WorldWideScience

Sample records for atomic world views

  1. Atoms in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this preface Chairmen of the Slovak Nuclear Society gives the short review of history and perspectives of the development of nuclear physics, nuclear technique and nuclear energetics in the Slovak Republic after Second World War. The Slovak Nuclear Society has organised writing and publishing of this book

  2. View on world market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, J. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Reasons contributing to a potential growth in wind power are cited. Increased demand is expected to arise due to increased energy needs and environmental concerns. Barriers, primarily political, to the development of wind energy are assessed. Development is predicted to occur first in countries with a demand for new capacity and political decisions to protect the environment.

  3. Physics and our View of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgevoord, Jan

    1994-11-01

    Foreword; 1. Introduction JAN HILGEVOORD; 2. Questioning the answers GERARD T. HOOFT; 3. Theories of everything JOHN BARROW; 4. The scientific view of the world DENNIS DIEKS; 5. Enlarging the world ERNAN McMULLIN; 6. The world of empiricism BAS VAN FRAASSEN; 7. Has the scientific view of the world a special status compared with other views? PAUL FEYERABEND; 8. Quantum theory and our view of the world PAUL FEYERABEND; 9. Interpretation of science - science as interpretation BAS VAN FRAASSEN; 10. Problems in debates about physics and religion WILLEM DREES; 11. The mind of God PAUL DAVIES; 12. The sources of models for God: metaphysics or metaphor? MARY HESSE; 13. Discussion.

  4. Does a Therapist's World View Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, John R; Rodriguez, Vithya B; Herschkopf, Marta D; McCarthy, Alyssa; Betts, Jennifer; Romo, Stephanie; Michael Murphy, J

    2016-06-01

    While past research indicates that mental health professionals are less religious than the public they serve, little is known about the implications of therapists' world views for their practice. In this study, approximately 50 therapists completed surveys that assessed self-identification in relation to spirituality, religion, and/or world view; how relevant they considered their patients' and their own world views; and responses to clinical vignettes involving issues arising in treatment. While a minority considered themselves religious, a majority indicated that they considered themselves moderately or very spiritual. When asked how they would respond to a series of clinical vignettes involving topics such as assisted suicide and encouraging the use of spiritual resources, responses varied significantly by world view. Respondents endorsed several factors limiting the integration of religion/spiritualities/world views into their clinical work. These data raise questions about how to further explore the clinical relevance of the therapist's world view.

  5. Impurity atoms on view in cuprates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Séamus Davis

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Impurity atoms in a material are usually viewed as a problem because they can result in non-ideal properties. However, they can sometimes be used to advantage when attempting to understand new materials. This is because the interactions of an impurity atom with the material reveal detailed information on the local electronic environment. In this paper we discuss scanning tunneling microscopy studies of the atomic-scale effects of individual Ni and Zn impurity atoms on the cuprate high critical temperature superconductors.

  6. THE WORLD VIEW, IDENTITY AND SOCIOCULTUR HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yur’evna Neronova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the relationship between the phenomenon of world view and sociocultural identity both individuals and the community as a whole. The research is being carried out in the context of current crisis of world view accepted in so-called art Nouveau era. This paper also presents the identity crisis typical for modern civilized societies. A new notion of sociocultural homeostasis is introduced in connection with analyzable phenomena and their mutual relations.Purpose. Study of the relationship between the phenomenon of the world view and sociocultural identity as a structural and functional mechanism.Methodology. Phenomenological and systematic methods with the elements of historical method were employed. Cultural analysis is based on using both axiological and phenomenological approach, and also the elements of semiotic approach.Results. The dependence of identity on the world view is revealed (or is being revealed?, the phenomenon of sociocultural homeostasis is singled out (or is being singled out in the capacity of the mechanism setting up the correspondence in the contradictory unity between the world view as a subjective image and concrete reality as an objective part of this contradictory. The analysis of sociocultural homeostasis is carried out (or is being carried out and the conclusion is being drown that instability of the latter leads to serious problems in the identification of both individuals and communities as a whole. Besides, (moreover the relationship between the legitimacy level of the world view and stability of sociocultural homeostasis is established. (is being established.Practical implications: the system of education.

  7. Preschool Teachers’ Views on World Citizenship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehnaz CEYLAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at investigating views of preschool teachers on the concept of world citizenship education and teaching world citizenship in the preschool years. The Teaching World Citizenship in the Twenty-First Century Survey developed by Gallayan (2008 was used in this research. The sample consisted of 345 preschool teachers involving in in-service training programs and seminars held by the Ministry of National Education in the following cities of Turkey: Yalova, Afyonkarahisar, Eskişehir, Aksaray and Rize. It was found out that majority of the teachers believed that preschool teaching programs should consider world citizenship and wanted to teach it to children. However, teacher education received and teaching experiences gained did not enable them to teach world citizenship to children.

  8. Contextualism: The World View of Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the world view of contemporary behavior analysis, especially behavior analysis of child development, is contextualistic, not mechanistic. The history of behavior analysis is presented in a revised account that focuses on philosophic movements. Contextualism of behavior analysis is contrasted with mechanism with respect to five core…

  9. Zeno's Paradoxes in the Mechanical World View

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    There is a very reason to consider that to solve Zeno's paradoxes is to propose the theory of mechanical world view. We believe that this is not only our opinion but also most philosophers' opinion. Recently, in order to justify Heisenberg`s uncertainty principle (cf. Rep. Math. Phys Vol. 29, No. 3, 1991) more firmly. we proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics (called quantum and classical measurement theory), which was characterized as the metaphysical and linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum mechanicsto classical systems but also yield the (quantum and classical) mechanical world view (and therefore, establish the method of science). If it be so, we may assert that Zeno's paradoxes (Flying Arrow Paradox, Achilles and the tortoise, etc.) were already solved in measurement theory. The purpose of this paper is to examine this assertion.

  10. World view of the EGEE infrastrucutre

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    This view is of the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) project seen on the world scale. The EGEE allows the processing power of many computers to be shared so that the huge amount of data produced at CERN's new collider, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be processed. The sites used in the Grid can be downloaded in a zipped .kmz format, which can be imported into Google Earth.

  11. World Views, a Story about How the World Works: Their Significance in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum Cross-curriculum priorities and the Australian Curriculum: Geography both include the term "world views." The meaning of world views, the development of world views as part of the history of geographic thought, and the adoption world of views by teachers and students, affect the ways in which geography is taught…

  12. PREFACE: Viewing the World through Spin Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Ton; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Sourlas, Nicolas; Wong, Michael

    2008-08-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects papers by speakers and participants of the conference `Viewing the World through Spin Glasses', held in Oxford (UK) on 31 August and 1 September 2007 in honour of Professor David Sherrington. It also includes contributions by many other active researchers in the field of spin glasses and related problems. The theory of spin glasses has a history of more than 30 years and continues to develop within itself as well as into an unexpectedly vast range of interdisciplinary subjects, including neural networks, error-correcting codes, optimization problems and social problems. Most of these amazing developments have their formal basis in the ground-breaking work of David Sherrington with Scott Kirkpatrick, centred on the SK model and the techniques devised to analyse it via the replica method. In this 'classic-of-classics' paper, a theoretical paradigm was suddenly established which became the common tool of analysis for thousands of papers in the following decades. It also led to deep developments in probability theory, through the efforts to understand the enigmatic Parisi solution of the SK model. The work of Professor Sherrington will continue to be an infinite source of our inspiration in many years to come. The purpose of the conference `Viewing the World through Spin Glasses' was to provide an overview of the present status of the fields which Professor Sherrington initiated, on the occasion of his 65th birthday, organized by John Cardy, Juan P Garrahan and the present Guest Editors. The first contribution in this special issue, by Professor Paul Goldbart, reflects his salute delivered at the conference dinner, and conveys its atmosphere very well. The papers that follow, ordered by the date of acceptance, represent the current activities of leading researchers in spin glasses and related fields, and we expect these to serve as milestones for future developments. We thank all the

  13. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  14. LabVIEW A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Fairweather, Ian

    2011-01-01

    LabVIEW(t) has become one of the preeminent platforms for the development of data acquisition and data analysis programs. LabVIEW(t): A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration explains how to integrate LabVIEW into real-life applications. Written by experienced LabVIEW developers and engineers, the book describes how LabVIEW has been pivotal in solving real-world challenges. Each chapter is self-contained and demonstrates the power and simplicity of LabVIEW in various applications, from image processing to solar tracking systems. Many of the chapters explore how exciting new technologies c

  15. Global Systems Science: A New World View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneider, Cary; Golden, Richard; Barrett, Katharine

    1999-01-01

    Global systems science is a new field of study about the interactions between Earth's natural systems and human activities. The people who study global systems science draw on methods and theories of many different fields from chemistry and biology to economics and politics-in order to predict how today's actions are likely to affect the world of tomorrow - our world and our children's world.

  16. World Wind 3D Earth Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Patrick; Maxwell, Christopher; Kim, Randolph; Gaskins, Tom

    2007-01-01

    World Wind allows users to zoom from satellite altitude down to any place on Earth, leveraging high-resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D. In addition to Earth, World Wind can also visualize other planets, and there are already comprehensive data sets for Mars and the Earth's moon, which are as easily accessible as those of Earth. There have been more than 20 million downloads to date, and the software is being used heavily by the Department of Defense due to the code s ability to be extended and the evolution of the code courtesy of NASA and the user community. Primary features include the dynamic access to public domain imagery and its ease of use. All one needs to control World Wind is a two-button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed through a simplified menu. A JAVA version will be available soon. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse, or by typing in any location to automatically zoom in to see it. The World Wind install package contains the necessary requirements such as the .NET runtime and managed DirectX library. World Wind can display combinations of data from a variety of sources, including Blue Marble, LandSat 7, SRTM, NASA Scientific Visualization Studio, GLOBE, and much more. A thorough list of features, the user manual, a key chart, and screen shots are available at http://worldwind.arc.nasa.gov.

  17. Do people's world views matter? The why and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Lam, Ben C P; Wu, Wesley C H; Ng, Jacky C K; Buchtel, Emma E; Guan, Yanjun; Deng, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decades, personality and social psychologists have extensively investigated the role of self-views in individual functioning. Research on world views, however, has been less well studied due to overly specific conceptualizations, and little research about how and why they impact life outcomes. To answer why and how world views matter, we conducted 7 studies to examine the functions, antecedents, and consequences of generalized beliefs about the world, operationalized as social axioms (Leung et al., 2002). This research focused on 2 axiom factors, namely, social cynicism and reward for application. These axioms were found to explain individual differences in self-views over and above personality traits in Hong Kong and U.S. samples (Study 1) and to explain cultural differences in self-views in addition to self-construals among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, East Asian Canadians, and European Canadians (Study 2). Endorsement of social axioms by participants, their parents, and close friends was collected from Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Canada to infer parental and peer influences on world views (Study 3). World views affected psychological well-being through the mediation of positive self-views across 3 age groups, including children, adolescents, and young adults (Study 4) and over time (Study 5). The mediation of negative self-views was through comparative self-criticism rather than internalized self-criticism (Study 6). Holistic thinking moderated the effect of social cynicism on self-views and psychological well-being (Study 7). These results converge to show that world views as a distal force and self-views as a proximal force matter in people's subjective evaluation of their lives. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. The World Power Conference and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that emerged after the last World War that useful power could be produced from nuclear fission led to optimistic estimates that nuclear power would prove to be the solution to the world's energy problems. The possible advantages of nuclear methods of power production compared with conventional means are discussed at the World Power Conference. The 1962 Conference with its theme 'The Changing Pattern of Power' will undoubtedly attract great interest in a world where the change-over from conventional to nuclear fuels for power production has started in some countries and is being actively examined in others. It is generally being realized that even though a country may possess indigenous supplies of uranium or thorium minerals, the building up of a nuclear industry i s a long and expensive process and the alternative of depending on countries more advanced in nuclear technology for the supply of materials, skill and know-how is costly in foreign exchange and international prestige. Many of the industrialized countries, still possessing supplies of conventional fuels, are preparing for the day when their reserves will become depleted and are embarking on training schemes to ensure a continuing supply of engineers and scientists skilled in nuclear arts

  19. NEPR World View 2 Satellite Mosaic - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a mosaic of World View 2 panchromatic satellite imagery of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) surrounding...

  20. The Impact of World Views on Professional Life-Styling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of world views on professional life style and counselor value systems. A philosophical approach is outlined. Theism, deism, agnosticism and antheism are discussed. Another author reviews this approach and urges counselors to focus on the philosophical area of axiology. (Author/CC)

  1. Social Psychology, Contexts of Aging, and a Contextual World View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Thomas O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes contextualism (which assumes that action and thought are developed within relationships that then form contexts for particular actions) as third-world view beyond mechanism and organicism. Illustrates use of contextual approach in three areas of social gerontological and social psychological research--environmental relations,…

  2. College students' conceptualizations of nature: An interpretive world view analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobern, William W.

    The research reported in this article addressed the fundamental question, What do students believe about the nature of the world around them? The research specifically addressed college students' fundamental beliefs about nature, that is, the natural world. Data were collected via semistructured interviews involving a set of elicitation devices used to encourage students to talk about the natural world. The analysis of interview transcripts yielded inferences about student fundamental beliefs based on logicostructural world view theory. These beliefs are presented in the form of a concept map and characterized by a set of bipolar descriptive codes: naturalism and religion; chaos and order; mystery and knowledge; function and purpose; mundane and special; science/no science. Perhaps the most intriguing observation of the study was science's apparent lack of influence on students' beliefs about nature even though these students had been successful in college level science courses.

  3. Shattering world assumptions: A prospective view of the impact of adverse events on world assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Eric R; Boals, Adriel

    2016-05-01

    Shattered Assumptions theory (Janoff-Bulman, 1992) posits that experiencing a traumatic event has the potential to diminish the degree of optimism in the assumptions of the world (assumptive world), which could lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Prior research assessed the assumptive world with a measure that was recently reported to have poor psychometric properties (Kaler et al., 2008). The current study had 3 aims: (a) to assess the psychometric properties of a recently developed measure of the assumptive world, (b) to retrospectively examine how prior adverse events affected the optimism of the assumptive world, and (c) to measure the impact of an intervening adverse event. An 8-week prospective design with a college sample (N = 882 at Time 1 and N = 511 at Time 2) was used to assess the study objectives. We split adverse events into those that were objectively or subjectively traumatic in nature. The new measure exhibited adequate psychometric properties. The report of a prior objective or subjective trauma at Time 1 was related to a less optimistic assumptive world. Furthermore, participants who experienced an intervening objectively traumatic event evidenced a decrease in optimistic views of the world compared with those who did not experience an intervening adverse event. We found support for Shattered Assumptions theory retrospectively and prospectively using a reliable measure of the assumptive world. We discuss future assessments of the measure of the assumptive world and clinical implications to help rebuild the assumptive world with current therapies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. The ethics of human reproductive cloning: when world views collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cynthia B

    2004-01-01

    Two camps in bioethics with seemingly opposing world views have staked out conflicting positions regarding the ethics of human reproductive cloning. These camps do not appear to share common concepts or ways of reasoning through which to exchange views and come to a meeting of minds about uses of this technology. Yet analysis of their respective approaches to several issues surrounding reproductive cloning, such as where the ethical limits of individual reproductive choice lie, whether the use of this technology would violate human dignity, whether it would create risks to the resulting fetuses and children that would make its use intolerable, and whether it would challenge certain core social values, reveals that they are not wholly opposed to one another. Indeed, it displays that they hold certain beliefs, values, and concerns in common. Moreover, it indicates that the different world views that they each presuppose, while flawed in certain respects, do not collide in every respect, but can be reconciled in significant ways that provide fertile ground for agreement about several issues related to human reproductive cloning.

  5. Identifying World Views Projected by Science Teaching Materials: A Case Study Using Pepper's WORLD HYPOTHESES to Analyze a Biology Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourn, Brent

    The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate the use of a conceptual framework for assessing the potential of "world view" as a concept for understanding important issues in science education. The framework is based on Stephen C. Pepper's treatment of six world hypotheses (animism, mysticism, formism, mechansim, contextualism, and…

  6. Escaping the Zoo! Exploring Personal World Views and Other "Natural" Aspects of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Kris; Hall, Bradford J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an activity for a course in "Intercultural Communication, Communication and Diversity" that is designed to help students better understand the concept of world views in everyday life. It also provides an understanding of how world views may be connected to values, norms, and ethnocentrism in very personal and…

  7. Understanding the Atomic-Scale World with the Molecular Workbench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Robert F.

    2006-12-01

    The Molecular Workbench (MW) is a sophisticated system for developing and delivering interactive learning activities to teach basic concepts that govern atomic and nanoscale phenomena. The system is based on a molecular dynamics model that calculates the motion of atoms, molecules, and other objects in real time as a result of the applicable forces, including Lennard-Jones potentials, electrostatic potentials, elastic bonds, and external fields. Light-atom interactions are modeled with photons of selectable energy that interact with the excited states of atoms. The built-in authoring functions can be used to create or modify learning activities. The ease of creating MW materials has led to over 200 activities contributed by staff and collaborators. Many are housed in a database with fields that include an overview, learning objectives, a description of the central concepts addressed, textbook references, and extensions. MW has been used extensively in classrooms in grades 7-14. In several settings student learning gains have been measured using a pre-posttest design. Research results will be reported that show Overall increases in understanding of atomic scale phenomena at high school and community college levels. The ability to transfer understanding of atomic-scale phenomena to new situations and to reason about macroscopic phenomena on the basis of atomic-scale interactions. Better understanding of difficult questions that required immersive visualization and prediction MW is written in Java, so it runs under all common operating systems, including Mac OSX, Windows, and Linux. It is open source, so it can be shared and copied by any user.

  8. World's top atom-smasher ready to rumble

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "The final piece in the world's greatest particle accelerator in a 27-kilometre (43-foot) circular tunnel 100 metres under the French-Swiss border was put into place on Thursday, organisers said." (1 page)

  9. Atomic force fluorescence microscopy : combining the best of two worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassies, Roelf

    2005-01-01

    The complementary strengths and weaknesses of AFM and optical microscopy leads to the desire to integrate both techniques into a single microscope. This thesis describes the development of a com-bined AFM / confocal °uorescence microscope. This atomic force °uorescence microscope (AFFM) combines hig

  10. Consequences of world heritage production : Views from Visby

    OpenAIRE

    Ronström, Owe

    2013-01-01

    In this keynote adress I discuss the case of The Hanseatic town of Visby, a small town in the island of Gotland, in the middle of Baltic Sea, which in 1995 was designated as Sweden’s sixth and the world’s 470th world heritage site. Using the findings from my earlier research project “Heritage Politics” as a starting point, I reflect over consequences of World Heritage production and address issues both at a local and specific level, and at a more global and abstract level, with the intention ...

  11. Brave new world revisited revisited: Huxley's evolving view of behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, B

    1992-01-01

    Aldous Huxley's Brave New World has served as a popular and powerful source of antibehavioral sentiment. Several of Huxley's works are examined in order to ascertain his true thoughts regarding behaviorism. Early in his career Huxley failed to appreciate aspects of behavioral theory (e.g., an appreciation of heredity) or the good ends to which it could be employed. Huxley's later works portrayed behaviorism in a much more positive light, and he believed that behavioral science, along with spiritual enlightenment, might help save humanity from the Brave New World he predicted. PMID:22478115

  12. Student world view as a framework for learning genetics and evolution in high school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Roger Wesley

    Statement of the problem. Few studies in biology education have examined the underlying presuppositions which guide thinking and concept learning in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to describe and understand the biological world views of a variety of high school students before they take biology courses. Specifically, the study examined student world views in the domains of Classification, Relationship and Causation related to the concepts of heredity, evolution and biotechnology. The following served as guiding questions: (1) What are the personal world views of high school students entering biology classes, related to the domain of Classification, Relationship and Causality? (2) How do these student world views confound or enhance the learning of basic concepts in genetics and evolution? Methods. An interpretive method was chosen for this study. The six student participants were ninth graders and represented a wide range of world view backgrounds. A series of three interviews was conducted with each participant, with a focus group used for triangulation of data. The constant comparative method was used to categorize the data and facilitate the search for meaningful patterns. The analysis included a thick description of each student's personal views of classification, evolution and the appropriate use of biotechnology. Results. The study demonstrates that world view is the basis upon which students build knowledge in biology. The logic of their everyday thinking may not match that of scientists. The words they use are sometimes inconsistent with scientific terminology. This study provides evidence that students voice different opinions depending on the social situation, since they are strongly influenced by peers. Students classify animals based on behaviors. They largely believe that the natural world is unpredictable, and that humans are not really part of that world. Half are unlikely to accept the evolution of humans, but may accept it in other

  13. Virtual Worlds, Simulations, and Games for Education: A Unifying View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Clark

    2009-01-01

    While there is some overlap in the uses and structures of virtual worlds, games, and simulations and the three often look similar, their differences are profound. Clark Aldrich presents a taxonomy of virtual environments that recognizes both the distinctions and the similarities among virtual environments for learning. All three, he suggests, are…

  14. Education and Development: Views from the World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Aklilu; And Others

    The three essays in this publication consider the relationship between human capital investment and economic development, particularly in the context of developing countries. The first article (by Aklilu Habte) reviews the experiences of the World Bank in lending for education, curriculum development, and vocational training. The role of education…

  15. Role Playing: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Noel C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a role playing exercise can be used to teach students in a college level history course about the use of the atomic bomb in World War II. Information is presented on general use of role playing in history courses, objectives, questions to consider about use of the atomic bomb, and course evaluation. For journal availability, see so…

  16. World situation of atomic energy and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the International Conference organized by the IAEA in May 1976, several sections dealt with problems of the production of atomic energy and of the nuclear fuel cycle. However, the whole spectrum of these problems was discussed including problems of economic policy, politics and ethical problems, too. Reports were presented on trends of the development of atomic energy in developed and developing countries. Besides the systems of nuclear power plants and the trends of their development, the Conference attached prominent importance to the supply of nuclear fuels and to the fuel cycle, respectively. Owing to important factors, the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel was emphasized. The problem area of the treatment of radioactive wastes, the protection of workers in immediate contact and of environment against radiations, the possibilities of ensuring nuclear safety, the degrees of hazards and the methods of protection of fast breeder reactors and up-to-date equipments were discussed. In contrast to earlier conferences the complex problem of the correlation of atomic energy to public opinion played an important role, too. (P.J.)

  17. The Last Act: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    This text was to have been the script for the National Air and Space Museum's exhibition of the Enola Gay, focusing on the end of World War II and the decision of the United States to use of the atomic bomb. The Enola Gay was a B-29 aircraft that carried the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945. The atomic bomb brought a…

  18. Brave new world revisited revisited: Huxley's evolving view of behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Bobby

    1992-01-01

    Aldous Huxley's Brave New World has served as a popular and powerful source of antibehavioral sentiment. Several of Huxley's works are examined in order to ascertain his true thoughts regarding behaviorism. Early in his career Huxley failed to appreciate aspects of behavioral theory (e.g., an appreciation of heredity) or the good ends to which it could be employed. Huxley's later works portrayed behaviorism in a much more positive light, and he believed that behavioral science, along with spi...

  19. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island World View 2 Satellite Mosaic - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a mosaic of World View 2 panchromatic satellite imagery of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) surrounding...

  20. Nearshore Benthic Habitats of Timor-Leste Derived from WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat classes were derived for nearshore waters around Timor-Leste from WorldView-2 satellite imagery. Habitat classes include different combinations of...

  1. International symposium. Existence in atomic and chemical world (chemical technologies, food and drugs). Summaries of reports. Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The materials of International symposium: Existence in atomic and chemical world (chemical technologies, foods and drugs) are presented in the collection, the latest data on radiation and chemical contamination of biosphere are viewed. The effect of chemical factors, industrial toxins, chronic irradiation on public health and environment is estimated. The way of provision of the radiation and chemical safety, namely, creation of the new chemical and radiation technologies, the new concepts of feed, pharmacological protection, trapping of the ultra low doses of drugs, pesticides in XXI century is considered

  2. Atomic View of a Toxic Amyloid Small Oligomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Liu, Cong; Sawaya, Michael R.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Park, Jiyong; Zhao, Minglei; Pensalfini, Anna; Soriaga, Angela B.; Landau, Meytal; Teng, Poh K.; Cascio, Duilio; Glabe, Charles; Eisenberg, David (UCI); (UCLA)

    2012-04-30

    Amyloid diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and the prion conditions, are each associated with a particular protein in fibrillar form. These amyloid fibrils were long suspected to be the disease agents, but evidence suggests that smaller, often transient and polymorphic oligomers are the toxic entities. Here, we identify a segment of the amyloid-forming protein {alpha}{beta} crystallin, which forms an oligomeric complex exhibiting properties of other amyloid oligomers: {beta}-sheet-rich structure, cytotoxicity, and recognition by an oligomer-specific antibody. The x-ray-derived atomic structure of the oligomer reveals a cylindrical barrel, formed from six antiparallel protein strands, that we term a cylindrin. The cylindrin structure is compatible with a sequence segment from the {beta}-amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease. Cylindrins offer models for the hitherto elusive structures of amyloid oligomers.

  3. Atomic Models of Strong Solids Interfaces Viewed as Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffell, I.; Shang, J. L.; Kendall, K.

    2014-02-01

    This paper looks back through the 1960s to the invention of carbon fibres and the theories of Strong Solids. In particular it focuses on the fracture mechanics paradox of strong composites containing weak interfaces. From Griffith theory, it is clear that three parameters must be considered in producing a high strength composite:- minimising defects; maximising the elastic modulus; and raising the fracture energy along the crack path. The interface then introduces two further factors:- elastic modulus mismatch causing crack stopping; and debonding along a brittle interface due to low interface fracture energy. Consequently, an understanding of the fracture energy of a composite interface is needed. Using an interface model based on atomic interaction forces, it is shown that a single layer of contaminant atoms between the matrix and the reinforcement can reduce the interface fracture energy by an order of magnitude, giving a large delamination effect. The paper also looks to a future in which cars will be made largely from composite materials. Radical improvements in automobile design are necessary because the number of cars worldwide is predicted to double. This paper predicts gains in fuel economy by suggesting a new theory of automobile fuel consumption using an adaptation of Coulomb's friction law. It is demonstrated both by experiment and by theoretical argument that the energy dissipated in standard vehicle tests depends only on weight. Consequently, moving from metal to fibre construction can give a factor 2 improved fuel economy performance, roughly the same as moving from a petrol combustion drive to hydrogen fuel cell propulsion. Using both options together can give a factor 4 improvement, as demonstrated by testing a composite car using the ECE15 protocol.

  4. 基于WorldView-2的遥感影像预处理%Remote Sensing Image Preprocessing Based on WorldView-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莹; 王环; 方圆

    2014-01-01

    For the country's new geographic conditions survey projects , satellite remote sensing data as its basic data have a vital role , directly affects the visual interpretation of the results .In this paper, we analyze the WorldView -2 images, and analyzes the process of pretreatment .Finally suggests for WorldView -2 radiation correction , geometric correction , image fusion images taken -data is correct technical route of the whole process of image preprocessing , the image data in geographic conditions survey project provides ref-erence and basis of pretreatment and lay a good foundation for subsequent visual interpretation process .%对于国家新推出的地理国情普查项目,卫星遥感数据作为其基础数据有着至关重要的作用,直接影响着目视解译的结果。本文主要对WorldView-2影像进行分析,并对其整个预处理的流程进行分析整理。最终表明,WorldView-2影像可采取辐射校正-几何校正-影像融合-数据正射纠正的技术路线对整个影像进行预处理,为地理国情普查项目中的影像数据预处理提供了参考及依据,为后续的目视解译过程奠定良好的基础。

  5. Teaching science in light of world view: The effect of contextualized instruction on the scientific compatibility of religious college students' world views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossard, Paula Rae

    Authors of recent science reform documents promote the goal of scientific literacy for all Americans (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1989, 1993). Some students, however, feel apprehensive about learning science due to perceptions that science is antagonistic to their world views (Alters, 2005; Esbenshade, 1993). This study investigated the effect of an introductory science course taught in the context of a Christian, theistic world view on the scientific compatibility of religious college students' world views. For the purposes of this study, students' understanding of the nature of science, affective attitudes toward science, and beliefs regarding creation were used as indicators of the scientific compatibility of their world views. One hundred and seventy-one students enrolled in a core curriculum, introductory science course at a Christian university participated in this study by completing pre-instruction and post-instruction survey packets that included demographic information, the Student Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry questionnaire (Liang et al., 2006), the Affective Attitude toward Science Scale (Francis & Greer, 1999), and the Origins Survey (Tenneson & Badger, personal communication, June, 2008). Two-tailed paired samples t tests were used to test for significant mean differences in the indicator variables at a .05 level before and after instruction. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to determine if relationships were present among the indicator variables at a .05 level before and after instruction. Students' self-identified positions regarding creation were analyzed using a chi-square contingency table. Results indicated that there were statistically significant changes in all indicator variables after instruction of the contextualized course. The direction of these changes and shifts in students' self-identified positions regarding creation supported the conclusion that students developed a more

  6. Cosmological Perturbations in Brane World - Brane view v.s. Bulk view -

    CERN Document Server

    Soda, J; Soda, Jiro; Koyama, Kazuya

    2003-01-01

    First, we will study the cosmological perturbations from the brane point of view. It turns out that two types of the extra data are necessary to know the evolution of the system. To fix these data, the analysis of the bulk is needed. So, we have solved equations of motion for the bulk gravity and determined the extra data. We would like to stress that, both analysis take complementary roles to achieve this goal.

  7. Active vision in passive locomotion: real-world free viewing in infants and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretch, Kari S; Adolph, Karen E

    2015-09-01

    Visual exploration in infants and adults has been studied using two very different paradigms: free viewing of flat screen displays in desk-mounted eye-tracking studies and real-world visual guidance of action in head-mounted eye-tracking studies. To test whether classic findings from screen-based studies generalize to real-world visual exploration and to compare natural visual exploration in infants and adults, we tested observers in a new paradigm that combines critical aspects of both previous techniques: free viewing during real-world visual exploration. Mothers and their 9-month-old infants wore head-mounted eye trackers while mothers carried their infants in a forward-facing infant carrier through a series of indoor hallways. Demands for visual guidance of action were minimal in mothers and absent for infants, so both engaged in free viewing while moving through the environment. Similar to screen-based studies, during free viewing in the real world low-level saliency was related to gaze direction. In contrast to screen-based studies, only infants - not adults - were biased to look at people, participants of both ages did not show a classic center bias, and mothers and infants did not display high levels of inter-observer consistency. Results indicate that several aspects of visual exploration of a flat screen display do not generalize to visual exploration in the real world. PMID:25438618

  8. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  9. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Riedy; Jade Herriman

    2011-01-01

    On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews). WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15) in December 2009. In this paper, we examine t...

  10. Classifying chemical elements and particles: from the atomic to the sub-atomic world

    OpenAIRE

    Kibler, Maurice

    2003-01-01

    published in the book "The Periodic Table: Into the 21st Century", edited by D.H. Rouvray and R.B. King (Research Studies Press, Baldock, UK, 2004) pp. 297-329. This paper presents two facets. First, we show that the periodic table of chemical elements can be described, understood and modified (as far as its format is concerned) on the basis of group theory and more specifically by using the group SO(4,2)xSU(2). Second, we show that "periodic tables" also exist in the sub-atomic and sub-nu...

  11. WorldView-2遥感图像融合新方法%New Pansharpening Method for WorldView-2 Satellite Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭; 何明一; 张雷

    2015-01-01

    New-style high resolution WorldView-2 satellite images pose challenges to the image fusion techniques. A new pansharpening method is proposed in this paper. First, 8-band multispectral imagery is resampled by nearest neighbor interpolation. According to the relative spectral responses between the multispectral band and the panchromatic band, a low spatial resolution panchromatic image is evaluated through multivariate linear regression. The spatial details are extracted from the original panchromatic image, and then injected into the component space of multispectral imagery. Finally, the pansharpened results are produced by employing inverse correspondence analysis transform. The experimental results show that the proposed method can obtain a better trade-off between the spatial resolution enhancement and the spectral information preservation compared to some existing methods.%新型高分辨率WorldView-2星载图像的出现给现有的图像融合技术带来了更大的挑战,该文提出了一种全色光和多光谱图像融合新方法。首先采用最近邻插值对多光谱图像重采样放大;然后结合WorldView-2各波段光谱响应特点利用多元线性回归构造出低分辨率全色光图像,通过对原始高分辨率全色光图像空间细节信息的提取并将其注入至多光谱图像的成分空间中;最后经对应分析反变换得到融合结果。实验结果表明,该方法在融合WorldView-2遥感图像时能够在提高空间分辨率和保持光谱信息两方面达到较好的平衡,优于现有的几种融合方法。

  12. A Multievidence Approach for Crop Discrimination Using Multitemporal WorldView-2 Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Zielinski, Rafal Tomasz; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2014-01-01

    summer) WorldView-2 multispectral imagery. A multilayer perceptron classifier is trained with the multitemporal datasets separately using a backpropagation learning algorithm, and prediction probabilities are produced for each pixel as evidence against each crop class. An integration rule based...

  13. Elaborating the Relationship between TV Viewing and Beliefs about the Real World: Possible Contingent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James

    Two studies investigated the validity of the Cultivation Hypothesis, which holds that the more people view television the more they will see the world as mean and violent. Specifically, the study examined whether three psychological variables affected the relationship. The variables are (1) Magic Window, the degree to which a person believes…

  14. Comprehensiveness of Conceptual Foundations for Gifted Education: A World-View Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Don

    1998-01-01

    A review of 50 articles on giftedness analyzed the degree to which four world views (contextualism, organicism, formism, and mechanism) shape the thinking of scholars in the field. Results indicate philosophical biases toward contextualism and organicism in terms of subject-matter emphasis and a bias toward mechanism in the preferred research…

  15. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Peter L. [Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Brisbane, 4111 (Australia)

    2010-03-15

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  16. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  17. The IAEA's WorldAtom Internet site: International news and information services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides news and public information services via the Internet through its WorldAtom home page. The page is accessible at www.iaea.org/worldatom. Following are brief highlights of the items available on the site by clicking Press Centre, Reference Centre, or other links: Daily Press Review: Summaries of selected news items pertaining to global nuclear developments and the IAEA's work are provided each day, drawing upon a wide range of global media sources. IAEA NewsBriefs: Regularly featured are updates about IAEA activities related to areas of safety, technology transfer, and nuclear safeguards. Meetings and training courses: News about IAEA-sponsored symposia, seminars, and other meetings, as well as information about international meetings on atomic energy sponsored by other organizations, are updated on a daily basis. Press releases and statements: All IAEA press releases and media advisories since 1995 are accessible on the site. Topical and feature pages: In-depth coverage and links to information resources within and outside the IAEA are regularly given to selected topics of high international interest involving the IAEA. IAEA publications: listings and overviews of IAEA technical reports, safety standards, and other publications are updated as they are issued. Scientific and technical information: WorldAtom includes links (Reference Centre) to the International Nuclear Information System, IAEA's extensive bibliographic database of references and resources, to the nuclear database, and to departmental pages at IAEA that focus on IAEA programs and activities. IAEA documents: Electronic versions of official IAEA documents are added as they are issued. These documents include the texts and status lists of international conventions under IAEA auspices; IAEA information circulars to member states; IAEA annual reports (since 1995); and background reports and documents for the IAEA General Conference related to

  18. Development of "agentic" regulation in cultural context : The role of self and world views

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    This article explores differences in the development of intentional self-regulation in children from European American and Asian communities and examines the ways in which the socialization and development of ‘‘agentic’’ regulation follow specific goals that are in line with the predominant cultural model of agency and related self and world views. In particular, it considers whether cultural differences in self-regulation in these populations are related to the target of agency (one’s self o...

  19. Axiological aspect of linguistic view of the world in the modern education environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markelova T.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic view of the world (LVW reflecting connection between language and consciousness, plays significant role in education environment of each level – general, secondary, higher. Dynamically developing education technologies are configured into an information wave, electronic and distance learning, transfer rates of constantly expanding knowledge and they stop to consider the most important component of learning - understanding of teacher and student (in the broadest meaning of the word of each other.

  20. Teacher is a condition factor in education of the Ukrainian philosophical world view

    OpenAIRE

    Pazynich S.N.

    2010-01-01

    Questions are examined about the necessity of development of Ukrainian philosophy - theoretical foundation of world view and at the same time as bases integral to socially-spatial systems of the Free State. A thesis is grounded about an attributive function in development of national philosophy of concept - «Why edges». A problem is formulated about state approach in relation to development of philosophical culture in a country and bringing in this important business all and singular teachers...

  1. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945.

  2. Brave New World versus Island--utopian and dystopian views on psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, M H N

    2007-06-01

    Aldous Huxley's Brave New World is a famous dystopia, frequently called upon in public discussions about new biotechnology. It is less well known that 30 years later Huxley also wrote a utopian novel, called Island. This paper will discuss both novels focussing especially on the role of psychopharmacological substances. If we see fiction as a way of imagining what the world could look like, then what can we learn from Huxley's novels about psychopharmacology and how does that relate to the discussion in the ethical and philosophical literature on this subject? The paper argues that in the current ethical discussion the dystopian vision on psychopharmacology is dominant, but that a comparison between Brave New World and Island shows that a more utopian view is possible as well. This is illustrated by a discussion of the issue of psychopharmacology and authenticity. The second part of the paper draws some further conclusions for the ethical debate on psychopharmacology and human enhancement, by comparing the novels not only with each other, but also with our present reality. It is claimed that the debate should not get stuck in an opposition of dystopian and utopian views, but should address important issues that demand attention in our real world: those of evaluation and governance of enhancing psychopharmacological substances in democratic, pluralistic societies.

  3. Brave New World versus Island--utopian and dystopian views on psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, M H N

    2007-06-01

    Aldous Huxley's Brave New World is a famous dystopia, frequently called upon in public discussions about new biotechnology. It is less well known that 30 years later Huxley also wrote a utopian novel, called Island. This paper will discuss both novels focussing especially on the role of psychopharmacological substances. If we see fiction as a way of imagining what the world could look like, then what can we learn from Huxley's novels about psychopharmacology and how does that relate to the discussion in the ethical and philosophical literature on this subject? The paper argues that in the current ethical discussion the dystopian vision on psychopharmacology is dominant, but that a comparison between Brave New World and Island shows that a more utopian view is possible as well. This is illustrated by a discussion of the issue of psychopharmacology and authenticity. The second part of the paper draws some further conclusions for the ethical debate on psychopharmacology and human enhancement, by comparing the novels not only with each other, but also with our present reality. It is claimed that the debate should not get stuck in an opposition of dystopian and utopian views, but should address important issues that demand attention in our real world: those of evaluation and governance of enhancing psychopharmacological substances in democratic, pluralistic societies. PMID:17486431

  4. Stem Water Potential Monitoring in Pear Orchards through WorldView-2 Multispectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Van Beek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing can provide good alternatives for traditional in situ water status measurements in orchard crops, such as stem water potential (Ψstem. However, the heterogeneity of these cropping systems causes significant differences with regards to remote sensing products within one orchard and between orchards. In this study, robust spectral indicators of Ψstem were sought after, independent of sensor viewing geometry, orchard architecture and management. To this end, Ψstem was monitored throughout three consecutive growing seasons in (deficit irrigated and rainfed pear orchards and related to spectral observations of leaves, canopies and WorldView-2 imagery. On a leaf and canopy level, high correlations were observed between the shortwave infrared reflectance and in situ measured Ψstem. Additionally, for canopy measurements, visible and near-infrared wavelengths (R530/R600, R530/R700 and R720/R800 showed significant correlations. Therefore, the Red-edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (ReNDVI was applied on fully sunlit satellite imagery and found strongly related with Ψstem (R2 = 0.47; RMSE = 0.36 MPa, undoubtedly showing the potential of WorldView-2 to monitor water stress in pear orchards. The relationship between ReNDVI and Ψstem was independent of management, irrigation setup, phenology and environmental conditions. In addition, results showed that this relation was also independent of off-nadir viewing angle and almost independent of viewing geometry, as the correlation decreased after the inclusion of fully shaded scenes. With further research focusing on issues related to viewing geometry and shadows, high spatial water status monitoring with space borne remote sensing is achievable.

