect of high concentration mineral spring water (HMW) on redox balance and immune modulation in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis like inflammation in hairless mice. We induced AD-like inflammation by application of DNCB on the dorsal skin of female skh-1 hairless mice. The mice were treated with 100% pure HMW (PHMW) and 10% diluted HMW (DHMW) through bathing once a day for 4 weeks. Tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) was used as positive control (PC) and only DNCB treatment as negative control (NeC) group. The severity of skin lesion inflammation was assessed through clinical scoring and observing scratching behavior. Levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and inflammatory cytokines in serum were detected by ELISA and multiplex bead array system, and the levels of oxidative stress-related biomarkers and antioxidant enzyme were also measured. We found that HMW significantly decreased the scratching behavior in PHMW and DHMW groups at the 2nd week and in PHMW group at 4th week compared to NeC group. Likewise, serum IgE level was significantly decreased in DHMW group as compared to NeC group. In line, the level of inflammatory cytokines in serum such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly inhibited in PHMW and DHMW groups compared to NeC group. In parallel, total reactive oxygen species (ROS) of serum level was significantly decreased in PHMW treatment groups compared to NeC group

  13. Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Reduced by Topical Application and Intraperitoneal Injection of Hirsutenone in NC/Nga Mice

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    Mi Sook Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common inflammatory skin disease. The increasing prevalence and severity of AD have prompted the developments of safer, more effective drugs. Although topical corticosteroids have been used as first line therapy for AD, their potential side effects limit their clinical applications. To investigate the effect of hirsutenone (HIR, a diarylheptanoid compound, on AD-like skin lesions and other factors related to immune response is the aim of this paper Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eosinophil, IgE inflammatory factors (COX-2, iNOS levels were reduced in blood, lymphocytes, and tissue after HIR treatment. These results suggest that HIR might be an effective treatment for AD.

  14. Functional polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa aqueous extract inhibit atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

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    Park, Hyeon Soo; Hwang, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Mun Ki; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Yumnam, Silvia; Kim, Eun Hee; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Won, Chung Kil; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-01-01

    Grifola frondosa (GF), distributed widely in far east Asia including Korea, is popularly used as traditional medicines and health supplementary foods, especially for enhancing the immune functions of the body. To extend the application of GF polysaccharides (GFP) for atopic dermatitis (AD), we investigated the effects of GFP on the 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesion in NC/Nga mice. GFP treatment significantly reduced the dorsa skin dermatitis score and combination treatment with GFP, and dexamethasone has a synergistic effect in AD-like skin lesion by reduced Serum IgE, mast cells infiltration, and cytokines expression. These results indicate that GFP suppressed the AD-like skin lesions by controlling the Th-1/Th-2-type cytokines in NC/Nga mice. These findings strongly suggest that GFP can be useful for AD patients as a novel therapeutic agent and might be used for corticosteroids replacement or supplement agent.

  15. Inhibitory effects of polysaccharide-rich extract of Phragmites rhizoma on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

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    Nam, Yunsung; Chung, Yoon Hee; Chu, Li Ying; Lee, Ho Sung; Park, Eon Sub; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Kim, Dong-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Dong; Je, Hyun Dong; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2013-05-02

    Phragmites rhizoma was reported to have anti-oxidative and free radical scavenging activity. It also has been traditionally used to suppress inflammation. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the topical effects of the polysaccharide-rich extract of P. rhizoma (PEP) on atopic dermatitis. We induced AD-like skin lesions by an extract of the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (Dfb) in NC/Nga mice, and then performed macroscopic analysis, immunohistochemical staining and measurement of total serum IgE and cytokine production by ELISA. Topically applied PEP suppressed dermatitis with a decrease in dermatitis score and scratch number. The histological manifestations of atopic skin lesions including thickened epidermis and increased numbers of mast cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and nerve fibers were significantly attenuated. The activation of IgE and the levels of cytokines such as IFN-γ IL-4 and IL-10 were also decreased. Our results indicated that PEP might have an inhibitory effect on atopic dermatitis-like lesion and be a promising natural resource in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Amorphous silica nanoparticles size-dependently aggravate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions following an intradermal injection

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    Hirai Toshiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the rising use of nanomaterials (NMs, there is concern that NMs induce undesirable biological effects because of their unique physicochemical properties. Recently, we reported that amorphous silica nanoparticles (nSPs, which are one of the most widely used NMs, can penetrate the skin barrier and induce various biological effects, including an immune-modulating effect. Thus, it should be clarified whether nSPs can be a risk factor for the aggravation of skin immune diseases. Thus, in this study, we investigated the relationship between the size of SPs and adjuvant activity using a model for atopic dermatitis. Results We investigated the effects of nSPs on the AD induced by intradermaly injected-mite antigen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp in NC/Nga mice. Ear thickness measurements and histopathological analysis revealed that a combined injection of amorphous silica particles (SPs and Dp induced aggravation of AD in an SP size-dependent manner compared to that of Dp alone. In particular, aggravation was observed remarkably in nSP-injected groups. Furthermore, these effects were correlated with the excessive induction of total IgE and a stronger systemic Th2 response. We demonstrated that these results are associated with the induction of IL-18 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP in the skin lesions. Conclusions A particle size reduction in silica particles enhanced IL-18 and TSLP production, which leads to systemic Th2 response and aggravation of AD-like skin lesions as induced by Dp antigen treatment. We believe that appropriate regulation of nanoparticle physicochemical properties, including sizes, is a critical determinant for the design of safer forms of NMs.

  17. DA-9601 suppresses 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene and dust mite extract-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

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    Choi, Eun-Ju; Lee, Soyoung; Hwang, Ji-Sun; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Jun, Chang-Duk; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    DA-9601 (Stillen™) is a novel anti-peptic formulation prepared from the ethanol extracts of Artemisia asiatica possessing anti-oxidative, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities. However, their effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been studied yet. In this study, we report that topical application of DA-9601 suppressed house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice model. We established atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of DFE/DNCB to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like lesions. DA-9601 reduced AD-like skin lesions based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, and serum IgE levels. DA-9601 inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and elevation of serum histamine in AD model. In addition, DA-9601 suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-31, and TNF-α in the ears. Taken together, our results showed that topical application of DA-9601 exerts beneficial effects in animal model of AD, suggesting that DA-9601 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibitory Effect of Valencene on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

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    In Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Valencene (VAL isolated from Cyperus rotundus possesses various biological effects such as antiallergic and antimelanogenesis activity. We investigated the effect of VAL on atopic dermatitis (AD skin lesions and their molecular mechanisms. We topically applied VAL to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB sensitized NC/Nga mice. Modified scoring atopic dermatitis index, scratching behavior, and histological/immunohistochemical staining were used to monitor disease severity. RT-PCR, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the level of IgE, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines production, and skin barrier proteins expression. Topical application of VAL significantly reduced AD-like symptoms and recovered decreased expression of filaggrin in DNCB-sensitized NC/Nga mice. The levels of serum IgE, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-13 in skin/splenic tissue were reduced. In vitro studies using TNF-α and IFN-γ treated HaCaT cells revealed that VAL inhibited the exaggerated expression of Th2 chemokines including TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and proinflammatory chemokines such as CXCL8, GM-CSF, and I-CAM through blockade of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, expression of the skin barrier protein, involucrin, was also increased by VAL treatment. VAL inhibited the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that VAL may serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD.

  19. Inhibitory effects of Cinnamomum cassia extract on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions induced by mite antigen in NC/Nga mice.

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    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Jang, Ja Young; Park, Sang-Joon; Jeong, Gi-Hoon; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2011-01-27

    Cinnamomum cassia (C. cassia) has been traditionally used to treat allergic disease as well as dyspepsia, gastritis, and blood circulation disturbances. However, the antiallergic properties of C. cassia have not been fully verified using scientific tools. This study investigated the effectiveness of C. cassia extract (CCE) as an antiallergic agent in atopic dermatitis model and underlying mechanism. The effect of CCE on mite antigen-treated NC/Nga mice was evaluated by examining skin symptom severity, levels of serum IgE, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and histamine, skin histology, and mRNA expression of cytokines in the skin lesions. Moreover, the effect of CCE on TNF-α-and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced chemokine production in human keratinocytes was investigated using ELISA. CCE treatment of NC/Nga mice reduced the dermatitis score and the levels of serum IgE, histamine, and TNF-α. Histological examination showed inhibition of the thickening of the epidermis/dermis and reduced dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. In skin lesions, mRNA expression of IL-4, TNF-α, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was inhibited by CCE treatment. The production of TARC, macrophage-derived chemokine, and RANTES from IFN-γ-and TNF-α-stimulated human keratinocytes was suppressed by CCE treatment in a dose-dependent manner. CCE inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the T-helper 2 cell response. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluoxetine ameliorates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory response

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    Yanxi Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and patients with AD suffer from severe psychological stress, which markedly increases the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, it is unclear whether fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of AD through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory reaction. Here, we reported that a BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4‑dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB onto hairless dorsal skin. Chronic fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg per day, i.p. significantly attenuated AD-like symptoms, as reflected by a dramatic decrease in scratching bouts, as well as a decrease in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in epidermal thickness, the number of mast cells in skin tissue, mRNA levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 and IL-13 in the spleen, as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE in the DNCB-treated mice by treatment with fluoxetine. Taken together, these results indicate that fluoxetine may suppress psychological stress and inflammatory response during AD development, and subsequently ameliorate AD symptoms, suggesting that fluoxetine may be a potential therapeutic agent against AD in clinic.

  1. Chlorella vulgaris Attenuates Dermatophagoides Farinae-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Symptoms in NC/Nga Mice

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    Kang, Heerim; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Seo, Sang Gwon; Han, Jae Gab; Kim, Byung Gon; Kim, Jong-Eun; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and inflammatory skin disease that can place a significant burden on quality of life for patients. AD most frequently appears under the age of six and although its prevalence is increasing worldwide, therapeutic treatment options are limited. Chlorella vulgaris (CV) is a species of the freshwater green algae genus chlorella, and has been reported to modulate allergy-inducible factors when ingested. Here, we examined the effect of CV supplementation on AD-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice. CV was orally administrated for six weeks while AD-like symptoms were induced via topical application of Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE). CV treatment reduced dermatitis scores, epidermal thickness, and skin hydration. Histological analysis also revealed that CV treatment reduced DFE-induced eosinophil and mast cell infiltration into the skin, while analysis of serum chemokine levels indicated that CV treatment downregulated thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) levels. In addition, CV treatment downregulated mRNA expression levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ. Taken together, these results suggest that CV extract may have potential as a nutraceutical ingredient for the prevention of AD. PMID:26404252

  2. Chlorella vulgaris Attenuates Dermatophagoides Farinae-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Symptoms in NC/Nga Mice.

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    Kang, Heerim; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Seo, Sang Gwon; Han, Jae Gab; Kim, Byung Gon; Kim, Jong-Eun; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-02

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and inflammatory skin disease that can place a significant burden on quality of life for patients. AD most frequently appears under the age of six and although its prevalence is increasing worldwide, therapeutic treatment options are limited. Chlorella vulgaris (CV) is a species of the freshwater green algae genus chlorella, and has been reported to modulate allergy-inducible factors when ingested. Here, we examined the effect of CV supplementation on AD-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice. CV was orally administrated for six weeks while AD-like symptoms were induced via topical application of Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE). CV treatment reduced dermatitis scores, epidermal thickness, and skin hydration. Histological analysis also revealed that CV treatment reduced DFE-induced eosinophil and mast cell infiltration into the skin, while analysis of serum chemokine levels indicated that CV treatment downregulated thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) levels. In addition, CV treatment downregulated mRNA expression levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ. Taken together, these results suggest that CV extract may have potential as a nutraceutical ingredient for the prevention of AD.

  3. Chlorella vulgaris Attenuates Dermatophagoides Farinae-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Symptoms in NC/Nga Mice

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    Heerim Kang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic and inflammatory skin disease that can place a significant burden on quality of life for patients. AD most frequently appears under the age of six and although its prevalence is increasing worldwide, therapeutic treatment options are limited. Chlorella vulgaris (CV is a species of the freshwater green algae genus chlorella, and has been reported to modulate allergy-inducible factors when ingested. Here, we examined the effect of CV supplementation on AD-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice. CV was orally administrated for six weeks while AD-like symptoms were induced via topical application of Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE. CV treatment reduced dermatitis scores, epidermal thickness, and skin hydration. Histological analysis also revealed that CV treatment reduced DFE-induced eosinophil and mast cell infiltration into the skin, while analysis of serum chemokine levels indicated that CV treatment downregulated thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC levels. In addition, CV treatment downregulated mRNA expression levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ. Taken together, these results suggest that CV extract may have potential as a nutraceutical ingredient for the prevention of AD.

  4. IL-1β induces thymic stromal lymphopoietin and an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype in reconstructed healthy human epidermis.

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    Bernard, Marine; Carrasco, Cédric; Laoubi, Léo; Guiraud, Béatrice; Rozières, Aurore; Goujon, Catherine; Duplan, Hélène; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Nicolas, Jean-François; Vocanson, Marc; Galliano, Marie-Florence

    2017-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin inflammatory disease characterized by the production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and marked TH 2 polarization. Recent studies suggest that IL-1β contributes to the development of AD skin inflammation. Here, we have investigated the impact of IL-1β signalling on the epidermal homeostasis of both healthy subjects and AD patients [with functional filaggrin (FLG) alleles], with particular attention to TSLP production and keratinocyte differentiation. In healthy reconstructed human epidermis (RHE), IL-1β promoted (i) robust secretion of TSLP in an NF-κB-dependent manner and (ii) a significant decrease in the expression of filaggrin and other proteins of the epidermal differentiation complex. These effects were prevented by treatment of RHE with the anti-IL-1β mAb canakinumab and by the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. Interestingly, RHE generated from AD donors behaved like that of healthy individuals and showed comparable responses to IL-1β signals. Collectively, our results suggest that IL-1β may be an early key mediator for the acquisition of an AD phenotype through induction of TSLP and alteration of the epidermal homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Angelicae Dahuricae Radix Inhibits Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

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    Hoyoung Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (AR suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis (AD-like skin lesions induced by Dermatophagoides farinae in NC/Nga mice. To investigate the effect of AR, we measured the AD severity score, measured plasma levels of IgE and histamine, and performed histological analysis in NC/Nga mice. We also confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of AR by measuring TARC/CCL17 production from LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells and mRNA levels of TARC and MDC/CCL22 in TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells. 10 mg/day of AR extract was applied for 4 weeks to NC/Nga mice. Both the AR extract and 0.1% tacrolimus suppressed the development of AD-like skin lesions and reduced dermatitis scores of the back and ear skin. AR extracts caused an inhibition of histological changes induced by repeated application of D. farinae and a reduction of IgE and histamine levels in plasma (P<0.05. Furthermore, NO production in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells was diminished in a dose-dependent manner, and hTARC production and TARC and MDC mRNA levels in TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells were diminished by AR. The inhibitory effect of AR on NO, TARC and MDC production may be associated with the suppression of AD-like skin lesions in D. farinae-induced NC/Nga mice.

  6. Gamma-irradiated black ginseng extract inhibits mast cell degranulation and suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

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    Kang, Jung Ae; Song, Ha-Yeon; Byun, Eui-Hong; Ahn, Nam-Geun; Kim, Hye-Min; Nam, You Ree; Lee, Gyeong Hee; Jang, Beom-Su; Choi, Dae Seong; Lee, Dong-Eun; Byun, Eui-Baek

    2018-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is able to affect various structural modification and an increase of the biological properties of biomaterials. This study was conducted to investigate the anti-allergenic effect of γ-irradiated black ginseng extract (BGE) using in vitro and in vivo experiments. IgEantigen complex-induced degranulation was measured in RBL-2H3 mast cells. In addition, an anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) test was carried out by spreading γ-irradiated BGE on the dorsal skin of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced BALB/c mice. The content of arginylfructose (AF) of gamma-irradiated BGE was higher than that of BGE. In RBL-2H3 mast cells, γ-irradiated BGE treatments significantly reduced the IgE-antigen complex-induced release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine, intracellular ROS, and Ca2+ influx. A western blot analysis showed that γ-irradiated BGE had an inhibitory activity on the FcεRI-mediated signaling in mast cells. In the DNCB-induced AD model, γ-irradiated BGE significantly alleviated the ADlike skin symptoms and clinical signs. The suppression of AD by γ-irradiated BGE was accompanied by a decrease in the serum level of IgE and IL-4, as well as the number of leukocyte. Gamma-irradiated BGE also suppressed IL-4 and increased IFN-γ in splenocytes. Our data suggests that γ-irradiated BGE may be effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Pentaherbs Formula, Berberine, Gallic Acid and Chlorogenic Acid in Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Inflammation.

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    Tsang, Miranda S M; Jiao, Delong; Chan, Ben C L; Hon, Kam-Lun; Leung, Ping C; Lau, Clara B S; Wong, Eric C W; Cheng, Ling; Chan, Carmen K M; Lam, Christopher W K; Wong, Chun K

    2016-04-20

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic skin disease, characterized by dryness, itchiness, thickening and inflammation of the skin. Infiltration of eosinophils into the dermal layer and presence of edema are typical characteristics in the skin biopsy of AD patients. Previous in vitro and clinical studies showed that the Pentaherbs formula (PHF) consisting of five traditional Chinese herbal medicines, Flos Lonicerae, Herba Menthae, Cortex Phellodendri, Cortex Moutan and Rhizoma Atractylodis at w/w ratio of 2:1:2:2:2 exhibited therapeutic potential in treating AD. In this study, an in vivo murine model with oxazolone (OXA)-mediated dermatitis was used to elucidate the efficacy of PHF. Active ingredients of PHF water extract were also identified and quantified, and their in vitro anti-inflammatory activities on pruritogenic cytokine IL-31- and alarmin IL-33-activated human eosinophils and dermal fibroblasts were evaluated. Ear swelling, epidermis thickening and eosinophils infiltration in epidermal and dermal layers, and the release of serum IL-12 of the murine OXA-mediated dermatitis were significantly reduced upon oral or topical treatment with PHF (all p < 0.05). Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and berberine contents (w/w) in PHF were found to be 0.479%, 1.201% and 0.022%, respectively. Gallic acid and chlorogenic acid could suppress the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and chemokine CCL7 and CXCL8, respectively, in IL-31- and IL-33-treated eosinophils-dermal fibroblasts co-culture; while berberine could suppress the release of IL-6, CXCL8, CCL2 and CCL7 in the eosinophil culture and eosinophils-dermal fibroblasts co-culture (all p < 0.05). These findings suggest that PHF can ameliorate allergic inflammation and attenuate the activation of eosinophils.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Pentaherbs Formula, Berberine, Gallic Acid and Chlorogenic Acid in Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Inflammation

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    Miranda S. M. Tsang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common allergic skin disease, characterized by dryness, itchiness, thickening and inflammation of the skin. Infiltration of eosinophils into the dermal layer and presence of edema are typical characteristics in the skin biopsy of AD patients. Previous in vitro and clinical studies showed that the Pentaherbs formula (PHF consisting of five traditional Chinese herbal medicines, Flos Lonicerae, Herba Menthae, Cortex Phellodendri, Cortex Moutan and Rhizoma Atractylodis at w/w ratio of 2:1:2:2:2 exhibited therapeutic potential in treating AD. In this study, an in vivo murine model with oxazolone (OXA-mediated dermatitis was used to elucidate the efficacy of PHF. Active ingredients of PHF water extract were also identified and quantified, and their in vitro anti-inflammatory activities on pruritogenic cytokine IL-31- and alarmin IL-33-activated human eosinophils and dermal fibroblasts were evaluated. Ear swelling, epidermis thickening and eosinophils infiltration in epidermal and dermal layers, and the release of serum IL-12 of the murine OXA-mediated dermatitis were significantly reduced upon oral or topical treatment with PHF (all p < 0.05. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and berberine contents (w/w in PHF were found to be 0.479%, 1.201% and 0.022%, respectively. Gallic acid and chlorogenic acid could suppress the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and chemokine CCL7 and CXCL8, respectively, in IL-31- and IL-33-treated eosinophils-dermal fibroblasts co-culture; while berberine could suppress the release of IL-6, CXCL8, CCL2 and CCL7 in the eosinophil culture and eosinophils-dermal fibroblasts co-culture (all p < 0.05. These findings suggest that PHF can ameliorate allergic inflammation and attenuate the activation of eosinophils.

  9. IL-23 induces atopic dermatitis-like inflammation instead of psoriasis-like inflammation in CCR2-deficient mice.

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    Shannon K Bromley

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease, characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of leukocytes into the dermis and epidermis. IL-23 is expressed in psoriatic skin, and IL-23 injected into the skin of mice produces IL-22-dependent dermal inflammation and acanthosis. The chemokine receptor CCR2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis. CCR2-positive cells and the CCR2 ligand, CCL2 are abundant in psoriatic lesions. To examine the requirement of CCR2 in the development of IL-23-induced cutaneous inflammation, we injected the ears of wild-type (WT and CCR2-deficient (CCR2(-/- mice with IL-23. CCR2(-/- mice had increased ear swelling and epidermal thickening, which was correlated with increased cutaneous IL-4 levels and increased numbers of eosinophils within the skin. In addition, TSLP, a cytokine known to promote and amplify T helper cell type 2 (Th2 immune responses, was also increased within the inflamed skin of CCR2(-/- mice. Our data suggest that increased levels of TSLP in CCR2(-/- mice may contribute to the propensity of these mice to develop increased Th2-type immune responses.

  10. Topical application of Rosa multiflora root extract improves atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions induced by mite antigen in NC/Nga mice.

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    Park, Kwan Hee; Jeong, Mi Sook; Park, Kwang Jun; Choi, Young Wook; Seo, Seong Jun; Lee, Min Won

    2014-01-01

    The roots of Rosa multiflora THUNB. (RM) has been used in oriental traditional medicines as remedies for scabies, rheumatic arthralgia and stomatitis which were practicably related with today's inflammatory and allergic diseases. In the present study, we evaluated whether RM root extract (RME) and its major constituent, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2,3-trans-6,7-cis-7,8-trans-3,4,7,8-tetrahydro-2H,6H-pyrano[2,3-f] chromene-3,7,9-triol (RM-3) belongs to condensed tannins, improve atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice induced by mite antigen. Topical application of RME as well as RM-3 improved skin severity and suppressed mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) on skin tissues, in addition, significantly reduced T helper 2 (Th2) immune responses via interleukin 10 (IL-10) up-regulation. Thus, RME, contains lots of condensed tannins such as RM-3 which possesses potent anti-inflammtory and immune-modulatory effects, may be useful for treatment of skin allergies and can be developed as new alternative herbal therapy against AD.

  11. Theobroma cacao extract attenuates the development of Dermatophagoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice.

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    Kang, Heerim; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Son, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Jong-Eun; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-02-01

    Cacao beans from Theobroma cacao are an abundant source of polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. Previous studies demonstrated that cacao flavanols decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in the alleviation of allergic symptoms. We sought to investigate the effects of cacao extract (CE) on Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like symptoms. CE attenuated DFE-induced AD-like symptoms as assessed by skin lesion analyses, dermatitis score, and skin thickness. Histopathological analysis revealed that CE suppressed DFE-induced immune cell infiltration into the skin. These observations occurred concomitantly with the downregulation of inflammatory markers including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, chemokine; thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine as well as the skin-derived cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and interferon-γ. CE also significantly alleviated transepidermal water loss and increased skin hydration. These results suggest that CE, a natural phytochemical-rich food, has potential therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Polysaccharide extracted from Chinese white wax scale ameliorates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in BALB/c mice

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    Lin Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common inflammatory skin disease with high rates of morbidity and is associated with erythema, pruritus, scaling of affected areas of skin. It is extremely important to introduce a therapeutic agent which has significant anti-inflammatory effect with less side-effect for treatment of AD. This study evaluated the effect of a natural compound from herbal extracts, the crude polysaccharide extracted from the white wax scale (CWPS, on AD-like mice. Repeated applications of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB were performed on ear and dorsal skin of BALB/c mice to induce AD-like symptoms and skin lesions. Oral administration of CWPS decreased serum IgE level and limited the infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils to the dermal tissues in the DNCB-induced AD mice. In addition, CWPS reduced Th1 and Th17 responses, leading to an attenuated cutaneous inflammatory response. Furthermore, in vitro study also demonstrated that CWPS limited T cell activation and cytokines (i.e. IFN-γ and IL-17 production induced by DNCB. We conclude that CWPS attenuates DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesion through modulating T cell-elicited immune responses and CD4+ T cell polarization, and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for AD.

  13. The inhibitory effect of Duchesnea chrysantha extract on the development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions by regulating IgE and cytokine production in Nc/Nga mice.

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    Lee, Ji-Sook; Kim, In Sik; Ryu, Ji-Sun; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Dong-Hee; Yun, Chi-Young

    2012-02-01

    Duchesnea chrysantha belongs to the Rosaceae family and has been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases in Korea and other parts of East Asia. This study examined the antiinflammatory effect of Duchesnea chrysantha extract (DcE) on atopic dermatitis in vitro and in vivo. DcE inhibited the production of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in THP-1 cells and the release of IL-6 and MCP-1 in EoL-1 cells after treatment with house dust mite extract. In the in vivo experiment, Nc/Nga mice were sensitized to DNCB and then orally and dorsally administered DcE (50 mg/kg in PBS) for 3 weeks. The DcE administration significantly reduced the skin severity score when compared with the control group and inhibited the thickening of the epidermis and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the dermis. In addition, the serum IgE levels decreased markedly in the DcE-treated mice when compared with the control group. The synthesis of IL-5, IL-13, MCP-1 and eotaxin was also decreased in splenocytes of the DcE-treated group, while IFN-γ was increased in the Dc-administered group. These results may indicate that DcE attenuates the development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions by lowering the IgE and inflammatory cytokine levels, and that it is useful in drug development for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effect of the topical application of an ethanol extract of quince seeds on the development of atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice.

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    Kawahara, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Kanako; Nakanishi, Eri; Inoue, Toshifumi; Hamauzu, Yasunori

    2017-01-31

    Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) is a deciduous shrub belonging to the Rosaceae family. Quince seed extract has long been used as a cosmetic ingredient for its moisturizing effect. However, little is known about whether quince seed extract has therapeutic effects on keratinocyte-associated skin inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the topical application of ethanol extract of quince seeds (QSEtE) on atopic dermatitis (AD) symptoms in NC/Nga mice. The direct effect of QSEtE on keratinocytes was evaluated using the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. The preliminary application of QSEtE markedly reduced house dust mite allergen-induced skin lesions. The expression of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) in dorsal skin was downregulated. QSEtE directly suppressed the expression and production of TARC in HaCaT cells. The results suggest that the topical application of QSEtE is effective in preventing the onset of and ameliorating the atopic symptoms of keratinocyte-associated skin inflammation by suppressing TARC production in keratinocytes.

  15. Inhibitory effect of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract on IgE/Ag-induced mast cell and atopic dermatitis-like mouse models.

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    Cha, Hae-Sim; Kim, Wan-Joong; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-05-01

    Pterocarpus indicus Willd has been widely used as a traditional medicine to treat edema, cancer, and hyperlipidemia, but its antiallergic properties and underlying mechanisms have not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiallergic activity of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract (PIW) using activated mast cells and an atopic dermatitis (AD)-like mouse model. PIW decreased IgE/Ag-induced mast cell degranulation and the phosphorylation of Syk and downstream signaling molecules such as PLC-γ, Akt, Erk 1/2, JNK compared to stimulated mast cells. In DNCB-induced AD-like mice, PIW reduced IgE level in serum, as well as AD-associated scratching behavior and skin severity score. These results indicate that PIW inhibits the allergic response by reducing mast cell activation and may have clinical potential as an antiallergic agent for disorders such as AD.

  16. Effects of topical application of a recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin A on DNCB and dust mite extract-induced atopic dermatitis-like lesions in a murine model.

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    Kim, Byung Soo; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Jung, Han Jin; Park, Kyung Hea; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Hee Young; Kim, Jung Min; Lim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Do Won

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with biphasic T cell-mediated abnormalities. Staphylococcal superantigens contribute to the exacerbation of inflammation in AD. The underlying immunopathological mechanisms are not fully understood. To determine whether epicutaneous application of recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin A (rSEA) would exacerbate AD-like allergic inflammation induced by 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) in a murine model. We first established an AD-like model using BALB/c mice exposed to DNCB/DFE on the ear. Next, Staphylococcus (S.) aureus or rSEA were topically applied to the mice. We evaluated the clinical and histopathological features of the animals. Serum immunoglobulin levels were also measured. In addition, real-time PCR analysis of cytokines produced by T cell subsets in the ears was conducted. Mice treated with S. aureus and rSEA had more severe clinical symptoms, including increased mean dermatitis scores and ear thickness, compared to animals with only AD-like lesions. Total IgE, IgG2a and serum histamine levels were increased in all groups except the normal control group. The S. aureus- and rSEA-treated groups showed increased levels of cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13, INF-γ, IL-17, and IL-18. In particular, increased cytokine expression was more conspicuous in the rSEA-treated group than in mice exposed to S. aureus. The results of this study showed that topical exposure to rSEA as well as SEA-producing S. aureus aggravate atopic skin inflammation. This may be associated with the induction of a mixed Th1/Th2 type dermatitis.

  17. Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice

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    Choong Gon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD. The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α and interleukins (ILs. Glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13 levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.

  18. Pseudolaric acid B extracted from the Chinese medicinal herb Cortex Pseudolaricis ameliorates DNFB-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice

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    Yi-Teng Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pseudolaric acid B (PB is a newly identified diterpenoid isolated from Tujinpi (Cortex Pseudolaricis. In the present study, we aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of PB on atopic dermatitis (AD, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects. Methods: BALB/c mice treated with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene were orally administered with PB (10 mg∙kg-1∙d-1. After evaluating the AD score, serum levels of IgE and the mRNA expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β were measured by ELISA and qRT-PCR respectively. Results: The results showed that PB treatment significantly ameliorated the development of AD-like clinical symptoms and effectively suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, PB inhibited the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β in skin lesions, and downregulated serum IgE levels. Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory properties of PB were demonstrated using the 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced mouse model of AD-like skin lesions. Our study highlighted the potential use of PB as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammation-associated skin diseases.

  19. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) Oil Improves Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions via Inhibition of NF-κB and STAT1 Activation.

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    Hou, Dian-Dong; Di, Zheng-Hong; Qi, Rui-Qun; Wang, He-Xiao; Zheng, Song; Hong, Yu-Xiao; Guo, Hao; Chen, Hong-Duo; Gao, Xing-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the topical effects of sea buckthorn (SBT) oil on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like lesions in a mouse model generated by repeated topical administration of DNCB in BALB/c mice. DNCB was applied repeatedly on the dorsal skin of mice to induce AD-like lesions. Following AD induction, SBT oil was applied daily on the dorsal skin for 4 weeks. The severity of skin lesions was examined macroscopically and histologically. We further measured the production of MDC/CCL22 and TARC/CCL17 in IFN-γ/TNF-α activated HaCaT cells. Topically applied SBT oil in DNCB-treated mice ameliorated the severity score of dermatitis, decreased epidermal thickness, reduced spleen and lymph node weights, and prevented mast cell infiltration. In addition, SBT oil suppressed the Th2 chemokines TARC and MDC via dose-dependent inhibition of NF-κB, JAK2/STAT1, and p38-MAPK signaling pathways in IFN-γ/TNF-α-activated HaCaT cells. These results suggest that SBT oil had a beneficial effect on AD-like skin lesions, partially via inhibition of the Th2 chemokines TARC and MDC in inflamed skin. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. External application of NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ suppresses development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions induced with DNCB/OX in BALB/c mice.

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    Jiang, Xiaoxue; Lan, Yi; Wei, Bing; Dai, Cailing; Gu, Yaru; Ma, Jun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Umezawa, Kazuo; Zhang, Yuyang

    2017-06-01

    Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) which is originally developed as an analog of antibiotic epoxyquinomicin C is a specific and potent inhibitor of NF-κB and has been shown to possess promising potential as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent. This study examines DHMEQ's effect on therapeutic potential for atopic dermatitis (AD)-like lesions. AD lesions were chronically induced by the repetitive and alternative application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and oxazolone (OX) on ears in BALB/c mice. The mice were then externally treated with DHMEQ ointment. Macroscopic and microscopic changes of the skin lesions were observed and recorded. DHMEQ inhibited ear swelling and relieved clinical symptoms of the AD-like lesions induced by DNCB/OX in BALB/c mice. Histopathology examination illustrated that it significantly decreased DNCB/OX-induced epidermal thickness, the infiltration of inflammatory cells, and the count of mast cell. The elevated level of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and the mRNA levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in the ear tissues, were also suppressed by DHMEQ. This study indicated that DHMEQ would be useful for the treatment of AD.

  1. 20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol-fortified ginseng extract attenuates the development of atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice.

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    Kim, Jong Rhan; Choi, Jinhwan; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Heejeung; Kang, Heerim; Kim, Eun Hye; Chang, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Yeong-Eun; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng and ginsenosides are frequently used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, 20-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (GPD), the main metabolite of ginsenosides, was reported to have both anti-allergic and anti-pruritic effects. The immunomodulatory effects of GPD-fortified ginseng extract (GFGE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like symptoms in mice were investigated. This study was designed to investigate the preventive effect of GFGE on AD-like symptoms. The effects of orally administered GFGE on Dermatophagoides farinae body extract (DFE)-induced AD-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice were assessed by analyzing dermatitis score, ear thickness, scratching time, skin histological changes, and serum level of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC). In addition, splenocytes were isolated from the mice and stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies to produce cytokines. Oral administration of GFGE significantly attenuated DFE-induced increases in dermatitis score, ear thickness, scratching time, and severity of skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. GFGE treatment also reduced level of MDC in serum, infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells in skin, and production of cytokines in splenocytes. These results suggest that GFGE might ameliorate DFE-induced AD-like symptoms and be an alternative therapeutic agent for the prevention of AD. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. The Hot-Water Extract of Smilacis Chinae Rhizome Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene and House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Nam Yong; Park, Eun-Ji; Sung, In sung; Ju, Seul A; Kim, Kyoung Un; Kim, Mi Rae; Song, Do Yeon; Lee, Min-Ju; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Chung, Hun-Jong; Choi, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ki-Hun; Lee, Min Won; Yun, Seongho; Min, Bokkee; Kwon, Suk Hyung; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2016-04-01

    Smilacis Chinae Rhizome (SCR) has been used as an oriental folk medicine for various biological activities. However, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) remains undetermined to date. We assessed the effect of orally administered hot-water extract of SCR on AD-like skin lesions in mice and its underlying mechanisms. AD-like murine model was prepared by repeated alternate application of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for 4 weeks, topically to the ears. Daily oral administration of SCR for 3 and 4 weeks significantly reduced inflammatory ear thickening, with the effect being enhanced at the earlier start and longer period of administration. This effect was accompanied by a significant decrease in both Th2 and Th1 serum antibodies (total IgE, DFE-specific IgE, and IgG2a). Histological analysis showed that SCR markedly decreased the epidermal/dermal ear thickening and the dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, SCR suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TSLP, and IFN-γ genes in the ear tissue. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SCR exerts beneficial effect in mouse AD model, suggesting that SCR has the therapeutic potential as an orally active treatment of AD by modulating both Th1 and Th2 responses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is well known as herbal medicine named "Zi-Yu" in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease). We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD) of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR) using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker). ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  4. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hye Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanguisorbae Radix (SR is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease. We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker. ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  5. Inhibitory Effect of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn. on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

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    Rajendra Karki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which has a complex etiology that encompasses immunologic responses. The study was carried out to examine the effect of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn. leaf (NL on the AD-like skin lesion induced by repeated epicutaneous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB on the dorsal skin of NC/Nga mice. Three different doses of NL (5, 25, and 50 mg/mice/day were administered orally from the day of sensitization with DNCB for 4 weeks. The efficacy of NL was judged by histopathological examination, blood IgE level, measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL, scratching behavior, and skin severity score. NL resulted in the suppression of clinical severity score, TEWL, scratching behavior, and blood IgE level. Histopathologic analyses revealed that thickening of the epidermis and mast cell degranulation was significantly reduced in NL group. These results suggest that NL may be a useful natural resource for the management of AD.

  6. Ameliorative effects of Artemisia argyi Folium extract on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like lesions in BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyoung-Min; Kim, Seung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Sik; Kim, Bum Hoi; Lee, Hai Woong; Lee, Yong Tae; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia argyi Folium has been used to treat skin diseases, including eczema and dermatitis, in South Korean medicine. The present study investigated the curative effects of Artemisia argyi Folium extract (AAFE) on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in a BALB/c mouse model. Briefly, the dorsal skin of the BALB/c mice was sensitized three times with DNCB, whereas the ears were challenged twice. Repeated treatment with DNCB induced AD-like lesions. The effects of AAFE on AD-like lesions were evaluated by clinical observation, histopathological analysis, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed. Treatment with AAFE reduced AD-like lesions, as determined by clinical observation, histopathological analysis, and detection of the serum levels of histamine, immunoglobulin E and cytokines. With regards to its mechanism of action, AAFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lck/yes-related novel tyrosine kinase (Lyn), spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and IκBα, which have essential roles in the production of various cytokines in lymph nodes. The suppressive activity of AAFE may be due to the inhibition of a series of immunopathological events, including the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The results of the present study strongly suggest that AAFE exerts an anti-AD effect by inhibiting the Lyn, Syk, MAPKs, PI3K/Akt and IκBα pathways. Therefore, AAFE may be considered an effective herbal remedy for the treatment of AD. PMID:27571702

  7. Suppressive effect of an aqueous extract of Diospyros kaki calyx on dust mite extract/2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ju-Hee; Jin, Meiling; Choi, Young-Ae; Jeong, Na-Hee; Park, Jeong-Sook; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting 10-20% of individuals worldwide. Therefore, the discovery of drugs for treating AD is an attractive subject and important to human health. Diospyros kaki and Diospyros kaki (D. kaki) folium exert beneficial effects on allergic inflammation. However, the effect of D. kaki calyx on AD remains elusive. The present study evaluated the effects of an aqueous extract of D. kaki calyx (AEDKC) on AD-like skin lesions using mouse and keratinocyte models. We used a mouse AD model by the repeated skin exposure of house dust mite extract [Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)] and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, to determine the underlying mechanism of its operation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-activated keratinocytes (HaCaT) were used. Oral administration of AEDKC decreased AD-like skin lesions, as demonstrated by the reduced ear thickness, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), DFE-specific IgE, IgG2a, histamine level and inflammatory cell infiltration. AEDKC inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine via downregulation of nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in HaCaT cells. On examination of the AD-related factors in vivo and in vitro, it was confirmed that AEDKC decreased AD-like skin lesions. Taken together, the results suggest that AEDKC is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of AD.

  8. Substance P restores normal skin architecture and reduces epidermal infiltration of sensory nerve fiber in TNCB-induced atopic dermatitis-like lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeongwon; Kim, Dong-Jin; Nam, Seungwoo; Lim, Sunki; Hwang, Jae-Sung; Park, Ki Sook; Hong, Hyun Sook; Won, Younsun; Shin, Min Kyung; Chung, Eunkyung; Son, Youngsook

    2018-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by intense pruritus and eczematous lesion. Substance P (SP) is an 11-amino-acid endogenous neuropeptide that belongs to the tachykinin family and several reports recently have supported the anti-inflammatory and tissue repairing roles of SP. In this study, we investigated whether SP can improve AD symptoms, especially the impaired skin barrier function, in 2, 4, 6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB)-induced chronic dermatitis of NC/Nga mice or not. AD-like dermatitis was induced in NC/Nga mice by repeated sensitization with TNCB for 5 weeks. The experimental group designations and topical treatments were as follows: vehicle group (AD-VE); SP group (AD-SP); and SP with NK1R antagonist CP99994 (AD-SP-A) group. Histological analysis was performed to evaluate epidermal differentiation, dermal integrity, and epidermal nerve innervation in AD-like lesions. The skin barrier functions and pruritus of NC/Nga mice were evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and scratching behavior, respectively. Topical SP treatment resulted in significant down-regulation of Ki67 and the abnormal-type keratins (K) K6, K16, and K17, restoration of filaggrin and claudin-1, marked reduction of TEWL, and restoration of basement membrane and dermal collagen deposition, even under continuous sensitization of low dose TNCB. In addition, SP significantly reduced innervation of itch-evoking nerve fibers, gelatinase activity and nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in the epidermis but upregulated semaphorin-3A (Sema3A) expression in the epidermis, along with reduced scratching behavior in TNCB-treated NC/Nga mice. All of these effects were completely reversed by co-treatment with the NK1R antagonist CP99994. In cultured human keratinocytes, SP treatment reduced expression of TGF-α, but upregulated TGF-β and Sema3A. Topically administered SP can restore normal skin barrier function, reduce epidermal infiltration

  9. Immune response to Varicella vaccine in children with atopic dermatitis compared to non-atopic controls

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Lynda; Weinberg, Adriana; Boguniewicz, Mark; Taylor, Patricia; Oettgen, Hans; Heughan, Lisa; Zaccaro, Daniel; Armstrong, Brian; Holliday, Aaron; Leung, Donald Y. M.

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis subjects and controls had similar cellular immune responses to Varicella vaccine. Atopic dermatitis subjects with a history of eczema herpeticum made high levels of Varicella specific IgE.

  10. A (S)-(+)-decursin derivative, (S)-(+)-3-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-acrylic acid 2,2-dimethyl-8-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H,8H-pyrano[3,2-g]-chromen-3-yl-ester, attenuates the development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Sik; Kim, Dong-Hee; Yun, Chi-Young; Lee, Ji-Sook

    2013-03-01

    (S)-(+)-decursin is a biological coumarin compound isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai. (S)-(+)-decursin and its analogue have a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effect of a (S)-(+)-decursin derivative, (S)-(+)-3-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-acrylic acid 2,2-dimethyl-8-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H,8H-pyrano [3,2-g]-chromen-3-yl-ester (Compound 6, C6), on in vitro and in vivo atopic dermatitis was investigated. C6 suppressed the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 increase by the house dust mite extract in the eosinophilic leukemia cell line and THP-1 cells. C6 inhibited the production of TARC, IL-6, and IL-8 increase by IFN-γ and TNF-α in the human keratinocyte cell line. In the in vivo experiment, NC/Nga mice were sensitized to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, and then C6 or dexamethasone (Dex) were orally and dorsally administered for three weeks. C6 treatment reduced the skin severity score compared with that of the control group. C6 inhibited the thickening of the epidermis and inflammatory cell infiltration into the dermis by evaluating the histological examination. The serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) level decreased in the C6-treated group compared with that of the control group. The inhibitory effect of C6 on IgE concentration was similar to that of Dex. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin increased after treatment with concanavalin A in mouse splenocytes. The cytokine levels of the C6-treated group were lower than those of the control group. Taken together, C6 may attenuate atopic dermatitis-like lesions through its anti-inflammatory effect, such as inhibition of IgE and inflammatory cytokines, and it may be valuable as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  11. Andrographolide suppresses thymic stromal lymphopoietin in phorbol myristate acetate/calcium ionophore A23187-activated mast cells and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like mice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CX

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chun-xiao Li,* Hua-guo Li,* Hui Zhang,* Ru-hong Cheng, Ming Li, Jian-ying Liang, Yan Gu, Bo Ling, Zhi-rong Yao, Hong Yu Department of Dermatology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD is one of the most common inflammatory cutaneous diseases. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP has been demonstrated to be an important immunologic factor in the pathogenesis of AD. The production of TSLP can be induced by a high level of intracellular calcium concentration and activation of the receptor-interacting protein 2/caspase-1/NF-κB pathway. Andrographolide (ANDRO, a natural bicyclic diterpenoid lactone, has been found to exert anti-inflammatory effects in gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders through suppressing the NF-κB pathway. Objective: To explore the effect of ANDRO on the production of TSLP in human mast cells and AD mice model. Methods: We utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence staining assay to investigate the effects of ANDRO on AD. Results: ANDRO ameliorated the increase in the intracellular calcium, protein, and messenger RNA levels of TSLP induced by phorbol myristate acetate/calcium ionophore A23187, through the blocking of the receptor-interacting protein 2/caspase-1/NF-κB pathway in human mast cell line 1 cells. ANDRO, via oral or local administration, also attenuated clinical symptoms in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced AD mice model and suppressed the levels of TSLP in lesional skin. Conclusion: Taken together, ANDRO may be a potential therapeutic agent for AD through suppressing the expression of TSLP. Keywords: atopic dermatitis, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, andrographolide, human mast cell

  12. Effects of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. extract and methyl vanillate on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions and TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced chemokines production in HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sue Ji; Kim, Myungsuk; Randy, Ahmad; Nam, Eui Jeong; Nho, Chu Won

    2016-11-01

    Here, we hypothesized that Hovenia dulcis branch extract (HDB) and its active constituents ameliorates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions by modulating the T helper Th1/Th2 balance in NC/Nga mice and TNF-α- and IFN-γ-induced production of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) in HaCaT cells. HaCaT cells were stimulated by TNF-α/IFN-γ in the presence of HDB and its constituents. TARC and MDC were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR. For the in-vivo study, oral feeding of HDB was performed for 5 weeks with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) treatment every other day. The efficacy of HDB on parameters of DNCB-induced AD was evaluated morphologically, physiologically and immunologically. In-vitro studies showed that HDB and its constituents suppressed TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced production of TARC and MDC in HaCaT cells by inhibiting MAPK signalling. In-vivo studies showed that HDB regulated immunoglobulin (Ig) E and immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) levels in serum and the expression of mRNA for Th1- and Th2-related mediators in skin lesions. Histopathological analyses revealed reduced epidermal thickness and reduced infiltration of skin lesions by inflammatory cells. These results suggest that HDB inhibits AD-like skin diseases by regulating Th1 and Th2 responses in NC/Nga mice and in HaCaT cells. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Effects of orally administered Actinidia arguta (Hardy Kiwi) fruit extract on 2-chloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yun; Lee, In-Ki; Son, Mi-Won; Kim, Kyu-Han

    2009-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by highly pruritic, chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin lesions. Furthermore, therapeutic choices are limited, especially in long-standing cases, despite its increasing prevalence. This study was performed to examine the clinical efficacy and the therapeutic mechanism underlying the effects of Actinidia arguta (hardy kiwi) fruit extract in an animal model of AD. To examine the effects of A. arguta extract on AD, 2-chloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene-treated NC/Nga mice were orally administered A. arguta extract (100 mg/kg/day), tacrolimus (1 mg/kg/day), or dexamethasone (3 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Skin severity scores, epidermal thickening, mast cell infiltration and degranulation, total serum immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes (IgE, IgG(1)), and cytokine (interleukin [IL]-4 and interferon [IFN]-gamma) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) (TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9) expressions were examined in each of the study groups. Orally administered A. arguta extract significantly reduced clinical dermatitis severity, epidermal thickness, mast cell dermal infiltration and degranulation, and total levels of serum IgE and IgG(1). Furthermore, this suppression of total serum IgE and IgG(1) levels was accompanied by a decrease in IL-4 and an increase in IFN-gamma expression in skin and splenocytes. Interestingly, TLR-9 expression was increased by oral A. arguta extract. This study confirms that A. arguta extract has potential as a dietary therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD. Furthermore, our findings suggest that its clinical efficacy and mode of action against AD are associated with the modulation of biphasic T-helper (Th) 1/Th2 cytokines, with the inhibition of Th2-mediated IgE overproduction, and possibly with the up-regulation of TLR-9.

  14. 850nm light-emitting-diode phototherapy plus low-dose tacrolimus (FK-506) as combination therapy in the treatment of Dermatophagoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Hyun; Cheong, Kyung Ah; Lee, Ai-Young

    2013-11-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) phototherapy is an effective alternative for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. Tacrolimus (FK-506) is a potent immunomodulating agent, which has been used to treat AD. Combination therapy is often used in the treatment of AD to improve therapeutic efficacy or to reduce the dose of each drug. To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of monotherapy with either 850nm LED phototherapy or low-dose FK-506, and combination therapy in Dermatophagoides farina (Df)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. The Df-induced NC/Nga mice with a clinical score of 7 were used for treatment with LED (10 and 25J/cm(2)) alone, low-dose FK-506 (1mg/kg) or in combination. The synergistic effects of combined therapy were evaluated by dermatitis scores, skin histology, skin barrier function, and immunological parameters, such as IgE, NO, Th2-mediated cytokines and chemokines. Combination therapy with 850nm (25J/cm(2)) LED and low-dose FK-506 showed a significant reduction in the severity of skin lesions. Combined therapy decreased in the serum level of IgE, NO, and in the splenic level of Th2-mediated cytokines and chemokines. Combination therapy significantly also reduced the inflammatory cellular infiltrate into the skin lesions. Moreover, combination therapy led to recovery of skin barrier function in the skin lesions. The use of combination of LED phototherapy and low-dose immunosuppressant improved Df-induced AD-like skin lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model by dominantly reducing IgE, NO, suppressing Th2-mediated immune responses, and inhibiting inflammatory cells, as well as improving skin barrier function. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spontaneous atopic dermatitis is mediated by innate immunity, with the secondary lung inflammation of the atopic march requiring adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Sean P; Moran, Tara; Floudas, Achilleas; Wurlod, Felicity; Kaszlikowska, Agnieszka; Salimi, Maryam; Quinn, Emma M; Oliphant, Christopher J; Núñez, Gabriel; McManus, Ross; Hams, Emily; Irvine, Alan D; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Ogg, Graham S; Fallon, Padraic G

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition that can occur in early life, predisposing to asthma development in a phenomenon known as the atopic march. Although genetic and environmental factors are known to contribute to AD and asthma, the mechanisms underlying the atopic march remain poorly understood. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations are a major genetic predisposer for the development of AD and progression to AD-associated asthma. We sought to experimentally address whether filaggrin mutations in mice lead to the development of spontaneous eczematous inflammation and address the aberrant immunologic milieu arising in a mouse model of filaggrin deficiency. Filaggrin mutant mice were generated on the proallergic BALB/c background, creating a novel model for the assessment of spontaneous AD-like inflammation. Independently recruited AD case collections were analyzed to define associations between filaggrin mutations and immunologic phenotypes. Filaggrin-deficient mice on a BALB/c background had profound spontaneous AD-like inflammation with progression to compromised pulmonary function with age, reflecting the atopic march in patients with AD. Strikingly, skin inflammation occurs independently of adaptive immunity and is associated with cutaneous expansion of IL-5-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Furthermore, subjects with filaggrin mutations have an increased frequency of type 2 innate lymphoid cells in the skin in comparison with control subjects. This study provides new insights into our understanding of the atopic march, with innate immunity initiating dermatitis and the adaptive immunity required for subsequent development of compromised lung function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Atopic dermatitis-like pre-Sézary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokołowska-Wojdyło, Małgorzata; Barańska-Rybak, Wioletta; Cegielska, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    histology without presence of atypical cells). In our patients, overt Sézary syndrome developed after immunosuppressive treatment (including cyclosporine). These cases support the validity of the concept of pre-Sézary syndrome, which is a long-lasting, pre-malignant condition, and which may develop to true...

  17. Evaluation of Immune Indices and Serum Vitamin D Content in Children with Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Opałka, Agnieszka; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Lewicki, Sławomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Kalicki, Bolesław

    2017-01-01

    The influence of vitamin D on allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis, is linked to the presence of vitamin D nuclear receptors in immune cells. The present study seeks to determine the possible relationship between serum vitamin D content and immune indices in children with atopic dermatitis. The study was conducted in 19 children with atopic dermatitis. The control consisted of 17 age-matched healthy children. A single significant finding was a distinctly lower number of serum regulatory T cells in atopic dermatitis compared with controls (p atopic dermatitis. In conclusion, the results point to a regulatory role of T cells in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, but fail to substantiate the influence of vitamin D on the course of the disease.

  18. Helicobacter pylori immunization and atopic dermatitis in South Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedullà, Marcella; Fierro, Vincenzo; Del Tufo, Ester; Alfano, Rossella; Triassi, Maria; Perrone, Laura

    2014-08-01

    The epidemiological decrease of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection has been recently associated to the increase of several extra-intestinal allergic disorders. We investigated the role of specific Hp IgG production in the development of IgE or not IgE mediated food allergy (FA) in children affected by atopic dermatitis (AD). From January 2010 to July 2013, 290 South Italian children, aged between 26 and 142 months, were consecutively referred to the Pediatric Clinic of the Pediatric Department at Second University of Naples and were diagnosed as affected by AD. The patients were classified in two groups on the basis of diagnosis of food allergy (88 FA affected and 202 not FA affected) and further divided on the basis of the diagnosis of atopy (63 IgE mediated and 23 not IgE mediated). Hp serum IgG was detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Wampole® Helicobactor pylori IgG ELISA II, Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ) and Hp stool antigens using enzyme immunoassay (Premier Platinum HpSa plus, Cincinnati OH). We found a statistically significant higher prevalence of Hp serology positivity in not FA vs. FA AD-affected children (p = 0.032) and a significant inverse association between FA and Hp immunization (1/OR 0.32 95% CI 0.11-0.95). Further, we identified an absolute prevalence Hp serology positivity in not-IgE-mediated rather than in IgE-mediated FA AD-affected patients (p = 0.0006). We hypothesize that specific Hp IgG production could protect against the development of both FA and atopy in AD-affected children.

  19. Novel concepts of prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis through barrier and immune manipulations with implications for the atopic march.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnowicki, Tali; Krueger, James G; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2017-06-01

    Skin barrier abnormalities have been suggested to play an essential role in initiation of early atopic dermatitis (AD). Antigen penetration through a compromised barrier likely leads to increased innate immune responses, antigen-presenting cell stimulation, and priming of overt cutaneous disease. In a T H 2-promoting environment, T-cell/B-cell interactions occurring in regional lymph nodes lead to excessive IgE switch. Concurrent redistribution of memory T cells into the circulation not only leads to exacerbation of AD through T-cell skin infiltration but also spreads beyond the skin to initiate the atopic march, which includes food allergy, asthma, and allergic rhinitis. Possible primary interventions to prevent AD are focusing on improving skin barrier integrity, including supplementing barrier function with moisturizers. As for secondary prophylaxis in children with established AD, this can be stratified into prevention of disease exacerbations by using proactive approaches (with either topical corticosteroids or topical calcineurin inhibitors) in mild AD cases or the prevention of other atopic disorders that will probably mandate systemic immunosuppression in severe AD cases. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Fonacier, Luz; Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis cannot be assumed as atopic without further testing. Patch testing should at least be considered in cases of chronic or recurrent eczema regardless of the working diagnosis.

  1. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed...... opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor...... atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis...

  2. Allergies and Asthma: Do Atopic Disorders Result from Inadequate Immune Homeostasis arising from Infant Gut Dysbiosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Our global hypothesis is that atopic conditions and asthma develop because an individual’s immune system is not able to appropriately resolve inflammation resulting from allergen exposures. We propose that the failure to appropriately down-regulate inflammation and produce a toleragenic state results primarily from less robust immune homeostatic processes rather than from a tendency to over-respond to allergenic stimuli. An individual with lower immune homeostatic capacity is unable to rapidly and completely terminate, on average over time, immune responses to innocuous allergens, increasing risk of allergic disease. A lack of robust homeostasis also increases the risk of other inflammatory conditions, such as prolonged respiratory viral infections and obesity, leading to the common co-occurrence of these conditions. Further, we posit that the development of vigorous immune homeostatic mechanisms is an evolutionary adaptation strongly influenced by both 1) exposure to a diverse maternal microbiota through the prenatal period, labor and delivery, and, 2) an orderly assemblage process of the infant’s gut microbiota ecosystem shaped by breastfeeding and early exposure to a wide variety of ingested foods and environmental microbes. This early succession of microbial communities together with early allergen exposures orchestrate the development of an immune system with a robust ability to optimally control inflammatory responses and a lowered risk for atopic disorders. PMID:26776722

  3. Allergies and Asthma: Do Atopic Disorders Result from Inadequate Immune Homeostasis arising from Infant Gut Dysbiosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christine C; Ownby, Dennis R

    2016-01-01

    Our global hypothesis is that atopic conditions and asthma develop because an individual's immune system is not able to appropriately resolve inflammation resulting from allergen exposures. We propose that the failure to appropriately down-regulate inflammation and produce a toleragenic state results primarily from less robust immune homeostatic processes rather than from a tendency to over-respond to allergenic stimuli. An individual with lower immune homeostatic capacity is unable to rapidly and completely terminate, on average over time, immune responses to innocuous allergens, increasing risk of allergic disease. A lack of robust homeostasis also increases the risk of other inflammatory conditions, such as prolonged respiratory viral infections and obesity, leading to the common co-occurrence of these conditions. Further, we posit that the development of vigorous immune homeostatic mechanisms is an evolutionary adaptation strongly influenced by both 1) exposure to a diverse maternal microbiota through the prenatal period, labor and delivery, and, 2) an orderly assemblage process of the infant's gut microbiota ecosystem shaped by breastfeeding and early exposure to a wide variety of ingested foods and environmental microbes. This early succession of microbial communities together with early allergen exposures orchestrate the development of an immune system with a robust ability to optimally control inflammatory responses and a lowered risk for atopic disorders.

  4. The role of innate immune signaling in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis and consequences for treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skabytska, Yuliya; Kaesler, Susanne; Volz, Thomas; Biedermann, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ at the interface between the environment and the host. Consequently, the skin plays a central role in mounting effective host defense. In addition to pathogens, the microbiota and the host immune system are in permanent contact and communication via the skin. Consequences of this permanent interaction are a unique and partly symbiotic relationship, a tight interdependence between these partners, and also a functional "setting the clock," in which, in the healthy steady state, an induction of protective responses to pathogens is guaranteed. At the same time, commensal microbes contribute to the alertness of the immune system and to the maintenance of immune tolerance. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease based on a complex genetic trait with defects in cutaneous barrier, in stabilizing skin integrity. Most of AD patients develop deviated innate and adaptive immune responses. As a result, increased susceptibility to cutaneous infection is found in AD patients, and the interactions between these microbes and the skin participate in the development of chronic cutaneous inflammation. The role of the adaptive immune system was characterized in much detail, less though the contribution of innate immunity to AD pathogenesis. It is rather recent evidence that demonstrates a dominant role of components of the innate immune system not only for protecting from microbial invasion but also by orchestrating chronic skin inflammation. In this review we discuss the role of innate immune signaling and consecutive immune networks important for the pathogenesis and management of AD.

  5. IL10 polymorphisms influence neonatal immune responses, atopic dermatitis, and wheeze at age 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedler, Diana; Illi, Sabina; Pinto, Leonardo Araujo; von Mutius, Erika; Illig, Thomas; Kabesch, Michael; Schaub, Bianca

    2013-03-01

    IL10 encodes for IL-10, an important anti-inflammatory cytokine with pleiotropic effects. It is crucial for development of immune tolerance, downregulates expression of TH1 cytokines, and is relevant for T-cell regulation. Several IL10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with inflammatory diseases, such as atopic diseases, which might have their onset during early immune maturation. We hypothesized that IL10 SNPs are associated with decreased regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers, TH2-skewed immune responses, and decreased IFN-γ levels in cord blood parallel with increased proinflammatory markers, subsequently leading to increased atopic diseases until 3 years. Eight genetic IL10 variants, represented by 4 linkage disequilibrium blocks (R(2) > 0.80) and 2 distal promoter SNPs, were genotyped in cord blood mononuclear cells of 200 healthy neonates. Cord blood mononuclear cells were cultured unstimulated or after stimulation with lipid A, peptidoglycan, PHA, house dust mite (Der p 1), or Der p 1 plus lipid A. mRNA expression of Treg cell-associated genes (forkhead box protein P3 [FOXP3], glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor [GITR], lymphocyte activation gene 3 [LAG3]), TH1/TH2 cytokines, TNF-α, and GM-CSF were assessed. Atopic and respiratory outcomes (atopic dermatitis [AD] and wheeze) were assessed by means of questionnaire at age 3 years. Carriers of 3 IL10 SNP blocks and both distal promoter SNPs showed reduced expression of Treg cell markers, reduced IL-5 levels, proinflammatory TNF-α and GM-CSF, and partially increased IFN-γ levels. The same SNPs presented as determinant for AD, wheeze, or symptoms of AD, wheeze, or both at age 3 years. Polymorphisms in IL10 influenced Treg cell marker expression and TH1/TH2 and proinflammatory cytokine secretion early in life. This was relevant for further development of immune-mediated diseases, such as AD and wheeze, in early childhood. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  6. Atopic dermatitis: immune deviation, barrier dysfunction, IgE autoreactivity and new therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masutaka Furue

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic or chronically relapsing, eczematous, severely pruritic skin disorder mostly associated with IgE elevation and skin barrier dysfunction due to decreased filaggrin expression. The lesional skin of AD exhibits Th2- and Th22-deviated immune reactions that are progressive during disease chronicity. Th2 and Th22 cytokines further deteriorate the skin barrier by inhibiting filaggrin expression. Some IgEs are reactive to self-antigens. The IgE autoreactivity may precipitate the chronicity of AD. Upon activation of the ORAI1 calcium channel, atopic epidermis releases large amounts of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, which initiates the Th2 and Th22 immune response. Th2-derived interleukin-31 and TSLP induce an itch sensation. Taken together, TSLP/Th2/Th22 pathway is a promising target for developing new therapeutics for AD. Enhancing filaggrin expression using ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor may also be an adjunctive measure to restore the disrupted barrier function specifically for AD.

  7. Regulation of T cell immunity in atopic dermatitis by microbes: The Yin and Yang of cutaneous inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eBiedermann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease predominantly mediated by T helper cells. While numerous adaptive immune mechanisms in AD pathophysiology have been elucidated in detail, deciphering the impact of innate immunity in AD pathogenesis has made substantial progress in recent years and is currently a fast evolving field. As innate and adaptive immunity are intimately linked cross-talks between these two branches of the immune system are critically influencing the resulting immune response and disease. Innate immune recognition of the cutaneous microbiota was identified to substantially contribute to immune homeostasis and shaping of protective adaptive immunity in the absence of inflammation. Disturbances in the composition of the skin microbiome with reduced microbial diversity and overabundance of Staphylococcus spp. have been shown to be associated with AD inflammation. Distinct S. aureus associated microbial associated molecular patterns (MAMPs binding to TLR2 heterodimers could be identified to initiate long lasting cutaneous inflammation driven by T helper cells and consecutively local immune suppression by induction of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC further favoring secondary skin infections as often seen in AD patients. Moreover dissecting cellular and molecular mechanisms in cutaneous innate immune sensing in AD pathogenesis paved the way for exploiting regulatory and anti-inflammatory pathways to attenuate skin inflammation. Activation of the innate immune system by MAMPs of non-pathogenic bacteria on AD skin alleviated cutaneous inflammation. The induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells, Interleukin-10 expression and regulatory Tr1 cells were shown to mediate this beneficial effect. Thus, activation of innate immunity by MAMPs of non-pathogenic bacteria for induction of regulatory T cell phenotypes seems to be a promising strategy for treatment of inflammatory skin disorders as atopic dermatitis. These

  8. Allergens in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Y-S

    2007-12-01

    Allergens play an essential role in atopic dermatitis, either intrinsic or extrinsic. They provoke cutaneous inflammation via IgE-dependent and cell-mediated immune reactions. Food allergens have a well-known contribution to disease activity of atopic dermatitis, especially in infants and young children. However, the importance of inhaled allergens is still under investigation. For clinical implication, identification of individualized allergens is an ideal strategy for better control of atopic dermatitis and avoidance of atopic march. The aim of this article is to discuss the common allergens in atopic dermatitis (AD), the specificity and sensitivity of laboratory tests for allergens, and the clinical effect of various preventions.

  9. Comparison of IgG IgGl lgG2 immune responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide in atopic nonatopic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Noguchi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of naturally occurring IgG, IgGl and lgG2 antibodies against polyvalent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen (Pneumovax® were compared between atopic and nonatopic children with different ages, 6–12 months and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5–9 and 10–15 years, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children with asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy or a combination of these, and those having serum IgE levels exceeding 50 IU/mL at 6–12 months old and 100 IU/mL at more than 1-year-old were included as atopic groups. Asymptomatic children whose serum IgE levels were less than these atopic standards and those not having detectable IgE antibodies to Dermatophagoides farinae comprised the nonatopic groups. Geometric mean levels of IgG and IgG1 antibodies against pneumococcal antigen increased steadily with age, and that of IgG2 antibodies was low until 3 years of age and then gradually increased age-dependently up to 15 years of age. The levels of IgG antibody as well as IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were not significantly different between atopic and nonatopic children in any age group. This suggests that the immune response to the most common bacterial pathogen in the respiratory tract does not influence atopic status.

  10. Specific IgE and IgG4 immune responses to tetanus and diphtheria toxoid in atopic and nonatopic children during the first two years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannemann, A.; van Ree, R.; Kulig, M.; Bergmann, R. L.; Bauer, P.; Forster, J.; Guggenmoos-Holzmann, I.; Aalberse, R. C.; Wahn, U.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to investigate, whether atopic and nonatopic children show differences in their specific IgE and IgG4 immune responses to tetanus (T) and diphtheria (D) antigens, we studied 538 children who had been followed from birth on and from whom records had been kept of all

  11. Forsythia suspensa Suppresses House Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Jang, Seol; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Forsythia suspensa (F. suspensa) is a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of an ethanol extract from F. suspensa fruits on atopic dermatitis both in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the inhibitory effects of F. suspensa extract on the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model exposed to Dermatophagoides farinae crude extract. Topical application of F. suspensa extract to the mice attenuated...

  12. Atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease with early onset and with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 20%. The aetiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but the recent discovery of filaggrin mutations holds promise that the progression of atopic dermatitis to asthma in later childhood...... may be halted. Atopic dermatitis is not always easily manageable and every physician should be familiar with the fundamental aspects of treatment. This paper gives an overview of the natural history, clinical features, and treatment of atopic dermatitis....

  13. Identification of novel immune and barrier genes in atopic dermatitis by laser capture micro-dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esaki, H.; Ewald, David Adrian; Ungar, B.

    2014-01-01

    and normal skin from healthy volunteers, followed by gene expression (microarrays and real-time PCR) and immunostaining studies. RESULTS: Our study identified novel immune and barrier genes, including the IL-34 cytokine and claudins 4 and 8, and showed increased detection of key AD genes usually undetectable...... on arrays (ie, IL22, thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP], CCL22, and CCL26). Overall, the combined epidermal and dermal transcriptomes enlarged the AD transcriptome, adding 674 upregulated and 405 downregulated differentially expressed genes between lesional and nonlesional skin to the AD transcriptome. We...... molecules and enabling detection of gene products usually not detected on arrays....

  14. Atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Wade

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common, chronic skin disorder that can significantly impact the quality of life of affected individuals as well as their families. Although the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood, it appears to result from the complex interplay between defects in skin barrier function, environmental and infectious agents, and immune abnormalities. There are no specific diagnostic tests for AD; therefore, the diagnosis is based on specific clinical criteria that take into account the patient’s history and clinical manifestations. Successful management of the disorder requires a multifaceted approach that involves education, optimal skin care practices, anti-inflammatory treatment with topical corticosteroids and/or topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs, the use of first-generation antihistamines to help manage sleep disturbances, and the treatment of skin infections. Systemic corticosteroids may also be used, but are generally reserved for the acute treatment of severe flare-ups. Topical corticosteroids are the first-line pharmacologic treatments for AD, and evidence suggests that these agents may also be beneficial for the prophylaxis of disease flare-ups. Although the prognosis for patients with AD is generally favourable, those patients with severe, widespread disease and concomitant atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, are likely to experience poorer outcomes.

  15. [Effects of Blending Oil of Lavender and Thyme on Oxidative Stress, Immunity, and Skin Condition in Atopic Dermatitis Induced Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Mi; Jeong, Seok Hee

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of essential oil on oxidative stress, immunity, and skin condition in atopic dermatitis (AD) induced mice. This study was a 3×3 factorial design. Factors were oil type (Lavender, Thyme, and 2:1 mixture of lavender and thyme oil [blending oil]) and treatment period (0 day, 7 days, and 21 days). The samples were 45 mice with AD and randomly assigned to nine groups of five mice per group. The dependent variables such as superoxide radical, IgE, degranulated mast cells, and epidermal thickness were measured. Data were collected from February to April in 2014. Descriptive statistics, One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, and Tukey's HSD test were performed using the SPSS WIN 20.0 program. Dependent variables were not statistically significantly different by the three oil types (p>.05). Essential oils such as lavender, thyme, and blending oil were all effective in reducing AD symptoms and especially 2:1 blending oil were most effective. There were statistically significant differences by the three treatment periods in all dependent variables (p<.001). There were statistically significant interactions between oil types and treatment periods in all dependent variables (p<.01). For decreasing superoxide radical, degranulated mast cells, and epidermal thickness, 2:1 mixed oil should be applied for at least 21 days. Otherwise to reduce IgE, 2:1 mixed oil should be used for at least 7 days. These findings provide bases for developing effective interventions for AD patients to manage their AD symptoms.

  16. Can atopic dermatitis be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de la Fuente, E

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis has become a health problem in our setting due to its rising prevalence, impact on quality of life, associated costs, and role in the progression to other atopic diseases. Furthermore, atopic dermatitis has no definitive cure and therefore preventive measures are important. In this article, we review the latest advances in both primary prevention (reduction of the incidence of atopic dermatitis) and secondary prevention (reduction of associated morbidity and reduction of the atopic march). We analyze the different preventive strategies available, including modification of the immune system through microbial exposure, induction of immune tolerance through antigen exposure, and restoration of skin barrier function to halt the atopic march. Dermatologists need to be familiar with these strategies in order to apply them where necessary and to accurately inform patients and their relatives to prevent misguided or inappropriate actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological Stress and the Cutaneous Immune Response: Roles of the HPA Axis and the Sympathetic Nervous System in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. F. Hall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress, an evolutionary adaptation to the fight-or-flight response, triggers a number of physiological responses that can be deleterious under some circumstances. Stress signals activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Elements derived from those systems (e.g., cortisol, catecholamines and neuropeptides can impact the immune system and possible disease states. Skin provides a first line of defense against many environmental insults. A number of investigations have indicated that the skin is especially sensitive to psychological stress, and experimental evidence shows that the cutaneous innate and adaptive immune systems are affected by stressors. For example, psychological stress has been shown to reduce recovery time of the stratum corneum barrier after its removal (innate immunity and alters antigen presentation by epidermal Langerhans cells (adaptive immunity. Moreover, psychological stress may trigger or exacerbate immune mediated dermatological disorders. Understanding how the activity of the psyche-nervous -immune system axis impinges on skin diseases may facilitate coordinated treatment strategies between dermatologists and psychiatrists. Herein, we will review the roles of the HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system on the cutaneous immune response. We will selectively highlight how the interplay between psychological stress and the immune system affects atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  18. Microbiome and pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Claire E; McShane, Diana B; Gilligan, Peter H; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2015-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with drastic impacts on pediatric health. The pathogenesis of this common disease is not well understood, and the complex role of the skin microbiome in the pathogenesis and progression of atopic dermatitis is being elucidated. Skin commensal organisms promote normal immune system functions and prevent the colonization of pathogens. Alterations in the skin microbiome may lead to increased Staphylococcus aureus colonization and atopic dermatitis progression. Despite the evidence for their important role, probiotics have not been deemed efficacious for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, although studies suggest that probiotics may be effective at preventing the development of atopic dermatitis when given to young infants. This review will cover the most recent published work on the microbiome and pediatric atopic dermatitis. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. [Atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B

    1994-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial skin disease with a chronic or a chronic-relapsing course which often starts during infancy. The persistence rate of AD after the puberty is certainly higher than mostly assumed. 60% of the patients also develop respiratory atopies as hay fever or bronchial asthma. The etiology of this distressing skin condition is still obscure, but an immunological disturbance of the T-cell immune response is most probably implicated in its pathogenesis. The demonstration of IgE-bearing epidermal Langerhans cells with high-affinity receptors for IgE opens up new perspectives in its pathophysiology. As no efficient treatment of AD is known and a symptomatic treatment, local with emolients, corticosteroids and/or disinfectants as well as internal with antihistamines, is often difficult and unsatisfactory, prevention is of particular importance. The efficacy of prolonged breast-feeding, a strict prohibition of cow milk, egg, fish--during the first six months of life--and of keeping pets as well as a consequent treatment against house-dust mites can reduce the incidence of AD in 'at risk' children with a family history of atopy. Besides symptomatic treatment a substitution of essential fatty acids, a UV therapy and a climate therapy are other possible approaches in the management of such patients.

  20. Management of Children with Atopic Dermatitis: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Golpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Context Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing skin disorder that affects all ages including infancy and childhood. There are many proved and unproved treatments for atopic dermatitis. Evidence Acquisition Data sources of this narrative review included studies about pediatric atopic dermatitis with the following keywords, pediatric, atopic dermatitis, immunity, acute, chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin disorder, infancy, childhood, diagnosis, management and treatment. All of the articles were written in English language with full text on management or treatment. Results Innate and adaptive immune system involved atopic dermatitis. Major characteristics of atopic dermatitis include pruritus, chronic or relapsing lesions and personal or family history of atopic disease. There is no specific treatment for atopic dermatitis. The treatment included rehydration, emollients, topical steroid, calcineurin inhibitors and immunosuppressant. Crisaborole topical ointment, a PDE4 anti-inflammatory topical agent (phase three of the research could be effective in atopic dermatitis. Conclusions Avoidance from trigger factors and emollients are basic treatments of atopic dermatitis.

  1. Atopic dermatitis - children - homecare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantile eczema; Dermatitis - atopic children; Eczema - atopic - children ... child's provider what kind is right for your child. Atopic dermatitis is usually treated with medicines placed directly on ...

  2. Pruni cortex ameliorates skin inflammation possibly through HMGB1-NF?B pathway in house dust mite induced atopic dermatitis NC/Nga transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Sreedhar, Remya; Afrin, Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Takashi; Nomoto, Mayumi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Fukumoto, Kyoko; Ueno, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Pruni cortex, the bark of Prunus jamasakura Siebold ex Koidzumi, has been used in the Japanese systems of medicine for many years for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitussive properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of pruni cortex on atopic dermatitis NC/Nga mouse model. Atopic dermatitis-like lesion was induced by the application of house dust mite extract to the dorsal skin. After induction of atopic dermatitis, pruni cortex aqueous extract (1?g/kg, p.o.) was adminis...

  3. Atopic dermatitis and association of risk for primary immune thrombocytopenia and autoimmune diseases among children: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chang-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Shen, Te-Chun; Tsai, Jeng-Dau

    2016-07-01

    Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is currently defined as an acquired autoimmune disorder with persistent thrombocytopenia. However, the temporal interaction between T helper type 2 cell (Th2)-mediated allergic diseases and T helper type 1 cell (Th1)-mediated ITP remains unknown. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is considered one of the first steps in the atopic march. Herein, we conducted a population-based cohort analysis to investigate the risk of ITP in children with AD in comparison with non-AD controls. We subsequently compared the occurrence of other autoimmune diseases in ITP children in both AD and non-AD cohorts. From 2000 to 2007, 120,704 children with newly diagnosed AD and 241,408 randomly selected non-AD controls were included in the study. By the end of 2008, incidences of ITP in both cohorts and the AD cohort to non-AD cohort hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were measured. Comparison of the occurrence of other autoimmune diseases in ITP between children with and without AD was analyzed. The incidence of ITP during the study period was 1.72-fold greater (95% CI: 1.13-2.62) in the AD cohort than in the non-AD cohort (6.96 vs 4.00 per 100,000 person-years). The risk was greatest among male children, children >2 years, those in densely populated areas, and those with white-collar parents. The HR of ITP in AD children increased significantly with the number of AD-related clinical visits (P children had a greater risk of developing ITP and other autoimmune diseases. Further research is needed to clarify the role of allergy in the pathogenesis of ITP and autoimmune diseases.

  4. Glycomacropeptide Attenuates Inflammation, Pruritus, and Th2 Response Associated with Atopic Dermatitis Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fabiola Carolina; Cervantes-García, Daniel; Jiménez, Mariela; Ventura-Juárez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common skin diseases, whose incidence is increasing in industrialized countries. The epicutaneous application of a hapten, such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), evokes an experimental murine AD-like reaction. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a dairy bioactive peptide derived from hydrolysis of κ-casein by chymosin action. It has anti-inflammatory, prebiotic, and immunomodulatory effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of GMP administration on DNCB-induced AD in rats. The severity of inflammatory process, pruritus, production of cytokines, and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) content were measured, and the histopathological features were analyzed. GMP reduced the intensity of inflammatory process and edema of DNCB-induced dermatitis, with a significant decrease in eosinophils recruitment and mast cells hyperplasia. In addition GMP suppressed the serum levels of total IgE and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 expression in AD-lesions. Besides, the levels of IL-10 were significantly increased. Remarkably, GMP administration before AD-induction abolished pruritus in dermatitis-like reactions in the rats. Taken together, these results indicate that GMP has an inhibitory effect on AD by downregulating Th2 dominant immune response, suggesting GMP as a potential effective alternative therapy for the prevention and management of AD. PMID:28265582

  5. Effects of electroacupuncture on capsaicin-induced model of atopic dermatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dal-Lim; Lee, Seung-Deok; Choi, In-Hwa; Na, Heung-Sik; Hong, Seung-Ug

    2014-04-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is used as a prescription to treat pruritus and atopic dermatitis. Whether EA affects experimental itch in rat models of immunologic or neuronal damages, however, is unknown. The present study was designed to determine the therapeutic effects of high-frequency EA on atopic dermatitis-like lesions in rats. Capsaicin (50mg/kg) was subcutaneously administered rat pups within 48h after birth. Rats then underwent 30min of EA at six acupoints (bilateral BL13, and unilateral LI11, ST36, SP10, SP6) every other day (EA group) for 3 weeks. Measurements of IgE, mast cells, scratching behavior, dynorphin release, skin thickness and dermatitis score were obtained. Only the dermatitis score and dynorphin expression were decreased in the EA group compared with the control non-EA group. We suggest that high-frequency EA alleviates pruritus of atopic dermatitis-like lesions in rats induced by capsaicin injection, via the release of dynorphin. These findings indicate a new potential therapeutic approach for the amelioration of symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Annette; Bjerke, Torbjørn; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2004-01-01

    to focus on this phenotype, and specific susceptibility genes remain to be found. To identify candidate regions holding genes for atopic dermatitis we performed a genome-scan in Danish affected sib-pair families containing sib-pairs matching a phenotype definition of both clinical atopic dermatitis...... and confirmed specific allergy. The scan was undertaken using 446 microsatellite markers and non-parametric linkage results were obtained from the MAPMAKER/SIBS computer program. We found evidence of linkage to three candidate regions in chromosomes 3p (MLS=2.14), 4p (MLS=2.00) and 18q (MLS=2.25), one of which...

  7. Patients with atopic dermatitis and history of eczema herpeticum elicit HSV-specific type 2 immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traidl, Stephan; Kienlin, Petra; Begemann, Gabriele; Jing, Lichen; Koelle, David M; Werfel, Thomas; Roesner, Lennart M

    2017-11-15

    An increased type 2 and in parallel decreased type 1 T cell immune response to herpes simplex virus 1 may lead to the clinical phenotype of eczema herpeticum. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. T cell epitope-specific defects in the immune response to cat allergen in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Raquel; Reefer, Amanda; Wilson, Barbara; Hammer, Juergen; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Custis, Natalie; Woodfolk, Judith

    2004-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is often associated with high titer IgE antibodies (ab) to allergens, and IL-10-mediated regulation of IFN-gamma has been proposed to contribute to this IgE ab production. However, the relevance of IL-10 and IFN-gamma to IgE associated with AD has not been examined in the context of an allergen-specific system. Analysis of PBMC responses in vitro showed deficient T cell proliferation to overlapping IL-10- (peptide (P) 2:1) and IFN-gamma- (P2:2) inducing chain 2 major epitopes of cat allergen (Fel d 1) in cultures from sensitized AD patients (mean IgE to cat=20.9 IU/ml). Diminished IFN-gamma induction by Fel d 1 and P2:2, along with elevated peptide-induced IL-10 (except for P2:1) was observed in PBMC cultures from AD subjects compared with non-AD (sensitized and non-sensitized) subjects. Neither T cell proliferation nor IFN-gamma production to chain 2 epitopes could be restored by anti-IL-10 mAb in cultures from sensitized AD subjects. Moreover, allergen avoidance was associated with a paradoxical decrease in both IL-10 and IFN-gamma in peptide-stimulated PBMC from these subjects. Control of IFN-gamma production to chain 2 epitopes by IL-10 may be relevant to sensitization status. Development of high titer IgE ab in AD could reflect a failure of this mechanism.

  9. Immune modulator pidotimod decreases the in vitro expression of CD30 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of atopic asthmatic and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgiotis, Dimitrios; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Bossios, Apostolos; Zamanis, Petros; Saxoni-Papageorgiou, Photini

    2004-01-01

    Recurrent viral infections are frequently observed in children with atopic asthma. In this study we investigated the ability of the synthetic immunomodulator pidotimod to affect in vitro the phenotype and/or cytokine profile of blood cells in relation to atopic asthma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 13 atopic asthmatic and 9 normal children and stimulated in culture with mitogen either in the presence or not of the drug. Expression of surface markers was evaluated by flow cytometry, and production of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma was measured in supernatants. Pidotimod was able to down-regulate the expression of CD30 on cells from both atopic and normal subjects. Because CD30 has been associated with Th-2 cells, this observation supports the possibility of pidotimod being able to affect the Th-1/Th-2 balance in atopic asthma.

  10. Immunology of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piloto Valdés, L J; Valdés Sánchez, A F; Gómez Echevarría, A H

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-two adult patients with atopic dermatitis were studied at the Allergology Service of the "Hnos. Ameijeiras" Clinical Surgical Hospital. The diagnosis was established following the criteria of Hanifin and Lobitz. A detailed medical history was written for the patients; the study of some immunological parameters, such as the serum immunoglobulin quantification, delayed skin tests with a battery of antigens, and the spontaneous rosette-test, was also carried out. Almost all the patients showed serum IgE values above 150 UI, by means of the ELISA test modified by C.E.N.I.C. The mean values of the spontaneous rosette-test were low; this was more noticeable during the exacerbation period of the lesions. Candida sp, Mantoux and Streptokinase-Streptodornase antigens showed negative results in a high proportion of patients with atopic dermatitis, in relation with the control group. In atopic dermatitis, there are humoral disorders of immunity; this was demonstrated in our group by increased values of IgE and cellular disorders due to skin anergy, and to a low percentage of rosette forming cells; this does not allow to state that these phenomena have an active participation in the etiopathogenesis of this entity.

  11. Association of Toll-Like Cell Receptors TLR2 (p.Arg753GLN and TLR4 (p.Asp299GLY Polymorphisms with Indicators of General and Local Immunity in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Tyurin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A whole group of polymorphisms of genes involved in the formation of the epidermal barrier, immune responses, and their regulation is important in the formation of atopic phenotype. The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship of polymorphisms of genes of Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 with clinical and immunological parameters in atopic dermatitis patients in a “case-control” study. Polymorphisms of genes TLR2 (p.Arg753Gln and TLR4 (Asp299Gly were detected by PCR. Parameters of the state of innate and adaptive immunity were assessed by the level of local production of sIgA, cytokine profile of blood serum for IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ. Biological samples from 50 people with allergic pathology, aged 4.5 to 35 years, and 100 healthy individuals (controls were analyzed. Observed dysregulation of cytokine production (IL-4, IL-10 in patients with heterozygous polymorphic genotypes probably reflects an imbalance of Th1/Th2/Th17 regulation of immune system response in these individuals.

  12. Lipid Nutrition and the Epidermal Barrier: The Connection Between Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors, a New Therapeutic Target in Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrubia, V G; Vidal-Asensi, S; Pérez-Bañasco, V; Cuevas-Santos, J; Cisterna-Cáncer, R

    2010-09-01

    The authors describe peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) transcription factors as connectors between the enzymatic mechanisms of the epidermal barrier and the abnormal immune and inflammatory responses that characterize atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Also described is a new connection between lipid metabolism and the epidermal barrier. A suggestion that emerges is that atopic dermatitis and psoriasis share at least 2 pathogenic mechanisms-namely, deficient expression of PPAR-#a and impaired production of interleukin-10 and interferon-γ-in spite of differences in causes and manifestations. A standardized olive oil formulation with powerful bactericidal and fungicidal effects also has the ability to increase serum levels of these 2 cytokines and regulate serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk for inflammatory and cardiovascular disease, suggesting that these may be among the mechanisms responsible for the benefits observed following oral and/or topical administration in patients with atopic dermatitis or psoriasis. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  13. Atopic dermatitis is associated with a fivefold increased risk of polysensitisation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeks, Suzanne; Brand, Paulus

    Aim: It has been hypothesised that in atopic dermatitis, the dysfunctional skin barrier facilitates the transcutaneous presentation of allergens to the immune system. This study examined whether atopic dermatitis increased the likelihood of polysensitisation, namely sensitisation to five or more

  14. Increasing Comorbidities Suggest that Atopic Dermatitis Is a Systemic Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, Patrick M.; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Paller, Amy S.; Kabashima, Kenji; Amagai, Masayuki; Luger, Thomas A.; Deleuran, Mette; Werfel, Thomas; Eyerich, Kilian; Stingl, Georg; Bagot, Martine; Hijnen, Dirk Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815519; Ardern-Jones, Michael; Reynolds, Nick; Spuls, Phyllis; Taieb, Alain

    Atopic dermatitis comorbidities extend well beyond the march to allergic conditions (food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis), suggesting both cutaneous and systemic immune activation. In reviewing atopic dermatitis comorbidities, Councilors of

  15. News from dendritic cells in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäkel, Knut; Hänsel, Anja

    2011-10-01

    Dendritic cells are essential for the generation of innate and adaptive immune responses, which makes them stay on center stage when studying the immuno pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This review will discuss recent findings on the role of dendritic cells subsets in atopic dermatitis and will report novel findings on how the microenvironment conditions dendritic cells to fuel atopic dermatitis. Several microenvironmental factors characteristic for atopic dermatitis and with direct relevance for the disease have been defined. We now increasingly understand how thymic stromal lymphopoietin and histamine contribute to the disease by modulating the function of dendritic cells. We have learned much about the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis by the studies on inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells. However, the current analysis on the functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of dendritic cells in eczematous skin lesions may lead to the definition of additional dendritic cell types relevant in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. In this respect, it appears interesting to further discuss the parallels and differences in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Understanding the heterogeneity of dendritic cells and their functional alteration by local factors in the inflamed skin will provide essential clues to the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.

  16. Morus alba L. suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis induced by the house dust mite in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hye-Sun; Ha, Hyekyung; Lee, Hoyoung; Lee, Jun Kyung; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-04-23

    Morus alba, a medicinal plant in Asia, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. However, the effects of M. alba extract (MAE) on atopic dermatitis have not been verified scientifically. We investigated the effects of MAE on atopic dermatitis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. We evaluated the effects of MAE on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7, as well as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in HaCaT cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for four weeks, and the protective effects of MAE were investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, the plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and histopathological changes in the skin on the back and ears. MAE suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, as well as TARC in HaCaT cells, in a dose-dependent manner. MAE treatment of NC/Nga mice reduced the severity of dermatitis and the plasma levels of IgE and histamine. MAE also reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the skin on the back and ears. Our results suggest that MAE has potent inhibitory effects on atopic dermatitis-like lesion and may be a beneficial natural resource for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  17. A novel atopic dermatitis model induced by topical application with dermatophagoides farinae extract in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mina; Haruna, Takayo; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Hisashi; Iduhara, Miho; Takaki, Shigeki; Deguchi, Masashi; Arimura, Akinori

    2007-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Animal models induced by relevant allergens play a very important role in the elucidation of the disease. The patients with atopic dermatitis are highly sensitized with mite allergens such as Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Therefore, in the present study, we tried to develop a novel model for atopic dermatitis by repeated application with Df extract ointment. Df extract ointment was repeatedly applied to the back of NC/Nga mice together with barrier disruption. Atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions were evaluated by dermatitis scores, skin histology and immunological parameters. The effect of corticosteroid and calcineurin inhibitor was also examined. Repeated application of Df extract ointment caused rapid increase in dermatitis scores. Clinical (skin dryness, erythema, edema and erosion) and histological symptoms (dermal and epidermal thickening, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and inflammatory cell infiltration) in this model were very similar to those in human atopic dermatitis. Serum total and Df-specific IgE levels were elevated in this model compared with normal mice, and draining lymph node cells isolated from the mice that exhibited dermatitis produced significant amounts of interleukin-5, interleukin-13 and interferon-gamma after re-stimulation with Df. Furthermore, current first-line drugs for the treatment of human atopic dermatitis, corticosteroid and tacrolimus ointments, were effective against the clinical and histological symptoms in this model. These results suggest that the model we have established is useful for not only elucidating the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis but also for evaluating therapeutic agents.

  18. Atopic dermatitis: professional orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimat, Paul; Boughattas, Wided; Even, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is often exacerbated by the working environment. In order to reduce the risk of allergy, young people must receive better medical guidance when they choose a career. This is all the more relevant for young atopic patients.

  19. Emerging therapies for atopic dermatitis: JAK inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, David G; Schairer, David; Eichenfield, Lawrence

    2018-03-01

    The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway is a conserved master regulator of immunity and myeloproliferation. Advanced understanding of this pathway has led to development of targeted inhibitors of Janus kinases (Jakinibs). As a class, JAK inhibitors effectively treat a multitude of hematologic and inflammatory diseases. Given such success, use of JAK inhibitors for mitigation of atopic dermatitis is under active investigation. Herein, we review the evolving data on the safety and efficacy of JAK inhibitors in treatment of atopic dermatitis. Although it is still early in the study of JAK inhibitors for atopic dermatitis, evidence identifies JAK inhibitors as effective alternatives to conventional therapies. Nonetheless, multiple large safety and efficacy trials are needed before widespread use of JAK inhibitors can be advocated for atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Itch in Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka; Ulzii, Dugarmaa; Nakahara, Takeshi

    2017-02-01

    Chronic itch in inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, markedly diminishes the quality of life of affected individuals. Comprehensive progress has been made in understanding itch signaling and associated mediators in the skin, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and central nervous system, which may amplify or suppress atopic itch. Conventional therapies for atopic dermatitis are capable of reducing atopic itch; however, most patients are not satisfied with the antipruritic capacity of conventional treatments. Exploring itch pathways and mechanisms may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for atopic itch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbiome in atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting ~10–20% of the general population. AD is characterized by disturbances in epidermal barrier function and hyperactive immune response. Recently, changes in the skin and intestinal microbiome have been analyzed in more detail. The available data suggest a link between disturbed skin microbiome and course of the disease. Flares of the disease are associated with an expansion of Staphylococcus aureus on lesional skin and a substantial loss of biodiversity in skin microbiome. Staphylococci exoproteins and superantigens evoke inflammatory reactions in the host. Skin microbiome includes superficial stratum corneum that is affected by environmental factors such as exposure to germs and cleansing. Available evidence argues for a link between epidermal barrier impairment and disturbances in skin microbiome in AD. In contrast to skin microbiome, intestinal microbiome seems to become stabilized after infancy. There is also a significant heritable component for intestinal microbiome. The microbial taxa, relative percentages and quantities vary remarkably between the different parts of the intestinal tract. Early intestinal microbial colonization may be a critical step for prevention of further development of AD. Skin barrier-aimed topical treatments help to develop a neo-microbiome from deeper compartments. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics have been investigated for the treatment of AD, but further investigations are needed. Targeted treatment options to normalize skin and intestinal microbiome in AD are under investigation. Keywords: atopic dermatitis, microbiome, staphylococci, skin, intestine, antimicrobial peptides

  2. Atopic dermatitis, atopic eczema, or eczema?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantor, R; Thyssen, J P; Paller, A S

    2016-01-01

    terms for AD. METHODS: A systematic review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS (1945-2016) for the terms AD, atopic eczema (AE), and multiple other eczematous disorders. RESULTS: In MEDLINE, 33 060 were identified, of which 21 299 (64.4%) publications used the term 'AD', 15 510 (46.9%) 'eczema', and only...... 2471 (7.5%) AE. Most of these publications used the term AD (82.0%) or eczema (70.8%) without additional nomenclature; only 1.2% used AE alone. Few publications used the terminology 'childhood eczema', 'flexural eczema', 'infantile eczema', 'atopic neurodermatitis', or 'Besnier's prurigo'. AD...... was rarely used until the late 1970s, after which it became the most commonly used of the three terms and continuously increased until 2015. Atopic eczema decreased between 2008 and 2015. Atopic dermatitis was the most commonly used term in studies across almost all publication types, languages, and journals...

  3. Association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Egeberg, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have an altered prevalence or risk for contact sensitization. Increased exposure to chemicals in topical products together with impaired skin barrier function suggest a higher risk, whereas the immune profile suggests a lower ...

  4. Atopic dermatitis -- self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000418.htm Atopic dermatitis - self-care To use the sharing features on ... skin disorder characterized by scaly and itchy rashes. Atopic dermatitis is the most common type. Atopic dermatitis is ...

  5. Sweat mechanisms and dysfunctions in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Aleksi J; Vaughn, Alexandra R; Clark, Ashley K; Yosipovitch, Gil; Shi, Vivian Y

    2018-02-01

    Skin barrier dysfunction is inherent to atopic dermatitis (AD), causing dryness, irritation, and increased permeability to irritants, allergens and pathogens. Eccrine sweat functions as part of the skin's protective barrier. Variations in sweat responses have been observed in patients with AD, and altered sweat composition and dynamics are under-recognized as important factors in the disease cycle. This review discusses the role that sweat plays in the pathogenesis of AD, examines evidence on abnormal sweat composition, secretion, and neuro-immune responses to sweat in atopic skin, and highlights the value of sweat management. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comorbidities of Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Yuki M F; Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review article, we summarize the current evidence about atopic dermatitis (AD)-associated comorbidities, beyond the traditional atopic and allergic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with AD may have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, certain malignancies...

  7. Atopic dermatitis 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    No, Daniel J; Amin, Mina; Egeberg, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Novel and innovative treatment options for atopic dermatitis (AD) are underway. The recent advancements in understanding AD are reminiscent of the progress made in psoriasis research over a decade ago.......Novel and innovative treatment options for atopic dermatitis (AD) are underway. The recent advancements in understanding AD are reminiscent of the progress made in psoriasis research over a decade ago....

  8. The Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis and Its Relationship to Emollients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynde, Charles W; Andriessen, Anneke; Bertucci, Vince; McCuaig, Catherine; Skotnicki, Sandy; Weinstein, Miriam; Wiseman, Marni; Zip, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Human-associated bacterial communities on the skin, skin microbiome, likely play a central role in development of immunity and protection from pathogens. In atopic patients, the skin bacterial diversity is smaller than in healthy subjects. To review treatment strategies for atopic dermatitis in Canada, taking the skin microbiome concept into account. An expert panel of 8 Canadian dermatologists explored the role of skin microbiome in clinical dermatology, specifically looking at atopic dermatitis. The panel reached consensus on the following: (1) In atopic patients, the skin microbiome of lesional atopic skin is different from nonlesional skin in adjacent areas. (2) Worsening atopic dermatitis and smaller bacterial diversity are strongly associated. (3) Application of emollients containing antioxidant and antibacterial components may increase microbiome diversity in atopic skin. The skin microbiome may be the next frontier in preventive health and may impact the approach to atopic dermatitis treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Atopic dermatitis: new evidence on the role of allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heratizadeh, Annice

    2016-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease. In the presence of a complex genetic background, there is increasing evidence for the role of specific allergenic trigger factors in perpetuating skin inflammation in sensitized atopic dermatitis patients. In this review, clinical and in-vitro data so far published on allergen-induced adaptive immune responses in atopic dermatitis are summarized. Emerging new data have been published particularly on adaptive immune responses to inhalant allergens in atopic dermatitis. In a randomized controlled study, the induction of a flare-up by grass pollen exposure in sensitized atopic dermatitis patients could be demonstrated for the first time. T cells directed to the two major allergens of house dust mite have been characterized to display a Th2, and moreover, a Th17 and Th2/Th17 phenotype in sensitized atopic dermatitis patients. With regard to microbial antigens, T cell-mediated immune responses directed to proteins of the species themselves can be observed - as has been published for Staphylococcus aureus and Malassezia spp. Beyond this, specific T-cell activation to cross-reacting human proteins might further trigger the disease in distinct patients. The role of 'autoallergic' phenomena in atopic dermatitis, because of human antigens without known cross-reactivity to environmental allergens, is currently under investigation as well. Recent findings on immunological and clinical characteristics of adaptive immune responses to allergens in atopic dermatitis, but also on the identification of new, potentially relevant allergen sources might contribute to the development of effective treatment strategies 'customized' for allergic inflammation in atopic dermatitis in future.

  10. Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the potential beneficial role of probiotic supplementation in the prevention and treatment of atopic diseases in children. Probiotics are defined as ingested live microorganisms that, when administered in an adequate amount, confer a health benefit to the host. They are mainly represented by Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Several epidemiological data demonstrate that intestinal microflora of atopic children is different from the one of healthy children. Many literature data show that probiotics may modulate the intestinal microflora composition and may have immunomodulatory effect. Based on this hypothesis, probiotics are supposed to confer benefits to allergic diseases. Administration of probiotics when a natural population of indigenous intestinal bacteria is still developing could theoretically influence immune development by favoring the balance between Th1 and Th2 inflammatory responses. For this reason, some studies have evaluated the potential impact of probiotics supplementation in the prevention of atopic dermatitis, with contrasting results. Clinical improvement in immunoglobulin (IgE-sensitized (atopic eczema following probiotic supplementation has been reported in some published studies and the therapeutic effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis seemed to be encouraging. However, as far as the usefulness of probiotics as a prevention strategy is concerned, results are still inconclusive. In fact, the clinical benefits of probiotic therapy depend upon numerous factors, such as the type of bacteria, dosing regimen, delivery method and other underlying host factors, such as age and diet. More studies are still needed to definitively prove the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic eczema.

  11. Pruni cortex ameliorates skin inflammation possibly through HMGB1-NFκB pathway in house dust mite induced atopic dermatitis NC/Nga transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Sreedhar, Remya; Afrin, Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Takashi; Nomoto, Mayumi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Fukumoto, Kyoko; Ueno, Kazuyuki

    2015-05-01

    Pruni cortex, the bark of Prunus jamasakura Siebold ex Koidzumi, has been used in the Japanese systems of medicine for many years for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitussive properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of pruni cortex on atopic dermatitis NC/Nga mouse model. Atopic dermatitis-like lesion was induced by the application of house dust mite extract to the dorsal skin. After induction of atopic dermatitis, pruni cortex aqueous extract (1 g/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 2 weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes and cellular protein expression by Western blotting for nuclear and cytoplasmic high mobility group box 1, receptor for advanced glycation end products, nuclear factor κB, apoptosis and inflammatory markers in the skin of atopic dermatitis mice. The clinical observation confirmed that the dermatitis score was significantly lower when treated with pruni cortex than in the atopic dermatitis group. Similarly pruni cortex inhibited hypertrophy and infiltration of inflammatory cells as identified by histopathology. In addition, pruni cortex significantly inhibited the protein expression of cytoplasmic high mobility group box 1, receptor for advanced glycation end products, nuclear p-nuclear factor kappa B, apoptosis and inflammatory markers. These results indicate that pruni cortex may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of atopic dermatitis by attenuating high mobility group box 1 and inflammation possibly through the nuclear factor κB pathway.

  12. Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  13. Atopic dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathie Page, Sarah; Weston, Stephanie; Loh, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a frequent reason for presentation to general practice. A large number of children are affected by this condition and its treatment can cause significant anxiety for parents. The role of the general practitioner (GP) is to provide advice and allay concerns regarding conventional and alternative treatments. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of atopic dermatitis management in children in the general practice setting. This article also reviews when it is necessary to refer to specialists, the evidence for management and the link to allergies. Prescribing topical steroids to young children with atopic dermatitis involves a thorough understanding of this condition. Achieving treatment compliance partly involves providing adequate explanation to parents in order to reduce their concerns regarding the long-term side effects of topical corticosteroids. Making GPs confident and knowledgeable about atopic dermatitis will make the interaction between the practitioner, families and children more rewarding.

  14. Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Exercise Is Wise Are Detox Diets Safe? Immunizations KidsHealth > For Teens > Immunizations Print A A A What's in this article? ... fault if you don't have all the immunizations (vaccinations) you need. Shots that doctors recommend today ...

  15. Forsythia suspensa Suppresses House Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Jang, Seol; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Forsythia suspensa (F. suspensa) is a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of an ethanol extract from F. suspensa fruits on atopic dermatitis both in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the inhibitory effects of F. suspensa extract on the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model exposed to Dermatophagoides farinae crude extract. Topical application of F. suspensa extract to the mice attenuated the atopic dermatitis symptoms, including increased dermatitis severity score, ear thickness, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin lesions, serum levels of IgE, TNF-α, and histamine, and expression of chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules in ear tissue. In addition, F. suspensa extract inhibited the production of chemokines in TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocytes. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of FSE revealed the presence of four chemical constituents (forsythiaside, phillyrin, pinoresinol, and phylligenin). These compounds inhibited the production of chemokines in TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocytes. These results suggest that the F. suspensa might be a useful candidate for treating allergic skin inflammatory disorders.

  16. Forsythia suspensa Suppresses House Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Young Sung

    Full Text Available Forsythia suspensa (F. suspensa is a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of an ethanol extract from F. suspensa fruits on atopic dermatitis both in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the inhibitory effects of F. suspensa extract on the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model exposed to Dermatophagoides farinae crude extract. Topical application of F. suspensa extract to the mice attenuated the atopic dermatitis symptoms, including increased dermatitis severity score, ear thickness, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin lesions, serum levels of IgE, TNF-α, and histamine, and expression of chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules in ear tissue. In addition, F. suspensa extract inhibited the production of chemokines in TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocytes. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of FSE revealed the presence of four chemical constituents (forsythiaside, phillyrin, pinoresinol, and phylligenin. These compounds inhibited the production of chemokines in TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocytes. These results suggest that the F. suspensa might be a useful candidate for treating allergic skin inflammatory disorders.

  17. Nitrosative events in atopic asthma pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parilova O. O.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between high exhaled nitric oxide levels and eosinophilic-mediated airway inflammation in patients with atopic asthma has been well documented. This generates prerequisites that a regulatory feedback mechanism exists between them. Therefore, the paper briefly describes evidence implementing biosynthesis, enzyme structural features, expression regulation of its isoforms and effects of nitric oxide, which have helped elucidate molecular mechanisms by which nitric oxide selectively promotes asthma exacerbation. In previous study we have demonstrated that airway infiltrate of immune cells contributes to NO synthesis in the respiratory tract during allergic inflammation under guinea pig model of acute asthma with multiple challenges. On the basis of these findings the authors posits that nitric oxide represents an additional signal of the induction of Th2 subset response and be considerably involved in the complex network of immune regulation distinctive for atopic asthma phenotype.

  18. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Joong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA- induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL- 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC- γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK. These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis.

  19. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Cha, Hae-Sim; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM) on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE)/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA-) induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC-) γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK). These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis.

  20. Therapy of atopic eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Major objective is the evaluation of the medical effectiveness of different therapeutical approaches and the cost effectiveness with relevance for Germany. Methods: This health technology assessment (HTA evaluates systemically randomized controlled studies (RCT on the therapy of atopic dermatitis which were published between 1999 and 2004. Further it includes some important clinical studies which have been published after 2004 and other updates the English HTA report by Hoare et al. [1]. Results: Topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin-inhibitors are the principal substances which are currently used for anti-inflammatory therapy in atopic dermatitis. These substances have shown a significant therapeutic efficacy in controlled studies. In newer controlled studies no difference was observable when corticosteroids were applied once or more than once daily onto the skin. Moreover, there is now one controlled study available which points to the fact that an interval therapy with a stronger topical corticosteroid over a limited time (some weeks may lower the risk of recurrent flares of atopic dermatitis. Both topical calcineurin-inhibitors pimecrolimus and tacrolimus have shown a significant therapeutical efficacy in a number of placebo-controlled prospective studies. The wealth of data is high for these substances. Both substances have been shown to be efficient in infants, children and adult patients with atopic dermatitis. The importance of a so-called basic therapy with emollients which have to be adapted to the current status of skin is generally accepted in clinical practice. Controlled studies show the efficacy of ”basic therapy” - although the level of evidence is quite low for this approach. The skin of patients with atopic dermatitis is colonized in the majority with Staphylococcus aureus, a gram-positive bacterium. Therefore, a therapeutical approach for the treatment of atopic dermatitis is the anti-bacterial or

  1. Effect of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata on House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sun Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata (AKH, Zingiberaceae extract on the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, thymus- and-activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17 in HaCaT cells, and histamine level in HMC-1 cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for 4 weeks, and the protective effects of AKH was investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, and plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE and histamine. AKH extract suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, TARC in HaCaT cells, and histamine in HMC-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In in vivo experiments, the severity of dermatitis, including erythema/hemorrhage, edema, erosion and scaling, and plasma levels of IgE, and histamine were lower in NC/Nga mice with atopic dermatitis, treated with AKH extract than in untreated mice. AKH extract reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration on the skin of the back and ear. These results suggest that AKH inhibits the development of house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

  2. Serum prolactin levels in atopic dermatitis and the relationship with disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugrul Ayanoğlu, Burcu; Muştu Koryürek, Özgül; Yıldırm Başkara, Songül

    2017-10-01

    Prolactin performs as a neuroendocrine modulator of skin epithelial cell proliferation and the skin immune system. The aim was to assess the serum prolactin levels in patients with atopic dermatitis and the relationship with disease severity. The study was performed on 46 patients with atopic dermatitis and 100 healthy controls aged between 0.5 years and 19.5 years. The diagnosis of atopic dermatitis was based on clinical findings and the severity of the disease was documented. Venous blood sampling was performed in order to measure prolactin levels. Prolactin levels in atopic dermatitis were not different from controls and there was no relationship between the severity of atopic dermatitis and serum prolactin levels. Prolactin may not have a role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Further studies with larger sample sizes and measurement of prolactin levels in the skin may help to understand the role of prolactin in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.