  5. The Relationship between Active Viewing of Different Television Content Types and Individual Perception of a Mean World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouner, Donna

    A study tested the validity of two active TV viewing constructs that predicted the effects of content and degree of active viewing on a television viewer's perception of a mean world. Random digit dialing produced interviews with 163 subjects who were asked separate questions about their prime time and daytime viewing to determine their level of…

  6. Assessing Soil Salinity with the use of WorldView-2 Hyperspectral Images in Timpaki, Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Panagea, Ioanna S.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Salinization is one of the major soil degradation threats occurring worldwide, with its effects being observed in numerous vital ecological and non-ecological soil functions. Traditionally, soil salinity is assessed by laboratory determination of the soil electrical conductivity (ECe), rendering large scale studies labor and cost intensive. This study evaluates the feasibility of surface soil salinity estimation, monitoring, and mapping based on images acquired by the WorldView-2 and Landsat 8 multispectral sensors after calibration with a limited number of soil samples. A range of satellite image processing techniques are applied, starting with geometric, radiometric and atmospheric preprocessing corrections. More than 10 spectral salinity indices (algebric equations between visible and infrared band) including three newly introduced salinity indices, as well as vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, etc.) are implemented to detect surface salt deposition and vegetation health. Spectral unmixing is used to monitor salinity employing sophisticated classification approaches. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to a WorldView-2 images in order to determine the initial axes used for the orthogonal transformation, followed by a subsequent 3D rotation of the PCA axes. The linear coefficients of the transformation are retrieved and adjusted to detect salinity in all the range of WorldView-2 image. Furthermore, Landsat 8 images are used to establish and compare the diachronic vegetation regime and plant health in both brackish irrigation and salinity-free olive groves areas. The proposed methods are tested in the RECARE FP7 Project Case Study of Timpaki, a coastal semi-arid region in south-central Crete. Long term agricultural over-exploitation in the area and little irrigation alternatives have led to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization. EO products are calibrated using soil samples collected from bare soil plots at 0-5 cm depth and representing a

  7. Geographical Locational Knowledge as an Indicator of Children's Views of the World: Research from Sweden and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Ruth; Vinterek, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Children's locational knowledge is often used to clarify underlying conceptual understandings of the world in which they live. Although there has been some exploration of how European children view their world there is little recent research on Scandinavian children's knowledge and associated perceptions of the wider world, or about Australian…

  8. The Evolution of Public Views of the Black Sea Province During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the evolution of public views of the Black Sea province during the First World War. The materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals of the Black Sea province became the main source of work. This article employs the records of personal origins. As a result of study, the authors come to the conclusion the First World War began for Russian society with massive patriotic speeches, but at the end of 1916 year for both in Russia in general and in the Black Sea province comes a complex social process that can be described as war weariness. To the reasons for war weariness the authors referred: the protracted war, and as a consequence – the complexity of an economic nature.

  9. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Riedy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

  10. Research on Single Photo Orientation for WorldView-2 on the Support of DEM%DEM支持下WorldView-2影像的单片定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柯; 董胜光; 郭云开; 彭悦

    2013-01-01

    WorldView-2 satellite is an important milestone in the development of a high-resolution remote sensing image. This paper explored the principle and process of single photo orientation for WorldView-2 based on Strict Physical Model (SPM) or Rational Function Model (RFM) under the support of DEM. Using WorldView-2 image and the corresponding 1:10 000 DEM as experiment data, under different control condition, orientation results from single orientation based on SPM, single orientation based on RFM, and stereo orientation based on RFM were comparatively studied.%WorldView-2卫星是高分辨率遥感影像发展的一个重要里程碑.探索了DEM支持下,分别基于严格物理模型和有理函数模型的WorldView-2影像单片定位原理和过程,并以某地区WorldView-2影像及其对应的1:10000DEM作为试验数据,对比研究了在不同控制条件下,基于严格物理模型的单片定位、基于有理函数模型的单片定位以及基于有理函数模型的立体定位的定位结果.

  11. Mosaic of bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Sarigan Island, Territory of Territory of Mariana, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  12. The operationalisation of religion and world view in surveys of nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia and assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Joris; Van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert

    2009-11-01

    Most quantitative studies that survey nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia and/or assisted suicide, also attempt to assess the influence of religion on these attitudes. We wanted to evaluate the operationalisation of religion and world view in these surveys. In the Pubmed database we searched for relevant articles published before August 2008 using combinations of search terms. Twenty-eight relevant articles were found. In five surveys nurses were directly asked whether religious beliefs, religious practices and/or ideological convictions influenced their attitudes, or the respondents were requested to mention the decisional basis for their answers on questions concerning end-of-life issues. In other surveys the influence of religion and world view was assessed indirectly through a comparison of the attitudes of different types of believers and/or non-believers toward euthanasia or assisted suicide. In these surveys we find subjective religious or ideological questions (questions inquiring about the perceived importance of religion or world view in life, influence of religion or world view on life in general, or how religious the respondents consider themselves) and objective questions (questions inquiring about religious practice, acceptance of religious dogmas, and religious or ideological affiliation). Religious or ideological affiliation is the most frequently used operationalisation of religion and world view. In 16 surveys only one religious or ideological question was asked. In most articles the operationalisation of religion and world view is very limited and does not reflect the diversity and complexity of religion and world view in contemporary society. Future research should pay more attention to the different dimensions of religion and world view, the religious plurality of Western society and the particularities of religion in non-Western contexts.

  13. An implicit world view in technology and its consequences for contemporary life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketner, K L

    1996-01-01

    To summarize, when the technological way of thinking is taken to the extreme it becomes a world view that is associated with a particular danger, in that it is not taken by its proponents as one of many competing world views but is considered uncritically to be a fact, not a hypothesis. Through a series of applications of the fallacy of hypothesis/fact confusion and through uncritical use of the technological frame of mind, one can inevitably become committed to an overarching physicalism, materialism, mechanicalism, and determinism, perhaps without even knowing that one has such afflictions. My own discipline, philosophy, which I regard as a science in the broad sense previously mentioned, has not escaped being captured by this technological mind-set, much to its detriment. I refer readers who are interested in the plight of philosophy in this age to the works of Hilary Putnam, Bruce Wilshire, Ludwig Wittgenstein, or Charles Peirce. I take this step because I am not a machine, and if I didn't stop now, I would feel guilty about taking too much of your time.

  14. Remote sensing for greenhouse detection from stereo pairs of WorldView-2 satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Aguilar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the first very high resolution (VHR satellites capable of capturing panchromatic imagery of the land surface with ground sample distance even lower than 1 m (e.g. IKONOS in 1999 or QuickBird in 2001 marked the beginning of a wholly new age in remote sensing. On January 4, 2010, images of WorldView-2 were placed on the market. Possibly it is the most sophisticated commercial VHR satellite currently orbiting the Earth and the exploitation of its data poses a challenge to researchers worldwide. Moreover, the practice of under plastic agriculture had a great development in the Mediterranean area during the past 60 years, especially in Almeria, acting as a key economic driver in the area. The goal of this work is the automatic greenhouse mapping by using Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA. The required input data will be a pan-sharpened orthoimage and a normalized digital surface model (nDSM for objects, both products generated from a WorldView-2 stereo pair. The attained results show that the very high resolution 8-band multispectral and the nDSM data improve the greenhouses automatic detection. In this way, overall accuracies higher than 90% can be achieved.

  15. Vehicle detection in WorldView-2 satellite imagery based on Gaussian modeling and contextual learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bichuan; Chen, Chi-Hau; Marchisio, Giovanni B.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we aim to study the detection of vehicles from WorldView-2 satellite imagery. For this purpose, accurate modeling of vehicle features and signatures and efficient learning of vehicle hypotheses are critical. We present a joint Gaussian and maximum likelihood based modeling and machine learning approach using SVM and neural network algorithms to describe the local appearance densities and classify vehicles from non-vehicle buildings, objects, and backgrounds. Vehicle hypotheses are fitted by elliptical Gaussians and the bottom-up features are grouped by Gabor orientation filtering based on multi-scale analysis and distance transform. Global contextual information such as road networks and vehicle distributions can be used to enhance the recognition. In consideration of the problem complexity the practical vehicle detection task faces due to dense and overlapping vehicle distributions, partial occlusion and clutters by building, shadows, and trees, we employ a spectral clustering strategy jointly combined with bootstrapped learning to estimate the parameters of centroid, orientation, and extents for local densities. We demonstrate a high detection rate 94.8%,with a missing rate 5.2% and a false alarm rate 5.3% on the WorldView-2 satellite imagery. Experimental results show that our method is quite effective to model and detect vehicles.

  16. Quarks, atoms, molecules. On the hunt for the smallest building blocks of the world; Quarks, Atome, Molekuele. Auf der Jagd nach den kleinsten Bausteinen der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staguhn, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    What exactly are molecules, atoms, quarks - the enigmating smallest building blocks of all life? By this book even hardcore physics and chemistry muffles become experts. The reknown science journalist Gerhard Staguhn embarks on a thrilling quest to find out what holds our world together: The smallest building blocks of the universe, the tiny operations that are taking place in the invisible world of the microcosm. In 69 chapters he tells fascinatingly and easily to be understood from the properties of the atoms and why the quarks until today prefer to be not seen.

  17. Starting points and pathways in Aboriginal students' learning of number: recognising different world views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Kaye; Frid, Sandra; Jacob, Lorraine

    2015-09-01

    This research was designed to investigate the conceptualisations and thinking strategies Indigenous Australian students use in counting tasks. Eighteen Aboriginal students, in years 1 to 11 at a remote community school, were interviewed using standard counting tasks and a `counting' task that involved fetching `maku' (witchetty grubs) to have enough to give a maku to each person in a picture. The tasks were developed with, and the interviews conducted by, an Aboriginal research assistant, to ensure appropriate cultural and language contexts. A main finding was that most of the students did not see the need to use counting to make equivalent sets, even though they were able to demonstrate standard counting skills. The findings highlight a need to further examine the world views, orientations and related mathematical concepts and processes that Indigenous students bring to school.

  18. Politics in Serbia 1990-2002: A cleavage of world views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todosijević Bojan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes socio-psychological sources of political divisions in post-communist Serbia. Following the argument that authoritarianism is intrinsically associated with the opposition to pro-democratic political change, it is hypothesized that authoritarianism is associated with the support for the former communists, and increasingly over time for radical nationalists. The data analysis utilizes three data sets, from 1990, 1996 and 2002, that is from periods that represent three crucial stages in the development of the Serbian post-communist politics. Discriminant analysis of party preferences showed that preferences for authoritarian political options and ideological orientations were tied to authoritarianism as an individual difference variable and specific socio-structural characteristics. The paper offers an interpretation of the Serbian politics throughout 1990s in terms of a cleavage of world views.

  19. Accuracy Assessment of Digital Surface Models Based on WorldView-2 and ADS80 Stereo Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ginzler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital surface models (DSMs are widely used in forest science to model the forest canopy. Stereo pairs of very high resolution satellite and digital aerial images are relatively new and their absolute accuracy for DSM generation is largely unknown. For an assessment of these input data two DSMs based on a WorldView-2 stereo pair and a ADS80 DSM were generated with photogrammetric instruments. Rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs are defining the orientation of the WorldView-2 satellite images, which can be enhanced with ground control points (GCPs. Thus two WorldView-2 DSMs were distinguished: a WorldView-2 RPCs-only DSM and a WorldView-2 GCP-enhanced RPCs DSM. The accuracy of the three DSMs was estimated with GPS measurements, manual stereo-measurements, and airborne laser scanning data (ALS. With GCP-enhanced RPCs the WorldView-2 image orientation could be optimised to a root mean square error (RMSE of 0.56 m in planimetry and 0.32 m in height. This improvement in orientation allowed for a vertical median error of −0.24 m for the WorldView-2 GCP-enhanced RPCs DSM in flat terrain. Overall, the DSM based on ADS80 images showed the highest accuracy of the three models with a median error of 0.08 m over bare ground. As the accuracy of a DSM varies with land cover three classes were distinguished: herb and grass, forests, and artificial areas. The study suggested the ADS80 DSM to best model actual surface height in all three land cover classes, with median errors < 1.1 m. The WorldView-2 GCP-enhanced RPCs model achieved good accuracy, too, with median errors of −0.43 m for the herb and grass vegetation and −0.26 m for artificial areas. Forested areas emerged as the most difficult land cover type for height modelling; still, with median errors of −1.85 m for the WorldView-2 GCP-enhanced RPCs model and −1.12 m for the ADS80 model, the input data sets evaluated here are quite promising for forest canopy modelling.

  20. Cybersemiotics: An Evolutionary World View Going Beyond Entropy and Information into the Question of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Brier

    2010-08-01

    intersubjective base as Peirce considers all knowledge as intersubjectively produced through signs and view emotions and qualia as Firstness. The integrative transdisciplinary synthesis of Cybersemiotics starts by accepting two major, but not fully explanatory, and very different transdisciplinary paradigms: 1. The second order cybernetic and autopoietic approach united in Luhmann’s triple autopoietic system theory of social communication; 2. The Peircean phaneroscopic, triadic, pragmaticistic, evolutionary, semiotic approach to meaning, which has led to modern biosemiotics, based in a phenomenological intersubjective world of partly self-organizing triadic sign processes in an experiental meaningful world. The two are integrated by inserting the modern development of information theory and self-organizing emergent chemico-biological phenomena as an aspect of a general semiotic evolution in the Peircean framework. This creates the Cybersemiotic framework, where evolutionary experiental and intersubjective sign processes become the ground reality, on which our conceptions of ourselves, action, meaning and the word are built. None of the results from exact science, biology, humanities or social sciences are considered more fundamental than the others. They contribute on an equal footing to our intersubjective semiotics knowing process of ourselves and the world

  1. An Ensemble-Based Training Data Refinement for Automatic Crop Discrimination Using WorldView-2 Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferre, Ty Paul; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2015-01-01

    operates based on two assumptions: 1) mislabels in each class will be far from their cluster centroid and 2) each crop class based on the available vector data has more correctly labeled samples than mislabeled samples. Three datasets, derived from bitemporal WorldView-2 multispectral imagery, are used...... the multievidence classification approach. The study is implemented with WorldView-2 imagery acquired for a study area in Denmark containing 15 crop classes. The multievidence classification approach with ECRA-based refinement is compared with the classification based on common training sample selection methods...

  2. The Overlapping Worlds View: Analvzing Identity Transformation in Real and Virtual Worlds and the Effects on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael A.; Wang, Feihong

    2008-01-01

    Of late, digital game-based learning has attracted game designers, researchers and educators alike. Immersion in the virtual 3D environment of a game may have positive effects on K-12 students' cultivation of self (Dodge et al., 2006). Currently, two opposing views related to game-based identity formation are presented in the literature: the…

  3. Effects of atmospheric correction and pansharpening on LULC classification accuracy using WorldView-2 imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinsu Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes of Land Use and Land Cover (LULC affect atmospheric, climatic, and biological spheres of the earth. Accurate LULC map offers detail information for resources management and intergovernmental cooperation to debate global warming and biodiversity reduction. This paper examined effects of pansharpening and atmospheric correction on LULC classification. Object-Based Support Vector Machine (OB-SVM and Pixel-Based Maximum Likelihood Classifier (PB-MLC were applied for LULC classification. Results showed that atmospheric correction is not necessary for LULC classification if it is conducted in the original multispectral image. Nevertheless, pansharpening plays much more important roles on the classification accuracy than the atmospheric correction. It can help to increase classification accuracy by 12% on average compared to the ones without pansharpening. PB-MLC and OB-SVM achieved similar classification rate. This study indicated that the LULC classification accuracy using PB-MLC and OB-SVM is 82% and 89% respectively. A combination of atmospheric correction, pansharpening, and OB-SVM could offer promising LULC maps from WorldView-2 multispectral and panchromatic images.

  4. Detection of Alteration Induced by Onshore Gas Seeps from ASTER and WorldView-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Salati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon seeps cause chemical and mineralogical changes at the surface, which can be detected by remote sensing. This paper aims at the detection of mineral alteration induced by gas seeps in a marly limestone formation, SW Iran. For this purpose, the multispectral Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and the high spatial resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2 data were utilized for mapping surficial rock alteration. In addition, the potential of Visible Near Infrared (VNIR bands of the WV-2 and its high spatial resolution for mapping alterations was determined. Band ratioing, principal component analysis (PCA, data fusion and the boosted regression trees (BRT were applied to enhance and classify the altered and unaltered marly limestone formation. The alteration zones were identified and mapped by remote sensing analyses. Integrating the WV-2 into the ASTER data improved the spatial accuracy of the BRT classifications. The results showed that the BRT classification of the multiple band imagery (created from ASTER and WV-2 using regions of interest (ROIs around field data provides the best discrimination between altered and unaltered areas. It is suggested that the WV-2 dataset can provide a potential tool along higher spectral resolution data for mapping alteration minerals related to hydrocarbon seeps in arid and semi-arid areas.

  5. Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2007-01-01

    Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Machine Learning with WorldView-2 Pan-Sharpened Imagery for Tea Crop Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yung-Chung Matt; Shiu, Yi-Shiang

    2016-01-01

    Tea is an important but vulnerable economic crop in East Asia, highly impacted by climate change. This study attempts to interpret tea land use/land cover (LULC) using very high resolution WorldView-2 imagery of central Taiwan with both pixel and object-based approaches. A total of 80 variables derived from each WorldView-2 band with pan-sharpening, standardization, principal components and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture indices transformation, were set as the input variables. For pixel-based image analysis (PBIA), 34 variables were selected, including seven principal components, 21 GLCM texture indices and six original WorldView-2 bands. Results showed that support vector machine (SVM) had the highest tea crop classification accuracy (OA = 84.70% and KIA = 0.690), followed by random forest (RF), maximum likelihood algorithm (ML), and logistic regression analysis (LR). However, the ML classifier achieved the highest classification accuracy (OA = 96.04% and KIA = 0.887) in object-based image analysis (OBIA) using only six variables. The contribution of this study is to create a new framework for accurately identifying tea crops in a subtropical region with real-time high-resolution WorldView-2 imagery without field survey, which could further aid agriculture land management and a sustainable agricultural product supply. PMID:27128915

  7. The Impact of Globalization and Technology on Teaching Business Communication: Reframing and Enlarging World View, Methods, and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the current paradigm shift in the use of technology in the classroom, which is occurring because of technology explosion in society, impact of globalization, necessary reframing, and enlarging of the world view, methods, and content to make business communication classes relevant. The question is whether the classroom should…

  8. Assessing the potential of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Martin; Ostwald, Madelene; Reese, Heather; Bazié, Hugues Roméo; Tankoano, Boalidioa

    2016-08-01

    High resolution satellite systems enable efficient and detailed mapping of tree cover, with high potential to support both natural resource monitoring and ecological research. This study investigates the capability of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery to map five dominant tree species at the individual tree crown level in a parkland landscape in central Burkina Faso. The Random Forest algorithm is used for object based tree species classification and for assessing the relative importance of WorldView-2 predictors. The classification accuracies from using wet season, dry season and multi-seasonal datasets are compared to gain insights about the optimal timing for image acquisition. The multi-seasonal dataset produced the most accurate classifications, with an overall accuracy (OA) of 83.4%. For classifications based on single date imagery, the dry season (OA = 78.4%) proved to be more suitable than the wet season (OA = 68.1%). The predictors that contributed most to the classification success were based on the red edge band and visible wavelengths, in particular green and yellow. It was therefore concluded that WorldView-2, with its unique band configuration, represents a suitable data source for tree species mapping in West African parklands. These results are particularly promising when considering the recently launched WorldView-3, which provides data both at higher spatial and spectral resolution, including shortwave infrared bands.

  9. Evaluation of World View-2 Satellite Data for Mapping Seaweed Beds Along Karachi Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish Siddiqui, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION One of the important components for the coastal system are seaweeds. Seaweed provides numerous ecosystem facilities such as; habitats, fishing nursery grounds, feed production for aquatic biota, and ability to absorb nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus and carbon fixation for seawater purification. It's an important coastal resource that has great economic potential due to its utilization in food, cosmetics and industrial products. It also plays an important role in aquaculture and fish breeding. The habitats of many sea species rely on seaweeds for their shelter and food requirements. Seaweed resources are present along Pakistan coastal areas mainly around Karachi shoreline and there exists a potential market for seaweed in the country that is yet untapped. Not only this but the seaweed resources in Pakistan are still unexplored and unmapped. The need to preserve and map seaweed sites along Karachi coast is, cannot be overlooked due to the economic potential of seaweed. To protect marine biodiversity, regular monitoring and mapping of seaweeds are important in order to regulate their growth and their dependent species to maintain their biological associations. The main purpose of this study is to map naturally existing seaweed resources along the Karachi coast and identify the environmental parameters which impact seaweed growth in coastal waters of Karachi using geospatial techniques. To estimate marine resources such as seaweed over a certain area using traditional methods require an extensive amount of labor, cost and time. Remote sensing techniques, on the other hand, offer a good alternative to performing studies on a larger scale using minimum resources as compared to the conventional methods. DATA AND DATA SOURCES WorldView-2 images of 2 meter multispectral and 0.5 meter panchromatic and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) daily composite of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) product of 250 meter resolutions are used in this

  10. High Hopes in a Grim World. Emerging Adults' Views of Their Futures and "Generation X."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2000-01-01

    Explores views of the future among young adults age 21-28 years, focusing on quality of life, financial well-being, career achievements, and personal relationships. Data from interviews and questionnaires show a sharp distinction between how respondents view their personal futures (with high hopes) and how they view their generation's perspective…

  11. Improved Forest Biomass and Carbon Estimations Using Texture Measures from WorldView-2 Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Eckert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of aboveground biomass and carbon stock has gained importance in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. In order to develop improved forest stratum–specific aboveground biomass and carbon estimation models for humid rainforest in northeast Madagascar, this study analyzed texture measures derived from WorldView-2 satellite data. A forest inventory was conducted to develop stratum-specific allometric equations for dry biomass. On this basis, carbon was calculated by applying a conversion factor. After satellite data preprocessing, vegetation indices, principal components, and texture measures were calculated. The strength of their relationships with the stratum-specific plot data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation. Biomass and carbon estimation models were developed by performing stepwise multiple linear regression. Pearson’s correlation coefficients revealed that (a texture measures correlated more with biomass and carbon than spectral parameters, and (b correlations were stronger for degraded forest than for non-degraded forest. For degraded forest, the texture measures of Correlation, Angular Second Moment, and Contrast, derived from the red band, contributed to the best estimation model, which explained 84% of the variability in the field data (relative RMSE = 6.8%. For non-degraded forest, the vegetation index EVI and the texture measures of Variance, Mean, and Correlation, derived from the newly introduced coastal blue band, both NIR bands, and the red band, contributed to the best model, which explained 81% of the variability in the field data (relative RMSE = 11.8%. These results indicate that estimation of tropical rainforest biomass/carbon, based on very high resolution satellite data, can be improved by (a developing and applying forest stratum–specific models, and (b including textural information in addition to spectral information.

  12. Mapping bathymetry in an active surf zone with the WorldView2 multispectral satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.; Brander, R.; Chirico, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rip currents are strong, narrow seaward flows of water that originate in the surf zones of many global beaches. They are related to hundreds of international drownings each year, but exact numbers are difficult to calculate due to logistical difficulties in obtaining accurate incident reports. Annual average rip current fatalities are estimated to be ~100, 53 and 21 in the United States (US), Costa Rica, and Australia respectively. Current warning systems (e.g. National Weather Service) do not account for fine resolution nearshore bathymetry because it is difficult to capture. The method shown here could provide frequent, high resolution maps of nearshore bathymetry at a scale required for improved rip prediction and warning. This study demonstrates a method for mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m deep and less), specifically within rip channels, because rips form at topographically low spots in the bathymetry as a result of feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry. The methods employ the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) multispectral satellite and field measurements of depth to generate maps of the changing bathymetry at two embayed, rip-prone beaches: Playa Cocles, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Costa Rica, and Bondi Beach, Sydney, Australia. WV2 has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including 'yellow' (585-625 nm) and 'coastal blue' (400-450 nm). The data is used to classify bottom type and to map depth to the return in multiple bands. The methodology is tested at each site for algorithm consistency between dates, and again for applicability between sites.

  13. Evaluation of World View-2 Satellite Data for Mapping Seaweed Beds Along Karachi Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish Siddiqui, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION One of the important components for the coastal system are seaweeds. Seaweed provides numerous ecosystem facilities such as; habitats, fishing nursery grounds, feed production for aquatic biota, and ability to absorb nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus and carbon fixation for seawater purification. It's an important coastal resource that has great economic potential due to its utilization in food, cosmetics and industrial products. It also plays an important role in aquaculture and fish breeding. The habitats of many sea species rely on seaweeds for their shelter and food requirements. Seaweed resources are present along Pakistan coastal areas mainly around Karachi shoreline and there exists a potential market for seaweed in the country that is yet untapped. Not only this but the seaweed resources in Pakistan are still unexplored and unmapped. The need to preserve and map seaweed sites along Karachi coast is, cannot be overlooked due to the economic potential of seaweed. To protect marine biodiversity, regular monitoring and mapping of seaweeds are important in order to regulate their growth and their dependent species to maintain their biological associations. The main purpose of this study is to map naturally existing seaweed resources along the Karachi coast and identify the environmental parameters which impact seaweed growth in coastal waters of Karachi using geospatial techniques. To estimate marine resources such as seaweed over a certain area using traditional methods require an extensive amount of labor, cost and time. Remote sensing techniques, on the other hand, offer a good alternative to performing studies on a larger scale using minimum resources as compared to the conventional methods. DATA AND DATA SOURCES WorldView-2 images of 2 meter multispectral and 0.5 meter panchromatic and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) daily composite of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) product of 250 meter resolutions are used in this

  14. Enhancing Coral Health Detection Using Spectral Diversity Indices from WorldView-2 Imagery and Machine Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Planes; Antoine Collin

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide waning health of coral reefs implies an increasing need for monitoring them at colony scale over large areas. Relaying fieldwork considerably, the remote sensing approach can address this need in offering spectral information relevant for coral health detection with 0.5 m spatial accuracy. We investigated the potential of spectral diversity indices to achieve the discrimination of coral-dominated assemblages and health states from novel satellite imagery (WorldView-2, WV2). Both...

  15. Exploration of Preservice Science Teachers\\' Epistemological Beliefs, World Views, and Self-Efficacy Considering Gender and Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice science teachers’ epistemological beliefs, epistemological world views, and self-efficacy beliefs with respect to academic achievement and gender. A total of 391 preservice science teachers participated in this study. Schommer’s Epistemological Questionnaire was administered to measure their epistemological beliefs. Factor analysis revealed four factor structures: “Innate ability,” “Certain knowledge,” “Simple knowledge,” and “Omniscient...

  16. The Effect of the Border on Student Views of the World: Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Thomas F.

    A comparison of freehand sketch maps of the world provides a simple but effective means of exploring images of the world. The maps of 60 high school students from Nogales, Arizona, and 60 from Nogales, Sonora, were analyzed according to number of map features included, percent of features for each continent, frequency of country identification in…

  17. Improving the automated detection of refugee/IDP dwellings using the multispectral bands of the WorldView-2 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Thomas; Gueguen, Lionel; Soille, Pierre

    2012-06-01

    The enumeration of the population remains a critical task in the management of refugee/IDP camps. Analysis of very high spatial resolution satellite data proofed to be an efficient and secure approach for the estimation of dwellings and the monitoring of the camp over time. In this paper we propose a new methodology for the automated extraction of features based on differential morphological decomposition segmentation for feature extraction and interactive training sample selection from the max-tree and min-tree structures. This feature extraction methodology is tested on a WorldView-2 scene of an IDP camp in Darfur Sudan. Special emphasis is given to the additional available bands of the WorldView-2 sensor. The results obtained show that the interactive image information tool is performing very well by tuning the feature extraction to the local conditions. The analysis of different spectral subsets shows that it is possible to obtain good results already with an RGB combination, but by increasing the number of spectral bands the detection of dwellings becomes more accurate. Best results were obtained using all eight bands of WorldView-2 satellite.

  18. Exploiting Context to Identify Lexical Atoms A Statistical View of Linguistic Context

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, C

    1997-01-01

    Interpretation of natural language is inherently context-sensitive. Most words in natural language are ambiguous and their meanings are heavily dependent on the linguistic context in which they are used. The study of lexical semantics can not be separated from the notion of context. This paper takes a contextual approach to lexical semantics and studies the linguistic context of lexical atoms, or "sticky" phrases such as "hot dog". Since such lexical atoms may occur frequently in unrestricted natural language text, recognizing them is crucial for understanding naturally-occurring text. The paper proposes several heuristic approaches to exploiting the linguistic context to identify lexical atoms from arbitrary natural language text.

  19. Critical Assessment of Theoretical Calculations of Atomic Structure and Transition Probabilities: An Experimenter’s View

    OpenAIRE

    Elmar Träbert

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of atomic observations by theory and the testing of computational predictions by experiment are interactive processes. It is necessary to gain experience with “the other side” before claims of achievement can be validated and judged. The discussion covers some general problems in the field as well as many specific examples, mostly organized by isoelectronic sequence, of what level of accuracy recently has been reached or which atomic structure or level lifetime problem need...

  20. Critical Assessment of Theoretical Calculations of Atomic Structure and Transition Probabilities: An Experimenter’s View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Träbert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of atomic observations by theory and the testing of computational predictions by experiment are interactive processes. It is necessary to gain experience with “the other side” before claims of achievement can be validated and judged. The discussion covers some general problems in the field as well as many specific examples, mostly organized by isoelectronic sequence, of what level of accuracy recently has been reached or which atomic structure or level lifetime problem needs more attention.

  1. World nuclear directory. A guide to organizations and research activities in atomic energy. 7th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is an international guide to over 1500 organizations and laboratories which conduct or promote research, development or substantial manufacturing work in the atomic energy field. Subjects covered range from high energy nuclear physics, plasma physics and fusion technology, to radioactive waste management, economics and regulatory developments. Improvements in format have been made and the directory is indexed by title and by subject

  2. Developing the World's Digital Collection on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emil

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the developers/development, maintainers, and users of the digital collection on peaceful uses of nuclear energy, produced by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Sensitive to users in both developing and highly developed countries, this system provides closer linkage…

  3. Brave New World versus Island — Utopian and Dystopian Views on Psychopharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Schermer, M. H. N.

    2007-01-01

    Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World is a famous dystopia, frequently called upon in public discussions about new biotechnology. It is less well known that 30 years later Huxley also wrote a utopian novel, called Island. This paper will discuss both novels focussing especially on the role of psychopharmacological substances. If we see fiction as a way of imagining what the world could look like, then what can we learn from Huxley’s novels about psychopharmacology and how does that relate to the di...

  4. The World-Saving Book——The View on Peace of an Ordinary Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Tang Chuansong’s The View on Peace of an Ordinary Chinese repre- sents the consummation of the author’s years of hard work. Published in both Chinese and English, the book centers on the distinct theme that human beings should be kind, countries should b

  5. I Am All about the Future World: Cambodian Children's Views on Their Status as Orphans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The dominant representation of children living in majority world orphanages highlights their vulnerability and fragility. However, little is known about their lived experiences of orphanage care and their perspectives on being regarded as "orphans". This article draws on data from a pilot project undertaken in one orphanage in Cambodia to…

  6. Local closed world reasoning: a personal view on current status and trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Z. PAN; Yuan REN

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction In computer science and artificial intelligence,an ontology is a model of (some aspect of) the world that introduces the vocabulary of a particular domain,and specifies the meaning (semantics) of terms.Today's ontologies are based on the description logics (DLs).With the help of DL reasoners,implicit knowledge can be inferred from explicit knowledge in an ontology.Different from the relational database or logic programming,ontologies impose the open world assumption (OWA) instead of the closed world assumption (CWA).In CWA,a proposition will be regarded as false,if there is no evidence for it being true.While in OWA,a proposition will be regarded as false if and only if there is clear.evidence for it being false.These two assumptions seem to contradict with each other.However,in real world applications,it is usually desired to combine OWA and CWA.For example,a restaurant should not close the class ‘Vegetarian Customer’ because whether a new customer is vegetarian or not is unknown to the restaurant unless explicitly asserted by the customer.Nevertheless,it can close the class ‘Vegetarian Food Menu’ because it has the complete knowledge about its own menus.This raises the challenge of doing local closed world reasoning (LCWR) with ontologies.In the following sections of this extended abstract,we review the state of the art regarding this topic.We also propose several emerging topics in this research area and discuss possible technical directions.

  7. Palliative care physicians′ religious / world view and attitude towards euthanasia: A quantitative study among flemish palliative care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Broeckaert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To Study the religious and ideological views and practice of Palliative Care physician towards Euthanasia. Materials and Methods: An anonymous self administered questionnaire approved by Flemish Palliative Care Federation and its ethics steering group was sent to all physicians(n-147 working in Flemish Palliative Care. Questionnaire consisted of three parts. In first part responded were requested to provide demographic information. In second part the respondents were asked to provide information concerning their religion or world view through several questions enquiring after religious or ideological affiliation,religious or ideological self-definition, view on life after death, image of God, spirituality, importance of rituals in their life, religious practice, and importance of religion in life. The third part consisted of a list of attitudinal statements regarding different treatment decisions in advanced disease on which the respondents had to give their opinion using a five-point Likert scale.99 physician responded. Results: We were able to distinguish four clusters: Church-going physicians, infrequently church-going physicians, atheists and doubters. We found that like the Belgian general public, many Flemish palliative care physicians concoct their own religious or ideological identity and feel free to drift away from traditional religious and ideological authorities. Conclusions: In our research we noted that physicians who have a strong belief in God and express their faith through participation in prayer and rituals, tend to be more critical toward euthanasia. Physicians who deny the existence of a transcendent power and hardly attend religious services are more likely to approve of euthanasia even in the case of minors or demented patients. In this way this study confirms the influence of religion and world view on attitudes toward euthanasia.

  8. Cybersemiotics: An Evolutionary World View Going Beyond Entropy and Information into the Question of Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Brier

    2010-01-01

    What makes Cybersemiotics different from other approaches attempting to produce a transdisciplinary theory of information, cognition and communication is its absolute naturalism, which forces us to view life, consciousness and cultural meaning all as a part of nature and evolution. It thus opposes a number of orthodoxies: 1. The physico-chemical scientific paradigm based on third person objective empirical knowledge and mathematical theory, but with no conceptions of experiental life, meaning...

  9. The Relationship between World Views of Rectors with Corporate Entrepreneurship and Strategic Management in Turkish Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ata Ozdemirci; Esra Dinc Ozcan; Gorkem Ildas

    2013-01-01

    The main subject of this study is to examine the relationship between university rectors’ political viewspersonality traits and choice of strategy and corporate entrepreneurship. However, this study does not onlyinvestigate the relationships between the theoretical aspects of the cases, at the same time it is also important todemonstrate the political views of rectors which has many prejudices and assumptions about it because of thenon-democratic appointment process of rectors in state univer...

  10. Did I Say Cosmology? On Modern Cosmologies and Ancient World-views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniszewski, S.

    2009-08-01

    The modern cosmology that emerged from observational astronomy in 16th century Europe meant a radical break-away from earlier conceptions of the world. While all ancient and nonwestern worldviews usually describe a multidimensional reality in which diverse environmental, economic, sociopolitical and ideological factors intersect, modern cosmologies espouse the vision of a radically different universe which is completely dehumanized, ethically indifferent and universally valid. Despite these differences cosmology and worldview tend to be used interchangeably to depict ancient and nonwestern worldviews.Any correspondences which can be found between different parts of ancient and/or nonwestern worldviews and modern cosmologies tend to transfer modern conceptions to the premodern world. Ignoring ancient cultural contexts, we risk imposing modern cosmological concepts on past worldview categories. While we have to describe ancient astronomies in our own terms, our ultimate goal is to understand them on their own terms.

  11. Challenges and opportunities in the world of tourism from the point of view of ecotourism

    OpenAIRE

    González Fonseca, Fredy

    2012-01-01

    This article emerges from the analysis of the data corresponding to the tourism activity in the world and in Mexico, considering: the arrival of tourists and international visitors, and the arrival of tourists in the North American region. Subsequently, it is intended to place ecotourism as an option for sustainable development, which helps generate additional income for local communities and contributes to the protection and conservation of natural resources. The analysis of global tourism i...

  12. Solar power engineering in the future world: A view from Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper suggests an energy model for the future world based on solar power engineering and new Russian energy technologies. Chlorine-free solar silicon technologies, stationary concentrators, solar modules with service lives doubled up to 40 years, matrix solar elements with an efficiency factor of 20% at a concentration of 5-500, and resonance waveguide methods for transmitting energy for solar energy systems are considered. (author)

  13. The Expectations view on fiscal policy - An experiment using real world data

    OpenAIRE

    Bernasconi, Michele; Kirchkamp, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    To understand the effect of fiscal policy on the private sector we have to comprehend how expectations about fiscal variables are formed. However, little is known about the way people form expectations about fiscal variables: no undercutting theory exists, not to say empirical evidence. The problem is that “expectations are unobservable” (Bertola and Drazen [BD93, p.16]). We generate observable expectations using a combination of laboratory experiments and real world data from several Europea...

  14. Mosaic of 2m bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS World View-2 satellite imagery of Swains Island, Territory of American Samoa, South Pacific, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  15. Mosaic of bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Ni'ihau Island, Territory of the Main Hawaiian Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  16. Mosaic of gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Rota Island, Territory of Mariana, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral World View-2 satellite data. Gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  17. Mosaic of 5m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Swains Island, Territory of American Samoa, South Pacific, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral World View-2 satellite data. Gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  18. Mosaic of gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Ni'ihau Island, Territory of Main Hawaiian Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral World View-2 satellite data. Gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  19. Mosaic of gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral World View-2 satellite data. Gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  20. Mosaic of gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Sarigan Island, Territory of Mariana, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral World View-2 satellite data. Gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  1. Evaluation of a WorldView-2 image for soil salinity monitoring in a moderately affected irrigated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Divan; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2016-04-01

    Conventional methods for monitoring salt accumulation within irrigation schemes involve regular field visits to collect soil samples for laboratory analysis. Remote sensing has been proposed as a less time-consuming, more cost-effective alternative as it provides imagery covering large areas throughout the year. This study evaluated the efficacy of very high resolution (VHR) WorldView-2 imagery to map areas affected by salt accumulation. Classifications based on thresholds obtained from Jeffries-Matusita distance, regression modeling, classification and regression trees, as well as supervised classification approaches, were evaluated for discriminating between salt-affected and unaffected soils in Vaalharts, South Africa. The WorldView-2 bands were supplemented with salinity indices (SIs), principal components, and texture measures to increase the number of predictive variables. In situ soil samples were used for model development, classifier training, and accuracy assessment. The results showed that a simple threshold implemented on a normalized difference SI was the most successful in separating classes, with an overall accuracy of 80%. The findings suggest that VHR satellite imagery holds much potential for monitoring salt accumulation, but more research is needed to investigate why the classification results tend to overestimate salt-affected areas. More work is also needed to evaluate the transferability of the techniques to other irrigation schemes.