  3. Improvement of atopic dermatitis with topical application of Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ji; Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Eun Hye; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Kyuseok; Yang, Woong Mo

    2016-03-02

    Spirodela polyrhiza has been used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of urticarial, acute nephritis, inflammation, as well as skin disease. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized hyperplasia of skin lesion and increase of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) level. In this study, the topical effects of S. polyrhiza (SP) on 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD mice model were investigated by several experiments. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups as NOR, CON, DEX, SP 1, and SP 100 groups (n=5, respectively). To induce atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions, DNCB had been applied on shaved dorsal skin. SP was topically treated to DNCB-induced mice as 1 and 100mg/mL concentrations. Histological changes were showed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and the infiltration of mast cells was detected by toluidine blue staining. In addition, the level of IgE and each cytokines were measured and expressions of inflammatory signaling factors were analyzed by western blotting assay. SP treatment improved a hyperplasia of epidermis and dermis in DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesion. The infiltration of mast cells was also decreased by treatment of SP. In addition, SP reduced the level of IgE in serum and attenuated the secretion of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Treatment of SP also inhibited the expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), phosphor-IκB-α, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)s. From these data, we propose that SP ameliorates AD via modulation of pro-inflammatory mediators. SP may have the potential to be used as an alternative for treatment of AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Management of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: The Role of Emollient Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Catherine Mack Correa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disorder that afflicts a growing number of young children. Genetic, immune, and environmental factors interact in a complex fashion to contribute to disease expression. The compromised stratum corneum found in atopic dermatitis leads to skin barrier dysfunction, which results in aggravation of symptoms by aeroallergens, microbes, and other insults. Infants—whose immune system and epidermal barrier are still developing—display a higher frequency of atopic dermatitis. Management of patients with atopic dermatitis includes maintaining optimal skin care, avoiding allergic triggers, and routinely using emollients to maintain a hydrated stratum corneum and to improve barrier function. Flares of atopic dermatitis are often managed with courses of topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors. This paper discusses the role of emollients in the management of atopic dermatitis, with particular emphasis on infants and young children.

  5. HSP: bystander antigen in atopic diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost A Aalberse

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years insight in the complex interactions between innate and adaptive immunity in the regulation of an inflammatory response has increased enormously. This has revived the interest in stress proteins; proteins that are expressed during cell stress. As these proteins can attract and trigger an immunological response they can act as important mediators in this interaction. In this respect, of special interest are proteins that may act as modulators of both innate and adaptive immunity. Heat shock proteins (HSPs are stress proteins that have these, and more, characteristics. More than two decades of studies on HSPs has revealed that they are part of intrinsic, natural mechanisms that steer inflammation. This has provoked comprehensive explorations of the role of HSPs in various human inflammatory diseases.Most studies have focused on classical autoimmune diseases. This has led to the development of clinical studies with HSPs that have shown promise in Phase II/III clinical trials. Remarkably, only very little is yet known of the role of HSPs in atopic diseases. In allergic disease a number of studies have investigated the possibility that allergen-specific regulatory T cell (Treg function is defective in individuals with allergic diseases. This raises the question whether methods can be identified to improve the Treg repertoire. Studies from other inflammatory diseases have suggested HSPs may have such a beneficial effect on the T cell repertoire. Based on the immune mechanisms of atopic diseases, in this review we will argue that, as in other human inflammatory conditions, understanding immunity to HSPs is likely also relevant for atopic diseases. Specifically, we will discuss why certain HSPs such as HSP60 connect the immune response to environmental antigens with regulation of the inflammatory response.Thus they provide a molecular link that may eventually even help to better understand the immune pathological basis of the hygiene

  6. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters January 14, 2013 Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis Normal skin from a mouse (left) shows no ... that lack of a certain protein may trigger atopic dermatitis, the most common type of eczema. The finding ...

  7. New insights into atopic dermatitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leung, Donald Y M; Boguniewicz, Mark; Howell, Michael D; Nomura, Ichiro; Hamid, Qutayba A

    2004-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with cutaneous hyperreactivity to environmental triggers and is often the first step in the atopic march that results in asthma and allergic rhinitis...

  8. Soluble interleukin 2 receptor in atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, G. B.; Symons, J. A.; Duff, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentrations are related to disease activity in atopic eczema. DESIGN--Single cohort longitudinal study with controls. SETTING--Outpatient and general medicine departments in secondary referral centre. PATIENTS--Of 15 patients aged 17-57 with severe atopic eczema, all with acute exacerbations of disease, 13 were admitted to hospital and two treated as outpatients until the skin lesions had resolved or greatly improved. Nineteen controls gave single blood samples. INTERVENTIONS--Daily skin dressing with betamethasone valerate (0.025%) and ichthammol paste and tubular dressings. END POINT--Resolution of or considerable improvement in skin lesions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentrations in blood samples taken on admission, at intervals subsequently, and on discharge. Clinical scores of disease activity were also made. Median concentrations on admission were significantly higher (770 U/ml) in the patients than the controls (300 U/ml). Concentrations fell significantly during treatment. In 25 assessments made at different times in 13 patients serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentration correlated significantly (R = 0.73) with clinical disease activity. CONCLUSIONS--Cellular immunopathogenic mechanisms contribute to atopic eczema. Immune activation can be measured in atopic eczema by measurements of soluble interleukin 2 receptor, and this should facilitate assessment of response to treatment. PMID:2568868

  9. [Atopic dermatitis in children and adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipozencić, Jasna; Ljubojević, Suzana; Gregurić, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease characterized by itching and typical clinical features, depending on patient age. It is often associated with other atopic diseases such as asthma or allergic rhinitis, resulting from the complex etiology and pathogenesis. It occurs more frequently in people with genetic predisposition for atopic diseases. The intensity and extent of skin lesions (Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis, SCORAD Index) vary significantly among AD patients, depending on whether it is acute or chronic, and there are variations in laboratory parameters, especially immune. In the future, it will be necessary to reach consensus on the new criteria for defining AD instead of the old ones (brought by Hanifin and Rajka 31 years ago). What is needed is effective and safe treatment, and control of the early stages of AD as well as maintaining AD remission. The new therapeutic approach in AD has greatly improved the quality of life of AD patients. As the prevalence of the disease continues to increase, we emphasize the importance of prevention, prompt recognition and optimal treatment of the many patients with AD.

  10. Unbalance of intestinal microbiota in atopic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela Marco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Playing a strategic role in the host immune function, the intestinal microbiota has been recently hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of atopy. In order to investigate the gastrointestinal microbial ecology of atopic disease, here we performed a pilot comparative molecular analysis of the faecal microbiota in atopic children and healthy controls. Results Nineteen atopic children and 12 healthy controls aged 4–14 years were enrolled. Stools were collected and the faecal microbiota was characterized by means of the already developed phylogenetic microarray platform, HTF-Microbi.Array, and quantitative PCR. The intestinal microbiota of atopic children showed a significant depletion in members of the Clostridium cluster IV, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila and a corresponding increase of the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusion Depleted in key immunomodulatory symbionts, the atopy-associated microbiota can represent an inflammogenic microbial consortium which can contribute to the severity of the disease. Our data open the way to the therapeutic manipulation of the intestinal microbiota in the treatment of atopy by means of pharmaceutical probiotics.

  11. Inhibitory effects of Drynaria fortunei extract on house dust mite antigen-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Seon; Yang, Won-Kyung; Nho, Kyoung Jin; Seo, Hyeong Seok; Kim, Young Sang; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-10-31

    Drynaria fortunei (Kunze) J. Sm has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, rheumatism, and bone healing. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of a 70% ethanol extract of Drynaria fortunei (DFE). We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of topically applied DFE on house dust mite Dermatophargoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Treatment of NC/Nga mice with DFE reduced the dermatitis score, ear thickness, and serum levels of IgE, IgG1, and IL-6. Histopathological analyses of ear and skin lesions showed inhibition of the thickening of the epidermis and reduced epidermal/dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. In ear lesions, mRNA expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were reduced by DFE treatment. DFE inhibited the development of dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. These results suggest that DFE may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Japanese Guideline for Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Katayama

    2011-01-01

    The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the “Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008” prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the “Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2009 (ADGL2009” prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle.

  13. Evaluation of FITC-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Disease in NC/Nga Mice and BALB/c Mice Using Computer-Assisted Stereological Toolbox, a Computer-Aided Morphometric System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Malene; Jensen, Helene; Deleuran, Bent

    2009-01-01

    , as this is mandatory for research animals in many countries. Methods: We evaluated the use of the hapten FITC as an inducer of AD-like disease in NC/Nga and BALB/c mice maintained under SPF conditions. Mice were either untreated or treated with tacrolimus or betamethasone. Using the software Computer Assisted...

  14. Omalizumab for atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper Grønlund; Agner, Tove; Sand, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE, registered for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria and severe allergic asthma. We present a case series of nine patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) treated off-label with omalizumab...

  15. Clinical implications of new mechanistic insights into atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Donald Y M

    2016-08-01

    The review will examine recent advances in our understanding of atopic dermatitis and how these mechanisms provide a framework for new approaches to the management of this common skin disease. The mechanisms by which epithelial skin barrier and immune responses contribute to the complex clinical phenotypes found in atopic dermatitis are being elucidated. Atopic dermatitis often precedes food allergy because reduced skin barrier function allows environmental food allergens to penetrate the skin leading to systemic allergen sensitization. There is increasing evidence that atopic dermatitis is a systemic disease. New treatments are focused on intervention in polarized immune responses leading to allergic diseases. This includes antagonism of IL-4 and IL-13 effects. Prevention strategies involve maintaining normal skin barrier function with emollients to prevent allergens and microbes from penetrating the skin. Recent work on the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis has important implications for its clinical management, including the development of effective barrier creams and biologicals targeting specific polarized immune pathways resulting in skin inflammation.

  16. Topical ROR Inverse Agonists Suppress Inflammation in Mouse Models of Atopic Dermatitis and Acute Irritant Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Choo, Min-Kyung; Park, Jin Mo; Fisher, David E

    2017-12-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors RORα and RORγ are critical for the functions of specific subsets of T cells and innate lymphoid cells, which are key drivers of inflammatory disease in barrier tissues. Here, we investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of SR1001, a synthetic RORα/γ inverse agonist, in mouse models of atopic dermatitis and acute irritant dermatitis. Topical treatment with SR1001 reduces epidermal and dermal features of MC903-induced atopic dermatitis-like disease and suppresses the production of type 2 cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in lesional skin. In the epidermis, SR1001 treatment blocks MC903-induced expression of TSLP and reverses impaired keratinocyte differentiation. SR1001 is also effective in alleviating acute dermatitis triggered by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Overall, our results suggest that RORα/γ are important therapeutic targets for cutaneous inflammation and suggest topical usage of inhibitory ligands as an approach to treating skin diseases of inflammatory etiology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential role of reduced environmental UV exposure as a driver of the current epidemic of atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Zirwas, Matthew J; Elias, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The basis for the sudden and dramatic increase in atopic dermatitis (AD) and related atopic diseases in the second half of the 20th century is unclear. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the transition from rural to urban living leads to reduced childhood exposure to pathogenic microorganisms....... Hence instead of having the normal TH1 bias and immune tolerance because of repeated exposure to pathogens, urban dwellers have TH2 cell immune activity and atopic disease in a more sterile environment. Various other environmental exposures have been implicated in the explosion of AD (and atopic...

  18. Prevention of atopic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Hywel C.; Chalmers, Joanne R; Simpson, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis now affects one in five children, and may progress to asthma and hay fever. In the absence of effective treatments that influence disease progression, prevention is a highly desirable goal. The evidence for most existing disease prevention strategies, such as avoidance of allergens and dietary interventions, has been unconvincing and inconsistent. Fresh approaches to prevention include trying to induce tolerance to allergens in early life, and enhancing the defective skin ba...

  19. Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Britta Cathrina; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared...

  20. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  1. Atopic Dermatitis and Homeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Chukwudi Nwabudike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic, relapsing disorder of the skin associated with allergen sensitization and impaired barrier function. There is often a family history of pruritic skin disease or asthma.Materials and Methods: Three cases of atopic dermatitis treated with homeopathy are presented. Case 1 is a case of a 22-year-old female, with AD since early childhood, which had not responded to standard topical therapy. She received several homeopathic medicines, with transitory effect until she finally received the medicine Aurum metallicum, at M potency. At present, 1 year after cessation of treatment, she remains lesion-free. Case 2 is a case of a 10-month-old baby with a an 8-month history of itchy rash and poor sleep, that had failed to respond to treatment. The patient was given the homeopathic medicine Lachesis at C30 potency and responded. The rashes receded and the patient was able to sleep better at night. Case 3 is a case of an 11-month-old boy with a 3-month history of itchy rash, diagnosed as having AD and treated with topical steroids. After 3 months of unsuccessful treatment, the patient was brought in for homeopathic therapy. He received the homeopathic medicine Lachesis, at C30 potency. He improved under this treatment and is currently lesion-free, 6 months after cessation of treatment.Conclusions: Three cases of atopic dermatitis that failed to respond to treatment were given homeopathic therapy and responded adequately. The patients remained free of lesions even after cessation of treatment.

  2. Genetic and epigenetic studies of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Lianghua; Leung, Donald Y M

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the complex interaction of genetic, immune and environmental factors. There have many recent discoveries involving the genetic and epigenetic studies of AD. A retrospective PubMed search was carried out from June 2009 to June 2016 using the terms "atopic dermatitis", "association", "eczema", "gene", "polymorphism", "mutation", "variant", "genome wide association study", "microarray" "gene profiling", "RNA sequencing", "epigenetics" and "microRNA". A total of 132 publications in English were identified. To elucidate the genetic factors for AD pathogenesis, candidate gene association studies, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and transcriptomic profiling assays have been performed in this period. Epigenetic mechanisms for AD development, including genomic DNA modification and microRNA posttranscriptional regulation, have been explored. To date, candidate gene association studies indicate that filaggrin (FLG) null gene mutations are the most significant known risk factor for AD, and genes in the type 2 T helper lymphocyte (Th2) signaling pathways are the second replicated genetic risk factor for AD. GWAS studies identified 34 risk loci for AD, these loci also suggest that genes in immune responses and epidermal skin barrier functions are associated with AD. Additionally, gene profiling assays demonstrated AD is associated with decreased gene expression of epidermal differentiation complex genes and elevated Th2 and Th17 genes. Hypomethylation of TSLP and FCER1G in AD were reported; and miR-155, which target the immune suppressor CTLA-4, was found to be significantly over-expressed in infiltrating T cells in AD skin lesions. The results suggest that two major biologic pathways are responsible for AD etiology: skin epithelial function and innate/adaptive immune responses. The dysfunctional epidermal barrier and immune responses reciprocally affect each other, and thereby drive development of AD.

  3. Increasing Comorbidities Suggest that Atopic Dermatitis Is a Systemic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Patrick M; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Paller, Amy S; Kabashima, Kenji; Amagai, Masayuki; Luger, Thomas A; Deleuran, Mette; Werfel, Thomas; Eyerich, Kilian; Stingl, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis comorbidities extend well beyond the march to allergic conditions (food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis), suggesting both cutaneous and systemic immune activation. In reviewing atopic dermatitis comorbidities, Councilors of the International Eczema Council found a strong pattern of immune activation in peripheral blood and the propensity to both skin and systemic infections. Associations with cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, and malignant diseases were increasingly reported, but confirmation of their link with atopic dermatitis requires longitudinal studies. Given the possibility of atopic dermatitis-related systemic immune activation, future investigations of new interventions should concurrently examine the impact on these comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Management of Atopic Hand Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, Anne-Sofie; Zachariae, Claus; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of clinical aspects of hand eczema in patients with atopic dermatitis. Hand eczema can be a part of atopic dermatitis itself or a comorbidity, for example, as irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. When managing hand eczema, it is important to first categorize...

  5. [Atopic dermatitis: pathophysiology update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taieb, Alain

    2012-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is very common in industrialized countries, where it affects 15% to 30% of children and 2% to 10% of adults. AD has a complex determinism, combining environmental influences and genetic predisposition, hitherto dominated by an immunological perspective, particularly after the discovery of associated high IgE serum levels. DA is a possible mode of onset of asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergies, resulting in the poorly understood "atopic march". The discovery of mutations in the filaggrin gene, a key protein for stratum corneum maturation, have refocused attention on the skin and operated a Copernican revolution in our understanding of this group of disorders. AD has become a prototype of inflammatory epithelial barrier diseases. The epidermal barrier has three major elements: the stratum corneum, which provides an air-liquid barrier, tight junctions in the granular layer (liquid-liquid barrier), and Langerhans cells that capture antigens (immunological barrier). Better knowledge of the molecular events underlying epidermal barrier function and its dysfunction in AD should lead to ways of preventing and eventually curing this group of disorders.

  6. Topical application of an ethanol extract prepared from Illicium verum suppresses atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yang, Won-Kyung; Lee, A Yeong; Kim, Dong-Seon; Nho, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Young Sang; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-10-31

    Illicium verum is a traditional herbal medicine with anti-inflammatory properties used in Asia. However, its usefulness in the treatment of allergic diseases remains unclear. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects of I. verum extract (IVE) in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. We investigated the effects of IVE on compound 48/80-induced histamine release, and phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated cytokines secretion in MC/9 mast cells. Atopic dermatitis was induced in NC/Nga mice by exposure to extract of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae). After a topical application of IVE on ear and skin lesions, we evaluated the severity of skin symptoms, ear thickness, inflammatory cell infiltration, and serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, interleukin (IL)-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. In addition, we determined the expression of IL-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in ear tissues. IVE inhibited secretion of histamine, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-α from mast cells in a dose-dependent manner. Topical application of IVE significantly reduced dermatitis scores, ear thickness, and serum levels of IgE, histamine, IL-6, and ICAM-1. Histopathological analysis demonstrated decreased epidermal thickening and dermal infiltration by inflammatory cells. In the ear lesions, IVE treatment reduced expression of IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, TARC, RANTES, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, but not IFN-γ. These results indicate that IVE inhibits atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by suppressing the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. These results suggest that IVE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tartrazine in atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J; David, T J

    1992-01-01

    Multiple double blind placebo controlled challenges with tartrazine 50 mg (three challenges) and glucose placebo (three challenges) were performed in 12 children with atopic eczema aged 1 to 6 years. The children were selected on the basis of severity (regular clinic attenders) and a parental history that tartrazine provoked worsening of the eczema. In only one patient did the three tartrazine challenge periods correspond with the highest symptom scores or the highest physician observer scores, and the probability of this occurring by chance in one or more patients out of 12 was 0.46. In this sample we were unable to confirm intolerance to tartrazine in 11 out of 12 patients. PMID:1626990

  8. Retrospective Study: Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Sihaloho, Kristina; Indramaya, Diah Mira

    2017-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis is a chronically and relapsing inflammatory skin disease affecting individuals with atopic history or their families. Atopic dermatitis affects all ageswith percentage 15-30% in children and 1-2% in adults. Chronic pruritus, skin infection, sleep disorder, and growth disorder are signs and symptomps commonly found in childhood atopic dermatitis. Evaluation of the profile and management of DA were needed to improve the management of atopic dermatitis. Purpose:To e...

  9. Effects of oral administration of di-(2-ethylhexyl) and diisononyl phthalates on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakane, Kaori; Ichinose, Takamichi; Takano, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Rie; Koike, Eiko

    2014-02-01

    Subcutaneous injection of low dose of phthalates causes adjuvant effects on immunoglobulin production. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) at doses lower than the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) causes aggravation of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions (ADSLs) in mouse models. However, the effects of oral exposure to these phthalates, including their effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) symptoms, remain unclear. To investigate the effects of oral administration of DEHP and DINP at doses lower than the NOAEL on AD in an NC/Nga mouse model. NC/Nga mice were subcutaneously injected with mite-allergen (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) to induce ADSLs and orally administered varying doses of DEHP (0, 8.3, 166.3 or 3325 µg/animal) or DINP (0, 6.6, 131.3 or 2625 µg/animal) once a week for four weeks. Skin disease symptomatology was subsequently evaluated and immunoglobulin production levels in serum and inflammatory cytokine levels in lesion sites were measured. Oral administration of low doses of both DEHP and DINP tended to increase infiltration of eosinophils; degranulation of mast cells and local expression of inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-13 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha in subcutaneous tissue, whereas DINP administration tended to aggravate allergen-induced ADSL production. Oral administration of both DEHP and DINP at doses lower than the NOAEL tends to increase the allergic response in animal AD models, but only DINP administration slightly aggravates allergen-induced ADSL production.

  10. Difficult to control atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Darsow (U.); A. Wollenberg (A.); D. Simon; A. Taieb; T. Werfel; A.P. Oranje (Arnold); C. Gelmetti (C.); Ã. Svensson (Ãke); M. Deleuran (M.); A.M. Calza; F. Giusti; J. Lübbe (Jann); S. Seidenari (Stefania); J. Ring (J.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDifficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for

  11. Palivizumab Exposure and the Risk of Atopic Dermatitis, Asthma and Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Stokholm, Lonny; Linder, Marie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed to provide passive immunity against respiratory syncytial virus. It is prescribed to children at high risk for severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus. However, little is known about the risk of the immune-mediated dise.......94-1.48) or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (HR 1.14; 95% CI 0.92-1.42) were observed. CONCLUSION: Exposure to palivizumab neither increased the risk of atopic disease nor protected against asthma.......BACKGROUND: Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed to provide passive immunity against respiratory syncytial virus. It is prescribed to children at high risk for severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus. However, little is known about the risk of the immune......-mediated diseases atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis after palivizumab exposure. AIM: Our objective was to investigate whether exposure to palivizumab was associated with atopic dermatitis, asthma, or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in childhood. METHODS: This was a cross-national population...

  12. Genome-wide comparative analysis of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis gives insight into opposing genetic mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    IRVINE, ALAN; CORVIN, AIDEN; MORRIS, DEREK

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED Export Date: 3 March 2015 Atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are the two most common immune-mediated inflammatory disorders affecting the skin. Genome-wide studies demonstrate a high degree of genetic overlap, but these diseases have mutually exclusive clinical phenotypes and opposing im- mune mechanisms. Despite their prevalence, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis very rarely co-occur within one individual. By utilizing genome-wide association study and ImmunoChip data fro...

  13. Atopic dermatitis: global epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutten, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease posing a significant burden on health-care resources and patients' quality of life. It is a complex disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and combinations of symptoms. AD affects up to 20% of children and up to 3% of adults; recent data show that its prevalence is still increasing, especially in low-income countries. First manifestations of AD usually appear early in life and often precede other allergic diseases such as asthma or allergic rhinitis. Individuals affected by AD usually have genetically determined risk factors affecting the skin barrier function or the immune system. However, genetic mutations alone might not be enough to cause clinical manifestations of AD, and it is merely the interaction of a dysfunctional epidermal barrier in genetically predisposed individuals with harmful effects of environmental agents which leads to the development of the disease. AD has been described as an allergic skin disease, but today, the contribution of allergic reactions to the initiation of AD is challenged, and it is proposed that allergy is rather a consequence of AD in subjects with a concomitant underlying atopic constitution. Treatment at best achieves symptom control rather than cure; there is thus a strong need to identify alternatives for disease prevention. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Atopic dermatitis in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Ricci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that typically occurs during childhood especially in the first year of life, with a variable frequency from 10% to 30%. Recent studies have shown that in Europe among 10-20% of children with AD suffer from this disorder also in adolescence. AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a typical onset in the first years of life and with a 10- 30% prevalence among young children. AD prevalence in adolescence has been estimated around 5-15% in European countries. AD persists from childhood through adolescence in around 40% of cases and some risk factors have been identified: female sex, sensitization to inhalant and food allergens, allergic asthma and/or rhinoconjunctivitis, the practice of certain jobs. During adolescence, AD mainly appears on the face and neck, often associated with overinfection by Malassezia, and on the palms and soles. AD persistence during adolescence is correlated with psychological diseases such as anxiety; moreover, adolescents affected by AD might have problems in the relationship with their peers. Stress and the psychological problems represent a serious burden for adolescents with AD and cause a significant worsening of the patients’ quality of life (QoL. The pharmacological treatment is similar to other age groups. Educational and psychological approaches should be considered in the most severe cases.

  15. Measurement of the B$0\\atop{d}$ lifetime using B$0\\atop{d}$ → J/ΨK$0\\atop{S}$ decays at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balm, Paul Wijnand [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-12-08

    This thesis describes a measurement of the B$0\\atop{d}$ lifetime in the decay to (J/ΨK$0\\atop{S}$), using 114 pb-1 of data collected by the D0 experiment at the Tevatron from October 15, 2002, to June 10, 2003. The measurement is motivated by the tests of the Standard Model that it makes possible. These include tests of Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicting B-meson lifetimes, and of the complex phase in the CKM-matrix as the source of CP-violation in B$0\\atop{d}$ decays to (J/ΨK$0\\atop{S}$).

  16. Atopic and non-atopic sensitivity in a large bakery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I G; Ulmeanu, V; Murariu, D

    1981-01-01

    Flour is an allergen which can sensitize either by the digestive or the inhalatory route, particularly those who work with this product. Factors involved occupational four-induced asthma also include various insects and their excreta, fungi and dermato-farinae. In this study, 1303 subjects from a number of bakeries were studied. They underwent allergological investigation by means of prick-tests with allergens and respiratory function tests for those with bronchial asthma. Also studied is the relationship with atopic syndromes or atopic family history.

  17. Dermatitis, atopic on the legs (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are caused by an inherited allergic condition called atopic dermatitis. Many of these areas have been scratched until ... infection triggering and perpetuating the problem. In adults, atopic dermatitis frequently involves the body creases, such as inside ...

  18. Dermatitis, atopic on the arms (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This person has inherited allergic skin inflammation (atopic dermatitis) on the arms. Red (erythematous), scaly plaques can be seen on the inside of the elbows (antecubital fossa). In adults, atopic dermatitis usually ...

  19. Twin Studies of Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmose, Camilla; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    about filaggrin and its role in the atopic march and provide suggestions for future research in this area. Methods. We identified all twin studies (published after 1970) that have calculated the concordance rate and/or the heritability of AD, or the genetic and environmental correlations between AD...... was around 85% explained by genetic pleiotropy. Conclusions. Genetic factors account for most of the variability in AD susceptibility and for the association between AD and asthma. Controversy remains as to whether the atopic diseases are causally related or whether they are diverse clinical manifestations...

  20. Modulation of the epithelial inflammatory response to rhinovirus in an atopic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xatzipsalti, M; Psarros, F; Konstantinou, G; Gaga, M; Gourgiotis, D; Saxoni-Papageorgiou, P; Papadopoulos, N G

    2008-03-01

    Immune responses to rhinovirus (RV) as well as direct effects of RV on respiratory epithelium may contribute to the induction of asthma exacerbations. To evaluate the effect of the environment resulting from an atopic immune response on RV-induced epithelial inflammation, replication and cytotoxicity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from atopic asthmatic subjects and matched controls (12 pairs) were isolated and stimulated by RVs. Human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells were infected with RV in the presence of conditioned media from RV-stimulated PBMC cultures. IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and TGF-beta1 levels were measured by ELISA, RV-induced cytotoxicity by a colorimetric method and RV titres on Ohio-HeLa cells. RV-induced epithelial production of IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES was significantly lower, while TGF-beta1 was higher when cells were exposed to conditioned media from atopic asthmatic subjects compared with those from normal controls. Exposure to the 'atopic' environment also resulted in elevated RV titres and increased RV-induced cytotoxicity. Under the influence of an atopic environment, the epithelial inflammatory response to RV is down-regulated, associated with increased viral proliferation and augmented cell damage, while TGF is up-regulated. These changes may help explain the propensity of atopic asthmatic individuals to develop lower airway symptoms after respiratory infections and indicate a mechanism through which viral infections may promote airway remodelling.

  1. The multiple factors affecting the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; McFadden, J P; Kimber, I

    2014-01-01

    , fragrances and other ingredients in emollients. Moreover, the prevalence of metal allergy seems to be increased, probably due to compromised chelation of the metals in the stratum corneum of patients with atopic dermatitis. However, conversely, the T-helper cell 2 bias that characterizes immune responses......Atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis are both common skin diseases having an immune pathogenesis. There has been considerable interest about their inter-relationships with regard to altered susceptibility. Recent investigations have shed new light on this important question...

  2. Atopic eczema in school children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AC, Hay RJ. Validation of the UK diagnostic criteria for Atopic dermatitis in a population setting. BR J Dermatol. 1996;135:12~7. \\ 6. International Study of Asthma and. Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Manual. Munster: University of Munster; 1992. 7. Jose I. Figueroa, L-Claire F, Aynalem A,. Rod J Hay, Pediatric Dermatology.

  3. Evolving Concepts in Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidbury, Robert; Khorsand, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Tremendous advances have been made in the field of atopic dermatitis in the past 5 years. We will explore developments in burden of disease, co-morbidities, pathogenesis, prevention, and management. The tremendous burden moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) places on families from a medical, psychosocial, and financial perspective has been characterized. Epidemiologic studies have identified intriguing new associations beyond the well-characterized "atopic march" of food allergies, asthma, and hay fever. Studies of primary prevention have gained traction including the remarkable impacts of early emollient therapy. Basic advances have simultaneously elucidated the nature of atopic inflammation, setting the stage for an explosion of new potential therapeutic targets. After a fallow period of nearly 15 years without a substantial therapeutic advance, this year has already seen two new FDA-approved treatments for AD. AD has a tremendous impact on quality of life with an underappreciated burden of disease; there are important newly described co-morbidities including ADHD and anemia; new insights into etio-pathogenesis have paved the way for novel topical therapies like crisaborole, and new systemic interventions like dupilumab.

  4. Psychological interventions in atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Jan P. C.

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease that places a large burden on patients and their families. It is characterized as a chronic inflammatory disease that most commonly begins in early childhood. Prevalence is high, especially in children, and increases in western countries. Originally,

  5. Genetics Home Reference: atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DY. Filaggrin mutations associated with skin and allergic diseases. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 6;365(14):1315-27. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1011040. Review. Citation on PubMed Liang Y, Chang C, Lu Q. The Genetics and Epigenetics of Atopic Dermatitis-Filaggrin and Other Polymorphisms. Clin ...

  6. Respiratory infections in adults with atopic disease and IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis and asthma, are common diseases with a prevalence of 30-40% worldwide and are thus of great global public health importance. Allergic inflammation may influence the immunity against infections, so atopic individuals could be susceptible to respiratory infections. No previous population-based study has addressed the relation between atopy and respiratory infections in adulthood. We assessed the relation between atopic disease, specific IgE antibodies and the occurrence of upper and lower respiratory infections in the past 12 months among working-aged adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional study of 1008 atopic and non-atopic adults 21-63 years old was conducted. Information on atopic diseases, allergy tests and respiratory infections was collected by a questionnaire. Specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens were measured in serum. Adults with atopic disease had a significantly increased risk of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI; including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted risk ratio (RR 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43, 3.52 and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI; including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted RR 1.55 (1.14, 2.10. The risk of LRTIs increased with increasing level of specific IgE (linear trend P = 0.059. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence that working-aged adults with atopic disease experience significantly more LRTIs and URTIs than non-atopics. The occurrence of respiratory infections increased with increasing levels of specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens, showing a dose-response pattern with LRTIs. From the clinical point of view it is important to recognize that those with atopies are a risk group for respiratory infections, including more severe LRTIs.

  7. Recent advances in epidemiology and prevention of atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Francesca; Dondi, Arianna; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2014-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), named also atopic eczema, is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease with a considerable social and economic burden. The primum movens of AD is in most cases a genetic and/or immune-supported defect of the skin barrier, facilitating penetration and sensitization to food or airborne allergens, as well as infections by Staphylococcus aureus, herpes simplex virus, or other microbes. New pathogenetic concepts have generated new approaches to prevention and therapy of AD. In particular, the daily use of emollients in newborns at high risk of AD has shown interesting results, with a reduction in the cumulative incidence of AD ranging from 32% to 50% of the treated infants. On the other hand, the AD preventive efficacy of food and/or inhalant allergen avoidance has been questioned, and supplementation strategies (vitamin D, probiotics, or other compounds) need to be further investigated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The role of vitamin D in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dębińska, Anna; Sikorska-Szaflik, Hanna; Urbanik, Magdalena; Boznański, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has been suggested to have an important impact on a much wider aspects on human health than calcium homeostasis and mineral metabolism, specifically in the field of human immunology. It has been reported that vitamin D influences the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems, which makes the association between vitamin D and allergic diseases a field of interest. Although many studies have sought to determine whether vitamin D has an influence on progression of allergic disease, the impact of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis development and severity remains unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies relating vitamin D to atopic dermatitis and discuss its possible role in the pathogenesis of allergic skin diseases, emphasizing the need for well-designed, prospective trials on vitamin D supplementation in the context of prevention and treatment for allergic conditions.

  9. [Hypnotherapy of atopic dermatitis in an adult. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, Kristóf; Gál, János

    2016-01-17

    Hypnosis is well known for its modulatory effects on immune and inflammatory processes, and it is a therapeutic option for certain diseases of such pathogenesis. The authors report treatment of an adult patient with extensive atopic dermatitis, who was only minimally responsive to conservative treatment. In a 15 session hypnotherapy the authors combined the use of direct, symptom-oriented suggestive techniques with hypnotic procedures to identify and modify comorbid psychological issues. To monitor the effect of the treatment, patient diaries (quality and quantity of sleep, intensity of pain and itch) and repeated psychometric tests were used. At the end of treatment there were improvements in all measured dimensions (itch, pain, insomnia, activity, anxiety and emotional state) both clinically and psychometrically. The authors conclude, that hypnosis can be an effective adjunctive therapy in atopic dermatitis, and in certain severe cases may constitute a salvage therapy.

  10. Molecular Genetic of Atopic dermatitis: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shobaili, Hani A.; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Alnomair, Naief; Alobead, Zeiad Abdulaziz; Rasheed, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory skin disease. The pathogenesis of AD remains unclear, but the disease results from dysfunctions of skin barrier and immune response, where both genetic and environmental factors play a key role. Recent studies demonstrate the substantial evidences that show a strong genetic association with AD. As for example, AD patients have a positive family history and have a concordance rate in twins. Moreover, several candidate genes have now been suspected that play a central role in the genetic background of AD. In last decade advanced procedures similar to genome-wide association (GWA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) have been applied on different population and now it has been clarified that AD is significantly associated with genes of innate/adaptive immune systems, human leukocyte antigens (HLA), cytokines, chemokines, drug-metabolizing genes or various other genes. In this review, we will highlight the recent advancements in the molecular genetics of AD, especially on possible functional relevance of genetic variants discovered to date. PMID:27004062

  11. The role of melatonin in autoimmune and atopic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Calvo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is the main secretory product synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland during the night. Melatonin is a pleitropic molecule with a wide distribution within phylogenetically distant organisms and has a great functional versatility, including the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It also possesses the capacity to modulate immune responses by regulation of the TH1/TH2 balance and cytokine production. Immune system eradicates infecting organisms without serious injury to host tissues, but sometimes these responses are inadequately controlled, giving rise to called hypersensitivity diseases, or inappropriately targeted to host tissues, causing the autoimmune diseases. In clinical medicine, the hypersensitivity diseases include the allergic or atopic diseases and the hallmarks of these diseases are the activation of TH2 cells and the production of IgE antibody. Regarding autoimmunity, at the present time we know that the key events in the development of autoimmunity are a failure or breakdown of the mechanisms normally responsible for maintaining self-tolerance in B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or both, the recognition of self-antigens by autoreactive lymphocytes, the activation of these cells to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells, and the tissue injury caused by the effector cells and their products. Melatonin treatment has been investigated in atopic diseases, in several animal models of autoimmune diseases, and has been also evaluated in clinical autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the role of melatonin in atopic diseases (atopic dermatitis and asthma and in several autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis rheumatoid, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  12. IMMUNOLOGICAL MARKERS OF UNCONTROLLED ATOPIC BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Smolnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a prevalent chronic allergic disease of lungs at early ages. A priority  task in allergology  is to search  biological  markers  related  to uncontrolled atopic  bronchial asthma. Cytokines fulfill their distinct function in pathogenesis of atopic  bronchial asthma, participating at the initiation, development and persistence of allergic inflammation in airways, causing different  variations of clinical course of the disease (with  respect  to its acuteness, severity, frequency of exacerbations. The  present  work has studied  indices  of cellular  and  humoral links of immunity, as well as levels of some  pro and  anti-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood serum (IL-4, IL-10, IL-2 and TNFα, aiming to determine potential markers of uncontrolled atopic bronchial asthma in children. A group of Caucasian (European children was involved into the research: Cohort 1, moderate atopic  bronchial asthma with controlled course during the last 3 months (n = 59; Cohort 2, severe/moderate-severe atopic bronchial asthma with uncontrolled course of the disease within last 3 months (n = 51,  Cohort 3 – control, practically healthy  children without signs of atopy  (n = 33. All the  children included in the group with atopic  bronchial asthma underwent regular mono/combined basic therapy  at high/ intermediate therapeutic doses.  We performed a comparative analysis  of cell  population indices  reflecting certain cellular  immunity links,  and  determined significantly  lower  levels of CD3+   lymphocytes, as well as decrease in relative  and  absolute  contents of CD4+  and  CD8+  cells in the  cohort with  uncontrolled course of atopic  bronchial asthma, as compared with controlled-course cohort. When  evaluating concentrations  of cytokines in peripheral blood serum of the patients with controlled and uncontrolled atopic  bronchial asthma, we revealed  significantly  higher

  13. First observation of the decay $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ →; D$+\\atop{s}$ K and measurement of B($\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ →; D$±\\atop{s}$K)/Br($\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$→; D$+\\atop{s}$ π-)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muelmenstaedt, Johannes [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    We present the first observation of the decay $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ → D$+\\atop{s}$ K and measure the relative branching fraction of $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ → D$+\\atop{s}$ K to $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ → D$+\\atop{s}$ π-. The measurement of the relative branching fraction is performed by applying a fit in invariant mass and specific ionization to 1.2 fb-1 of Ds(φπ)X data collected with the CDF II detector in pp collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We measure B($\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ → D± s K∓¢/B($\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ → D$+\\atop{s}$ π-) = 0.107±0.019(stat)±0.008(sys). The statistical significance of the $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ → D$+\\atop{s}$ K signal is 7.9σ. To cross-check our analysis method, we also measure B($\\bar{B0}$ → D+K-)/B($\\bar{B0}$ → D+π-) and B($\\bar{B0}$ → D*+K-)/B($\\bar{B0}$ → D*+π-) and verify that our results are in agreement with the world average.

  14. The history of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Owen N; Strom, Mark A; Ladizinski, Barry; Lio, Peter A

    Fred Wise (1881-1950) and Marion Sulzberger (1895-1983) are often credited with introducing the term atopic dermatitis to dermatology in 1933. This definition was based on atopy, a term first created by Arthur Coca (1875-1959) and Robert Cooke (1880-1960) in 1923, when they recognized an association between allergic rhinitis and asthma. Despite its recent introduction into our medical lexicon, historical precursors of atopic dermatitis date back to at least as early as 69-140 ce. In this contribution, we highlight both the prominent individuals credited with shaping the disorder into our current interpretation and the suspected historical precursors of this disease and reported treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood Atopic Dermatitis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Jen; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Yeh, Kuo-Wei

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) appears to have increased dramatically over the past decades. It is generally believed that such rapid increase in prevalence cannot be explained fully by genetic factors. Environmental factors might play a role in such an increment. Children with AD are most likely to suffer considerable school absences, family stress, and health care expenditures. Because the onset of AD occurs relatively early in life, identification of early life risk factors and early management for AD to prevent the development of atopic march are of critical importance. However, there is still no consensus on coordinated prevention and management for AD in Taiwan. In this review, we discuss the specific risk factors of AD and important results of recent articles on AD from Taiwan. The management and prevention strategies of AD for Asian skin are also discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Childhood Atopic Dermatitis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Jen Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD appears to have increased dramatically over the past decades. It is generally believed that such rapid increase in prevalence cannot be explained fully by genetic factors. Environmental factors might play a role in such an increment. Children with AD are most likely to suffer considerable school absences, family stress, and health care expenditures. Because the onset of AD occurs relatively early in life, identification of early life risk factors and early management for AD to prevent the development of atopic march are of critical importance. However, there is still no consensus on coordinated prevention and management for AD in Taiwan. In this review, we discuss the specific risk factors of AD and important results of recent articles on AD from Taiwan. The management and prevention strategies of AD for Asian skin are also discussed.

  17. [From atopic dermatitis to asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businco, L; Marziali, M; Furcolo, G; Meglio, P

    1997-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic skin disorder in infancy and childhood and is the main hallmark of atopic constitution. The disease is multifactorial, and although genetic predisposition is certainly a prerequisite, a number of environmental factors modulate the phenotypic expression of AD. The majority of affected children shows IgE sensitisation towards a large variety of foods and aeroallergens. Since at least 1600, it has been recognized that patients with AD have a high predisposition to develop asthma. Recent epidemiological studies show that AD is commonly seen in individuals from families with a history of asthma. In addition, in population where asthma is uncommon, AD is also uncommon. The sex distribution of AD and asthma is the same, with boys affected significantly more often by these two atopic diseases and in similar proportions. The ETAC project (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child) is a large multicenter, multi-national, double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial. The main objective of the study is to stop the progression from AD to asthma in young children with AD using early therapeutic intervention with Cetirizine and the second objective is to investigate the main risk factors for the onset of asthma. The results of this study indicate that exposure to potent allergens such as cat or mite significantly increased the risk of sensitisation to these allergens. Prolonged breast feeding was associated with a lowest sensitisation rate to cow milk proteins and to egg. Therefore environmental factors seem to play a crucial role in IgE sensitisation in children with AD.

  18. Atopic dermatitis is associated with a fivefold increased risk of polysensitisation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeks, Suzanne A; Brand, Paul L P

    2017-03-01

    It has been hypothesised that in atopic dermatitis, the dysfunctional skin barrier facilitates the transcutaneous presentation of allergens to the immune system. This study examined whether atopic dermatitis increased the likelihood of polysensitisation, namely sensitisation to five or more allergens. We examined the electronic hospital charts of 1743 children aged 0-17 years who had visited primary or secondary care physicians with allergic symptoms, whose blood was examined for the presence of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to the 10 most common inhaled and food allergens and whose files contained documentation of the presence of atopic dermatitis and other skin disorders. Sensitisation was defined as a specific IgE level of ≥0.35 kU/L. Polysensitisation was more common in children with atopic dermatitis (268/1197, 22.4%) than those without (30/546, 5.5%, p children with atopic dermatitis than those without. This supports the hypothesis that sensitisation occurs through a defective skin barrier and appears to be specific for atopic dermatitis. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Major differences between human atopic dermatitis and murine models as determined by global transcriptomic profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald, David Adrian; Noda, Shinji; Oliva, Margeaux

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is caused by a complex interplay between immune and barrier abnormalities. Murine models of AD are essential for preclinical assessments of new treatments. While many models have been used to simulate AD, their transcriptomic profiles are not fully understood, and a compari...

  20. Major differences between human atopic dermatitis and murine models, as determined by using global transcriptomic profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald, David A.; Noda, Shinji; Oliva, Margeaux

    2017-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is caused by a complex interplay between immune and barrier abnormalities. Murine models of AD are essential for preclinical assessments of new treatments. Although many models have been used to simulate AD, their transcriptomic profiles are not fully understood,...

  1. Maternal mental health and social support: effect on childhood atopic and non-atopic asthma symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos, LM; Dos Santos, DN; Rodrigues,LC; Barreto,ML

    2011-01-01

    : BACKGROUND: Atopic and non-atopic asthma have distinct risk factors and immunological mechanisms, and few studies differentiate between the impacts of psychosocial factors on the prevalence of these disease phenotypes. The authors aimed to identify whether the effect of maternal mental health on prevalence of asthma symptoms differs between atopic and non-atopic children, taking into account family social support. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 1013 children participating in th...

  2. Precipitins to dietary proteins in atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, R S; Drummond, H; Ferguson, A

    1983-12-01

    Precipitating antibodies to foods have been assayed in three groups of patients with atopy. Forty-five per cent of patients with atopic eczema and IgE-mediated food allergy had precipitins to foods in their serum compared with only 15% of patients with atopic eczema without evidence of food allergy, and 16% of patients with atopic asthma and/or rhinitis. It is likely that this results from increased intestinal permeability in the group with eczema and food allergy.

  3. Effects of Atopic Syndrome on Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajari, Mehdi; Eberhardt, Emanuel; Müller, Michael; Al Khateeb, Ghada; Friderich, Stefan; Remy, Matthias; Kohnen, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of atopic syndrome on manifestations of keratoconus. In this retrospective study, we reviewed patient files and data generated by Scheimpflug imaging of 670 eyes of 434 keratoconus patients. Patients were divided into a study group consisting of patients suffering from atopic syndrome (110 eyes of 75 patients), namely allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, and/or allergic rhinitis, and a control group of patients without known atopic syndrome (560 eyes of 359 patients). We found a significant difference with the mean age being 36.1 ± 11.7 for the control group, 32.8 ± 9.6 for the atopic group (P = 0.002) with 1 atopic trait, and 30.4 ± 7.5 for patients with 2 or more atopic traits (P = 0.002). No statistically significant differences were found in the mean corrected distance visual acuity, corneal pachymetry, minimum relative pachymetric progression (RPImin), mean refraction, keratoconus index, anterior chamber depth and volume, Kmax, and location of Kmax in relation to the corneal apex. However, we found a significantly higher corneal density for the anterior 120 μm of the cornea in the atopic group (control: 20.74 ± 4.68, atopic group: 21.92 ± 4.65 P = 0.016). Keratoconus patients suffering from atopic syndrome were significantly younger but showed no topographical changes except in corneal densitometry compared with keratoconus patients without an atopic disease. This suggests atopic syndrome is a factor, which can trigger earlier manifestation of keratoconus.

  4. Japanese guidelines for atopic dermatitis 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Katayama

    2017-04-01

    The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the “Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008” prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the “Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2015 (ADGL2015” prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the “Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2016” together with those for other allergic diseases.

  5. Japanese Guideline for Atopic Dermatitis 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Katayama

    2014-01-01

    The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2012 (ADGL2012" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2013" together with those for other allergic diseases.

  6. Epidemiology and natural history of atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    of the atopic diseases now seems to have reached a plateau in many Western countries, they are still on the increase in the developing world. This emphasizes continuing research aimed at identifying the causes, risk factors, and natural history of these diseases. Herein, the fundamental aspects of the natural...... history and epidemiology of the atopic diseases are reviewed.......The atopic diseases - atopic dermatitis, asthma, and hay fever - pose a great burden to the individual and society, not least, since these diseases have reached epidemic proportions during the past decades in industrialized and, more recently, in developing countries. Whereas the prevalence...

  7. Satisfaction with treatment of atopic dermatitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Maciejewska-Franczak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Atopic dermatitis is a frequent chronic skin disease in children. The major clinical manifestations include itching and dryness of the skin. The pathomechanism of skin changes results from an interaction of genetic and environmental factors as well as impairments of skin barrier function and immune response. Despite chronic treatment the disease is characterized by exacerbation and remission periods and lowers the quality of life of patients and their families. Objective. To evaluate treatment satisfaction in children with atopic dermatitis, identify components of medical care which contribute to treatment satisfaction, and evaluate the relationship between satisfaction and adherence to a doctor’s recommendations. Material and methods. One hundred and nineteen children (6 months to 12 years old, mean age 4.9 years with atopic dermatitis were enrolled in the study. The doctor performed physical examinations and history taking and filled in questionnaires evaluating the course and exacerbation of the disease, the type of administered therapy and diagnostics. The patients’ parents completed two questionnaires: a questionnaire assessing satisfaction with the therapy (the type of recommended therapy, adherence to recommendations, contact with the doctor, obtained information, degree of psychological support, role of parents in taking decisions regarding the therapy and a quality of life questionnaire. Results. The authors observed that 56% of parents were dissatisfied with the administered treatment, and 40% failed to adhere to at least one therapeutic recommendation. Parents of children with mild atopic dermatitis significantly more often stop using emollients. It was also observed that lack of treatment satisfaction in children with severe atopic dermatitis whose parents are insufficiently educated contributes to decreased adherence. The authors identified independent factors of lack of treatment satisfaction: failure to obtain

  8. Atopic dermatitis in children: clinical features, pathophysiology, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jonathan J; Milner, Joshua D; Stone, Kelly D

    2015-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, highly pruritic skin condition resulting from disruption of the epithelial barrier and associated immune dysregulation in the skin of genetically predisposed hosts. AD generally develops in early childhood, has a characteristic age-dependent distribution and is commonly associated with elevated IgE, peripheral eosinophilia, and other allergic diseases. Medications such as antihistamines have demonstrated poor efficacy in controlling AD-associated itch. Education of patients regarding the primary underlying defects and provision of a comprehensive skin care plan is essential for disease maintenance and management of flares. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Impairment of T-regulatory cells in cord blood of atopic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Bianca; Liu, Jing; Höppler, Sabine; Haug, Severine; Sattler, Christine; Lluis, Anna; Illi, Sabina; von Mutius, Erika

    2008-06-01

    Maternal atopy is a strong predictor for the development of childhood allergic diseases. The underlying mechanisms are ill defined, yet regulatory T (Treg) and T(H)17 cells may play a key role potentially shaping the early immune system toward a proallergic or antiallergic immune regulation. We examined T(H)1/T(H)2, Treg, and T(H)17 cell responses to innate (lipid A/peptidoglycan) and mitogen/adaptive (phytohemagglutinin/Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1) immune stimulation in cord blood from offspring of atopic/nonatopic mothers. Cord blood mononuclear cells from 161 healthy neonates (59% nonatopic, 41% atopic mothers) were investigated regarding Treg and T(H)17 cells (mRNA/surface markers), suppressive function, and proliferation/cytokine secretion. Cord blood from offspring of atopic mothers showed fewer innate-induced Treg cells (CD4(+)CD25(+)high), lower mRNA expression of associated markers (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein/lymphocyte activation gene 3; P cell function was impaired in mitogen-induced suppression of T effector cells in cord blood of offspring from atopic mothers (P = .03). Furthermore, IL-10 and IFN-gamma secretion were decreased in innate-stimulated cord blood of offspring from atopic mothers (P = .04/.05). Innate-induced IL-17 was independent of maternal atopy and highly correlated with IL-13 secretion. In offspring of atopic mothers, Treg cell numbers, expression, and function were impaired at birth. T(H)17 cells were correlated with T(H)2 cells, independently of maternal atopy.

  10. Clinical management of atopic dermatitis: practical highlights and updates from the atopic dermatitis practice parameter 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Peter A; Lee, Margaret; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Timmons, Karol G; Schneider, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a challenging condition for clinicians and patients. Recent advances were documented in the Atopic Dermatitis Practice Parameter 2012, and we want to provide clinicians with key points from the Atopic Dermatitis Practice Parameter 2012. In this article, we highlight the evidence-based therapy of atopic dermatitis as well as provide practical tips for clinicians and families. An updated review of immunopathology provides a firm basis for patient education and therapy. We also review clinical diagnosis and ways to improve quality of life for patients with atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Patient Burden of Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Cathryn; Drucker, Aaron M

    2017-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is associated with significant patient burden, with impacts from symptoms and visible physical manifestations of the disease. Consequences include detrimental effects on quality of life (QoL), sleep, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, participation in leisure and sports, and attendance or performance at school or work. Patients also spend a significant amount of time on treatments and care. Worsening severity of disease appears to be associated with a higher risk of impaired QoL, and pharmacologic and educational interventions that improve disease severity appear to, for the most part, simultaneously improve QoL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, A B; Johansen, J D; Deleuran, M

    2017-01-01

    The importance of contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis is frequently debated. Previously, patients with atopic dermatitis were believed to have a reduced ability to produce a type IV immunological response. However, this belief has been challenged and authors have highlighted the risk...... of underestimating and overlooking allergic contact dermatitis in children with atopic dermatitis. Several studies have been published aiming to shed light on this important question but results are contradictory. To provide an overview of the existing knowledge, we systematically reviewed studies that report...... frequencies of positive patch test reactions in children with atopic dermatitis. We identified 436 manuscripts of which 31 met the inclusion criteria. Although the literature is conflicting, it is evident that contact allergy is a common problem in children with atopic dermatitis....

  13. The Atopic March. A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Salazar-Espinosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The atopic march is defined as the progression of atopic diseases, generally during childhood, such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergies. The main risk factors for developing these atopic diseases include genetics, aeroallergens, food allergens, late food introduction to the infant, and living in developing countries. The immunologic contributors to this problem include the Th2 response, epigenetics, and lack of certain factors like thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP and filaggrin. As a whole, the therapeutic approach has been changing during recent years because of the discovery of new factors involved in this problem. This article explains the definition of atopic march, the immunological pathway, clinical features, epidemiology and therapeutic approaches to create a context for the broader understanding of this important condition.

  14. Atopic dermatitis in Tunisian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouri, Meriem; Masmoudi, Abderahmen; Borgi, Nozha; Rebai, Ahmed; Turki, Hamida

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is low in North Africa. We describe the epidemiology of this atopic condition among school children in Tunisia. We conducted a Cross-sectional survey study of 5 to 6-year-old schoolchildren from 21 primary schools of Sfax. The diagnosis of AD was based on the U.K. Working Party diagnostic criteria. A questionnaire including these criteria and some risk factors of AD was issued to the children. All children were examined by one dermatologist. Among the 1617 examined children, ten had AD giving a one-year prevalence of 0.65%. The overall sex ratio was 2.33. The disease occurred before the age of 2 years in 3 children. Pure AD without concomitant respiratory allergies was noted in 3 cases. One first-degree family member with atopy was at least noted in seven children. The strongest associated factor was the presence of AD in at least one parent and maternal age at the time of the child birth. Nor breast-feeding neither environmental characteristics of the house did correlate with AD. The prevalence of AD in Tunisian schoolchildren is low but comparable to those of other developing countries. Family history of atopy and maternal age at the birth time was the most important associated factors.

  15. ALLERGIC ASTHMA AND THE DEVELOPING IMMUNE SYSTEM: A PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: The predisposition towards atopic disease begins early in life, and that the risk of developing asthma is heightened following prenatal exposure to some compounds. Nonetheless, the effect of gestational aeroallergen exposure on the developing immune system is unclear....