  2. Object based technique for delineating and mapping 15 tree species using VHR WorldView-2 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Yaseen T.; Habeeb, Hindav N.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring and analyzing forests and trees are required task to manage and establish a good plan for the forest sustainability. To achieve such a task, information and data collection of the trees are requested. The fastest way and relatively low cost technique is by using satellite remote sensing. In this study, we proposed an approach to identify and map 15 tree species in the Mangish sub-district, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Image-objects (IOs) were used as the tree species mapping unit. This is achieved using the shadow index, normalized difference vegetation index and texture measurements. Four classification methods (Maximum Likelihood, Mahalanobis Distance, Neural Network, and Spectral Angel Mapper) were used to classify IOs using selected IO features derived from WorldView-2 imagery. Results showed that overall accuracy was increased 5-8% using the Neural Network method compared with other methods with a Kappa coefficient of 69%. This technique gives reasonable results of various tree species classifications by means of applying the Neural Network method with IOs techniques on WorldView-2 imagery.

  3. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in the developing world:The view from Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Furqaan; Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer screening has become a defining concern of current gastroenterological practice in many Western nations.This same focus does not exist in many developing countries,including Pakistan.There is a need to develop a model for the developing world.Here are several areas that need to be pursued:(1) epidemiological research;(2) physician and public education;(3) training of gastroenterologists,especially female ones;(4) less expensive and more culturally acceptable screening options(fecal occult blood testing); and(5) cost-effectiveness analyses.Gastroenterologists in developing countries need to step up to educate people and promote,where possible and in keeping with local conditions,the prevention and early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

  4. Narcissism and United States' culture: The view from home and around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Maples, Jessica L; Buffardi, Laura; Cai, Huajian; Gentile, Brittany; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Kwan, Virginia S Y; LoPilato, Alex; Pendry, Louise F; Sedikides, Constantine; Siedor, Lane; Campbell, W Keith

    2015-12-01

    The issue of Americans' levels of narcissism is subject to lively debate. The focus of the present research is on the perception of national character (PNC) of Americans as a group. In Study 1, American adults (N = 100) rated Americans as significantly more narcissistic than they perceived themselves and acquaintances. In Study 2, this finding was replicated with American college students (N = 322). PNC ratings of personality traits and externalizing behaviors revealed that Americans were perceived as disagreeable and antisocial as well. In Study 3, we examined the broader characteristics associated with PNC ratings (N = 183). Americans rated the typical American as average on a variety of characteristics (e.g., wealth, education, health, likability) and PNC ratings of narcissism were largely unrelated to these ratings. In Study 4 (N = 1,202) Americans rated PNCs for different prespecified groups of Americans; as expected, PNC ratings of narcissism differed by gender, age, and occupational status such that American males, younger Americans, and Americans working in high-visibility and status occupations were seen as more narcissistic. In Study 5 (N = 733), citizens of 4 other world regions (Basque Country, China, England, Turkey) rated members of their own region as more narcissistic than they perceived themselves, but the effect sizes were smaller than those found in the case of Americans' perceptions of Americans. Additionally, members of these other regions rated Americans as more narcissistic than members of their own region. Finally, in Study 6, participants from around the world (N = 377) rated Americans as more narcissistic, extraverted, and antagonistic than members of their own countries. We discuss the role that America's position as a global economic and military power, paired with a culture that creates and reifies celebrity figures, may play in leading to perceptions of Americans as considerably narcissistic.

  5. Views concerning the admissibility of actions to set aside, brought under the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some respects, the Federal Constitutional Court's decisions of July 17, 1980 (on Wyhl reactor) and of December 22, 1980 (on Stade reactor) will set up standards for the admissibility of future actions brought by third parties to set aside licences granted unter the Atomic Energy Law, at least, they will show the way. Above all, important statements on fundamental problems posed by the right to file suit are to be found in these decisions, especially on the substantiation of complaints, as well as significant observations on the constitutionality, the individual interpretation and the application of regulations laid down in the Atomic Energy Law on the preclusion of objections. This clarification and positioning of points has been of immense interest to science and practice. They support the understanding of the judicial system of legal protection even within the constitutional framework, and these decisions, made on the basis of a correctly understood and highly esteemed guarantee of legal protection (para. 4 of art. 19 of the Basic Law) will have effects that may call a halt to the exploitation of this guarantee. This would not only be good for our constitutional state but also for the further development of economy and technology that is required in our country. (orig./HP)

  6. High spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery for mapping NDVI and its relationship to temporal urban landscape evapotranspiration factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Hamideh; Beecham, Simon; Anderson, Sharolyn; Nagler, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Evapotranspiration estimation has benefitted from recent advances in remote sensing and GIS techniques particularly in agricultural applications rather than urban environments. This paper explores the relationship between urban vegetation evapotranspiration (ET) and vegetation indices derived from newly-developed high spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery. The study site was Veale Gardens in Adelaide, Australia. Image processing was applied on five images captured from February 2012 to February 2013 using ERDAS Imagine. From 64 possible two band combinations of WorldView-2, the most reliable one (with the maximum median differences) was selected. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values were derived for each category of landscape cover, namely trees, shrubs, turf grasses, impervious pavements, and water bodies. Urban landscape evapotranspiration rates for Veale Gardens were estimated through field monitoring using observational-based landscape coefficients. The relationships between remotely sensed NDVIs for the entire Veale Gardens and for individual NDVIs of different vegetation covers were compared with field measured urban landscape evapotranspiration rates. The water stress conditions experienced in January 2013 decreased the correlation between ET and NDVI with the highest relationship of ET-Landscape NDVI (Landscape Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) for shrubs (r2 = 0.66) and trees (r2 = 0.63). However, when the January data was excluded, there was a significant correlation between ET and NDVI. The highest correlation for ET-Landscape NDVI was found for the entire Veale Gardens regardless of vegetation type (r2 = 0.95, p > 0.05) and the lowest one was for turf (r2 = 0.88, p > 0.05). In support of the feasibility of ET estimation by WV2 over a longer period, an algorithm recently developed that estimates evapotranspiration rates based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS was employed. The results revealed a significant positive

  7. An Atomic-Scale X-ray View of Functional Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, I.-Cheng

    Complex oxides are a class of materials that exhibit a wide variety of physical functionalities, such as ferroelectricity, colossal magnetoresistance, mulitferroicity and superconductivity, with outstanding potential for meeting many of our technological demands. The primary objective of this dissertation is to understand the structural and electronic behavior of complex oxide ultrathin films subjected to confinement, lattice misfit and broken symmetry at the interface. In complex oxide ultrathin films, heteroepitaxial synthesis has evolved into a reliable strategy to engineer orbital-lattice interactions in correlated materials and led to new and entirely unexpected phenomena at their interfaces. I experimentally demonstrated that the bulk crystal symmetry directs the atomic and orbital responses adopted by coherently strained ultrathin films of RNiO3 (R = La, Nd) with detailed X-ray scattering, polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and supported by a mathematical point group symmetry analysis, found that strain-stabilized phases maintain a ``memory'' of their bulk state. This topic, however, touched only upon the properties of such films. A fundamental challenge in this research area occurs before this and centers around the understanding of how to create high-quality films with arbitrary configurations. A longstanding challenge in the oxide thin film community has been the growth of An+1BnO3 n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) compounds. To understand this problem, we have utilized a newly constructed oxide MBE with in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering capability to study the initial growth of such layered oxides and track the dynamic evolution. X-ray results are supported by theoretical calculations that demonstrated the layered oxide films dynamically rearrange during growth, leading to structures that are highly unexpected, and suggest a general approach that may be essential for the construction of metastable RP phases with performing the first

  8. Identification of urban tree crown in a tropical environment using WorldView-2 data: problems and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marília F.; Maillard, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    With the availability of high-resolution satellite data, much research has been focused on the automatic detection and classi cation of individual tree crowns. Most of these studies were applied to temperate climates of the northern hemisphere, especially for forests of coniferous. Very few studies have been applied to the detection of trees in the tropical regions, least of all in the urban environment. Urban trees play a major role in maintaining or even improving the quality of life in cities by their contribution to the quality of the air, by absorbing rain water, by refreshing the air through transpiration and providing shadow. In this study we explored the potential of high-resolution WorldView-2 satellite data for the identi cation of urban individual tree crowns in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, through an object-oriented approach. Irrelevant areas were masked (e.g. buildings, asphalt, shadows, exposed soil) using a threshold of NDVI. Three di erent approaches were tested to isolate and delineate individual tree crowns: region growing, watershed and template matching. For the rst two approaches several parameters were tested to nd the best result for the isolation of the individual tree crowns. An in-house program has been developed for template matching using a set of seven di erent templates of di erent species. A set of 300 individual tree crowns were visually interpreted in the WorldView-2 image to serve as validation and to compare the performance of the three di erent approaches. Then, the comparison was performed between the visual interpretation and the results of each approach by calculating the di erence between the areas as a ratio of the validated area. Our results show that the region growing approach provided the best results, with an accuracy of over 80%.

  9. GIS based Cadastral level Forest Information System using World View-II data in Bir Hisar (Haryana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothi Kumar, K. E.; Singh, S.; Attri, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A.; Sarika; Hooda, R. S.; Sapra, R. K.; Garg, V.; Kumar, V.; Nivedita

    2014-11-01

    Identification and demarcation of Forest lands on the ground remains a major challenge in Forest administration and management. Cadastral forest mapping deals with forestlands boundary delineation and their associated characterization (forest/non forest). The present study is an application of high resolution World View-II data for digitization of Protected Forest boundary at cadastral level with integration of Records of Right (ROR) data. Cadastral vector data was generated by digitization of spatial data using scanned mussavies in ArcGIS environment. Ortho-images were created from World View-II digital stereo data with Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system with WGS 84 datum. Cadastral vector data of Bir Hisar (Hisar district, Haryana) and adjacent villages was spatially adjusted over ortho-image using ArcGIS software. Edge matching of village boundaries was done with respect to khasra boundaries of individual village. The notified forest grids were identified on ortho-image and grid vector data was extracted from georeferenced cadastral data. Cadastral forest boundary vectors were digitized from ortho-images. Accuracy of cadastral data was checked by comparison of randomly selected geo-coordinates points, tie lines and boundary measurements of randomly selected parcels generated from image data set with that of actual field measurements. Area comparison was done between cadastral map area, the image map area and RoR area. The area covered under Protected Forest was compared with ROR data and within an accuracy of less than 1 % from ROR area was accepted. The methodology presented in this paper is useful to update the cadastral forest maps. The produced GIS databases and large-scale Forest Maps may serve as a data foundation towards a land register of forests. The study introduces the use of very high resolution satellite data to develop a method for cadastral surveying through on - screen digitization in a less time as compared to the old fashioned

  10. Milan Kundera's View of"World Literature"%米兰·昆德拉的世界文学观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范小青

    2016-01-01

    Milan Kundera's view of "world literature"can be summarized as follows:First of all,to understand the "aesthetic value"of literature,we should start from the "overall environment"(the history of art),therefore,the thought of "world literature"is very important.Secondly,the opportunity of entering into "world literature"is unequal for each national literature from "master"nations to minor nations.Thirdly,language is the stumbling block in the road that leads to "world literature"for writers from minor nations, and to seek international recognition, translation is the best choice to them. Fourthly,Goethe's theory of"world literature"eventually became a"betrayed will"because of the realistic differences among national political, economic and cultural status, and localism that caused by nationalism,and linguistic inequality.In order to solve Milan Kundera's problem,we need a new concept of "world literature".In David Damrosch's theory,"world literature"is an elliptical refraction of each national literature,an writing that gains in translation,and a mode of reading.Based on the "heightening of the naturally creative interaction of reader and text"from good translation,and the collaborative work of scholars,the prospect of world literature is getting clearer and clearer.%昆德拉的世界文学观可以概括为:首先,认识文学的"美学价值",应该从"大环境"(艺术史)入手,因此,"世界文学"的思想非常重要;其次,民族有大有小,各民族文学进入"世界文学"的机会并不均等;第三,语言是"小民族"作家走向"世界文学"的绊脚石,他们不得不借助翻译来寻求国际认可;第四,由于各民族政治、经济、文化地位的现实差异,民族主义带来的地方主义,以及语言的不平等,歌德的"世界文学"实际上成了"被背叛的遗嘱".为了解决昆德拉的问题,我们引入了丹穆若什的世界文学理论."世界文学"是"民族文学的椭圆形折射",是从翻译中获益的文学,是

  11. Creativity and Quantum Physics: a New World View Unifying Current Theories of Creativity and Pointing Toward New Research Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kimberly Ann

    1990-01-01

    Divisions in definitions of creativity have centered primarily on the working definition of discontinuity and the inclusion of intrinsic features such as unconscious processing and intrinsic motivation and reinforcement. These differences generally result from Cohen's two world views underlying theories of creativity: Organismic, oriented toward holism; or mechanistic, oriented toward cause-effect reductionism. The quantum world view is proposed which theoretically and empirically unifies organismic and mechanistic elements of creativity. Based on Goswami's Idealistic Interpretation of quantum physics, the quantum view postulates the mind -brain as consisting of both classical and quantum structures and functions. The quantum domain accesses the transcendent order through coherent superpositions (a state of potentialities), while the classical domain performs the function of measuring apparatus through amplifying and recording the result of the collapse of the pure mental state. A theoretical experiment, based on the 1980 Marcel study of conscious and unconscious word-sense disambiguation, is conducted which compares the predictions of the quantum model with those of the 1975 Posner and Snyder Facilitation and Inhibition model. Each model agrees that while conscious access to information is limited, unconscious access is unlimited. However, each model differently defines the connection between these states: The Posner model postulates a central processing mechanism while the quantum model postulates a self-referential consciousness. Consequently, the two models predict differently. The strength of the quantum model lies in its ability to distinguish between classical and quantum definitions of discontinuity, as well as clarifying the function of consciousness, without added assumptions or ad-hoc analysis: Consciousness is an essential, valid feature of quantum mechanisms independent of the field of cognitive psychology. According to the quantum model, through a

  12. General Theory of Duality. A proposal to unifiy relativity theory, quantum mechanics and string theory - cognition for a new dynamic world view in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chase after a world formula is presently the most iridescent task for natural science. By the development of a radical new scientistic theory, unifying not only relativity and quantum theory as also astrophysics and string theory to a common view, the author lances the first serious candidate for a TOE (Theory of Everything) in the scientific discussion. The General Theory of Duality (GDT) offers not only surprising answers to fundamental questions of physics, but also discovers the smallest component of our universe, which is still known since a longer time, which we ignored: Planck's Constant. May be possible that by this book a new world view in physics can be created. (GL)

  13. Shakespeare's Cosmic World View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Peter D.

    1997-01-01

    As readers of Mercury have surely observed, astronomy admits many an allusion to Shakespeare's plays, replete as they are with descriptions of heavenly events. But Shakespeare's astronomy is more than just pretty words. It is a window into the prevailing Aristotelian and Ptolemaic cosmology of Renaissance Europe.

  14. Improved land cover mapping using high resolution multiangle 8-band WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawak, Shridhar D.; Luis, Alvarinho J.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we discuss the improvements in urban classification that were made using the spatial-spectral-angular information from a WorldView-2 (WV-2) multiangle image sequence. In this study, we evaluate the use of multiangle high resolution WV-2 panchromatic (PAN) and multispectral image (MSI) data for extracting urban geospatial information. Current multiangular WV-2 data were classified into misclassification-prone surfaces, such as vegetation, water bodies, and man-made features, using a cluster of normalized difference spectral index ratios (SIR). A novel multifold methodology protocol was designed to estimate the consequences of multiangularity and germane PAN-sharpening algorithms on the spectral characteristics (distortions) of satellite data and on the resulting land use/land cover (LU/LC) mapping using an array of SIRs. Eight existing PAN-sharpening algorithms were used for data fusion, followed by estimation of multiple SIRs to mitigate spectral distortions arising from the multiangularity of the data. This research highlights the benefits of using traditional PAN-sharpening techniques with a specific set of SIRs on land cover mapping based on five available tiles of satellite data. The research provides a method to overcome the atmospherically triggered spectral distortions of multiangular acquisitions, which will facilitate better mapping and understanding of the earth's surface.

  15. Comparison between WorldView-2 and SPOT-5 images in mapping the bracken fern using the random forest algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odindi, John; Adam, Elhadi; Ngubane, Zinhle; Mutanga, Onisimo; Slotow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Plant species invasion is known to be a major threat to socioeconomic and ecological systems. Due to high cost and limited extents of urban green spaces, high mapping accuracy is necessary to optimize the management of such spaces. We compare the performance of the new-generation WorldView-2 (WV-2) and SPOT-5 images in mapping the bracken fern [Pteridium aquilinum (L) kuhn] in a conserved urban landscape. Using the random forest algorithm, grid-search approaches based on out-of-bag estimate error were used to determine the optimal ntree and mtry combinations. The variable importance and backward feature elimination techniques were further used to determine the influence of the image bands on mapping accuracy. Additionally, the value of the commonly used vegetation indices in enhancing the classification accuracy was tested on the better performing image data. Results show that the performance of the new WV-2 bands was better than that of the traditional bands. Overall classification accuracies of 84.72 and 72.22% were achieved for the WV-2 and SPOT images, respectively. Use of selected indices from the WV-2 bands increased the overall classification accuracy to 91.67%. The findings in this study show the suitability of the new generation in mapping the bracken fern within the often vulnerable urban natural vegetation cover types.

  16. Impact analysis of pansharpening Landsat ETM+, Landsat OLI, WorldView-2, and Ikonos images on vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Dušan; Govedarica, Miro; Sabo, Filip; Važić, Radmila; Popović, Dragana

    2016-08-01

    The aim of our study was to verify the impact that pansharpening (PS) methods produce on vegetation indices. We used images with both moderate (Landsat 7, Landsat 8) and high (World View2, Ikonos) spatial resolution on which we performed three methods of PS (Brovey transform, Gram-Schmidt and Principal component). The study is based on the differences of vegetation indices (VI) values before and after the pansharpening method is applied. The difference is quantified as an root mean square error. Vegetation indices used in this study were: NDVI, MSAVI2, EVI2, GNDVI, OSAVI and SAVI. Statistical analysis is carried out by calculating coefficients of correlation, root mean square errors and bias calculations for every vegetation index before and after pansharpening procedure is done. The results imply that the BT gave the most diverse results between original VI values and the PS VI values, while the GS and PC methods preserved the values of pixel bands, and that the effect of any PS method is most evident when using Ikonos bands.

  17. Remote Estimation of Greenland Ice Sheet Supraglacial River Discharge using GIS Modeling and WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, V. W.; Smith, L. C.; Yang, K.; Gleason, C. J.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Pitcher, L. H.; Legleiter, C. J.; Forster, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing surface melting on the Greenland ice sheet and rising sea level have heightened the need for understanding the complex pathways transporting meltwater from the ice sheet surface to the ice edge and the ocean. Satellite images show supraglacial rivers abundantly covering the western ablation zone throughout the melt season, transporting large volumes of meltwater into moulins and to the ice edge, yet these rivers remain poorly studied. Here, a GIS modeling framework is developed to estimate supraglacial river discharge by spatially adapting Manning's equation for use with remotely sensed imagery and is applied to supraglacial rivers on the Greenland Ice Sheet. This framework incorporates high-resolution visible/near-infrared WorldView-2 (WV2) satellite imagery, the Greenland Ice Mapping Project (GIMP) DEM, and a field-calibrated WV2 river bathymetry retrieval algorithm and channel roughness parameter. Orthogonal cross-sections are simulated along river centerlines to extract cross-sectional discharge using Manning's equation for open channel flow. A total of 1,629,502 reach-averaged points were retrieved over 465 river networks of western Greenland in 2012, including attributes of width, depth, velocity, slope, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, and discharge. This work provides a method for producing spatially extensive, high-resolution estimates of supraglacial meltwater flux in river networks and into the ice sheet.

  18. Sixth Grade Students' Development of Historical Perspective: World War II and the Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masato

    This study investigated how the use of various teaching methods influenced perspective taking skills of sixth grade middle school students during a unit of instruction on World War II. Three questions directed the study: (1) What do students know about World War II prior to a unit of study on World War II; (2) What do students know about World War…

  19. Testing the discrimination and detection limits of WorldView-2 imagery on a challenging invasive plant target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. P.; Wardell-Johnson, G. W.; Pracilio, G.; Brown, C.; Corner, R.; van Klinken, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    Invasive plants pose significant threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function globally, leading to costly monitoring and management effort. While remote sensing promises cost-effective, robust and repeatable monitoring tools to support intervention, it has been largely restricted to airborne platforms that have higher spatial and spectral resolutions, but which lack the coverage and versatility of satellite-based platforms. This study tests the ability of the WorldView-2 (WV2) eight-band satellite sensor for detecting the invasive shrub mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in the north-west Pilbara region of Australia. Detectability was challenged by the target taxa being largely defoliated by a leaf-tying biological control agent (Gelechiidae: Evippe sp. #1) and the presence of other shrubs and trees. Variable importance in the projection (VIP) scores identified bands offering greatest capacity for discrimination were those covering the near-infrared, red, and red-edge wavelengths. Wavelengths between 400 nm and 630 nm (coastal blue, blue, green, yellow) were not useful for species level discrimination in this case. Classification accuracy was tested on three band sets (simulated standard multispectral, all bands, and bands with VIP scores ≥1). Overall accuracies were comparable amongst all band-sets (Kappa = 0.71-0.77). However, mesquite omission rates were unacceptably high (21.3%) when using all eight bands relative to the simulated standard multispectral band-set (9.5%) and the band-set informed by VIP scores (11.9%). An incremental cover evaluation on the latter identified most omissions to be for objects 16 m2 allows application for mapping mesquite shrubs and coalesced stands, the former not previously possible, even with 3 m resolution hyperspectral imagery. WV2 imagery offers excellent portability potential for detecting other species where spectral/spatial resolution or coverage has been an impediment. New generation satellite sensors are removing barriers

  20. Enhancing Coral Health Detection Using Spectral Diversity Indices from WorldView-2 Imagery and Machine Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Planes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide waning health of coral reefs implies an increasing need for monitoring them at colony scale over large areas. Relaying fieldwork considerably, the remote sensing approach can address this need in offering spectral information relevant for coral health detection with 0.5 m spatial accuracy. We investigated the potential of spectral diversity indices to achieve the discrimination of coral-dominated assemblages and health states from novel satellite imagery (WorldView-2, WV2. Both Equitability’s (E and Pielou’s (P operators were used to quantify the evenness of the corrected visible spectral bands (two times 26 combinations of five bands corresponding to remotely sensed colonies. Three scleractinian corals (Porites lobata, P. rus and Acropora pulchra that are primarily involved in Moorea’s reef building (French Polynesia were examined in respect to their health state (healthy or unhealthy, referring to both bleached and dead coral, hereinafter. Using four classifiers, we showed that the Support Vector Machine (SVM greatly discerned among the six coral classes based upon the five WV2 spectral bands (93%, thus surpassing the classification issued from the three traditionally used bands (80%. Coupling the WV2 dataset with Egreen-red, Eyellow-red or E“coastal”-blue-green allowed the SVM performance to attain 96%. On the other hand, adding the E“coastal”-blue to the WV2-dataset contributed to a substantially increase of the classification accuracy derived from the Random Forest classifier, stepping from 64% to 77%. Significant contributions of spectral diversity indices to surveying coral health were further discussed in the light of spectral properties of coral-related pigments. These findings may play a major role for the extensive monitoring of coral health states at a fine scale, and for the management and restoration of damaged coral reefs.

  1. The Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault World Heritage project: a view from a scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2013-12-01

    The development of the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault World Heritage UNESCO project has taken about five years, since the Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans was approached by the local Auvergne government. Before this we had been working locally with organisations such as the Lemptégy volcano and Vulcania to help disseminate geoscience ideas to the general public, however the UNESCO project has lead us to do much more outreach. It has also stimulated our research and has taught us to better explain this to the lay person. In visiting other heritage projects, where we have exchanged ideas and best practice, we have been able to help other sites and improve what we do. These links are particularly important, as they can be used to help broaden the outlook of the general public and local actors, and increase further earth science literacy. I have noticed a strong increase in the awareness of the volcanoes, and volcanism as a result of the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault project. I think that, before, many locals considered the volcanoes only as their special back garden, for easy walks and views and leisure, or for that matter farming, mining and hunting. However, now, there is a greater sense of pride rooted in the increased awareness of their geological significance in a historical and global context. While this effect is clear for the volcanoes, it is not yet apparent for the fault. The lay person has no clear concept of a rift and a fault. Thus, one of our major present challenges is to open the public's eyes to the fault. This is vital for the UNESCO project not only for educational reasons, but also because the fault scarp is a natural barrier that protects the rest of the property from urban development. Only if there is awareness of its nature and significance will it be an effective defence. To arrive at this goal, there is now a local government sponsored project to create and disseminate fault walks, fault viewpoints and fault information points. This is

  2. Component neural systems for the creation of emotional memories during free viewing of a complex, real-world event

    OpenAIRE

    LaBar, Kevin S.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the neural systems that contribute to the formation of complex, self-relevant emotional memories, dedicated fans of rival college basketball teams watched a competitive game while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During a subsequent recognition memory task, participants were shown video clips depicting plays of the game, stemming either from previously-viewed game segments (targets) or from non-viewed portions of the same game (foils). After an old-new j...

  3. Nature of intramolecular interactions of vitamin C in view of interacting quantum atoms: the role of hydrogen bond cooperativity on geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Saeid; Dabbagh, Hossein A; Eskandari, Kiamars

    2016-07-21

    The conformational analysis of six dihedral angles was calculated by second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the correlation-consistent aug-cc-pVDZ basis set. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was applied to gain a description of the atoms and chemical bonds. A high content of hydroxyl groups in vitamin C's (VC) structure leads to a wide range of intramolecular interactions. The nature of these interactions within the selected VC conformers was studied in view of the interacting quantum atom (IQA) approach. Complete IQA analysis of the atomic and interatomic interaction energies indicated hydrogen bond formation was responsible for the stability of most of the local minima in the potential energy surface. In these conformers, the tandem participation of interactions was operating by way of two- or three-centered (bifurcated) cooperative networks. For the intramolecular hydrogen bond interplay in cooperativity, changes of the IQA atomic and interatomic interaction energies of the participant interactions were monitored during the formation of cooperative networks. The results of the intramolecular cooperativity were evaluated with changes of the delocalization index and bond distances. PMID:27332782

  4. Nullindate reisikirjad: minu-vaated maailmale / Travelogues of the 2000s: Views of the Self about the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the foreground of the literary landscape in the 2000s is the perceiving and experiencing (and writing subject; each of them could make a book and each of them could write a book, as seen by the boom of biographies of all kinds. Writing and publishing books has been democratised. Another popular area is travel writing, where a subjective perception of the world and a sense of place dominate as well. This is evident in the titles of Petrone Print’s My World-series. On the basis of this series, the article examines the characteristic trends and topics of travel writing in the 2000s.The My World travelogues are based on non-touristic experience, written by people who have stayed put in one place or another for a relatively long period. The authors know the local life and customs inside out, having become almost natives. Tourist sights are hardly described, and the focus is on the other country through the writer’s world of emotions and thoughts. The authors of the My World-series create sights for themselves, and ignore the usual routes offered by guidebooks. Besides helping the reader to get to know and experience another country, the books also pay attention to journeys inside the writers themselves. In most cases, the books offer a double journey: in the host country and within the author. In addition to a country with its culture and the writer's internal journeys, significant aspects of the travelogues are generalisations and truths that are based on personal experience and observations. The reader gets an overview of the contemporary world, a country, and its rules and peculiarities. These books can be read as separate guidebooks, while at the same time they present a subjective picture in the globalised world of a place that might be known to the reader, but which acquires new colours through the writer’s personality and offers the joy of discovery.

  5. The Office of Censorship's Attempt to Control Press Coverage of the Atomic Bomb during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Patrick S.

    The Office of Censorship's struggle to keep journalists from revealing the development of the first atomic bomb, the sites where the development was taking place, and the fact that the bomb might be available for use in the war, was desperate and in many ways heroic. Soon after it was created on December 19, 1941, the office issued a voluntary…

  6. Points of View: Reconceptualising Literacies through an Exploration of Adult and Child Interactions in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Cathy; Merchant, Guy

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and methodological issues in literacy studies emerging from an investigation of how children and adults make meanings when virtual worlds are embedded in classroom contexts. Drawing on the work of Law and Mol and Kwa's exploration of "baroque complexity", it highlights the importance of recognising…

  7. Atoms in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book the history of development of using of nuclear energy in the Slovak Republic as well as in the Czechoslovakia (before 1993 year) is presented. The aim of the book is to preserve the memory of the period when the creation and development of nuclear physics, technology, nuclear medicine, radioecology and energetics in Slovakia occurred - as witnessed by people who experienced this period and to adapt it to future generations. The Editorial board of the SNUS collected the views of 60 contributors and distinguished workers - Slovakian experts in nuclear science, education and technology. Calling upon a wide spectrum of experts ensured an objective historical description of the period. A huge amount of subjective views on recent decades were collected and supported by a wealth of photographic documentation. This created a synthesised reflection on the history of the 'atoms' in Slovakia. The book contains 15 tables, 192 black and white and 119 colour pictures from around the world and from places involved in the compilation of the study and with the study of atomic science in Slovakia. The main chapters are as follows: Atoms in the world, Atoms in Slovakia, Atoms in the educational system, Atoms in health services (Radiology, Nuclear medicine, Radiation protection, the Cyclotron centre of the Slovak Republic), Radioecology, Other applications of irradiation, Nuclear energetics (Electric energy in the second half of the 20th century, NPP Bohunice, NPP Mochovce, the back-end of Nuclear energetics, Big names in Nuclear energetics in Slovakia), Chronology and an Appendix entitled 'Slovak companies in nuclear energetics'

  8. Estimating Forest Aboveground Biomass by Combining ALOS PALSAR and WorldView-2 Data: A Case Study at Purple Mountain National Park, Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songqiu Deng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced methods are required for mapping the forest aboveground biomass (AGB over a large area in Chinese forests. This study attempted to develop an improved approach to retrieving biomass by combining PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar and WorldView-2 data. A total of 33 variables with potential correlations with forest biomass were extracted from the above data. However, these parameters had poor fits to the observed biomass. Accordingly, the synergies of several variables were explored to identify improved relationships with the AGB. Using principal component analysis and multivariate linear regression (MLR, the accuracies of the biomass estimates obtained using PALSAR and WorldView-2 data were improved to approximately 65% to 71%. In addition, using the additional dataset developed from the fusion of FBD (fine beam dual-polarization and WorldView-2 data improved the performance to 79% with an RMSE (root mean square error of 35.13 Mg/ha when using the MLR method. Moreover, a further improvement (R2 = 0.89, relative RMSE = 17.08% was obtained by combining all the variables mentioned above. For the purpose of comparison with MLR, a neural network approach was also used to estimate the biomass. However, this approach did not produce significant improvements in the AGB estimates. Consequently, the final MLR model was recommended to map the AGB of the study area. Finally, analyses of estimated error in distinguishing forest types and vertical structures suggested that the RMSE decreases gradually from broad-leaved to coniferous to mixed forest. In terms of different vertical structures (VS, VS3 has a high error because the forest lacks undergrowth trees, while VS4 forest, which has approximately the same amounts of stems in each of the three DBH (diameter at breast height classes (DBH > 20, 10 ≤ DBH ≤ 20, and DBH < 10 cm, has the lowest RMSE. This study demonstrates that the combination of PALSAR and WorldView-2 data

  9. Optimal attributes for the object based detection of giant reed in riparian habitats: A comparative study between Airborne High Spatial Resolution and WorldView-2 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Silva, João M. N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pereira, José M. C.

    2014-10-01

    Giant reed is an aggressive invasive plant of riparian ecosystems in many sub-tropical and warm-temperate regions, including Mediterranean Europe. In this study we tested a set of geometric, spectral and textural attributes in an object based image analysis (OBIA) approach to map giant reed invasions in riparian habitats. Bagging Classification and Regression Tree were used to select the optimal attributes and to build the classification rules sets. Mapping accuracy was performed using landscape metrics and the Kappa coefficient to compare the topographical and geometric similarity between the giant reed patches obtained with the OBIA map and with a validation map derived from on-screen digitizing. The methodology was applied in two high spatial resolution images: an airborne multispectral imagery and the newly WorldView-2 imagery. A temporal coverage of the airborne multispectral images was radiometrically calibrated with the IR-Mad transformation and used to assess the influence of the phenological variability of the invader. We found that optimal attributes for giant reed OBIA detection are a combination of spectral, geometric and textural information, with different scoring selection depending on the spectral and spatial characteristics of the imagery. WorldView-2 showed higher mapping accuracy (Kappa coefficient of 77%) and spectral attributes, including the newly yellow band, were preferentially selected, although a tendency to overestimate the total invaded area, due to the low spatial resolution (2 m of pixel size vs. 50 cm) was observed. When airborne images were used, geometric attributes were primarily selected and a higher spatial detail of the invasive patches was obtained, due to the higher spatial resolution. However, in highly heterogeneous landscapes, the low spectral resolution of the airborne images (4 bands instead of the 8 of WorldView-2) reduces the capability to detect giant reed patches. Giant reed displays peculiar spectral and geometric

  10. A critical engagement with BJ van der Walt’s reformational approach towards African culture and world view / Isaac Njaramba Mutua

    OpenAIRE

    Mutua, Isaac Njaramba

    2014-01-01

    This research interrogates Bennie van der Walt’s third way as a solution for the “divided soul” of the African people - a divided soul that creates a false dilemma. This division is the creation of political colonialism and neo-colonialism, which impacts negatively on the African socio-economic and political structure. The myth of the superiority of Western culture propagates this vice. Van der Walt’s clarification of the concepts of a world view and culture are depicted in chapter 1. He w...

  11. On the Instructions of Contemporary World History in a Global View%试论“全球史观”与世界当代史教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳霞

    2012-01-01

    A global view of the world history,a new trend of common concern in the historical research that emerged in the 20th century,is a fresh perspective and reflection on the recognition and change of the world history.It can be adopted in the instruction of the course of contemporary world history on the evolution of the world after the Second World War through reforming its teaching program and contents in the global perspective.It will inspire students to reflect on the post-war world history and realistic issues of today's international community,therefore cultivating their worldwide scope and awareness.%"全球史观"作为国内外史学界高度关注和热议的话题,是史学工作者在新的时代背景下认识世界历史及其变化的一种新的视角和思维倾向。作为反映二战结束以来世界发展变化的世界当代史,在教材内容和体系还相对陈旧的状况下,用"全球史观"构建教学体系和内容,在教学过程中引导学生用"全球史观"的思维方法思考战后世界历史和当今世界中的现实问题,培养具有世界意识和全球视野的人才是时代赋予历史教学的社会责任。

  12. Component neural systems for the creation of emotional memories during free viewing of a complex, real-world event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Botzung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the neural systems that contribute to the formation of complex, self-relevant emotional memories, dedicated fans of rival college basketball teams watched a competitive game while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. During a subsequent recognition memory task, participants were shown video clips depicting plays of the game, stemming either from previously-viewed game segments (targets or from non-viewed portions of the same game (foils. After an old-new judgment, participants provided emotional valence and intensity ratings of the clips. A data driven approach was first used to decompose the fMRI signal acquired during free viewing of the game into spatially independent components. Correlations were then calculated between the identified components and post-scanning emotion ratings for successfully encoded targets. Two components were correlated with intensity ratings, including temporal lobe regions implicated in memory and emotional functions, such as the hippocampus and amygdala, as well as a midline fronto-cingulo-parietal network implicated in social cognition and self-relevant processing. These data were supported by a general linear model analysis, which revealed additional valence effects in fronto-striatal-insular regions when plays were divided into positive and negative events according to the fan’s perspective. Overall, these findings contribute to our understanding of how emotional factors impact distributed neural systems to successfully encode dynamic, personally-relevant event sequences.

  13. Neural Correlates of Fixation Duration during Real-world Scene Viewing: Evidence from Fixation-related (FIRE) fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, John M; Choi, Wonil

    2015-06-01

    During active scene perception, our eyes move from one location to another via saccadic eye movements, with the eyes fixating objects and scene elements for varying amounts of time. Much of the variability in fixation duration is accounted for by attentional, perceptual, and cognitive processes associated with scene analysis and comprehension. For this reason, current theories of active scene viewing attempt to account for the influence of attention and cognition on fixation duration. Yet almost nothing is known about the neurocognitive systems associated with variation in fixation duration during scene viewing. We addressed this topic using fixation-related fMRI, which involves coregistering high-resolution eye tracking and magnetic resonance scanning to conduct event-related fMRI analysis based on characteristics of eye movements. We observed that activation in visual and prefrontal executive control areas was positively correlated with fixation duration, whereas activation in ventral areas associated with scene encoding and medial superior frontal and paracentral regions associated with changing action plans was negatively correlated with fixation duration. The results suggest that fixation duration in scene viewing is controlled by cognitive processes associated with real-time scene analysis interacting with motor planning, consistent with current computational models of active vision for scene perception. PMID:25436668

  14. The New Geographical Structures of the Capitalist World-Economy and the Role of the BRICS: a View from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Freitas Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative theoretical framework in order to understand the new nature of the capitalist world-economy and its corresponding international division of labor. It studies the meaning of BRICS by examining the once-held belief that the world was divided by a center, semi-periphery and periphery; it analyses the newly established divisions of intra-South and intra-North. These countries operate under various forms of capitalism, thus creating new power relations that work collectively from a geopolitical standpoint. Despite weak economic ties, with the exception of China, leaders of the BRICS are attempting to promote a reform within multilateral organizations and the G-20. The objective of this paper is to shed light on such challenges to this new strategy facing these countries, particularly from the perspective of Brazil’s foreign policy.

  15. Preliminary hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate map derived from an supervised classification of bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Ni'ihau Island, Territory of Main Hawaiian Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary hard and soft seafloor substrate map derived from a supervised classification from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Ni'ihau Island,...

  16. The State-of-the-Global Water System: Moving toward an Operational View of World Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B.; Green, P.; Lammers, R.; Prusevich, A.