  16. Transcriptional Analysis of Hair Follicle-Derived Keratinocytes from Donors with Atopic Dermatitis Reveals Enhanced Induction of IL32 Gene by IFN-γ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshie Yoshikawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We cultured human hair follicle-derived keratinocytes (FDKs from plucked hairs. To gain insight into gene expression signatures that can distinguish atopic dermatitis from non-atopic controls without skin biopsies, we undertook a comparative study of gene expression in FDKs from adult donors with atopic dermatitis and non-atopic donors. FDK primary cultures (atopic dermatitis, n = 11; non-atopic controls, n = 7 before and after interferon gamma (IFN-γ treatment were used for microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR. Comparison of FDKs from atopic and non-atopic donors indicated that the former showed activated pathways with innate immunity and decreased pathways of cell growth, as indicated by increased NLRP2 expression and decreased DKK1 expression, respectively. Treatment with IFN-γ induced the enhanced expression of IL32, IL1B, IL8, and CXCL1 in the cells from atopic donors compared to that in cells from non-atopic donors at 24 h after treatment. IL1B expression in FDKs after IFN-γ treatment correlated with IL32 expression. We hypothesized that overexpression of IL32 in hair follicle keratinocytes of patients with atopic dermatitis would lead to the excessive production of pro-IL1β and that the activation of IL1β from pro-IL1β by inflammasome complex, in which NLRP2 protein might be involved, would be augmented. This is the first report to show enhanced induction of cytokine/chemokine genes by IFN-γ in atopic dermatitis using cultured FDKs.

  17. Dysbiosis and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization Drives Inflammation in Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Glatz, Martin; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Kaplan, Daniel H; Kong, Heidi H; Amagai, Masayuki; Nagao, Keisuke

    2015-04-21

    Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization is universal in atopic dermatitis and common in cancer patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. However, the causal relationship of dysbiosis and eczema has yet to be clarified. Herein, we demonstrate that Adam17(fl/fl)Sox9-(Cre) mice, generated to model ADAM17-deficiency in human, developed eczematous dermatitis with naturally occurring dysbiosis, similar to that observed in atopic dermatitis. Corynebacterium mastitidis, S. aureus, and Corynebacterium bovis sequentially emerged during the onset of eczematous dermatitis, and antibiotics specific for these bacterial species almost completely reversed dysbiosis and eliminated skin inflammation. Whereas S. aureus prominently drove eczema formation, C. bovis induced robust T helper 2 cell responses. Langerhans cells were required for eliciting immune responses against S. aureus inoculation. These results characterize differential contributions of dysbiotic flora during eczema formation, and highlight the microbiota-host immunity axis as a possible target for future therapeutics in eczematous dermatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Skin Barrier Function and Its Importance at the Start of the Atopic March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hogan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis can be due to a variety of causes from nonatopic triggers to food allergy. Control of egress of water and protection from ingress of irritants and allergens are key components of cutaneous barrier function. Current research suggests that a degraded barrier function of the skin allows the immune system inappropriate access to environmental allergens. Epidermal aeroallergen exposure may allow sensitization to allergen possibly initiating the atopic march. Further research into connections between epidermal barrier function and possible allergen sensitization will be important to undertake. Future clinical trials focused on skin barrier protection may be of value as a possible intervention in prevention of the initiation of the atopic march.

  19. Search for rare decays of the B$0\\atop{s}$ meson with the DØ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Ralf Patrick [Univ. of Zurich, Irchel (Switzerland)

    2005-10-01

    This document presents the searches for the flavour-changing neutral current decays B$0\\atop{s}$ → μ+μ- and B$0\\atop{s}$s → φμ+μ- . A data set with integrated luminosity of 300 pb-1 of proton-antiproton collisions at √ s = 1 . 96 TeV collected with the DØ detector in Run II of the FERMILAB Tevatron collider is used. The former decay mode is particularly sensitive to supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. For the latter mode, a measurement of the branching ratio could validate the prediction of the Standard Model. In the absence of an apparent signal, a limit on the branching fraction B(B$0\\atop{s}$ → μ+μ-) can be computed by normalising the upper limit on the number of events in the B$0\\atop{s}$ signal region to the number of reconstructed B ± → J/ψ K ± events. An upper limit on the branching fraction of B(B$0\\atop{s}$ → μ+ μ- ) ≤ 3.7 × 10-7 at a 95% CL is obtained. This limit can be used to constrain models beyond the Standard Model. In models where the lightest supersymmetric particle is considered to be a dark matter candidate the limit aids in restricting the dark matter scattering cross section on nucleons. For the decay B$0\\atop{s}$ → φμ+μ- also no signal has been observed and an upper limit on the branching ratio normalised to B$0\\atop{s}$ → J/ψ φ events of B$0\\atop{s}$ B(B$0\\atop{s}$ → φ μ+ μ-)/B(B$0\\atop{s}$→J/ψφ) < 4 . 4 × 10-3 at a 95% CL is obtained. In addition, the rare decay B$0\\atop{s}$ → ψ (2 S ) φ has been observed. To measure a branching ratio, the B$0\\atop{s}$ → J/ψ φ mode was used for normalisation, while B± → ψ (2S) K± and B± → J/ψ K± modes were used as control samples. The relative branching ratio has been measured to be B(B$0

  20. Use of textiles in atopic dermatitis: care of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Patrizi, A; Bellini, F; Medri, M

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease which usually starts during the first years of life. In the management of AD, the correct approach requires a combination of multiple treatments to identify and eliminate trigger factors, and to improve the alteration of the skin barrier. In this article we try to explain the importance of skin care in the management of AD in relation to the use of textiles: they may be useful to improve disrupted skin but they are also a possible cause of triggering or worsening the lesions. Garments are in direct contact with the skin all day long, and for this reason it is important to carefully choose suitable fabrics in atopic subjects who have disrupted skin. Owing to their hygienic properties fabrics produced from natural fibres are preferential. Wool fibres are frequently used in human clothes but are irritant in direct contact with the skin. Wool fibre has frequently been shown to be irritant to the skin of atopic patients, and for this reason wool intolerance was included as a minor criterion in the diagnostic criteria of AD by Hanifin and Rajka in 1980. Cotton is the most commonly used textile for patients with AD; it has wide acceptability as clothing material because of its natural abundance and inherent properties like good folding endurance, better conduction of heat, easy dyeability and excellent moisture absorption. Silk fabrics help to maintain the body temperature by reducing the excessive sweating and moisture loss that can worsen xerosis. However, the type of silk fabric generally used for clothes is not particularly useful in the care and dressing of children with AD since it reduces transpiration and may cause discomfort when in direct contact with the skin. A new type of silk fabric made of transpiring and slightly elastic woven silk is now commercially available (Microair Dermasilk) and may be used for the skin care of children with AD. The presence of increased bacterial colonization

  1. Gastrointestinal disorders in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokaite, Rūta; Labanauskas, Liutauras

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the peculiarities of allergies to food; to determine gastrointestinal disorders, endoscopic signs of mucosal damage and histological lesions of the mucosa and to establish their relation to the extent of atopic dermatitis and its degree of severity. A total of 164 children (86 boys and 78 girls) suffering only from atopic dermatitis were examined. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed using standard diagnostic criteria; extent of disease (the Basic Clinical Scoring System (BCSS)) and the severity (Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index), total serum IgE levels were determined; skin prick and patch tests with the main food allergens were performed. Using questionnaire gastrointestinal disorders with the symptoms of atopic dermatitis were ascertained. In children with atopic dermatitis suffering from chronic dyspepsia esophagealgastroduodenoscopy was performed and biopsy samples from the antrum of the stomach and duodenum were taken. The age of patients ranged from 6 months to 18 years. According to extent of atopic dermatitis and degree of severity localized, mild atopic dermatitis prevailed. Analysis of the changes in total Ig E levels showed different degree of sensitization of the children examined. Considering the type of allergic reaction, immediate-type allergic reactions dominated only in 11.6% of children with atopic dermatitis, whereas delayed-type allergic reactions manifested in 44.5% of children. No food allergy was present in one-fifth of children with atopic dermatitis. One hundred four (63.4%) children complained of gastrointestinal disorders. Of these 104 patients, 17 children (mean age 6.9 years) who underwent esophagealgastroduodenoscopy with biopsy had no pathology; however, histological examination of mucosa revealed eosinophilic infiltration in the gastric antrum and duodenum in three children. The most common gastrointestinal disorders are: abdominal pain vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal distention, and

  2. Maternal mental health and social support: effect on childhood atopic and non-atopic asthma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques dos Santos, Letícia; Neves dos Santos, Darci; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2012-11-01

    Atopic and non-atopic asthma have distinct risk factors and immunological mechanisms, and few studies differentiate between the impacts of psychosocial factors on the prevalence of these disease phenotypes. The authors aimed to identify whether the effect of maternal mental health on prevalence of asthma symptoms differs between atopic and non-atopic children, taking into account family social support. This is a cross-sectional study of 1013 children participating in the Social Change Allergy and Asthma in Latin America project. Psychosocial data were collected through a household survey utilising Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Medical Outcome Study Social Support Scale. Socioeconomic and wheezing information was obtained through the questionnaire of the International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood, and level of allergen-specific IgE was measured to identify atopy. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate the association between maternal mental health, social support and atopic and non-atopic wheezing. Effect modification was evaluated through stratified polytomous regression according to social support level. Maternal mental disorder had the same impact on atopic and non-atopic wheezing, even after adjusting for confounding variables. Affective, material and informational supports had protective effects on non-atopic asthma, and there is some evidence that social supports may act as a buffer for the impact of maternal mental disorder on non-atopic wheezing. Poor maternal mental health is positively associated with wheezing, independent of whether asthma is atopic or non-atopic, but perception of high levels of social support appears to buffer this relationship in non-atopic wheezers only.

  3. Current insights into the role of human β-defensins in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieosilapatham, P; Ogawa, H; Niyonsaba, F

    2017-11-01

    Anti-microbial peptides or host defence peptides are small molecules that display both anti-microbial activities and complex immunomodulatory functions to protect against various diseases. Among these peptides, the human β-defensins (hBDs) are localized primarily in epithelial surfaces, including those of the skin, where they contribute to protective barriers. In atopic dermatitis skin lesions, altered skin barrier and immune dysregulation are believed to be responsible for reduced hBD synthesis. Impaired hBD expression in the skin is reportedly the leading cause of increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. Although hBDs have considerable beneficial effects as anti-microbial agents and immunomodulators and may ameliorate atopic dermatitis clinically, recent evidence has also suggested the negative effects of hBDs in atopic dermatitis development. In the current review, we provide an overview of the regulation of hBDs and their role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The efforts to utilize these molecules in clinical applications are also described. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  4. Family management of childhood atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hae Kyoung; Kim, Dong Hee; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Heejung; Chung, Kyoungmee; Kim, Hee-Soon

    2018-02-22

    To identify the variables that affect family management of childhood atopic dermatitis and establish a prediction model based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic recurrent skin disease and common health problem in childhood. It is necessary to use an approach that includes parental factors when considering the effective management of childhood atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study design. A convenience sample, comprising 168 Korean mothers caring for a child with atopic dermatitis under the age of 13, was recruited from the pediatric outpatient departments of two general hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. Data were collected using structured self-reported questionnaires including severity, antecedents, effort, self-efficacy and family management of childhood atopic dermatitis from 1 November 1 2015 - 28 February 28 2016. Descriptive statistics regarding the participants and variables were examined and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The hypothetical model had an adequate fit to the data, indicating that severity, antecedents, effort and self-efficacy influenced family management of childhood atopic dermatitis. These results suggest that strategies to support children with atopic dermatitis and their family should consider the influence of such variables. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Dysfunction of pulmonary immuity in atopic asthma: Possible role of T helper cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bice, D.E.; Schuyler, M.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Atopic asthma is characterized by the production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG{sub 4} antibody and airway hyperreactivity caused by interactions between the immune system and inhaled allergens. Recent studies suggest that the production of IgE and IgG{sub 4} antibody important in atopic disease requires help from Th2 lymphocytes, while Th1 lymphocytes support the production of immune responses that would not cause asthma. The evaluation of cells from the lungs of asthmatics indicated that they have elevated Th2 immune responses. However, no study has compared the immune responses that develop in asthmatics and normals (people without asthma) after their lungs are exposed to a neoantigen. The purpose of this study was to determine if Th2 immunity would be produced to a neoantigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), deposited in the lungs of asthmatics, while Th1 immunity would be produced to KLH deposited in the lungs of nonasthmatics. Because the production of IgG{sub 4} requires Th2 immune help, the higher level of anti-KLH IgG{sub 4} in the serum of asthmatics suggests that a Th2 immune response was produced to a neoantigen deposited in their lungs.

  6. Difficult to control atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Difficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for exacerbation management and more recently for proactive therapy in selected cases. Topical corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, the topical calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are preferred in certain locations. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonization and superinfection contribute to disease exacerbation and thus justify additional antimicrobial / antiseptic treatment. Systemic antihistamines (H1) may relieve pruritus but do not have sufficient effect on eczema. Adjuvant therapy includes UV irradiation preferably of UVA1 wavelength. “Eczema school” educational programs have been proven to be helpful. PMID:23663504

  7. Comparison of atopic cough with cough variant asthma: is atopic cough a precursor of asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, M; Ogawa, H.; Nishizawa, Y.; Nishi, K.

    2003-01-01

    Background: We have described a group of patients who present with isolated chronic bronchodilator resistant non-productive cough with an atopic constitution, eosinophilic tracheobronchitis, and airway cough receptor hypersensitivity without bronchial hyperresponsiveness, which we have termed "atopic cough". Although cough variant asthma (in which the cough responds to bronchodilators) is recognised as a precursor of typical asthma, it is not known whether atopic cough is also a precursor of ...

  8. Search for B$0\\atop{s}$ oscillations at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Tulika [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of the B$0\\atop{s}$ oscillation frequency via B$0\\atop{s}$ mixing analyses provides a powerful constraint on the CKM matrix elements. A search for B$0\\atop{s}$ oscillations was performed using data collected by the DØ detector during the period 2002-2005 at the Fermilab Tevatron. Approximately 610 pb-1 of data was analyzed to reconstruct a large set of B0 s mesons in different semileptonic decay modes. Opposite-side flavor tagging algorithms that were tested on semileptonic B0 d decays with the measurement of the B$0\\atop{d}$ mixing frequency were used to determine the initial state flavor of the reconstructed B0 s meson. No significant signal for any particular value of the oscillation frequency was found. A 95% confidence level limit on the B$0\\atop{s}$ oscillation frequency Δms > 7.3 ps-1 and a sensitivity of 9.5 ps-1 were obtained.

  9. Qualitative vs. quantitative atopic dermatitis criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, R M; Thyssen, J P; Maibach, H I

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes historical aspects, clinical expression and pathophysiology leading to coining of the terms atopy and atopic dermatitis, current diagnostic criteria and further explore the possibility of developing quantitative diagnostic criteria of atopic dermatitis (AD) based on the imp......This review summarizes historical aspects, clinical expression and pathophysiology leading to coining of the terms atopy and atopic dermatitis, current diagnostic criteria and further explore the possibility of developing quantitative diagnostic criteria of atopic dermatitis (AD) based...... phenomenon. Specific pheno- and endotypes are now emerging potentially enabling us to better classify patients with AD, but the influence of these on the diagnosis of AD is so far unclear. Few diagnostic models use quantitative scoring systems to establish AD cases from normal population, which, however, may...

  10. A study of atopic diseases in Basrah

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Allergic and Asthma diseases center) under clinician supervision to diagnosis atopic diseases for both sex and various age group depending on minor and major criteria for each disease. (Hollingsworth et al., 2005; Sheikh, 2004; ...

  11. Atopic dermatitis in the domestic dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M

    2016-01-01

    Dogs may develop a syndrome of spontaneous, inflammatory, pruritic dermatitis that shares many features with human atopic dermatitis, including a young age of onset, characteristic lesion distribution, immunoglobulin E sensitization to common environmental allergen sources, and evidence of epidermal barrier dysfunction. There are also several important differences between canine and human atopic dermatitis. Although dogs may suffer from multiple-organ hypersensitivity syndromes, there is no evidence that this species experiences the progressive evolution from cutaneous to respiratory allergy characteristic of the human atopic march. Despite the presence of epidermal barrier derangement, there is no significant association between canine atopic dermatitis and mutations in filaggrin. Finally, treatment of canine disease relies much less heavily on topical therapy than does its human counterpart, while allergy testing and allergen-specific immunotherapy provide an often essential component of effective clinical management of affected dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  13. When does atopic dermatitis warrant systemic therapy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpson, Eric L; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Flohr, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although most patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are effectively managed with topical medication, a significant minority require systemic therapy. Guidelines for decision making about advancement to systemic therapy are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To guide those considering use of systemic ...

  14. Soluble interleukin 2 receptor in atopic eczema.

    OpenAIRE

    Colver, G. B.; Symons, J A; Duff, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor concentrations are related to disease activity in atopic eczema. DESIGN--Single cohort longitudinal study with controls. SETTING--Outpatient and general medicine departments in secondary referral centre. PATIENTS--Of 15 patients aged 17-57 with severe atopic eczema, all with acute exacerbations of disease, 13 were admitted to hospital and two treated as outpatients until the skin lesions had resolved or greatly improved. Nin...

  15. [Atopic dermatitis in children. New aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnopp, C; Mempel, M

    2015-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis in childhood is controlled by adaequate topical treatment in the majority of cases. Severe manifestations, recurrent superinfections, associated food allergy and psychosocial aspects of a chronic disease in childhood need special consideration. Furthermore, prevention is an important issue in this age group. The following article focuses on new aspects with repercussions on the management of childhood atopic dermatitis and possible implications for the future.

  16. Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti; Chiara Mameli; Valentina Fabiano; Fabio Meneghin

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the potential beneficial role of probiotic supplementation in the prevention and treatment of atopic diseases in children. Probiotics are defined as ingested live microorganisms that, when administered in an adequate amount, confer a health benefit to the host. They are mainly represented by Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Several epidemiological data demonstrate that intestinal microflora of atopic children is different from the one of healthy children. Many ...

  17. Common Allergens in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bonyadi, MR. (PhD; Ezzati, F. (MSc

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Being exposed to different allergens, followed by the production of specific IgE, has an important role in causing atopic dermatitis, recognizing the allergens and applying immunotherapy for treatment. We aimed to determine the frequency of common allergens in the patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Material and Methods: In this descriptive- analytical study the serum level of total IgE and frequency of specific IgE were measured by Immunoblotting method again...

  18. Gene-environment interaction in atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahr, Niklas; Naeser, Vibeke; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    stratified by exposure status showed no significant change in the heritability of asthma according to the identified risk factors. CONCLUSION: In this population-based study of children, there was no evidence of genetic effect modification of atopic diseases by several identified early-life risk factors....... The causal relationship between these risk factors and atopic diseases may therefore be mediated via mechanisms different from gene-environment interaction....

  19. Lifetime difference in the B$0\\atop{s}$ system from untagged B$0\\atop{s}$ → J/ΨΦ decay at √s= 1.96 TeV at D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Avdhesh [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai (India)

    2006-01-01

    In this dissertation, they present a study of the untagged decay of B$0\\atop{s}$ → J/ΨΦ, the final state of which is a superposition of the CP-even and CP-odd states. Within the framework of the standard model (SM), to a good approximation, the two CP eigenstates of the (B$0\\atop{s}$, $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$) system are equivalent to mass eigenstates. The data collected by the D0 detector between June 2002 to August 2004 (an integrated luminosity of approximately 450 pb-1) has been used for the analysis presented in this thesis. From a simultaneous fit to the B$0\\atop{s}$ candidate mass, lifetime, and the angular distribution of the decay products, they obtain the CP-odd fraction in the final state at production time to be 0.16 ±} 0.10(stat) ± 0.02(syst). The average lifetime of the (B$0\\atop{s}$, $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$) system is measured to be 1.39$+0.13\\atop{-0.16}$(stat)$+0.01\\atop{-0.02}$(syst) ps, with the relative width difference between the heavy and light mass eigenstates, Δγ/$\\bar{γ}$ = (γLH)/$\\bar{γ}$ = 0.24$+0.16\\atop{-0.38}$(stat)$+0.03\\atop{-0.04}$(syst). With the additional constraint from the world average of the B$0\\atop{s}$ lifetime measurements using semileptonic decays, they find average lifetime of the (B$0\\atop{s}$, $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$) system 1.39 ± 0.06 ps with Δγ/$\\bar{γ}$ = 0.25$+0.14\\atop{-0.15}$. They have also done B0 lifetime measurement for its analogous decay mode to J/Ψ}K*. With this measurement they get B0 lifetime 1.530 ± 0.043(stat) ± 0.023(syst) ps. Using above results, they get 0.91 ± 0.09(stat) ± 0.003(syst), for the ratio of the B$0\\atop{s}$ and B0 lifetimes ($\\bar{γ}$(B$0\\atop{s}$)/γ(B0)). These measurements are consistent with the predictions of SM within the measurement uncertainty.

  20. ATOPIC DERMATITIS: NEW ASPECTS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sh. Macharadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease, which demands a prolonged treatment. A modern views on the main approaches to treatment of atopic dermatitis in children and adults are analyzed in this article. The treatment is based on the permanent use of emollients in order to achieve an anti-inflammatory effect — topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, and short courses (5 days of topical corticosteroids during relapses. For the 10-year period of topical calcineurin inhibitors usage in treatment of atopic dermatitis a great amount of experimental and clinical data have been accumulated. Two the most important changes and additions in the treatment of atopic dermatitis in recent times were related to a new hypothesis of proactive therapy with the use of topical tacrolimus and closing of «black box» warnings, associated to malignization risk due to the long-term usage of topical calcineurin inhibitors. Since atopic dermatitis is characterized by relapsing course, nowadays topical tacrolimus should be considered the most appropriate treatment approach, both in adults and children. The results of investigations confirmed more than 6-times decrease in relapse rate, as well as the significant improvement of quality of life, when the above-mentioned treatment scheme is used, both in children and adults.Key words: children, atopic dermatitis, emollients, treatment, tacrolimus.

  1. Effects of examination stress on psychological responses, sleep and allergic symptoms in atopic and non-atopic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernelöv, Susanna; Höglund, Caroline Olgart; Axelsson, John; Axén, Jennie; Grönneberg, Reidar; Grunewald, Johan; Stierna, Pontus; Lekander, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that atopics may be more vulnerable to stress than non-atopics. However, the roles of psychological well-being and sleep in this presumed increased sensitivity are not known. To investigate the effects of a brief naturalistic stressor on psychological responses, sleep, and allergic symptoms and to compare those responses between atopic and non-atopic individuals. We assessed atopic and non-atopic students during a period without and during a period with examinations. For both atopic and non-atopic students, tension, anxiety, and depression deteriorated in response to examination, as did sleep latency and sleep quality. Overall, atopics were more tense, had more anxiety, longer sleep latencies, and were less well rested than non-atopics. Non-atopic students rose from bed later during the examination period. In response to examination, atopic students reported increased frequency of stress behaviors (e.g., eating fast), while decreased stress behaviors were reported by non-atopic students. Allergic symptoms were not affected. Atopic students were worse off in aspects of psychological well-being and sleep, but displayed only partly stronger responses to a stressor compared to non-atopic students. In spite of a broad negative response to examination, allergic symptoms were not affected.

  2. Probiotics and infantile atopic eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akelma AZ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Zülfikar Akelma,1 Aziz Alper Biten2 1Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Unit, Ankara Kecioren Teaching and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 2General Directorate of Management Services, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey Abstract: Pediatric eczema is a common disease which causes economic and social burden. Its incidence differs among the societies, with an incidence reported to reach up to 20% in developed countries. Eczema is the first allergic disease seen in the childhood, and it is recognized as a precursor for the development of atopic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergy in the forthcoming years of children. Increased incidence of eczema in recent years has led to new research in epidemiology, prevention, and intervention of this disease. It is no doubt important to treat itching, rash, and excoriation of the skin; however, treatment of pediatric eczema should not be considered only as a treatment of skin lesions. Considering skin treatment as the tip of the iceberg, proper management of the allergic processes can be accepted as the rest of the iceberg. The role of probiotics in the prevention of atopic eczema is yet to be clarified. Evidence presented by existing studies suggesting that probiotics may prevent pediatric eczema is not strong enough. A positive effect, if any, may be related with onset time, dose, duration, and use of specific probiotics. To date, there is no strong evidence for use of probiotics in the treatment of eczema; however, administration of probiotics in breast-feeding mothers in the prenatal period and in infants in the postnatal period can be accepted as a safe and helpful option in the prevention of eczema. Nevertheless, there are still questions to be answered in the future about probiotic administration for eczema. Clinical use of probiotics will gradually become more widespread when these questions are answered. Based on current information, the administration

  3. Atopic dermatitis phenotypes and the need for personalized medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Brehler, Ann-Christin; Novak, Natalija

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe recent developments in therapies which target the molecular mechanisms in atopic dermatitis. Recent findings Current advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of atopic dermatitis are leading to the stratification of different atopic dermatitis phenotypes. New therapies offer the option to target-specific molecules involved in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis. Current new therapies under investigation aim to modulate specific inflammatory pathways associated with distinctive atopic dermatitis phenotypes, which would potentially translate into the development of personalized, targeted-specific treatments of atopic dermatitis. Summary Despite the unmet need for well tolerated, effective, and personalized treatment of atopic dermatitis, the current standard treatments of atopic dermatitis do not focus on the individual pathogenesis of the disease. The development of targeted, phenotype-specific therapies has the potential to open a new promising era of individualized treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:28582322

  4. Microbiota in Healthy Skin and in Atopic Eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Baviera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Italian interest group (IG on atopic eczema and urticaria is member of the Italian Society of Allergology and Immunology. The aim of our IG is to provide a platform for scientists, clinicians, and experts. In this review we discuss the role of skin microbiota not only in healthy skin but also in skin suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD. A Medline and Embase search was conducted for studies evaluating the role of skin microbiota. We examine microbiota composition and its development within days after birth; we describe the role of specific groups of microorganisms that colonize distinct anatomical niches and the biology and clinical relevance of antimicrobial peptides expressed in the skin. Specific AD disease states are characterized by concurrent and anticorrelated shifts in microbial diversity and proportion of Staphylococcus. These organisms may protect the host, defining them not as simple symbiotic microbes but rather as mutualistic microbes. These findings reveal links between microbial communities and inflammatory diseases such as AD and provide novel insights into global shifts of bacteria relevant to disease progression and treatment. This review also highlights recent observations on the importance of innate immune systems and the relationship with normal skin microflora for the maintenance of healthy skin.

  5. Children with atopic dermatitis show clinical improvement after Lactobacillus exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-J; Wang, J-Y

    2015-04-01

    The role of probiotics in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) is not clearly established. Further clinical trials with new probiotic formulations are warranted. To assess the effects of Lactobacillus paracasei (LP) and Lactobacillus fermentum (LF), and their mixture on the disease severity, quality of life, and immune biomarkers of children with AD. A double-blind, prospective, randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted on 220 children aged 1-18 years with moderate-to-severe AD (Trial number: NCT01635738). The children were randomized to receive LP, LF, LP + LF mixture, and placebo for 3 months. Changes in severity scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD), Family Dermatology Life Quality Index (FDLQI), and Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) scores in the different groups and at different visits were evaluated. Skin prick tests, levels of IgE, IFN-γ, IL-4, TGF-β, and TNF-α, and urine biomarkers were also evaluated. Children who received LP, LF, and LP + LF mixture showed lower SCORAD scores than the placebo group (P children younger than age 12, with breastfeeding > 6 months, and with mite sensitization (P children with AD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Wheeze in children : the impact of parental education on atopic and non-atopic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, Gea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    There is conflicting evidence for the relationship between parental socioeconomic position and their children's asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between parental education and respiratory symptoms in their children, distinguishing atopic and non-atopic symptoms. A

  7. Wheeze in children: the impact of parental education on atopic and non-atopic symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, G.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Brunekreef, B.

    2010-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence for the relationship between parental socioeconomic position and their children's asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between parental education and respiratory symptoms in their children, distinguishing atopic and non-atopic symptoms. A

  8. [Food allergy in atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, K; Heratizadeh, A; Werfel, T

    2012-04-01

    Food allergy predominantly affects children rather than adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Early sensitization to foods has been found to be significantly associated with AD. Three different patterns of clinical reactions to food allergens in AD patients exist: i. immediate-type reaction, ii. isolated late-type reaction, iii. combined reaction (i. + ii.). While in children allergens from cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat, fish, peanut or tree nuts are mostly responsible for allergic reactions, birch-pollen related food allergens seem to play a major role in adolescent and adults with AD in Central and Northern Europe. Defects of the epidermal barrier function seem to facilitate the development of sensitization to allergens following epicutaneous exposure. The relevance of defects of the gut barrier as well as genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk for food allergy remain to be further investigated. Numerous studies focus on prevention strategies which include breast-feeding or feeding with hydrolyzed milk substitute formula during the first 4 months of life.

  9. Emerging drugs for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Peck Y

    2009-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting 10-20% of children and 2% of adults worldwide. Preventive treatment of AD consists of daily skin hydration and emollient therapy; but the majority of patients still require symptomatic treatment with topical corticosteroids and/or topical calcineurin inhibitors, both of which may be associated with potential long-term side effects. With increasing evidence supporting the role of skin barrier defects in the pathogenesis of AD, there is also a parallel increase in medications that claim to assist barrier repair. The current review discusses some exciting results with these medications, as well as the challenges that lie ahead of them. While barrier repair treatments offer some promise, there continues to be a need for safer anti-inflammatory medications. Some of these medications under investigation are phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, urocanic acid oxidation products and IL-4/IL-13 receptor blockers. The review also discusses anti-staphylococcal treatments including nanocrystalline silver cream, silver and antimicrobial-coated fabrics, and anti-itch treatments including mu-opiod receptor antagonists, chymase inhibitors and cannabinoid receptor agonists. These medications may become an integral part of AD therapy.

  10. Cesarean section delivery and development of food allergy and atopic dermatitis in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma, Evangelia; Triga, Maria; Fouzas, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may predispose to allergic disorders, presumably due to alterations in the establishment of normal gut microbiota in early infancy. In this study, we sought to investigate the association between CS and physician-diagnosed food allergy and atopic dermatitis during the first 3 years of life, using data from a homogeneous, population-based, birth cohort. A total of 459 children born and cared for in the same tertiary maternity unit were examined at birth and followed up at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of age. Participants with symptoms suggestive of food allergy or atopic dermatitis were evaluated by a pediatric allergy specialist to confirm the diagnosis based on well-defined criteria. The rate of CS was 50.8% (n = 233). Food allergy was diagnosed in 24 participants (5.2%) while atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 62 children (13.5%). Cesarean section (OR 3.15; 95% CI 1.14-8.70), atopic dermatitis of the child (OR 3.01; 95% CI 1.18-7.80), parental atopy (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.73-12.1), and gestational age (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.07-2.37) were significant and independent predictors of food allergy. Children with at least one allergic parent delivered by CS had higher probability of developing food allergy compared with vaginally delivered children of non-allergic parents (OR 10.0; 95% CI 3.06-32.7). Conversely, the effect of CS on atopic dermatitis was not significant (OR 1.35; 95% CI 0.74-2.47). Delivery by CS predisposes to the development of food allergy but not atopic dermatitis in early childhood. Cesarean section delivery seems to upregulate the immune response to food allergens, especially in children with allergic predisposition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genetically programmed differences in epidermal host defense between psoriasis and atopic dermatitis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L J M Zeeuwen

    Full Text Available In the past decades, chronic inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, Crohn's disease and celiac disease were generally regarded as immune-mediated conditions involving activated T-cells and proinflammatory cytokines produced by these cells. This paradigm has recently been challenged by the finding that mutations and polymorphisms in epithelium-expressed genes involved in physical barrier function or innate immunity, are risk factors of these conditions. We used a functional genomics approach to analyze cultured keratinocytes from patients with psoriasis or atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. First passage primary cells derived from non-lesional skin were stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines, and expression of a panel of 55 genes associated with epidermal differentiation and cutaneous inflammation was measured by quantitative PCR. A subset of these genes was analyzed at the protein level. Using cluster analysis and multivariate analysis of variance we identified groups of genes that were differentially expressed, and could, depending on the stimulus, provide a disease-specific gene expression signature. We found particularly large differences in expression levels of innate immunity genes between keratinocytes from psoriasis patients and atopic dermatitis patients. Our findings indicate that cell-autonomous differences exist between cultured keratinocytes of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis patients, which we interpret to be genetically determined. We hypothesize that polymorphisms of innate immunity genes both with signaling and effector functions are coadapted, each with balancing advantages and disadvantages. In the case of psoriasis, high expression levels of antimicrobial proteins genes putatively confer increased protection against microbial infection, but the biological cost could be a beneficial system gone awry, leading to overt inflammatory disease.

  12. Study of B$0\\atop{s}$ Mixing at the D-Zero Detector at Fermilab Using the Semi-leptonic Decay B$0\\atop{s}$ → D$-\\atop{s}$ μ+v X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzelc, Meghan [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2008-06-01

    B$0\\atop{s}$ mixing studies provide a precision test of Charge-Parity violation in the Standard Model. A measurement of Δms constrains elements of the CKM quark rotation matrix [1], providing a probe of Standard Model Charge-Parity violation. This thesis describes a study of B$0\\atop{s}$ mixing in the semileptonic decay B$0\\atop{s}$ → Ds- μ+vX, where Ds- → Φπ-, using data collected at the D-Zero detector at Fermi National Accelerator in Batavia, Illinois. Approximately 2.8 fb-1 of data collected between April 2002 and August 2007 was used, covering the entirety of the Tevatron's RunIIa (April 2002 to March 2006) and part of RunIIb (March 2006-August 2007). Taggers using both opposite-side and same-side information were used to obtain the flavor information of the Bs0 meson at production. The charge of the muon in the decay B$0\\atop{s}$ → Ds-μ+vX was used to determine the flavor of the B$0\\atop{s}$ at decay. The B$d\\atop{0}$ mixing frequency, Δmd, was measured to verify the analysis procedure. A log-likelihood calculation was performed, and a measurement of Δms was obtained. The final result was Δms = 18.86 ± 0.80(stat.) ± 0.37(sys.) with a significance of 2.6σ.

  13. Japanese guidelines for atopic dermatitis 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Ichiro; Aihara, Michiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shimojo, Naoki; Shoji, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Masami; Yamada, Hidekazu

    2017-04-01

    Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and countermeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions. These three points are equally important and should be appropriately combined in accordance with the symptoms of each patient. In treatment, it is important to transmit the etiological, pathological, physiological, or therapeutic information to the patient to build a favorable partnership with the patient or his/her family so that they may fully understand the treatment. This guideline discusses chiefly the basic therapy in relation to the treatment of this disease. The goal of treatment is to enable patients to lead an uninterrupted social life and to control their cutaneous symptoms so that their quality of life (QOL) may meet a satisfactory level. The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2015 (ADGL2015)" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2016" together with those for other allergic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mixing and CP violation in the B$0\\atop{s}$ meson system at CDF; Mélange et violation de CP dans le système des mésons B$0\\atop{s}$ à CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giovanni, Gian Piero [Univ. of Paris VI-VII (France)

    2008-01-01

    The two analyses presented in the thesis, the B$0\\atop{s}$ mixing analysis and the B$0\\atop{s}$ → J/ψφ angular analysis, share most of the technical implementations and features. Thus, my choice was to pursue in parallel the common aspects of the analyses, avoiding, whenever possible, repetitions. Each Chapter is split in two parts, the first one dedicated to the B$0\\atop{s}$ mixing analysis and the second one describing the angular analysis on the B$0\\atop{s}$ → J/ψφ decay mode. They are organized as follows. In Chapter 1 we present the theoretical framework of the B$0\\atop{s}$ neutral mesons system. After a general introduction on the Standard Model, we focus on the quantities which are relevant to the Δms measurement and the CP violation phenomena, underlying the details concerning the study of pseudo-scalar to vector vector decays, P → VV, which allow to carry out an angular analysis. A discussion on the implication of the measurements performed in the search of physics beyond the Standard Model is presented. The accelerator facilities and the CDF-II detector are reported in Chapter 2. While describing the detector, more emphasis is given to the components fundamental to perform B physics analyses at CDF. The Chapter 3 is focused on the reconstruction and selection of the data samples. The Chapter starts with a description of the on-line trigger requirements, according to the B$0\\atop{s}$ sample considered, followed by the offline selection criteria implemented to reconstruct B$0\\atop{s}$ semileptonic and hadronic decays, fully and partially reconstructed, for the B$0\\atop{s}$ mixing analysis, as well as the B$0\\atop{s}$ → J/ψφ decay mode for the angular analysis. The subsequent Chapter 4 is dedicated to the revision of the technical ingredients needed in the final analyses. The B$0\\atop{s}$ mixing elements are firstly described. The methodology historically used in the oscillation searches, the 'amplitude scan', is here

  15. Atopic Dermatitis in Children: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jonathan J.; Milner, Joshua D.; Stone, Kelly D.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, highly pruritic skin condition resulting from disruption of the epithelial barrier and associated immune dysregulation in the skin of genetically predisposed hosts. AD generally develops in early childhood, has a characteristic age-dependent distribution and is commonly associated with elevated IgE, peripheral eosinophilia and other allergic diseases. Staphylococcus aureus colonization is common and may contribute to disease progression and severity. Targeted therapies to restore both impaired skin barrier and control inflammation are required for optimal outcomes for patients with moderate to severe disease. Pruritus is universal among patients with AD and has a dominant impact on diminishing quality of life. Medications such as anti-histamines have demonstrated poor efficacy in controlling AD-associated itch. Education of patients regarding the primary underlying defects and provision of a comprehensive skin care plan is essential for disease maintenance and management of flares. PMID:25459583

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Cutaneous Inflammatory Disorder: Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Jong Sic; Cho, Dae Ho; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease resulting from interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. The pathogenesis of AD is poorly understood, and the treatment of recalcitrant AD is still challenging. There is accumulating evidence for new gene polymorphisms related to the epidermal barrier function and innate and adaptive immunity in patients with AD. Newly-found T cells and dendritic cell subsets, cytokines, chemokines and signaling pathways have extended our understanding of the molecular pathomechanism underlying AD. Genetic changes caused by environmental factors have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. We herein present a review of the genetics, epigenetics, barrier dysfunction and immunological abnormalities in AD with a focus on updated molecular biology. PMID:27483258

  17. Atopic dermatitis, atopic eczema, or eczema? A systematic review, meta-analysis, and recommendation for uniform use of 'atopic dermatitis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, R; Thyssen, J P; Paller, A S; Silverberg, J I

    2016-10-01

    The lack of standardized nomenclature for atopic dermatitis (AD) creates unnecessary confusion for patients, healthcare providers, and researchers. It also negatively impacts accurate communication of research in the scientific literature. We sought to determine the most commonly used terms for AD. A systematic review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS (1945-2016) for the terms AD, atopic eczema (AE), and multiple other eczematous disorders. In MEDLINE, 33 060 were identified, of which 21 299 (64.4%) publications used the term 'AD', 15 510 (46.9%) 'eczema', and only 2471 (7.5%) AE. Most of these publications used the term AD (82.0%) or eczema (70.8%) without additional nomenclature; only 1.2% used AE alone. Few publications used the terminology 'childhood eczema', 'flexural eczema', 'infantile eczema', 'atopic neurodermatitis', or 'Besnier's prurigo'. AD was rarely used until the late 1970s, after which it became the most commonly used of the three terms and continuously increased until 2015. Atopic eczema decreased between 2008 and 2015. Atopic dermatitis was the most commonly used term in studies across almost all publication types, languages, and journals. Atopic dermatitis is the most commonly used term and appears to be increasing in popularity. Given that eczema is a nonspecific term that describes the morphological appearance of several forms of dermatitis, we strongly suggest the use of a more specific term, AD, in publications, healthcare clinician training, and patient education. Support from researchers, reviewers, and editors is key to success. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of probiotics on the prevention of atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Yeun Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is an immune disorder that is becoming increasingly prevalent throughout the world. The exact etiology of AD remains unknown, and a cure for AD is not currently available. The hypothesis that appropriate early microbial stimulation contributes to the establishment of a balanced immune system in terms of T helper type Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cell (Treg responses has led to the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of AD in light of various human clinical studies and animal experiments. Meta-analysis data suggests that probiotics can alleviate the symptoms of AD in infants. The effects of balancing Th1/Th2 immunity and enhancing Treg activity via the interaction of probiotics with dendritic cells have been described &lt;em&gt;in vitro&lt;/em&gt; and in animal models, although such an effect has not been demonstrated in human studies. In this review, we present some highlights of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in humans and animal studies with regard to their effects on the prevention of AD.

  19. Correction of pancreatic insufficiency in young children with atopic dermatitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solodovnichenko, I.G; Voloshina, L.G; Babadzhanyan, E.N; Savitskaya, E.V

    2016-01-01

    ...% of patients with atopic dermatitis. Objective: evaluation of the effectiveness of the enzyme mini-tableted Ermital 10,000 for the compensation of pancreatic insufficiency in children with atopic dermatitis...

  20. Hyperlinearity in atopic dermatitis, on the palm (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows a manifestation of atopic dermatitis on the palm. Individuals with atopic dermatitis characteristically have increased numbers and depth of skin lines (hyperlinearity) on the palms with little ...

  1. Typical and atypical clinical appearance of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    Atopic dermatitis is a complex, systemic inflammatory disorder associated with a variety of clinical features. The original criteria of Hanifin and Rajka include major criteria and a list of about two dozen minor criteria however, even the minor criteria do not include some features of atopic dermatitis noted less commonly but still seen with some frequency. This contribution first reviews the common clinical appearance of atopic dermatitis in infancy, childhood, and adulthood, as well as the less typical appearances, including lichenoid atopic dermatitis; juvenile plantar dermatosis; nummular-type atopic dermatitis; follicular atopic dermatitis; alopecia of atopic dermatitis; eczema coxsackium; and psoriasiform, perineal, and lip licker's dermatitis. The clinician will be able to recognize and treat rarer forms of atopic dermatitis and incorporate this into their daily practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Atopy as a risk factor for thyroid autoimmunity in children affected with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedullá, M; Fierro, V; Papacciuolo, V; Alfano, R; Ruocco, E

    2014-08-01

    As a result of several clinical reports addressing coincidence or coprevalence of atopy and autoimmune disease such as multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes mellitus, there has been considerable interest in defining the relationship between the expression of allergic and autoimmune disease in populations of patients. Although thyroid autoimmunity has been regularly associated with chronic urticaria in children, the cofrequency of thyroid autoimmunity and atopic dermatitis has not yet been investigated. The aim of the study was to describe our experience with children affected by atopic dermatitis and associated thyroid autoimmunity. From January 2010 to December 2012, 147 children affected by atopic dermatitis were consecutively referred to the Pediatric Clinic of the Pediatric Department at the Second University of Naples. Seventy healthy children of comparable ages, unaffected by atopic dermatitis, atopy or thyroid disease, served as a control group. On the basis of skin prick test results we selected 54 IgE-mediated (36.7%) and 93 non-IgE-mediated AD (63.3%) children. Fourteen of 147 patients (9.52%) showed increased levels of antithyroid antibodies. Our results therefore suggest that atopy, especially food allergy, and autoimmunity are two potential outcomes of dysregulated immunity. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Expression density of receptors to IL-1β in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshevskaya, Alina A; Lopatnikova, Julia A; Krugleeva, Olga L; Nepomnyschih, Vera M; Lukinov, Vitaliy L; Karaulov, Aleksander V; Sennikov, Sergey V

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1 β) and the system for regulation of its biological effects play an important role in the development and behavior of inflammatory processes in atopic dermatitis. Notably, cells that are actively involved in the pathological process have altered expression of cytokine receptors. However, standard evaluation of cells by flow cytometry measures only the percentage of cells expressing the appropriate marker, which is not enough for a full assessment of these changes. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the expression of IL-1β cytokine receptors in patients with atopic dermatitis by both percentage of cells with receptors in various subsets and the absolute number of membrane-bound receptors themselves. It was found that an increase or decrease in the percentage of cells expressing the receptors in subsets of immune cells in patients with atopic dermatitis was not associated with a change in the number of receptors on the cell surface. Moreover, the changes in the percentage of cells and the number of receptors may occur in different directions, as shown for IL-1R2 expression on B cells and IL-1R1 expression for monocytes. Changes in the parameters of IL-1β receptor expressions are associated with disease severity index SCORAD in atopic dermatitis. These findings underline the importance of studying the density of cytokine receptor expression in the pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Opisthorchis felineus liver fluke invasion is an environmental factor modifying genetic risk of atopic bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykova, Irina V; Ogorodova, Ludmila M; Bragina, Elena Yu; Puzyrev, Valery P; Freidin, Maxim B

    2014-11-01

    According to epidemiological observations, Opisthorchis felineus liver fluke invasion is negatively associated with the development and severity of allergic diseases in endemic regions of Russia. We hypothesized that the invasion is an important factor in gene-environmental interactions (GEI) underlying allergy. To prove this, we tested 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms of immune response modifying genes in 428 individuals stratified by atopic bronchial asthma presence and O. felineus invasion. Using regression models, a statistically significant interaction between the rs6737848 polymorphism of SOCS5 gene and O. felineus invasion was observed (pint=0.001, OR=5.66, 95% CI 1.96-16.31 for dominant model; pint=0.003; OR=4.38, 95% CI 1.68-11.45 for additive model). The interaction is based on the statistically significant association between the SOCS5 gene and atopic bronchial asthma in patients without O. felineus infection, while no such association is seen in patients infected by the helminth. These data confirm for the first time the importance of the helminth invasion as an environmental factor influencing the association between genetic factors and atopic bronchial asthma. In particular, O. felineus diminishes the risk of atopic bronchial asthma associated with the SOCS5 gene polymorphism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Wheeze in children: the impact of parental education on atopic and non-atopic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meer, Gea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Brunekreef, Bert

    2010-08-01

    There is conflicting evidence for the relationship between parental socioeconomic position and their children's asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between parental education and respiratory symptoms in their children, distinguishing atopic and non-atopic symptoms. A cross-sectional survey among 3262 elementary school children (age 8-13) was performed; data on parental education were obtained for 3213 children. Parents completed a questionnaire on their child's allergic and respiratory symptoms, and potential explanatory variables including family history, indoor environment, and the child's medical history. Subsets of children were tested for atopy (n = 1983), lung function (n = 2325), and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) (n = 880). Logistic regression was used to assess relationships of health outcomes with parental education. A high parental education was associated with an increased risk of atopic sensitization to indoor allergens (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02; 1.69). Studied explanatory variables did not influence the relationship. In contrast, a high parental education protected children from wheeze (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61; 0.97). This only applied to non-atopic wheeze (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43; 0.99) and not to atopic wheeze (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.60; 1.31). The protection from non-atopic wheeze in children of highly educated parents declined after adjustment for household smoking and breastfeeding (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.58; 1.57). Similar results were observed for non-atopic and atopic rhinitis. We conclude that children from highly educated parents are protected from non-atopic respiratory symptoms, which is largely explained by a lower rate of household smoking and a higher rate of breastfeeding.

  6. Immunological mechanisms in atopic dermatitis : clinical and experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tengvall Linder, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate immunological mechanisms in atopic dermatitis. Serum IgE levels are elevated in 80% of atopic dermatitis patients and CD4+ T cells and environmental allergens are known to be of importance in the pathogenesis of the disease. It was therefore of interest to further elucidate the role of these factors in atopic dermatitis. Cyclosporin A (CSA) was used as a tool for exploring the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, with emphasis on the...

  7. Evidence-based treatment of atopic eczema in general practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    banzi

    of atopic eczema in general practice. Atopic eczema is a common chronic condition characterised by dry, itchy skin associated with flares and remissions. .... atopy. This effect is lessened in the general population and neg- ligible in children without first- order atopic relatives. Breast- feeding should be strongly rec-.

  8. Probiotic bacteria for prevention of atopic diseases: design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niers, L.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Atopic diseases such as (atopic) eczema, food allergy, asthma, and allergic rhinitis are common diseases. The cumulative incidence during childhood is estimated to be 20 to 30%. In countries with a so called ‘’Western lifestyle’’ an increase in the prevalence of atopic diseases has been observed

  9. Topical cyclosporine for atopic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Julio J; López-Alcalde, Jesús; Morcillo Laiz, Rafael; Fernández Buenaga, Roberto; Rebolleda Fernández, Gema

    2012-09-12

    Atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) is a chronic ocular surface non-infectious inflammatory condition that atopic dermatitis patients may suffer at any time point in the course of their dermatologic disease and is independent of its degree of severity. AKC is usually not self resolving and it poses a higher risk of corneal injuries and severe sequelae. Management of AKC should prevent or treat corneal damage. Although topical corticosteroids remain the standard treatment for patients with AKC, prolonged use may lead to complications. Topical cyclosporine A (CsA) may improve AKC signs and symptoms, and be used as a corticosteroid sparing agent. To determine the efficacy and gather evidence on safety from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical CsA in patients with AKC. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2012), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 1937 to July 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en), the IFPMA Clinical Trials Portal (http://clinicaltrials.ifpma.org/no_cache/en/myportal/index.htm) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 July 2012. We also handsearched the following conference proceedings: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, International Council of Opthalmology and Societas

  10. Genetic polymorphism of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor in atopic and non-atopic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, P C; Van Wyk, L; Martin, M; Lentes, K U; Dowdle, E B

    1993-10-01

    To investigate a possible genetic basis for reported differences in beta-2 receptor expression in atopic subjects, DNA from 42 atopic children (22 asthmatics and 22 with allergic rhinitis) and 30 non-atopic subjects was Southern blotted and Ban-1 restriction fragment polymorphisms (RFLPS) were studied using a 2.6 kb probe of the human beta-2 receptor gene. Two alleles 3.1 kb and 2.9 kb were identified. Homozygotes and heterozygotes for the two alleles were found with equal frequency in the atopic patients who had asthma and in those who had allergic rhinitis only. The gene frequencies for the upper and lower alleles were 0.45 and 0.55 respectively. Our studies do not provide evidence for an association between a particular polymorphic form of the human beta-2 receptor gene and atopy.

  11. Expression of miRNA 155, FOXP3 and ROR gamma, in children with moderate and severe atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Accorinti, Martina; Galliano, Ilaria; Coppo, Paola; Montanari, Paola; Quaglino, Pietro; Savino, Francesco

    2017-12-15

    Atopic dermatitis is a disease characterized by a chronic inflammatory process in the skin, but its link to miRNA 155 is less known. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of microRNA155, and T helper type 17 cells and Treg cells in children with atopic dermatitis. The study population consisted of: children seen for atopic dermatitis at the outpatient ambulatory of Dermatology at the Children Hospital Regina Margherita, Torino, Italy,( n = 23); healthy control subjects ( n =23). Blood samples were taken during routine control analysis and the expression of miRNA 155 and the production of FOXP3 and RORˠ was determined using PCR real time. The analysis of miR-155 shows that the over-expression of miR-155 is statistically significant (p = 0.0040) in the group of patients with atopic dermatitis compared to the healthy control group. Analysis of mRNAs of FOXP3 and RORˠ shows a FOXP3 mRNA expression statistically higher in the group of patients (p = 0.0057). The Th17 / Treg ratio is significantly smaller in patients with atopic dermatitis (p = 0.0012). Also the ratio miR-155/Th17/Treg is larger in the group of patients with atopic dermatitis (p = 0.0002). Our results suggest that increased miR-155 and FOXP3 and RORˠ responses may provide a link to immune dysregulation associated with atopic dermatitis. Although a point-by-point correlation between miR-155 and the ratio Th17/Treg is not demonstrated, our findings shows that these two elements do not appear to be completely unrelated to each other.

  12. New Developments in Biomarkers for Atopic Dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Judith L.; Seggelen, Wouter van; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein de; Hijnen, DirkJan

    2015-01-01

    The application of biomarkers in medicine is evolving. Biomarkers do not only give us a better understanding of pathogenesis, but also increase treatment efficacy and safety, further enabling more precise clinical care. This paper focuses on the current use of biomarkers in atopic dermatitis, new

  13. Is atopic dermatitis associated with obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Suppli Ulrik, Charlotte; Agner, Tove

    2018-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with atopic dermatitis (AD), however the results have been conflicting. Our aim was to provide an update on current knowledge from observational studies addressing the possible association between obesity and AD. Systematic literature review was performed by identifying...

  14. Use of systemic corticosteroids for atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drucker, A M; Eyerich, K; de Bruin-Weller, M S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines discourage the use of systemic corticosteroids for atopic dermatitis (AD), but their use remains widespread. OBJECTIVES: To reach consensus among an international group of AD experts on the use of systemic corticosteroids for AD. METHODS: A survey consisting of statements...

  15. Association of atopic dermatitis with smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantor, Robert; Kim, Ashley; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco exposure might be a modifiable risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: We examine the association between AD and exposure to tobacco smoke. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (n = 86) in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and ...

  16. Autoimmune diseases in adults with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Yuki M F; Egeberg, Alexander; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: An increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease has been shown in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), but data remain scarce and inconsistent. Objective: We examined the co-occurrence of selected autoimmune diseases in adult patients with AD. Methods: Nationwide health registers w...

  17. T-cell inhibitors for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, W James; Fowler, Joseph F

    2018-03-01

    The management of atopic dermatitis is changing with the development of novel biologic agents to target specific molecules in the inflammatory cascade. Following the ability of dupilumab has proved its ability to act on the interleukin 4 receptor in treating atopic dermatitis. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin monoclonal antibody (AMG157/MEDI9929) and OX40 blocking antibody (GBR 830) were developed by targeting the same pathway as dupilumab further upstream. The clinical data on the efficacy for these drugs are not yet known. There is some early evidence that AMG157/MEDI9929 attenuates most measures of allergen-induced asthmatic responses. However, there are no public data on its ability to treat atopic dermatitis. In a phase 2a study, GBR 830 showed at least a 50% reduction in the Eczema Area and Severity Index scores of 17 of 23 patients, but it was not sufficiently powered for identification of statistical differences between GBR 830 versus placebo. Although there is potential for these 2 drugs to greatly improve the management of severe atopic dermatitis, significant clinical trials have not yet been completed to prove efficacy, and there are not yet any available phase 3 clinical trials, which are needed to truly evaluate their efficacy in affecting T-cells. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, K E; Dellgren, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While much is known about childhood atopic dermatitis, little is known about persistence of atopic dermatitis into adult life. We report, to our knowledge for the first time, the clinical course of atopic dermatitis in an unselected cohort of adolescents followed into adulthood. METHODS......: The course of atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood was studied prospectively in a cohort of unselected 8th-grade schoolchildren established in 1995 and followed up in 2010 with questionnaire and clinical examination. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis was high (34...

  19. [Adulthood atopic dermatitis: epidemiology, clinical symptoms, provoking and prognostic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pónyai, Györgyi; Temesvári, Erzsébet; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2007-01-07

    The prevalence of atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma bronchiale and atopic dermatitis is increasing both in children and adults at different parts of the world. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting mostly children, but the atopic trait continues, not only for later respiratory allergies, but also for skin symptoms in adulthood. In this form dry skin, flexural lichenification, head and neck dermatitis, hand dermatitis are typical. The exact etiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, in the background interactions of genetical predisposition, skin barrier defects and immunological and environmental factors can be verified. In the complex approach of atopic dermatitis, a pivotal role is ascribed to the evaluation and possibly the elimination of provoking factors, like gender, family structure, clothing, aero-, alimentary and contact allergens, psychosocial stress, migration, infections, and personal home environment. Authors review clinical manifestations, triggering and prognostic factors of the adulthood atopic dermatitis.

  20. [Skin microbiota and atopic dermatitis: toward new therapeutic options?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, J-Ph

    2015-01-01

    The skin in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is constantly colonized by S. aureus, in part due to a deficit in epidermal antimicrobial peptides. S. aureus can cause secondary infections but is also involved in the occurrence and severity of the inflammatory flares of AD. Thus, the diversity of skin microbiota is abnormal in AD. Dynamic studies of the microbiota showed that the prevalence of staphylococcae sp. is further increased during flares of AD. This dysbiosis leads to an increase in inflammatory reactions in which staphylococcal toxins play an important role. Changes in the gut microbiota also play a role in the early maturation of the immune system and the occurrence of allergic reactions. Attempts in the modulation of skin microbiota have recently been made showing that a cream containing a lysate of a non pathogenic Gram negative bacteria, V. filiformis, is capable of improving the manifestations of AD. These effects may be driven by a regulation of skin innate immunity through Toll like receptors (TLR-2), the secretion of IL-10 and the induction of regulatory T cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Additional probiotic therapy lowers SCORAD index in children with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ekaputri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common skin disease that is usually chronic, relapsing, causing pruritus and frequent in children. The pathogenesis of AD involves genetic, immunological and environmental factors causing skin barrier dysfunction and dysregulation of the immune system. Probiotic treatment has been claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of the immune system and plays an important role in AD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of probiotic therapy on atopic dermatitis in children. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 62 children suffering from AD from December 2015 to January 2016. AD severity was assessed based on the scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD index. Subjects were divided into two groups consisting of 32 and 30 children, the probiotic (probiotic + emollient and control (emollient groups, respectively. SCORAD index was re-evaluated after 2 weeks of therapy. The data was analyzed using Mann Whitney test. Results After the intervention, the mean SCORAD index in the probiotic group was significantly much lower than the control group (18.09 ± 8.59 vs 23.21 ± 8.71; p=0.001. The mean decrease in SCORAD index in the probiotic group was 40.4 %, much higher than the control group 25.2%. The number needed to treat (NNT score of probiotic treatment was 5.3. Conclusion The addition of probiotics to conventional therapy effectively lowers SCORAD index by 40.4% in atopic dermatitis. The impact of probiotics on SCORAD indices is thought to be attained by modification of the immunogenicity of potential allergens.

  2. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF MURAMYL DIPEPTIDE IN THE TREATMENT OF ATOPIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kolesnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased incidence of allergic diseases worldwide reflects some mangles of the existing pharmacotherapy concept which ignores some etiopathogenetic aspects of clinical atopy. Meanwhile, understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of allergy may create prerequisites for development of new therapeutic areas, in order to effectively influence pathogenesis points of allergic inflammation and, thus, leading to therapeutic success. The review article concerns an antagonism between the two populations of T-helper cells (Th1 and Th2 carried out mainly by the action of IFNγ produced by activated Th1, and IL-4 secreted by activated Th2 which is at the heart of modern concept on the regulation of adaptive immunity. The prospects of immunotherapy of allergic diseases based on the polarization of the immune response are discussed, i.e., an activation of Th1 responses and Th2 suppression. This functional polarization can be mediated by the innate immune receptor agonist, i.e., synthetic and natural minimally-sized biologically active fragments (MBAF with pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In this respect, a very promising drug registered in Russia is based on the synthetic MBAF, glucosaminylmuramyldipeptide (GMDP, The liсopid immunomodulator. This is due to the fact that GMDP, being an active substance of Liсopid, is a highly specific ligand for the NOD2 receptor of innate immunity factors; it may cause activation of the NF-kB transcription factor, and production of multiple immunoregulatory cytokines. Clinical and immunological efficacy of Licopid application in conventional therapy of atopic allergic diseases (asthma, atopic dermatitis, atopic variant of acute obstructive bronchitis is presented as an overview of pre-clinical and clinical trials.

  3. Oral application of bacterial lysate in infancy diminishes the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in children at risk for atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S

    2014-06-01

    Numerous interventions such as avoidance of food allergens, prolonged breast feeding and supplementation of pro-and/or prebiotics have been tried as primary prevention of atopic dermatitis. Recent data suggest that prevention of infantile eczema is possible in a subgroup of children by feeding bacterial lysates early in life. Bacterial lysates of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis were found to impair allergic immune responses in rats. An interventional trial in 606 infants at risk for atopy showed a reduction of atopic dermatitis at the end of the treatment phase (month 2 until month 7) of 50% in a subgroup of children with single heredity for atopy. This was even more pronounced in the group of children with paternal heredity for atopy. This effect was still seen at age 1 year. There was no effect on food sensitisation. In conclusion, an immune modulation in terms of prevention of atopic dermatitis in infancy if single atopic family history is present seems to be possible by feeding bacterial lysates early in life.

  4. Risk factors for atopic and non-atopic asthma in a rural area of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Maritza; Oviedo, Gisela; Erazo, Silvia; Quinzo, Isabel; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L; Chico, Martha E; Barreto, Mauricio L; Cooper, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    Background Asthma has emerged as an important public health problem of urban populations in Latin America. Epidemiological data suggest that a minority of asthma cases in Latin America may be associated with allergic sensitisation and that other mechanisms causing asthma have been overlooked. The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for atopic and non-atopic asthma in school-age children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3960 children aged 6–16 years living in Afro-Ecuadorian rural communities in Esmeraldas province in Ecuador. Allergic diseases and risk factors were assessed by questionnaire and allergic sensitisation by allergen skin prick reactivity. Results A total of 390 (10.5%) children had wheeze within the previous 12 months, of whom 14.4% had at least one positive skin test. The population-attributable fraction for recent wheeze associated with atopy was 2.4%. Heavy Trichuris trichiura infections were strongly inversely associated with atopic wheeze. Non-atopic wheeze was positively associated with maternal allergic symptoms and sedentarism (watching television (>3 h/day)) but inversely associated with age and birth order. Conclusions The present study showed a predominance of non-atopic compared with atopic wheeze among schoolchildren living in a poor rural region of tropical Latin America. Distinct risk factors were associated with the two wheeze phenotypes and may indicate different causal mechanisms. Future preventive strategies in such populations may need to be targeted at the causes of non-atopic wheeze. PMID:20435862

  5. Characterization by phenotype of families with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, M; Kockum, I; Söderhäll, C; Van Hage-Hamsten, M; Luthman, H; Nordenskjöld, M; Wahlgren, C F

    2000-01-01

    The aetiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but is probably multifactorial, with interactions between several genetic and environmental factors. Twin studies indicate a strong genetic factor, but the susceptibility genes are unknown. This paper, describing the phenotypes of family material, forms part of a large genetic study seeking to identify susceptibility genes for atopic dermatitis by linkage analysis. We selected families with at least 2 siblings affected with atopic dermatitis (1,097 affected siblings who together form 650 affected sib pairs and 49 affected half-sib pairs). We established a phenotype database of information about the affected siblings and their relatives, in total 5,830 individuals. All siblings were diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and participated in a standardized interview covering aspects of atopy and atopic dermatitis. Of the affected siblings, 72% suffered or had suffered from asthma and/or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and 74% had raised total and/or allergen-specific IgE serum levels. Seventeen percent of the siblings had been hospitalized for atopic dermatitis. Sixty-nine percent had 1 or both parents with atopic dermatitis. Among siblings with 1 parent with atopic dermatitis, 37% had a father with atopic dermatitis and 63% had a mother with atopic dermatitis, indicating maternal preponderance. Analysis of the occurrence of atopic dermatitis in relation to the birth order in the sibship shows an increased risk of atopic dermatitis in persons born early in a sibship. Although the families were selected for genetic sib-pair linkage analysis, we believe that this material is representative of atopic dermatitis families managed at hospitals in Stockholm.

  6. Diagnostic clinical features of atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Lata

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis is a common disease which varies widely in clinical presentation at different ages and places. Although authors working in western countries on white races have suggested many criteria, there is no uniform set which can be used in large population studies in this part of the world. Hence keeping in mind differences in environment and ethnicity of population, the present study was carried out. Seventy- three patients of atopic dermatitis and 71 age matched controls were studied. All the subjects were examined using a set of 34 potentially useful clinical features selected from different studies, including features for evaluation of photosensitivity. Multiple regression technique was used for analysing the data. It was found that 6 clinical features were diagnostic, 1. presence of itch, 2. history of flexural involvement, 3. history of dry skin, 4. family history of atopy, 5. personal history of diagnosed asthma and 6, visible flexural dermatitis. Photosensitivity was not a significant feature.

  7. Treating pediatric atopic dermatitis: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriades VR; Wisner E

    2015-01-01

    Victoria R Dimitriades, Elizabeth Wisner Division of Allergy/Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USAAbstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition which affects millions of people worldwide. It is most commonly seen in children but may also progress into adulthood. Management of this complex disease requires a multi-pronged approach which can address th...

  8. Non-pharmacologic therapies for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) continues to present significant therapeutic challenges, especially in severe cases. Navigating the line between risk and benefit can be difficult for more powerful medications such as immunosuppressants, but non-pharmacologic treatments are often overlooked and underutilized. Creative application of these more physical therapies can serve to minimize the pharmacologic treatments and their side effects, and possibly even create synergy between modalities, to maximize benefit to the patient.

  9. First observation of the decay $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ → D$±\\atop{s}$ K and measurement of the relative branching fraction B($\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$→ D$±\\atop{s}$ K)/B($\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$→ D$+\\atop{s}$ π-).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muelmenstaedt, Johannes [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    We present the first observation of the decay $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$→ D$±\\atop{s}$ K∓ and measure the relative branching fraction of $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ → D$±\\atop{s}$ K∓ to $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ → D$+\\atop{s}$ π-. The measurement of the relative branching fraction is performed by applying a fit in invariant mass and specific ionization to 1.2 fb-1 of Ds(φπ)X data collected with the CDF II detector in pp collisions at √ s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We measure B $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ → D$±\\atop{s}$ K∓ /B $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ → D$+\\atop{s}$ π- = 0.107±0.019(stat)±0.008(sys). The statistical significance of the $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ → D$±\\atop{s}$ K signal is 7.9σ. To cross-check our analysis method, we also measure B $\\bar{B0}$→ D+K- /B $\\bar{B0}$ → D+π- and B $\\bar{B0}$ → D+*K- /B $\\bar{B0}$ → D*+π- and verify that our results are in agreement with the world average.

  10. AAPE proliposomes for topical atopic dermatitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Alexander; Song, Chung Kil; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Hong, Soon-Sun; Lee, Ju-Hee; Chung, Suk-Jae; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2014-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory effect of advanced adipose stem cell derived protein extract (AAPE) could be improved by minimising protein degradation. To develop a proliposomal formulation of AAPE for the treatment of topical atopic dermatitis. Proliposomal powder was manufactured by evaporating a solution of soy phosphatidyl choline, AAPE and Poloxamer 407 in ethanol under vacuum on sorbitol powder. Characterisation of proliposomes (zeta potential, diameter, stability and flowability) as well as in vivo efficacy in a dermatitis mouse model was investigated. Reconstitution of the proliposomal powder formed liposomes of 589 ± 3.6 nm diameter with zeta potential of -51.33 ± 0.36 mV. Protein stability was maintained up to 90 days at 25 °C as proliposomes. In vivo studies on atopic dermatitis mouse model showed a significant reduction in IgE levels after topical AAPE proliposome treatment. AAPE proliposomes maintained protein stability and showed promising results for atopic dermatitis treatment.

  11. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2012-01-01

    Jäderberg I, Thomsen SF, Kyvik KO, Skytthe A, Backer V. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 140-145. We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted...... reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression...... and variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0...

  12. New and emerging trends in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbard, Christina M; Hebert, Adelaide A

    2008-02-02

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that affects 10% to 20% of children and 1% to 3% of adults in the US. Symptoms often result in sleeplessness, psychological stress, poor self-esteem, anxiety, and poor school or work performance. The cost of atopic dermatitis is estimated to be US$0.9 to 3.8 billion every year. Topical steroids are first-line treatment for atopic dermatitis, and recent advances in vehicle technologies have resulted in improved patient tolerability and compliance. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are also safe and effective topical treatments for atopic dermatitis, and provide an additional therapeutic option for patients with this disease. Systemic immunomodulators are used in the treatment of severe refractory disease. Cyclosporine, methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and interferon gamma have been used in the management of severe atopic dermatitis. This review highlights the current and emerging trends in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  13. THE APPLICATION OF ENTEROSORBENTS TO TREAT ATOPIC DERMATITIS AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Shcherbakov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study of the peculiarities of atopic dermatitis run from the viewpoint of allergistcimmunologist and gastroenterologist. The authors give an analysis of the reasons for atopic dermatitis development conditioned by the food allergy and define the place and meaning of the digestive apparatus function within the mechanisms of the disease development. The authors dwell in detail on the state of the intestinal tract mucosa and peculiarities of its lesion during atopic dermatitis. They give the schemes of the combined treatment for atopic dermatitis aimed at recovery of the affected small bowel mucosa and recovery of its protective properties with the help of cytomucoprotective adsorbing agents. They also present the findings of their own clinical experience of treatment of children, suffering from atopic dermatitis and having various lesions of the digestive apparatus.Key words: atopic dermatitis, children, food allergy, cytomucoprotection, adsorbing agents, dioctahedral smectite.

  14. ROLE OF PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL DISTRESSES IN CHILD ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Sidorenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the relation between vegetative and psycho emotional distresses in cases of child atopic dermatitis. The authors applied instrumental research methods to estimate the condition of vegetative nervous system (cardiointer valography together with anamnestic analysis and clinical psychopathological methods. Authors established the methods of correcting diagnosed distresses. Using psycho corrective therapy significantly increases the efficiency of complex treatment of atopic child dermatitis.Key words: atopic dermatitis, psycho emotional disorders, treatment, children.

  15. Cinnamomum cassia bark produced by solid-state fermentation with Phellinus baumii has the potential to alleviate atopic dermatitis-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Kyu; Son, Hyeong-U; Kim, Jong-Myung; Heo, Jin-Chul; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether the aqueous fraction of Cinnamomum cassia produced by solid-state fermentation with Phellinus baumii (afCc/Pb) inhibits atopic symptoms in vivo, its efficacy was evaluated in an animal model of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced atopic dermatitis. Immune-related cells were quantified using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and phenotypic cytokines, enzymes and the expression of other proteins in the animal model were evaluated. The data revealed that afCc/Pb (100 µg/ml) exhibited strong anti-atopic activity, causing a significant 40% reduction in immune response, as shown by the extent of ear swelling, resulting from a decrease in the number of eosinophils in the skin tissues due to decreased matrix metalloproteinase-2 and interleukin-31 expression. These results collectively suggest that afCc/Pb has the potential to alleviate the symptoms of atopic dermatitis in a mouse model of DNFB-induced atopic dermatitis, and that it may be a valuable bioresource for the cosmetic/cosmeceutical industry.

  16. [The potential of the non-pharmacological methods for the rehabilitation and prophylaxis in the patients suffering from with atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosheleva, I V; Bitkina, O A; Klivitskaya, N A; Shadyzheva, L I

    2017-01-01

    This article was designed to discuss the therapeutic potential of various non-pharmacological and physiotherapeutic methods for the treatment and rehabilitation of the patients presenting with atopic dermatitis (AD) during the inter-recurrence period of the disease. The particular emphasis is placed on the physical agents most frequently used for the purpose with special reference to the combined therapy of atopic dermatitis in the adults and children and to their rehabilitation in the inter-exacerbation periods. In addition, the data on the prospects for the use of various medications intended for tissue- and organotherapy of the patients suffering from atopic dermatitis are presented. The main traditional approaches to the management of the patients with atopic dermatitis under conditions of the spa and health resort facilities are considered based on the original experience of the authors including the application of various modes of ozone therapy regarded as a physiotherapeutic procedure for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in the children and adult patients, their rehabilitation, and the prevention of exacerbations of the pathological process based on the external and/or systemic application of the ozone-oxygen gaseous mixture. The selected modalities of ozone therapy used to treat various clinical forms and stages of the atopic dermatitis differing in severity are described in detail. The data on the influence of ozone therapy on a variety of pathogenetic factors of atopic dermatitis are presented as obtained by the investigations into dynamics of the characteristics of immunity, microcirculation, and the levels of free radical metabolites. The results of the study give evidence of the high effectiveness of ozone therapy as a method of physiotherapeutic treatment both in the capacity of a component of combined therapy during the acute phase of atopic dermatitis and as the means of secondary (post-exposure) prophylaxis of the exacerbations and relapses of

  17. Respiratory comorbidity in South African children with atopic dermatitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C L Gray; M E Levin; G du Toit

    2017-01-01

    Background. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an early and important step in the propagation of the allergic march, enhancing food and respiratory allergies via epicutaneous sensitisation to allergens. Objectives...

  18. [Atopic dermatitis: a modern view of pediatricians and pediatric allergologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhotnikova, O M

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the views of pediatric allergologist on the problem of atopic dermatitis/ atopic eczema in children. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is considered from a modern viewpoint of allergic 'march', which is characteristic (typical) for children with atopy. These data indicate to systemic nature of atopic 'march', the first step of which is atopic eczema. Further evolution of atopic dermatitis leads to a transformation of it in other atopic diseases--allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma; this fact indicates that immunopathological disorders are united in these diseases and it conditions the possibility of prevention. It has taken into consideration the systemic nature of atopic diseases, combined therapy is great important and has to include not only basic local therapy, in particular topical corticosteroids (mometasone furoate--Elokom) during the exacerbation, and the systematic elimination of trigger factors, diet, the removal of the digestive system dysfunctions and the imbalance of vitamins. A long-time systemic basic therapy by H1-antihistamines of second generation, such as desloratadine (Aerius) takes a special place in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  19. Spotlight on dupilumab in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: design, development, and potential place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Erme AM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Angelo Massimiliano D’Erme,1,2 Marco Romanelli,2 Andrea Chiricozzi2 1Dermatology Unit, Livorno Hospital, Livorno, 2Dermatology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD is among the most common inflammatory skin diseases in children and adults in industrialized countries. Up to one-third of adults (probably a smaller proportion in childhood suffer from moderate-to-severe AD, whose recommended treatment is usually based on systemic therapies. The currently available therapeutics are limited, and AD management becomes challenging in most cases. Over the last few years, new advances in the understanding of AD pathogenic mechanisms and inflammatory pathways have led to the identification of specific therapeutic targets and new molecules have been tested. Dupilumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the IL-4 receptor α subunit that is able to block the signaling of both IL-4 and IL-13 and achieve rapid and significant improvements in adults with moderate-to-severe AD. Dupilumab is ready to inaugurate a long and promising biological target treatment option for Th2 cell-mediated atopic immune response that characterizes AD. Keywords: dupilumab, atopic dermatitis, eczema, IL-4, IL-13, biologics

  20. Comparison of the Effects of Three Music on the Immune Cells of Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Salek Moghaddam

    2007-04-01

    control (Pvalue = 0.02, decrease CD 19+ B cells (Pvalue = 0.07, noticeable increase.ConclusionEvaluation of immune cells in atopic patients who listened to pop music showed significant increase in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and NK cells, and a noticeable decrease in B cells. Therefore, it can be concluded that pop music had positive effects on atopic subjects. But, apparently, the effects of this music on non-atopic subjects are opposite i.e. CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ cells were significantly decreased in these patients. In contrast, humoral immunity was strengthened and B cells were significantly increased.Keywords: Music; Rhinitis; Flow Cytometry; B- Lymphocytes

  1. Comparison of the Effects of Three Music on the Immune Cells of Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salek Moghaddam

    2012-05-01

    allergic versus non-atopic control (Pvalue = 0.02, decrease. CD16+ NK cells: atopic pop versus atopic control (Pvalue =0.014, increase, non-atopic allergic pop versus non-atopic control (Pvalue = 0.02, decrease CD 19+ B cells (Pvalue = 0.07, noticeable increase.

    Conclusion

    Evaluation of immune cells in atopic patients who listened to pop music showed significant increase in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and NK cells, and a noticeable decrease in B cells. Therefore, it can be concluded that pop music had positive effects on atopic subjects. But, apparently, the effects of this music on non-atopic subjects are opposite i.e. CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ cells were significantly decreased in these patients. In contrast, humoral immunity was strengthened and B cells were significantly increased

  2. Observation of B$0\\atop{s}$ → Ψ(2S)Φ and Measurement of Branching Ratio of B(B$0\\atop{s}$ → Ψ(2S)Φ)/B(B$0\\atop{s}$ → J/ΨΦ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Daejung [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-01

    We report the first observation of B$0\\atop{s}$ → Ψ(2S)Φ decay in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using 360 pb-1 of data collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. We present the first measurement of the relative branching fraction B$0\\atop{s}$ → Ψ(2S)Φ / B(B$0\\atop{s}$ → J/ΨΦ) = 0.52±0.13 (stat.)±0.04(syst.)±0.06(BR) using the Ψ(2S) → μ+μ- decay mode.

  3. Diet Quality throughout Early Life in Relation to Allergic Sensitization and Atopic Diseases in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh N. Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Early-life nutrition is an important modifiable determinant in the development of a child’s immune system, and may thereby influence the risk of allergic sensitization and atopic diseases. However, associations between overall dietary patterns and atopic diseases in childhood remain unclear. We examined associations of diet quality in early life with allergic sensitization, self-reported physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma among 5225 children participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Diet was assessed during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood using validated food-frequency questionnaires. We calculated food-based diet quality scores (0–10 or 0–15, reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. At age 10 years, allergic sensitization was assessed with skin prick tests. Information on physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma was obtained with questionnaires. We observed no associations between diet quality during pregnancy and allergic sensitization (odds ratio (OR = 1.05 per point in the diet score, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99, 1.13, allergies (0.96, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.04, eczema (0.99, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.06, or asthma (0.93, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.03 in childhood. Also, diet quality in infancy or childhood were not associated with atopic outcomes in childhood. Our findings do not support our hypothesis that a healthy dietary pattern in early life is associated with a lower risk of allergic sensitization or atopic diseases in childhood.

  4. Mediators of Chronic Pruritus in Atopic Dermatitis: Getting the Itch Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollanazar, Nicholas K; Smith, Peter K; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2016-12-01

    For centuries, itch was categorized as a submodality of pain. Recent research over the last decade has led to the realization that itch is in fact a separate and distinct, albeit closely related, sensation. Chronic itch is a common complaint and has numerous etiologies. Various receptors (TRPA1, TRPV1, PAR2, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), Mas-related G proteins), secreted molecules (histamine, nerve growth factor (NGF), substance P (SP), proteases), and cytokines/chemokines (thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-31) are implicated as mediators of chronic pruritus. While much remains unknown regarding the mechanisms of chronic itch, this much is certain: there is no singular cause of itch. Rather, itch is caused by a complex interface between skin, keratinocytes, cutaneous nerve fibers, pruritogenic molecules, and the peripheral and central nervous systems. Atopic dermatitis is one of the most itchy skin dermatoses and affects millions worldwide. The sensation of atopic itch is mediated by the interplay between epidermal barrier dysfunction, upregulated immune cascades, and the activation of structures in the central nervous system. Clinicians are in possession of an arsenal of different treatment options ranging from moisturizers, topical immunomodulators, topical anesthetic ion channel inhibitors, systemic immunomodulators, as well as oral drugs capable of reducing neural hypersensitization. Emerging targeted therapies on the horizon, such as dupilumab, promise to usher in a new era of highly specific and efficacious treatments. Alternative medicine, stress reduction techniques, and patient education are also important treatment modalities. This review will focus on the mediators of chronic pruritus mainly associated with atopic dermatitis (atopic itch), as well as numerous different therapeutic options.

  5. Signal transduction around thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP in atopic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuepper Michael

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, a novel interleukin-7-like cytokine, triggers dendritic cell-mediated inflammatory responses ultimately executed by T helper cells of the Th2 subtype. TSLP emerged as a central player in the development of allergic symptoms, especially in the airways, and is a prime regulatory cytokine at the interface of virus- or antigen-exposed epithelial cells and dendritic cells (DCs. DCs activated by epithelium-derived TSLP can promote naïve CD4+ T cells to adopt a Th2 phenotype, which in turn recruite eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes as well as mast cells into the airway mucosa. These different cells secrete inflammatory cytokines and chemokines operative in inducing an allergic inflammation and atopic asthma. TSLP is, thus, involved in the control of both an innate and an adaptive immune response. Since TSLP links contact of allergen with the airway epithelium to the onset and maintainance of the asthmatic syndrome, defining the signal transduction underlying TSLP expression and function is of profound interest for a better understandimg of the disease and for the development of new therapeutics.

  6. The role of air pollutants in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kangmo

    2014-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease and a growing health concern, especially in children, because of its high prevalence and associated low quality of life. Genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, or interactions between them contribute to the pathophysiology of AD. Therefore, it is very important to identify and control risk factors from the environment in susceptible subjects for successful treatment and prevention. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution, which are of increasing concern with urbanization, are well-known environmental risk factors for asthma, whereas there is relatively little evidence in AD. This review highlights epidemiologic and experimental data on the role of air pollution in patients with AD. Recent evidence suggests that a variety of air pollutants, such as environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, toluene, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter, act as risk factors for the development or aggravation of AD. These air pollutants probably induce oxidative stress in the skin, leading to skin barrier dysfunction or immune dysregulation. However, these results are still controversial because of the low number of studies, limitations in study design, inaccurate assessment of exposure and absorption, and many other issues. Further research about the adverse effects of air pollution on AD will help to expand our understanding and to establish a better strategy for the prevention and management of AD. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lack of Association Between Dust Mite Sensitivity and Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan Ian; Hanifin, Jon M; Law, Sandra; White, Kevin; Storrs, Frances J

    2016-01-01

    Dust mites (DMs) play a role in type I respiratory allergy. Studies relating to DM irritant versus immune reactions are somewhat conflicting in atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic use of patch testing to DM in patients with AD and other dermatitides. We performed a prospective study of 323 adults recruited in a patch testing clinic. Patch testing antigens were DM extract (0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 20% in petrolatum; Chemotechnique) and/or 200 index of reactivity in petrolatum (Stallergenes). Patches were placed and read at 48 hours with delayed readings after 72 to 168 hours. There was no association of DM positivity with AD, asthma, hay fever, or demographic factors. There was no association of DM positivity with the clinical diagnosis or phenotype. The number of positive (+, ++, and +++) and doubtful reactions to Chemotechnique DM extract increased with higher concentrations. Positive reactions to DM had a morphological appearance characterized by numerous discrete erythematous papules and, rarely, papulovesicles. Positive reactions to Stallergenes DM 200 IR were infrequent and all weak reactions, similar to DM 0.01%. Patch testing to DM does not seem to have clinical use for determining the etiology of dermatitis.

  8. Atopic Dermatitis: Racial and Ethnic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Yen Yong, Adeline; Tay, Yong-Kwang

    2017-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic inflammatory skin condition affecting up to 20% of children and 3% of adults worldwide. There is wide variation in the prevalence of AD among different countries. Although the frequency of AD is increasing in developing countries, it seems to have stabilized in developed countries, affecting approximately 1 in 5 schoolchildren. Adult-onset AD is not uncommon and is significantly higher, affecting between 11% and 13% of adults in some countries, for example, Singapore, Malaysia, and Sweden. AD is thus associated with significant health care economic burden in all age groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGENS ON ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wardhana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic eczematous skin disease that develops in a patient with atopic diathesis, which is characterized by an increased liability to produce IgE antibodies for allergens mostly derived from environmental or inhalant allergens and food allergens. They are produced by cell-mediated allergic contact reactions, and recently contact sensitivity to various environmental allergens has been demonstrated in patients with AD. Atopic patients are recognized by their ability to produce large amounts of specific IgE antibodies to common substances as environmental allergens, i.e. house dust mites, grass pollens, animal danders, molds, food, etc. These antibodies can be detected by skin prick test. The aim of this study was to identify the sensitization against environmental or inhalants allergens through skin prick tests in the patients with atopic dermatitis. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive study. We revised all medical records of patients with AD since January 2002 to December 2004 in the Out Patients Unit of Sanglah General Hospital, Bali-Indonesia. The variables studied were: gender, age, work related, diagnosis associates to AD, and prick test of environmental allergens. Results: In 3 years periods we had revised 46 of patients with AD that was done skin prick tests. The median age was 38 years (range 29-54 years, 34/46 (73.9 % of these were male and 12 (26.1 % female. Twenty nine patients presented pure AD, and 17 patients had AD with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Only 16 (34.7% of patients had no history of allergic disease. Thirsty six of 46 (78.20% of all tested AD patients had a positive skin prick tests against inhalant (aeroallergens 16 patients and food allergens 21 patients. Sixteen patients with positive of skin test include; dust mite in 12 patients, animal dander in 10 patients, grass pollen in 9 patients and cockroach in 6 patients. Conclusion: We concluded that

  10. A comparison between criteria for diagnosing atopic eczema in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøhnke, H; Vach, W; Norberg, L A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown different estimates of the frequency of atopic eczema (AE) in children. This may be explained by several factors including variations in the definition of AE, study design, age of study group, and the possibility of a changed perception of atopic dis...

  11. Investigations on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosje, Pieternella Janna

    2002-01-01

    The term atopic dermatitis (AD) is commonly used in cats. At present, however, there is little known about the pathogenesis of feline AD. The aim was to investigate various aspects of the immunopathogenesis in a defined group of cats with signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis and compare our

  12. Atopic diseases by filaggrin mutations and birth year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Johansen, J D

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic disorders has increased in recent years. The pathogenesis is complex with genetic and environmental risk factors. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations are common and associated with atopic disorders. We investigated whether the prevalence of filaggrin mutations increased ...... in different birth cohorts in adults from the general population in Denmark....

  13. Clinical Profile Of Atopic Dermatitis In Benin City, Nigeria | Onunu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The clinical characteristics of atopic dermatitis in our study population were similar to the pattern in other parts of the world. There is need for increased awareness of its importance as a cause of morbidity especially in children. Keywords: Atopic dermatitis, Clinical profile,Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

  14. Feasibility of actigraphy wristband monitoring of atopic dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, C J; O'Neill, J; Hix, E; McLaren, D T; Buxton, O M; Feldman, S R

    2014-11-01

    Actigraphy monitors are used to monitor sleep and scratching. Previous studies have implemented these monitors to evaluate behavior in adult patients with atopic dermatitis. However, such monitoring devices have been implemented in a paucity of studies involving pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of actigraphy monitoring in children with mild-to-severe atopic dermatitis. A total of six pediatric subjects were recruited. The severity of atopic dermatitis at the wrist area was assessed prior to placement of the wristband monitor. After wearing the wristbands for 7 days, subjects returned to clinic to undergo reassessment of the wrist area to determine if atopic dermatitis was exacerbated by the wrist-worn device. Data on sleep quality and how often patients wore the wristband monitors were also collected. No subjective data from the subjects or parents/caregivers were collected on tolerability of the monitors. None of the subjects exhibited exacerbation of atopic dermatitis at the wrist area after wearing the actigraphy monitors for 7 days. No adverse events were reported. Pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis exhibited less total sleep time compared with children evaluated in previous actigraphy studies. Actigraphy wristband monitoring can be used to continuously assess disease severity in children with atopic dermatitis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Classification of atopic hand eczema and the filaggrin mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte; Jørkov, Anne Lerbæk; Bisgaard, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Hand eczema is a common disease with various risk factors of which atopic dermatitis is known to be one of the most important. Recently, two mutations in the gene coding for filaggrin, a protein important for the skin barrier, have repeatedly been shown to be associated with atopic dermatitis. Mo...

  16. Atopic Dermatitis and Comorbidities: Added Value of Comprehensive Dermatoepidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsten, Tamar

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is common and in its severe form is devastating. This chronic inflammatory dermatosis is part of the atopic syndrome, which includes asthma, food allergies, and hay fever and is known to be associated with mental health disorders. In line with psoriasis, several recent observational studies using national survey and linkage data have suggested a link between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease. The atopic dermatitis field can benefit from the past experiences in psoriasis research and should not follow the same path, but, rather, aim for a more comprehensive approach from the beginning. A recent German consortium studying links between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease first screened a large claims database, followed by analyses of more deeply phenotyped (birth) cohorts with longitudinal data. In addition, genetic and metabolic analyses assessing the predisposition of patients with atopic dermatitis for cardiovascular disease were performed. Overall, the association between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease was at most modest, but in more refined cohorts the cardiovascular risk profile and genetic architecture was comparable. A more integrated approach could create clarity about the clinical relevance of cardiovascular disease in individuals with atopic dermatitis sooner, avoid speculation that affects patient care, and save scientific resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nickel allergy and relationship with Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdali, Anna M; Anna, Bogdali M; Grazyna, Antoszczyk; Wojciech, Dyga; Aleksander, Obtulowicz; Anna, Bialecka; Andrzej, Kasprowicz; Zofia, Magnowska; Krystyna, Obtulowicz

    2016-01-01

    The increase of nickel air pollution is supposed to frequent side effects of nickel action related to virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with nickel allergy in atopic dermatitis. The goal was to investigate the relationship between nickel allergy and infection by S. aureus in atopic dermatitis. Nickel allergy was confirmed in atopic patients and excluded in healthy volunteers using patch testing. Infection by S. aureus was tested in atopic patients and healthy volunteers by use of API Staph system. The specific IgE for staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B were measured. Secretion of IFN-g, IL-2, IL-13 by PBMC under nickel sulfate and the enterotoxins A and B stimulations were studied with ELISpot. We found the increased number of infections by S. aureus in atopic patients with nickel allergy in comparison to atopic patients and healthy volunteers without nickel allergy. The elevated secretion of IL-2 under nickel sulfate stimulation in vitro was exclusively found in atopic patients with nickel allergy infected by S. aureus. Our data suggest that nickel allergy and infection by S. aureus are linked in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. The course of life of patients with childhood atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elian, E.; Brenninkmeijer, A.; Legierse, C.M.; Sillevis Smitt, J.H.; Last, B.F.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Bos, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis mainly covers the period of infancy to adulthood, an important period in the development of an individual. The impairment of quality of life and the psychological wellbeing of children with atopic dermatitis have been well documented but so far no data exist about the impact of

  19. The Course of Life of Patients with Childhood Atopic Dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, Elian E. A.; Legierse, Catharina M.; Sillevis Smitt, J. Henk; Last, Bob F.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Bos, Jan D.

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis mainly covers the period of infancy to adulthood, an important period in the development of an individual. The impairment of quality of life and the psychological wellbeing of children with atopic dermatitis have been well documented but so far no data exist about the impact of

  20. Clinical Profile Of Atopic Dermatitis In Benin City, Nigeria | Onunu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the clinical presentation and management problems of atopic dermatitis in Benin City, Nigeria. Design: A 15-year retrospective study from May 1985 to April 2000. Setting: Dermatology clinics of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects: All new cases of atopic dermatitis ...

  1. Atopic dermatitis: tacrolimus vs. topical corticosteroid use | Langa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), the dermatological manifestation of the atopic diathesis, has a variety of clinical presentations. It is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder, requiring a multifaceted treatment approach. Topical corticosteroids are the backbone of therapy. However, concerns over adverse drug reactions ...

  2. Prevalence of atopic diseases in Nigerian children with vernal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically inquired about were asthma, eczema, allergic rhinitis or hay fever, allergic skin rash e.g. scabies, reaction to drugs and others. The children were also examined to confirm or detect the presence of these atopic diseases. The overall prevalence of atopic conditions was 19.8% amongst cases of VKC.

  3. Endotoxin exposure and atopic sensitization in adult pig farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portengen, L.; Preller, L.; Tielen, M.; Doekes, G.; Heederik, D.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have reported a low prevalence of atopic sensitization and respiratory allergy in children growing up on farms. Objectives: We sought to evaluate the dose-response relationship between endotoxin and atopic sensitization in adult farmers and to assess the effect on

  4. Prevalence of immunoglobulin E for fungi in atopic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, G; Hoekstra, MO; Schouten, JP; Gerritsen, J; Kauffman, HE

    2001-01-01

    Background The prevalence of sensitization to fungi in young atopic patients in relation to age and clinical importance is largely unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to different fungi in atopic children in relation to age and other

  5. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  6. Hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and filaggrin mutations in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Nina G.; Thuesen, Betina H.; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis and hand eczema often impair the ability of people to work. Only a few studies have investigated whether individuals with loss-of-function filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations, who often have severe and early onset of dermatitis, experience occupational consequences....... Objective: To investigate the personal consequences of having atopic dermatitis and/or hand eczema and FLG mutations. Method: Adult Danes from the general population (n = 3247) and patients with atopic dermatitis and/or hand eczema (n = 496) were genotyped for common FLG mutations, and completed...... in the general population, especially among individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. Moreover, self-reported hand eczema and atopic dermatitis were associated with particularly high risk of disability pension among FLG mutation carriers [odds ratio (OR) 4.02 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  7. Contact sensitivity in patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa-Mineoka, Risa; Masuda, Koji; Ueda, Sachiko; Nakamura, Naomi; Hotta, Eri; Hattori, Junko; Minamiyama, Rina; Yamazaki, Akiko; Katoh, Norito

    2015-07-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis are usually responsive to conventional treatment such as topical steroids; however, they are sometimes refractory to the treatment. The influence of contact sensitivities on the course of patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether contact sensitivities affect the course of patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis. We evaluated 45 patients with atopic dermatitis who had failed conventional therapy. Patch testing was performed with the Japanese standard series, metal series and/or suspected items. A total of 15 patients had a positive patch test reaction to at least one allergen. The most common allergens were nickel, topical drugs and rubber accelerators. Avoidance of products or food containing allergic substances greatly or partially improved skin symptoms in nine patients. These results suggest that contact allergens and metals may be critical factors causing eczematous lesions in patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Therapeutic benefits of enhancing permeability barrier for atopic eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Man

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory role of epidermal permeability barrier function in cutaneous inflammation has been well appreciated. While barrier disruption induces cutaneous inflammation, improvement of permeability barrier function alleviates inflammation. Studies have demonstrated that improvement of epidermal permeability barrier function not only prevents the development of atopic eczema, but also delays the relapse of these diseases. Moreover, enhancing the epidermal permeability barrier also alleviates atopic eczema. Furthermore, co-applications of barrier enhancing products with glucocorticoids can increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the adverse effects of glucocorticoids in the treatment of atopic eczema. Therefore, utilization of permeability barrier enhancing products alone or in combination with glucocorticoids could be a valuable approach in the treatment of atopic eczema. In this review, we discuss the benefits of improving the epidermal permeability barrier in the management of atopic eczema.

  9. Treating pediatric atopic dermatitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriades VR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Victoria R Dimitriades, Elizabeth Wisner Division of Allergy/Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USAAbstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition which affects millions of people worldwide. It is most commonly seen in children but may also progress into adulthood. Management of this complex disease requires a multi-pronged approach which can address the myriad of issues which underscore its development. Avoidance of triggering factors is imperative in establishing consistent control of skin irritation while daily moisturization can be very effective in skin barrier repair and maintenance. Judicious use of anti-inflammatory medications has been shown to make a significant impact on both treatment as well as prevention of disease. Unfortunately, pruritus, a key feature of AD, has proven much harder to control. Finally, awareness of the risks of colonization and infection in patients with AD should be incorporated into their surveillance and management plans. While our understanding has progressed greatly regarding this disease, further research is still needed regarding future directions for both treatment and prevention. Keywords: atopic dermatitis, eczema, treatment, corticosteroids, antipruritic

  10. Systemic therapy of childhood atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Nathaniel A; Morrell, Dean S

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common childhood inflammatory disease that, in a small percentage of cases, can become severe enough to require potent systemic treatment. Many trials have been conducted with systemic agents for the treatment of severe pediatric AD; we review the evidence here. Although corticosteroids are widely used in practice, they are not generally recommended as a systemic treatment option for AD in children. Most patients experience a relatively rapid and robust response to cyclosporine. Treating children with cyclosporine long term is troubling; however, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and methotrexate are all reasonable alternatives for maintenance therapy in recalcitrant cases. Several additional options are available for the most refractory cases, including interferon-γ, intravenous immunoglobulin, and various biologics. Phototherapy is another modality that can be effective in treating severe AD. Ultimately the choice of agent is individualized. Systemic therapy options are associated with potentially severe adverse effects and require careful monitoring. Nonsystemic approaches toward prevention of flares and long-term control of atopic dermatitis in pediatric patients should be continued in conjunction with systemic therapy. In the future, more targeted systemic treatments hold the potential for effective control of disease with fewer side effects than broadly immunosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukaya M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mototsugu Fukaya,1 Kenji Sato,2 Mitsuko Sato,3 Hajime Kimata,4 Shigeki Fujisawa,5 Haruhiko Dozono,6 Jun Yoshizawa,7 Satoko Minaguchi8 1Tsurumai Kouen Clinic, Nagoya, 2Department of Dermatology, Hannan Chuo Hospital, Osaka, 3Sato Pediatric Clinic, Osaka, 4Kimata Hajime Clinic, Osaka, 5Fujisawa Dermatology Clinic, Tokyo, 6Dozono Medical House, Kagoshima, 7Yoshizawa Dermatology Clinic, Yokohama, 8Department of Dermatology, Kounosu Kyousei Hospital, Saitama, Japan Abstract: The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. Keywords: topical steroid addiction, atopic dermatitis, red burning skin syndrome, rebound, corticosteroid, eczema

  12. Topical tacrolimus as treatment of atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masutaka Furue

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Masutaka Furue, Satoshi TakeuchiDepartment of Dermatology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common, chronic, relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. The mainstays of treatment for AD are topical tacrolimus and topical steroids. Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, not only complements existing treatment options but also overcomes some of the drawbacks of topical steroid therapy when given topically and thus meets the long-term needs of patients in preventing disease progression. Topical tacrolimus has been widely recognized in terms of its short- and long-term efficacies and safety, and it is also accepted as a first-line treatment for inflammation in AD. The recent proactive use of topical tacrolimus may emphasize a long-term benefit of this calcineurin inhibitor for AD treatment. To reduce possible long-term adverse effects, it is important to monitor its topical doses in daily clinics.Keywords: atopic dermatitis, topical tacrolimus, topical steroids, dose, proactive use, adverse effects

  13. Atopic predisposition in cholinergic urticaria patients and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altrichter, S; Koch, K; Church, M K; Maurer, M

    2016-12-01

    Cholinergic urticaria (CholU) is a frequent chronic urticaria disorder with itchy weal and flare-type skin reactions in response to physical exercise or passive warming. A higher frequency of atopy among CholU patients has been reported, but the significance of this observation is unclear. To assess the prevalence and relevance of atopy in CholU patients. Thirty CholU patients were assessed for atopic skin diathesis (atopic predisposition) by use of the Erlangen Atopy Score and divided into atopic and non-atopic predisposed CholU individuals. Both groups were assessed for disease severity (CholUSI) and activity (CholUAS7), quality of life impairment [Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and CU-Q2 OL], seasonal exacerbation, total and specific serum IgE and comorbidities. CholU patients were found to exhibit high rates of atopic predisposition (57%), with higher prevalence and scores in female than in male patients. High Erlangen Atopy Scores were linked to high CholU severity, activity and impact on QoL. Atopic predisposed CholU patients show different seasonal exacerbation patterns, IgE specificity and comorbidity profiles as compared to non-atopic CholU patients. Atopic predisposition and cholinergic urticaria appear to be linked more closely than previously thought, which suggests shared pathogenetic mechanisms. Atopic patients with cholinergic urticaria have more severe disease and poorer quality of life than those who do not. Thus, all cholinergic urticaria patients should be assessed for atopic predisposition. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. The association of the 'additional height index' with atopic diseases, non-atopic asthma, ischaemic heart disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Vidal, C; Gonzalez-Quintela, A

    2014-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with childhood conditions that led them to attain tallness higher than expected from their parents' height may be at lower risk of non-atopic asthma/wheeze and IHD/IHD mortality but possibly at higher risk of atopic conditions. The measure of tallness below or above the expected...

  15. Multi-ethnic genome-wide association study of 21,000 cases and 95,000 controls identifies new risk loci for atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waage, Johannes; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Hotze, Melanie; Strachan, David P; Curtin, John A; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Tian, Chao; Takahashi, Atsushi; Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Thyssen, Jacob P; den Dekker, Herman T; Ferreira, Manuel A; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Sleiman, Patrick MA; Xiao, Feng Li; Gonzalez, Juan R; Marenholz, Ingo; Kalb, Birgit; Yanes, Maria Pino; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Venturini, Cristina; Pennell, Craig E; Barton, Sheila J; Levin, Albert M; Curjuric, Ivan; Bustamante, Mariona; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Lockett, Gabrielle A; Bacelis, Jonas; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Myers, Rachel A; Matanovic, Anja; Kumar, Ashish; Tung, Joyce Y; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Kubo, Michiaki; McArdle, Wendy L; Henderson, A J; Kemp, John P; Zheng, Jie; Smith, George Davey; Rüschendorf, Franz; Bauerfeind, Anja; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae; Arnold, Andreas; Homuth, Georg; Schmidt, Carsten O; Mangold, Elisabeth; Cichon, Sven; Keil, Thomas; Rodríguez, Elke; Peters, Annette; Franke, Andre; Lieb, Wolfgang; Novak, Natalija; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Horikoshi, Momoko; Pekkanen, Juha; Sebert, Sylvain; Husemoen, Lise L; Grarup, Niels; de Jongste, Johan C; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Pasmans, Suzanne GMA; Elbert, Niels J; Uitterlinden, André G; Marks, Guy B; Thompson, Philip J; Matheson, Melanie C; Robertson, Colin F; Ried, Janina S; Li, Jin; Zuo, Xian Bo; Zheng, Xiao Dong; Yin, Xian Yong; Sun, Liang Dan; McAleer, Maeve A; O'Regan, Grainne M; Fahy, Caoimhe MR; Campbell, Linda E; Macek, Milan; Kurek, Michael; Hu, Donglei; Eng, Celeste; Postma, Dirkje S; Feenstra, Bjarke; Geller, Frank; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Middeldorp, Christel M; Hysi, Pirro; Bataille, Veronique; Spector, Tim; Tiesler, Carla MT; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pahukasahasram, Badri; Yang, James J; Imboden, Medea; Huntsman, Scott; Vilor-Tejedor, Natàlia; Relton, Caroline L; Myhre, Ronny; Nystad, Wenche; Custovic, Adnan; Weiss, Scott T; Meyers, Deborah A; Söderhäll, Cilla; Melén, Erik; Ober, Carole; Raby, Benjamin A; Simpson, Angela; Jacobsson, Bo; Holloway, John W; Bisgaard, Hans; Sunyer, Jordi; Hensch, Nicole M Probst; Williams, L Keoki; Godfrey, Keith M; Wang, Carol A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Melbye, Mads; Koppelman, Gerard H; Jarvis, Deborah; McLean, WH Irwin; Irvine, Alan D; Zhang, Xue Jun; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gieger, Christian; Burchard, Esteban G; Martin, Nicholas G; Duijts, Liesbeth; Linneberg, Allan; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Noethen, Markus M; Lau, Susanne; Hübner, Norbert; Lee, Young-Ae; Tamari, Mayumi; Hinds, David A; Glass, Daniel; Brown, Sara J; Heinrich, Joachim; Evans, David M; Weidinger, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Genetic association studies have identified 21 loci associated with atopic dermatitis risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify further susceptibility loci for this common complex skin disease, we performed a meta-analysis of >15 million genetic variants in 21,399 cases and 95,464 controls from populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry, followed by replication in 32,059 cases and 228,628 controls from 18 studies. We identified 10 novel risk loci, bringing the total number of known atopic dermatitis risk loci to 31 (with novel secondary signals at 4 of these). Notably, the new loci include candidate genes with roles in regulation of innate host defenses and T-cell function, underscoring the important contribution of (auto-)immune mechanisms to atopic dermatitis pathogenesis. PMID:26482879

  16. Deficient antiviral immune responses in childhood: distinct roles of atopy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldo, Simonetta; Contoli, Marco; Bazzan, Erica; Turato, Graziella; Padovani, Anna; Marku, Brunilda; Calabrese, Fiorella; Caramori, Gaetano; Ballarin, Andrea; Snijders, Deborah; Barbato, Angelo; Saetta, Marina; Papi, Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Impaired immune response to viral infections in atopic asthmatic patients has been recently reported and debated. Whether this condition is present in childhood and whether it is affected by atopy per se deserves further investigation. We sought to investigate airway interferon production in response to rhinovirus infection in children who are asthmatic, atopic, or both and its correlation with the airway inflammatory profile. Bronchial biopsy specimens and epithelial cells were obtained from 47 children (mean age, 5 ± 0.5 years) undergoing bronchoscopy. The study population included asthmatic children who were either atopic or nonatopic, atopic children without asthma, and children without atopy or asthma. Rhinovirus type 16 induction of IFN-λ and IFN-β mRNA and protein levels was assessed in bronchial epithelial cell cultures. The immunoinflammatory profile was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry in bronchial biopsy specimens. Rhinovirus type 16-induced interferon production was significantly reduced in atopic asthmatic, nonatopic asthmatic, and atopic nonasthmatic children compared with that seen in nonatopic nonasthmatic children (all P asthma. These findings suggest that deficient immune responses to viral infections are not limited to patients with atopic asthma but are present in those with other T(H)2-oriented conditions. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Skytthe, Axel; Backer, Vibeke

    2012-03-01

    We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression and variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0.773 respectively) compared with children born after spontaneous conception. Assisted reproduction did not modify the heritability of atopic diseases. This study does not support an association between assisted reproduction and development of atopic diseases. This result must be confirmed in subsequent studies, preferably of singleton populations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. New and emerging trends in the treatment of atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Gelbard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Gelbard1, Adelaide A Hebert1,21Departments of Dermatology; 2Pediatrics, University of Texas-Houston, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that affects 10% to 20% of children and 1% to 3% of adults in the US. Symptoms often result in sleeplessness, psychological stress, poor self-esteem, anxiety, and poor school or work performance. The cost of atopic dermatitis is estimated to be US$0.9 to 3.8 billion every year. Topical steroids are first-line treatment for atopic dermatitis, and recent advances in vehicle technologies have resulted in improved patient tolerability and compliance. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are also safe and effective topical treatments for atopic dermatitis, and provide an additional therapeutic option for patients with this disease. Systemic immunomodulators are used in the treatment of severe refractory disease. Cyclosporine, methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and interferon gamma have been used in the management of severe atopic dermatitis. This review highlights the current and emerging trends in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.Keywords: atopic dermatitis, topical corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, methotrexate, cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, IFN-γ

  19. Homeopathy in paediatric atopic diseases: long-term results in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elio; Bartoli, Paola; Bianchi, Alba; Da Frè, Monica

    2012-01-01

    To study the socio-demographic features, the prescribed remedies and the outcome of atopic diseases in children treated with homeopathy at the Homeopathic Clinic of Lucca (Italy), and the long-term outcome of children suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD) after an approximate 8-year period (range 5-10 years). Our data derive from an observational longitudinal study carried out on 213 children (38.6%) with atopic diseases out of 551 children consecutively examined from September 1998 to December 2008. We used the Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital Outcome Score to evaluate the results that were classified on the basis of a Likert scale. Eighty-three (39%) children were affected by asthma, 51 (24%) by allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, 76 (36%) by AD and 3 (1%) by food intolerance. Follow-up patients were 104 (48.8%), and 65 (62.5%) of them reported a major improvement or resolution. The parents of paediatric patients suffering from AD, who had started homeopathic treatment at children (mean age 12.9) were examined; 28/40 (70%) had a complete disappearance of AD, 12/40 children (30.0%) were still affected by AD; 8/40 (20%) had asthma and 8/40 patients had, or developed, allergic rhinitis. These preliminary results seem to confirm a positive therapeutic effect of homeopathy in atopic children. Furthermore, according to the data from the literature paediatric patients treated with homeopathy seem to show a reduced tendency to maintain AD and develop asthma (and allergic rhinitis) in adult age. Copyright © 2011 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The natural history of atopic dermatitis and its association with Atopic March.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanunt, Sinjira; Chinratanapisit, Sasawan; Pacharn, Punchama; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2017-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the first manifestation of Atopic March. The natural history of AD and predictive factors for Atopic March have not been widely studied in Asia. To study the natural history and associated factors of disease remission and risk of respiratory allergy in Thai children with AD. Medical records of AD patients attending Allergy clinic at Siriraj hospital from 2004-2014 were reviewed. Patients were further followed-up to obtain current symptoms and treatment. One hundred and two AD patients (60.8% female) were followed for 10.2±4.7 years. The median age at diagnosis was 1.5 (0.1-12.0) years. The most common allergen sensitization was Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. Forty-four percent of patients had complete remission at the median age of 6.3 (2.0-15.0) years. Forty-seven percent of early AD patients (onset children had complete remission at school age with a better prognosis in early AD. At preschool age, two-thirds and one-third developed AR and asthma, respectively. Early AD and food allergy were risk factors of early asthma.