    2008-05-01

    With global climate change now dominating international dialogue on the environment, direct threats to the global water system have yet to attain a similar level of scientific, public, and policy concern. Nonetheless, it is the conjunction of climate drivers, water supply, and water use that invokes impacts on water resource availability and, thus, water resource extremes. Integrated data compendia depicting various physical and social science attributes of the terrestrial hydrosphere are rapidly becoming available and can be exploited in the realm of water resource assessment. The State-of-the-Global Water System is an integrated electronic mapping aimed at yielding a definitive, comprehensive, and up-to-date picture of the state of the hydrologic system and affiliated world water resources. The initial focus of the State exercise is on producing the world's first operational, "near real-time" picture of the freshwater resource system, currently anticipated to be presented as monthly updates and covering the period 2000-to-present. The concept of producing the State product emerged from a series of partnership discussions among the Global Water System Project, GEWEX Hydrological Applications Project, and the NASA-funded WaterNET consortium. The State product is also a first keystone effort of newly-formulated Global Scale Initiative of the Global Water System Project. The effort requires close collaboration with numerous and additional international partners, chief among these agency contributors to the Global Terrestrial Network for Hydrology (GTN-H) of the Global Terrestral Observing System (GTOS). The State product is also a contribution to the IGWCO (Integrated Global Water Cycle Observations) and its use will be explored in the context of water resource indicators as part of the World Water Assessment Programme. This presentation will describe the architecture of the State system and present early examples of it chief products, highlighting its use in

  17. [Living in abundance in the ancient and modern worlds from a medical and cultural-historical point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, D P

    2014-06-01

    Comparative investigations centre on attitudes of demand and consumption in ethnic groups living in affluence, beginning with the first pre-Christian century in the Roman Empire on the one hand and in Western countries in the post-industrial age of hight-tech in times of far advanced globalization on the other. In this context medical, psycho-social and socio-economical aspects will be treated considering ideal and cultural breaks. Renowned Roman and Greek historians, physicians and philosophers are vouching as witnesses of the times for developments in the antique world with their literary works, in excerpts and verbatim. Obviously general moral decay is a side effect of any affluence. Even in the antiquitiy the "ideology of renewal" proclaimed by the Emperor Augustus died away mostly in emptiness just as do the appeals for improving one's state of health for surviving directed to all citizens in our time. With the rise of Rome as a world power general relative affluence was widespread to such an extent that diseases caused by affluence have occured as mass phenomena. The old Roman virtues of temperance and frugality turned into greed and addiction to pleasure. In this way the Roman people under the banner of affluence degenerated into a society of leisure time, consumption, fun and throwaway mentality. The decline of the Empire was predetermined. The promise of affluence which modern Europe is addicted to is demanding its price following the principle of causality. "How the pictures resemble each other!"

  18. Stepping in to the social media world: reflections from both personal and institutional points of view (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Like it or not, the world is increasingly run by social media. It has completely transformed the delivery of and access to news, and data show that half or more U.S. citizens now get their news from some form of social media. Interactive web tools determine political campaigns and help catalyze country-scale revolutions. They allow very personal access in ways both good and bad, as well as the rapid dissemination of both high quality information and complete falsehoods. But though they have plenty of downsides, their central and still-rising presence in society means that scientists who study any aspect of global environmental change (as well as those in most other areas of science) cannot afford to be social media luddites. In this panel, I will talk about my recent experiences in diving into this world, from both personal and institutional perspectives. For the former, I'll discuss some lessons learned in adding twitter and a blog to my professional life, and why I ultimately chose to have the blog reveal substantial information about me, not just the science I pursue. For the latter, I'll discuss launching the first blog in the history of the National Science Foundation and what that experience revealed about pushing social media advances on an institutional scale.

  19. Early, complex and rapid diagnostic technologies: A view from two collaborating centres of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Transboundary animal diseases (TAD), such as highly pathogenic avian influenza, Newcastle disease, foot-and-mouth-disease, classical swine fever, African swine fever, bluetongue, etc are highly pathogenic infectious maladies that migrate across boundaries between regions or countries, causing very high economic and socioeconomic losses worldwide. These diseases are fought at the international level by international organisations such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The new generation molecular diagnostic technologies, such as high-throughput, robust realtime PCR assays, solid- and liquid-phase microarrays (Luminex), padlock probes, proximity ligation, full-genome sequencing and phylogeny, together with other novel methods of direct and/or indirect virus detection offer hitherto unparalleled methodologies in the biotechnology-based diagnosis of infectious diseases, including TAD. These novel technologies are vital for the positive detection and identification of pathogenic agents as well as the effects of the pathogens on the production of antibodies. The development phase of the novel technologies entails a thorough understanding of accurate diagnosis and discrimination of present and emerging diseases. These diagnostic improvements will allow early warning of potential disease spread and the safeguarding of human and animal health. The development of novel technologies can only be successful if they are transferred, and used, in the field with a sustainable quality assured application to allow for the optimal detection and effective control of diseases. The aim of these new tools is to detect the presence of a pathogen agent before the onset of disease. This presentation is focusing mainly on the experiences of two Collaborating Centres of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in context to molecular diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of transboundary and endemic animal diseases of viral origin, food safety and zoonoses. By

  20. MAN AND HIS WORLD-ATTITUDE. REPORT 1. WORLD-ATTITUDE AND WORLD-VIEW Человек и его мироотношение. Сообщение 1. Мироотношение и мировоззрение

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyaev I. A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discovers specific features typical to a man of world-attitude and world-view. Making comparative analysis of these phenomena of human consciousness, the author reveals the notion-forming features of each of them. World-attitude has such features as subjectiveness and discontinuity, world-view’s attributes are subjectification and continuity. At the same time both phenomena are characterized by process, intentionality and contextuality, which show up in essentially different ways

  1. Davisson-Germer Prize in Atomic or Surface Physics: The COLTRIMS multi-particle imaging technique-new Insight into the World of Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Bocking, Horst

    2008-05-01

    The correlated many-particle dynamics in Coulombic systems, which is one of the unsolved fundamental problems in AMO-physics, can now be experimentally approached with so far unprecedented completeness and precision. The recent development of the COLTRIMS technique (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) provides a coincident multi-fragment imaging technique for eV and sub-eV fragment detection. In its completeness it is as powerful as the bubble chamber in high energy physics. In recent benchmark experiments quasi snapshots (duration as short as an atto-sec) of the correlated dynamics between electrons and nuclei has been made for atomic and molecular objects. This new imaging technique has opened a powerful observation window into the hidden world of many-particle dynamics. Recent multiple-ionization studies will be presented and the observation of correlated electron pairs will be discussed.

  2. Analysis of the Trisection World View Underlying High-Floor Houses%吊脚楼与世界观的三分模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敬娜

    2015-01-01

    吊脚楼具有“吊脚”和“上人下畜”的特色。其中,“吊脚”最初处于湿地的环境,“上人下畜”其实是由神居住的上部和人居住的地上两个空间构成,故吊脚楼整体体现出水、地和天的世界观三分模式的特点。另外,汉字“家”与“牢”的结构构造,不仅是吊脚楼真实生活的反映,还与吊脚楼体现出的世界观三分模式有关。%High-floor houses is featured by“high floors” and“the upper floor for people and the lower floor for livestock” notion.The primary environment for“high floors” was wet land, and in fact“the upper floor for people and the lower floor for livestock” structure consists of two spaces, namely the upper half inhabited by gods and the lower half by humans.Therefore, high-floor houses reflect trisection world view combining water, land and sky.In addition, the Chinese characters “家” and “牢” not only reflect the real life of high-floor houses, but also give expression to the trisection world view.

  3. Estimation of the stand ages of tropical secondary forests after shifting cultivation based on the combination of WorldView-2 and time-series Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Shogoro; Okada, Kei-ichi; Nishio, Shogo; Kitayama, Kanehiro

    2016-09-01

    We developed a new method to estimate stand ages of secondary vegetation in the Bornean montane zone, where local people conduct traditional shifting cultivation and protected areas are surrounded by patches of recovering secondary vegetation of various ages. Identifying stand ages at the landscape level is critical to improve conservation policies. We combined a high-resolution satellite image (WorldView-2) with time-series Landsat images. We extracted stand ages (the time elapsed since the most recent slash and burn) from a change-detection analysis with Landsat time-series images and superimposed the derived stand ages on the segments classified by object-based image analysis using WorldView-2. We regarded stand ages as a response variable, and object-based metrics as independent variables, to develop regression models that explain stand ages. Subsequently, we classified the vegetation of the target area into six age units and one rubber plantation unit (1-3 yr, 3-5 yr, 5-7 yr, 7-30 yr, 30-50 yr, >50 yr and 'rubber plantation') using regression models and linear discriminant analyses. Validation demonstrated an accuracy of 84.3%. Our approach is particularly effective in classifying highly dynamic pioneer vegetation younger than 7 years into 2-yr intervals, suggesting that rapid changes in vegetation canopies can be detected with high accuracy. The combination of a spectral time-series analysis and object-based metrics based on high-resolution imagery enabled the classification of dynamic vegetation under intensive shifting cultivation and yielded an informative land cover map based on stand ages.

  4. Atomic structure and stability of magnetite Fe3O4(001): An X-ray view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Björn; Bliem, Roland; Gamba, Oscar; van der Hoeven, Jessi E. S.; Noei, Heshmat; Diebold, Ulrike; Parkinson, Gareth S.; Stierle, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    The structure of the Fe3O4(001) surface was studied using surface X-ray diffraction in both ultra-high vacuum, and higher-pressure environments relevant to water-gas shift catalysis. The experimental X-ray structure factors from the √{ 2 } x√{ 2 } R 45∘ reconstructed surface are found to be in excellent agreement with the recently proposed subsurface cation vacancy (SCV) model for this surface (Science 346 (2014), 1215). Further refinement of the structure results in small displacements of the iron atoms in the first three double layers compared to structural parameters deduced from LEED I-V experiments and DFT calculations. An alternative, previously proposed structure, based on a distorted bulk truncation (DBT), is conclusively ruled out. The lifting of the √{ 2 } ×√{ 2 } R 45∘ reconstruction upon exposure to water vapor in the mbar pressure regime was studied at different temperatures under flow conditions, and a roughening of the surface was observed. Addition of CO flow did not further change the roughness perpendicular to the surface but decreased the lateral correlations.

  5. Atomic force microscopic view of the fine topography on the tobacco stigma surface during its response to pollination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hui; LI Meng; SUN MengXiang

    2008-01-01

    During compatible pollination in tobacco, an extracellular matrix (ECM) is secreted from the stigma surface; however, it is unknown whether the pattern of secretion across the stigma depends on the pollen source. In fact, technical limitations have prevented clear observation of ECM secretion. Here, we report the detailed topographic changes on the stigma surface that accompanies intraspecies and interspecies pollination in tobacco using contact mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results, which show the dynamics and time course of ECM secretion after pollination, indicate that a certain pattern of secretion already exists on the stigma prior to pollination. Intraspecies induced a two-step response, characterized by topograPhical changes on the stigma surface several hours after pollina-tion, which was distinct from the pattern of ECM secretion induced by interspecies pollination. This difference was confirmed by root-mean-square analysis, which assessed the roughness of the stigma surface. Our findings indicate that compatible pollination not only induces ECM secretion from the stigma, but also results in a specific distribution of the ECM. Thus, this study demonstrates the pow-erful potential of AFM in studying the pollen-stigma interaction.

  6. First report on the state of the world's animal genetic resources: Views on biotechnologies as expressed in country reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has been requested by its member countries to develop and implement the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources. The global livestock sector is faced with the challenge of the fast increasing demand for animal products in developing countries. FAO has estimated that demand for meat will double by 2030 (2000 basis) and demand for milk will more than double in this 30-year period. On the other hand, animal genetic resources worldwide are disappearing rapidly. Over the past 15 years, 300 out of 6000 breeds identified by FAO have become extinct. Successful genetic improvement programs in adapted indigenous breeds are less than a handful. Although in many developing countries there have been considerable efforts in training professionals in animal genetics, breeding programs applied to livestock under low input farming systems have largely failed. As part of this country-driven strategy for the management of farm animal genetic resources, FAO has invited 188 countries to participate in the First Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources, to be completed before 2006. To date 145 countries have accepted to submit country reports. The analysis of country reports may also serve to estimate the gaps in biotechnology application between developed and developing countries. In September 2003, 41 country reports had officially been submitted to FAO. For this paper, 30 country reports representing all regions were analysed with regard to information on biotechnologies used in animal breeding and reproduction, in conservation of animal genetic resources and for commercial uses. In addition, the information gained from discussions in regional workshops in Latin and Central America, covering 20 countries, was included. The West Africa region was represented by 12 country reports. With few exceptions, all use AI (artificial insemination), mostly in cattle, but at a very low

  7. X-ray emission spectroscopy applied to glycine adsorbed on Cu(110): An atom and symmetry projected view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselstroem, J.; Karis, O.; Weinelt, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    When a molecule is adsorbed on a metal surface by chemical bonding new electronic states are formed. For noble and transition metals these adsorption-induced states overlap with the much more intense metal d-valence band, making them difficult to probe by for instance direct photoemission. However, it has recently been shown that X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) can be applied to adsorbate systems. Since the intermediate state involves a core hole, this technique has the power to project out the partial density of states around each atomic site. Both the excitation and deexcitation processes are in general governed by the dipole selection rules. For oriented system, it is hence possible to obtain a complete separation into 2p{sub x}, 2p{sub y} and 2p{sub z} contributions using angular resolved measurements. The authors have applied XES together with other core level spectroscopies to glycine adsorption on Cu(110). Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH) is the smallest amino acid and very suitable to study by core level spectroscopy since it has several functional groups, all well separated in energy by chemical shifts. Its properties are futhermore of biological interest. In summary, the authors have shown that it is possible to apply XES to more complicated molecular adsorbates. The assignment of different electronic states is however not as straight forward as for simple diatomic molecules. For a complete understanding of the redistribution and formation of new electronic states associated with the surface chemical bond, experimental data must be compared to theoretical calculations.

  8. Atomic resolution view into the structure–function relationships of the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruskamo, Salla [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Yadav, Ravi P. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (CSSB-HZI), German Electron Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sharma, Satyan; Lehtimäki, Mari [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Laulumaa, Saara [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (CSSB-HZI), German Electron Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Aggarwal, Shweta; Simons, Mikael [Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, Göttingen (Germany); Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S. [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Juffer, André H. [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Kursula, Inari [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (CSSB-HZI), German Electron Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kursula, Petri, E-mail: petri.kursula@oulu.fi [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (CSSB-HZI), German Electron Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2 has been refined at 0.93 Å resolution. In combination with functional experiments in vitro, in vivo and in silico, the fine details of the structure–function relationships in P2 are emerging. P2 is a fatty acid-binding protein expressed in vertebrate peripheral nerve myelin, where it may function in bilayer stacking and lipid transport. P2 binds to phospholipid membranes through its positively charged surface and a hydrophobic tip, and accommodates fatty acids inside its barrel structure. The structure of human P2 refined at the ultrahigh resolution of 0.93 Å allows detailed structural analyses, including the full organization of an internal hydrogen-bonding network. The orientation of the bound fatty-acid carboxyl group is linked to the protonation states of two coordinating arginine residues. An anion-binding site in the portal region is suggested to be relevant for membrane interactions and conformational changes. When bound to membrane multilayers, P2 has a preferred orientation and is stabilized, and the repeat distance indicates a single layer of P2 between membranes. Simulations show the formation of a double bilayer in the presence of P2, and in cultured cells wild-type P2 induces membrane-domain formation. Here, the most accurate structural and functional view to date on P2, a major component of peripheral nerve myelin, is presented, showing how it can interact with two membranes simultaneously while going through conformational changes at its portal region enabling ligand transfer.

  9. Advantage of hyperspectral EO-1 Hyperion over multispectral IKONOS, GeoEye-1, WorldView-2, Landsat ETM+, and MODIS vegetation indices in crop biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Michael; Thenkabail, Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Crop biomass is increasingly being measured with surface reflectance data derived from multispectral broadband (MSBB) and hyperspectral narrowband (HNB) space-borne remotely sensed data to increase the accuracy and efficiency of crop yield models used in a wide array of agricultural applications. However, few studies compare the ability of MSBBs versus HNBs to capture crop biomass variability. Therefore, we used standard data mining techniques to identify a set of MSBB data from the IKONOS, GeoEye-1, Landsat ETM+, MODIS, WorldView-2 sensors and compared their performance with HNB data from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor in explaining crop biomass variability of four important field crops (rice, alfalfa, cotton, maize). The analysis employed two-band (ratio) vegetation indices (TBVIs) and multiband (additive) vegetation indices (MBVIs) derived from Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and stepwise regression. Results demonstrated that HNB-derived TBVIs and MBVIs performed better than MSBB-derived TBVIs and MBVIs on a per crop basis and for the pooled data: overall, HNB TBVIs explained 5-31% greater variability when compared with various MSBB TBVIs; and HNB MBVIs explained 3-33% greater variability when compared with various MSBB MBVIs. The performance of MSBB MBVIs and TBVIs improved mildly, by combining spectral information across multiple sensors involving IKONOS, GeoEye-1, Landsat ETM+, MODIS, and WorldView-2. A number of HNBs that advance crop biomass modeling were determined. Based on the highest factor loadings on the first component of the SVD, the "red-edge" spectral range (700-740 nm) centered at 722 nm (bandwidth = 10 nm) stood out prominently, while five additional and distinct portions of the recorded spectral range (400-2500 nm) centered at 539 nm, 758 nm, 914 nm, 1130 nm, 1320 nm (bandwidth = 10 nm) were also important. The best HNB vegetation indices for crop biomass estimation involved 549 and 752 nm for rice (R2 = 0.91); 925 and 1104 nm for alfalfa (R2 = 0

  10. Monitoring grass nutrients and biomass as indicators of rangeland quality and quantity using random forest modelling and WorldView-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoelo, Abel; Cho, M. A.; Mathieu, R.; Madonsela, S.; van de Kerchove, R.; Kaszta, Z.; Wolff, E.

    2015-12-01

    Land use and climate change could have huge impacts on food security and the health of various ecosystems. Leaf nitrogen (N) and above-ground biomass are some of the key factors limiting agricultural production and ecosystem functioning. Leaf N and biomass can be used as indicators of rangeland quality and quantity. Conventional methods for assessing these vegetation parameters at landscape scale level are time consuming and tedious. Remote sensing provides a bird-eye view of the landscape, which creates an opportunity to assess these vegetation parameters over wider rangeland areas. Estimation of leaf N has been successful during peak productivity or high biomass and limited studies estimated leaf N in dry season. The estimation of above-ground biomass has been hindered by the signal saturation problems using conventional vegetation indices. The objective of this study is to monitor leaf N and above-ground biomass as an indicator of rangeland quality and quantity using WorldView-2 satellite images and random forest technique in the north-eastern part of South Africa. Series of field work to collect samples for leaf N and biomass were undertaken in March 2013, April or May 2012 (end of wet season) and July 2012 (dry season). Several conventional and red edge based vegetation indices were computed. Overall results indicate that random forest and vegetation indices explained over 89% of leaf N concentrations for grass and trees, and less than 89% for all the years of assessment. The red edge based vegetation indices were among the important variables for predicting leaf N. For the biomass, random forest model explained over 84% of biomass variation in all years, and visible bands including red edge based vegetation indices were found to be important. The study demonstrated that leaf N could be monitored using high spatial resolution with the red edge band capability, and is important for rangeland assessment and monitoring.

  11. [The right of the client in geriatric psychiatry to a personal, individual world view. How can we, as caregivers, learn to share this?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramek, Gunvor

    2003-04-01

    "Validation" after Naomi Feil is the name of a method which is used and recognized the world over as an appreciative way of dealing with the highly aged. Validation is based on universally valid humanist principles. A person is viewed as an individual being having a good reason for his current behavior. This is true for "still oriented" as well as for "non-oriented" persons. It is necessary to recognize and categorize the different behavioral patterns in the various phases of disorientation. Here we speak of the physical and psychological characteristics of the four phases of disorientation. The target group is persons who are just still oriented, but deny their current situation and thus react peculiaryly. The next group is the time and place disoriented persons. Subsequently the group of persons who can express themselves solely by nonverbal means, i.e. repetitive movements, follows. The last group is motionless persons who simply vegetate. In addition, there are suitable verbal and nonverbal techniques that can be used in a most sensible and appreciative way of dealing with these highly aged. The aged persons are not corrected and not oriented according to reality, but are escorted in their world. We call this: "walking in the shoes of the other person". It is necessary to take emotions seriously and to share them with others. We do not take position, we do not judge and we also do not offer hasty solutions. We are honest and do not use well-meant lies. The goal of applying validation is on the one hand the relief and improvement of the work situation of family and the people taking care of these aged persons, and on the other hand a noticeable and measurable increase of these highly aged persons welfare and quality of life. PMID:12914341

  12. Leadership with a World View

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Hood, Marian

    2004-01-01

    As principal of Ernest Everett Just Middle School in Mitchellville, Maryland, the author has fostered a management philosophy that draws from the unity and simplicity of two different cultures: village life in Africa and the gemba kaizen business philosophy of Japan. Blended together, the African and gemba kaizen activities have transformed the…

  13. Views on world markets - Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passmore, J. [Canadian Wind Energy Association, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    If {open_quotes}market{close_quotes} is defined by hardware in the ground (as it should be), then the Canadian wind power market has been virtually non-existent (only 23 MW to date). The potential on the other hand is enormous (6400 MW likely to be developed). This potential has not been pursued because of unregulated electric utility monopolies, lack of political knowledge and interest, and punitive tax treatment for renewables. Recent initiatives including utility restructuring, federal plans for green power procurement, and proposed tax measures suggest that situation has potential for change. Interested parties should start familiarizing themselves with the Canadian players / market now, in order to be ready to move when the time comes (likely in the next three years). 3 tabs.

  14. Use of gradient dilution to flag and overcome matrix interferences in axial-viewing inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the undisputed power of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), its users still face serious challenges in obtaining accurate analytical results. Matrix interference is perhaps the most important challenge. Dilution of a matrix-containing sample is a common practice to reduce matrix interference. However, determining the optimal dilution factor requires tedious and time-consuming offline sample preparation, since emission lines and the effect of matrix interferences are affected differently by the dilution. The current study exploits this difference by employing a high-performance liquid chromatography gradient pump prior to the nebulizer to perform on-line mixing of a sample solution and diluent. Linear gradient dilution is performed on both the calibration standard and the matrix-containing sample. By ratioing the signals from two emission lines (from the same or different elements) as a function of dilution factor, the analyst can not only identify the presence of a matrix interference, but also determine the optimal dilution factor needed to overcome the interference. A ratio that does not change with dilution signals the absence of a matrix interference, whereas a changing ratio indicates the presence of an interference. The point on the dilution profile where the ratio stabilizes indicates the optimal dilution factor to correct the interference. The current study was performed on axial-viewing ICP-AES with o-xylene as the solvent

  15. Mapping Arctic Plant Functional Type Distributions in the Barrow Environmental Observatory Using WorldView-2 and LiDAR Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Langford

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale modeling of Arctic tundra vegetation requires characterization of the heterogeneous tundra landscape, which includes representation of distinct plant functional types (PFTs. We combined high-resolution multi-spectral remote sensing imagery from the WorldView-2 satellite with light detecting and ranging (LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEM to characterize the tundra landscape in and around the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO, a 3021-hectare research reserve located at the northern edge of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Vegetation surveys were conducted during the growing season (June–August of 2012 from 48 1 m × 1 m plots in the study region for estimating the percent cover of PFTs (i.e., sedges, grasses, forbs, shrubs, lichens and mosses. Statistical relationships were developed between spectral and topographic remote sensing characteristics and PFT fractions at the vegetation plots from field surveys. These derived relationships were employed to statistically upscale PFT fractions for our study region of 586 hectares at 0.25-m resolution around the sampling areas within the BEO, which was bounded by the LiDAR footprint. We employed an unsupervised clustering for stratification of this polygonal tundra landscape and used the clusters for segregating the field data for our upscaling algorithm over our study region, which was an inverse distance weighted (IDW interpolation. We describe two versions of PFT distribution maps upscaled by IDW from WorldView-2 imagery and LiDAR: (1 a version computed from a single image in the middle of the growing season; and (2 a version computed from multiple images through the growing season. This approach allowed us to quantify the value of phenology for improving PFT distribution estimates. We also evaluated the representativeness of the field surveys by measuring the Euclidean distance between every pixel. This guided the ground-truthing campaign in late July of 2014 for

  16. Optimising the spatial resolution of WorldView-2 pan-sharpened imagery for predicting levels of Gonipterus scutellatus defoliation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottering, Romano; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-02-01

    Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal is a leaf feeding weevil that is a major defoliator of the genus Eucalyptus. Understanding the relationship between levels of weevil induced vegetation defoliation and the optimal spatial resolution of satellite images is essential for effective management of plantation resources. The objective of this study was to identify appropriate spatial resolutions for predicting levels of weevil induced defoliation. We resampled the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) images computed from a WorldView-2 pan-sharpened image, which is characterised with a 0.5 m spatial resolution and 8 spectral bands. Within each plantation compartment 30 × 30 m plots were established, representing different levels of defoliation. From the centre of each plot, the spatial resolution of the original image was progressively resampled from 1.5 to 8.5 m, with 1 m increments. The minimal variance for each level of defoliation was then established and used as an indicator for quantitatively selecting the optimal spatial resolution. Results indicate that an appropriate spatial resolution was established at 1.25, 1.25, 1.75 and 2.25 m for low, medium, high and severe levels of defoliation, respectively. In addition, an Artificial Neural Network was run to determine the relationship between the appropriate spatial resolution and levels of Gonipterus scutellatus induced defoliation. The model yielded an R2 of 0.80, with an RMSE of 1.28 (2.45% of the mean measured defoliation) based on an independent test dataset. We then compared this model to a model developed using the original 0.5 m image spatial resolution. Our results suggest that optimising the spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery essentially improves the prediction of vegetation defoliation. In essence, this study provides the foundation for multi-scale defoliation mapping using high spatial resolution imagery.

  17. Leaf Area Index (LAI Estimation in Boreal Mixedwood Forest of Ontario, Canada Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and WorldView-2 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Treitz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is an important input variable for forest ecosystem modeling as it is a factor in predicting productivity and biomass, two key aspects of forest health. Current in situ methods of determining LAI are sometimes destructive and generally very time consuming. Other LAI derivation methods, mainly satellite-based in nature, do not provide sufficient spatial resolution or the precision required by forest managers for tactical planning. This paper focuses on estimating LAI from: (i height and density metrics derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR; (ii spectral vegetation indices (SVIs, in particular the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; and (iii a combination of these methods. For the Hearst Forest of Northern Ontario, in situ measurements of LAI were derived from digital hemispherical photographs (DHPs while remote sensing variables were derived from low density LiDAR (i.e., 1 m−2 and high spatial resolution WorldView-2 data (2 m. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR models were generated using these variables. Results from these analyses demonstrate: (i moderate explanatory power (i.e., R2 = 0.53 for LiDAR height and density metrics that have proven to be related to canopy structure; (ii no relationship when using SVIs; and (iii no significant improvement of LiDAR models when combining them with SVI variables. The results suggest that LiDAR models in boreal forest environments provide satisfactory estimations of LAI, even with narrow ranges of LAI for model calibration. Models derived from low point density LiDAR in a mixedwood boreal environment seem to offer a reliable method of estimating LAI at high spatial resolution for decision makers in the forestry community. This method can be easily incorporated into simultaneous modeling efforts for forest inventory variables using LiDAR.

  18. Australia's atomic conspiracy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author questions claims by the Newcastle University historian Wayne Reynolds in his book 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb', that the impetus behind the Snowy Mountains Scheme was to provide a secure source of power for the enrichment of uranium and production of heavy water so that Australia could produce its own atomic bombs. Reynolds also argued that the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) was set up so that Australia had a trained scientific workforce to produce plutonium for the bomb. While the book is well researched, Reynolds does not seem to understand the principles of basic science and engineering. After the Second World War, a manufacturing and industrial base with a skilled and trained workforce was needed so it could be converted to war or defence manufacturing when the need arose. This new manufacturing community would require electrical power to sustain it. Hydroelectricity and atomic energy could help provide these needs. Even though war was still raging, Prime Minister John Curtin looked ahead and set up a Department of Post-War Reconstruction. It was through this department that the Snowy Mountains Scheme would be established. Curtin did not live to see this. He died in 1945 but his successor, Ben Chifley, continued the vision. The author believes, an understanding of the science behind these developments and an appreciation of how how humans interact with each others when it comes to getting something they want is likely to give a more balanced view of the past

  19. Atomic and Molecular Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude

    2015-01-01

    When physicists began to explore the world of atoms more precisely, as they endeavoured to understand its structure and the laws governing its behaviour, they soon encountered serious difficulties. Our intuitive concepts, based on our daily experience of the macroscopic world around us, proved to be completely erroneous on the atomic scale; the atom was incomprehensible within the framework of classical physics. In order to uncover these new mysteries, after a great deal of trial and error, e...

  20. Interpretation of Forest Resources at the Individual Tree Level at Purple Mountain, Nanjing City, China, Using WorldView-2 Imagery by Combining GPS, RS and GIS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songqiu Deng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to measure forest resources at the individual tree level using high-resolution images by combining GPS, RS, and Geographic Information System (GIS technologies. The images were acquired by the WorldView-2 satellite with a resolution of 0.5 m in the panchromatic band and 2.0 m in the multispectral bands. Field data of 90 plots were used to verify the interpreted accuracy. The tops of trees in three groups, namely ≥10 cm, ≥15 cm, and ≥20 cm DBH (diameter at breast height, were extracted by the individual tree crown (ITC approach using filters with moving windows of 3 × 3 pixels, 5 × 5 pixels and 7 × 7 pixels, respectively. In the study area, there were 1,203,970 trees of DBH over 10 cm, and the interpreted accuracy was 73.68 ± 15.14% averaged over the 90 plots. The numbers of the trees that were ≥15 cm and ≥20 cm DBH were 727,887 and 548,919, with an average accuracy of 68.74 ± 17.21% and 71.92 ± 18.03%, respectively. The pixel-based classification showed that the classified accuracies of the 16 classes obtained using the eight multispectral bands were higher than those obtained using only the four standard bands. The increments ranged from 0.1% for the water class to 17.0% for Metasequoia glyptostroboides, with an average value of 4.8% for the 16 classes. In addition, to overcome the “mixed pixels” problem, a crown-based supervised classification, which can improve the classified accuracy of both dominant species and smaller classes, was used for generating a thematic map of tree species. The improvements of the crown- to pixel-based classification ranged from −1.6% for the open forest class to 34.3% for Metasequoia glyptostroboides, with an average value of 20.3% for the 10 classes. All tree tops were then annotated with the species attributes from the map, and a tree count of different species indicated that the forest of Purple Mountain is mainly dominated by Quercus acutissima, Liquidambar formosana

  1. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  2. The Study of Pierce's Semiotics and the Linguistic World View Theory%皮尔斯符号学和语言世界图景理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新卫; 谢明

    2012-01-01

    提及语言与符号的关系,学界往往首先涉及的是索绪尔的语言符号学,而通常把皮尔斯的符号学归为逻辑学。其实,语言与逻辑思维是一块硬币的两面,互为载体。皮尔斯的符号学与俄罗斯学界的语言世界图景理论,存在着密切的联系。本文拟对皮尔斯符号学和语言世界图景理论作对比研究,探究二者在理论基础、研究内涵和研究方法方面的异同,将符号语言引入了语言世界图景,拓宽该理论中语言的所指范围,同时也将语言世界图景中的观念/概念引入皮尔斯符号学研究,从思维/认知层面分析皮尔斯符号系统增长的原因及其与语言世界图景系统增长的共性。%When it comes to the relationship between language and sign,Saussure's Linguistic Semiotics is often the first to be considered,but Pierce's Semiotics is usually classified as logic.In fact,language and logical thinking are two sides of a coin,with each as the carrier of the other.Pierce's Semiotics is closely related to the Linguistic World View Theory put forward by Russian scholars.This paper is intended to conduct a comparative study between Pierce's Semiotics and the Linguistic World View Theory,to explore their similarities and differences in such aspects as theoretical foundation,research content and methodology,to introduce Sign Language into the Linguistic World View Theory to broaden the scope of the language within this theory,to introduce the notion or concept in the Linguistic World View Theory into the research of Pierce's Semiotics,and,from the thinking or cognitive level,to analyze the reasons behind the growth of Pierce's Sign System and the similarity between the Linguistic World View System and Pierce's Sign System.

  3. Atomic secrecy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An article, The H-Bomb Secret: How We Got It, Why We're Telling It, by Howard Morland was to be published in The Progressive magazine in February, 1979. The government, after learning of the author's and the editors' intention to publish the article and failing to persuade them to voluntarily delete about 20% of the text and all of the diagrams showing how an H-bomb works, requested a court injunction against publication. Acting under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, US District Court Judge Robert W. Warren granted the government's request on March 26. Events dealing with the case are discussed in this publication. Section 1, Progressive Hydrogen Bomb Case, is discussed under the following: Court Order Blocking Magazine Report; Origins of the Howard Morland Article; Author's Motives, Defense of Publication; and Government Arguments Against Disclosure. Section 2, Access to Atomic Data Since 1939, contains information on need for secrecy during World War II; 1946 Atomic Energy Act and its effects; Soviet A-Bomb and the US H-Bomb; and consequences of 1954 Atomic Energy Act. Section 3, Disputed Need for Atomic Secrecy, contains papers entitled: Lack of Studies on H-Bomb Proliferation; Administration's Position on H-Bombs; and National Security Needs vs Free Press

  4. A Broader View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new series of books presents Chinese scholars’ assessment of world affairs and China’s role in them A theoretical series of books entitled World Politics—Views From China has recently drawn readers’ attention. Published by Beijing-based New World Press, the eight-volume series presents the views of Chinese scholars on current world affairs and international relations, with respective focuses on the international order, national interests, strategies of the great powers, China’s foreign affairs, international security, non-traditional security, the world economy and global governance.

  5. Infusing the Chemistry Curriculum with Green Chemistry Using Real-World Examples, Web Modules, and Atom Economy in Organic Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Michael C.; Dickneider, Trudy A.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry is the awareness of the damaging environmental effects due to chemical research and inventions. There is emphasis on a need to include green chemistry in synthesis with atom economy in organic chemistry curriculum to ensure an environmentally conscious future generation of chemists, policy makers, health professionals and business…

  6. Políticas educacionais, visões de mundo e a articulação em processos educativos Educational policies, world views and the articulation in educative processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Boer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como foco a discussão das políticas educacionais em educação ambiental e as visões de mundo com a finalidade de explicitar as implicações dessas em processos educativos. As visões de mundo são concebidas como macroestruturas epistemológicas, que compreendem um conjunto de valores, crenças, conceitos e formas de conhecimento que fundamentam as concepções e ações educativas. O trabalho apresenta, também, os componentes das visões de mundo e a maneira como esses se articulam em processos educativos. Esse aspecto é importante para se poder identificar as concepções de mundo subjacentes às práticas pedagógicas desenvolvidas pelas escolas. Na visão integrada de mundo, a problemática ambiental é entendida como decorrente do modelo de desenvolvimento social e das relações que os seres humanos estabelecem entre si e com o ambiente não humano. Considera-se, ainda, que a perspectiva relacional pode contribuir para uma mudança na atual abordagem da Educação Ambiental.This paper focuses on the discussion of educational policies in environmental education and on world views, for the purpose of clarifying their implications in educative process. The world views are conceived as epistemological macro-structures which consist of a set of values, beliefs, concepts and forms of knowledge which are the base for conceptions and educative actions. The paper also presents the components of the world views and the ways in which these components are articulated in educative processes. This aspect is important in order that the world conceptions underlying pedagogical practices developed by the schools may be identified. In an integrated world view, an environmental issue is conceived as a relational issue resulting from the model of social development and the relationship which the human beings establish among themselves and with the non-human environment. It is considered that the relational perspective may contribute to

  7. Bringing light into the nano-world: What can you do with an atomic force microscope on top of your synchrotron radiation sample holder?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis had as a major objective to combine scanning probe microscopy in particular, atomic force microscopy with synchrotron light spectroscopies. The combination of these two types of spectroscopies is meant to be in-situ and in real time. Thus this thesis aimed at introducing new types of experimental techniques suitable for the investigation of nano-sized materials. The proposed new instrumentation, would provide chemical-specific contrast at unprecedented lateral resolution of up to 10-40 nanometers, thus overcoming existing limitations of the two families of spectroscopy methods and opening a wide range of research opportunities and challenges. For the purpose of combining these techniques an atomic force microscope was developed. The atomic force microscope (AFM) was developed around a quartz tuning fork crystal which was used as the sensor with which atomic forces are detected. The developed AFM was then used in several beam lines with essentially two different purposes. A first goal was to do spectroscopy, such as the measurement of an absorption edge, locally with the tip of the AFM. Such measurements were indeed done, but the lateral resolution is still dominated by the X-ray beam size rather than by the tip apex shape. The AFM tip was also used to measure Bragg peaks from crystals with sizes on the nanometer scale. A second goal was to use the AFM as an instrument to mechanical interact with nano-sized systems while the X-ray beam was used to probe changes in the lattice parameter of the studied systems. Thus the AFM tip was used to elastically indent a SiGe crystal while diffraction was simultaneously measured. It was possible to observe shifts of the Bragg peak as a consequence of the applied pressure. The in-situ combination of AFM with synchrotron light permitted, in this way, to measure the Young modulus of a crystal at the nano-scale without any kind of adjustable parameter. (author)

  8. World Bank Group/World Bank Corporate Scorecards, April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This pamphlet presents the World Bank Group and World Bank Corporate Scorecards updated with latest data available for Tier 3 (Performance Tier) as of December 31, 2015. Tiers 1 and 2 present data from end of fiscal year 2015. The World Bank Group Corporate Scorecard monitors the implementation of the World Bank Group Strategy. The Scorecard provides an apex view of the results and performance indicators of the three World Bank Group institutions—the World Bank (WB), ...

  9. Having views, abandoning views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In the bKa' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, holding a philosophical view cannot produce an understanding of ultimate reality. The article contains some arguments why views must ultimately be abandoned....

  10. The Software Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Javanainen, Juha

    2016-01-01

    By putting together an abstract view on quantum mechanics and a quantum-optics picture of the interactions of an atom with light, we develop a corresponding set of C++ classes that set up the numerical analysis of an atom with an arbitrary set of angular-momentum degenerate energy levels, arbitrary light fields, and an applied magnetic field. As an example, we develop and implement perturbation theory to compute the polarizability of an atom in an experimentally relevant situation.

  11. Raising Questions About Capitalist Globalization and Universalizing Views on Women: A Transnational Feminist Critique of the World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Victoria L; Stevens, Patricia E; Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Nursing in the United States has embraced global health primarily from a clinical perspective, with emphasis on care delivery to populations in underserved, resource-poor settings. Less attention has been devoted to developing expertise about social, economic, and political contexts that produce ill health around the world. The purpose of this article is to offer a transnational feminist critique of the World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development and to illuminate implications such reports may have in the lives of the world's most marginalized women and girls. We examine the political economy idealized in the report, raising questions about the capitalist framework underpinning its agenda. Second, we examine the assumptive language used in the report, suggesting that it discursively constructs a problematic representation of women in low-income countries. We contend that the report perpetuates a hegemonic discourse of patriarchy and inequality for women in the Global South through the use of an uncontested economic framework and universalist reasoning. We conclude the article with discussion about a transformative policy making that could be more inclusive of the wisdoms, values, and everyday experiences of women living in the Global South and about the vital role nurses can play in advancing gender equity through their active collaboration in policy critique and policy formulation. PMID:27149224

  12. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  13. Sputtering of tungsten: an atomic view of a near-surface depleted zone created by a single 30 keV 63Cu+ projectile. Report No. 4118

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vacancy structure of a near-surface depleted zone (DZ), created by a single 30 keV 63Cu+ ion in a tungsten field-ion microscope (FIM) specimen, was determined with atomic resolution. Both the irradiation and pulse field-evaporation experiments were performed in situ at less than or equal to 11 K, so that the observed vacancy structure was unaltered by the long-range migration of self-interstitial atoms. The following basic physical quantities were measured: (1) the number of vacancies; (2) the dimensions; (3) the vacancy concentration; (4) the distribution of first-nearest-neighbor vacancy clusters; and (5) the radial-distribution function for the vacancies out to ninth-nearest neighbor. The values of these quantities were shown to be similar for both the near-surface DZ and DZs created in the bulk of the same specimen by 30 keV 63Cu+ projectiles

  14. H-atom addition and abstraction reactions in mixed CO, H2CO and CH3OH ices: an extended view on complex organic molecule formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, K -J; Ioppolo, S; van Dishoeck, E F; Linnartz, H

    2016-01-01

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been observed not only in the hot cores surrounding low- and high- mass protostars, but also in cold dark clouds. Therefore, it is interesting to understand how such species can be formed without the presence of embedded energy sources. We present new laboratory experiments on the low-temperature solid state formation of three complex molecules: methyl formate (HC(O)OCH3), glycolaldehyde (HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (H2C(OH)CH2OH), through recombination of free radicals formed via H-atom addition and abstraction reactions at different stages in the CO-H2CO-CH3OH hydrogenation network at 15 K. The experiments extend previous CO hydrogenation studies and aim at resembling the physical&chemical conditions typical of the CO freeze-out stage in dark molecular clouds, when H2CO and CH3OH form by recombination of accreting CO molecules and H-atoms on ice grains. We confirm that H2CO, once formed through CO hydrogenation, not only yields CH3OH through ongoing H-atom addit...