  1. Breastfeeding and maternal diet in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Tina Y; Goldman, Ran D

    2011-12-01

    Many children are affected by atopic dermatitis (AD) at a very young age. I often consider whether nonpharmacologic interventions could prevent or mitigate the development of AD. Do breastfeeding or changes to the maternal diet help prevent the development of childhood AD? The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that lactating mothers with infants at high risk of developing AD should avoid peanuts and tree nuts, and should consider eliminating eggs, cow's milk, and fish from their diets. The World Health Organization also recommends breastfeeding infants up to 2 years of age. Studies have shown that breastfeeding can have a protective effect for AD in children; however, other studies have found insignificant or reversal effects. More research in this area is required.

  2. RESULTS OF APPLYING POLYVITAMIN COMPLEX FOR CHILDREN WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Ivanova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents findings of applying vitamin-and-mineral complex (VMC for children frequently suffering from diseases and children with atopic dermatitis. It shows that usage of VMC within a complex therapy promotes regression of subnormal vitamin provision symptoms, as well as symptoms of the core disease. This happens against heightened vitamin content in child's organism — which was proven with the test of A and E vitamins content in blood. The research has demonstrated a quite good tolerance of VMC by children suffering from atopic dermatitis.Key words: children frequently suffering from diseases, atopic dermatitis, vitamins, treatment.

  3. The association between atopic dermatitis and hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, S M D; Engebretsen, K A; Zachariae, C

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and hand eczema (HE) are common chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin conditions that often co-occur. While several studies have addressed their relationship, the exact association estimate is unknown. We systematically reviewed published literature on the association...... between AD and HE in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science using the following search terms; (atopic dermatitis OR atopic eczema) AND (hand dermatitis OR hand eczema). Meta-analyses were then performed to examine the association between AD and the point-, one-year- and lifetime prevalence of HE, respectively...

  4. Review of Critical Issues in the Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Alan D; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Friedlander, Sheila F; Simpson, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    About a decade age, loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin molecule were first implicated in the pathogenesis of ichthyosis vulgaris and, subsequently, of atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases. Since then, intensive study of the role of filaggrin null mutations have led to other milestones in understanding the pathologic pathways in these diseases, including the initiation, maintenance, and promotion of the disease processes. The result has been new and emerging clinical and pharmacologic strategies for early identification of and intervention in atopic diseases. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp5):S89-S91. 2016 published by Frontline Medical Communications.

  5. Rhinovirus-induced alterations on peripheral blood mononuclear cell phenotype and costimulatory molecule expression in normal and atopic asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, N G; Stanciu, L A; Papi, A; Holgate, S T; Johnston, S L

    2002-04-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) infection is the commonest trigger of acute asthma exacerbations; however, the immune response to these viruses and any potential implications in the mechanisms leading to asthma exacerbations are not well understood. To assess the effects of in vitro RV infection on the phenotype and expression of costimulatory molecules on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal and atopic asthmatic subjects, as a model for RV antigen presentation. PBMC from seven normal and seven asthmatic subjects were exposed to one infectious unit/cell of RV16 for 48 h. Surface expression of CD25, CD28, CD40, CD54, CD80, CD86 and CTLA-4 was evaluated on CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14 and CD19 PBMC subpopulations by three-colour flow cytometry. No changes in the percentage of CD3, CD4, CD8 or CD19 were observed. CD14 was significantly reduced by the infection and this was more pronounced in normal subjects. On Th cells CTLA-4 was increased after RV infection only in the asthmatic group. Levels of CD80 and CD86 in the control cultures were lower in the asthmatic group. RV infection induced a significant increase of CD80 on monocytes and of CD86 on B cells, which occurred in both groups but were less marked in atopic asthmatic subjects. Exposure of PBMC to RV is able to activate the antigen presentation machinery. Differences between normal and atopic asthmatic individuals are compatible with the hypothesis that an aberrant immune response to RV may be involved in the development of acute exacerbations in atopic asthmatic subjects.

  6. Bacterial and Viral Infections in Atopic Dermatitis: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Peck Y; Leung, Donald Y M

    2016-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common allergic skin disease in the general population. It is a chronic inflammatory skin disease complicated by recurrent bacterial and viral infections that, when left untreated, can lead to significant complications. The current article will review immunologic and molecular mechanisms underlying the propensity of AD patients to microbial infections. These infections include Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) skin infections, eczema herpeticum, eczema vaccinatum, and eczema coxsackium. Previous studies have shown that skin barrier defects, a decrease in antimicrobial peptides, increased skin pH, or Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 are potential contributing factors for the increased risk of skin infections in AD. In addition, bacterial virulence such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) produces significantly higher number of superantigens that increase their potential in causing infection and more severe cutaneous inflammation in AD patients. More recent studies suggest that skin microbiome including Staphylococcus epidermidis or other coagulase-negative staphylococci may play an important role in controlling S. aureus skin infections in AD. Other studies also suggest that genetic variants in the innate immune response may predispose AD patients to increased risk of viral skin infections. These genetic variants include thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), type I interferon (α, ß, ω), type II interferon (γ), and molecular pathways that lead to the production of interferons (interferon regulatory factor 2). A common staphylococcal toxin, α-toxin, may also play a role in enhancing herpes simplex virus skin infections in AD. Further understanding of these disease processes may have important clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of skin infections in this common skin disease.

  7. ENTEROSORBENTS AS A PART OF COMPLEX THERAPY OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Alexeeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is one of the most common allergic diseases in children which is assuming ever greater medical and social importance. Risk factors of AD include gastro-intestinal tract disturbances, especially intestinal dysbiosis, which is revealed in 89–94,1% of children with atopic dermatitis. Both correlation of the dysbiosis and AD manifestations severity and increase of underlying disease treatment efficacy as a result of target influence on intestinal microflora confirm that. For many decades guidelines of atopic dermatitis treatment in children along with elimination diet, antihistamine drugs and topic medicines include enterosorbents. The most effective drugs are those ones, consisting of prebiotics and sorbents. The wide experience of prebiotic drug with sorbent action (Lactofiltrum in complex therapy of atopic dermatitis in children is reviewed in this article.

  8. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Halken, S.

    1994-01-01

    dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated ''lemonade'' containing the dissolved additives was used...... and 335 were subjected to open challenge. A total of 23 children developed positive reactions after the open challenge. Sixteen of these patients accepted the double-blind challenge, and six showed a positive reaction to preservatives (atopic dermatitis, asthma, rhinitis), coloring agents (atopic...

  9. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G; Madsen, G; Halken, S

    1994-01-01

    dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated "lemonade" containing the dissolved additives was used...... and 335 were subjected to open challenge. A total of 23 children developed positive reactions after the open challenge. Sixteen of these patients accepted the double-blind challenge, and six showed a positive reaction to preservatives (atopic dermatitis, asthma, rhinitis), coloring agents (atopic...

  10. Classification of atopic hand eczema and the filaggrin mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, C.; Lerbaek, A.; Bisgaard, H.

    2008-01-01

    mutations. We believe this will increase the possibility of subgrouping this otherwise heterogenic disease and thereby enable a better phenotype-genotype characterization of hand eczema. This could improve the preventive initiatives, secure better information of patients about the prognosis......Hand eczema is a common disease with various risk factors of which atopic dermatitis is known to be one of the most important. Recently, two mutations in the gene coding for filaggrin, a protein important for the skin barrier, have repeatedly been shown to be associated with atopic dermatitis....... Moreover, one study point towards an association between the filaggrin null alleles and the subgroup of patients having both hand eczema and atopic dermatitis. For the remainder of hand eczema patients, still unknown genetic risk factors exist. We propose that in future, classification of atopic hand...

  11. Quality of Life of Parents of Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joanna Marciniak; Adam Reich; Jacek C. Szepietowski

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic dermatitis in children. The influence of AD on quality of life of parents of children with AD was studied using the Family Dermatology Life Quality Index (FDLQI...

  12. [Skin and mucous membrane microbiocenosis during atopic dermatitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetskaia, M N; Maslov, Iu N; Shaĭdullina, E V; Burdina, O M

    2014-01-01

    Study the microbial landscape and determine the interaction between biocenoses of skin, oropharynx and intestine mucous membranes during atopic dermatitis in children. 60 children with atopic dermatitis were examined, bacteriologic study of skin, oropharynx, intestine was carried out. Significant changes were detected in both quantitative and qualitative composition of microbiocenosis of skin, oropharynx and intestine mucous membranes. Skin of patients is more frequently colonized by Staphylococcus aureus. Gram-positive bacteria dominated in oropharynx microflora. Comparative characteristics of microflora of skin and oropharynx mucous membrane revealed a direct of correlation. During microbiological study of intestine microflora, all the examined had microbial landscape disruptions of varying severity degree. Taking into consideration the direct correlation of microflora of skin and oropharynx mucous membrane during atopic dermatitis, seeding of oropharynx washes are recommended to be included into the examination complex of patients with subsequent correction of microbiocenosis. Examination of all the children with atopic dermatitis for the presence of intestine dysbiosis is advisable.

  13. Truth or fiction: risk factors for childhood atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Kendra Gail

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is increasing in prevalence throughout the developed world, in parallel with asthma and hay fever. The reasons for the increase remain unclear. As a practical question, it is valuable to understand which interventions might decrease risk for childhood atopic disease. Prospective studies among infants and children are challenging to design and to execute. Fortunately, several large studies from Europe and the United States are better characterizing whether behavioral interventions such as breastfeeding, delayed introduction of solid foods, hydrolyzed protein infant formulas, or pets in the home might be protective or impart increased risk of developing atopic dermatitis. As this body of literature grows, physicians will be able to recommend behavioral interventions that can prevent atopic dermatitis in individuals and ideally decrease prevalence over the population.

  14. Apgar score is related to development of atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naeser, Vibeke; Kahr, Niklas; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To study the impact of birth characteristics on the risk of atopic dermatitis in a twin population. Methods. In a population-based questionnaire study of 10,809 twins, 3-9 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, we identified 907 twin pairs discordant for parent-reported atopic dermatitis....... We cross-linked with data from the Danish National Birth Registry and performed cotwin control analysis in order to test the impact of birth characteristics on the risk of atopic dermatitis. Results. Apgar score, OR (per unit) = 1.23 (1.06-1.44), P = 0.008, and female sex, OR = 1.31 (1.06-1.61), P...... = 0.012, were risk factors for atopic dermatitis in cotwin control analysis, whereas birth anthropometric factors were not significantly related to disease development. Risk estimates in monozygotic and dizygotic twins were not significantly different for the identified risk factors. Conclusions...

  15. Incidence of allergy and atopic disorders and hygiene hypothesis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bencko, V.; Šíma, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2, 6 March (2017), č. článku 1244. ISSN 2474-1663 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : allergy disorders * atopic disorders * hygiene hypothesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  16. Soy allergy in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmila, Celakovská; Květuše, Ettlerová; Karel, Ettler; Jaroslava, Vaněčková; Josef, Bukač

    2013-07-01

    The evaluation of soy allergy in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis. The evaluation of the correlation to the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy. Altogether 175 persons suffering from atopic dermatitis were included in the study: Specific IgE, skin prick tests, atopy patch tests to soy, history and food allergy to peanut and pollen allergy were evaluated. The early allergic reaction to soy was recorded in 2.8% patients. Sensitization to soy was found in another 27.2% patients with no clinical manifestation after soy ingestion. The correlation between the positive results of examinations to soy and between the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy was confirmed in statistics. Almost one third of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis are sensitized to soy without clinical symptoms. The early allergic reaction to soy occur in minority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

  17. Soy Allergy in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celakovská Jarmila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The evaluation of soy allergy in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis. The evaluation of the correlation to the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy. Materials and Methods: Altogether 175 persons suffering from atopic dermatitis were included in the study: Specific IgE, skin prick tests, atopy patch tests to soy, history and food allergy to peanut and pollen allergy were evaluated. Results : The early allergic reaction to soy was recorded in 2.8% patients. Sensitization to soy was found in another 27.2% patients with no clinical manifestation after soy ingestion. The correlation between the positive results of examinations to soy and between the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy was confirmed in statistics. Conclusion: Almost one third of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis are sensitized to soy without clinical symptoms. The early allergic reaction to soy occur in minority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

  18. Sesame seed sensitization in a group of atopic Egyptian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sensitization in Egypt. Objective: In this pilot study, we thought to estimate the frequency of sesame seed sensitization in a group of atopic Egyptian infants and children. Methods: We consecutively enrolled 90 patients with physician diagnosed ...

  19. Small intestinal permeability to sugars in patients with atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukabam, S O; Mann, R J; Cooper, B T

    1984-06-01

    Absorption of lactulose and mannitol was measured in eleven patients with atopic eczema and lactulose/mannitol excretion ratios were calculated. Mean lactulose absorption was increased in the patients with exzema and their excretion ratios were higher than those of controls. There was no correlation between either eczema extent or severity and the excretion ratio. We conclude that small intestinal passive permeability is increased in some patients with atopic eczema.

  20. Innovative technologies of teaching self-government atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utz S.R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The new understanding of the disease requires the development of modern methods in the management strategy of atopic dermatitis. Individual approach to educate patients with use of modern gadgets in addition to the standard methods of treatment is a relatively new concept in dermatology. Educational programs for atopic dermatitis have a positive impact on the severity of dermatoses, as well as on psychological status.

  1. Parents' reported preference scores for childhood atopic dermatitis disease states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Emmanuel B

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to elicit preference weights from parents for health states corresponding to children with various levels of severity of atopic dermatitis. We also evaluated the hypothesis that parents with children who had been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis would assign different preferences to the health state scenarios compared with parents who did not have a child with atopic dermatitis. Methods Subjects were parents of children aged 3 months to 18 years. The sample was derived from the General Panel, Mommies Sub-Panel, and Chronic Illness Sub-Panel of Harris Interactive. Participants rated health scenarios for atopic dermatitis, asthma, and eyeglasses on a visual analog scale, imagining a child was experiencing the described state. Results A total of 3539 parents completed the survey. Twenty-nine percent had a child with a history of atopic dermatitis. Mean preference scores for atopic dermatitis were as follows: mild, 91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.7 to 91.5; mild/moderate, 84 (95%CI, 83.5 to 84.4; moderate, 73 (95%CI, 72.5 to 73.6; moderate/severe, 61 (95%CI, 60.6 to 61.8; severe, 49 (95% CI, 48.7 to 50.1; asthma, 58 (95%CI, 57.4 to 58.8; and eyeglasses, 87(95%CI, 86.3 to 87.4. Conclusions Parents perceive that atopic dermatitis has a negative effect on quality of life that increases with disease severity. Estimates of parents' preferences can provide physicians with insight into the value that parents place on their children's treatment and can be used to evaluate new medical therapies for atopic dermatitis.

  2. Atopic Dermatitis and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Iranian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ali R.  Tehrani; Zahra Rahnama; Elham Ahmadi

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Atopic diseases, including asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis, are characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction mediated by T helper 2 cells, while type 1 diabetes mellitus is mediated by T helper 1 cells. Approach: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of atopic dermatitis between children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and age-matched controls. We conducted a case-control study enrolling 150 cases with type 1 diabetes mellitus between 2-20 years from pe...

  3. Linear growth in prepubertal children with atopic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, L.; Clayton, P; Addison,G.; Price, D.; David, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To define the evolution of prepubertal growth in atopic dermatitis and the factors influencing that growth pattern.
METHODS—Height and height velocity over two years, weight, triceps and subscapular skin fold thickness, and bone age were assessed in 80 prepubertal patients with atopic dermatitis and a control group of 71 healthy prepubertal school children.
RESULTS—Height standard deviation scores (SDS) and height velocity SDS did not differ between patients ...

  4. Soy Allergy in Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Celakovská Jarmila; Ettlerová Kvetuše; Ettler Karel; Vanecková Jaroslava; Bukac Josef

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The evaluation of soy allergy in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis. The evaluation of the correlation to the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy. Materials and Methods: Altogether 175 persons suffering from atopic dermatitis were included in the study: Specific IgE, skin prick tests, atopy patch tests to soy, history and food allergy to peanut and pollen allergy were evaluated. Results : The early allergic reaction to soy was recorded in 2.8% patients. Sen...

  5. Fc(epsilon)RI and FcgammaRIII/CD16 differentially regulate atopic dermatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Georges; Staumont-Sallé, Delphine; Kanda, Akira; Roumier, Thomas; Deruytter, Nathalie; Lavogiez, Céline; Fleury, Sébastien; Rémy, Patrick; Papin, Jean-Paul; Capron, Monique; Dombrowicz, David

    2009-05-15

    The high-affinity IgE receptor Fc(epsilon)RI and, in some models, the low-affinity IgG receptor Fc(epsilon)RIIII/CD16 play an essential role in allergic diseases. In human skin, they are present on APCs and effector cells recruited into the inflamed dermis. FcRgamma is a subunit shared, among other FcRs, by Fc(epsilon)RI and CD16 and is essential to their assembly and signal transduction. Using an experimental model reproducing some features of human atopic dermatitis and specific FcR-deficient mice, we have herein delineated the respective contribution of Fc(epsilon)RIand Fc(epsilon)RIII/CD16 to the pathology. We demonstrate that symptoms of atopic dermatitis are completely absent in FcRgamma-deficient animals but only partially inhibited in either Fc(epsilon)RI- or FcgammaRIII/CD16-deficient animals. Absence or attenuation of the pathology is correlated to increased skin expression of regulatory IL-10 and Foxp3. While Fc(epsilon)RI controls both Th1 and Th2 skin response, mast cell recruitment into draining lymph nodes and IgE production, CD16 regulates only Th2 skin response, as well as T cell proliferation and IgG1 production. This isotype-specific regulation by the cognate FcR is associated to a differential regulation of IL-4 and IL-21 expression in the draining lymph nodes. Fc(epsilon)RIand CD16 thus contribute to atopic dermatitis but differentially regulate immune responses associated with the disease. Targeting both IgE/Fc(epsilon)RI and IgG/CD16 interactions might represent an efficient therapeutic strategy for allergic diseases.

  6. Moisturizing effects of topical nicotinamide on atopic dry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Yoshinao; Kashima, Masato; Imaizumi, Akiko; Takahama, Hideto; Kawakami, Tamihiro; Mizoguchi, Masako

    2005-03-01

    Certain moisturizers can improve skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis. The effect of topical nicotinamide on atopic dry skin is unknown. We examined the effect of topical nicotinamide on atopic dry skin and compared the results with the effect of white petrolatum in a left-right comparison study. Twenty-eight patients with atopic dermatitis, with symmetrical lesions of dry skin on both forearms, were enrolled, and were instructed to apply nicotinamide cream containing 2% nicotinamide on the left forearm and white petrolatum on the right forearm, twice daily over a 4- or 8-week treatment period. Transepidermal water loss and stratum corneum hydration were measured by instrumental devices. The amount of the stratum corneum exfoliated by tape stripping (desquamation index) was determined by an image analyzer. Nicotinamide significantly decreased transepidermal water loss, but white petrolatum did not show any significant effect. Both nicotinamide and white petrolatum increased stratum corneum hydration, but nicotinamide was significantly more effective than white petrolatum. The desquamation index was positively correlated with stratum corneum hydration at baseline and gradually increased in the nicotinamide group, but not in the white petrolatum group. Nicotinamide cream is a more effective moisturizer than white petrolatum on atopic dry skin, and may be used as a treatment adjunct in atopic dermatitis.

  7. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT OF SEVERE ATOPIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sh. Macharadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes modern data on risk factors of severe course of atopic dermatitis in children: the role of alimentary and inhalant allergens, cutaneous infections, allergic reactions to drugs used in the treatment of disease. The most important questions of differential diagnosis of atopic dermatitis in children and the distinctive features of the illness, which may be mistaken for atopic dermatitis (primary immunodeficiencies, keratosis pilaris, psoriasis, enteropatic acrodermatitis; cutaneous bacterial and fungal infections, and drug-induced contact dermatitis to topical creams and ointments are discussed. Treatment of atopic dermatitis is based on modern approaches and includes recommendations on the use of emolents, anti-inflammatory drugs (topical glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors. The article provides indications and contraindications to the administration of anti-inflammatory drugs. Special recommendations for use of cleansers and emolents at all degrees of severity of atopic dermatitis, which helps reduce the risk of side effects of topical corticosteroids, complications such as cutaneous infections and helps to maintain remission of disease are given. The importance of training programs patients is emphasized. Compliance of patients and/or their parents contributes to the achievement of the desired effect of the treatment of atopic dermatitis, which will improve the patients’ quality of life.

  8. Quality of life in children and teenagers with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Cláudia Soïdo Falcão do; March, Maria de Fátima Bazhuni Pombo; Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto

    2012-01-01

    Atopic Dermatitis is a disease which has increased during the past years despite our improved understanding of it. To assess the impact of Atopic Dermatitis in the quality of life of children and teenagers and their family. A descriptive cross-sectional method with prospective data collection of 50 children and teenagers diagnosed with Atopic Dermatitis ranging in age from 5-16 years. Fifty parents and/or guardians answered the quality of life questionnaires The Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index and Family Dermatitis Impact Questionnaire. The socio-demographic and clinical variables were evaluated by a clinical record chart designed specifically for the research and socioeconomic standardized questionnaire by the Brazilian Association of Research Enterprises, which evaluates assets acquired and the educational level of the head of the household. Thirty-five out of the 50 patients were female (70%), and 28 (56%) of them were from social class C. The Questionnaire Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index showed that 19 (38%) patients ranged from 7 to 12 points (moderate impact of atopic dermatitis) and 17 patients (34%) ranged from 13 to 30 points (high impact of atopic dermatitis). The Family Dermatitis Impact Questionnaire revealed that 15 (30%) families had scores between 7 and 12 points and 22 families (44%) scored between 13 and 30 points. The results show that there is a very high impact on the QoL for atopic dermatitis patients and their families. This makes us suggest the importance of including the quality of life study in clinical evaluations.

  9. A short-term trial of tacrolimus ointment for atopic dermatitis. European Tacrolimus Multicenter Atopic Dermatitis Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruzicka, T.; Bieber, T.; Schöpf, E.; Rubins, A.; Dobozy, A.; Bos, J. D.; Jablonska, S.; Ahmed, I.; Thestrup-Pedersen, K.; Daniel, F.; Finzi, A.; Reitamo, S.

    1997-01-01

    Tacrolimus (FK 506) is an effective immunosuppressant drug for the prevention of rejection after organ transplantation, and preliminary studies suggest that topical application of tacrolimus is effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. We conducted a randomized, doubleblind, multicenter study

  10. Atopic march in pediatrics: genotype-associated mechanisms Part 1. Genotype-associated mechanisms of the atopic march in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Dytiatkovsky

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The review deals with the data of studies over last 10 years of populations of different countries on association of atopic diseases being the components of the atopic march in children (atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, bronchial asthma with pathologic mutations of genes (single nucleotid polymorphisms — SNP, which encode the molecules participating in allergic inflammation in the skin and mucosa. PubMed had been used as the search tool. There is a review of studies provided on investigated SNPs — filaggrin, receptors, toll-like receptors; the article describes a perspective bronchial asthma inflammation cascade — interleukin-1 receptor-like-1 and interleukin-33. There has been proposed conducting the studies of SNP on Ukrainian pediatric population for working out the personalized genotype-associated approach for diagnosing and management of atopic diseases in Ukrainian children population.

  11. Children with Dry Skin and Atopic Predisposition: Outcome Measurement with Validated Scores for Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzky, Sabine; Schario, Marianne; Stroux, Andrea; Lünnemann, Lena; Zuberbier, Torsten; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Dry skin is a common skin condition in childhood. Few studies exist investigating the influence of daily skin care on dry skin in infants at risk of developing atopic dermatitis (AD). We aimed to assess the effect of skin care on dry skin in this special cohort using validated scores for AD and analysis of skin microtopography. 43 children were randomized to group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2) and 22 infants to group 3 (G3). During 16 weeks, G1 and G3 applied daily a plant-based emollient and G2 a petrolatum-based emollient. The core outcome was assessed by Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) and Patient-Oriented SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (PO-SCORAD). The influence on the parents' life was evaluated by a questionnaire and microtopography by Visioscan® VC 98. The SCORAD index declined significantly until week (W) 16 in all groups (p ≤ 0.041). The sleeplessness score analyzed by PO-SCORAD was highly reduced after W12 in G1 and after W16 in G2 (p ≤ 0.030). The influence on the parents' anxiety was reduced in G3 at W12 and W16 (p = 0.016). The Visioscan parameter scaliness strongly diminished at W4 (p ≤ 0.049) and W16 (p ≤ 0.013) in all groups. This trial demonstrates improved skin conditions and sleep following daily emollient application in infants and children having dry skin and being at risk of AD. Especially parents of infants showed a reduced fear that their children might develop AD. Further studies are required to investigate the preventive effect of daily emollient therapy in this special cohort evaluating the outcome measures used in this trial. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Associations of TNFα -308G>A, TNFα -238G>A, IL-1α -889C>T and IL-10 -1082G>A Genetic Polymorphisms with Atopic Diseases: Asthma, Rhinitis and Dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babić, Željka; Sabolić Pipinić, Ivana; Varnai, Veda Marija; Kežić, Sanja; Macan, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms of cytokine genes are an interesting focus for association studies involving atopic diseases due to their role in immune cell communications during inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of TNFα -308G>A, TNFα -238G>A, IL-1α -889C>T and IL-10 -1082G>A

  13. Probiotics as an Immune Modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye-Ji; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are nonpathogenic live microorganism that can provide a diverse health benefits on the host when consumed in adequate amounts. Probiotics are consumed in diverse ways including dairy product, food supplements and functional foods with specific health claims. Recently, many reports suggest that certain probiotic strains or multi strain mixture have potent immunomodulatory activity in diverse disorders including allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, underlying mechanism of action is still unclear and efficacy of probiotic administration is quite different depending on the type of strains and the amounts of doses. We and others have suggested that live probiotics or their metabolites could interact with diverse immune cells (antigen presenting cells and T cells) and confer them to have immunoregulatory functions. Through this interaction, probiotics could contribute to maintaining immune homeostasis by balancing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune responses. However, the effect of probiotics in prevention or modulation of ongoing disease is quite diverse even within a same species. Therefore, identification of functional probiotics with specific immune regulatory property is a certainly important issue. Herein, we briefly review selection methods for immunomodulatory probiotic strains and the mechanism of action of probiotics in immune modulation.

  14. Cholinergic Modulation of Type 2 Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goele Bosmans

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bidirectional relationship between the nervous and immune system has become increasingly clear, and its role in both homeostasis and inflammation has been well documented over the years. Since the introduction of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, there has been an increased interest in parasympathetic regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, including T helper 2 responses. Increasing evidence has been emerging suggesting a role for the parasympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. In this review, we will highlight the role of cholinergic modulation by both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in several key aspects of the allergic inflammatory response, including barrier function, innate and adaptive immune responses, and effector cells responses. A better understanding of these cholinergic processes mediating key aspects of type 2 immune disorders might lead to novel therapeutic approaches to treat allergic diseases.

  15. Deciphering the Complexities of Atopic Dermatitis: Shifting Paradigms in Treatment Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Donald Y. M.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. It often precedes the development of food allergy and asthma. Recent insights into AD reveal abnormalities in terminal differentiation of the epidermal epithelium leading to a defective stratum corneum, which allows enhanced allergen penetration and systemic IgE sensitization. Atopic skin is also predisposed to colonization or infection by pathogenic microbes, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Causes of this abnormal skin barrier are complex and driven by a combination of genetic, environmental and immunologic factors. These factors likely account for the heterogeneity of AD onset, severity and natural history of this skin disease. Recent studies suggest prevention of AD can be achieved by early interventions protecting the skin barrier. Onset of lesional AD requires effective control of local and systemic immune activation for optimal management. Early intervention may improve long term outcomes for AD and reduce the systemic allergen sensitization leading to associated allergic diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. PMID:25282559

  16. Probiotics for prevention of atopic diseases in infants: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccotti, G; Meneghin, F; Aceti, A; Barone, G; Callegari, M L; Di Mauro, A; Fantini, M P; Gori, D; Indrio, F; Maggio, L; Morelli, L; Corvaglia, L

    2015-11-01

    Growing evidence underlines the pivotal role of infant gut colonization in the development of the immune system. The possibility to modify gut colonization through probiotic supplementation in childhood might prevent atopic diseases. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and early infancy in preventing atopic diseases. PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of probiotics during pregnancy or early infancy for prevention of allergic diseases. Fixed-effect models were used, and random-effects models where significant heterogeneity was present. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Seventeen studies, reporting data from 4755 children (2381 in the probiotic group and 2374 in the control group), were included in the meta-analysis. Infants treated with probiotics had a significantly lower RR for eczema compared to controls (RR 0.78 [95% CI: 0.69-0.89], P = 0.0003), especially those supplemented with a mixture of probiotics (RR 0.54 [95% CI: 0.43-0.68], P probiotic supplementation prevents infantile eczema, thus suggesting a new potential indication for probiotic use in pregnancy and infancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Intestinal permeability in patients with atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, I; Goolamali, S K; Levi, A J; Peters, T J

    1985-03-01

    Intestinal permeability was investigated in adult patients with atopic eczema by in vivo and in vitro techniques. Patients with symptoms of 'immediate' food allergy were specifically excluded. A 51Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetraacetate absorption test was carried out in eighteen patients. Their mean (+/- s.d.) 24-hour urine excretion following oral administration of the test substance (2.1 +/- 0.9%) did not differ significantly from that of thirty-four normal controls (1.9 +/- 0.5%). Small bowel permeability was estimated directly in jejunal mucosal samples in ten patients with three permeability probes of differing molecular weight. Mucosal permeability did not differ significantly from that of fifteen control patients for any of the test substances. Two patients had abnormal results by both tests and in one this was due to coeliac disease. These results suggest that altered intestinal permeability is not important in the pathogenesis of eczema. Patients demonstrating increased intestinal permeability should undergo jejunal biopsy to exclude significant small bowel disease.

  18. Allergic investigations in children with atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siłakowska, Z; Rybak, B

    1995-01-01

    In the study the results of allergic investigations in 36 children with atopic eczema were demonstrated. Prick testing with 22 allergens made by Bencard and 5 natural allergens showed an allergic reaction in 28 children (77.8%). The positive reaction was noted more often in children with a generalized form of disease compared to a limited one (81.85 and 76.0% respectively). Allergy to inhalatory allergens was observed in 72.2%, to food allergens in 38.9% and to other allergens in 27.8% of patients. Among inhalatory allergens, sensitivity to domestic dust (55.6%), inhalatory allergens A1 and grass pollen (both 50.0%) and Dermatophagoides pt. (44.4%) were most common. Food allergens were represented by grain (16.7%), uncooked milk and chocolate (both 11.1%). The conducted investigations indicate, that uncooked or cooked milk and milk cream seem to be more accurate indicators of milk sensitivity than milk allergen by Bencard.

  19. Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common, recurrent, chronic inflammatory skin disease that is a cause of considerable economic and social burden. Its prevalence varies substantially among different countries with an incidence rate proclaimed to reach up to 20% of children in developed countries and continues to escalate in developing nations. This increased rate of incidence has changed the focus of research on AD toward epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. The effects of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AD remain elusive. However, evidence from different research groups show that probiotics could have positive effect on AD treatment, if any, that depend on multiple factors, such as specific probiotic strains, time of administration (onset time, duration of exposure, and dosage. However, till date we still lack strong evidence to advocate the use of probiotics in the treatment of AD, and questions remain to be answered considering its clinical use in future. Based on updated information, the processes that facilitate the development of AD and the topic of the administration of probiotics are addressed in this review.

  20. House dust mites in pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Tamer M; Tawfik, Safwat A; Abdo, Naglaa M

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus) and D. farinae in pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and to assess the therapeutic value of using acaricides with other environmental anti house dust mites (HDM) measures. Ninety-eight children with AD were chosen randomly from the Pediatric Allergy Clinic in Al-Noor Hospital, Khalifa branch, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates during the period between January 2008 to January 2009 and were evaluated for severity and chronicity. They were subjected to skin prick test (SPT) including D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae antigens and were also assessed for the therapeutic value of acaricides and environmental anti HDM measures. We found that 74.5% of patients were sensitive to one or both strains of HDM. A highly significant association was found between the severity of the symptoms of AD and its persistence with hypersensitivity to HDM (p=0.001). Acaricides and environmental anti HDM measures can improve patients with mild AD. Hypersensitivity to HDM is an important factor for the more acute, more chronic, and more severe AD. Anti HDM measures including the use of acaricides can help control mild AD. We recommend SPT as a part of the work up of patients with AD. The HDM sensitive patients can benefit from anti HDM measures.

  1. Immunoadsorption for treatment of severe atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Joanna; Weinmann-Menke, Julia; von Stebut, Esther

    2017-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease affecting up to 10-20% of the population with the largest disease burden in childhood. Treatment options include basic emollient treatment, topical as well as systemic immunosuppressants. The pathogenesis is complex and among various triggers, genetic predisposition and immunological alterations contribute to development of disease. Atopy is common in patients with AD and many patients have high levels of Immunoglobulin E (IgE), some of which recognizes exogenous or auto/self-allergens. Treatment options targeting IgE such as specific immunotherapy against e.g. house dust mites or using anti-IgE antibodies (omalizumab) showed variable results that were not convincing. We now review recent data on the application of unspecific and IgE-selective immunoadsorption (IA) in AD. All in all, 53 patients have been treated with non-specific pan Ig IA and 28 patients with IgE-selective IA. Side effects were rarely seen. The efficacy of IgE depletion was generally high (<∼80%) for each IA cycle, but transient and lasted only a few days/weeks. Of note, disease activity appeared to improve in almost all cases and lasted for several weeks. Although the evidence is still weak, these case studies suggest that IgE depletion in AD is effective and helped control the disease. The mechanism of action is not understood yet. Future controlled trials are needed to validate this observation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Atopic dermatitis - risk factors and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleska, Martyna; Trojacka, Ewelina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Terlikowska-Brzósko, Agnieszka; Galus, Ryszard

    2017-08-21

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe itching and eczematic skin lesions. In Poland from 1.5 to 2.5 million people suffer from AD. The pathophysiologic complexity and the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes cause diagnostic and therapeutic problems and this is the basis for the division of the disease into subtypes. Heterogeneity of the disease is also confirmed in the study of the genotype of the disease. In relation with AZS more than 1000 loci in chromosomes were demonstrated. The roles of certain genes and the pathophysiology of lesions caused by their polymorphism were described. Wide spectrums of AD risk factors are: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, obesity and high and low birth weight. The quality of life in patients with AD is impaired, the disease disrupts family and professional relationships. Biological medical products are an example of an individual approach to the treatment of AD. It seems, individual approach to disease and treatment can be a successive solution to the problem.

  3. Atopic Dermatitis in Adults: A Diagnostic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre Salvador, J F; Romero-Pérez, D; Encabo-Durán, B

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) has a prevalence of 1%-3% in adults. Adult-onset AD has only been defined recently, and lack of familiarity with this condition and confusion regarding the appropriate terminology persist. AD may first appear in childhood or de novo in adults and is characterized by pronounced clinical heterogeneity. The disease often deviates from the classic pattern of flexural dermatitis, and there are forms of presentation that are specific to adults, such as head-and-neck dermatitis, chronic eczema of the hands, multiple areas of lichenification, or prurigo lesions. Although diagnosis is clinical, adult-onset AD frequently does not fit the traditional diagnostic criteria for the disease, which were developed for children. Thus, AD is often a diagnosis of exclusion, especially in de novo cases. Additional diagnostic tests, such as the patch test, prick test, skin biopsy, or blood test, are usually necessary to rule out other diseases or other types of eczema appearing concomitantly with AD. This article presents an update of the different forms of clinical presentation for AD in adults along with a proposed diagnostic approach, as new treatments will appear in the near future and many patients will not be able to benefit from them unless they are properly diagnosed.

  4. ATOPIC DERMATITIS AS A CLINICAL CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Davidovic

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease which is characterized by rash, pruritus and xerosis.The disease is most prevalent in infants and small children with about 70% of cases presenting before the age of 5.The prevalence of AD has increased two to three times during the past thirty years in industrially developed countries and, today, AD is considered to be a major public health concern.AD is a complex, multifactorial disease resulting from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Although the pathogenesis of AD is not completely clear, it is known that T-helper cells play the central role in it. Its characteristic is predomination of Th2-type response to allergens instead of the Th1 response which is predominant in normal individuals.Disease runs a chronic course, with remissions and exacerbations, while clinical presentation varies among patients depending on age and disease severity.There is no cure for AD, and an adequate disease control generally involves a combination of preventive measures and an individualised therapeutic approach. The conventional management includes the use of emollients to maintain the proper skin hydratation. Topical corticosteroids are currently the mainstay of treatment to control disease flares. However the use of these agents is limited to intermittent and short-term treatment due to potentially adverse effects, such as skin atrophy. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are steroid-free topical immunomodulators, providing safe and effective treatment for moderate to severe AD.

  5. Autoimmune diseases in adults with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Yuki M F; Egeberg, Alexander; Gislason, Gunnar H; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-02-01

    An increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease has been shown in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), but data remain scarce and inconsistent. We examined the co-occurrence of selected autoimmune diseases in adult patients with AD. Nationwide health registers were used. Adult patients with a hospital diagnosis of AD in Denmark between 1997 and 2012 were included as cases (n = 8112) and matched with controls (n = 40,560). The occurrence of autoimmune diseases was compared in the 2 groups. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. AD was significantly associated with 11 of 22 examined autoimmune diseases. In addition, AD was associated with having multiple autoimmune comorbidities. Patients with a history of smoking had a significantly higher occurrence of autoimmune comorbidities compared to nonsmokers. This study was limited to adult patients with AD. No information about AD severity or degree of tobacco consumption was available. Results from a hospital population of AD patients cannot be generalized to the general population. Our results suggest a susceptibility of autoimmune diseases in adult patients with AD, especially in smokers. While we cannot conclude on causality based on these data, an increased awareness of autoimmune comorbidities in patients with AD may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated Immune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarnece

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the program to replace several recent studies about astronaut immune systems with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling. The study will address lack of in-flight data to determine the inflight status of immune systems, physiological stress, viral immunity, to determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, and to determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  7. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into human skin affected by atopic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szikszai, Z., E-mail: szikszai@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Bodnar, E. [Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen (Hungary); Borbiro, I. [Abiol Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Angyal, A.; Csedreki, L.; Furu, E.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Hunyadi, J. [Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-10-15

    Skin penetration is one of the potential routes for nanoparticles to gain access into the human body. Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the particle size smaller than 200 nm makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. The present study continues the work carried out in the frame of the NANODERM: 'Quality of skin as a barrier to ultrafine particles' European project and complements our previous investigations on human skin with compromised barrier function. Atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious skin disease. It is very common in children but may occur at any age. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but is likely due to a combination of impaired barrier function together with a malfunction in the body's immune system. In this study, skin samples were obtained from two patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Our results indicate that the ultrafine zinc oxide particles, in a hydrophobic basis gel with an application time of 2 days or 2 weeks, have penetrated deeply into the stratum corneum in these patients. On the other hand, penetration into the stratum spinosum was not observed even in the case of the longer application time.

  8. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into human skin affected by atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikszai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.; Bodnár, E.; Borbíró, I.; Angyal, A.; Csedreki, L.; Furu, E.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kiss, Á. Z.; Hunyadi, J.

    2011-10-01

    Skin penetration is one of the potential routes for nanoparticles to gain access into the human body. Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the particle size smaller than 200 nm makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. The present study continues the work carried out in the frame of the NANODERM: “Quality of skin as a barrier to ultrafine particles” European project and complements our previous investigations on human skin with compromised barrier function. Atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious skin disease. It is very common in children but may occur at any age. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but is likely due to a combination of impaired barrier function together with a malfunction in the body's immune system. In this study, skin samples were obtained from two patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Our results indicate that the ultrafine zinc oxide particles, in a hydrophobic basis gel with an application time of 2 days or 2 weeks, have penetrated deeply into the stratum corneum in these patients. On the other hand, penetration into the stratum spinosum was not observed even in the case of the longer application time.

  9. IL-4 increases type 2, but not type 1, cytokine production in CD8+ T cells from mild atopic asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyle Anthony J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus infections are the major cause of asthma exacerbations. CD8+ T cells have an important role in antiviral immune responses and animal studies suggest a role for CD8+ T cells in the pathogenesis of virus-induced asthma exacerbations. We have previously shown that the presence of IL-4 during stimulation increases the frequency of IL-5-positive cells and CD30 surface staining in CD8+ T cells from healthy, normal subjects. In this study, we investigated whether excess IL-4 during repeated TCR/CD3 stimulation of CD8+ T cells from atopic asthmatic subjects alters the balance of type 1/type 2 cytokine production in favour of the latter. Methods Peripheral blood CD8+ T cells from mild atopic asthmatic subjects were stimulated in vitro with anti-CD3 and IL-2 ± excess IL-4 and the expression of activation and adhesion molecules and type 1 and type 2 cytokine production were assessed. Results Surface expression of very late antigen-4 [VLA-4] and LFA-1 was decreased and the production of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 was augmented by the presence of IL-4 during stimulation of CD8+ T cells from mild atopic asthmatics. Conclusion These data suggest that during a respiratory virus infection activated CD8+ T cells from asthmatic subjects may produce excess type 2 cytokines and may contribute to asthma exacerbation by augmenting allergic inflammation.

  10. [Assessment of nutritional status in children with atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Campos, Xiomara; Castro-Almarales, Raúl Lázaro; Massip Nicot, Juliette

    2011-01-01

    There has been described some exacerbating factors for atopic dermatitis, including foods. Several investigations have reported controversial results about the influence of foods on atopic dermatitis. But there is scarce information about the nutritional status of patients with atopic dermatitis. To characterize the nutritional condition in a sample of children with atopic dermatitis in Old Havana, Cuba. In this descriptive study, were included 60 children, aged between 2 and 14 years, with the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis from the Allergy Department in the municipality Havana, from January to April of 2008. For every patient we evaluated anthropometrics, biochemical and immunologic measurements, as well the frequency of meals ingestion and the types of foods. We found that 83.3% of the patients were younger than 6 years, with a slight prevalence of females (53.3%). Ninety-seven percent of the children had a normal height for its age and 48.3% had a normal weight for their height, and 20% of the patients had malnutrition. It was detected mild and moderate anemia in 63.3%. The daily frequency of taking breakfast was carried out in 55%, the lunch in 100% and dinner in 95%. The products of regular consumption are carbohydrates, candies nd sodas in 76.6%. Fish and shellfish are consumed only for 16% of the patients. In the studied sample of children with atopic dermatitis we found a high prevalence of malnutrition associated with poor dietary habits. Breast milk feeding was related to a less malnutrition percentage in children with atopic dermatitis.

  11. Allergic march in children: Atopic dermatitis in Japanese children with bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsufumi Mayumi; Yusei Ohshima; Kenji Katamura; Setsuko Ito; Takao Hirao; Hiroshi Akutagawa; Naomi Kondo; Akihiro Morikawa

    1996-01-01

    Atopic diseases in children often develop in series and atopic dermatitis usually occurs first. To clarify the serial development of atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma in atopic children in Japan, the present and/or past history of atopic dermatitis in patients with bronchial asthma was examined. Patients (n=280) with bronchial asthma in five prefectures in Japan were examined at a mean (± SD) age of 8.2 (±4.5) years and asked about prior and/or concurrent atopic dermatitis. The mean (± S...

  12. Current evidence of epidermal barrier dysfunction and thymic stromal lymphopoietin in the atopic march

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It has long been observed that the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergy are frequently preceded by atopic dermatitis, a phenomenon known as the “atopic march”. Clinical, genetic and experimental studies have supported the fact that atopic dermatitis could be the initial step of the atopic march, leading to the subsequent development of other atopic diseases. This brief review will focus on the current evidence showing that epidermal barrier dysfunction and the keratinocyte-derived cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin play critical roles in the onset of the atopic march.

  13. Long Term Development of Gut Microbiota Composition in Atopic Children: Impact of Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, N B M M; Gorissen, D M W; Eck, A; Niers, L E M; Vlieger, A M; Besseling-van der Vaart, I; Budding, A E; Savelkoul, P H M; van der Ent, C K; Rijkers, G T

    2015-01-01

    Imbalance of the human gut microbiota in early childhood is suggested as a risk factor for immune-mediated disorders such as allergies. With the objective to modulate the intestinal microbiota, probiotic supplementation during infancy has been used for prevention of allergic diseases in infants, with variable success. However, not much is known about the long-term consequences of neonatal use of probiotics on the microbiota composition. The aim of this study was to assess the composition and microbial diversity in stool samples of infants at high-risk for atopic disease, from birth onwards to six years of age, who were treated with probiotics or placebo during the first year of life. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, a probiotic mixture consisting of B. bifidum W23, B. lactis W52 and Lc. Lactis W58 (Ecologic® Panda) was administered to pregnant women during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy and to their offspring during the first year of life. During follow-up, faecal samples were collected from 99 children over a 6-year period with the following time points: first week, second week, first month, three months, first year, eighteen months, two years and six years. Bacterial profiling was performed by IS-pro. Differences in bacterial abundance and diversity were assessed by conventional statistics. The presence of the supplemented probiotic strains in faecal samples was confirmed, and the probiotic strains had a higher abundance and prevalence in the probiotic group during supplementation. Only minor and short term differences in composition of microbiota were found between the probiotic and placebo group and between children with or without atopy. The diversity of Bacteroidetes was significantly higher after two weeks in the placebo group, and at the age of two years atopic children had a significantly higher Proteobacteria diversity (p microbiota development continued between two and six years, whereby microbiota composition at phylum level

  14. Immunoproteomic characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen allergens in canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognjenovic, Jana; Milcic-Matic, Natalija; Smiljanic, Katarina; Vuckovic, Olga; Burazer, Lidija; Popovic, Nikola; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Velickovic, Tanja Cirkovic

    2013-09-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is an immune system disorder that affects 10-15% of the canine population. Short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen represents one of the major seasonal sources of allergenic pollen proteins in Europe, particularly in the Pannonian valley of the Balkan region. In Serbia, about 66% of atopic dogs showed a positive intradermal skin test with its pollen extract, which is second to house dust mites. Therefore, characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen components, in terms of defining major and minor allergens that induce clinically manifested allergic reaction in dogs, is important for valid diagnosis and efficient therapy. This study has, for the first time, characterized and identified major Ambrosia artemisiifolia allergens in CAD, using an immunoproteomic approach. To assess the prevalence of specific IgE in electrophoretically separated ragweed pollen proteins, individual reactivity of sera from dogs with CAD was analyzed and compared to the reactivity of sera from healthy dogs in the non-reducing conditions, which were found optimal for specific canine IgE detection. A specific IgE band (38 kDa) was recognized as the most dominant allergen in CAD, occurring in 81% of positive dog's sera. 2-D immunoblotting followed by a mass spectrometry peptide fingerprint analyses with pooled canine and human atopic sera, revealed that 38 kDa major Ambrosia atremisiifolia allergens in CAD were all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group (antigen E), including the previously named Amb a 2 (antigen K). In contrast to canine sera, human atopic sera also recognized lower mass allergens such as the β fragment of Amb a 1 and profilins (Amb a 8 variants). The most prominent ragweed proteins in CAD, represent, as in humans, variants of all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group (pectate lyase): Amb a 1.0101 and its natural variant E1XUL2, Amb a 1.0202, 1.0304, 1.0402 and the natural variant of Amb a 1.0501, E1XUM0, as well as the

  15. Immunomodulatory effect of water soluble extract separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Ji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is becoming a popular treatment for modulating diverse immune disorders. Phellinus linteus (P. linteus as one of the CAMs has been used to modulate cancers, inflammation and allergic activities. However, little evidence has been shown about its underlying mechanism of action by which it exerts a beneficial role in dermatological disease in vivo. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of P. linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis (AD and elucidated its action mechanism. Methods The immunomodulatory effect of total extract of P. linteus on IgE production by human myeloma U266B1 cells was measured by ELISA. To further identify the effective components, P. linteus was fractionated into methanol soluble, water soluble and boiling water soluble extracts. Each extract was treated to U266B1 cells and primary B cells to compare their inhibitory effects on IgE secretion. To test the in vivo efficacy, experimental atopic dermatitis (AD was established by alternative treatment of DNCB and house dust mite extract into BALB/c mice. Water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA or ceramide as a positive control were topically applied to ears of atopic mouse every day for 2 weeks and progression of the disease was estimated by the following criteria: (a ear thickness, clinical score, (b serum total IgE, IgG and mite specific IgE level by ELSIA, (c histological examination of ear tissue by H&E staining and (d cytokine profile of total ear cells and CD4+ T cells by real time PCR and ELSIA. Results Treatment of total extracts of P. linteus to U266B1 inhibited IgE secretion. Among the diverse extracts of P. linteus, water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA significantly reduced the IgE production in primary B cells and B cell line U266B1. Moreover, treatment of WA reduced AD symptoms such as ear swelling, erythema, and dryness and decreased recruitment of lymphocyte into the inflamed site

  16. Immunomodulatory effect of water soluble extract separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji Sun; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Jung-Eun; Rho, Jeonghae; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2012-09-18

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming a popular treatment for modulating diverse immune disorders. Phellinus linteus (P. linteus) as one of the CAMs has been used to modulate cancers, inflammation and allergic activities. However, little evidence has been shown about its underlying mechanism of action by which it exerts a beneficial role in dermatological disease in vivo. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of P. linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis (AD) and elucidated its action mechanism. The immunomodulatory effect of total extract of P. linteus on IgE production by human myeloma U266B1 cells was measured by ELISA. To further identify the effective components, P. linteus was fractionated into methanol soluble, water soluble and boiling water soluble extracts. Each extract was treated to U266B1 cells and primary B cells to compare their inhibitory effects on IgE secretion. To test the in vivo efficacy, experimental atopic dermatitis (AD) was established by alternative treatment of DNCB and house dust mite extract into BALB/c mice. Water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA) or ceramide as a positive control were topically applied to ears of atopic mouse every day for 2 weeks and progression of the disease was estimated by the following criteria: (a) ear thickness, clinical score, (b) serum total IgE, IgG and mite specific IgE level by ELSIA, (c) histological examination of ear tissue by H&E staining and (d) cytokine profile of total ear cells and CD4(+) T cells by real time PCR and ELSIA. Treatment of total extracts of P. linteus to U266B1 inhibited IgE secretion. Among the diverse extracts of P. linteus, water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA) significantly reduced the IgE production in primary B cells and B cell line U266B1. Moreover, treatment of WA reduced AD symptoms such as ear swelling, erythema, and dryness and decreased recruitment of lymphocyte into the inflamed site. Interestingly WA treatment significantly

  17. Long Term Development of Gut Microbiota Composition in Atopic Children: Impact of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, N. B. M. M.; Gorissen, D. M. W.; Eck, A.; Niers, L. E. M.; Vlieger, A. M.; Besseling-van der Vaart, I.; Budding, A. E.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; van der Ent, C. K.; Rijkers, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Imbalance of the human gut microbiota in early childhood is suggested as a risk factor for immune-mediated disorders such as allergies. With the objective to modulate the intestinal microbiota, probiotic supplementation during infancy has been used for prevention of allergic diseases in infants, with variable success. However, not much is known about the long-term consequences of neonatal use of probiotics on the microbiota composition. The aim of this study was to assess the composition and microbial diversity in stool samples of infants at high-risk for atopic disease, from birth onwards to six years of age, who were treated with probiotics or placebo during the first year of life. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, a probiotic mixture consisting of B. bifidum W23, B. lactis W52 and Lc. Lactis W58 (Ecologic® Panda) was administered to pregnant women during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy and to their offspring during the first year of life. During follow-up, faecal samples were collected from 99 children over a 6-year period with the following time points: first week, second week, first month, three months, first year, eighteen months, two years and six years. Bacterial profiling was performed by IS-pro. Differences in bacterial abundance and diversity were assessed by conventional statistics. Results The presence of the supplemented probiotic strains in faecal samples was confirmed, and the probiotic strains had a higher abundance and prevalence in the probiotic group during supplementation. Only minor and short term differences in composition of microbiota were found between the probiotic and placebo group and between children with or without atopy. The diversity of Bacteroidetes was significantly higher after two weeks in the placebo group, and at the age of two years atopic children had a significantly higher Proteobacteria diversity (p < 0.05). Gut microbiota development continued between two and six years, whereby

  18. Long Term Development of Gut Microbiota Composition in Atopic Children: Impact of Probiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N B M M Rutten

    Full Text Available Imbalance of the human gut microbiota in early childhood is suggested as a risk factor for immune-mediated disorders such as allergies. With the objective to modulate the intestinal microbiota, probiotic supplementation during infancy has been used for prevention of allergic diseases in infants, with variable success. However, not much is known about the long-term consequences of neonatal use of probiotics on the microbiota composition. The aim of this study was to assess the composition and microbial diversity in stool samples of infants at high-risk for atopic disease, from birth onwards to six years of age, who were treated with probiotics or placebo during the first year of life.In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, a probiotic mixture consisting of B. bifidum W23, B. lactis W52 and Lc. Lactis W58 (Ecologic® Panda was administered to pregnant women during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy and to their offspring during the first year of life. During follow-up, faecal samples were collected from 99 children over a 6-year period with the following time points: first week, second week, first month, three months, first year, eighteen months, two years and six years. Bacterial profiling was performed by IS-pro. Differences in bacterial abundance and diversity were assessed by conventional statistics.The presence of the supplemented probiotic strains in faecal samples was confirmed, and the probiotic strains had a higher abundance and prevalence in the probiotic group during supplementation. Only minor and short term differences in composition of microbiota were found between the probiotic and placebo group and between children with or without atopy. The diversity of Bacteroidetes was significantly higher after two weeks in the placebo group, and at the age of two years atopic children had a significantly higher Proteobacteria diversity (p < 0.05. Gut microbiota development continued between two and six years, whereby microbiota

  19. Eczema, Atopic Dermatitis, or Atopic Eczema: Analysis of Global Search Engine Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Thyssen, Jacob P; Paller, Amy S; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    The lack of standardized nomenclature for atopic dermatitis (AD) creates challenges for scientific communication, patient education, and advocacy. We sought to determine the relative popularity of the terms eczema, AD, and atopic eczema (AE) using global search engine volumes. A retrospective analysis of average monthly search volumes from 2014 to 2016 of Google, Bing/Yahoo, and Baidu was performed for eczema, AD, and AE in English and 37 other languages. Google Trends was used to determine the relative search popularity of each term from 2006 to 2016 in English and the top foreign languages, German, Turkish, Russian, and Japanese. Overall, eczema accounted for 1.5 million monthly searches (84%) compared with 247 000 searches for AD (14%) and 44 000 searches for AE (2%). For English language, eczema accounted for 93% of searches compared with 6% for AD and 1% for AE. Search popularity for eczema increased from 2006 to 2016 but remained stable for AD and AE. Given the ambiguity of the term eczema, we recommend the universal use of the next most popular term, AD.

  20. Leptin and Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, SungChul; Yoon, Won Suck; Cho, Yunjung; Park, Sang Hee; Choung, Ji Tae; Yoo, Young

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) and obesity have been increasing considerably in Korean school-children. AD is a chronic pruritic recurrent inflammatory skin disorder. Leptin is secreted by adipocytes which has been suggested to be immunologically active; however, their role in AD has not yet been well understood. A total of 227 subjects out of 2,109 elementary school children were defined as having AD based on the ISAAC questionnaire survey. Ninety subjects with AD, aged between 6 and 12 years, completed scoring of severity of AD (SCORAD), skin prick testing, blood tests for total IgE, eosinophil counts, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and lipid profiles. Serum leptin levels were also measured. A subject with atopic AD was defined as an AD patient showing at least 1 positive reaction to allergens in skin prick testing. There were no significant differences in age, body mass index, percentage of breast milk feeding, mode of delivery, prevalence of atopy, and lipid profiles between atopic AD and non-atopic AD subjects. The serum leptin levels (log mean±SD) were significantly higher in non-atopic AD group than in the atopic AD group (0.86±0.57 ng/mL vs 0.53±0.72 ng/mL, p=0.045). Subjects with mild-to-moderate AD showed significantly higher serum leptin levels than those with severe AD (0.77±0.67 ng/mL vs 0.33±0.69 ng/mL, p=0.028). There was a marginal inverse correlation between the SCORAD index and the serum leptin concentration in total AD subjects (r=-0.216, p=0.053). The serum leptin levels were significantly higher in non-atopic AD subjects or mild-to-moderate AD subjects. Leptin did not seem to be associated with IgE-mediated inflammation in AD. Obesity-associated high leptin differed between non-atopic AD and atopic AD subjects.

  1. On Verification of Atopic Phenotype of Bronchial Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Belashova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the diagnostic value of the metabolic activity of blood granulocytes (eosinophils, neutrophils in the verification of atopic phenotype of bronchial asthma (BA in children there are formed two clinical groups. The first (I, basic group formed 38 children with atopic BA (having a positive own and/or family allergic anamnesis history, II clinical group consisted of 26 patients with non-atopic BA. Groups were comparable by the main characteristics. As indicators of the functional state of neutrophil and eosinophil leukocytes, we determined their phagocytic activity (%, phagocytic number (c.u., the intracellular content of eosinophil and neutrophil cationic protein (c.u.. It is found that in the development of atopic phenotype of BA in childhood there is a tendency to decrease in intracellular content of major cytotoxic agents (eosinophil cationic protein, peroxidase in eosinophilic granulocytes of the blood. The decrease of phagocytic activity parameters (less than 60 % and phagocytic number (less than 2.0 c.u. of blood eosinophils is associated with a significantly higher risk of atopic bronchial asthma in children.

  2. Clinical profile of atopic dermatitis in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onunu, A N; Eze, E U; Kubeyinje, E P

    2007-12-01

    To study the clinical presentation and management problems of atopic dermatitis in Benin City, Nigeria. A 15-year retrospective study from May 1985 to April 2000. Dermatology clinics of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. All new cases of atopic dermatitis presenting to the clinic during the study period. 594 patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, representing 7.92% of new dermatological cases were seen during the study period. There was a slight male preponderance; the male to female ratio was 1.2: 1. Most patients were below 30 years of age with the peak incidence in the 0 9-year age group, with most presenting in the first six months of life. Forty-six percent of the patients had a positive family history of atopy, while 73% also had other atopic disorders. The clinical patterns seen were infantile, childhood and adult forms, which is in keeping with reports from other parts of the world. Precipitating factors were most often obscure; however, high temperatures and humidity were the most common aggravating factors. The important problems encountered were misuse of topical medications, oral antibiotics, anti-fungal drugs and a high follow-up default rate. The clinical characteristics of atopic dermatitis in our study population were similar to the pattern in other parts of the world. There is need for increased awareness of its importance as a cause of morbidity especially in children.

  3. A Case of Atopic Myelitis with Cervical Cavernous Angioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Fukuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic myelitis, a type of myelitis which appears in patients with elevated serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE, occurs more commonly in the cervical spinal cord, but this mechanism has not yet been elucidated. Herein, we experienced a case of atopic myelitis developed during the growth of cervical cavernous angioma caused by bleeding. A 37-year-old woman suffered from hand swelling caused by a house cat licking. At the same time when cavernous angioma had grown, she experienced a numbness in her four extremities, and multifocal peritumoral hyperintense spinal cord signals were seen. The diagnosis of atopic myelitis was made because we observed significantly elevated levels of specific IgE antibody to cat dander. Symptoms disappeared immediately after steroid pulse therapy. We subsequently resected a cavernous angioma, and eosinophil invasion was found inside it. This is the first case report of atopic myelitis which developed in association with spinal cord vascular lesions. A local blood-brain barrier breakdown due to hemorrhagic lesions of the spinal cord may have contributed to the onset of atopic myelitis.

  4. A Case of Atopic Myelitis with Cervical Cavernous Angioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Kuroda, Masayuki; Hoshimaru, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    Atopic myelitis, a type of myelitis which appears in patients with elevated serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), occurs more commonly in the cervical spinal cord, but this mechanism has not yet been elucidated. Herein, we experienced a case of atopic myelitis developed during the growth of cervical cavernous angioma caused by bleeding. A 37-year-old woman suffered from hand swelling caused by a house cat licking. At the same time when cavernous angioma had grown, she experienced a numbness in her four extremities, and multifocal peritumoral hyperintense spinal cord signals were seen. The diagnosis of atopic myelitis was made because we observed significantly elevated levels of specific IgE antibody to cat dander. Symptoms disappeared immediately after steroid pulse therapy. We subsequently resected a cavernous angioma, and eosinophil invasion was found inside it. This is the first case report of atopic myelitis which developed in association with spinal cord vascular lesions. A local blood-brain barrier breakdown due to hemorrhagic lesions of the spinal cord may have contributed to the onset of atopic myelitis. PMID:28757876

  5. Emerging therapies for atopic dermatitis: The prostaglandin/leukotriene pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Daniel A; Mosser-Goldfarb, Joy L

    2018-03-01

    The role of leukotrienes and prostaglandins in development of atopy has been prototypically established in studies of asthma pathogenesis. Likewise, both in vitro and in vivo studies of atopic dermatitis have demonstrated that these molecules maintain important pathophysiologic roles. Thus, it follows that targeted therapies against these molecules may be promising in management of atopic dermatitis. Montelukast has had questionable efficacy in patients with atopic dermatitis, whereas small pilots using zileuton did have some clinically significant improvement. There are several agents in development that target leukotrienes and/or prostaglandins as well, including OC000459, Q301, and ZPL-521. In atopic dermatitis, OC000459 did not demonstrate efficacy in clinical trials, and the efficacy of the other 2 agents remains to be seen. Should these medications prove promising, these topical agents may play a future role in chronic maintenance therapy and flare prophylaxis in atopic dermatitis, as antileukotriene therapy does in asthma. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exacerbating factors of itch in atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Murota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD displays different clinical symptoms, progress, and response to treatment during early infancy and after childhood. After the childhood period, itch appears first, followed by formation of well-circumscribed plaque or polymorphous dermatoses at the same site. When accompanied with dermatitis and dry skin, treatment of skin lesions should be prioritized. When itch appears first, disease history, such as causes and time of appearance of itch should be obtained by history taking. In many cases, itch increases in the evening when the sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Treatment is provided considering that hypersensitivity to various external stimulations can cause itch. Heat and sweating are thought to especially exacerbate itch. Factors causing itch, such as cytokines and chemical messengers, also induce itch mainly by stimulating the nerve. Scratching further aggravates dermatitis. Skin hypersensibility, where other non-itch senses, such as pain and heat, are felt as itch, sometimes occurs in AD. Abnormal elongation of the sensory nerve into the epidermis, as well as sensitizing of the peripheral/central nerve, are possible causes of hypersensitivity, leading to itch. To control itch induced by environmental factors such as heat, treatment for dermatitis is given priority. In the background of itch exacerbated by sweating, attention should be given to the negative impact of sweat on skin homeostasis due to 1 leaving excess sweat on the skin, and 2 heat retention due to insufficient sweating. Excess sweat on the skin should be properly wiped off, and dermatitis should be controlled so that appropriate amount of sweat can be produced. Not only stimulation from the skin surface, but also visual and auditory stimulation can induce new itch. This “contagious itch” can be notably observed in patients with AD. This article reviews and introduces causes of aggravation of itch and information regarding how to cope with such

  7. Histamine and antihistamines in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddenkotte, Jörg; Maurer, Marcus; Steinhoff, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Itching (pruritus) is perhaps the most common symptom associated with inflammatory skin diseases and can be a lead symptom ofextracutaneous disease (e.g., malignancy, infection, metabolic disorders). In atopic dermatitis itching sensations constitute one of the most prominent and distressing features. The most characteristic response to itching is the scratch reflex: a more or less voluntary, often sub-conscious motor activity, to counteract the itch by slightly painful stimuli. The benefit of a short-termed relieve from itching through this scratch reflex though is counteracted by a simultaneous damage of the epidermal layer of the skin which leads to increased transepidermal water loss and drying, which in turn results in a cycle of more itching and more scratching. A wide range of peripheral itch-inducing stimuli generated within or administered to the skin are able to trigger pruritus, one of them being histamine. Based on early experiments, histamine has been suggested to may play a key role in the pathogenesis ofAD. This is reflected by a history for antihistamines in the therapeutic medication of AD patients. Antihistamines are believed to share a common antipruritic effect and therefore are prescribed to the vast majority of AD patient suffering from itch to act alleviating. The level of evidence in support of the benefits of antihistamine treatment, however, is low. To assess the benefit of antihistamines in the treatment of AD in a better way, their mechanisms and specific effects need to be understood more precisely. In particular their precise indication is crucial for successful use. This book chapter will therefore summarize and assess the role of histamine in AD and the efficacy of antihistamines in its treatment based on results of basic research and clinical studies.

  8. Exacerbating factors of itch in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) displays different clinical symptoms, progress, and response to treatment during early infancy and after childhood. After the childhood period, itch appears first, followed by formation of well-circumscribed plaque or polymorphous dermatoses at the same site. When accompanied with dermatitis and dry skin, treatment of skin lesions should be prioritized. When itch appears first, disease history, such as causes and time of appearance of itch should be obtained by history taking. In many cases, itch increases in the evening when the sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Treatment is provided considering that hypersensitivity to various external stimulations can cause itch. Heat and sweating are thought to especially exacerbate itch. Factors causing itch, such as cytokines and chemical messengers, also induce itch mainly by stimulating the nerve. Scratching further aggravates dermatitis. Skin hypersensibility, where other non-itch senses, such as pain and heat, are felt as itch, sometimes occurs in AD. Abnormal elongation of the sensory nerve into the epidermis, as well as sensitizing of the peripheral/central nerve, are possible causes of hypersensitivity, leading to itch. To control itch induced by environmental factors such as heat, treatment for dermatitis is given priority. In the background of itch exacerbated by sweating, attention should be given to the negative impact of sweat on skin homeostasis due to 1) leaving excess sweat on the skin, and 2) heat retention due to insufficient sweating. Excess sweat on the skin should be properly wiped off, and dermatitis should be controlled so that appropriate amount of sweat can be produced. Not only stimulation from the skin surface, but also visual and auditory stimulation can induce new itch. This "contagious itch" can be notably observed in patients with AD. This article reviews and introduces causes of aggravation of itch and information regarding how to cope with such causes. Copyright

  9. Dupilumab: A review of its use in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooderham, Melinda J; Hong, H Chih-Ho; Eshtiaghi, Panteha; Papp, Kim A

    2018-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic immune-mediated inflammatory dermatosis characterized by a T helper 2 (Th2) immune response phenotype and may be associated with systemic inflammation. Dupilumab is an interleukin 4 (IL-4) receptor α-antagonist that inhibits IL-4 and IL-13 signaling through blockade of the shared IL-4α subunit. Blockade of IL-4/13 is effective in reducing Th2 response. Dupilumab has recently been approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe AD. Clinical trials have shown that adults with moderate-to-severe AD who receive weekly or biweekly dupilumab injections have significantly improved clinical and patient-reported outcomes, including Eczema Area Severity Index, SCORing Atopic Dermatitis, Dermatology Life Quality Index, and itch Numeric Rating Scale scores. Concomitant use of topical corticosteroids along with dupilumab results in a greater improvement in signs and symptoms of AD than with use of dupilumab alone. Biomarker analyses show that dupilumab modulates the AD molecular signature and other Th2-associated biomarkers. Common adverse events reported in the clinical trials were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, injection site reactions, skin infections, and conjunctivitis. These were mild-to-moderate in nature, and overall rates of adverse events occurred with similar frequency between the treatment and placebo groups. There were no significant serious safety concerns identified in phase III clinical trials. Dupilumab, as monotherapy or with concomitant use of topical corticosteroids, can significantly improve clinical outcomes and quality of life in patients suffering from moderate-to-severe AD. Ongoing studies of dupilumab will help determine the clinical efficacy and safety profile of its long-term use. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immune responses in children infected with the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis in central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsantara, G G; Piperaki, E-T; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, C; Kanariou, M G

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested an immunomodulatory and even protective role for Enterobius vermicularis, the least pathogenic human intestinal helminth. Here, in a study using haematological and serological parameters, we tested a total of 215 children from central Greece, with a mean age of 8.39, of whom 105 (48.84%) were infected with E. vermicularis and 110 (51.16%) were matched healthy controls. In particular, we analysed eosinophil counts (EO), serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total and specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and the ECP/EO ratio. The atopic status and the potential occurrence of clinically expressed allergic diseases were both taken into account. Eosinophils, ECP and IgE were found to be higher in infected than in uninfected children, indicating a type-2 immune response activation during infection. Atopic infected children exhibited higher IgE levels compared to non-atopic ones. EO and ECP were found to be lower in atopic children who had a history of allergic disease than in those with no such history. The type-2 oriented immune response elicited against E. vermicularis could contribute to a balanced activation of the immune system in the examined children. Interestingly, although the atopic children showed a stronger activation, they did not exhibit any symptoms and, moreover, there seemed to be some indication of immunosuppression in those children with a positive history of allergic disease.

  11. Gut microbiota composition and development of atopic manifestations in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, John; Thijs, Carel; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Kummeling, Ischa; Snijders, Bianca; Stelma, Foekje; Adams, Hanne; van Ree, Ronald; Stobberingh, Ellen E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Perturbations in intestinal microbiota composition due to lifestyle changes may be involved in the development of atopic diseases. We examined gut microbiota composition in early infancy and the subsequent development of atopic manifestations and sensitisation. METHODS: The

  12. Specific IgE to Common Food Allergens in Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi; Shirin Farjadian; Sara Kashef; Soheila Alyasin; Maryam Afrasiabi; Marzieh Orooj

    2012-01-01

    .... Although hypersensitivity to foods is assumed to play an essential role in the development of atopic dermatitis in some patients, little is known about common food allergens in Iranian children with atopic dermatitis. Objectives...

  13. Atopic dermatitis: Burden of illness, quality of life, and associated complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Aaron M

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronically relapsing inflammatory skin condition that is burdensome for individuals with the disease, their families, and for society as a whole. The purpose of this review was to provide a broad overview of the burden of atopic dermatitis, including quality of life and its associated complications. This article was divided into four main sections: (1) atopic dermatitis prevalence, persistence, and population-level burden; (2) burden of atopic dermatitis for individuals and their families; (3) medical complications and comorbidities of atopic dermatitis; and (4) assessment of the burden of atopic dermatitis in clinical practice. Having an understanding of the burden of atopic dermatitis is important for clinicians as they assess and manage atopic dermatitis in the clinical setting.

  14. Immunizations - diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000331.htm Immunizations - diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some ...

  15. Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest levels in history, thanks to years of immunization. Children must get at least some vaccines before ... child provide protection for many years, adults need immunizations too. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  16. Surfactant protein D in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Thomas; Otkjaer, Kristian; Madsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    was examined using immunohistochemistry on skin biopsies from patients with the two major dermatologic diseases, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. SP-D was located in the stratum basale of all biopsies with similar intense staining in both diseased and normal skin. Differences were detected in stratum spinosum......, no substantial up-regulation of SP-D mRNA was detected in lesional psoriatic skin, and a comparison of serum levels of SP-D between patients with atopic dermatitis or psoriasis and a group of age matched healthy controls did not show significant differences. In conclusion SP-D was significantly more abundant...... where involved psoriatic skin showed intense staining through the entire region significantly different from uninvolved and normal skin. Lesional atopic skin showed moderate staining extending through the basal three-fourths of stratum spinosum. Using real time polymerase chain reaction analysis...

  17. Immune Dysfunction in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishraga Elamin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between immunity and neurodevelopmental disorders has been extensively investigated in autism, suggesting a potential involvement of both cellular and humoral immunity in the establishment of synaptic connectivity modulation during development. A similar link has been proposed also for Tourette syndrome (TS, a complex, multifactorial disorder, in which the interplay between genetic, environmental, hormonal and immunological factors might be relevant. Lymphocyte subpopulation analysis in TS suggests a possible systemic activation of several T- and B-cell subtypes, whereas the observed decreased numbers of T regulatory lymphocytes might predispose to autoimmunity. Genes related to both cell- and antibody-mediated immune responses may be over-expressed at specific ages in youngsters with TS. Data from cytokine measurements and transcriptomics profiles in TS patients are coherent with the systemic immune activation detected by studies on lymphocyte subpopulations. Moreover, TS patients have exhibited IgG3 and IgA dysgammaglobulinemia, which might predispose to recurrent infections and autoimmunity. To date, the association between TS and autoantibodies has not been demonstrated. Interestingly, however, there is a higher degree of maternal family history of autoimmune diseases among TS patients. Finally, TS patients could be prone to allergic illnesses (asthma, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, but more work is needed in this area.

  18. Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be given as part of a combination vaccine so that a child gets fewer shots. Talk with your doctor about ... Kids Teens Frequently Asked Questions About Immunizations Your Child's Immunizations Is the Flu Vaccine a Good Idea for Your Family? Word! Immunizations ...

  19. The association of the 'additional height index' with atopic diseases, non-atopic asthma, ischaemic heart disease and mortality: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, R V; Vidal, C; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Husemoen, L L N; Skaaby, T; Aadahl, M; Linneberg, A

    2014-02-28

    Intrauterine growth has been associated with atopic conditions. Growth and adult height have been associated with cardiovascular disease, cancers and mortality but are highly genetic traits. The objectives of the study were as follows: first, to define a height measure indicating an individual's height below or above that which could be expected based on parental height (genetic inheritance) and growth charts. It was named 'the additional height index' (AHI), defined as (attained-expected) height; second, to investigate possible associations of AHI with atopic versus non-atopic health outcomes and with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and IHD mortality. General population-based study. Research centre. A random sample of 2656 men and women living in greater Copenhagen took part in the MONICA10 study (the Danish monitoring trends and determinants of cardiovascular disease). In total, 1900 participants with information of parental height were selected. Atopic sensitisation (serum IgE), questionnaire information of atopic dermatitis, rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma or wheezing, and registry-based diagnoses of IHD/IHD mortality from National Registries. Increasing levels of AHI were inversely associated with non-atopic asthma, non-atopic wheezing, IHD and IHD mortality (IHD-all). For one SD increase of AHI, the OR or HR with CI in adjusted analyses was non-atopic asthma OR=0.52 (0.36 to 0.74), non-atopic wheezing OR=0.67 (0.51 to 0.89), and IHD-all HR=0.89 (0.78 to 1.01). The level of AHI was higher among individuals with atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic sensitisation (all p values height may be at lower risk of non-atopic asthma/wheeze and IHD/IHD mortality but possibly at higher risk of atopic conditions. The measure of tallness below or above the expected height could be a sensitive alternative to normal height in epidemiological analyses.

  20. Some aspects of hadron-hadron collisions in high energy interactions (B$0\\atop{s}$ mixing oscillations in semileptonic decay at D0 experiment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimuddin, Md [Univ. of Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we report the study on one such particle called the B$0\\atop{s}$ meson made up of a bottom and a strange quark. B$0\\atop{s}$ mesons are currently produced in a great numbers only at the Tevatron and we report a study done to measure the mixing parameter Δms between the B$0\\atop{s}$ meson and its anti-particle $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$. Mixing is the ability of a very few neutral mesons to change from their particle to their antiparticle and vice versa. Until recently there existed only a lower limit on this measurement, here we report an upper bound and a most probable value for the mixing parameter. In the following chapter, we discuss the theoretical motivation behind this study. The measurement technique and the different factors that effect the measurement are also given. In Chapter 3, we provide an overview of the experimental setup needed to perform the study. In Chapter 4, we present a new initial state flavor tagging algorithm using electrons and measurement of the B$0\\atop{d}$ mixing parameter Δmd with the new technique. Details of the combined initial state tagging used in the B$0\\atop{s}$ mixing study are also given. A detailed description of the B$0\\atop{s}$ mixing analysis and the results are covered in Chapter 5. And finally the results from all the three channels and a bound on the mixing parameter are presented in Chapter 6.

  1. STAT6 polymorphisms are associated with neonatal regulatory T cells and cytokines and atopic diseases at 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaca, V I; Illi, S; Klucker, E; Ballenberger, N; Schedel, M; von Mutius, E; Kabesch, M; Schaub, B

    2013-10-01

    The transcription factor STAT6 is crucial for activation of the interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 pathway and has been linked to regulatory T cells (Tregs). Associations of STAT6 polymorphisms with IgE levels were described; however, their impact on neonatal immune responses and early disease development is unknown. STAT6 polymorphisms were genotyped in cord blood mononuclear cells by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cytokines by Multiplex. At age 3 years, atopic diseases were assessed by questionnaires. STAT6 rs324011 but not rs1059513 polymorphism was associated with significant or borderline significant decreased mRNA expression of Treg-associated genes (FOXP3, GITR, LAG3). Heterozygotes and minor allele homozygotes of rs324011 had low levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and increased interferon gamma (IFN-γ) (P ≤ 0.04), while heterozygotes and minor allele homozygotes of rs1059513 had increased TNF-α and Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (P ≤ 0.05). In minor allele homozygotes of rs324011, expression of Treg-associated genes was strongly inverse correlated with IFN-γ (unstimulated, r = -0.7, P = 0.111; LpA stimulation, r = -0.8, P = 0.011), but not in heterozygotes or major allele homozygotes. Heterozygotes and minor allele homozygotes of rs324011 presented a lower risk of atopic dermatitis and obstructive bronchitis until age 3 years. Two STAT6 polymorphisms were associated with altered immune responses already at birth. STAT6 rs324011 was associated with lower neonatal Treg and increased Th1 response. Those neonates had a lower risk of atopic dermatitis and obstructive bronchitis until 3 years. Our data suggest a role for STAT6 polymorphisms in early immune regulation and implications on early atopic disease development. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  2. Atopic and Nonatopic Asthma in Children: two Different Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Lentze, PhD²

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the studies in the field of childhood asthma lie within the scope of allergy/atopic asthma; however, airway hyperresponsiveness is considered a marker of asthma, independent of the atopic status and should be regarded as a parallel pathological process that can lead to subsequent symptoms and clinical evidence of asthma in children, without the evidence of atopy. The aim of this study is to estimate the possible differences in clinical and lung functions, and the immunological status of children with atopic and nonatopic asthma phenotypes. In a prospective study design, 54 children (age 3-18 years in Germany were monitored via active surveillance, by twice-a-week phone calls. All the children were divided into two groups, based on their atopic status, clinical date and lung function tests. The first 27 patients had atopic asthma (AA, whereas the second set of 27 patients had nonatopic asthma (NA. All patients underwent IgE and RAST tests for the most common inhalant allergens, and a quantitative measurement of Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP by CAP-radioallergosorbent test-fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (UniCAP, Pharmacia Diagnostics, Germany. Further, the IgA, IgM, IgG subclasses, IL-6 and CRP levels in the serum were tested. The resultant data showed significant differences in the prevailing IgE level 317.5±58 g/l in AA versus 83±21 in NA. However, there was no significant distinction either in the ECP serum level in children with atopic and nonatopic asthma or in the IL-6 serum level. An unexpected result was the significant drop in the level of serum CRP in group NA – 0.68±0.37 g/l; while in group AA this result was 1.5±0.38 g/l. No significant differences were noted between the mean values of the IgM and IgG levels in patients of all groups; however, the IgG levels increased only in the children with nonatopic asthma. Our study did not reveal any type of immunoglobulin deficiency. The IgA level was relatively

  3. Development of atopic dermatitis in the DARC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Høst, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Eller E, Kjaer HF, Høst A, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. Development of Atopic Dermatitis in the DARC birth cohort. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SThe aim was to describe the relapsing pattern, sensitization and prognosis of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the first 6 yr...... in a population-based, prospective birth cohort. The DARC cohort includes 562 children with clinical examinations, specific-IgE and skin prick test at all follow-ups. All children were examined for the development of AD using Hanifin-Rajka criteria and for food hypersensitivity by oral challenges. Severity of AD...

  4. USAGE OF DIOCTAHEDRAL SMECTITE IN CHILDREN WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Botkina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of enter sorbent — dioctahedral Smectite (Neosmektin — usage as part of complex therapy of children with atopic dermatitis (ATD. It is shown that the administration of Smectite favored better efficacy of baseline treatment of ATD, more express and quick regression of skin manifestations of the disease, decrease in number of children with eosinophilia. High efficacy of ATD treatment with Smectite indicates the pathogenetic justification of efferent therapy of the disease. Observation results witness the good tolerability of Smectite: side effects related to the treatment were only observed in 14 percent of children.Key words: children, atopic dermatits, smectite, treatment.

  5. Impact of adult atopic dermatitis on topical drug penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ortiz, Patricia; Hansen, Steen H; Shah, Vinod P

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate methodologies for the determination of drug penetration in diseased skin have not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the cutaneous penetration of a metronidazole cream formulation in atopic dermatitis, employing dermal microdialysis and tape strip sampling...... in the atopic dermatitis compared with uninvolved skin (p... techniques. Non-invasive measuring methods were used for the quantification of the severity of the dermatitis. Skin thickness and the depth of the microdialysis probes in the skin were measured by 20 MHz ultrasound scanning. Metronidazole concentration, sampled by microdialysis, was 2.4-fold higher...

  6. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Benfeldt, Eva; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that oral bacteriotherapy with probiotics might be useful in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical and anti-inflammatory effect of probiotic supplementation in children with AD. METHODS...... intervention (ie, better, unchanged, or worse). The clinical severity of the eczema was evaluated by using the scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) score. As inflammatory markers, eosinophil cationic protein in serum and cytokine production by PBMCs were measured. RESULTS: After active treatment, 56...

  7. Nickel allergy and relationship with Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anna, Bogdali M.; Grazyna, Antoszczyk; Wojciech, Dyga

    2016-01-01

    . aureus in atopic dermatitis. Methods: Nickel allergy was confirmed in atopic patients and excluded in healthy volunteers using patch testing. Infection by S. aureus was tested in atopic patients and healthy volunteers by use of API Staph system. The specific IgE for staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B...

  8. A study of atopic diseases in Basrah | Alsaimary | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of atopic diseases; allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis were carried out in this investigation. From 174 patients, 39.08% has atopic dermatitis, while 33.90 and 27.01% have bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis, respectively. Males has a greater percentage of bronchial asthma than females ...

  9. Reduced occurrence of early atopic dermatitis because of immunoactive prebiotics among low-atopy-risk infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grueber, Christoph; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Mosca, Fabio; Moro, Guido; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Guenther; Wahn, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most infants developing atopic dermatitis have a low risk for atopy. Primary prevention of atopic dermatitis is difficult. Objective: To assess the effect of supplementation of an infant and follow-on formula with prebiotic and immunoactive oligosaccharides on the occurrence of atopic

  10. EFFICIENT INTRODUCTION OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FOR CHILDREN WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS AND PREDISPOSITION TO ALLERGIC REACTIONS FOR PREVENTION OF ATOPIC MARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kamaev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of allergic diseases grows constantly. Realization of genetic defects to the disease depends of impact of environment and contacts with different allergens. Prophylactic dietary avoidance is important to prevent debut of the atopic dermatitis and secondary exacerbations of the disease. Terms and preferable sequence of complementary food introduction are discussed for breast-fed and formula-fed infants; advantages of ready-made industrial products of infant meals are proved. The gradual outreach of infant’s taste spectrum and increasing step by step of load on infant’s intestine can become serious hedge for the atopic march and important measure of prevention of allergic rhinitis and asthma.Key words: atopic march, dietetics, complementary foods, prevention of allergies, children.

  11. Significance of dietotherapy on the clinical course of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokaite, Rūta; Labanauskas, Liutauras; Balciūnaite, Sigita; Vaideliene, Laimute

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of individual balanced replacement diet in treatment of children with atopic dermatitis, to compare the course of atopic dermatitis and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as the data of skin patch test after a one-year period of dietary treatment. The study group included 154 children (their age varied from 6 months to 18 years) with atopic dermatitis, for whom food allergens were determined by allergic skin tests (skin prick and patch). These children were recommended an individual balanced replacement diet, where possible food allergens were replaced by other products that do not cause allergic reactions. After a one-year dietary treatment, 109 (70.8%) children (such number came for the second study) were tested repeatedly. The following aspects were evaluated for all these children: clinical course of atopic dermatitis (children's mothers provided answers about exacerbation of allergic rash during the last 12 months, gastrointestinal disorders, and used medicines), severity of the progress of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD index). Besides, skin patch test with 25 food allergens was carried out. Children who followed dietary recommendations were younger than children who failed to follow dietary recommendations because of a variety of reasons (P=0.01). Even 49 (62.8%) patients who followed dietary recommendations have shown the following results during the second test: allergic rash disappeared and they did not have to take medicines against allergy anymore. Patients who followed their individual dietary recommendations more rarely suffered from severe allergic rash problems during a 12-month period (P=0.01) and they had to take fewer medicines against allergy, compared to children who did not follow their dietary recommendations (P=0.001). Clinical course of atopic dermatitis in children who followed individual dietary recommendations was easier compared to children who did not follow such recommendations (P=0

  12. Immunizing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Jody Macdonald

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.

  13. Vitamin D status and body mass index in children with atopic dermatitis: A pilot study in Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, Enza; Barberi, Salvatore; Cerri, Amilcare; Boccardi, Daniela; Turati, Federica; Sortino, Sabrina; Banderali, Giuseppe; Ciprandi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D (vitD) is involved in important regulatory functions of the innate and adaptive immune system. So, it has been hypothesized that vitD might influence the course of atopic dermatitis (AD). Also obesity may have impact on immune system. The aim of our study was to investigate vitamin D status and body mass index (BMI) in urban children with AD. 52 children with AD and 43 healthy children were enrolled. SCORAD, BMI and serum vitD levels were evaluated. There was an association between vitamin D and the AD occurrence but neither between vitamin D and the AD severity, nor between vitamin D and BMI. A positive correlation was observed between BMI and the AD severity in males. This study highlights the complex inter-relationships among atopic dermatitis severity, vitamin D and body mass index and suggests the need to investigate the role of genetic factors and/or gender-related differences to possibly identify new prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Essential fatty acids in breast milk of atopic mothers: comparison with non-atopic mothers, and effect of borage oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, C; Houwelingen, A; Poorterman, I; Mordant, A; van den Brandt, P

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate whether levels of n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) in human breast milk are related to the mother's atopic constitution, and whether a decreased level can be restored by gamma-linolenic acid supplementation. Cross-sectional study and dietary supplementation trial. 20 atopic mothers and 20 non-atopic mothers (controls), all lactating. General population. The atopic mothers were randomly assigned to low (n=10) or high (n=10) dosage oral supplementation with oral borage oil for one week (230 or 460 mg gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n-6) per day). Essential fatty acid composition of the breast milk total fat fraction, determined by gas liquid chromatography. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was lower in breast milk of atopic mothers compared with non-atopic mothers (0.39 wt% vs 0.46 wt%, difference -0.07% wt% (95% confidence limits -0.13, -0.01 wt%; PLeeuwarden, The Netherlands).

  15. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and atopic diseases in children.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus and atopic diseases in children. Nancy S. Elbarbary. Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Background. Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors.1 ...

  16. Relationship between breast milk feeding and atopic dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Oki, I; Tanihara, S; Ojima, T; Ito, Y; Yamazaki, O; Iwama, M; Tabata, Y; Katsuyama, K; Sasai, Y; Nakagawa, M; Matsushita, A; Hossaka, K; Sato, J; Hidaka, Y; Uda, H; Nakamata, K; Yanagawa, H; Hosaka, K

    2000-03-01

    To determine whether or not the breast milk feeding has a role in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis among children. The target population of the study was all children participating in health check-up program for 3-year-old children in 60 municipalities locating 10 selected prefectures during designated 2 months between October and December 1997. Using a questionnaire, information on nutrition in infants (breast milk only, bottled milk only, or mixed), parity, mothers' age at birth, and a history of atopic dermatitis was obtained. Besides, data on potential confounding factors were obtained. Questionnaires from 3856 children (81.6% of those who were to participate in the programs, and 96.4% of children who participated them) were analyzed. After the adjustment for all potential confounding factors using unconditional logistic models, the risk of atopic dermatitis was slightly higher among children with breast milk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16 with 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.40). Mothers' age at birth (OR for those who were more than 30 years or older in comparison with those who were younger than 30 years = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.96-1.37) and those with second or later parity orders (OR = 1.14, 95% CI; 0.95-1.35) showed odds ratios that were higher than unity without statistical significance. Breast milk elevates the risk of atopic dermatitis slightly without statistical significance; the risk may be, however, higher in children in second or later parity orders.

  17. clinical profile of atopic dermatitis in benin city, nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    encountered were misuse 'of topical medications, oral antibiotics, anti-fungal drugs and a high follow-up default rate. Conclusion: The clinical characteristics of atopic dermatitis in our study population were similar to the pattern in other parts of the world. There is need for increased awareness of its importance as a cause of ...

  18. Inpatient Financial Burden of Atopic Dermatitis in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narla, Shanthi; Hsu, Derek Y; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the inpatient burden of atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to determine the risk factors and financial burden of hospitalizations for AD in the United States. Data were analyzed from the 2002-2012 National Inpatient Sample, including a 20% representative sample of all...

  19. Alcohol during pregnacu and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, a; Petersen, Janne; Grønbæk, M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...

  20. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...

  1. Epidemiology of atopic dermatitis | Todd | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological studies on atopic dermatitis, primarily performed in children, have shown that the one-year prevalence rate of symptoms is population and area dependent. The few studies that have been done in South Africa among children of different age groups showed one-year prevalence rates of 1 - 13.3%. In adults ...

  2. Nonhistaminergic and mechanical itch sensitization in atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H. H.; Elberling, J.; Sølvsten, H.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic or episodic severe itch is recurrent in atopic dermatitis (AD). Nonhistaminergic itch pathways are suggested to dominate in AD itch, contributing to an "itch-scratch-itch cycle" that prolongs and worsens itch, pain, and skin lesions. We hypothesized that nonhistaminergic neuronal...

  3. Non-pharmacological treatment modalities for atopic dermatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-pharmacological measures to improve the management of atopic dermatitis (AD) are as important as pharmacotherapy for true healing of the skin. Skin dryness (which contributes to inflammation, loss of suppleness (leading to fissuring), impaired barrier function, and increased adherence of Staphylococcus aureus ...

  4. Atopic dermatitis of the face, scalp, and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Jarolim, E; Poulsen, L K; With, H

    1992-01-01

    We have previously reported that a lipophilic yeast, Pityrosporum ovale (P. ovale) produced a high frequency of positive skin prick tests and in vitro histamine-release (HR) tests in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD) of the face, scalp, and neck. In the present study, our aim...

  5. Gallstone risk in adult patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Andersen, Yuki M.F.; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2017-01-01

    Adult atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with overweight, obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Americans, similarly to psoriasis, but no increased risk of CVD has been shown in European patients with AD. This study investigated the prevalence and risk of gallstones in adults with AD...

  6. Neonatal risk factors of atopic dermatitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Andersen, Yuki M F; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Studies have suggested that several perinatal factors may influence the risk of AD in early childhood. We investigated possible neonatal risk factors such as jaundice, blue light...

  7. Induction of atopic dermatitis by inhalation of house dust mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; DeMonchy, JGR; Coenraads, PJ; vanderMeer, JB

    Background: The pathogenetic role of house dust mite in atopic dermatitis remains controversial. Recent studies have shown that intensive epicutaneous contact of house dust mite allergen with premanipulated skin may induce dematitis. It is, however, uncertain whether such conditions are met during

  8. Editorial update on emerging treatments of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Peck Y

    2012-06-01

    Various new agents are in the research pipeline for atopic dermatitis. These include IL-4 receptor antagonist, cis-urocanic acid, κ-opiod receptor agonist, neurokinin receptor antagonist and antimicrobial peptide. The current review updates the status of these clinical trials and provides insight into other potential molecular targets including IL-22 and TLR-2.

  9. Lactose malabsorption in young Lithuanian children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzeviciene, O; Narkeviciute, I; Eidukevicius, R

    2004-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in young Lithuanian atopic dermatitis children; to evaluate the relationship between lactose malabsorption and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and the relationship between lactose malabsorption and cow's milk intolerance in parents and grandparents. 144 children with atopic dermatitis aged 1.5-24 mo (study group) and 32 children without symptoms of allergic diseases aged 1.5-23 mo (control group) were investigated. Lactose and glucose-galactose absorption tests based on serial blood glucose determination, culture of stool, latex agglutination test for rotavirus and microscopic examination of stool for parasites were performed. Lactose malabsorption was determined in 59 (40.9%) and glucose-galactose malabsorption in 17 (11.8%) children with atopic dermatitis. The risk of developing lactose malabsorption was higher in children fed exclusively on breast milk up to 1 mo of age than in children fed exclusively on breast milk for 4 to 6 mo (OR: 2.62; 95% CI: 1.02-6.75). Lactose malabsorption was significantly more frequent in patients whose mothers did not tolerate cow's milk (20/30; 66.7%) than in patients whose mothers were tolerant to it (39/95; 41.1%) (p = 0.02). Lactose malabsorption was determined in 40.9% of Lithuanian atopic dermatitis children aged under 2 y. Lactose malabsorption appeared to be associated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding up to only 1 mo and mothers' milk intolerance.

  10. Colloidal oatmeal formulations as adjunct treatments in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Joseph F; Nebus, Judith; Wallo, Warren; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2012-07-01

    Colloidal oatmeal has been used for decades to soothe and ameliorate atopic dermatitis and other pruritic and/or xerotic dermatoses. In-vitro and/or in-vivo studies have confirmed the anti-inflammatory, barrier repair, and moisturizing properties of this compound. A broad set of studies has been conducted in recent years to assess the effects of colloidal oatmeal as adjunct treatment in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). This paper will review these studies. In these investigations, patients in all age groups (3 months to 60 years) with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis were included and allowed to continue their prescribed topical medications. These studies found that the daily use of moisturizers and/or cleansers containing colloidal oatmeal significantly improved many clinical outcomes of atopic dermatitis from baseline: investigator's assessment (IGA), eczema area and severity index (EASI), itch, dryness, and quality of life indices. Safety results showed that the formulations were well tolerated in babies, children, and adults with AD.

  11. An overview of topical treatment for atopic eczema | Motswaledi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atopic eczema is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease of the skin. It is characterised by dry, itchy skin and a typical distribution on the elbows and knees in younger children, and the cubital and popliteal fossae in older children and adults. Treatment modalities include emollients, topical corticosteroids, calcineurin ...

  12. Allergic characteristics of urban schoolchildren with atopic eczema in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, A. A.; Larbi, I. A.; Addo, H. A.; Amoah, A. S.; Boakye, D.; Hartgers, F.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; van Ree, R.; Bouwes Bavinck, J. N.; Lavrijsen, A. P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Atopic eczema is an increasing clinical problem in Africa. Objective To determine allergic characteristics and to identify possible risk factors for eczema among schoolchildren in an urbanized area in Ghana. Patients and methods Schoolchildren aged 3-16 years with eczema were recruited.

  13. An approach to mild to moderate atopic eczema | Motswaledi | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atopic eczema is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease of the skin characterised by dryness and itching, with typical distribution on the elbows and knees in younger children and on the cubital and popliteal fossae in older children and adults. It can be classified as mild, moderate or severe. S Afr Fam Pract 2012 ...

  14. Preventive and curative effects of probiotics in atopic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, G.P.A.; Severijnen, R.S.V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Normally, the transport of allergens through the intestinal epithelia to the blood is limited. It is hypothesised that if these compounds arrive in the blood circulation, they must percolate through the epithelial cell layer. Thus, food allergy (and thus atopic eczema) implies an increased

  15. Atopic eczema in school children | Melaku | Ethiopian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on Atopic eczema is sparse in Ethiopia. This survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of eczema among school children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in 1995. A standardized self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) was used.

  16. Regulatory natural killer cell expression in atopic childhood asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Different subsets of natural killer (NK) cells were found to play a role in pathogenesis of allergy. We sought to investigate the expression of regulatory NK cells (CD56+CD16+CD158+) in atopic children with bronchial asthma in order to outline the value of these cells as biomarkers of disease severity and/or ...

  17. Cause specific mortality in adults with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Skov, Lone; Egeberg, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult atopic dermatitis (AD) has been associated with several co-morbidities, but cause-specific mortality risk is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To examine cause-specific death rates and risk in adults with AD. METHODS: We performed cross-linkage of nationwide health care and cause of death re...

  18. Respiratory comorbidity in South African children with atopic dermatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an early and important step in the propagation of the allergic march, enhancing food and respiratory allergies via epicutaneous sensitisation to allergens. Objectives. To determine the prevalence and patterns of aeroallergen sensitisation, asthma and allergic rhinitis in South African ...

  19. Relation between obesity, lipid profile, leptin and atopic disorders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    inhibiting food intake and stimulating energy expenditure7. This study aimed to detect the relation between obesity and allergic disorders, relation of birth weight and breast feeding to obesity and allergic disorders, the role of leptin in obesity related atopic disorders, to plan for prevention and early detection of atopy in ...

  20. Treating atopic dermatitis: safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of a ceramide hyaluronic acid emollient foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacha O

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Omar Pacha, Adelaide A HebertDepartment of Dermatology, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Advances in current understanding of the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis have led to improved targeting of the structural deficiencies in atopic skin. Ceramide deficiency appears to be one of the major alterations in atopic dermatitis and the replenishment of this epidermal component through topically applied ceramide based emollients appears to be safe, well tolerated, and effective. Recently a ceramide hyaluronic acid foam has become commercially available and increasing evidence supports its safety and efficacy in patients who suffer from atopic dermatitis.Keywords: atopic dermatitis, ceramide, Hylatopic, eczema, non-steroidal, dermatology

  1. Lol p I-specific IgE and IgG synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic subjects in SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, R; Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1995-06-01

    The development of an animal model representative of the in vivo situation of human atopic diseases is always of interest for a better understanding of IgE production and regulation. Along these lines, mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice) engrafted with lymphocytes from atopic subjects might be a suitable model for such studies. This study aims to analyze the production of Lol p I-specific IgE and IgG antibodies in SCID mice after transplantation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic patients sensitive to grass pollens and from nonatopic donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were transplanted into SCID mice, which were then challenged with Lol p I, and antibody responses (IgG and IgE) were analyzed over a 6-week period. Total IgG antibody was measured in each mouse serum after transplantation. Also, most mice (regardless of whether donors were atopic) that were challenged with Lol p I produced specific IgG antibody. Total IgE antibody production was observed only in mice grafted with cells from atopic patients. Lol p I-specific IgE antibodies were also produced after immunization with Lol p I. Although IgG antibody/response tended to plateau, the IgE antibody response increased until it peaked and declined thereafter. Interferon-gamma was detected in sera from mice producing IgE antibody, which supports a possible role of interferon-gamma in the decrease of IgE response. This study suggests that the SCID mouse model could represent an interesting approach to studying specific, total IgG and IgE antibody production, and ultimately their regulation.

  2. Immune allergic response in Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Elizabeth S; Pinto-Mariz, Fernanda; Bastos-Pinto, Sandra; Pontes, Adailton T; Prado, Evandro A; deAzevedo, Leonardo C

    2009-11-30

    Asperger's syndrome is a subgroup of autism characterized by social deficits without language delay, and high cognitive performance. The biological nature of autism is still unknown but there are controversial evidence associating an immune imbalance and autism. Clinical findings, including atopic family history, serum IgE levels as well as cutaneous tests showed that incidence of atopy was higher in the Asperger group compared to the healthy controls. These findings suggest that atopy is frequent in this subgroup of autism implying that allergic inflammation might be an important feature in Asperger syndrome.

  3. The association of intrafamilial violence against children with symptoms of atopic and non-atopic asthma: A cross-sectional study in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfim, Camila Barreto; dos Santos, Darci Neves; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to describe the types of intrafamilial violence perpetrated against children according to living conditions, family factors, and child characteristics, and to identify the association between types of intrafamilial violence and asthma symptoms in atopic and non-atopic children. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,370 caregivers as part of the Social Changes, Asthma and Allergy in Latin America (SCAALA) study, conducted in 2006 in Brazil. The study population was selected by random sampling. The main outcome measures were atopic and non-atopic asthma. We investigate the association between intrafamilial violence and asthma symptoms in atopic and non-atopic children. A backward multivariate logistic polytomous regression was performed to verify the main association. Nonviolent discipline (NVD) and maltreatment nonviolent discipline (MNVD) were positively associated with non-atopic asthma symptoms (NVD: odds ratio (OR)=1.95/95% confidence interval (CI)=1.17-3.25; MNVD: OR=1.95/95% CI=1.19-3.20). However, for the most severe intrafamilial violence, this association was not found after control of potential confounders. This study demonstrates the effect of types of intrafamilial violence on non-atopic asthma. Intrafamilial violence against children represents one more component in the determination of non-atopic asthma in Latin America. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Phototherapy in atopic dermatitis: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ferriols, A; Aranegui, B; Pujol-Montcusí, J A; Martín-Gorgojo, A; Campos-Domínguez, M; Feltes, R A; Gilaberte, Y; Echeverría-García, B; Alvarez-Pérez, A; García-Doval, I

    2015-06-01

    Phototherapy is a treatment option for atopic dermatitis recommended by several guidelines. To perform a systematic review of the efficacy of different modalities of phototherapy and photochemotherapy in moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. We considered all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) performed in patients with atopic dermatitis, and accepted all outcome measures. Articles were identified via an online search of the MEDLINE (via Ovid) and Embase databases and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We also searched for clinical trials registered in Current Controlled Trials and in the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Twenty-one RCTs (961 patients) were included in the qualitative analysis. Two of the trials included children and adolescents (32 patients). The efficacy of narrow-band UV-B and UV-A1 phototherapy was similar for the different outcome measures contemplated. Two RCTs assessed the efficacy of psoralen plus UV-A therapy (PUVA). No serious adverse events were described. In general, the publications reviewed were characterized by a high risk of bias and poor reporting of methodology and results. There is evidence for the use of narrow-band UV-B and UV-A1 phototherapy in moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. Evidence supporting the use of PUVA in atopic dermatitis is scarce and there is little information on the use of phototherapy in childhood. For the purpose of future studies, it would be advisable to use comparable criteria and scales for the evaluation of disease severity and patients, to standardize radiation methods, and to establish a minimum follow-up time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. Patients with atopic dermatitis have attenuated and distinct contact hypersensitivity responses to common allergens in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa da Rosa, Joel; Malajian, Dana; Shemer, Avner; Rozenblit, Mariya; Dhingra, Nikhil; Czarnowicki, Tali; Khattri, Saakshi; Ungar, Benjamin; Finney, Robert; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Xiuzhong; Estrada, Yeriel D; Peng, Xiangyu; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Krueger, James G; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2015-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory disease. The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis to allergens (eg, fragrance) is higher in patients with AD, despite a trend toward weaker clinical allergic contact dermatitis reactions. The role of the AD skin phenotype in modulating allergic sensitization to common sensitizers has not been evaluated. We sought to investigate whether patients with AD have altered tissue immune responses on allergen challenge. Gene expression and immunohistochemistry studies were performed on biopsy specimens from 10 patients with AD and 14 patients without AD patch tested with common contact allergens (nickel, fragrance, and rubber). Although 1085 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were commonly modulated in patch-tested skin from patients with AD and patients without AD versus control skin, 1185 DEGs were uniquely altered in skin from patients without AD, and only 246 DEGs were altered in skin from patients with AD. Although many inflammatory products (ie, matrix metalloproteinase 12/matrix metalloproteinase 1/S100A9) were upregulated in both groups, higher-magnitude changes and upregulation of interferon responses were evident only in the non-AD group. Stratification by allergen showed decreased expression of immune, TH1-subset, and TH2-subset genes in nickel-related AD responses, with increased TH17/IL-23 skewing. Rubber/fragrance showed similar trends of lesser magnitude. Negative regulators showed higher expression in patients with AD. Through contact sensitization, our study offers new insights into AD. Allergic immune reactions were globally attenuated and differentially polarized in patients with AD, with significant decreases in levels of TH1 products, some increases in levels of TH17 products, and inconsistent upregulation in levels of TH2 products. The overall hyporesponsiveness in skin from patients with background AD might be explained by baseline immune abnormalities, such as increased TH2, TH17, and

  6. Atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort: prevalence, persistence and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortz, C G; Andersen, K E; Dellgren, C; Barington, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2015-07-01

    While much is known about childhood atopic dermatitis, little is known about persistence of atopic dermatitis into adult life. We report, to our knowledge for the first time, the clinical course of atopic dermatitis in an unselected cohort of adolescents followed into adulthood. The course of atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood was studied prospectively in a cohort of unselected 8th-grade schoolchildren established in 1995 and followed up in 2010 with questionnaire and clinical examination. The lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis was high (34.1%), and a considerable number of adults still suffered from atopic dermatitis evaluated both by questionnaire (17.1%) and clinical examination (10.0%). Persistent atopic dermatitis was found in 50% of those diagnosed in school age, and persistent atopic dermatitis was significantly associated with early onset, childhood allergic rhinitis and hand eczema. A close association was also found with allergic contact dermatitis and increased specific IgE to Malassezia furfur, but not with filaggrin gene defect. Persistence of atopic dermatitis in adulthood is common and affects quality of life. Persistent atopic dermatitis is particularly prevalent in those with early onset, allergic rhinitis and hand eczema in childhood. It is important to recognizing atopic dermatitis as a common and disabling disease not only in children but also in adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Parasitic infections and immune function : Effect of helminth infections in a malaria endemic area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boef, Anna G.C.; May, Linda; van Bodegom, David; van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J.; Maier, Andrea B.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Eriksson, Ulrika K.

    According to the hygiene hypothesis, reduced exposure to infections could explain the rise of atopic diseases in high-income countries. Helminths are hypothesised to alter the host's immune response in order to avoid elimination and, as a consequence, also reduce the host responsiveness to potential

  8. Ex vivo induction of cytokines by mould components in whole blood of atopic and non-atopic volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Tanja; Sigsgaard, Torben; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the time-course release of IL-1beta and IL-8 protein as well as the steady state mRNA level of their genes in human whole blood after stimulation with LPS, beta-1,3-D-glucan and mould extracts. We compared the response of 10 non-atopic and 10 atopic individuals. In parallel......, cytokine protein release and the corresponding steady state mRNA level was determined by the standard ELISA and real-time on-line RT-PCR methods, respectively. Glucan induced the highest level of IL-1beta mRNA and protein release after 3 h. IL-8 was induced at 3 h after glucan, but not after LPS, induction......RNA steady state to lower levels in the atopics compared to the non-atopics. In contrast, no differences were found between the two groups in their capacity to induce cytokine protein release. These findings persisted after correction for the percentage of mononuclear cells. The data supported our hypothesis...