  15. A Space-Based, High-Resolution View of Notable Changes in Urban and Regional NOx Pollution around the World (2005-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B. N.; Lamsal, L. N.; Thompson, A. M.; Yoshida, Y.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Hurwitz, M.; Pickering, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) are produced during combustion processes. We use high-resolution NO2 data from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to identify energy sources and to monitor how NO2 levels, and subsequently, energy usage, evolved from 2005 to 2014. We find complex heterogeneity in trends on both urban and regional scales around the world. Trends for the majority of cities were determined by several factors. First, environmental regulations resulted in strong negative trends over many industrialized countries. The only strong positive trend over the U.S. occurred over the Williston Basin, an area of intense energy extraction activities. Second, strong economic growth elevated NO2 levels over many tropical megacities and China. Two of the highest trends occurred over the recently expanded Jamnagar Refining and Petrochemical Complex (India), the world's largest oil refinery, and the Incheon Free Trade Zone (Korea). Third, increasing pollution transport from China diminished the effectiveness of emission controls in Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. Over China, there were three areas of strong negative trends associated with emission control efforts of Beijing, Shanghai, and cities in the Pearl River Delta. Fourth, the impact of civil unrest is seen over Libya, Iraq, and Syria. Fifth, spatial heterogeneity of trends within several megacities reflects mixed success in coping with air quality degradation. We demonstrate the value of high-resolution data for quantifying emissions from individual sources in complex source regions, using the Johannesburg megacity with its intensive thermal power generation and industry as a case study. Looking ahead, intensive monitoring, composed of satellite and surface instruments, is needed for the world's tropical and subtropical megacities, where a dramatic increase in population, energy use, and emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases are expected in the coming decades.

  16. Interferometry with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optics and interferometry with matter waves is the art of coherently manipulating the translational motion of particles like neutrons, atoms and molecules. Coherent atom optics is an extension of techniques that were developed for manipulating internal quantum states. Applying these ideas to translational motion required the development of techniques to localize atoms and transfer population coherently between distant localities. In this view position and momentum are (continuous) quantum mechanical degrees of freedom analogous to discrete internal quantum states. In our contribution we start with an introduction into matter wave optics in sect. 1, discuss coherent atom optics and atom interferometry techniques for molecular beams in sect. 2 and for trapped atoms in sect. 3. In sect. 4 we then describe tools and experiments that allow to probe the evolution of quantum states of many-body systems by atom interference.

  17. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  18. View of the bacterial strains of Escherichia coli M-17 and its interaction with the nanoparticles of zinc oxide by means of atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagitova, A.; Yaminsky, I.; Meshkov, G.

    2016-08-01

    Visualization of the structure of biological objects plays a key role in medicine, biotechnology, nanotechnology and IT-technology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a promising method of studying of objects’ morphology and structure. In this work, AFM was used to determine the size and shape of the bacterial strains of Escherichia coli M-17 and visualization its interaction with the nanoparticles of zinc oxide. The suspension of E.coli bacteria was applied to natural mica and studied by contact mode using the FemtoScan multifunctional scanning probe microscope.

  19. The future of scientific, technical and industrial information to Third World users - A donors view. The experience of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Access to scientific information by poorer countries, sometimes referred to as the ''South'', is limited in contrast to the countries in the ''North''. The South lacks the infrastructure, management and technical expertise to develop and support the range of services now commonplace in the information rich industrial countries of the ''North''. The programme of support to information systems and services in poorer countries by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is described with specific examples drawn from its industry and technology information programme. Third world countries are in a difficult position and need help to keep on the cutting edge of new information-communication technologies. Any help, however must focus on such factors as persistence, impact and sustainability of information systems and services. (author). 5 refs

  20. A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban NO x pollution around the world (2005-2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Bryan N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Lamsal, Lok N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research, Universities Space Research Association, Columbia Maryland USA; Thompson, Anne M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Yoshida, Yasuko [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Greenbelt Maryland USA; Lu, Zifeng [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Streets, David G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Hurwitz, Margaret M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; GESTAR, Morgan State University, Baltimore Maryland USA; Pickering, Kenneth E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA

    2016-01-20

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are produced during combustion processes and, thus may serve as a proxy for fossil fuel-based energy usage and coemitted greenhouse gases and other pollutants. We use high-resolution nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to analyze changes in urban NO2 levels around the world from 2005 to 2014, finding complex heterogeneity in the changes. We discuss several potential factors that seem to determine these NOx changes. First, environmental regulations resulted in large decreases. The only large increases in the United States may be associated with three areas of intensive energy activity. Second, elevated NO2 levels were observed over many Asian, tropical, and subtropical cities that experienced rapid economic growth. Two of the largest increases occurred over recently expanded petrochemical complexes in Jamnagar (India) and Daesan (Korea). Third, pollution transport from China possibly influenced the Republic of Korea and Japan, diminishing the impact of local pollution controls. However, in China, there were large decreases over Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta, which were likely associated with local emission control efforts. Fourth, civil unrest and its effect on energy usage may have resulted in lower NO2 levels in Libya, Iraq, and Syria. Fifth, spatial heterogeneity within several megacities may reflect mixed efforts to cope with air quality degradation. We also show the potential of high-resolution data for identifying NOx emission sources in regions with a complex mix of sources. Finally, intensive monitoring of the world's tropical/subtropical megacities will remain a priority, as their populations and emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases are expected to increase significantly.

  1. A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban NOx pollution around the world (2005-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Thompson, Anne M.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are produced during combustion processes and, thus may serve as a proxy for fossil fuel-based energy usage and coemitted greenhouse gases and other pollutants. We use high-resolution nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to analyze changes in urban NO2 levels around the world from 2005 to 2014, finding complex heterogeneity in the changes. We discuss several potential factors that seem to determine these NOx changes. First, environmental regulations resulted in large decreases. The only large increases in the United States may be associated with three areas of intensive energy activity. Second, elevated NO2 levels were observed over many Asian, tropical, and subtropical cities that experienced rapid economic growth. Two of the largest increases occurred over recently expanded petrochemical complexes in Jamnagar (India) and Daesan (Korea). Third, pollution transport from China possibly influenced the Republic of Korea and Japan, diminishing the impact of local pollution controls. However, in China, there were large decreases over Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta, which were likely associated with local emission control efforts. Fourth, civil unrest and its effect on energy usage may have resulted in lower NO2 levels in Libya, Iraq, and Syria. Fifth, spatial heterogeneity within several megacities may reflect mixed efforts to cope with air quality degradation. We also show the potential of high-resolution data for identifying NOx emission sources in regions with a complex mix of sources. Intensive monitoring of the world's tropical/subtropical megacities will remain a priority, as their populations and emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases are expected to increase significantly.

  2. A comprehensive picture in the view of atomic scale on piezoelectricity of ZnO tunnel junctions: The first principles simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genghong Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectricity is closely related with the performance and application of piezoelectric devices. It is a crucial issue to understand its detailed fundamental for designing functional devices with more peculiar performances. Basing on the first principles simulations, the ZnO piezoelectric tunnel junction is taken as an example to systematically investigate its piezoelectricity (including the piezopotential energy, piezoelectric field, piezoelectric polarization and piezocharge and explore their correlation. The comprehensive picture of the piezoelectricity in the ZnO tunnel junction is revealed at atomic scale and it is verified to be the intrinsic characteristic of ZnO barrier, independent of its terminated surface but dependent on its c axis orientation and the applied strain. In the case of the ZnO c axis pointing from right to left, an in-plane compressive strain will induce piezocharges (and a piezopotential energy drop with positive and negative signs (negative and positive signs emerging respectively at the left and right terminated surfaces of the ZnO barrier. Meanwhile a piezoelectric polarization (and a piezoelectric field pointing from right to left (from left to right are also induced throughout the ZnO barrier. All these piezoelectric physical quantities would reverse when the applied strain switches from compressive to tensile. This study provides an atomic level insight into the fundamental behavior of the piezoelectricity of the piezoelectric tunnel junction and should have very useful information for future designs of piezoelectric devices.

  3. The status and the future of Baltic States and Romania in the strategy of Western Allies in the early years of the Second World War: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramojus Kraujelis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The fate of Lithuania and Romania as well as future of the whole Central and Eastern European region was determined in the years of the Second World War. The common origin of their tragic and painful history was the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact – the secret deal between Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, which divided Central and Eastern Europe between two totalitarian regimes. In June 1940 the three Baltic States and a part of Romania were directly occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union. The main objective of this paper is to identify, analyze and compare the attitudes of the United States and Great Britain with respect to the annexation of the Baltic States and the Romania territory and discussed the post-war future reserved to them. During the early years of the Second Word War (1940-1942 few interesting international discussions about possible post-war arrangement plans existed. The analysis of the Western attitude would enable us to give answers to certain questions: What could have been done by the Western states for the benefit of Central and Eastern European region; what have they, in fact, done and what did they avoid doing? The year 1943 witnessed the consolidation of the Western attitude with regard to Soviet Union’s western borders, which resulted in the fundamental fact that Moscow did not intend to retract its interests in the Baltic States, Eastern Poland, North Bucovina and Bessarabia while the West did not intend to fight for these territories. Considering the fact that at the Teheran conference (1943 the Western states agreed upon turning the Baltic states into a Soviet interest sphere, the United States and Britain entered the Yalta conference (1945 with no illusions as to the fate of Central and Eastern Europe in general.

  4. 习近平治国理政的世界观和方法论%Xi Jinping’s World View and Methodology for the Governance of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄书进

    2015-01-01

    The series important speeches of General Secretary Xi Jinping are the guide to action for our Party governing the country under the new historical conditions. Xi Jinping’s world view and methodology,consisting of the sincere feeling of serving the people,the firm belief of high aspiration,the scientific attitude of seeking the truth and being practical,the sense of responsibility,and the strategic wisdom of overall planning,reflects his basic standpoint,object of struggle,ideological line,spiritual drive and scientific method for the governance of China. Once we pick up on this world view and methodology,we have truly grasped the theoretical essence of the series speeches and the key points of the governance of China.%习近平总书记系列重要讲话,是我们党在新的历史条件下治国理政的行动指南。真挚为民的执政情怀、志存高远的坚定信念、求真务实的科学态度、不负重托的使命担当、统揽全局的战略智慧,是习近平治国理政的世界观和方法论,反映出其治国理政的根本立场、奋斗目标、思想路线、精神动力和科学方法。深刻领悟这一世界观和方法论,就真正把握了习近平总书记系列重要讲话的理论精髓和治国理政的真谛要义。

  5. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  6. Single-atom nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Prati, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Single-Atom Nanoelectronics covers the fabrication of single-atom devices and related technology, as well as the relevant electronic equipment and the intriguing new phenomena related to single-atom and single-electron effects in quantum devices. It also covers the alternative approaches related to both silicon- and carbon-based technologies, also from the point of view of large-scale industrial production. The publication provides a comprehensive picture of the state of the art at the cutting edge and constitutes a milestone in the emerging field of beyond-CMOS technology. Although there are

  7. A World View of Race Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Charles P.

    2004-01-01

    "Globalization" is the hot new term to explain an old phenomenon. As early as 1936, Ralph Bunche contended that the "inequality of peoples" was becoming an organizing theme for political and economic life across the globe. He introduced the concept of "social race" to explain the consciousness of environmental and social conditions when manifested…

  8. Atom Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Folman, R; Cassettari, D; Hessmo, B; Maier, T; Schmiedmayer, J; Folman, Ron; Krüger, Peter; Cassettari, Donatella; Hessmo, Björn; Maier, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

  9. The Africana world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    diaspora in order for the unity and renaissance dreamed of to become a reality. The chapters in Africana World: From Fragmentation to Unity and Renaissance address colonial and postcolonial African realities with a view to present a holistic and transcontinental appraisal of questions, issues...... and challenges that confront the continent. Contributors are drawn from different parts of the world - Africa, Europe and the Americas - and it is this eclectic range of scholarly views that lends a rich historicity to the meaning of Africanity. The book contains multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary...... engagements with Africa's rich cultural heritage, its lingering contemporary challenges, its multifaceted systems of knowledge and its future in the exciting context of the twenty-first century. Africana World: From Fragmentation to Unity and Renaissance is put together in order to help develop the study...

  10. World picture: symbol, sign, sense

    OpenAIRE

    Філіппов, В. Л.

    2014-01-01

    Modern philosophy‘s context of the world view understanding requires concepts that were created by such philosophers of the XX century as Oswald Spengler, Nikolay Berdyaev, Roland Barthes and Claude Lévi-Strauss. Concerning this problem, philosophical ideas of Merab Mamardashvili appear to be especially significant. We need to emphasize the fact that mentioned theories of culture discover different approaches about the issue of the world view understanding, which is essentially important in t...

  11. Nuclear energy education scenario around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, Roberta de Carvalho; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: praroberta@uol.com.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy has been used as a source of clean energy with many benefits. Nevertheless, it is still addressed with prejudice. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II (1945), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl accident (1986), the crash of the cesium-137 in Goiana, Brazil (1987), and the recent accident in Fukushima (2011) may have been responsible for the negative image of nuclear energy. Researches on education have been conducted with students concerning the conceptual and practical issues of nuclear energy. This work aims to review the literature about nuclear energy education around the world in both, elementary school and high school. Since most educational researches on nuclear energy were published after 1980, this literature review covered the researches that have been published since 1980. The data were presented in chronological order. The results from the literature review provided a clear visualization of the global nuclear energy educational scenario, showing that the theme is still addressed with prejudice due to an incorrect view of nuclear energy and a limited view of its benefits. Concerning the science textbooks, the literature reports that the theme should be better addressed, encouraging students to research more about it. The data from this literature review will serve as a reference for a future proposal for a teaching training program for Brazilian science/physics high school teachers using a new teaching approach. (author)

  12. Nuclear energy education scenario around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy has been used as a source of clean energy with many benefits. Nevertheless, it is still addressed with prejudice. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II (1945), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl accident (1986), the crash of the cesium-137 in Goiana, Brazil (1987), and the recent accident in Fukushima (2011) may have been responsible for the negative image of nuclear energy. Researches on education have been conducted with students concerning the conceptual and practical issues of nuclear energy. This work aims to review the literature about nuclear energy education around the world in both, elementary school and high school. Since most educational researches on nuclear energy were published after 1980, this literature review covered the researches that have been published since 1980. The data were presented in chronological order. The results from the literature review provided a clear visualization of the global nuclear energy educational scenario, showing that the theme is still addressed with prejudice due to an incorrect view of nuclear energy and a limited view of its benefits. Concerning the science textbooks, the literature reports that the theme should be better addressed, encouraging students to research more about it. The data from this literature review will serve as a reference for a future proposal for a teaching training program for Brazilian science/physics high school teachers using a new teaching approach. (author)

  13. OrbView-3 Level 1B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GeoEye's OrbView-3 satellite was among the world's first commercial satellites to provide high-resolution imagery from space. OrbView-3 collected one meter...

  14. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  15. Evanescent Wave Atomic Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezali, S.; Taleb, A.

    2008-09-01

    A research project at the "Laboratoire d'électronique quantique" consists in a theoretical study of the reflection and diffraction phenomena via an atomic mirror. This poster presents the principle of an atomic mirror. Many groups in the world have constructed this type of atom optics experiments such as in Paris-Orsay-Villetaneuse (France), Stanford-Gaithersburg (USA), Munich-Heidelberg (Germany), etc. A laser beam goes into a prism with an incidence bigger than the critical incidence. It undergoes a total reflection on the plane face of the prism and then exits. The transmitted resulting wave out of the prism is evanescent and repulsive as the frequency detuning of the laser beam compared to the atomic transition δ = ωL-ω0 is positive. The cold atomic sample interacts with this evanescent wave and undergoes one or more elastic bounces by passing into backward points in its trajectory because the atoms' kinetic energy (of the order of the μeV) is less than the maximum of the dipolar potential barrier ℏΩ2/Δ where Ω is the Rabi frequency [1]. In fact, the atoms are cooled and captured in a magneto-optical trap placed at a distance of the order of the cm above the prism surface. The dipolar potential with which interact the slow atoms is obtained for a two level atom in a case of a dipolar electric transition (D2 Rubidium transition at a wavelength of 780nm delivered by a Titane-Saphir laser between a fundamental state Jf = l/2 and an excited state Je = 3/2). This potential is corrected by an attractive Van der Waals term which varies as 1/z3 in the Lennard-Jones approximation (typical atomic distance of the order of λ0/2π where λ0 is the laser wavelength) and in 1/z4 if the distance between the atom and its image in the dielectric is big in front of λ0/2π. This last case is obtained in a quantum electrodynamic calculation by taking into account an orthornormal base [2]. We'll examine the role of spontaneous emission for which the rate is inversely

  16. Empirical Prediction of Leaf Area Index (LAI of Endangered Tree Species in Intact and Fragmented Indigenous Forests Ecosystems Using WorldView-2 Data and Two Robust Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal Omer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important biophysical trait for forest ecosystem and ecological modeling, as it plays a key role for the forest productivity and structural characteristics. The ground-based methods like the handheld optical instruments for predicting LAI are subjective, pricy and time-consuming. The advent of very high spatial resolutions multispectral data and robust machine learning regression algorithms like support vector machines (SVM and artificial neural networks (ANN has provided an opportunity to estimate LAI at tree species level. The objective of the this study was therefore to test the utility of spectral vegetation indices (SVI calculated from the multispectral WorldView-2 (WV-2 data in predicting LAI at tree species level using the SVM and ANN machine learning regression algorithms. We further tested whether there are significant differences between LAI of intact and fragmented (open indigenous forest ecosystems at tree species level. The study shows that LAI at tree species level could accurately be estimated using the fragmented stratum data compared with the intact stratum data. Specifically, our study shows that the accurate LAI predictions were achieved for Hymenocardia ulmoides using the fragmented stratum data and SVM regression model based on a validation dataset (R2Val = 0.75, RMSEVal = 0.05 (1.37% of the mean. Our study further showed that SVM regression approach achieved more accurate models for predicting the LAI of the six endangered tree species compared with ANN regression method. It is concluded that the successful application of the WV-2 data, SVM and ANN methods in predicting LAI of six endangered tree species in the Dukuduku indigenous forest could help in making informed decisions and policies regarding management, protection and conservation of these endangered tree species.

  17. Antinuclear and third world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this book is about antinuclear, which describes nuclear and nuclear war, the lesson out of history, an idea of neutron bomb and antinuclear through life and thoughts. The second part of this book includes the relationship between human and antinuclear, threat of nuclear, third world and popular literature, for conversion of Japan, an atomic experience and literature and experience and testimony in Nagasaki.

  18. Virtual machines for virtual worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Sanatinia, Amirali; Oliver, Iain Angus; Miller, Alan Henry David; Allison, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Multi User Virtual Worlds provide a simulated immersive 3D environment that is similar to the real world. Popular examples include Second Life and OpenSim. The multi-user nature of these simulations means that there are significant computational demands on the processes that render the different avatar-centric views of the world for each participant, which change with every movement or interaction each participant makes. Maintaining quality of experience can be difficult when the density of a...

  19. Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  20. Atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We will first present a development of the fundamental principles of atom interferometers. Next we will discuss a few of the various methods now available to split and recombine atomic De Broglie waves, with special emphasis on atom interferometers based on optical pulses. We will also be particularly concerned with high precision interferometers with long measurement times such those made with atomic fountains. The application of atom interferometry to the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity will be detailed. We will also develop the atom interferometry based on adiabatic transfer and we will apply it to the measurement of the photon recoil in the case of the Doppler shift of an atomic resonance caused by the momentum recoil from an absorbed photon. Finally the outlook of future developments will be given. (A.C.)

  1. World Bank Client Satisfaction Study, Pakistan 2013 : Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Gallup Pakistan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank conducted a Client Satisfaction Study (CSS) for Pakistan in 2013 to identify the client's perception of Bank's role and presence in the country. This paper includes the following sections: overall attitude towards World Bank in Pakistan; views on country partnership strategy; views and opinion about services of World Bank; World Bank access and media habits: advisory for a f...

  2. Virtual World Astrosociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2010-01-01

    This essay introduces the opportunity for theory development and even empirical research on some aspects of astrosociology through today's online virtual worlds. The examples covered present life on other planets or in space itself, in a manner that can be experienced by the user and where the user's reactions may simulate to some degree future human behavior in real extraterrestrial environments: Tabula Rasa, Anarchy Online, Entropia Universe, EVE Online, StarCraft and World of Warcraft. Ethnographic exploration of these computerized environments raises many questions about the social science both of space exploration and of direct contact with extraterrestrials. The views expressed in this essay do not necessarily represent the views of the National Science Foundation or the United States.

  3. Atomism versus Holism in Science and Philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Karakostas, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    The pros and cons of various forms of atomism and holism that are applicable both in physical science and today's philosophy of nature are evaluated. To this end, Lewis' thesis of Humean supervenience is presented as an important case study of an atomistic doctrine in philosophical thought. According to the thesis of Humean supervenience, the world is fragmented into local matters of particular fact and everything else supervenes upon them in conjunction with the spatiotemporal relations among them. It is explicitly shown that Lewis' ontological doctrine of Humean supervenience incorporates at its foundation the so-called separability principle of classical physics. In view of the systematic violation of the latter within quantum mechanics, it is argued that contemporary physical science posits non-supervenient relations over and above the spatiotemporal ones. It is demonstrated that the relation of quantum entanglement constitutes the prototypical example of a holistic, irreducible physical relation that doe...

  4. Superhabitable worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world. PMID:24380533

  5. The World Needs Dialogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Guangming Daily recently interviewed Xu Jialu.Chairman of the Organizing Committee of the Nishan Forum on World Civilizations.and President of the Advanced Institute for Confucian Studies of Shandong University.who shared his views on dialogues among civilizations.Edited excerpts follow: Guangming Daily:Dialogue is the buzz word at this forum.As the forum's initiator.what is your understanding of dialogue?

  6. The impact of integrating WorldView-2 sensor and environmental variables in estimating plantation forest species aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in uMgeni Catchment, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-09-01

    Reliable and accurate mapping and extraction of key forest indicators of ecosystem development and health, such as aboveground biomass (AGB) and aboveground carbon stocks (AGCS) is critical in understanding forests contribution to the local, regional and global carbon cycle. This information is critical in assessing forest contribution towards ecosystem functioning and services, as well as their conservation status. This work aimed at assessing the applicability of the high resolution 8-band WorldView-2 multispectral dataset together with environmental variables in quantifying AGB and aboveground carbon stocks for three forest plantation species i.e. Eucalyptus dunii (ED), Eucalyptus grandis (EG) and Pinus taeda (PT) in uMgeni Catchment, South Africa. Specifically, the strength of the Worldview-2 sensor in terms of its improved imaging agilities is examined as an independent dataset and in conjunction with selected environmental variables. The results have demonstrated that the integration of high resolution 8-band Worldview-2 multispectral data with environmental variables provide improved AGB and AGCS estimates, when compared to the use of spectral data as an independent dataset. The use of integrated datasets yielded a high R2 value of 0.88 and RMSEs of 10.05 t ha-1 and 5.03 t C ha-1 for E. dunii AGB and carbon stocks; whereas the use of spectral data as an independent dataset yielded slightly weaker results, producing an R2 value of 0.73 and an RMSE of 18.57 t ha-1 and 09.29 t C ha-1. Similarly, high accurate results (R2 value of 0.73 and RMSE values of 27.30 t ha-1 and 13.65 t C ha-1) were observed from the estimation of inter-species AGB and carbon stocks. Overall, the findings of this work have shown that the integration of new generation multispectral datasets with environmental variables provide a robust toolset required for the accurate and reliable retrieval of forest aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in densely forested terrestrial ecosystems.

  7. Predicting/Extrapolating Active Layer Thickness Using Statistical Learning from Remotely-Sensed High-resolution Data in Arctic Permafrost Landscapes: Improved parameterization of Ice-wedge polygons from LiDAR/WorldView-2 derived metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangodagamage, C.; Rowland, J. C.; Hubbard, S. S.; Brumby, S. P.; Liljedahl, A.; Wainwright, H. M.; Sloan, V. L.; Altmann, G.; Skurikhin, A. N.; Shelef, E.; Wilson, C. J.; Dafflon, B.; Peterson, J.; Ulrich, C.; Gibbs, A.; Tweedie, C. E.; Painter, S. L.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape attributes that vary with micro-topography, such as active layer thickness (ALT) in ice-wedge polygon ground, are labor-intensive to document in the field at large spatial extents, necessitating remotely sensed methods. Robust techniques to estimate ALT over large areas would improve understanding of coupled dynamics between permafrost, hydrology and landsurface processes, and improve simulations of the rate and timing of release of soil carbon from permafrost settings. In particular, it would provide critically needed data to parameterize and initialize soil property information in permafrost models and evaluate model predictions for large, complex domains. In this work, we demonstrate a new data fusion approach using high-resolution remotely sensed data for estimating cm scale ALT in a 5 km2 area of ice-wedge polygon terrain in Barrow, Alaska. We used topographic (directed distance, slope, wavelet-curvature) and spectral (NDVI) metrics derived from multisensor data obtained from LiDAR and WorldView-2 platforms to develop a simple data fusion algorithm using statistical machine learning. This algorithm was used to estimate ALT (2 m spatial resolution) across the study area. A comparison of the estimates with ground-based measurements documented the accuracy (±4.4 cm, r2=0.76) of the approach. Our findings suggest that the broad climatic variability associated with warming air temperature will govern the regional averages of ALT, but the smaller-scale variability could be controlled by local eco-hydro-geomorphic variables. This work demonstrates a path forward for mapping subsurface properties over large areas from readily available remote sensing data. Methodology of Mapping and Characterization Polygons:We convolve LiDAR elevations with multiscale wavelets and objectively chose appropriate scales to map interconnected troughs of high- and low-centered polygons. For the ice wedges where LiDAR surface expressions (troughs) are not well developed, we used

  8. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in atomic physics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: experiments on stored ions; test for parity violation in neutral weak currents; energy conservation and astrophysics; atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic and molecular detectors; theoretical studies of quantum electrodynamics and high-z ions; atomic beam magnetic resonance; radiative decay from the 23Po,2 levels of helium-like argon; quenching of the metastable 2S/sub 1/2/ state of hydrogen-like argon in an external electric field; and lifetime of the 23Po level of helium-like krypton

  9. Superhabitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host star...

  10. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    1989-01-01

    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  11. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  12. Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, František

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis is focused on highlighting the development of virtual worlds. The paper summarizes the evolution of virtual reality. Current virtual worlds are compared in fundamental aspects, such as sociology, economics and education. Social sphere describes the interaction in virtual reality and its specialities. Economical sphere is focused on comparison of real and virtual economies, including their economic indicators. Educational sphere describes the sciences, which are best usea...

  13. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  14. Un altro mondo? [Another world? - in Italian

    OpenAIRE

    Casati, Roberto; Varzi, Achille

    2002-01-01

    Alexandre Koyré wrote that Newton and the science that followed led to a splitting of the world: on the one hand is the "world of qualities and of sensible perceptions", on the other is the "world of quantities and of reified geometry". A comparison between facts held true by common sense and false by the scientific image of the world (or vice versa) seems to confirm this view. But is the dichotomy a real one? Is the world of common sense really "another world" relative to the world of the na...

  15. Production of ultra slow antiprotons, its application to atomic collisions and atomic spectroscopy - ASACUSA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons (ASACUSA) project aims at studying collision dynamics with slow antiprotons and high precision spectroscopy of antiprotonic atoms. To realize these purposes, the production of high quality ultra slow antiproton beams is essential, which is achieved by the combination of antiproton decelerator (AD) from 3 GeV to 5 MeV, a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) decelerator from 5 MeV to 50 keV, and finally an electromagnetic trap from 50 keV to 10 eV. From the atomic physics point of view, an antiproton is an extremely heavy electron and/or a negatively charged proton, i.e., the antiproton is a unique tool to shed light on collision dynamics from the other side of the world. In addition to this fundamentally important feature, the antiproton has also a big practical advantage, i.e., it annihilates with the target nuclei emitting several energetic pions, which provides high detection efficiency with very good time resolution. Many-body effects which are of great importance to several branches of science will be studied through ionization and antiprotonic atom formation processes under single collision conditions. Various antiprotonic atoms including protonium (p anti-p) are expected to be meta-stable in vacuum, which is never true for those in dense media except for antiprotonic helium. High precision spectroscopy of protonium will for the first time become feasible benefited by this meta-stability. The present review reports briefly the production scheme of ultra slow antiproton beams and several topics proposed in the ASACUSA project

  16. Tension in the Conflicts Between the Child World and the Real World---on LIU DiGhong’s Shaoyao Fairy in the view of tension%童性世界与现实世界碰撞中的张力--张力理论视角下刘第红的«芍药仙子»

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧苏

    2016-01-01

    , and there is conflict, integration, alienation and unity in the world view.Thanks to the formation of tension of these three kinds, LIU DiGhong’s Shaoyao Fairy is presented with great breakthroughs and uniqueness in essay writing of a new century.

  17. World armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary of consequences on: Armament expenditure of the world, arms trade, arms race and nuclear weapon arsenals, nuclear weapon proliferation, nuclear safety controls, nuclear carrier systems, international nuclear trade, nuclear weapon accidents, chemical wars, war law, ecological wars, armament limitations. (HP)

  18. World Englishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心; 周丽

    2014-01-01

    In the current days, the search for information and the need for global communication have already promoted English from being the language of people in different countries as the international language. This essay will give some arguments about the inevitability of variety of world Englishes and its characteristics, and then explain that what Standard English is and examples about the standards in English.

  19. Atomic physics for cave-men and other beginners. The universe from within. Molecules, atoms, and elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this essential can be found the structure and the general properties of atoms, the precise interior of atoms and the special behaviour resulting from it, and the mysterious world of ''quanta'' and their behaviour.

  20. Atoms for peace plus fifty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of Dwight Eisenhower's most significant political legacies stemmed from his management of the nuclear question. Five decades after Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' speech before the United Nations, the nuclear dilemma persists but the world is a different, and I would submit, a better place today than it might have been had that vision not been articulated, or its proposals not advanced. The 'Atoms for Peace' speech had a number of objectives, but it is over arching goal was to propose a set of ideas, a nuclear strategy, which would call on the Soviets to cooperate internationally for the betterment of mankind. This would reengage the Soviets in discussions on nuclear matters at a time when arms control talks had stalled, but it would also offer hope, and a practical set of ideas, to the developing world. 'Atoms for Peace' spawned many developments, including the establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and eventually the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. While 'Atoms for Peace', as well as the institutions it created, has come under fire in recent years, it is hard to imagine what the world would have been like without it. Largely through the international Atomic Energy Agency, nations around the world have participated in research and development programs, including the use of nuclear energy in important civilian applications. Nuclear electric power accounts for nearly one-fifth of the world's electricity - reducing global tensions by replacing oil in many applications, and providing much of the world's electricity that is generated without the release of greenhouse gases or other destructive emissions. Many other nuclear and radiation-related technologies, especially radiopharmaceuticals and medical advances involving radiation, have resulted in large part from research spawned by 'Atoms for Peace'. Millions of lives have been saved in the process. While the 'nuclear dilemma' remains a challenge almost as complex as it was fifty years ago, the

  1. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  2. Ludwig Boltzmann: Atomic genius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the centenary of the death of Ludwig Boltzmann, Carlo Cercignani examines the immense contributions of the man who pioneered our understanding of the atomic nature of matter. The man who first gave a convincing explanation of the irreversibility of the macroscopic world and the symmetry of the laws of physics was the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, who tragically committed suicide 100 years ago this month. One of the key figures in the development of the atomic theory of matter, Boltzmann's fame will be forever linked to two fundamental contributions to science. The first was his interpretation of 'entropy' as a mathematically well-defined measure of the disorder of atoms. The second was his derivation of what is now known as the Boltzmann equation, which describes the statistical properties of a gas as made up of molecules. The equation, which described for the first time how a probability can evolve with time, allowed Boltzmann to explain why macroscopic phenomena are irreversible. The key point is that while microscopic objects like atoms can behave reversibly, we never see broken coffee cups reforming because it would involve a long series of highly improbable interactions - and not because it is forbidden by the laws of physics. (U.K.)

  3. Giant atom smasher on hunt for "Sparticles"

    CERN Multimedia

    Moskowitz, Clara

    2008-01-01

    "Squarks, photinos, selectrons, neutralinos: these are just a few types of supersymmetrice particles, a special brand of particle that may be created when the world's most powerful atom smasher goes online this spring." (1 page)

  4. World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Suzy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

  5. Manifesting the Quantum World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrhoff, Ulrich

    2014-06-01

    In resisting attempts to explain the unity of a whole in terms of a multiplicity of interacting parts, quantum mechanics calls for an explanatory concept that proceeds in the opposite direction: from unity to multiplicity. Being part of the Scientific Image of the world, the theory concerns the process by which (the physical aspect of) what Sellars called the Manifest Image of the world comes into being. This process consists in the progressive differentiation of an intrinsically undifferentiated entity. By entering into reflexive spatial relations, this entity gives rise to (i) what looks like a multiplicity of relata if the reflexive quality of the relations is not taken into account, and (ii) what looks like a substantial expanse if the spatial quality of the relations is reified. If there is a distinctly quantum domain, it is a non-spatial and non-temporal dimension across which the transition from the unity of this entity to the multiplicity of the world takes place. Instead of being constituents of the physical world, subatomic particles, atoms, and molecules are instrumental in its manifestation. These conclusions are based on the following interpretive principle and its more direct consequences: whenever the calculation of probabilities calls for the addition of amplitudes, the distinctions we make between the alternatives lack objective reality. Applied to alternatives involving distinctions between regions of space, this principle implies that, owing to the indefiniteness of positions, the spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world is incomplete: the existence of a real-valued spatiotemporal background is an unrealistic idealization. This guarantees the existence of observables whose values are real per se, as against "real by virtue of being indicated by the values of observables that are real per se." Applied to alternatives involving distinctions between things, it implies that, intrinsically, all fundamental particles are numerically

  6. Die sonderbare Welt der Atome

    CERN Multimedia

    Greschik, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Is a Pinhead small? Or a grain of sand? The components of our world are still infinitely much tinier. Come with us in the dimensions, in that of the giant bacteria and even of atoms large like solar systems (3½ pages)

  7. Theory of atomic motion in resonant radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R.J.

    1980-03-01

    Atomic motion in resonant and near resonant electromagnetic radiation is investigated theoretically. The exposition begins with a study of atomic motion in a resonant standing light wave, with a view toward isotope separation by selective photodeflection, and proceeds to the investigation of more general problems of atomic motion in resonant radiation. The body of the work consists of six chapters, each of which was prepared as a manuscript for publication in the open literature.

  8. Theory of atomic motion in resonant radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic motion in resonant and near resonant electromagnetic radiation is investigated theoretically. The exposition begins with a study of atomic motion in a resonant standing light wave, with a view toward isotope separation by selective photodeflection, and proceeds to the investigation of more general problems of atomic motion in resonant radiation. The body of the work consists of six chapters, each of which was prepared as a manuscript for publication in the open literature

  9. Atom Probe Tomography 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas F.; Larson, David J.

    2012-08-01

    In the world of tomographic imaging, atom probe tomography (APT) occupies the high-spatial-resolution end of the spectrum. It is highly complementary to electron tomography and is applicable to a wide range of materials. The current state of APT is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications and data analysis as they apply to many fields of research and development including metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and organic materials. We also provide a brief review of the history and the instrumentation associated with APT and an assessment of the existing challenges in the field.

  10. In the world, but not of the world : The prospects of Christianity in the modern world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, P.H.A.I.

    2000-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the prospects of Christianity in the modern world from a philosophical perspective (section 1). In order to do so, I analyse in the second section Gianni Vattimo’s and Charles Taylor’s views of the problems of modernity. They interpret modern civilisation as being threaten

  11. Atomic war field Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive atomic weapons, results of a perfect and perfidious technology face each other in the centre of a possible crisis - in Europe. The strategists of the Warszhaw Pact and of Nato seem very optimistic, which they owe to their professions, the population's increasing fear of a war, however, can no longer be denied. Nervous military personnel, political and religions fanatics and perplexed politicians sit at the switches of fear - without a concept and without alternatives. Despite this alarming conditions, Nigel Calder who has investigated in the USA and in the USSR, and in Europe, managed to remain a calm spectator of the imminent apocalypse. Without compromises and clearly he analyses the nearly hopeless consequences resulting from the changed world-political situation, the tremendously fast development of the arms technology, and the crazy strategical doctrines in East and West and in the Third World. (orig./UA)

  12. Manifesting the Quantum World

    CERN Document Server

    Mohrhoff, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    In resisting attempts to explain the unity of a whole in terms of a multiplicity of interacting parts, quantum mechanics calls for an explanatory concept that proceeds in the opposite direction: from unity to multiplicity. It concerns the process by which what Sellars called the Manifest Image of the world comes into being. This process consists in the progressive differentiation of an intrinsically undifferentiated entity. By entering into reflexive spatial relations, this gives rise to (i) what looks like a multiplicity of relata if the reflexive quality of the relations is not taken into account, and (ii) what looks like a substantial expanse if the spatial quality of the relations is reified. If there is a distinctly quantum domain, it is a non-spatial and non-temporal dimension across which the transition from the unity of this entity to the multiplicity of the world takes place. Instead of being constituents of the physical world, subatomic particles, atoms, and molecules are instrumental in its manifes...

  13. The Potential Contribution of the Behavioral Scientist to World Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.; Malcolm, David

    1987-01-01

    Presents one view of the state of the world today. Describes a hope to disengage the world from a precarious entanglement that threatens human survival and to seek alternatives that would reduce psychological barriers that impinge on rational communication. (Author)

  14. Viewing Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighting, Mervyn J.

    2005-01-01

    When Mount St. Helens threatened to erupt again in 2004, it grabbed headlines and captured the imagination of the country. Science classrooms nationwide used the event as an opportunity to make real-world connections to Earth science concepts introduced in the classroom. Thanks to modern technology, teachers no longer have to wait for the next…

  15. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  16. Atomic arias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The American composer John Adams uses opera to dramatize controversial current events. His 1987 work Nixon in China was about the landmark meeting in 1972 between US President Richard Nixon and Chairman Mao Zedong of China; The Death of Klinghoffer (1991) was a musical re-enactment of an incident in 1985 when Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and murdered a wheelchair-bound Jewish tourist on a cruise ship. Adams's latest opera, Doctor Atomic, is also tied to a controversial event: the first atomic-bomb test in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 June 1945. The opera premièred in San Francisco in 2005, had a highly publicized debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 2008, and will have another debut on 25 February - with essentially the same cast - at the English National Opera in London.