  9. Mosquito immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2010-01-01

    Throughout their lifetime, mosquitoes are exposed to pathogens during feeding, through breaks in their cuticle and following pathogen-driven cuticular degradation. To resist infection, mosquitoes mount innate cellular and humoral immune responses that are elicited within minutes of exposure and can lead to pathogen death via three broadly defined mechanisms: lysis, melanization and hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis. This chapter reviews our current understanding of the mosquito immune system, with an emphasis on the physical barriers that prevent pathogens from entering the body, the organs and tissues that regulate immune responses and the mechanistic and molecular bases of immunity.

  10. Evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of the research on atopic dermatitis (AD has focused on the pathophysiological role of the immune system in AD, and the role of endocrine signals in the pathology of AD has not been explored. Current research has shown a link between the neuroendocrine and immune functions. Aim: The aim was to measure the serum basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels following a low-dose ACTH stimulation test in patients with AD before and after treatment with corticosteroids. Methods: Three groups of patients with AD were evaluated: mild, moderate, and severe. Basal cortisol levels following an ACTH stimulation test were measured before and after treatment with topical steroids when an improvement in the disease activity by 75% as determined by the SCORAD index was observed. Results: Eighteen patients of the severe group at baseline showed an impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis with cortisol levels <250 nmol/l during their first visit. A total of 13 of 18 patients regained their HPA axis activity when the baseline cortisol was measured after using topical corticosteroids which resulted in 75% improvement in the disease activity. Conclusions: The disease activity rather than the use of topical costicosteroids is responsible for the low basal levels in patients with severe AD.

  11. The Pathogenetic Effect of Natural and Bacterial Toxins on Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Duck; Pak, Sok Cheon; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic skin disease that is associated with chronic, recurrent eczematous and pruritic lesions at the flexural folds caused by interacting factors related to environmental and immune system changes. AD results in dry skin, and immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions to foods and environmental allergens. While steroids and anti-histamines temporarily relieve the symptoms of AD, the possibility of side effects from pharmacological interventions remains. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms for AD have not been clarified. A study of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) established the role of its toxins in the pathogenesis of AD. Approximately 90% of patients with AD experience S. aureus colonization and up to 50%–60% of the colonizing S. aureus is toxin-producing. Any damage to the protective skin barrier allows for the entry of invading allergens and pathogens that further drive the pathogenesis of AD. Some natural toxins (or their components) that have therapeutic effects on AD have been studied. In addition, recent studies on inflammasomes as one component of the innate immune system have been carried out. Additionally, studies on the close relationship between the activation of inflammasomes and toxins in AD have been reported. This review highlights the literature that discusses the pathogenesis of AD, the role of toxins in AD, and the positive and negative effects of toxins on AD. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the role of inflammasomes in AD. PMID:28025545

  12. Inhibitory effects of Schizandra chinensis extract on atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Hwan; Shin, Heung Mook

    2012-04-01

    Schizandra chinensis Baillon (SC) is traditionally used as a medicinal plant in the Orient. Recently, SC has become recognized as an adaptogen by the mainstream medical community. Phytoadaptogens influence respiratory, cardiovascular, uterus myotonic, and immune activities. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by aberrant and over-reactive immune responses. This study assessed the suppressive effect of SC extract (SCE) on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD in a NC/Nga mouse model. AD was induced by topically applying 0.2% DNCB to the hairless-back of NC/Nga mice for 4 weeks. Treated mice received SCE or dexamethasone after AD induction. SCE markedly suppressed DNCB-induced dermatitis, as determined by a count of scratching frequency; measurement of IgE, IgM, and histamine levels in serum; and histological observation of epidermal hyperplasia and mast-cell infiltration. Additionally, SCE lessened DNCB-induced histamine receptor mRNA expression in skin tissue and the splenic expressions of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and high-affinity IgE receptor B protein. SCE appears useful for suppression of AD, even though the active pathway(s) remain unknown.

  13. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and atopic disease in two European cohorts. (ECRHS-Basel and SAPALDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann-Liebrich U

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopy and allergic phenotypes are biologically characterized by an imbalanced T helper cell response skewed towards a type 2 (TH2 immune response associated with elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels. Polymorphisms in cytokine genes might modulate regulation of the TH1/TH2 balance. We thus aimed at reproducing our previous findings from a European study population on the association of various cytokine polymorphisms with self-reported hay fever as well as increased total and specific IgE levels in two comparable study populations. Methods Two prospective Caucasian cohorts were used. In the Basel center of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS, n = 418 ten distinct cytokine polymorphisms of putative functional relevance were genotyped. In the Swiss cohort Study on Air Pollution And Lung Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA, n = 6003 two cytokine polymorphisms were genotyped. The associations of these polymorphisms with atopy were estimated by covariance and logistic regression analysis. Results We confirmed IL4, IL10, IL6 and IL18 as candidate genes for atopic health outcomes. In the large, well-characterized SAPALDIA cohort the IL6(-174G>C and IL18(-137G>C polymorphisms were associated with circulating total IgE concentrations in subjects with hay fever. The IL18(-137G>C polymorphism was also associated with the prevalence of hay fever. Conclusion Comprehensive characterization of genetic variation in extended cytokine candidate gene regions is now needed. Large study networks must follow to investigate the association of risk patterns defined by genetic predisposing and environmental risk factors with specific atopic phenotypes.

  14. Effects of diisononyl phthalate on atopic dermatitis in vivo and immunologic responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Eiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Sadakane, Kaori; Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Ichinose, Takamichi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2010-04-01

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), a principal plasticizer in many polyvinyl chloride products, has been shown to have an adjuvant effect on immunoglobulin (Ig) production in mice. However, the effects of DINP on allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In the present study we investigated the effects of DINP on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions induced by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) in atopic-prone NC/Nga mice. Mice were injected intradermally with Dp on their ears and were exposed to DINP (0, 0.15, 1.5, 15, or 150 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally. We evaluated clinical scores, ear thickening, histologic findings, protein expression of cytokines/chemokines in the ear, and serum levels of Ig and histamine. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of DINP on bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) or splenocytes in vitro. After exposure to DINP (0-100 microM), cells were evaluated for phenotype and function. DINP aggravated AD-like skin lesions related to Dp. The aggravation was consistent with eosinophilic inflammation, mast cell degranulation, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) expression in the ear. DINP enhanced the expression of cell surface activation markers on BMDCs and their production of TARC/CCL17 (thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine) and MDC/CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine), as well as their capacity to stimulate Dp-specific T-cell proliferation. DINP also enhanced interleukin-4 production and Dp-stimulated proliferation of splenocytes. DINP can aggravate AD-like skin lesions related to Dp. The mechanisms of the aggravation might be mediated, at least partly, through the TSLP-related activation of dendritic cells and by direct or indirect activation of the immune cells.

  15. Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 supplementation reduced SCORAD in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoeswa, C R S; Herwanto, N; Prameswari, R; Astari, L; Sawitri, S; Hidayati, A N; Indramaya, D M; Kusumowidagdo, E R; Surono, I S

    2017-10-13

    Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 is a novel probiotic isolated from dadih, an Indonesian traditional fermented buffalo milk. It's in vitro and in vivo probiotic properties have been assessed. Probiotic function has been shown in vivo by the suppression of allergic reactions in BALB/c mice through the action of T-regulatory cells cytokines by balancing Th1 and Th2 immune response. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease characterised by the imbalance of Th1 and Th2. The aim of the study was to assess the probiotic function of L. plantarum IS-10506 in children with mild and moderate AD. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial comparing microencapsulated L. plantarum IS-10506 (1010 cfu/day) and placebo (skim milk-Avicel) twice daily for 12 weeks was conducted in an outpatient clinic on children with mild and moderate AD. The trial included 22 AD children divided into intervention and control groups of n=12 and n=10 patients, respectively. Scoring Atopic Dermatitis Index (SCORAD) and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin (IL)-4, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), forkhead box P3 (Foxp3+)/IL-10, and IL-17 levels were assessed. Demographic and baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. SCORAD and levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17 were significantly lower in the probiotic group than those in the placebo group, while the IgE levels were not significantly changed. The ratio of Foxp3+ to IL-10 was significantly higher in the probiotic group than that in placebo group. Supplementation with the probiotic L. plantarum IS-10506 offered a potential treatment for children with AD. Further long-term studies with a larger sample size are required to confirm the therapeutic efficacy of L. plantarum IS-10506 in AD.

  16. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and atopic disease in two European cohorts. (ECRHS-Basel and SAPALDIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imboden, M; Nieters, A; Bircher, AJ; Brutsche, M; Becker, N; Wjst, M; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Berger, W; Probst-Hensch, NM

    2006-01-01

    Background Atopy and allergic phenotypes are biologically characterized by an imbalanced T helper cell response skewed towards a type 2 (TH2) immune response associated with elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Polymorphisms in cytokine genes might modulate regulation of the TH1/TH2 balance. We thus aimed at reproducing our previous findings from a European study population on the association of various cytokine polymorphisms with self-reported hay fever as well as increased total and specific IgE levels in two comparable study populations. Methods Two prospective Caucasian cohorts were used. In the Basel center of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS, n = 418) ten distinct cytokine polymorphisms of putative functional relevance were genotyped. In the Swiss cohort Study on Air Pollution And Lung Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA, n = 6003) two cytokine polymorphisms were genotyped. The associations of these polymorphisms with atopy were estimated by covariance and logistic regression analysis. Results We confirmed IL4, IL10, IL6 and IL18 as candidate genes for atopic health outcomes. In the large, well-characterized SAPALDIA cohort the IL6(-174G>C) and IL18(-137G>C) polymorphisms were associated with circulating total IgE concentrations in subjects with hay fever. The IL18(-137G>C) polymorphism was also associated with the prevalence of hay fever. Conclusion Comprehensive characterization of genetic variation in extended cytokine candidate gene regions is now needed. Large study networks must follow to investigate the association of risk patterns defined by genetic predisposing and environmental risk factors with specific atopic phenotypes. PMID:16759385

  17. Comparison of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis guidelines-an argument for aggressive atopic dermatitis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Mary E; Lio, Peter A

    2017-11-01

    The development of effective systemic treatments has revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. The availability of safe new treatments and the understanding of psoriasis as a systemic disease with comorbidities and effects on quality of life have driven the current aggressive treatment paradigm of psoriasis. Historically the morbidity of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been dismissed, given the perception of AD as "just" a rash. Differences in the guidelines for psoriasis and AD management may suggest variations in the current conceptualization of disease severity and effects on quality of life. Published guidelines from the American Academy of Dermatology for the management of psoriasis and AD were reviewed. We recorded the similarities and differences in disease assessment and therapy. The threshold to use biologic agents for moderate to severe psoriasis highlights the aggressive nature of modern psoriasis treatment. AD guidelines include an assessment of quality of life but do not designate a disease severity threshold for systemic treatment. AD and psoriasis have a tremendous effect on quality of life. The AD guidelines have a less aggressive approach to disease management than the psoriasis guidelines. We should think critically about rapid advancement to systemic agents in AD management, especially now that more and better agents are being developed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Palivizumab Exposure and the Risk of Atopic Dermatitis, Asthma and Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis: A Cross-National, Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Stokholm, Lonny; Linder, Marie; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Bergman, Gunnar; Berglind, Ingegärd Anveden; Kieler, Helle; Ravn, Henrik; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2017-04-01

    Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed to provide passive immunity against respiratory syncytial virus. It is prescribed to children at high risk for severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus. However, little is known about the risk of the immune-mediated diseases atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis after palivizumab exposure. Our objective was to investigate whether exposure to palivizumab was associated with atopic dermatitis, asthma, or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in childhood. This was a cross-national population-based cohort study including data from 769,523 Danish children born 1 January 1999-31 December 2010 and 581,742 Swedish children born 1 July 2005-31 December 2010. Since palivizumab is only indicated for children at the highest risk, sub-cohorts of preterm children, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and children with hemodynamic significant heart disease were defined. Of the 1,351,265 children included, 1192 (0.09%) were exposed to palivizumab. An increased risk of asthma after palivizumab exposure was observed in the total birth cohort (hazard ratio [HR] 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-1.68) and in the sub-cohort of preterm children (HR 1.24; 95% CI 1.07-1.44). However, post hoc analyses using the propensity score to balance confounding factors found no increased risk of asthma in preterm children (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.56-1.48). No increased risks of atopic dermatitis (HR 1.18; 95% CI 0.94-1.48) or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (HR 1.14; 95% CI 0.92-1.42) were observed. Exposure to palivizumab neither increased the risk of atopic disease nor protected against asthma.

  19. B Flavor Tagging Calibration and Search for B$0\\atop{s}$ Oscillations in Semileptonic Decays with the CDF Detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giurgiu, Gavril A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2005-09-01

    In this thesis we present a search for oscillations of B$0\\atop{s}$ mesons using semileptonic B$0\\atop{s}$ → D$-\\atop{s}$ℓ+v decays. Data were collected with the upgraded Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDFII) from events produced in collisions of 980 GeV protons and antiprotons accelerated in the Tevatron ring. The total proton-antiproton center-of-mass energy is 1.96 TeV. The Tevatron is the unique source in the world for B$0\\atop{s}$ mesons, to be joined by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN after 2007. We establish a lower limit on the B$0\\atop{s}$ oscillation frequency Δms > 7.7 ps-1 at 95% Confidence Level. We also present a multivariate tagging algorithm that identifies semileptonic B → μX decays of the other B mesons in the event. Using this muon tagging algorithm as well as opposite side electron and jet charge tagging algorithms, we infer the B$0\\atop{s}$ flavor at production. The tagging algorithms are calibrated using high statistics samples of B0 and B+ semileptonic B0/+ → Dℓv decays. The oscillation frequency Δmd in semileptonic B0 → Dℓv decays is measured to be Δmd = (0.501 ± 0.029(stat.) ± 0.017(syst.)) ps-1.

  20. Immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful. Information The immune system protects the body from possibly harmful substances by ... reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Immune System and Disorders Read more Latest Health News Read ...

  1. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions β(B$0\\atop{s}$ → D$-\\atop{s}$ D$+\\atop{s}$) /b (B0 → D- D$+\\atop{s}$) with the CDF detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyutin, Boris [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2007-03-01

    In this thesis they report the measurement of ratios of branching fractions: β(B$0\\atop{s}$ → D$-\\atop{s}$ π+π+π-)/β(B0 → D-π+π+π-), and β(B0 → D-D$+\\atop{s}$)/β(B0 → D-π+π+π-), using 355 pb-1 of data collected by CDF detector at the Tevatron p$\\bar{p}$ collider at √s = 1.96 TeV.

  2. Neonatal, atopic and infectious disease outcomes among children born to mothers with latent tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Amrita Dosanjh,1 Jamie Eridon,2 James Koziol31Department of Pediatrics, Scripps Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA; 2University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA; 3Department of Biostatistics, Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USAAbstract: Exposure to microbes may result in maternal immune responses that can affect fetal immune development. Several lines of evidence have shown that mycobacterial antigens can change the onset of atopic disease. We hypothesized that infants born to mothers with a positive tuberculosis (TB test and a negative chest radiograph, may exhibit differential development of atopic disease during early childhood. The study was designed as a case control study. Birth records for infants born to untreated mothers with a positive TB skin test (TST, as defined by ≥10 mm induration were reviewed (n = 145 cases and compared to a randomly selected unmatched control cohort of 46 women with a negative TST who delivered during the same time period at Scripps Hospital in San Diego, CA, USA. Childhood outcome parameters reviewed were: (1 the onset of physician diagnosed asthma; (2 lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI with wheezing, latent tuberculosis infection/wheezing diagnosed on physical examination; (3 nonsurgical hospitalization; (4 atopic disease (eye/skin/nasal-sinus disease; (5 infections: ear, LRTI, sinus. LRTI was defined as an infection of the lower airways, eg, pneumonia. Outcomes at the end of years 1, 2, and 3–5 years combined were analyzed. Fisher exact test, Chi-square analysis or Poisson regression analysis were used as appropriate and a P-value of <0.05 was defined as significant. The cases and controls had similar birth weights, gestational ages, maternal ages: 3.34 versus 3.35 kg; 38.3 versus 39.2 weeks, 27.4 versus 26 years (P = non-significant. The childhood outcome parameters of the new onset of asthma was significantly higher than

  3. Effect of the use of probiotics in the treatment of children with atopic dermatitis; a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Baptista, Ingrid Pillar; Accioly, Elizabeth; de Carvalho Padilha, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a disease that mainly affects the pediatric population involving chronic and repetitive inflammatory skin manifestations. Its evolution is known as atopic march, which is characterized by the occurrence of respiratory and food allergies. To carry out a classical review of the state-of-theart scientific literature regarding the effect of probiotics on the treatment of children with AD. Searches were conducted in Medline and Lilacs through the portals PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pubmed/) and SciELO (http://www.scielo.br). There was a selection of the available publications in the period from 2001 to 2011, using the keywords atopic dermatitis and probiotics (in English and in Portuguese). After applying the inclusion and exclusion criterias, we selected 12 case-control studies which were conducted in four European countries and Australia. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed according to the STROBE recommendations. Assessment of agreement among researches in classifying the quality of the articles showed excellent agreement (k = 1.00, 95%) with a total of 9 papers at B level. The majority of the studies (75%) indicated a beneficial biological effect of probiotics on AD, including protection against infections, enhancement of the immune response, inflammation reduction and changes in gut the flora. The remaining studies showed no beneficial effects according to the outcomes of interest. The majority of the studies in the scientific literature in this review showed improvements in some inflammatory parameters and in intestinal microbiota and not exactly, changes in clinical parameters. However, the biological effects observed in most of them suggest the possibility of benefits of the use of probiotics as an adjuvant in the treatment of AD. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  5. Consensus Conference on Clinical Management of pediatric Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Elena; Neri, Iria; Ricci, Giampaolo; Baldo, Ermanno; Barone, Maurizio; Belloni Fortina, Anna; Bernardini, Roberto; Berti, Irene; Caffarelli, Carlo; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Capra, Lucetta; Carello, Rossella; Cipriani, Francesca; Comberiati, Pasquale; Diociaiuti, Andrea; El Hachem, Maya; Fontana, Elena; Gruber, Michaela; Haddock, Ellen; Maiello, Nunzia; Meglio, Paolo; Patrizi, Annalisa; Peroni, Diego; Scarponi, Dorella; Wielander, Ingrid; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2016-03-02

    The Italian Consensus Conference on clinical management of atopic dermatitis in children reflects the best and most recent scientific evidence, with the aim to provide specialists with a useful tool for managing this common, but complex clinical condition. Thanks to the contribution of experts in the field and members of the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) and the Italian Society of Pediatric Dermatology (SIDerP), this Consensus statement integrates the basic principles of the most recent guidelines for the management of atopic dermatitis to facilitate a practical approach to the disease. The therapeutical approach should be adapted to the clinical severity and requires a tailored strategy to ensure good compliance by children and their parents. In this Consensus, levels and models of intervention are also enriched by the Italian experience to facilitate a practical approach to the disease.

  6. Emerging therapies for atopic dermatitis: TRPV1 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchak, Jonathan G; Swerlick, Robert A

    2018-03-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are important mediators of somatosensory signaling throughout the body. Our understanding of the contribution of TRPs to a multitude of cutaneous physiologic processes has grown substantially in the past decade. TRP cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), one of the better-understood members of this large family of ion channels, affects multiple pathways involved in pruritus. Further, TRPV1 appears to play a role in maintaining skin barrier function. Together, these properties make TRPV1 a ripe target for new therapies in atopic dermatitis. Neurokinin antagonists may affect similar pathways and have been studied to this effect. Early trials data suggest that these therapies are safe, but assessment of their efficacy in atopic dermatitis is pending as we await publication of phase II and III clinical trials data. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Relationship between breast milk and atopic dermatitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Oki, I; Tanihara, S; Ojima, T; Kuwano, T; Tsukada, M; Momose, M; Kobayashi, M; Yanagawa, H

    1999-04-01

    To determine whether or not dioxins and furans in breast milk have a role in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis among children. The target population of the study was all children participating in health check-up program for 3-year-old children in Tochigi Prefecture in September and October 1997. Using a questionnaire, information on nutrition in infants (breast milk only, bottled milk only, or mixed), parity, mothers' age at birth, and a history of atopic dermatitis was obtained. Besides, data on potential confounding factors were obtained. Questionnaires from 2,968 children (85.3% of those who were to participate in the programs, and 90.2% of children who participated them) were analyzed. The risk of atopic dermatitis was higher among children with breast milk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.37 with 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.83) and those with mixed nutrition (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.94-1.57) in comparison with children with only bottled milk. Mothers' age at birth (OR for those who were more than 30 years or older in comparison with those who were younger than 30 years = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01-1.62) and those with second or later parity orders (OR = 1.32, 95% CI; 1.04-1.67) were also risk factors of the dermatitis after the adjustment for some potential confounding factors. Breast milk elevates the risk of atopic dermatitis slightly; the risk is, however, higher in children in second or later parity orders. If the PCDDs and PCDFs in breast milk cause the dermatitis, this would contradict the assumed metabolism of these chemicals in human bodies.

  8. Epidemiology of Asthma in 94 Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaldo Cantani

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present 94 children affected with Atopic Dermatitis (AD), aggravated by respiratory allergy, asthma and/ or Allergic Rhinitis (AR). AD is a common disorder, frequently complicated by asthma-like symptoms, we debate either disorder and concluded that both AR and asthma can afflict most babies with AD, especially when both parents smoke. We confirm our previous statistics, according to which little children not fed breast milk may react to smallest doses of allergens.

  9. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis history in asthmatic children

    OpenAIRE

    Rifda Suryati; Arwin AP Akib; I Boediman; Abdul Latief

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a risk factor of asthma. There is still limited information about its prevalence and characteristics in asthmatic children. Objective To find out the prevalence of AD history in asthmatic children. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the De- partment of Child Health, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, from July until December 2004. Patients with asthma who were at or less than 5 years of age were included in the...

  10. Serum Interleukin-5 Changes in Partly Controlled Atopic Asthmatic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamah, Gamal A; Abdel Meguid, Iman E; Fatouh, Amany A; Shaaban, Hala H; Nagwa A Kantoush; Shereen F Beharrey

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytokines including Interleukin-5 play a key role in orchestrating the chronic inflammation of asthma. We aimed to determine the level of serum IL-5 in partly controlled atopic asthma in children and to assess the effect of different therapies on their levels. METHODS: The study included 40 children aged 6-12 years with partly controlled asthma. Cases were randomly divided into two groups; group ‘A’ receiving Leukotriene modifiers and group ‘B’ receiving inhaled corticosteroid...

  11. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  12. Selected aspects of quality of life in atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kasznia-Kocot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic dermatological disease of multifactorial pathogenesis with persistent pruritus and extreme skin dryness including typical skin changes caused by many interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The study aims to evaluate the selected aspects of quality of life in AD. Material and methods. To what extent does the disease affect the daily practice of the patient and their family, what are their expenditures in connection with the treatment, and also how they perceive themselves and emotional, sexual, social behavior. 71 adult subjects 48(68% women and 23 (32% men were selected from the allergology clinics in the region of Silesia for this questionnaire based study. Results. Pruritus was felt by everyone, skin pain by 69%, and skin burning by 86%. The great majority of subjects had some constrains in doing housework due to skin complaints. The disease also affected professional work and school achievements. Almost everyone agreed that money spent on medication purchase and skin care agents impacted on financial resources. Atopic dermatitis affected 75% in social functioning, leisure time, sports practicing. The disease affected self-esteem level and confidence. Half of the examined subjects experienced bad feelings in contact with a partner, or felt stigmatized by negative reactions of the environment because of the skin appearance. Often atopic dermatitis caused problems with sound sleep (65% various emotional disorders and also disorders in the sexual sphere (32%. Every fourth subject felt depressed and every seventh thought of suicide. Conclusions. Atopic dermatitis is a disease which adversely influences many aspects of life and undoubtedly impairs the quality of life in a serious and distressing way. Therefore its treatment should be supported by psychotherapy.

  13. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Adults With Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter R; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    , socioeconomic status, health care consumption, smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, and cholesterol-lowering drug use. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome was initiation of pharmacotherapy used for treatment of ED. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1,756,679 Danish men (age range = 30-100 years), of which 2...... population for men with AD. Egeberg A, Hansen PR, Gislason GH, et al. Erectile Dysfunction in Male Adults With Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis. J Sex Med 2017;XX:X-XX....

  14. Pro-inflammatory interleukins in middle ear effusions from atopic and non-atopic children with chronic otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Stankiewicz-Szymczak, Wanda

    2016-06-01

    Chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) is associated with irreversible changes in the middle ear, sometimes leading to hearing loss and abnormal language development in children. While the pathogenesis of OME is not fully understood, inflammatory and allergic factors are thought to be involved. The study aimed to investigate the role of cytokines in the local development of chronic OME, and assess differences in the cytokine profiles between atopic and non-atopic children. 84 atopic and non-atopic children with chronic OME (mean age of 6 years 7 months) were studied. Age-matched children with hypertrophy of the adenoids and Eustachian tube dysfunction served as the control group. The number of past acute otitis media (AOM) episodes, their age, and the type of effusion were recorded for all children. Pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8) were determined and the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the patients' effusions was examined. High concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were found in the effusions in all children with chronic OME, with the highest levels observed in the non-atopic group. The atopic group showed persistently high IL-1β levels, while in the non-atopic children, IL-1β and TNF-α levels positively correlated with the patient's age and the number of past AOM episodes. Pathogenic bacteria were more frequently isolated from effusions in non-atopic children. In both atopic and non-atopic children, pro-inflammatory cytokines are found at high concentrations. This argues in favor of instituting anti-inflammatory management for treating OME, regardless of atopy.

  15. Preventive and curative effects of probiotics in atopic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaerts, G P A; Severijnen, R S V M

    2005-01-01

    Normally, the transport of allergens through the intestinal epithelia to the blood is limited. It is hypothesised that if these compounds arrive in the blood circulation, they must percolate through the epithelial cell layer. Thus, food allergy (and thus atopic eczema) implies an increased intercellular leakage of the gut wall. Such increased intercellular leakage is thought to be caused by a slightly changed cellular morphology due to a slight cytopathologic effect because of both a limited decay of the cytoskeleton and a slightly reduced turgor. These events may be due to a reduced production of intracellular metabolic energy in the epithelial cells due to an increased concentration of familiar, frequently occurring, potentially toxic bacterial metabolites, i.e., d-lactic acid and/or ethanol. In this hypothesis we suggest that adequate probiotics can (i) prevent the increased characteristic intestinal permeability of children with atopic eczema and food allergy, (ii) can thus prevent the uptake of allergens, and (iii) finally can prevent the expression of the atopic constitution. The use of adequate probiotic lactobacilli, i.e., homolactic and/or facultatively heterolactic l-lactic acid-producing lactobacilli, reduces the intestinal amounts of the bacterial, toxic metabolites, d-lactic acid and ethanol by fermentative production of merely the non-toxic l-lactic acid from glucose. Thus, it is thought that beneficial probiotic micro-organisms promote gut barrier function and both undo and prevent unfavourable intestinal micro-ecological alterations in allergic individuals.

  16. Intestinal permeability, atopic eczema and oral disodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, A; Rinaldi, S; Florean, P; Agosti, E

    1991-01-01

    A dual sugar (lactulose-mannitol) absorption test was performed in 19 patients with atopic eczema before and after a 21 day elimination-diet. Moreover L/M test was carried out in 20 controls. The mean value of lactulose-mannitol urinary ratio (L/M) was 0.015 (+/- 0.018 SD) in the group of patients and 0.012 (+/- 0.011 SD) in the control group (p = 0.49). The mean clinical score improved significantly after elimination diet (41,6 +/- 12.9 SD before the diet, 21.7 +/- 10.4 SD after the diet, p less than 0.001) but no significant modification of intestinal permeability was recorded (L/M = 0.015 +/- 0.018 SD before the diet and 0.21 +/- 0.022 SD after the diet, p = 0.38). Using a double blind approach we were not able to demonstrate any significant effect of disodium cromoglycate on the clinical score and intestinal permeability. The connections between food allergy, intestinal permeability and atopic dermatitis have not been understood, but disodium cromoglycate doesn't seem to play a significant role in the treatment of atopic dermatitis nor in the modification of intestinal permeability.

  17. Atopic eczema in children: another harmful sequel of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelbrink, A; Heinrich, J; Schäfer, I; Zutavern, A; Borte, M; Herbarth, O; Schaaf, B; von Berg, A; Schäfer, T

    2006-12-01

    Different lifestyle factors seem to be associated with the risk for atopic diseases and some studies suggest that stress increases the risk of allergic sensitization, asthma and atopic eczema. Only few studies have investigated the association of early stressful life events and atopic eczema (AE) in children. Parents of participants of the ongoing LISA birth cohort study were asked to give information on life events, such as severe disease or death of a family member, unemployment, or divorce of the parents. Lifetime prevalence of AE and incidence after the assessment period for life events were compared. Prevalence of AE until the age of 4 years was 21.4%. Reported life events within the first 2 years were: severe disease (17.5%) or death (8.4%) of a family member, divorce/separation (3.4%), and unemployment (2.7%). Divorce/separation was associated with a significantly [odds ratio (OR) 3.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69-7.66] increased and disease with a significantly (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.13-0.68) decreased incidence of AE for the subsequent 2 years of life. No effect was seen for unemployment. Divorce/separation of the parents and severe disease of a family member influence the risk of developing AE.

  18. Systemic Agents for Severe Atopic Dermatitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaro, Eliza R; Sidbury, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), or eczema, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by relapsing pruritic, scaly, erythematous papules and plaques frequently associated with superinfection. The lifelong prevalence of AD is over 20 % in affluent countries. When a child with severe AD is not responding to optimized topical therapy including phototherapy, and relevant triggers cannot be identified or avoided, systemic therapy should be considered. If studies show early aggressive intervention can prevent one from advancing along the atopic march, and relevant triggers such as food allergies cannot be either identified or avoided, systemic therapy may also play a prophylactic role. Though the majority of evidence exists in adult populations, four systemic non-specific immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory drugs have demonstrated efficacy in AD and are used in most patients requiring this level of intervention regardless of age: cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, and azathioprine. This article reviews the use of these medications as well as several promising targeted therapies currently in development including dupilumab and apremilast. We briefly cover several other systemic interventions that have been studied in children with atopic dermatitis.

  19. Extended implementation of educational programs for atopic dermatitis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Birgit; Staab, Doris

    2015-05-01

    Children with atopic dermatitis (AD) suffer from chronic relapsing inflammatory skin lesions accompanied by insatiable itching, dryness, excoriated skin, or even (super-)infections. This burden impairs the quality of life of affected children and their families. Due particularly to the recurrent course of the disease, patients often lose confidence in treatment and fear side effects of steroids. Family education programs for AD have been established in the last decades to provide appropriate education and psychosocial support. However, the need for long-lasting strategies in treatment and prevention has even increased. Recent findings not only underline the importance of an intact skin barrier in regard to acute therapy but also suggest that an impairment of skin barrier integrity promotes the development of subsequent atopic diseases in the course of the atopic march. Moreover, in addition to the psychosocial burden due to stigmatized appearance or sleep disturbance, new observations document an increased presence of psychosomatic comorbidities in patients with AD. We reviewed recent educational interventions regarding the theoretical background and here will discuss the heterogeneous approaches of existing programs in childhood. Despite high variations of educational strategies, an overriding aim should be the broader integration of supporting programs in the treatment of children with AD to empower the affected child and its caregiver's to obtain the best possible care, quality of life, and to promote (secondary) prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Atopic dermatitis in the first six months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, E; Meneghini, C L

    1989-01-01

    1,476/2,320 of our cases of atopic dermatitis (AD) start in the first six months of life. The diagnosis is usually easy, but at this age it is sometimes more difficult, mainly because of lack of or rare evidence of scratching, but also because of the brief clinical history that does not allow observation of the characteristic chronic and relapsing course. Moreover, the major atopic disorders-asthma, rhinitis-usually appears later in the natural history of atopic subjects. From a differential diagnosis point of view, AD is the most definite dermatological disorder at this age. Other not well defined conditions occurring in the first six months of life are usually referred to as infantile seborrheic dermatitis, a name that has been used for at least four different disorders: cradle cap, cradle cap with involvement of inguinal, axillary and retroauricular folds, napkin psoriasis and Leiner's erythroderma. From a clinical point of view, AD in the first months of life is characterized by the prevalence of exudating lesions; moreover, the lack of or the rare evidence of scratching allows us to observe isolated vesicular lesions that are found with difficulty in the further course of the disease.

  1. CYCLOSPORINE IN TREATMENT OF SEVERE ATOPIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alekseeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AtD is one of the most widespread types of allergic lesions of skin in children. Increase of severe types of AtD with lesion of big parts of skin, high frequency of exacerbations, presence of concomitant atopic diseases, and inefficiency of standard therapeutic approaches, torpid clinical course and early development of disability, causes an anxiety. Present standard approaches can be ineffective in children with severe clinical course of AtD and they are not able to prevent progression of disease, development of severe exacerbations and child’s disability. One of therapeutic alternatives for these patients is treatment with immunosuppressive agents. The article describes questions of treatment with cyclosporine in systemic therapy of severe resistant forms of AtD in children. Author discusses effectiveness and safety of a drug, formulated rules of treatment of severe AtD with cyclosporine. Key words: children, atopic dermatitis, cyclosporine, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(5:117-120

  2. Atopic dermatitis in adults: clinical and epidemiological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leão Orfali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory disease causing intense pruritus, and with typical clinical features. There are few epidemiological studies concerning AD in adults, as well as little information about its prognostic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological course of adults with AD. METHODS: 80 patients aged above 18 years (mean age = 29 years were selected (30 males and 50 females and interviewed about hospitalization, systemic corticoid usage, age of AD onset, and personal and/or familial history of atopy. Disease severity was evaluated through the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD tool. Laboratory examination included IgE serum levels and eosinophil blood count. RESULTS: 71 out of 80 patients referred association with respiratory symptoms (18 had asthma, 17 had rhinitis, and 36 had both conditions; nine out of 80 patients denied any respiratory disease. AD patients were divided in mild (n = 25, moderate (n = 30, and severe (n = 25; 56% had one or more hospitalizations due to AD. A positive association was found between IgE serum levels, eosinophil blood count, and disease severity. CONCLUSION: Adult AD represents a clinical challenge that needs to be better characterized, since it can be misdiagnosed and interferes with the patient's social and personal life. The association of skin and respiratory atopic disease is frequent, and laboratory parameters such as circulating IgE levels and eosinophil blood count may be helpful to assess disease severity.

  3. Comparison of Dermatology and Allergy Guidelines for Atopic Dermatitis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Girish C; Lio, Peter A

    2015-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin condition treated by dermatologists, allergists, pediatricians, and primary care physicians. Several treatment guidelines and therapeutic parameters exist for the management of this disease. Health care professionals may be unaware of guidelines created by specialty organizations other than their own. To review, compare, and contrast the most recent AD management guidelines. The guidelines for AD management published by the American Academy of Dermatology 2014 work group were compared with those created by the 2012 Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. International guidelines created by the 2012 European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis and the 2013 Asia-Pacific Consensus Group for Atopic Dermatitis were also considered. Several differences among the guidelines suggest that there may be disparity in the perceptions of AD between US dermatologists and allergists and health care professionals in other areas of the world. There are notable differences among the guidelines regarding the recommendations for the use of diluted bleach baths, vitamin D, and environmental modifications. Comparison of different guidelines may ultimately augment knowledge of treatment strategies and enhance realization of biases in the understanding and management of AD.

  4. OMALIZUMAB: EXPANDED OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE ATOPIC DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kulichenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The review highlights experience and administration perspectives of the immunobiological medication Omalizumab in allergy. Omalizumab is the anti'IgE monoclonal antibody. Growing successful experience of anti'IgE application confirms the assumption that treatment by Omalizumab may modify the course of bronchial asthma, by preventing the remodeling processes in the respiratory tracts and reducing hyperactivity of bronchi. Today, it is widely discussed what other possible areas of anti'IgE therapy there might be. Omalizumab might be very important in treatment of different potentially IgE'dependent diseases, among which there is urticaria and angioneurotic edema, allergic rhinitis, nasal polyposis and severe forms of allergic conjunctivitis. Besides, Omalizumab, as part of the allergen specific immunotherapy protocol, may also provide sizable advantages. The author reveals potential role of Omalizumab in treatment of other atopic diseases, such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy.Key words: Omalizumab, anti'IgE therapy, biological agents, IgЕ, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, idiopathic urticaria fever, treatment, children.

  5. Detection of auto-anti-idiotypic antibodies to Lol p I (rye I) IgE antibodies in human sera by the use of murine idiotypes: levels in atopic and non-atopic subjects and effects of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, J; Bernier, D; Mourad, W

    1990-06-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id Abs) are involved in the regulation of a number of immune responses including the IgE antibody production. In atopic patients, the increased synthesis of IgE antibodies could be related to a defective production of regulatory anti-Id Abs. In the present study, we first developed a sensitive assay for measuring the levels of anti-Id Abs directed against antibodies specific for Lol p I, the major allergenic determinant of Lolium perenne (rye grass). In this assay, we used previously described murine monoclonal anti-Lol p I antibodies that were shown to share epitopic specificities with human anti-Lol p I IgE and IgG antibodies, thus short-cutting the need for purification of F(ab')2 fragments of human IgG Abs and insuring optimal specificity and sensitivity. Levels of anti-Id Abs against two anti-Lol p I monoclonal antibodies (290A-167, 348A-6) were higher in normal volunteers than in untreated atopic patients. Specific immunotherapy increased the levels of anti-Id Abs to those of normal volunteers. These observations suggest a role for the Id-anti-Id network in the regulation of IgE antibody production.

  6. Development of eczema vaccinatum in atopic mouse models and efficacy of MVA vaccination against lethal poxviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Knitlova

    Full Text Available Smallpox vaccine based on live, replicating vaccinia virus (VACV is associated with several potentially serious and deadly complications. Consequently, a new generation of vaccine based on non-replicating Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA has been under clinical development. MVA seems to induce good immune responses in blood tests, but it is impossible to test its efficacy in vivo in human. One of the serious complications of the replicating vaccine is eczema vaccinatum (EV occurring in individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD, thus excluding them from all preventive vaccination schemes. In this study, we first characterized and compared development of eczema vaccinatum in different mouse strains. Nc/Nga, Balb/c and C57Bl/6J mice were epicutaneously sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA or saline control to induce signs of atopic dermatitis and subsequently trans-dermally (t.d. immunized with VACV strain Western Reserve (WR. Large primary lesions occurred in both mock- and OVA-sensitized Nc/Nga mice, while they remained small in Balb/c and C57Bl/6J mice. Satellite lesions developed in both mock- and OVA-sensitized Nc/Nga and in OVA-sensitized Balb/c mice with the rate 40-50%. Presence of mastocytes and eosinophils was the highest in Nc/Nga mice. Consequently, we have chosen Nc/Nga mice as a model of AD/EV and tested efficacy of MVA and Dryvax vaccinations against a lethal intra-nasal (i.n. challenge with WR, the surrogate of smallpox. Inoculation of MVA intra-muscularly (i.m. or t.d. resulted in no lesions, while inoculation of Dryvax t.d. yielded large primary and many satellite lesions similar to WR. Eighty three and 92% of mice vaccinated with a single dose of MVA i.m. or t.d., respectively, survived a lethal i.n. challenge with WR without any serious illness, while all Dryvax-vaccinated animals survived. This is the first formal prove of protective immunity against a lethal poxvirus challenge induced by vaccination with MVA in an atopic organism.

  7. The Association Between Bathing Habits and Severity of Atopic Dermatitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Ioannis; Pyle, Tia; Kopylov, David; Little, Anthony; Gaughan, John; Kratimenos, Panagiotis

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that frequently affects children. The current recommendations on management using lifestyle modification are highly variable, leading to confusion and uncertainty among patients. To determine current bathing behaviors and the subsequent impact on disease severity. This was an observational cross-sectional study conducted at an urban pediatric emergency department. Parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning the patient's bathing habits. The results were correlated with the atopic dermatitis severity determined by the SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis) tool. No difference between variables was found to be significant for bathing frequency, time spent bathing, or use of moisturizers. Multivariate analysis showed that atopic dermatitis severity increased with age greater than 2 years (P = .0004) and with greater bathing duration (P = .001). Atopic dermatitis severity may be associated with a longer duration of bathing. The frequency of bathing does not appear to affect atopic dermatitis severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Importance of genetic factors in the etiology of atopic dermatitis: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F; Ulrik, Charlotte S; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2007-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atopic dermatitis can be attributed both to genetic and environmental causes. We estimated the relative impact of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of atopic dermatitis in a population-based sample of twins. From the birth cohorts of 1953-1982 who were......?" Latent factor models of genetic and environmental influences were fitted to the observed data using maximum likelihood methods. The overall lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 7.3%. A cotwin of an affected identical twin had a sevenfold increased risk of atopic dermatitis compared...... with a threefold increased risk among cotwins of an affected fraternal twin, relative to the general population. Genes accounted for 82% and nonshared environmental factors accounted for 18% of the individual susceptibility to develop atopic dermatitis. The same genes contributed to the susceptibility to atopic...

  9. Mast cells and atopic dermatitis. Stereological quantification of mast cells in atopic dermatitis and normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, T E; Olesen, A B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1997-01-01

    Stereological quantification of mast cell numbers was applied to sections of punch biopsies from lesional and nonlesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients and skin of healthy volunteers. We also investigated whether the method of staining and/or the fixative influenced the results...... of the determination of the mast cell profile numbers. The punch biopsies were taken from the same four locations in both atopic dermatitis patients and normal individuals. The locations were the scalp, neck and flexure of the elbow (lesional skin), and nates (nonlesional skin). Clinical scoring was carried out...... at the site of each biopsy. After fixation and plastic embedding, the biopsies were cut into 2 microns serial sections. Ten sections, 30 microns apart, from each biopsy were examined and stained alternately with either toluidine blue or Giemsa stain and mast cell profile numbers were determined. The study...

  10. Topical application of rapamycin ointment ameliorates Dermatophagoides farina body extract-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Tanaka, Mari; Wataya-Kaneda, Mari; Yang, Lingli; Nakamura, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Shoji; Attia, Mostafa; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro

    2014-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by relapsing eczema and intense prurigo, requires effective and safe pharmacological therapy. Recently, rapamycin, an mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor, has been reported to play a critical role in immune responses and has emerged as an effective immunosuppressive drug. In this study, we assessed whether inhibition of mTOR signalling could suppress dermatitis in mice. Rapamycin was topically applied to inflamed skin in a murine AD model that was developed by repeated topical application of Dermatophagoides farina body (Dfb) extract antigen twice weekly for 7 weeks in NC/Nga mice. The efficacy of topical rapamycin treatment was evaluated immunologically and serologically. Topical application of rapamycin reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the dermis, alleviated the increase of serum IgE levels and resulted in a significant reduction in clinical skin condition score and marked improvement of histological findings. In addition, increased mTOR phosphorylation in the lesional skin was observed in our murine AD model. Topical application of rapamycin ointment inhibited Dfb antigen-induced dermatitis in NC/Nga mice, promising a new therapy for atopic dermatitis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Efficient introduction of complementary foods for children with atopic dermatitis and predisposition to allergic reactions for prevention of atopic march

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaev, A.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of allergic diseases grows constantly. Realization of genetic defects to the disease depends of impact of environment and contacts with different allergens. Prophylactic dietary avoidance is important to prevent debut of the atopic dermatitis and secondary exacerbations of the disease. Terms and preferable sequence of complementary food introduction are discussed for breast-fed and formula-fed infants; advantages of ready-made industrial products of infant meals are proved. The gra...

  12. Research statistics in Atopic Eczema: what disease is this?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon Kam-Lun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic eczema is a common and distressing disease. This study aims to review PubMed indexed research statistics on atopic eczema over a-10 year period to investigate the clinical relevance and research interest about this disease. Methods PubMed (a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine was searched for the terms “atopic dermatitis” and “eczema”, with limits activated (Humans, Clinical Trial, Meta-Analysis, Randomized Controlled Trial, English, published in the last 10 years, and editorials, letters, practice guidelines, reviews, and animal studies excluded. Journal impact factor (IF is in accordance with Journal Citation Report (JCR 2009, a product of Thomson ISI (Institute for Scientific Information. Results A total of 890 articles were retrieved. Taking out publications that were irrelevant and those without an impact factor, 729 articles were obtained. These articles were grouped into dermatology (n = 337, mean IF: 3.01, allergy/immunology (n = 215, mean IF: 4.89, pediatrics (n = 118, mean IF: 2.53 and miscellaneous subject categories (n = 142, mean IF: 5.10. The impact factors were highest in the miscellaneous category (p = 0.0001, which includes such prestigious journals as the New England journal of Medicine (n = 1, IF: 47.05, the Lancet (n = 4, IF: 30.76 and BMJ (n = 6, IF: 13.66. There was no publication in any family medicine or general practice journal. The British Journal of Dermatology (n = 78, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (n = 49 and Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (n = 46 had the highest number of publications on the subject. Atopic eczema ranked higher in impact factors in allergy/immunology although more publications appeared in the dermatology category. Conclusions Atopic eczema is a multidisciplinary disease. Its clinical relevance and research interests are definitely beyond that of a mere cutaneous disease. Investigators may

  13. Anti-Interleukin-31 Receptor A Antibody for Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Thomas; Hanifin, Jon M; Furue, Masutaka; Pulka, Grazyna; Mlynarczyk, Izabela; Wollenberg, Andreas; Galus, Ryszard; Etoh, Takafumi; Mihara, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hiroki; Stewart, Jonathan; Kabashima, Kenji

    2017-03-02

    Interleukin-31 may play a role in the pathobiologic mechanism of atopic dermatitis and pruritus. We wanted to assess the efficacy and safety of nemolizumab (CIM331), a humanized antibody against interleukin-31 receptor A, in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. In this phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial, we assigned adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis that was inadequately controlled by topical treatments to receive subcutaneous nemolizumab (at a dose of 0.1 mg, 0.5 mg, or 2.0 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo every 4 weeks or an exploratory dose of 2.0 mg of nemolizumab per kilogram every 8 weeks. The primary end point was the percentage improvement from baseline in the score on the pruritus visual-analogue scale (on which a negative change indicates improvement) at week 12. Secondary end points included changes in the score on the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI, on which a negative change indicates improvement), and body-surface area of atopic dermatitis. Of 264 patients who underwent randomization, 216 (82%) completed the study. At week 12, among the patients who received nemolizumab every 4 weeks, changes on the pruritus visual-analogue scale were -43.7% in the 0.1-mg group, -59.8% in the 0.5-mg group, and -63.1% in the 2.0-mg group, versus -20.9% in the placebo group (Patopic dermatitis were -7.5%, -20.0%, and -19.4% with nemolizumab, versus -15.7% with placebo. Among the patients receiving nemolizumab every 4 weeks, treatment discontinuations occurred in 9 of 53 patients (17%) in the 0.1-mg group, in 9 of 54 (17%) in the 0.5-mg group, and in 7 of 52 (13%) in the 2.0-mg group, versus in 9 of 53 (17%) in the placebo group. In this phase 2 trial, nemolizumab at all monthly doses significantly improved pruritus in patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis, which showed the efficacy of targeting interleukin-31 receptor A. The limited size and length of the trial preclude conclusions regarding

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Prophylactic Moisturization for Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Immaneni, Supriya; Hazen, Gordon B; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Paller, Amy S; Lio, Peter A

    2017-02-06

    Emerging evidence suggests that the use of moisturizers on newborns and infants (ie, from birth to 6 months of age) is potentially helpful in preventing the development of atopic dermatitis. To investigate the cost-effectiveness of using a daily moisturizer as prevention against atopic dermatitis among high-risk newborns. In a cost-effectiveness analysis, the average cost of total-body moisturization using 7 common moisturizers from birth to 6 months of age was determined for male and female infants. We assumed the same unit of weight per moisturizer used for a given body surface area. Based on previously reported data (relative risk reduction of 50%), the incremental gain in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) was determined using a 6-month time window. The cost-effectiveness of each moisturizer was determined by assuming equal efficacy. A sensitivity analysis was conducted by varying the relative risk from 0.28 to 0.90. Use of prophylactic moisturizing compounds. The primary outcomes were the incremental cost-effectiveness values ($/QALY) for each moisturizer in preventing atopic dermatitis during a 6-month time window. The calculated amount of daily all-body moisturizer needed at birth was 3.6 g (0.12 oz) per application, which increased to 6.6 g (0.22 oz) at 6 months of age. Of the 7 products evaluated, the average price was $1.07/oz (range, $0.13/oz-$2.96/oz). For a 6-month time window, the average incremental QALY benefit was 0.021. The sensitivity analysis showed that the incremental gain of QALY ranged from 0.0041 to 0.030. Petrolatum was the most cost-effective ($353/QALY [95% CI, $244-$1769/QALY) moisturizer in the cohort. Even assuming the lowest incremental QALYs for the most expensive moisturizer, the intervention was still less than $45 000/QALY. Overall, atopic dermatitis represents a major health expenditure and has been associated with multiple comorbidities. Daily moisturization may represent a cost-effective, preventative strategy to reduce the

  15. Development of atopic dermatitis and its association with prenatal and early life exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Roduit, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Over 20% of children in industrialized countries are affected by atopic dermatitis. From epidemiological studies, it is quite obvious that the worldwide prevalence of atopic dermatitis has considerably increased over the past decades and constitutes a major public health problem. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that occurs in very early life and frequently precedes the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis during the first several years of life. Although a large...

  16. Comparison of atopic features between children and adults with eosinophilic esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon, Natalia; Shah, Sapna; Lehman, Erik; Ghaffari, Gisoo

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathological diagnosis seen in children as well as adults. Growing evidence suggests that EoE is strongly associated with atopic disorders. Presenting symptoms differ in children and adults and it is not known whether atopic features vary by age. This study was designed to compare atopic features and allergic sensitization between children and adults with EoE. We conducted a retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data from 50 children (ag...

  17. APPLICATION EXPERIENCE OF CETIRIZINE SYRUP IN THE TREATMENT OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Makarova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the findings of the scientific research, whose purpose was to study the impact of cetirizine syrup (Zodiac, Zentiva, Czech Republic on the run of atopic dermatitis among 36 children aged between 2 and 6 years old. The work shows that introduction of the medication into the complex therapy of atopic dermatitis among children provides a fast clinical effect. Cetirizine syrup is well tolerated by the children.Key words: atopic dermatitis, children, cetirizine, treatment.

  18. Increased numbers of FoxP3-expressing CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in peripheral blood from dogs with atopic dermatitis and its correlation with disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Verena; Hügli, Patrick; Meli, Marina L; Rostaher, Ana; Fischer, Nina; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Favrot, Claude

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease of humans and dogs. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential controllers of immune homeostasis and have been shown to play a key role in human AD, even though frequencies of Tregs in atopic human patients vary greatly. Only two studies have reported Treg numbers in the peripheral blood of dogs with canine AD (CAD). This study aimed to assess the numbers of circulating Tregs in healthy and atopic dogs, and to determine whether Treg numbers correlate with age, sex, disease severity or pre-treatment. Client-owned dogs including 14 healthy dogs and 35 dogs with CAD. Expression of Tregs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. Tregs were phenotypically identified as T cells triple positive for CD4, CD25 and FoxP3. The percentage of circulating CD4(+)  CD25(+)  FoxP3(+) Tregs in atopic dogs was increased significantly compared to healthy dogs (mean 2.1% versus 1%, P = 0.002) and correlated with disease severity (Pruritus Scale: r = 0.48, P = 0.003; CADESI-04: r = 0.34, P = 0.044). No significant differences in age or sex were found in either group and pre-treatment had no influence on results for atopic dogs. Data suggest that, as in humans, CD4(+)  CD25(+)  FoxP3(+) Tregs may contribute to the pathogenesis of CAD as indicated by an association between Treg frequency and disease severity. Further investigation is required to improve the understanding of the role of Tregs in atopic dogs. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  19. The prevalence of atopic diseases and the patterns of sensitization in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Fomsgaard Kjær, Henrik; Eller, Esben

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are among the most common chronic diseases in adolescents, and it is uncertain whether the prevalence of atopic diseases has reached a plateau or is still increasing. The use of the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood) questionnaire has provided...... with rhinoconjunctivitis only, rhinoconjunctivitis with concomitant asthma or atopic dermatitis or both 62.5%, 81.5%, 70%, and 100%, respectively, were sensitized, whereas it was 7.7% and 33.3% of children with only asthma or atopic dermatitis. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was high in adolescence...

  20. Suicidal Ideation in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A German Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dieris-Hirche

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was performed to assess symptoms of suicidality, depression and anxiety in adult patients with atopic dermatitis. The study describes the relationships between these psychiatric symptoms and skin-specific factors, such as atopic dermatitis severity and skin satisfaction. A sample of 181 German patients with atopic dermatitis was compared with a control group of 64 persons with healthy skin with a similar age and sex distribution. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess suicidality (Pöldinger’s Scale, depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS, quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index; DLQI, atopic dermatitis severity (Patient-Oriented Scoring Atopic Dermatitis; PO-SCORAD and skin satisfaction (Skin Satisfaction Questionnaire; SSQ. The prevalence of suicidal ideation among patients with atopic dermatitis was high (21.3%; 3.9% scored above the cut-off that might be an indicator for acute suicidality. Depression symptoms, high severity of atopic dermatitis, lower age, and little touching within the family were identified as significant factors to predict suicidality in atopic dermatitis. Psychiatric screening in dermatological treatment of atopic dermatitis is discussed.