  17. Taking a Long View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    a global perspective which leads to a more positive assessment. I will do this from a historical materialist perspective and therefore I begin with a discussion of the long view in Marx. This leads on to a discussion of Marx’s law of the long term declining rate of profit (LTFRP) and its counteracting...... factors (CFs). The next step is, drawing on regulation theory, to relate the mobilization of such CFs to the successive stages of capitalist development after World War Two, up to the present crisis, and after this, in the final two sections I discuss the potential for mobilizing ‘surplus labour...

  18. Atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.E.; Kukla, K.; Cheng, S. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration with the Atomic Physics group at Argonne and the University of Toledo, the Atomic Physics group at the University of Notre Dame is measuring the fine structure transition energies in highly-charged lithium-like and helium-like ions using beam-foil spectroscopy. Precise measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in simple (few-electron) atomic systems provide stringent tests of several classes of current atomic- structure calculations. Analyses of measurements in helium-like Ar{sup 16+} have been completed, and the results submitted for publication. A current goal is to measure the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} - 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition wavelength in helium-like Ni{sup 26+}. Measurements of the 1s2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} - 1s2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} transition wavelengths in lithium-like Kr{sup 33+} is planned. Wavelength and lifetime measurements in copper-like U{sup 63+} are also expected to be initiated. The group is also participating in measurements of forbidden transitions in helium-like ions. A measurement of the lifetime of the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} state in Kr{sup 34+} was published recently. In a collaboration including P. Mokler of GSI, Darmstadt, measurements have been made of the spectral distribution of the 2E1 decay continuum in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. Initial results have been reported and further measurements are planned.

  19. Shell worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  20. Remote viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C

    1988-04-15

    Remote viewing is the supposed faculty which enables a percipient, sited in a closed room, to describe the perceptions of a remote agent visiting an unknown target site. To provide convincing demonstration of such a faculty poses a range of experimental and practical problems, especially if feedback to the percipient is allowed after each trial. The precautions needed are elaborate and troublesome; many potential loopholes have to be plugged and there will be strong temptations to relax standards, requiring exceptional discipline and dedication by the experimenters. Most reports of remote viewing experiments are rather superficial and do not permit assessment of the experimental procedures with confidence; in many cases there is clear evidence of particular loopholes left unclosed. Any serious appraisal of the evidence would have to go beyond the reports. Meanwhile the published evidence is far from compelling, and certainly insufficient to justify overthrow of well-established scientific principles.

  1. Take a Stroll in Another World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Zs.; Orbons, E.M.; Cignoni, P.; Sochor, J.

    2007-01-01

    Another World II is a print by the famous Dutch artist M. C. Escher, depicting a cube with arch-like openings on each side. What makes the print interesting is that the depicted views in the arches are inconsistent, leaving the spectator puzzled as to the “impossible assembly” of views from differen

  2. The Brave New World of Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Is it the science that will save the world from starvation, or will it mean the end of the world as it is known? While some people fear genetically altered "Frankenfoods" and DNA experiments with pathogenic microorganisms that could result in worldwide epidemics, others view biotechnology as using biological organisms to make products that benefit…

  3. Expert Views

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. debt crisis warns China to reduce its foreign reserve The downgrading of the U.S.'s credit rating by the Standard & Poor is a good thing, which delivers a heavy blow against the deficit budget policy. It reminds people that there is no free lunch in the world and also highlights the rating agency's independence. It also makes us realize the urgency of bal- ancing the international payments and reducing foreign reserves.

  4. NIST Databases on Atomic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, J.; Wiese, W. L.; Martin, W. C.; Musgrove, A.; Fuhr, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    The NIST atomic and molecular spectroscopic databases now available on the World Wide Web through the NIST Physics Laboratory homepage include Atomic Spectra Database, Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms, Spectrum of Platinum Lamp for Ultraviolet Spectrograph Calibration, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Transition Probabilities, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Spectral Line Broadening, and Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database. The Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) [1] offers evaluated data on energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities for atoms and atomic ions. Data are given for some 950 spectra and 70,000 energy levels. About 91,000 spectral lines are included, with transition probabilities for about half of these. Additional data resulting from our ongoing critical compilations will be included in successive new versions of ASD. We plan to include, for example, our recently published data for some 16,000 transitions covering most ions of the iron-group elements, as well as Cu, Kr, and Mo [2]. Our compilations benefit greatly from experimental and theoretical atomic-data research being carried out in the NIST Atomic Physics Division. A new compilation covering spectra of the rare gases in all stages of ionization, for example, revealed a need for improved data in the infrared. We have thus measured these needed data with our high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer [3]. An upcoming new database will give wavelengths and intensities for the stronger lines of all neutral and singly-ionized atoms, along with energy levels and transition probabilities for the persistent lines [4]. A critical compilation of the transition probabilities of Ba I and Ba II [5] has been completed and several other compilations of atomic transition probabilities are nearing completion. These include data for all spectra of Na, Mg, Al, and Si [6]. Newly compiled data for selected ions of Ne, Mg, Si and S, will form the basis for a new

  5. Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingjin

    2015-01-01

    In his article "Mapping Chinese Literature as World Literature" Yingjin Zhang revisits the challenge of mapping Chinese literature as world literature in three steps: 1) he delineates of positions of view as proposed by Western scholars who engaged in rethinking world literature(s) in the age of globalization, 2) evaluates consequences of such a new mapping for Chinese literature and tests a different set of "technologies of recognition" (Shih) in the context of Chinese versus Sinophone studi...

  6. Analysis on Effect of User Innovation Diffusion from View of Small-world Network%小世界网络下用户创新扩散效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林略; 周力全

    2009-01-01

    本文对用户创新的概念及相关研究成果进行了阐述,分析了用户创新扩散的特性;运用WS小世界网络模型构建了用户创新扩散的网络模型,并对扩散效果进行了模拟分析.结果表明:用户创新扩散在不同的网络结构下呈现出不同的结果;创新采纳比例在小世界区间达到最大;随着网络随机化程度的加大,平均创新知识水平变得更高,知识的均匀扩散能够更快实现.最后进行了案例分析.%This paper describes the concept and the related research theory on user innovation ,and analyzes the characteristics of user innovation diffusion. According to the WS small-world network model.it constructs the network model of user innovation diffusion,and gives the simulation analysis on diffusion effects. The result of simulation analysis shows that:user innovation diffusion represents different results under different networks; the proportion of innovation adoption achieves the max value in the small-world range; with the increasing of the network stochastic extent, the average innovation knowledge level is higher ,and the equable diffusion of knowledge can be achieved faster. Finally.it makes the case study.

  7. Ash'arite's atomistic conception of the physical world: A restatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozi, Firdaus; Othman, Mohd Yusof [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia and Institute of Islam Hadhari, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Mohamed, Faizal [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Atomism plays an important role in the history of human thought. It can be traced back from Democritus atomos in the 500 BC to particle physics and quantum theory in the 21{sup st} century. However, as it being rejected and developed in the course of history of science, it still brings the fundamental question that perplexes physicists. It gives the views that the world is eternal; that the laws of nature is immutable and eternal therefore all phenomena can be determined through the laws and that there is no reality behind the quantum world. In this paper, we shall briefly describe all these three views on the nature of the physical world or universe and this include on the nature of matter. Then, we shall explain our stand on those conceptions based on the Ash'arites atomistic conception of the physical world. We hope this paper can shed a light on several fundamental issues in the conception of the universe and gives the proper response to them.

  8. Determination of forty trace impurity elements in uranium compounds using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrography with end-on viewing of the ICP and a medium-size spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified spectral analytical method is outlined which can determine up to 40 trace impurities elements in uranium compounds. This can be used to analyse nuclear fuels. The method uses a reversed-phase partition chromatographic technique to separate the impurities from the uranium matrix and end-on viewing of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) using a medium-sized quartz spectrograph. The experimental method, calibration and results of recovery tests are given. The method uses a smaller sample (approx. 1/40) than the ASTM specified analytical procedure. (UK)

  9. New Threat to World Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aggregate amount of money and credit in the global economy has risen sharply over the past 30 years,with its growth rate and stock far exceeding that of the real economy or real assets of the world.This is the view of Xiang Songzuo,professor at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology,whose opinion was first published in a recent article in China Business News.Xiang said this situation is a real threat to the world economy.Excerpts of his article are reprinted below:

  10. Being in a Virtual World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads; Grimshaw, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework by which virtual world sound designers may work towards the attainment of presence. Drawing on the study of cognitive metaphors and the view that sound is an emergent perception we offer an account of the environment as a salient and dynamic construct...... that functions as a synecdoche for the nonself. Separating environment from world, we discuss the role of sound in the forming of the environment and argue that it is this environment that establishes the means for presence because it is the process behind the construction of the environment that individuates...

  11. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  12. [What can qualia be? The monistic views].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livaditis, M

    2012-01-01

    Phenomenal properties, also named qualia (that is, the qualities of human experiences, e.g. the senses of red, of salt, of pain, qua senses) create a hard problem for philosophy. It is claimed that phenomenal properties are radically different to the physical ones: they are intrinsic (their essence is totally confined within the limits of their existence), they depend on mind, they are accessible only privately, by introspection and they are infallible, in the sense that the experience of a quale is identical to its existence. On the contrary, physical properties are dispositional (their essence is defined through their causal consequences), they exist independently of mind, they are accessible to public observation and are liable to verification or falsification. The faculty of philosophy, named philosophy of mind, is systematically interested in qualia. In the present paper some of the main monistic philosophical approaches to qualia are discussed. The main common characteristic of monistic views is that (contrary to dualistic views) they purport that: two radically different substances cannot exist, side by side, within the same world (our world). Thus, there are either physical properties, or phenomenal properties, but not both. The monistic theories, supporting that in our world there are only physical properties, or properties totally reducible into physical ones, are named physicalism (or according to a more traditional nomination, materialism). On the other hand, monistic theories maintaining that all existing properties are phenomenal, or properties reducible into phenomenal ones, are named phenomenalism. The main arguments for physicalism are: (a) the scientific principle of the causal closure of the universe (every event has one physical cause), (b) the dependence of every well-studied mental phenomenon, from a physical phenomenal, such as the function of the neural system. Dualists counterattack physicalism with mental experiments (such as, the

  13. [What can qualia be? The monistic views].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livaditis, M

    2012-01-01

    Phenomenal properties, also named qualia (that is, the qualities of human experiences, e.g. the senses of red, of salt, of pain, qua senses) create a hard problem for philosophy. It is claimed that phenomenal properties are radically different to the physical ones: they are intrinsic (their essence is totally confined within the limits of their existence), they depend on mind, they are accessible only privately, by introspection and they are infallible, in the sense that the experience of a quale is identical to its existence. On the contrary, physical properties are dispositional (their essence is defined through their causal consequences), they exist independently of mind, they are accessible to public observation and are liable to verification or falsification. The faculty of philosophy, named philosophy of mind, is systematically interested in qualia. In the present paper some of the main monistic philosophical approaches to qualia are discussed. The main common characteristic of monistic views is that (contrary to dualistic views) they purport that: two radically different substances cannot exist, side by side, within the same world (our world). Thus, there are either physical properties, or phenomenal properties, but not both. The monistic theories, supporting that in our world there are only physical properties, or properties totally reducible into physical ones, are named physicalism (or according to a more traditional nomination, materialism). On the other hand, monistic theories maintaining that all existing properties are phenomenal, or properties reducible into phenomenal ones, are named phenomenalism. The main arguments for physicalism are: (a) the scientific principle of the causal closure of the universe (every event has one physical cause), (b) the dependence of every well-studied mental phenomenon, from a physical phenomenal, such as the function of the neural system. Dualists counterattack physicalism with mental experiments (such as, the

  14. Radiative processes of uniformly accelerated entangled atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, G

    2015-01-01

    We study radiative processes of uniformly accelerated entangled atoms, interacting with an electromagnetic field prepared in the Minkowski vacuum state. We discuss the structure of the rate of variation of the atomic energy for two atoms travelling in different hyperbolic world lines. We identify the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the generation of entanglement as well as to the decay of entangled states. Our results resemble the situation in which two inertial atoms are coupled individually to two spatially separated cavities at different temperatures. In addition, for equal accelerations we obtain that the maximally entangled antisymmetric Bell state is a decoherence-free state.

  15. Approaching the nano world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, Andreas; Jacobs, Heiko; Knapp, Helmut F.

    1996-12-01

    At the interface of micro and macro world, vision plays a fundamental role in localizing targets and positioning micro- or nanorobots relative to them. Traditionally, far- field optics are used to achieve this task. However, in most practical applications optical diffraction limits resolution to the micrometer-range although image processing may provide us relative accuracies on the order of several nanometers in a few special cases. At ambient pressure, capillary condensation of water vapor severely hampers reproducible and reversible manipulations of micrometer- sized or smaller objects since the resulting adhesive forces between tool and object easily exceed the object's weight. The size of objects also dictates the useful dimensions of sensors and actuators and generally necessitates integration of several sensing and/or actuation functions into a single device. To overcome above mentioned difficulties in accessing the micro and nano world, sensing and actuating principles derived from scanning probe microscopies such as atomic force or optical near-field provide us with the necessary extension of the capabilities offered by traditional far-field systems. A fluid environment also prevents those hard-to-control effects of capillary forces.

  16. A Creepy World

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Using the mechanics of creep in material sciences as a metaphor, we present a general framework to understand the evolution of financial, economic and social systems and to construct scenarios for the future. In a nutshell, highly non-linear out-of-equilibrium systems subjected to exogenous perturbations tend to exhibit a long phase of slow apparent stable evolution, which are nothing but slow maturations towards instabilities, failures and changes of regimes. With examples from history where a small event had a cataclysmic consequence, we propose a novel view of the current state of the world via the logical scenarios that derive, avoiding the traps of an illusionary stability and simple linear extrapolation. The endogenous scenarios are "muddling along", "managing through" and "blood red abyss". The exogenous scenarios are "painful adjustment" and "golden east".

  17. Reviews Book: Sustainable Energy—Without the Hot Air Equipment: Doppler Effect Unit Book: The Physics of Rugby Book: Plastic Fantastic: How the Biggest Fraud in Physics Shook the Scientific World Equipment: Brunel Eyecam Equipment: 200x Digital Microscope Book: The Atom and the Apple: Twelve Tales from Contemporary Physics Book: Physics 2 for OCR Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Sustainable Energy—Without the Hot Air This excellent book makes sense of energy facts and figures Doppler Effect Unit Another simple, effective piece of kit from SEP Plastic Fantastic: How the Biggest Fraud in Physics Shook the Scientific World Intriguing and unique write-up of an intellectual fraud case Brunel Eyecam An affordable digital eyepiece for your microscope 200x Digital Microscope An adjustable digital flexcam for classroom use The Atom and the Apple: Twelve Tales from Contemporary Physics A fascinating round-up of the recent history of physics WORTH A LOOK The Physics of Rugby Book uses sport analogy and context to teach physics concepts Physics 2 for OCR Essential textbook for the course but otherwise pointless WEB WATCH Some free teaching materials are better than those you'd pay for

  18. Our love-saturated world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盛夏

    2005-01-01

    From time to time,I am told that peple nowadays are more and more self-centered and utilitarian (功利主义的) than before,and the distanoe between hearts is farther.As a result,the world is not filled with are and love as before.Nevertheless,one incident that happened not long before smashes the view I was taught to hold.

  19. Atomic physics for cave-men and other beginners. The universe from within. Molecules, atoms, and elementary particles; Atomphysik fuer Hoehlenmenschen und andere Anfaenger. Das Universum von innen. Molekuele, Atome und Elementarteilchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Juergen

    2016-07-01

    In this essential can be found the structure and the general properties of atoms, the precise interior of atoms and the special behaviour resulting from it, and the mysterious world of ''quanta'' and their behaviour.

  20. Life and consciousness - The Vedāntic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2015-01-01

    In the past, philosophers, scientists, and even the general opinion, had no problem in accepting the existence of consciousness in the same way as the existence of the physical world. After the advent of Newtonian mechanics, science embraced a complete materialistic conception about reality. Scientists started proposing hypotheses like abiogenesis (origin of first life from accumulation of atoms and molecules) and the Big Bang theory (the explosion theory for explaining the origin of universe). How the universe came to be what it is now is a key philosophical question. The hypothesis that it came from Nothing (as proposed by Stephen Hawking, among others), proves to be dissembling, since the quantum vacuum can hardly be considered a void. In modern science, it is generally assumed that matter existed before the universe came to be. Modern science hypothesizes that the manifestation of life on Earth is nothing but a mere increment in the complexity of matter - and hence is an outcome of evolution of matter (chemical evolution) following the Big Bang. After the manifestation of life, modern science believed that chemical evolution transformed itself into biological evolution, which then had caused the entire biodiversity on our planet. The ontological view of the organism as a complex machine presumes life as just a chance occurrence, without any inner purpose. This approach in science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness in its attempt to know the world as the relationships among forces, atoms, and molecules. On the other hand, the Vedāntic view states that the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute (unconditioned). Thus, sentient life is primitive and reproductive of itself - omne vivum ex vivo - life comes from life. This is the scientifically verified law of experience. Life is essentially cognitive and conscious. And, consciousness, which is fundamental, manifests itself in the gradational forms of all

  1. Life and consciousness – The Vedāntic view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2015-01-01

    In the past, philosophers, scientists, and even the general opinion, had no problem in accepting the existence of consciousness in the same way as the existence of the physical world. After the advent of Newtonian mechanics, science embraced a complete materialistic conception about reality. Scientists started proposing hypotheses like abiogenesis (origin of first life from accumulation of atoms and molecules) and the Big Bang theory (the explosion theory for explaining the origin of universe). How the universe came to be what it is now is a key philosophical question. The hypothesis that it came from Nothing (as proposed by Stephen Hawking, among others), proves to be dissembling, since the quantum vacuum can hardly be considered a void. In modern science, it is generally assumed that matter existed before the universe came to be. Modern science hypothesizes that the manifestation of life on Earth is nothing but a mere increment in the complexity of matter — and hence is an outcome of evolution of matter (chemical evolution) following the Big Bang. After the manifestation of life, modern science believed that chemical evolution transformed itself into biological evolution, which then had caused the entire biodiversity on our planet. The ontological view of the organism as a complex machine presumes life as just a chance occurrence, without any inner purpose. This approach in science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness in its attempt to know the world as the relationships among forces, atoms, and molecules. On the other hand, the Vedāntic view states that the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute (unconditioned). Thus, sentient life is primitive and reproductive of itself – omne vivum ex vivo – life comes from life. This is the scientifically verified law of experience. Life is essentially cognitive and conscious. And, consciousness, which is fundamental, manifests itself in the gradational forms of all

  2. Life and consciousness - The Vedāntic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2015-01-01

    In the past, philosophers, scientists, and even the general opinion, had no problem in accepting the existence of consciousness in the same way as the existence of the physical world. After the advent of Newtonian mechanics, science embraced a complete materialistic conception about reality. Scientists started proposing hypotheses like abiogenesis (origin of first life from accumulation of atoms and molecules) and the Big Bang theory (the explosion theory for explaining the origin of universe). How the universe came to be what it is now is a key philosophical question. The hypothesis that it came from Nothing (as proposed by Stephen Hawking, among others), proves to be dissembling, since the quantum vacuum can hardly be considered a void. In modern science, it is generally assumed that matter existed before the universe came to be. Modern science hypothesizes that the manifestation of life on Earth is nothing but a mere increment in the complexity of matter - and hence is an outcome of evolution of matter (chemical evolution) following the Big Bang. After the manifestation of life, modern science believed that chemical evolution transformed itself into biological evolution, which then had caused the entire biodiversity on our planet. The ontological view of the organism as a complex machine presumes life as just a chance occurrence, without any inner purpose. This approach in science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness in its attempt to know the world as the relationships among forces, atoms, and molecules. On the other hand, the Vedāntic view states that the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute (unconditioned). Thus, sentient life is primitive and reproductive of itself - omne vivum ex vivo - life comes from life. This is the scientifically verified law of experience. Life is essentially cognitive and conscious. And, consciousness, which is fundamental, manifests itself in the gradational forms of all

  3. Hanbury Brown and Twiss and other atom-atom correlations: advances in quantum atom optics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Fifty years ago, two astronomers, R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, invented a new method to measure the angular diameter of stars, in spite of the atmospheric fluctuations. Their proposal prompted a hot debate among physicists : how might two particles (photons), emitted independently (at opposite extremities of a star) , behave in a correlated way when detected ? It was only after the development of R Glauber's full quantum analysis that the effect was understood as a two particle quantum interference effect. From a modern perspective, it can be viewed as an early example of the amazing properties of pairs of entangled particles. The effect has now been observed with bosonic and fermionic atoms, stressing its fully quantum character. After putting these experiments in a historical perspective, I will present recent results, and comment on their significance. I will also show how our single atom detection scheme has allowed us to demonstrate the creation of atom pairs by non linear mixing of matter wa...

  4. Present Status of Growth of Domestic Chemical Fertilizer Industry from View Point of Trend in World Chemical Fertilizer Structure%从世界化肥结构动态看我国化肥行业发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱东方; 何建芳; 陈明良

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the growth trend in fertilizers of world developed nations, an analysis is done of the present status of development of the domestic compound fertilizer industry, fertilizer utilization ratio, fertilizer application based on soil analysis and formulation, pollution from application of chemical fertilizers, and new types of fertilizers. Based on the development status of domestic chemical fertilizers, suggestions for sustained growth are proposed, viz., the compound fertilizer industry should improve the product quality, lower the cost; the nitrogenous fertilizer industry should change the present pattern of urea alone taking the greatest share and may vigorously increase nitric acid and ammonia-based nitrogenous fertilizer; however, the phosphatic fertilizer industry, in the light of the domestic conditions and the limitation of the mineral resources, should continue to produce low-analysis phosphatic fertilizers, and slow down the growth of high-analysis ones; and it should attach great importance to developing organic fertilizers, especially organic-inorganic compound fertilizers.%根据世界发达国家肥料发展的趋势,对我国复合混肥行业、肥料利用率、测土配方施肥、化肥施用污染、新型肥料的发展现状等进行了分析.根据我国化肥行业的发展现状,提出了可持续发展的建议,即:复合肥行业应提升产品品质,降低成本;氮肥行业应改变目前尿素独大的格局,可大力发展硝酸氨基氮肥;而磷肥行业应根据我国的国情和矿产资源的有限性,应保留低浓度磷肥,减缓高浓度磷肥的发展;重视有机肥的开发,尤其是有机-无机复混肥.

  5. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  6. Electric power in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The today's world consumption of electric power is about 14000 TWh which represents 35 times the consumption of a country like France. 25% of the world population has no access to electricity. The evolution of the consumption of electricity is strongly linked to demography and economic growth. By 2020 an increase of 60% in electricity consumption is expected. The today's world production of electricity is based on coal (40%), hydro-energy (20%), nuclear energy (17%), natural gas (15%) and oil (10%). For the next 20 years the contribution of oil is expected to decline but that of coal will stay important (around 45%) and that of gas will increase significantly to reach 20 to 30%. The author reviews the different sources of energy in the view of electricity production and highlights their assets that will prevail for the next 20 years. (A.C.)

  7. World order, globalization, and the question of sovereignty

    OpenAIRE

    Stupar Milorad J.

    2003-01-01

    In light of world globalization, three visions of the world order have been examined. The naive cosmopolitanism has been examined first and then rejected as being unrealistic because it overlooks the reasons for state pluralism in the international order. On this naive view, the world state is the only source of sovereignty and the individual is the only focal point of moral concern. Second subject matter of our investigation were Kantian and Rawlsian views which still defend the state-center...

  8. International atomic laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some thirty kilometers to the south-east of Vienna, in the village of Seibersdorf, the International Atomic Energy Agency will have its functional laboratory, the first atomic laboratory to be built by peaceful world-wide co-operation. The building is expected to be completed around the middle of 1960 and the scientific installations will start immediately thereafter. The staff (14 Professional and 24 of the General Service category) for the laboratory are also expected to be engaged at that time and it should be possible to start operating the laboratory in the last quarter of 1960. It is estimated that the construction work will cost about US $400 000 and the total equipment will be worth between $200 000 and $300 000. The United States Government is donating $600 000 for this purpose. The operating costs during 1961, the first full year of operation, will be a little over $240 000. The scope of the laboratory should be limited to certain broad functions. The maximum functions envisaged were: (a) standardization of isotopes and preparation of radioactive standards; (b) calibration and adaptation of measuring equipment; (c) quality control of special materials for nuclear technology; (d) measurements and analysis in connexion with the Agency's safeguards and health and safety programme; and (e) services for Member States which can be undertaken with the facilities needed for the former activities. The idea behind this recommendation will be clear if it is remembered that the research functions of the Agency are governed mostly by its other activities, by its Statutory obligation to encourage and assist peaceful atomic energy work in Member States and establish standards for health and safety and for safeguards against military use

  9. Post-human Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    to become part of a global cultural flow, thus calling into question the physical connection between viewer and image. This article analyses what happens to that connection when not only the image but also the physical body is mediated and challenged in post-human relations, and examines the ensuing ethical...... implications. The author takes photojournalism and, in particular, mobile phone footage as a starting point for an exploration of the (post-human) body as evidence and sign of authenticity in the modern age of digital communications and journalism.......This article discusses the relationship between theories of photography and mobile phone footage. In doing so, it asks if theories of photography still apply in a technologically saturated world of imagery. Technology is an increasingly important part of viewing imagery today and enables imagery...

  10. What Children Should Know about Technology and the Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong

    2010-01-01

    The dominant view of technology so far has been that it is a tool to help improve the teaching of traditional subjects--knowledge mostly about the local and physical world. But technology has created a new realm: the virtual world. It may not be physical or tangible, but the virtual world is indisputable and has a significant economy. If one…

  11. Toward Valid Measurement of Stephen Pepper's World Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John A.

    Two measures of the "world hypotheses" of Stephen Pepper were mailed to 100 sociobiologists, 87 behaviorists, 79 personality psychologists, and 45 human developmentalists. The World Hypothesis Scale (WHS) was designed to measure Pepper's four world views: (1) formism; (2) mechanism; (3) organicism; and (4) contextualism. The Organicism-Mechanism…

  12. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  13. The enduring effects of Atoms for Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoy, Peter R.

    2003-01-01

    Five decades ago, President Dwight D. Eisenhower presented a bold and imaginative nuclear iniative to the United Nations. Although the "Atoms for Peace" plan was immensely popular and fundamentally altered the way the world treated nuclear energy, some contemporary observers contend that the policies and capabilities it produced inadvertently fueled the global spread of nuclear arms. As Leonard Weiss recently wrote, "it is legitimate to ask whether Atoms for Peace accelerated proliferation ...

  14. Atomic Energy Basics, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    This booklet is part of the "Understanding the Atom Series," though it is a later edition and not included in the original set of 51 booklets. A basic survey of the principles of nuclear energy and most important applications are provided. These major topics are examined: matter has molecules and atoms, the atom has electrons, the nucleus,…

  15. Teach us atom structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is written to teach atom structure in very easy way. It is divided into nine chapters, which indicates what is the components of matter? when we divide matter continuously, it becomes atom, what did atom look like? particles comprised of matter is not only atom, discover of particles comprised of atom, symbol of element, various radiation, form alchemy to nuclear transmutation, shape of atom is evolving. It also has various pictures in each chapters to explain easily.

  16. Teach us atom structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Suh Yeon

    2006-08-15

    This book is written to teach atom structure in very easy way. It is divided into nine chapters, which indicates what is the components of matter? when we divide matter continuously, it becomes atom, what did atom look like? particles comprised of matter is not only atom, discover of particles comprised of atom, symbol of element, various radiation, form alchemy to nuclear transmutation, shape of atom is evolving. It also has various pictures in each chapters to explain easily.

  17. World Bioenergy 2012. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The conference of 2012 had contributions on the following themes: A: World Pellets 2012, B: Market outlook, C: Energy systems, D: Transportation, E: World biorefinery 2012, F: Sustainable bioenergy day. 52 contributions in A - D. A: World Pellets 2012 is an integrated part of World Bioenergy 2012. A three day 'conference in the conference' covering all aspects of pellets: raw material potentials, innovative pellets production systems, torrefaction, new combustion technologies, trade and market development, health and safety aspects, etc. B) Market outlook: Policy and targets for renewable energy to find an alternative to fossil energy are being put in place, increasing the demand for sustainable modern bioenergy. Global trade and improved logistics open up to the markets. To facilitate international trade in bioenergy commodities, new trading places and indexes are needed, as well as generally accepted standards. Supply and demand must meet to guarantee stable prices. In this session you learn all about current market development, including drivers like incentives and policies. C) Energy Systems: Modern bioenergy is a young industry. Therefore, technical development is rapid, with many new innovations. This session focuses on technical development in the whole bioenergy chain, from harvesting of forest residues to combustion technologies and co-firing. Optimal use of biomass through district heating or cooling - small scale and large scale - and CHP technology for electricity production. D) Transportation: Sustainable transports are one of the key challenges of tomorrow. Can we transport biomass as well as other products sustainably and at what costs? Which are the future fuels for transports and when will biofuels be viewed as profitable? Biofuels for transport are under rapid development with new methods, producers and feedstock entering the markets. The future biofuels will be produced in biorefineries, to increase profitability and optimize feed

  18. America and China in a New World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert E.Goodman

    2007-01-01

    <正>America has prided itself for the past 50 years on being a leader in all things:politics,human rights,and economics,However,in this new century,there are new paradigms that are arising that are forcing a change of attitude and views on how America views the rest of the world_and, especially,China.That is the subject of this discourse today.

  19. Atomic phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shichun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Cheng model, atomic phase diagram or electron density versus atomic radius diagram describing the interaction properties of atoms of different kinds in equilibrium state is developed. Atomic phase diagram is established based on the two-atoms model. Besides atomic radius, electron density and continuity condition for electron density on interfaces between atoms, the lever law of atomic phase diagram involving other physical parameters is taken into account, such as the binding energy, for the sake of simplicity.

  20. Werner Heisenberg. A traveller between two worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are dealt with: A night in Helgoland, no quietude ever, smart quantum jumps, three teachers and their pupil, life with two worlds, a young professor, the Nobel prize and the time of the Nazis, the atomic nucleus and its energy, finally to Munich, steps over boundaries. (HSI)

  1. Cold Matter Assembled Atom-by-Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, Manuel; Keesling, Alexander; Levine, Harry; Anschuetz, Eric R; Krajenbrink, Alexandre; Senko, Crystal; Vuletic, Vladan; Greiner, Markus; Lukin, Mikhail D

    2016-01-01

    The realization of large-scale fully controllable quantum systems is an exciting frontier in modern physical science. We use atom-by-atom assembly to implement a novel platform for the deterministic preparation of regular arrays of individually controlled cold atoms. In our approach, a measurement and feedback procedure eliminates the entropy associated with probabilistic trap occupation and results in defect-free arrays of over 50 atoms in less than 400 ms. The technique is based on fast, real-time control of 100 optical tweezers, which we use to arrange atoms in desired geometric patterns and to maintain these configurations by replacing lost atoms with surplus atoms from a reservoir. This bottom-up approach enables controlled engineering of scalable many-body systems for quantum information processing, quantum simulations, and precision measurements.

  2. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  3. Machines géantes pour sonder l'univers de l'atome

    CERN Multimedia

    Wilde, M, S

    1966-01-01

    To always more deeply explore the infinitely small world of the atom, Science is paradoxically brought to build buildings and machines increasingly larger - Giant accelerators producing high energy particle beams that can dissociate the structures of the atomic nucleus

  4. Accelerators and nuclear reactors as tools in hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of accelerators and of nuclear reactors - the latter to a lesser extent - are discussed in view of their present and future use in hot atom chemistry research and its applications. (author)

  5. The birth of spacetime atoms as the passage of time

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, Fay

    2014-01-01

    The view that the passage of time is physical finds expression in the classical sequential growth models of Rideout and Sorkin in which a discrete spacetime grows by the partially ordered accretion of new spacetime atoms.

  6. New Worlds Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, Anthony; Cash, Webster; Shipley, Ann; Glassman, Tiffany; Warwick, Steve

    2013-09-01

    We review the progress on the New Worlds Airship project, which has the eventual goal of suborbitally mapping the Alpha Centauri planetary system into the Habitable Zone. This project consists of a telescope viewing a star that is occulted by a starshade suspended from an airship. The starshade suppresses the starlight such that fainter planetary objects near the star are revealed. A visual sensor is used to determine the position of the starshade and keep the telescope within the starshade's shadow. In the first attempt to demonstrate starshades through astronomical observations, we have built a precision line of sight position indicator and flew it on a Zeppelin in October (2012). Since the airship provider went out of business we have been redesigning the project to use Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing rockets instead. These Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles will serve as a starshade platform and test bed for further development of the visual sensor. We have completed ground tests of starshades on dry lakebeds and have shown excellent contrast. We are now attempting to use starshades on hilltops to occult stars and perform high contrast imaging of outer planetary systems such as the debris disk around Fomalhaut.

  7. Do-not-resuscitate order: a view throughout the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonocito, Cristina; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Gullo, Antonino; Weil, Max Harry

    2013-02-01

    Resuscitation has the ability to reverse premature death. It can also prolong terminal illness, increase discomfort, and consume resources. The do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order and advance directives are still a debated issue in critical care. This review will focus on several aspects, regarding withholding and/or withdrawing therapies and advance directives in different continents. It is widely known that there is a great diversity of cultural and religious beliefs in society, and therefore, some critical ethical and legal issues have still to be solved. To achieve a consensus, we believe in the priority of continuing education and training programs for health care professionals. It is our opinion that a serious reflection on ethical values and principles would be useful to understand the definition of medical professionalism to make it possible to undertake the best way to avoid futile and aggressive care. There is evidence of the lack of DNR order policy worldwide. Therefore, it appears clear that there is a need for standardization. To improve the attitude about the DNR order, it is necessary to achieve several goals such as: increased communication, consensus on law, increased trust among patients and health care systems, and improved standards and quality of care to respect the patient's will and the family's role.

  8. Integrating World Views, Knowledge and Venues in Climate Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Chase, M. J.; Demientieff, S.; Brunacini, J.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Reaching Arctic Communities Facing Climate Change Project integrates traditional and western knowledge and observations in climate science to facilitate dialog and learning among Alaska Native adults about climate change and its impacts on the environment and on Alaskan communities. In one of the models we have tested, the informal education took place at a 4-day camp by the Tanana River in Fairbanks, Alaska. Participants included Alaska Native elders, leaders, educators and natural resource managers, community members and university scientists. Results of pre/post camp surveys showed increased awareness of scientific and technical language used in climate science, improved ability to locate resources, tools, and strategies for learning about climate change, enhanced capacity to communicate climate change in a relevant way to their audiences and communities, confirmed the value of elders in helping them understand, respond and adapt to climate change, and that the camp setting facilitated an in-depth discussion and sharing of knowledge. The camp also enhanced the awareness about weather, climate and the environment of the camp facilitators who also noticed a shift in their own thinking and behavior. After the camp one participant who is an educator shared some of the hands-on tools developed by Polar Learning and Responding Climate Change Education Partnership project and used at the camp, with her 6th grade students, with the other teachers in her school and also at a state conference. Another shared what she learned with her family and friends as well as at a conference sponsored by her faith community where she was an invited speaker. Another camp was scheduled for this past summer but was cancelled due to some unforeseen weather/climate related events. A camp is planned for early summer in 2016; however other models of reaching the adult Native populations in a similar culturally responsive manner as the camps will also be explored and tested.

  9. Advanced LabVIEW Labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the world of computer-based data acquisition and control, the graphical interface program LabVIEW from National Instruments is so ubiquitous that in many ways it has almost become the laboratory standard. To date, there have been approximately fifteen books concerning LabVIEW, but Professor Essick's treatise takes on a completely different tack than all of the previous discussions. In the more standard treatments of the ways and wherefores of LabVIEW such as LabVIEW Graphical Programming: Practical Applications in Instrumentation and Control by Gary W. Johnson (McGraw Hill, NY 1997), the emphasis has been instructing the reader how to program LabVIEW to create a Virtual Instrument (VI) on the computer for interfacing to a particular instruments. LabVIEW is written in ''G'' a graphical programming language developed by National Instruments. In the past the emphasis has been on training the experimenter to learn ''G''. Without going into details here, ''G'' incorporates the usual loops, arithmetic expressions, etc., found in many programming languages, but in an icon (graphical) environment. The net result being that LabVIEW contains all of the standard methods needed for interfacing to instruments, data acquisition, data analysis, graphics, and also methodology to incorporate programs written in other languages into LabVIEW. Historically, according to Professor Essick, he developed a series of experiments for an upper division laboratory course for computer-based instrumentation. His observation was that while many students had the necessary background in computer programming languages, there were students who had virtually no concept about writing a computer program let alone a computer- based interfacing program. Thus the beginnings of a concept for not only teaching computer- based instrumentation techniques, but aiso a method for the beginner to experience writing a com- puter program. Professor Essick saw LabVIEW as the ''perfect environment in which to

  10. Academic Training: The World of Quantum Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 23, 24, 25, 26 January 2006 from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 The World of Quantum Matter M. WEIDEMUELLER / Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg In my lecture series, I will present the recent spectacular advances in the field of quantum gases and macroscopic quantum physics. A variety of subjects will be covered including Bose condensates and degenerate Fermi gases, ultracold molecules and chemistry near absolute zero, Rydberg gases, single-atom manipulation, quantum information processing, as well as applications of cold atoms as precision targets. The topics of the lectures are: Physics near absolute zero Bose condensation and Fermi degeneracy Molecules, Rydberg gases and other exotic species Single-atom manipulation, quantum information processing and ultracold atoms as targets in storage rings. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the f...

  11. Collective Attitudes and the Anthropocentric View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallotti Mattia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The anthropocentric view holds that the social world is a projection of mental states and attitudes onto the real world. However, there is more to a society of individuals than their psychological make up. In The Ant Trap, Epstein hints at the possibility that collective intentionality can, and should, be discarded as a pillar of social ontology. In this commentary I argue that this claim is motivated by an outdated view of the nature and structure of collective attitudes. If we aim at a good theory of social ontology, we need a good theory of collective intentionality.

  12. MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION OF ATOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Mainfray, G.

    1985-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization of one-electron atoms, such as atomic hydrogen and alkaline atoms, is well understood and correctly described by rigorous theoretical models. The present paper will be devoted to collisionless multiphoton ionization of many-electron atoms as rare gases. It induces removal of several electrons and the production of multiply charged ions. Up to Xe5+ ions are produced in Xe atoms. Doubly charged ions can be produced, either by simultaneous excitation of two electrons, or b...

  13. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  14. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  15. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  16. Global Science: Brave New World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael

    2005-04-01

    Scientists have always viewed their activity as one without borders, and they can be rightfully called first adapters of globalization. Be careful what you wish for! While there are great benefits to working together - e.g., tackling bigger problems, traveling to exotic places, and bringing the world closer together - there are challenges too - e.g., more approvals and longer timescales; larger, more diverse collaborations with different customs; meshing not only currencies but accounting systems. It is too late to go back - and I for one would not want to - and the rules have changed forever. In a small world with three similarly economically powerful regions, dominance is impossible - what's important in the Americas will soon become important to Europe and Asia; what's no longer important to Europe and Asia will soon no longer be important to the Americas. Cooperation is encouraged, competition is bad, and duplication cannot be afforded. The biggest challenge of all is coordination/formation of world projects without a ``World Science Foundation." I will use NSF examples to illustrate, including Gemini, IceCube, LHC, and ALMA.

  17. Shanghai Highlight: World Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ The proposals regarding the Shanghai Expo attracted the World Expo committee great concern. During the two sessions, the Shanghai World Expo organizer promised that they will play more active role in holding the expo. Though the world is suffering the global crisis, the organizer be-lieved that this is a rare opportunity and as the World Expo 2010 to be held in Shanghai could help China overcome economic dif-ficulties and lift the world out of the crisis shadow.

  18. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach world religions…

  19. How many gold atoms make gold metal?

    OpenAIRE

    Häkkinen, Hannu; Malola, Sami

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a piece of gold is an excellent metal: it conducts heat and electricity, it is malleable to work out for jewellery or thin coatings, and it has the characteristic golden colour. How do these everyday properties – familiar from our macroscopic world – change when a nanometre-size chunk of gold contains only 100, 200 or 300 atoms?

  20. 机遇与挑战--从2012~2013赛季短道速滑世界杯看女子项目的世界格局%Opportunities and Challenges-View the World Structure of Female Events from the 2012/2013 Season of World Cup Short Track Speed Skating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳芹

    2013-01-01

    2012~2013赛季短道速度滑冰世界杯系列比赛是各国为备战2014年索契冬奥会锻炼新人、发现新人和培养新人,进行有效的后备人才储备的最佳时机。因此,也成为各国互相了解运动员实力,调整、改变未来参加索契冬奥会计划的最好平台。纵观本赛季比赛,反映出当今比赛的致胜规律:优秀运动员需要从预赛就调整到最好的状态,要随时准备拼尽全力,比赛时不能轻视对手,经常是预赛成绩好于决赛成绩,否则就会出局。世界格局表现为短距离项目我国保持强势,机遇大于挑战;中长距离项目呈现多元化的竞争格局,我国优势已不再,挑战与机遇并存;接力项目我国保持优势,中国、韩国二元化竞争格局基本形成。在索契冬奥会到来之前,中国短道速滑队只有深刻认识、领悟和把握未来比赛的致胜规律,只有突破“定制冰鞋、隔人超越、弯道加速、团队配合到滑行技巧和滑行战术等已经被对手广泛应用的传统优势”,更新训练理念,调整训练模式,用科学、刻苦的训练和努力才能为运动员注入信心,才能进一步挖掘王濛、周扬等运动员的潜力,才能圆梦索契冬奥会。%The 2012/2013 season of world cup short track speed skating series is the best time which all the countries prepare for 2014 Winter Games in Sochi to exercise , find and train new faces and have effective talents retaining .Therefore, it also becomes the best platform which all the countries can know skaters 'strength to adjust and change the plan of Winter Games in Sochi .All around this season , it reflects the win-ning law:excellent skaters need adjust their best from the preliminaries , be ready to do their best , not look down upon their opponents .The performance of preliminaries is often better than semifinal competitions , or they will be out .China keeps the strong points of short

  1. Dealing with World Issues in Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Discusses dealing with global issues in the camp setting in a way that broadens young people's world views. Topics include the educational advantages of the camp setting, desired outcomes for campers, guidelines for staff, and program ideas for dealing with issues such as environmental awareness, racism, and economic justice. (JHZ)

  2. Global Boiling by Nuclear Heated Ocean: Unstoppable Atomic Generations

    OpenAIRE

    ATSUJI, Shigeo; FUJIMOTO, Ryosuke

    2014-01-01

    Hiroyuki Itsuki has said that Fukushima was a ‘second war defeat’. Japan, which suffered the atomic bombing of ‘Hiroshima’ and ‘Nagasaki’ in the Second World War, wasonce again visited by a nuclear incident at Fukushima. After the world war, the state wasdefeated but the natural environment was preserved. Conversely, at Fukushima, thenatural environment was lost and people were robbed of their livelihood, with the statealone remaining intact. Historically, the International Atomic Energy Agen...

  3. Rutherford, Maestro of the Atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John (University of Canterbury, New Zealand)

    2003-12-10

    This talk will cover some of the lesser known aspects of Rutherford's work, including his early work in wireless signaling and his later encouragement of radio studies of the ionosphere, the development of what was later improved to be now called the Geiger-Muller tube, his acoustic work for submarine detection during the First World War, the development of particle accelerators and the race to splitting the atom, the first use of coincidence detectors, and why he received just one Nobel Prize.

  4. The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1990-08-01

    The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War'' is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details of the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  5. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  6. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  7. The evolution of gas price: gas assessment and perspectives; The evolution of gas price on the American, Asian and European markets; Assessment of the organised gas market; Assessment of gas market opening; Gas price: the point of view of consumers and providers; Tariff, the formula which cannot be found: a new stage in an endless history; The diversity of the world gas industry: the Mediterranean situation on prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief introduction, this document contains the various contributions and interventions during round tables dealing with the evolution of gas price on American, Asian and European markets, an assessment of the organised gas market (model, references, members, and so on), an assessment of market gas opening, the point of view of consumers and providers on gas price. Then three articles address the issue of gas pricing in France, the developments of gas industry in the world (consumptions, production, perspectives for LNG) and the Mediterranean situation with respect to gas prices (trends and challenges)

  8. Corporate Communication: Building Confidence between the Academic and Business Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snavely, William B.; Sullivan, Dan

    1984-01-01

    Describes how business organizations view the purposes and results of communication and the role of the corporate communication professional. Suggests ways to bridge the gap between academic and business worlds. (PD)

  9. METRIC OF VIRTUAL WORLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Trunev A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis of a plurality of parallel and virtual worlds. It is assumed that sentient beings in each virtual world reach a stage of development that can create a virtual world to simulate the history of their own development. In this case, the virtual worlds are nested within each other, which put a severe restriction on the possible geometry of space-time. Discussed the draft geometry virtual worlds consistently displayed from one world to another. It is shown that in this...

  10. THE ORNL ATOM PROBE

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M

    1986-01-01

    The ORNL Atom Probe is a microanalytical tool for studies in materials science. The instrument is a combination of a customized version of the vacuum system of the VG FIM-100 atom probe, an ORNL-designed microcomputer-controlled digital timing system, and a double curved CEMA Imaging Atom Probe detector. The atom probe combines four instruments into one - namely a field ion microscope, an energy compensated time-of-flight mass spectrometer, an imaging atom probe, and a pulsed laser atom probe.

  11. The Atomic Views of Flat Supply Chains in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhar Chattopadhyay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available China's domestic supply chain networks are getting flat and unbalanced despite its spectacular growth and rise to the enviable position in the global supply chain arena in recent times. The aftermath of continued investment explosion, especially in the coastal areas of the mainland, calls for an interwoven relationship of Chinese companies with the rest of the global supply chains. However, with new information and communication technologies, the real-time problems arising from this flattened supply chains are much more complex, multifaceted and multidimensional. China needs to re-think and re-focus on better alignment to the western values and cultures while managing its global business activities. This paper discusses four recently developed enterprise models in the light of several case studies conducted recently in Australia, China and India to characterise these new flat supply chains: People-Centric, Molecular Organization, Globally Dispersed and Disaggregated Value Chain. These, apparently different but inherently similar models have a vibrant architecture and system behaviour in their core and propose an alternative approach to address challenges of unbalanced domestic flat supply chains in China and helps the Chinese manufacturers to explore an approach to embrace Western values and cultures by enlarging their sphere of influence.

  12. On atom–atom `short contact' bonding interactions in crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Lecomte; Enrique Espinosa; Cherif F. Matta

    2015-01-01

    Professor Dunitz questions the usefulness of ascribing crystalline structural stability to individual atom–atom intermolecular interactions viewed as bonding (hence stabilizing) whenever linked by a bond path. An alternative view is expressed in the present essay that articulates the validity and usefulness of the bond path concept in a crystallographic and crystal engineering context.

  13. Alice Views Jupiter and Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This graphic illustrates the pointing and shows the data from one of many observations made by the New Horizons Alice ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) instrument during the Pluto-bound spacecraft's recent encounter with Jupiter. The red lines in the graphic show the scale, orientation, and position of the combined 'box and slot' field of view of the Alice UVS during this observation. The positions of Jupiter's volcanic moon, Io, the torus of ionized gas from Io, and Jupiter are shown relative to the Alice field of view. Like a prism, the spectrometer separates light from these targets into its constituent wavelengths. Io's volcanoes produce an extremely tenuous atmosphere made up primarily of sulfur dioxide gas, which, in the harsh plasma environment at Io, breaks down into its component sulfur and oxygen atoms. Alice observed the auroral glow from these atoms in Io's atmosphere and their ionized counterparts in the Io torus. Io's dayside is deliberately overexposed to bring out faint details in the plumes and on the moon's night side. The continuing eruption of the volcano Tvashtar, at the 1 o'clock position, produces an enormous plume roughly 330 kilometers (200 miles) high, which is illuminated both by sunlight and 'Jupiter light.'

  14. The present view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    “La mirada vigente” is a homenage to Dan Beninson, who was one of the creators of radiation protection worldwide. He taught several generations of nuclear scientists in our country and abroad, playing a key role in the scientific-technological development of Argentina. He was also one of the key figures in the nuclear activity of our country; the creator of the institution that ensures its safety. Likewise, this book, is a testament about what this man meant for many people in Argentina (his country) and in the world (his yard); and simultaneously, a testament of the key moments in the history of a scientific discipline and the activity to which he dedicated his entire life. “La mirada vigente” is also a testimony of other individuals’ point of view. The eyes of others over the features of his person, and career, and his achievements. But above all, it provides a personal and almost intimate perspective, about specific episodes that describe his interesting life. “La mirada vigente” is the exploration of his versatile life, rich as only a few. And the reflection of a work legacy that still remain alive.

  15. A journalist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the result of five years of experience with the nuclear world in Switzerland (five Swiss nuclear plants) from the point of view of a journalist, who doesn't pretend to know everything; who is neither scientific nor a technical journalist, he is writing for the man in the street, and works for a daily paper i.e. has to work very fast and as close to the reality as possible. Understanding and mutual confidence between the nuclear industry and media is emphasised as essential. 'Nuclear' people are specialists and are warned about the fact that they are dealing with non-specialists, journalists and the public who would like to understand what are the processes that might affect them and do not have a dictionary of technical terminology at hand. It is pointed out that the nuclear industry should speak openly about problems and accept being criticised if they want to restore confidence with the media and with the public

  16. Ups and downs of the atom-splitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disintegration of the nucleus using artificially accelerated protons by John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton at the Cavendish Laboratory in April 1932 marked a significant turning point in the history of nuclear physics. Widely reported in the press then and since as the splitting of the atom, the achievement became one of the landmarks of 20th-century physics. The experiment was swiftly copied in Europe and America, and by the late 1930s atom-splitting had become a growth industry in physics, with ever larger and more powerful particle accelerators being applied to the task. More than that, it established a form of physics research that was to shape the intellectual and institutional development of the subject for the rest of the century. Cockcroft and Walton's achievement is usually seen as a self-evident and unproblematic step in the development of nuclear physics. It is often told as part of a sequence of events that led inexorably to the discovery of fission, the creation of the atomic bomb, and big science. However, Brian Cathcart takes a different view. In The Fly in the Cathedral he tries to explore the history of the period in its own terms. So rather than examining the subsequent implications of the work, the author focuses on the routine details of the research as it developed. He describes laboratory practices, equipment and techniques, examines the contingencies of funding and personal histories, and discusses the interplay between experiment and theory. Above all, he sees the development of particle accelerators in terms of a frenetic race between the Cavendish and other labs in Europe and the US to be first to disintegrate the nucleus with artificially accelerated particles. Cathcart is a journalist-turned-science-writer who confesses that he has never had a physics lesson in his life. The author has a breezy and engaging style that is right for a popular book of this type. And while he makes it clear that the 'race to split the atom' was won by a

  17. Unparallel View of Parallel Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Batabyal, Partha

    2009-01-01

    Despite the considerable media attention being given to the financial meltdown there has been little attention on why this happened. This paper investigates into this matter and takes a very unique point of view. Whenever we talk about this matter we thought of liquidity crunch, sub prime crisis, high fiscal and trade deficit etc but we never think about parallel economy and money laundering. Here are some facts regarding this as-pect: the amount of money laundered in the whole world is close...

  18. Virtual World Security Inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Charles Patterson; Michael Hobbs

    2012-01-01

    Virtual property theft is a serious problem that exists in virtual worlds. Legitimate users of these worlds invest considerable amounts of time, effort and real-world money into obtaining virtual property, but unfortunately, are becoming victims of theft in high numbers. It is reported that there are over 1 billion registered users of virtual worlds containing virtual property items worth an estimated US$50 billion dollars. The problem of virtual property theft is complex, involving many lega...

  19. Presenting the Bohr Atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haendler, Blanca L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching the Bohr atom at both freshman and advanced levels. Focuses on the development of Bohr's ideas, derivation of the energies of the stationary states, and the Bohr atom in the chemistry curriculum. (SK)

  20. Virtual Worlds? "Outlook Good"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, AJ

    2008-01-01

    Many people believed that virtual worlds would end up like the eight-track audiotape: a memory of something no longer used (or useful). Yet today there are hundreds of higher education institutions represented in three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds such as Active Worlds and Second Life. The movement toward the virtual realm as a viable teaching…

  1. Antiprotonic Helium Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kartavtsev, O. I.

    1995-01-01

    Metastable antiprotonic helium atoms $^{3,4}\\! H\\! e\\bar pe$ have been discovered recently in experiments of the delayed annihilation of antiprotons in helium media. These exotic atoms survive for an enormous time (about tens of microseconds) and carry the extremely large total angular momentum $L\\sim 30-40$. The theoretical treatment of the intrinsic properties of antiprotonic helium atoms, their formation and collisions with atoms and molecules is discussed.

  2. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Emboras, A.; Niegemann, J.; Ma, P; Haffner, C; Pedersen, A.; Luisier, M.; Hafner, C; Schimmel, T.; Leuthold, J.

    2016-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore’s law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocat...

  3. Atomizing nozzle and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Figliola, Richard S.; Molnar, Holly M.

    1992-06-30

    High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

  4. Atoms Talking to SQUIDs

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, J E; Kim, Z; Wood, A K; Anderson, J R; Dragt, A J; Hafezi, M; Lobb, C J; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L; Taylor, J M; Vlahacos, C P; Wellstood, F C

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to couple trapped $^{87}$Rb atoms to a superconducting flux qubit through a magnetic dipole transition. We plan to trap atoms on the evanescent wave outside an ultrathin fiber to bring the atoms to less than 10 $\\mu$m above the surface of the superconductor. This hybrid setup lends itself to probing sources of decoherence in superconducting qubits. Our current plan has the intermediate goal of coupling the atoms to a superconducting LC resonator.

  5. Applicability of Rydberg atoms to quantum computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabtsev, Igor I.; Tretyakov, Denis B.; Beterov, Ilya I.

    2005-01-01

    The applicability of Rydberg atoms to quantum computers is examined from an experimental point of view. In many recent theoretical proposals, the excitation of atoms into highly excited Rydberg states was considered as a way to achieve quantum entanglement in cold atomic ensembles via dipole-dipole interactions that could be strong for Rydberg atoms. Appropriate conditions to realize a conditional quantum phase gate have been analysed. We also present the results of modelling experiments on microwave spectroscopy of single- and multi-atom excitations at the one-photon 37S1/2 → 37P1/2 and two-photon 37S1/2 → 38S1/2 transitions in an ensemble of a few sodium Rydberg atoms. The microwave spectra were investigated for various final states of the ensemble initially prepared in its ground state. The results may be applied to the studies on collective laser excitation of ground-state atoms aiming to realize quantum gates.

  6. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  7. Mexico: swapping crude for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico, considered the Saudi Arabia of the Western Hemisphere because of its proven and potential petroleum reserves, has surprised the world: it has embarked on the biggest nuclear-electric program in the Third World, only to postpone it days before scheduled approval of an international bidding (on which the atomic energy industry had pinned its hopes). A graph shows Mexican supplies of electricity by source with official projections to 1990. The point of entrance of the first nuclear reactor, originally scheduled for 1982, won't come onstream until 1983; and how nuclear-generated electricity grows close to 5% of the total in 1990. The big question is, will the future President of Mexico give the green light to the atomic megaproject. And if he does, how will Mexico deal with the serious logistics problems and grave ecological implications confronting the industry worldwide. In this issue, the author and Energy Detente touch on these questions and review the nuclear power status of Mexico, as well as addressing some of its global problems. Also presented in this issue is an update of the fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries

  8. Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainstein, Pablo D.; Lima, Marco Aurelio P.; Miraglia, Jorge E.; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2006-11-01

    Plenary. Electron collisions - past, present and future / J. W. McConkey. Collisions of slow highly charged ions with surfaces / J. Burgdörfer ... [et al.]. Atomic collisions studied with "reaction-microscopes" / R. Moshammer ... [et al.]. Rydberg atoms: a microscale laboratory for studying electron-molecule tnteractions / F. B. Dunning -- Collisions involvintg photons. Quantum control of photochemical reaction dynamics and molecular functions / M. Yamaki ... [et al.]. Manipulating and viewing Rydberg wavepackets / R. R. Jones. Angle-resolved photoelectrons as a probe of strong-field interactions / M. Vrakking. Ultracold Rydberg atoms in a structured environment / I. C. H. Liu and J. M. Rost. Synchrotron-radiation-based recoil ion momentum spectroscopy of laser cooled and trapped cesium atoms / L. H. Coutinho. Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains / Y. Mairesse ... [et al.]. Selective excitation of metastable atomic states by Femto- and attosecond laser pulses / A. D. Kondorskiy. Accurate calculations of triple differential cross sections for double photoionization of the hygrogen molecule / W. Vanroose ... [et al.]. Double and triple photoionization of Li and Be / J. Colgan, M. S. Pindzola and F. Robicheaux. Few/many body dynamics in strong laser fields / J. Zanghellini and T. Brabec. Rescattering-induced effects in electron-atom scattering in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field / A. V. Flegel ... [et al.]. Multidimensional photoelectron spectroscopy / P. Lablanquie ... [et al.]. Few photon and strongly driven transitions in the XUV and beyond / P. Lambropoulos, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos and S. I. Themelis. Ionization dynamics of atomic clusters in intense laser pulses / U. Saalmann and J. M. Rost. On the second order autocorrelation of an XUV attosecond pulse train / E. P. Benis ... [et al.]. Evidence for rescattering in molecular dissociation / I. D. Williams ... [et al.]. Photoionizing ions using synchrotron radiation / R. Phaneuf. Photo double

  9. Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Rare Earth Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Palm, Christopher; Joshi, Trinity; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Jackson Kimball, Derek

    2013-05-01

    We discuss progress in our experimental program to employ optical-frequency-comb-based spectroscopy to understand the complex spectra of rare-earth atoms. We plan to carry out systematic measurements of atomic transitions in rare-earth atoms to elucidate the energy level structure and term assignment and determine presently unknown atomic state parameters. This spectroscopic information is important in view of the increasing interest in rare-earth atoms for atomic frequency standards, in astrophysical investigations of chemically peculiar stars, and in tests of fundamental physics (tests of parity and time-reversal invariance, searches for time variation of fundamental constants, etc.). We are presently studying the use of hollow cathode lamps as atomic sources for two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0958749.

  10. 7th WACBE World Congress on Bioengineering 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Chwee

    2015-01-01

    This volume publishes the proceedings of the WACBE World Congress on Bioengineering 2015 (WACBE 2015), which was be held in Singapore, from 6 to 8 July 2015. The World Association for Chinese Biomedical Engineers (WACBE) organizes this World Congress biannually. Our past congresses have brought together many biomedical engineers from over the world to share their experiences and views on the future development of biomedical engineering. The 7th WACBE World Congress on Bioengineering 2015 in Singapore continued to offer such a networking platform for all biomedical engineers. Hosted by the Biomedical Engineering Society (Singapore) and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, the congress covered all related areas in bioengineering.

  11. Remote monitoring using technologies from the Internet and World Wide Web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, J.M.; Burczyk, L.

    1997-11-01

    Recent developments in Internet technologies are changing and enhancing how one processes and exchanges information. These developments include software and hardware in support of multimedia applications on the World Wide Web. In this paper the authors describe these technologies as they have applied them to remote monitoring and show how they will allow the International Atomic Energy Agency to efficiently review and analyze remote monitoring data for verification of material movements. The authors have developed demonstration software that illustrates several safeguards data systems using the resources of the Internet and Web to access and review data. This Web demo allows the user to directly observe sensor data, to analyze simulated safeguards data, and to view simulated on-line inventory data. Future activities include addressing the technical and security issues associated with using the Web to interface with existing and planned monitoring systems at nuclear facilities. Some of these issues are authentication, encryption, transmission of large quantities of data, and data compression.

  12. Remote monitoring using technologies from the Internet and World Wide Web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in Internet technologies are changing and enhancing how one processes and exchanges information. These developments include software and hardware in support of multimedia applications on the World Wide Web. In this paper the authors describe these technologies as they have applied them to remote monitoring and show how they will allow the International Atomic Energy Agency to efficiently review and analyze remote monitoring data for verification of material movements. The authors have developed demonstration software that illustrates several safeguards data systems using the resources of the Internet and Web to access and review data. This Web demo allows the user to directly observe sensor data, to analyze simulated safeguards data, and to view simulated on-line inventory data. Future activities include addressing the technical and security issues associated with using the Web to interface with existing and planned monitoring systems at nuclear facilities. Some of these issues are authentication, encryption, transmission of large quantities of data, and data compression

  13. A Philosophy for Education in the World of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokisaari, Olli-Jukka

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging questions of education in late modern society concerns technology. Development and use of technology is altering our views of world and humanity. In this paper I explore philosophical background for a new kind of critical education that would be up to date with the changed world. This paper introduces case philosophy…

  14. Undergraduate Nonmusic Majors' World Music Preference and Multicultural Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, C. Victor

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of 50 undergraduate nonmusic majors to determine the relationship between world music preferences and multicultural attitudes. Finds support for the view that social/cultural attitudes play a role in world music preference. Discusses implications of the study for music teachers. (CFR)

  15. The Many Worlds of the Child and Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garanzini, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Views school-age children living in five distinct worlds, each with their own operational modes. Discusses the negative repercussions of failing to recognize the child's worlds. Reviews Lawrence Kohlberg's, Eliot Turiel's, and Carol Gilligan's positions concerning moral education. Recommends a broad definition of morality, including justice and…

  16. An atomic empire a technical history of the rise and fall of the British atomic energy programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, C N

    2013-01-01

    Britain was the first country to exploit atomic energy on a large scale, and at its peak in the mid-1960s, it had generated more electricity from nuclear power than the rest of the world combined.The civil atomic energy programme grew out of the military programme which produced plutonium for atomic weapons. In 1956, Calder Hall power station was opened by the Queen. The very next year, one of the early Windscale reactors caught fire and the world's first major nuclear accident occurred.The civil programme ran into further difficulty in the mid-1960s and as a consequence of procrastination in

  17. From Terminal to Terminal with Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, Tilman

    2014-05-01

    We study fundamental concepts of particle and heat transport in a model system using ultracold atoms. It consists of a channel connecting two macroscopic reservoirs of fermionic lithium atoms. The channel can be switched from ballistic to diffusive, and it can be structured to form a quantum point contact or a quantum wire. Measurements of the thermoelectric effect and particle transport in the quantum regime will be presented. Our measurements find an ideal description in the Landauer-Buttiker formalism, which views conduction as the transport of carriers from one terminal to another.

  18. Atomic weights: no longer constants of nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Holden, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Many of us were taught that the standard atomic weights we found in the back of our chemistry textbooks or on the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements hanging on the wall of our chemistry classroom are constants of nature. This was common knowledge for more than a century and a half, but not anymore. The following text explains how advances in chemical instrumentation and isotopic analysis have changed the way we view atomic weights and why they are no longer constants of nature

  19. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...

  20. Why do World War II Veterans Earn More Than Nonveterans?

    OpenAIRE

    Alan B. Krueger; Angrist, Joshua D.

    1989-01-01

    Veterans of World War II are widely believed to earn more than nonveterans of the same age. Theoretical justifications for the World War II veteran premium include the subsidization of education and training, and preference for veterans in hiring. In this paper, we propose and test an alternative view: that the observed World War II veteran premium reflects the fact that men with higher earnings potential were more likely to have been selected into the Armed Forces. An empirical strategy is d...

  1. Quantum logic as superbraids of entangled qubit world lines

    OpenAIRE

    Yepez, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Presented is a topological representation of quantum logic that views entangled qubit spacetime histories (or qubit world lines) as a generalized braid, referred to as a superbraid. The crossing of world lines is purely quantum in nature, most conveniently expressed analytically with ladder-operator-based quantum gates. At a crossing, independent world lines can become entangled. Complicated superbraids are systematically reduced by recursively applying novel quantum skein relations. If the s...

  2. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... and neighbourhood satisfaction. This study investigates whether relationships between window view, and work ability and job satisfaction also exist in the context of the workplace by focusing on office workers’ view satisfaction. The results showed that a view of natural elements was related to high view...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...

  3. Atomic Force Microscope Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation (large file) This animation is a scientific illustration of the operation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA. The AFM is used to image the smallest Martian particles using a very sharp tip at the end of one of eight beams. The beam of the AFM is set into vibration and brought up to the surface of a micromachined silicon substrate. The substrate has etched in it a series of pits, 5 micrometers deep, designed to hold the Martian dust particles. The microscope then maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with the tip. At the end of the animation is a 3D representation of the AFM image of a particle that was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress.' The sample was delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate. A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit. The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil. The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. The ORNL Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal mission of the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center is the collection evaluation, and dissemination of atomic collision data relevant to fusion energy development. With the advent of the widespread use of the World Wide Web, the data center's resources are being placed on-line to facilitate their use by end-users (cf. http://www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/). As this development continues, initially disparate, individually compiled resources will be transformed into integrated tools for retrieving recommended data, or displaying and manipulating the information available. The data center's present capabilities, recent data production/evaluation efforts, and goals for future development are highlighted here

  5. Thoughts on Documentation of Atomic Power Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Hee Won; Song, Ki Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has accumulated a number of technology development and research outcomes, including its representative achievements such as atomic energy technology independence and the first export of atomic energy system, since it was established in 1959. With its long history of over 50 years, KAERI has produced a large amount of information and explicit knowledge such as experiment data, database, design data, report, instructions, and operation data at each stage of its research and development process as it has performed various researches since its establishment. Also, a lot of tacit knowledge has been produced both knowingly and not unknowingly based on the experience of researchers who have participated in many projects. However, in the research environment in Korea where they focus overly on the output, tacit knowledge has not been managed properly compared to explicit knowledge. This tacit knowledge is as an important asset as explicit knowledge for an effective research and development. Moreover, as the first generation of atomic energy independence and research manpower retire, their accumulated experience and knowledge are in danger of disappearing. Therefore, in this study, we sought how to take a whole view and to document atomic energy technology researched and developed by KAERI, from the background to achievement of each field of the technology. Comprehensive and systematic documentation of atomic energy technology will establish a comprehensive management system of national atomic energy technology record to make a foundation of technical advancement and development of atomic energy technology. Also, it is expected to be used as an important knowledge and information resource of atomic energy knowledge management system

  6. The Future of Atomic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.

    1946-05-27

    There is definitely a technical possibility that atomic power may gradually develop into one of the principal sources of useful power. If this expectation will prove correct, great advantages can be expected to come from the fact that the weight of the fuel is almost negligible. This feature may be particularly valuable for making power available to regions of difficult access and far from deposits of coal. It also may prove a great asset in mobile power units for example in a power plant for ship propulsion. On the negative side there are some technical limitations to be applicability of atomic power of which perhaps the most serious is the impossibility of constructing light power units; also there will be some peculiar difficulties in operating atomic plants, as for example the necessity of handling highly radioactive substances which will necessitate, at least for some considerable period, the use of specially skilled personnel for the operation. But the chief obstacle in the way of developing atomic power will be the difficulty of organizing a large scale industrial development in an internationally safe way. This presents actually problems much more difficult to solve than any of the technical developments that are necessary, It will require an unusual amount of statesmanship to balance properly the necessity of allaying the international suspicion that arises from withholding technical secrets against the obvious danger of dumping the details of the procedures for an extremely dangerous new method of warfare on a world that may not yet be prepared to renounce war. Furthermore, the proper balance should be found in the relatively short time that will elapse before the 'secrets' will naturally become open knowledge by rediscovery on part of the scientists and engineers of other countries.

  7. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, F. G.

    1999-01-01

    "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  8. The infancy of atomic physics Hercules in his cradle

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Atomic physics is a mighty Hercules that dominates modern civilization, promising immense reserves of power but threatening catastrophic war and radioactive pollution. The story of the atom's discovery and the development of techniques to harness its energy offers fascinating insights into the forces behind twenty-first-century technology. This compelling history portrays the human faces and lives behind the beginnings of atomic science.The Infancy of Atomic Physics ranges from experiments in the 1880s by William Crookes and others to the era just after the First World War, when Rutherford's f

  9. Comparing and contrasting nuclei and cold atomic gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm

    2013-01-01

    The experimental revolution in ultracold atomic gas physics over the past decades has brought tremendous amounts of new insight to the world of degenerate quantum systems. Here we compare and contrast the developments of cold atomic gases with the physics of nuclei since many concepts, techniques...... physics transferred to cold atoms, and consider which systems are more likely to show interesting bound state spectra. Finally, we address some recent studies of the BCS–BEC crossover in light nuclei and compare them to the concepts used in ultracold atomic gases. While many-body concepts such as BEC...

  10. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1999-01-01

    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  11. METRIC OF VIRTUAL WORLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the hypothesis of a plurality of parallel and virtual worlds. It is assumed that sentient beings in each virtual world reach a stage of development that can create a virtual world to simulate the history of their own development. In this case, the virtual worlds are nested within each other, which put a severe restriction on the possible geometry of space-time. Discussed the draft geometry virtual worlds consistently displayed from one world to another. It is shown that in this case, the metric should be universal, depending only on the fundamental constants. There are examples of universal metrics obtained in Einstein's theory of gravitation and Yang-Mills theory

  12. Long range intermolecular forces in triatomic systems: connecting the atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations

    OpenAIRE

    Cvitas, Marko T.; Soldan, Pavel; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2005-01-01

    The long-range forces that act between three atoms are analysed in both atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations. Expressions for atom-diatom dispersion coefficients are obtained in terms of 3-body nonadditive coefficients. The anisotropy of atom-diatom C_6 dispersion coefficients arises primarily from nonadditive triple-dipole and quadruple-dipole forces, while pairwise-additive forces and nonadditive triple-dipole and dipole-dipole-quadrupole forces contribute significantly to atom-di...

  13. World AIDS Day 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CynthiaKirk; 刘保行

    2005-01-01

    December first was World AIDS Day. Last year, the campaign (运动;活动) centered on women and girls. They made up almost half of all people infected with the virus HIV that causes AIDS. And H1V was spreading faster among women than men in most areas of the world. These findings (发现) werefrom the yearly report by the United Nations and the World Health Organization, a UN agency

  14. World Health Statistics 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The World Health Organization (WHO) collects and summarizes a wide range of quantitative data from a variety of health domains through country offices, regional offices and headquarter departments.

  15. Review of A-VIEW 3.5 software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandar Lakshmikant Bhanushe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, situated in the State of Kerala (India, has developed the A-VIEW (Amrita Virtual Interactive e-learning World. This review of the various features of A-VIEW as a virtual classroom, from the point of view of a presenter as well as learner, commments the positive and useful features of AVIEW as well as some weaknesses.

  16. Synchronizing XPath Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2004-01-01

    . However, the XML data sources are often independent of the data consumers and may change their schemas without notification, invalidating the XML views defined by the data consumers. This requires the view definitions to be updated to reflect the new structure of the data sources, a process termed view...... synchronization. XPath is the most commonly used language for retrieving parts of XML documents, and is thus an important cornerstone for XML view definitions. This paper presents techniques for discovering schema changes in XML data sources and synchronizing XPath-based views to reflect these schema changes...

  17. QlikView scripting

    CERN Document Server

    Floyd, Matt

    2013-01-01

    This mini book offers information about QlikView scripting written in an easy-to-understand manner, and covers QlikView scripting from basic to advanced features in a compact format.If you are a basic orintermediate developer with some knowledge of QlikView applications and a basic understanding of QlikView scripting and data extraction and manipulation, this book will be great for you. If you are an advanced user, you can also use this book as a reference guide and teaching aid. If you are a QlikView project team member such as a business user, data/ETL professional, project manager, orsystem

  18. Single atom microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Pennycook, Stephen J; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos

    2012-12-01

    We show that aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy operating at low accelerating voltages is able to analyze, simultaneously and with single atom resolution and sensitivity, the local atomic configuration, chemical identities, and optical response at point defect sites in monolayer graphene. Sequential fast-scan annular dark-field (ADF) imaging provides direct visualization of point defect diffusion within the graphene lattice, with all atoms clearly resolved and identified via quantitative image analysis. Summing multiple ADF frames of stationary defects produce images with minimized statistical noise and reduced distortions of atomic positions. Electron energy-loss spectrum imaging of single atoms allows the delocalization of inelastic scattering to be quantified, and full quantum mechanical calculations are able to describe the delocalization effect with good accuracy. These capabilities open new opportunities to probe the defect structure, defect dynamics, and local optical properties in 2D materials with single atom sensitivity. PMID:23146658

  19. Stellar models in Brane Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Linares, Francisco X; Ureña-Lopez, L Arturo

    2015-01-01

    We consider here a full study of stellar dynamics from the brane-world point of view in the case of constant density and of a polytropic fluid. We start our study cataloguing the minimal requirements to obtain a compact object with a Schwarszchild exterior, highlighting the low and high energy limit, the boundary conditions, and the appropriate behavior of Weyl contributions inside and outside of the star. Under the previous requirements we show an extensive study of stellar behavior, starting with stars of constant density and its extended cases with the presence of nonlocal contributions. Finally, we focus our attention to more realistic stars with a polytropic equation of state, specially in the case of white dwarfs, and study their static configurations numerically. One of the main results is that the inclusion of the Weyl functions from braneworld models allow the existence of more compact configurations than within General Relativity.

  20. Atomic homodyne detection of weak atomic transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Mevan; Elliott, D S

    2007-01-26

    We have developed a two-color, two-pathway coherent control technique to detect and measure weak optical transitions in atoms by coherently beating the transition amplitude for the weak transition with that of a much stronger transition. We demonstrate the technique in atomic cesium, exciting the 6s(2)S(1/2) --> 8s(2)S(1/2) transition via a strong two-photon transition and a weak controllable Stark-induced transition. We discuss the enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio for this measurement technique over that of direct detection of the weak transition rate, and project future refinements that may further improve its sensitivity and application to the measurement of other weak atomic interactions.

  1. Using the Plan View to Teach Basic Crystallography in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Cody V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The plan view is used in crystallography and materials science to show the positions of atoms in crystal structures. However, it is not widely used in teaching general chemistry. In this contribution, we introduce the plan view, and show these views for the simple cubic, body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close packed, CsCl, NaCl,…

  2. Metal atom oxidation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides

  3. Advances in atomic physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharwat M. El-Sherbini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University – Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s – when the author first engaged in research – an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics.

  4. Advances in atomic physics

    OpenAIRE

    Tharwat M. El-Sherbini

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University – Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s – when the author first engaged in research - an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics.

  5. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  6. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1995-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is promarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  7. Metal atom oxidation laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

  8. Atomic Oxygen Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, which is the most predominant species in low Earth orbit, is highly reactive and can break chemical bonds on the surface of a wide variety of materials leading to volatilization or surface oxidation which can result in failure of spacecraft materials and components. This presentation will give an overview of how atomic oxygen reacts with spacecraft materials, results of space exposure testing of a variety of materials, and examples of failures caused by atomic oxygen.

  9. String theory as a Lilliputian world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ambjørn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lattice regularizations of the bosonic string do not allow us to probe the tachyon. This has often been viewed as the reason why these theories have never managed to make any contact to standard continuum string theories when the dimension of spacetime is larger than two. We study the continuum string theory in large spacetime dimensions where simple mean field theory is reliable. By keeping carefully the cutoff we show that precisely the existence of a tachyon makes it possible to take a scaling limit which reproduces the lattice-string results. We compare this scaling limit with another scaling limit which reproduces standard continuum-string results. If the people working with lattice regularizations of string theories are akin to Gulliver they will view the standard string-world as a Lilliputian world no larger than a few lattice spacings.

  10. String theory as a Lilliputian world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjørn, J.; Makeenko, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Lattice regularizations of the bosonic string do not allow us to probe the tachyon. This has often been viewed as the reason why these theories have never managed to make any contact to standard continuum string theories when the dimension of spacetime is larger than two. We study the continuum string theory in large spacetime dimensions where simple mean field theory is reliable. By keeping carefully the cutoff we show that precisely the existence of a tachyon makes it possible to take a scaling limit which reproduces the lattice-string results. We compare this scaling limit with another scaling limit which reproduces standard continuum-string results. If the people working with lattice regularizations of string theories are akin to Gulliver they will view the standard string-world as a Lilliputian world no larger than a few lattice spacings.

  11. String theory as a Lilliputian world

    CERN Document Server

    Ambjorn, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Lattice regularizations of the bosonic string allow no tachyons. This has often been viewed as the reason why these theories have never managed to make any contact to standard continuum string theories when the dimension of spacetime is larger than two. We study the continuum string theory in large spacetime dimensions where simple mean field theory is reliable. By keeping carefully the cutoff we show that precisely the existence of a tachyon makes it possible to take a scaling limit which reproduces the lattice-string results. We compare this scaling limit with another scaling limit which reproduces standard continuum-string results. If the people working with lattice regularizations of string theories are akin to Gulliver they will view the standard string-world as a Lilliputian world no larger than a few lattice spacings.

  12. Small and beautiful – the colourful world of quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Peitzmann, T.

    2005-01-01

    Since the first atomistic ideas of Democrit we have gone a long way and have transcended the mechanistic view often associated with atomism. Knowing the building blocks of a system alone is not really sufficient to fully understand it. A system is often more than its parts. In particular, quantum mechanics has taught us to be careful to regard objects as “isolated”, and quantum mechanics is indeed of utmost importance in understanding atomic and subatomic systems.

  13. World Heritage Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠云

    2004-01-01

    If you think about World Heritage Sites, you probably think of places associated with ancient art and culture, historical buildings and monuments. And of course, many of these are on the World Heritage List (WHL) (世界遗产名录).

  14. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  15. World Music Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Access to world music resources such as videos and sound recordings have increased with the advent of YouTube and the efforts of music educators working closely with ethnomusicologists to provide more detailed visual and audio information about various musical practices. This column discusses some world music resources available for music…

  16. Fluid Annotations in a Open World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zellweger, Polle Trescott; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Jehøj, Henning;

    2001-01-01

    Fluid Documents use animated typographical changes to provide a novel and appealing user experience for hypertext browsing and for viewing document annotations in context. This paper describes an effort to broaden the utility of Fluid Documents by using the open hypermedia Arakne Environment to l...... to layer fluid annotations and links on top of abitrary HTML pages on the World Wide Web. Changes to both Fluid Documents and Arakne are required....

  17. The world of Edgerank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Hjalmar Alexander Bang; Birkbak, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    as a self-justifying ordering of the world. Drawing on the pragmatist sociology of Boltanski and Thévenot, we examine Edgerank as not just a hidden logic, but a rhetor that actively constructs a rhetorical commonplace that can be drawn upon in order to justify the evaluations produced by the algorithm. We...... marketing blogs about how to handle the algorithm in practice. Based on these events, we construct an ‘internalistic’ account of the rhetoric of Edgerank, opening for an exploration of its moral grammar and the world or dwelling place it assumes and enacts. We find that the world of Edgerank is ordered...... according to recent engagement, which means it has affinities with what Boltanski and Chiapello have termed the connectionist world. At the same time, the world of Edgerank is marked by a tension between authenticity and automation that is a result of the algorithmic standardization of relations...

  18. Virtual World Security Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Charles Patterson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual property theft is a serious problem that exists in virtual worlds. Legitimate users of these worlds invest considerable amounts of time, effort and real-world money into obtaining virtual property, but unfortunately, are becoming victims of theft in high numbers. It is reported that there are over 1 billion registered users of virtual worlds containing virtual property items worth an estimated US$50 billion dollars. The problem of virtual property theft is complex, involving many legal, social and technological issues. The software used to access virtual worlds is of great importance as they form the primary interface to these worlds and as such the primary interface to conduct virtual property theft. The security vulnerabilities of virtual world applications have not, to date, been examined. This study aims to use the process of software inspection to discover security vulnerabilities that may exist within virtual world software – vulnerabilities that enable virtual property theft to occur. Analyzing three well know virtual world applications World of Warcraft, Guild Wars and Entropia Universe, this research utilized security analysis tools and scenario testing with focus on authentication, trading, intruder detection and virtual property recovery. It was discovered that all three examples were susceptible to keylogging, mail and direct trade methods were the most likely method for transferring stolen items, intrusion detection is of critical concern to all VWEs tested, stolen items were unable to be recovered in all cases and lastly occurrences of theft were undetectable in all cases. The results gained in this study present the key problem areas which need to be addressed to improve security and reduce the occurrence of virtual property theft.

  19. Chain reaction. History of the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henri becquerel tracked down in 1896 a strange radiation, which was called radioactivity by Marie Curie. In the following centuries German scientists Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg presented fundamental contributions to understand processes in the atomic nucleus. At Goettingen, center of the international nuclear physics community, the American student J. Robert Oppenheimer admit to this physical research. In the beginning of 1939 the message of Otto Hahns' nuclear fission electrified researchers. The first step, unleashing atomic energy, was done. A half year later the Second World War begun. And suddenly being friend with and busily communicating physicians were devided into hostile power blocs as bearers of official secrets. The author tells in this exciting book the story of the first atomic bomb as a chain reaction of ideas, discoveries and visions, of friendships, jealousy and intrigues of scientists, adventurers and genius. (orig./GL)

  20. Atomically Precise Surface Engineering for Producing Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Frank (Inventor); Jones, Todd J. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    High-quality surface coatings, and techniques combining the atomic precision of molecular beam epitaxy and atomic layer deposition, to fabricate such high-quality surface coatings are provided. The coatings made in accordance with the techniques set forth by the invention are shown to be capable of forming silicon CCD detectors that demonstrate world record detector quantum efficiency (>50%) in the near and far ultraviolet (155 nm-300 nm). The surface engineering approaches used demonstrate the robustness of detector performance that is obtained by achieving atomic level precision at all steps in the coating fabrication process. As proof of concept, the characterization, materials, and exemplary devices produced are presented along with a comparison to other approaches.

  1. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Explores the atoms that govern chemical processes. This book shows how the interactions between simple substances such as salt and water are crucial to life on Earth and how those interactions are predestined by the atoms that make up the molecules.

  2. Multiphoton ionization of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of high intensity effects which result from multiphoton ionization of atoms in a high laser intensity, ranging from 1010 to 1015 W cm-2. Resonant multiphoton ionization of atoms, the production of multiply charged ions, and electron energy spectra, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  3. When Atoms Want

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry students and teachers often explain the chemical reactivity of atoms, molecules, and chemical substances in terms of purposes or needs (e.g., atoms want or need to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to become more stable). These teleological explanations seem to have pedagogical value as they help students understand and use…

  4. Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has been prepared to provide an overview of the responsibilities and activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is designed to address questions that are often asked concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board, its enabling legislation, licensing and compliance activities, federal-provincial relationships, international obligations, and communications with the public

  5. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  6. Antiprotonic-hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies of antiprotonic-hydrogen atoms have recently made great progress following the commissioning of the low energy antiproton facility (LEAR) at CERN in 1983. At the same time our understanding of the atomic cascade has increased considerably through measurements of the X-ray spectra. The life history of the p-bar-p atom is considered in some detail, from the initial capture of the antiproton when stopping in hydrogen, through the atomic cascade with the emission of X-rays, to the final antiproton annihilation and production of mesons. The experiments carried out at LEAR are described and the results compared with atomic cascade calculations and predictions of strong interaction effects. (author)

  7. Moving Single Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Dustin

    2016-05-01

    Single neutral atoms are promising candidates for qubits, the fundamental unit of quantum information. We have built a set of optical tweezers for trapping and moving single Rubidium atoms. The tweezers are based on a far off-resonant dipole trapping laser focussed to a 1 μm spot with a single aspheric lens. We use a digital micromirror device (DMD) to generate dynamic holograms of the desired arrangement of traps. The DMD has a frame rate of 20 kHz which, when combined with fast algorithms, allows for rapid reconfiguration of the traps. We demonstrate trapping of up to 20 atoms in arbitrary arrangements, and the transport of a single-atom over a distance of 14 μm with continuous laser cooling, and 5 μm without. In the meantime, we are developing high-finesse fibre-tip cavities, which we plan to use to couple pairs of single atoms to form a quantum network.

  8. Atoms, Nature, and Man; Man-made Radioactivity in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Neal O.

    1966-01-01

    This booklet describes the environmental investigations that have been conducted with the aid of the atom since the first atomic detonation near Alamogordo, New Mexico, in 1945. The earth's mysteries, however, are not easily unlocked, and investigations of our environment with atomic tools have only begun. The story thus is one of beginnings but of beginnings that point the way, it is hoped, to a new understanding of the world in the atomic future.

  9. Approach for Developing Scientific News Aggregators Using ATOM Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farha Shaikh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists want to stay connected with everything that is new and innovative in the world, so they constantly read and analyze several online scientific resources such as magazines and journals. A user needs to do a lot of searching through on the web to locate the articles which are important to their interest. The idea of a news aggregator is not new to scientific world. A news aggregator is a software application, which periodically reads several sources and displays them on a separate page such as Google news. The information is stored in XML format. A scientific news aggregator helps in structuring online resources into useful contents. These contents are automatically fetched from several online resources available on the Internet and categorized on a separate page. Mostly, RSS feeds are used to done this job. Atom feeds are more detailed and having advance feature than RSS feeds, helps to improve the performance of scientific news aggregator by giving more updated information. A modern view of an aggregator offers a friendly user interface for users by merging the news content. We are working on an interesting approach for the design and implementation of news aggregators which will collect and aggregate data from the web to acquire unstructured information and transform it into data that could be understood and dynamically processed. The proposed approach will combine various mechanisms in order to connect to the data sources specified, identify the categories of articles, extract the corresponding pieces of news and automatically place them into the knowledge database and automatically extract the new pieces of information in the knowledge base and display them on the Science News section

  10. Learning and teaching in Immersive Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Bell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue comprises a number of exciting initiatives and developments that begin to put issues of learning in immersive virtual worlds centre stage. Although learning through specific types of serious games has been popular for some years, the pedagogical value of immersive worlds is currently not only inchoate but also under-researched. Whilst several of the articles here are not based on empirical research, what they do offer is new ways of considering the pedagogical purposes of using these kinds of digital spaces. The difficulty with the perception of immersive virtual worlds is that there is often a sense that they are seen as being dislocated from physical spaces, and yet they are not. Web spaces are largely viewed as necessarily freer locations where there is a sense that it is both possible and desirable to ‘do things differently'.

  11. GLOBALIZATION IN WORLD ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Garifullina, A.; Ilyasova, I.

    2013-01-01

    Globalization is objective process of formation, development and action of new world, global system. Undoubtedly, consequences of globalization can carry both positive, and negative character, however to it isn’t present alternative

  12. Designing Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Remzi Ates

    2014-01-01

    The online social platforms known as virtual worlds present their users various affordances for avatar based co-presence, social interaction and provide tools for collaborative content creation, including objects, textures and animations. The users of these worlds navigate their avatars as personal...... mediators in 3D virtual space to collaborate and co-design the digital content. These co-designers are also the residents of these worlds, as they socialize by building inworld friendships. This article presents a social semiotic analysis of the three-dimensional virtual places and artifacts in the virtual...... world known as Second Life by the collaborative efforts of its so-called residents. The social semiotic perspective is used to develop a multimodal analytical framework and to analyze the co-creation of meaning potentials by various social actors who use the available semiotic resources as mediational...

  13. World Magnetic Model 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  14. World Religion Database

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the new database released by Brill entitled World Religion Database (WRD). It compares WRD to other religious demography tools available and rates the database on a 5 point scale.

  15. IS THE WORLD FLAT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Încalţărău

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization became more and more prominent during the last decades. There is no way to argue that globalization led to more interconnected economies, facilitating the communication and the collaboration around the world. But where is this going? Doesglobalization mean uniformity or diversity? As the world begins to resemble more, the people are trying to distinguish between them more, which can exacerbate nationalistic feeling. Friedman argues that globalization made the world smaller and flatter, allowing all countries to take chance of the available opportunities equally. But is this really true? Although politic and cultural factors can stand in front of a really flat world, what is the key for Chinese and Indian success and which are theirs perspectives?

  16. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  17. World Magnetic Model 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  18. World Government: Utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahram Ayvazyan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the possibility of having a world government, which world has been facing overarching changes since the end of Cold war, where bipolar world order has evolved into multipolar system through unipolarity. Analysis method in this paper have the sistematics: discussion of human nature and philosophical dimensions vis-à-vis individual, society and government, as well as society of societies; then briefly analyse globalization, the impact of individuals on interdependency of the current international arena and examine the individualism as the ongoing ideology “by individuals and for individuals.”; and then take the conclusion that the world government is not a utopia

  19. World Glacier Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Glacier Inventory (WGI) contains information for over 130,000 glaciers. Inventory parameters include geographic location, area, length, orientation,...

  20. Curing The World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The WHO approves China’s vaccine regulation system The World Health Organization (WHO) said China had complied with international standards for the regulation of vaccines after it completed the assessment procedures at the end of 2010.

  1. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  2. The world's biggest experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Gregson, Liz

    2008-01-01

    According to CERN, our understanding of the Universe is about the change. Meet the Imperial alumni and staff who are involved in CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the world's biggest experiment. (3 pages)

  3. Designing Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Remzi Ates

    2014-01-01

    mediators in 3D virtual space to collaborate and co-design the digital content. These co-designers are also the residents of these worlds, as they socialize by building inworld friendships. This article presents a social semiotic analysis of the three-dimensional virtual places and artifacts in the virtual......The online social platforms known as virtual worlds present their users various affordances for avatar based co-presence, social interaction and provide tools for collaborative content creation, including objects, textures and animations. The users of these worlds navigate their avatars as personal...... world known as Second Life by the collaborative efforts of its so-called residents. The social semiotic perspective is used to develop a multimodal analytical framework and to analyze the co-creation of meaning potentials by various social actors who use the available semiotic resources as mediational...

  4. Virtual-World Naturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reynolds

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes a player will stray from the path described by a game, moving into new spaces, developing new possible modes of interaction, and often discovering the rougher edges of the game world, where physics models break down, textures become incongruous, and the pieces don’t quite fit together. Gameplay that seeks out these spaces and these phenomena, that searches for such clues to the underlying construction of the virtual environment, is a kind of virtual-world naturalism, at once a return to an investigative urge that has been subsumed to the exhaustive mapping and description of the real world and a form of resistance to the very idea of pre-defined paths of action, of externally imposed limits, in virtual worlds as well as in our own.

  5. Monitoring the world's agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachs, J.; Remans, R.; Smukler, S.; Winowiecki, L.; Andelman, S.J.; Cassman, K.G.; Castle, D.; DeFries, R.; Denning, G.; Fanzo, J.; Jackson, L.E.; Leemans, R.; Lehman, J.; Milder, J.S.; Naeem, S.; Nziguheba, G.; Palm, C.A.; Pingali, P.L.; Reganold, J.P.; Richter, D.D.; Scherr, S.J.; Sircely, J.; Sullivan, C.; Tomich, T.P.; Sanchez, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    To feed the world without further damaging the planet, Jeffrey Sachs and 24 food-system experts call for a global data collection and dissemination network to track the myriad impacts of different farming practices.

  6. Monitoring the world's agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Jeffrey; Remans, Roseline; Smukler, Sean; Winowiecki, Leigh; Andelman, Sandy J; Cassman, Kenneth G; Castle, David; DeFries, Ruth; Denning, Glenn; Fanzo, Jessica; Jackson, Louise E; Leemans, Rik; Lehmann, Johannes; Milder, Jeffrey C; Naeem, Shahid; Nziguheba, Generose; Palm, Cheryl A; Pingali, Prabhu L; Reganold, John P; Richter, Daniel D; Scherr, Sara J; Sircely, Jason; Sullivan, Clare; Tomich, Thomas P; Sanchez, Pedro A

    2010-07-29

    To feed the world without further damaging the planet, Jeffrey Sachs and 24 foodsystem experts call for a global data collection and dissemination network to track the myriad impacts of different farming practices. PMID:20671691

  7. Brane World Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Casali, A G; Wang, B; Casali, Adenauer G.; Abdalla, Elcio; Wang, Bin

    2004-01-01

    We consider a brane world and its gravitational linear perturbations. We present a general solution of the perturbations in the bulk and find the complete perturbed junction conditions for generic brane dynamics. We also prove that (spin 2) gravitational waves in the great majority of cases can only arise in connection with a non-vanishing anisotropic stress. This has far reaching consequences for inflation in the brane world. Moreover, contrary to the case of the radion, perturbations are stable.

  8. Coffee in world agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sochůrková, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Bachelor thesis The coffee in world agricultur in the theoretical part deals with the important historical events associated with coffee. In connection with the coffee and basic concepts associated with the cultivation of coffee trees, the collection and processing of coffee beans. On the basis of data on coffee production were selected countries that are major producers of coffee in the world. For each country were given basic information and data on the areas producing coffee in the country...

  9. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  10. Hosting the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Hangzhou and surrounding communities open their doors to leisure and tourism The 2006 World Leisure Expo opens its doors in the scenic city of Hangzhou, in east China’s Zhejiang Province, from April 22 to October 22. The Expo, which was co-sponsored by the World Leisure Organization (WLO), National Tourism Administration and the Zhejiang Provincial Government, highlights the many recreational facets of Hangzhou.

  11. 'Edinburgh and World Christianity'

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In his inaugural lecture as Professor of World Christianity at theUniversity of Edinburgh, Professor Stanley discusses three individualsconnected to Edinburgh who have major symbolic or actual significancefor the development of world Christianity over the last 150 years. TiyoSoga (1829–71) studied in Edinburgh for the ministry of the UnitedPresbyterian Church, and became the first black South African to beordained into the Christian ministry. His Edinburgh theological traininghelped to form his...

  12. Linear atomic quantum coupler

    CERN Document Server

    El-Orany, Faisal A A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop the notion of the linear atomic quantum coupler. This device consists of two modes propagating into two waveguides, each of them includes a localized and/or a trapped atom. These waveguides are placed close enough to allow exchanging energy between them via evanescent waves. Each mode interacts with the atom in the same waveguide in the standard way, i.e. as the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM), and with the atom-mode in the second waveguide via evanescent wave. We present the Hamiltonian for the system and deduce the exact form for the wavefunction. We investigate the atomic inversions and the second-order correlation function. In contrast to the conventional linear coupler, the atomic quantum coupler is able to generate nonclassical effects. The atomic inversions can exhibit long revival-collapse phenomenon as well as subsidiary revivals based on the competition among the switching mechanisms in the system. Finally, under certain conditions, the system can yield the results of the two-m...

  13. Drupal 7 Views Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Green, J Ayen

    2012-01-01

    This is a cookbook containing plenty of easy-to-follow practical recipes with screenshots that will help you in mastering the Drupal Views module. Drupal 7 Views Cookbook is for developers or technically proficient users who are fairly comfortable with the concepts behind websites and the Drupal environment.

  14. Mastering QlikView

    CERN Document Server

    Redmond, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    If you are a business application developer or a system analyst who has learned QlikView and Qlik Sense and now want to take your learning to a higher level, then this book is for you.It is assumed that you are aware of the fundamentals of QlikView and have working knowledge of development and in-memory analytics.

  15. VMware horizon view essentials

    CERN Document Server

    von Oven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    If you are a desktop administrator or an end user of a computing project team looking to speed up to the latest VMware Horizon View solution, then this book is perfect for you. It is your ideal companion to deploy a solution to centrally manage and virtualize your desktop estate using Horizon View 6.0.

  16. Geneva University: Exploring Flatland with cold atoms

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92   Lundi 12 mars 2012 17h00 - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg « Exploring Flatland with cold atoms » Prof. Jean Dalibard Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, CNRS, Physics Department of Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris In his world-famous novel "Flatland" published in 1884, the English writer Edwin Abbott imagined a social life in a two-dimensional world. With a very original use of geometrical notions, E. Abbott produced a unique satire of his own society. Long after Abbott's visionary allegory, Microscopic Physics has provided a practical path for the exploration of low-dimensional worlds. With the realization of quantum wells for example, it has been possible to produce two-dimensional gases of electrons. The prope...

  17. 78 FR 58571 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic Electric Company... Power Company (Maine Yankee), Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (Connecticut Yankee), and the Yankee Atomic Electric Company (Yankee Atomic) (together, ``licensees'' or ``the Yankee Companies'')...

  18. Atoms for the Future. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the management of Silvain Ikazaki who organised Atoms for the Future 2011, the conferences have taken place in Paris, at ENSTA Paris Tech engineering school. It was Isabelle Tanchou, ENSTA, Deen of Education and Research who opened the two days of conferences of Atoms for the Future 2011 on the fuel cycle in front of more than a hundred young professionals coming from all Europe, Sri Lanka, Japan.. Then Laurent Stricker, chairman of WANO detailed the consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear industry and safety and which role the WANO was playing in this current situation. Jean-Pierre Gros, Areva executive vice-president of recycling business unit and CEO of MELOX facility, explained the reprocessing and recycling of used fuels through La Hague and MELOX operation. He specified that 96% of a used fuel is recyclable although most of used fuel is today stored in pools. This presentation was completed by the operator point of view of the nuclear fuel cycle given by Michel Pays, EDF director of strategy and risks at the nuclear fuel department. Georges Capus, Areva vice president marketing Frond End, explained the strategic, economic and political considerations of this activity. The afternoon conferences continued with the intervention of Bernard Boullis, CEA director nuclear fuel cycle back-end programs. He gave us an overview of the future nuclear fuel cycles detailing fast reactors examples such as ASTRID, ALLEGRO.. Radioactive materials need a safe, secure and efficient transport: it was the theme Michel Hartenstein, World Nuclear Transport Institute director. He illustrated his presentation with a very impressive video of the different qualification tests a canister has to undergo. The first day of lectures was closed by Gerald Ouzounian, ANDRA director of International Division. He exposed the radioactive waste management in France, describing the classification of those wastes depending on the radioactivity level, the existing sites, the current

  19. Atoms for the Future. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    Under the management of Silvain Ikazaki who organised Atoms for the Future 2011, the conferences have taken place in Paris, at ENSTA Paris Tech engineering school. It was Isabelle Tanchou, ENSTA, Deen of Education and Research who opened the two days of conferences of Atoms for the Future 2011 on the fuel cycle in front of more than a hundred young professionals coming from all Europe, Sri Lanka, Japan.. Then Laurent Stricker, chairman of WANO detailed the consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear industry and safety and which role the WANO was playing in this current situation. Jean-Pierre Gros, Areva executive vice-president of recycling business unit and CEO of MELOX facility, explained the reprocessing and recycling of used fuels through La Hague and MELOX operation. He specified that 96% of a used fuel is recyclable although most of used fuel is today stored in pools. This presentation was completed by the operator point of view of the nuclear fuel cycle given by Michel Pays, EDF director of strategy and risks at the nuclear fuel department. Georges Capus, Areva vice president marketing Frond End, explained the strategic, economic and political considerations of this activity. The afternoon conferences continued with the intervention of Bernard Boullis, CEA director nuclear fuel cycle back-end programs. He gave us an overview of the future nuclear fuel cycles detailing fast reactors examples such as ASTRID, ALLEGRO.. Radioactive materials need a safe, secure and efficient transport: it was the theme Michel Hartenstein, World Nuclear Transport Institute director. He illustrated his presentation with a very impressive video of the different qualification tests a canister has to undergo. The first day of lectures was closed by Gerald Ouzounian, ANDRA director of International Division. He exposed the radioactive waste management in France, describing the classification of those wastes depending on the radioactivity level, the existing sites, the current

  20. Atomic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, David E.; Krnjaic, Gordan Z.; Rehermann, Keith R.; Wells, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    We propose that dark matter is dominantly comprised of atomic bound states. We build a simple model and map the parameter space that results in the early universe formation of hydrogen-like dark atoms. We find that atomic dark matter has interesting implications for cosmology as well as direct detection: Protohalo formation can be suppressed below $M_{proto} \\sim 10^3 - 10^6 M_{\\odot}$ for weak scale dark matter due to Ion-Radiation interactions in the dark sector. Moreover, weak-scale dark a...

  1. EINSTEIN, SCHROEDINGER, AND ATOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider gravitation theory in multidimensional space. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. It is shown that gravitational waves are described by the Liouville equation and the Schrodinger equation as well. The solutions of the Einstein equations describing the stationary states of arbitrary quantum and classical systems with central symmetry have been obtained. Einstein’s atom model has been developed, and proved that atoms and atomic nuclei can be represented as standing gravitational waves

  2. Atoms, molecules, solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is an introduction to modern physics for undergraduate students of physics or students of related fields. After an introduction to the wave-particle dualism the structure of atoms is considered with regards to atomic models. Then the foundations of quantum mechanics are introduced with regards to their application to atomic structure calculations. Thereafter the chemical bond and the molecular structure are discussed. Then classical and quantum statistical mechanics are introduced. Thereafter the crystal binding, the crystal structure, and the specific heat of solids are considered. Finally the band theory of solids is briefly introduced. Every chapter contains exercise problems. (HSI)

  3. Atom probe tomography today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Cerezo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to describe and illustrate the advances in the application of atom probe tomography that have been made possible by recent developments, particularly in specimen preparation techniques (using dual-beam focused-ion beam instruments but also of the more routine use of laser pulsing. The combination of these two developments now permits atomic-scale investigation of site-specific regions within engineering alloys (e.g. at grain boundaries and in the vicinity of cracks and also the atomic-level characterization of interfaces in multilayers, oxide films, and semiconductor materials and devices.

  4. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  5. Division of atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Atomic Physics, Lund Institute of Technology (LTH), is responsible for the basic physics teaching in all subjects at LTH and for specialized teaching in Optics, Atomic Physics, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy and Laser Physics. The Division has research activities in basic and applied optical spectroscopy, to a large extent based on lasers. It is also part of the Physics Department, Lund University, where it forms one of eight divisions. Since the beginning of 1980 the research activities of our division have been centred around the use of lasers. The activities during the period 1991-1992 is described in this progress reports

  6. Inside the Hydrogen Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Nowakowski, M; Fierro, D Bedoya; Manjarres, A D Bermudez

    2016-01-01

    We apply the non-linear Euler-Heisenberg theory to calculate the electric field inside the hydrogen atom. We will demonstrate that the electric field calculated in the Euler-Heisenberg theory can be much smaller than the corresponding field emerging from the Maxwellian theory. In the hydrogen atom this happens only at very small distances. This effect reduces the large electric field inside the hydrogen atom calculated from the electromagnetic form-factors via the Maxwell equations. The energy content of the field is below the pair production threshold.

  7. The CHIANTI atomic database

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Peter R; Landi, Enrico; Del Zanna, Giulio; Mason, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The CHIANTI atomic database was first released in 1996 and has had a huge impact on the analysis and modeling of emissions from astrophysical plasmas. The database has continued to be updated, with version 8 released in 2015. Atomic data for modeling the emissivities of 246 ions and neutrals are contained in CHIANTI, together with data for deriving the ionization fractions of all elements up to zinc. The different types of atomic data are summarized here and their formats discussed. Statistics on the impact of CHIANTI to the astrophysical community are given and examples of the diverse range of applications are presented.

  8. Exchanging the Context between OGC Geospatial Web clients and GIS applications using Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maso, Joan; Díaz, Paula; Riverola, Anna; Pons, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Currently, the discovery and sharing of geospatial information over the web still presents difficulties. News distribution through website content was simplified by the use of Really Simple Syndication (RSS) and Atom syndication formats. This communication exposes an extension of Atom to redistribute references to geospatial information in a Spatial Data Infrastructure distributed environment. A geospatial client can save the status of an application that involves several OGC services of different kind and direct data and share this status with other users that need the same information and use different client vendor products in an interoperable way. The extensibility of the Atom format was essential to define a format that could be used in RSS enabled web browser, Mass Market map viewers and emerging geospatial enable integrated clients that support Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services. Since OWS Context has been designed as an Atom extension, it is possible to see the document in common places where Atom documents are valid. Internet web browsers are able to present the document as a list of items with title, abstract, time, description and downloading features. OWS Context uses GeoRSS so that, the document can be to be interpreted by both Google maps and Bing Maps as items that have the extent represented in a dynamic map. Another way to explode a OWS Context is to develop an XSLT to transform the Atom feed into an HTML5 document that shows the exact status of the client view window that saved the context document. To accomplish so, we use the width and height of the client window, and the extent of the view in world (geographic) coordinates in order to calculate the scale of the map. Then, we can mix elements in world coordinates (such as CF-NetCDF files or GML) with elements in pixel coordinates (such as WMS maps, WMTS tiles and direct SVG content). A smarter map browser application called MiraMon Map Browser is able to write a context document and read

  9. Visão do mundo, cuidado cultural e conceito ambiental: o cuidado do idoso com diabetes Mellitus Visión del cuidado del medio ambiente mundial cultural y concepto: el cuidado diario de la tercera edad con diabetes Mellitus World-view, cultural care and environmental concept: the daily care of the elderly with diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Maria Gomes Souza

    2012-03-01

    semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was performed through content analysis and contemplated pre-analysis, material investigation and treatment and interpretation of the obtained data. The categories that emerged from the testimonies in the light of Leininger' concepts are: World View, Cultural Care and Environmental Context. We believe that older people with DM2 feel a constant fragility about their lives, and they look to guarantee their health through the cultivation of faith in religion, the use of medicinal plants, and the support of health professionals.

  10. 西方哲学研究“言必称希腊”的宗教情结与神学语义%On Philosophy in what Sense is a Kind of World View?---Analysis the Reasen and Significance of Why Western Philosophy Will be Called the Greek

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱荣英

    2015-01-01

    Originated from the ancient Greek philosophy, western philosophy the homologous achievement of western philosophy, along the lines of the characteristics of new generation of thinking and it is no wonder that later generations of philosophers often and can't help to Greece"will be called". Are the"homeland"consciousness, in addition to the ancient Greek philosophy is the highest form of expression of the idea and theory achievement, more important is also is its world view is put forward and demonstrate the theology of semantics, since the development of western philosophy has established the basic belief and direction for development, as a cultural axis system lays a foundation for philosophy. Even it exposed by the various confusion has also become an eternal philosophical problem without solution, tightly attracted all previous dynasties philosopher changing ideas and ways to endless demands and questions. In a crisis in the western philosophy and the key to fall short, it is also the western philosophers often with the help of Greece"will be called"in the name of god. Through here, also highlights the full of absurdity in the ancient Greek philosophy weird religious complex and helpless sad.%西方哲学同源于古希腊哲学,这种同源性成就了西方哲学思维特质的薪火相传与一脉相承,无怪乎后来历代哲人每每而情不自禁地要“言必称希腊”。之所以会产生这种素朴的“家园意识”,除古希腊哲学体现了当时思想的最高水平与最高成就外,更重要是还在于它提出并论证的世界观的神学语义,为此后西方哲学的发展确立了基本信念与发展路向,以至于作为文化轴心能为一切知识体系奠基。即使是它所暴露出来的各种困惑也成为一个永恒无解的哲学难题,紧紧吸引着历代哲人不断变换思路与方式对之进行无穷无尽的诉求与追问。在西方哲学陷入危机而功亏一篑的关键之时,也正是西

  11. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1998-01-01

    This volume continues the series'' cutting-edge reviews on developments in this field. Since its invention in the 1920s, electrostatic precipitation has been extensively used in industrial hygiene to remove dust and particulate matter from gases before entering the atmosphere. This combination of electrostatic precipitation is reported upon in the first chapter. Following this, chapter two reviews recent advances in the area of chemical modification in electrothermal atomization. Chapter three consists of a review which deal with advances and uses of electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Flow injection atomic spectroscopy has developed rapidly in recent years and after a general introduction, various aspects of this technique are looked at in chapter four. Finally, in chapter five the use of various spectrometric techniques for the determination of mercury are described.

  12. Atomic and Molecular Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Atomic and Molecular Interactions was held at Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field

  13. Atomic Interferometry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is a new technology which can be used for developing high performance laser components for atom-based sensors...

  14. Atom chip gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Gebbe, Martina; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Müntinga, Hauke; Matthias, Jonas; Sahelgozin, Maral; Herr, Waldemar; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    Atom interferometry has developed into a tool for measuring rotations [1], accelerations [2], and testing fundamental physics [3]. Gravimeters based on laser cooled atoms demonstrated residual uncertainties of few microgal [2,4] and were simplified for field applications [5]. Atomic gravimeters rely on the interference of matter waves which are coherently manipulated by laser light fields. The latter can be interpreted as rulers to which the position of the atoms is compared. At three points in time separated by a free evolution, the light fields are pulsed onto the atoms. First, a coherent superposition of two momentum states is produced, then the momentum is inverted, and finally the two trajectories are recombined. Depending on the acceleration the atoms experienced, the number of atoms detected in the output ports will change. Consequently, the acceleration can be determined from the output signal. The laser cooled atoms with microkelvin temperatures used in state-of-the-art gravimeters impose limits on the accuracy [4]. Therefore, ultra-cold atoms generated by Bose-Einstein condensation and delta-kick collimation [6,7] are expected to be the key for further improvements. These sources suffered from a low flux implying an incompatible noise floor, but a competitive performance was demonstrated recently with atom chips [8]. In the compact and robust setup constructed for operation in the drop tower [6] we demonstrated all steps necessary for an atom chip gravimeter with Bose-Einstein condensates in a ground based operation. We will discuss the principle of operation, the current performance, and the perspectives to supersede the state of the art. The authors thank the QUANTUS cooperation for contributions to the drop tower project in the earlier stages. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50WM

  15. Topics in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  16. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  17. Dangerous Energy : Atomic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the disaster in Chernobyl, Russia. Through the accident It reveals the dangerous nuclear energy with a lot of problems on the nuclear power plants which includes four reasons about propelling development of atomic and criticism about that, eight reasons against development of atomic, the problem in 11 -12 nuclear power plant, the movement of antagonism towards nuclear waste in Anmyon island, cases of antinuclear in foreign country and building of new energy system.

  18. Atom laser divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Le Coq, Yann; Thywissen, Joseph H.; Rangwala, Sadiq A.; Gerbier, Fabrice; Richard, Simon; Delannoy, Guillaume; Bouyer, Philippe; Aspect, Alain

    2001-01-01

    We measure the angular divergence of a quasi-continuous, rf-outcoupled, free-falling atom laser as a function of the outcoupling frequency. The data is compared to a Gaussian-beam model of laser propagation that generalizes the standard formalism of photonic lasers. Our treatment includes diffraction, magnetic lensing, and interaction between the atom laser and the condensate. We find that the dominant source of divergence is the condensate-laser interaction.

  19. Guided Quasicontinuous Atom Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Guerin, William; Riou, Jean-Félix; Gaebler, John,; Josse, Vincent; Bouyer, Philippe; Aspect, Alain

    2006-01-01

    version published in Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 200402 (2006) International audience We report the first realization of a guided quasicontinuous atom laser by rf outcoupling a Bose-Einstein condensate from a hybrid optomagnetic trap into a horizontal atomic waveguide. This configuration allows us to cancel the acceleration due to gravity and keep the de Broglie wavelength constant at 0.5 µm during 0.1 s of propagation. We also show that our configuration, equivalent to pigtailing an optical f...

  20. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  1. Theoretical atomic collision physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, N.F. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA) Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Quantum Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical atomic physics at Rice University focuses on obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms that control inelastic collisions between excited atoms and atoms, molecules and ions. Particular attention is given to systems and processes that are of potential importance to advanced energy technologies. In the current year, significant progress has been made in quantitative studies of: quenching of low-Rydberg Na atoms in thermal energy collisions with He, Ne and Ar atoms; selective excitation resulting from charge transfer in collisions of highly stripped ions of He, Li, C, and with Li, Na and He atoms and H{sub 2} molecules at keV energies; differential elastic and single, and double electron transfer in He{sup ++} collisions with He at keV energies; inelastic electron-transfer in ultra-low-energy-energy (T=8 to 80K) collisions between {sup 3}He{sup +} and {sup 4}He and {sup 4}He{sup +} and {sup 3}He; a formalism for ionization by electron impact of ions in dense, high temperature plasmas.

  2. Carnap and Lewis on the External World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ferreira da Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the claims about our knowledge of the external world presented by Rudolf Carnap, in the book known as the Aufbau, to those of Clarence Irving Lewis, in Mind and the World-Order. This comparison is made in terms of the opposition to Kantian epistemology that both books establish; the Aufbau is regarded as the peak of the logicist tradition and Mind and the World-Order is taken in continuity with pragmatism. It is found that both books present knowledge of the external world as a consequence of a structural organization of human experience. However, there is an important point of divergence: the concept of verification each author adopts is different, such a concept was even a matter of discussion between Lewis and the Vienna Circle. This paper shows this disagreement but also shows how Carnap changed his point of view in the decade after the Aufbau was published, towards a standpoint which is much closer to Lewis’s ideas. In that process, nevertheless, Carnap changed his focus and did not deal with the problem of the external world anymore. This paper also seeks to draw attention to some features of the relation between Carnap and the pragmatist tradition which have only recently started to attract interest.

  3. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  4. The world energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil and gas resources of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) will be critical to meeting the world's growing appetite for energy. The greater part of the world's remaining reserves lie in that region. They are relatively under-exploited and are sufficient to meet rising global demand for the next quarter century and beyond. The export revenues they would generate would help sustain the region's economic development. But there is considerable uncertainty about the pace at which investment in the region's upstream industry will occur, how quickly production capacity will expand and, given rising domestic energy needs, how much of the expected increase in supply will be available for export. The implications for both MENA producers and consuming countries are profound. The World Energy Outlook, published by the International Energy Agency (IEA), seeks to shed light on these very complex issues

  5. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  6. World Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.; Van der Linde, C.; Nicola, S.

    2009-03-15

    In the section World Energy Future of this magazine two articles, two interviews and one column are presented. The article 'A green example to the world' refers briefly to the second World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi, which was held from 18-21 January, 2009. The second article, 'Green Utopia in the desert' attention is paid to the Abu Dhabi government-driven Masdar Initiative. The two interviews concern an interview with BP Alternative Energy ceo Vivienne Cox, and an interview with the founder and CEO of New Energy Finance Michael Liebreich. The column ('An efficient response') focuses on the impact of the economic crisis on energy policy.

  7. Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II. The first view shows Slayton (on right) beside a Douglas A-26 bomber in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the summer of 1945, probably on Okinawa. The second man is 1st. Lt. Ed Steinman (28359); This view shows Slayton as an eighteen-year-old U.S. Army Air Force cadet at Victoria Field, Vernon, Texas in the autumn of 1942.

  8. Decision-Making under Stress: World War II and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides a teaching plan which helps students imaginatively take the roles of leaders in the United States during World War II so that they might more completely understand such difficult decisions as allying with the Soviet Union, relocating Japanese-Americans, and dropping the atomic bomb. Provides a statement of goals and objectives, required…

  9. [Towards an urban world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    It has been estimated that by the year 2006, the proportion of the world's population residing in cities will for the 1st time exceed 50%. The entire urban population will be living on 1% of the earth's surface. Rapid growth of cities is largely limited to developing countries, where about 9/10 of urban growth is expected to occur in coming decades. Urban growth in developing countries is due to high fertility as well as inmigration of poor peasants seeking a better life. The current growth rate of Third World cities is 3.6% annually, which signifies doubling of the population in 20 years. Paris required over a century to grow from 547,000 to 3 million, but Lagos grew from 700,000 to 5.6 million in 20 years and Cairo grew by 6.5 million in 34 years. Immoderate population growth places a great strain on cities attempting to provide basic services. Only a few authoritarian governments have succeeded in limiting immigration to their metropolitan areas. Rapidly growing cities have become symbols not only of poverty and social deterioration, but of ecological destruction, contamination, and lack of health. Air pollution, waste management, and the water supply are 3 of the most serious problems of hygiene and sanitation in the world's cities. Air pollution is caused by various factors including car exhausts and coal burning. According to World Health Organization data, less than 60% of Third World housing has access to an adequate sanitary system. 90% of sewage is not treated before elimination. And millions of persons with no potable water supply are obliged to consume contaminated water or to use their scarce resources to buy water. Many cities lose up to 60% of their scarce water supplies through leaking pipes. If these pipes were repaired, and the loss amounted to the 12% typical of the US and Great Britain, this single measure would double the volume of potable water available. The lack of social balance is at the root of urban problems in the Third World. 600

  10. The World of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pilafs, risottos, soups, snacks, paellas,stuffing, vinegars, wines and desserts-rice is used all over the world in myriad ways as food and drink.Although rice is one of the world's most ancient foods and it is impossible to know exactly where and when cultivation of this marvelous grain began, China is popularly acknowledged as the homeland of rice. Chinese people have many legends about rice. Some describe a benevolent goddess in silk robes whose gown accidentally picked up stray rice grains, which she dropped from the heavens to humans below. It's also said that Shennong, the Divine Farmer in Chinese myth, sowed the first rice on earth.

  11. Miss World going deshi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

      In November 1996 the South Indian metropolis Bangalore hosted the annual Miss World show. The live event and its televisualisation became a prominent symbol for the India's economic liberalisation and for the immanent globalizing dimensions of this development. As such, the highly prestigious......, the pageant's contestation, which gave rise to a series of vehement protests and a broad public debate about the country's cultural alienation, marked a crucial point in time and trend towards the (re)localisation of the Indian television landscape. In consequence, the 1996 Miss World show and its...

  12. Ontology of World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture division influences our lives differently in how we identify and evaluate who we are as individuals. We respond to life situations in how we interpret ourselves. How we function in society as a whole signifies invaluable differences in how we base our demeanor. Freedom of speech is a given right in American society. It is the social norm to be able to voice your opinion on diverse issues faced in our global environment. The Ontology of World Politics is a form of mediating issues of concern.Keywords: Politics, Political Opinions, World Politics

  13. World geothermal congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World geothermal congress took place in the period from 28 May up to 10 June 2000 in Japan. About 2000 men from 43 countries, including specialists in the area of developing geothermal fields, creating and operating geothermal electrical and thermal plants and various systems for the earth heat application, participated in the work of the Congress. It was noted at the Congress, that development of the geothermal power engineering in the world is characterized by the large-scale application of geothermal resources for the electrical energy generation

  14. IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN'S WORLD SYSTEM THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-01-01

    World-systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed, among others by the Immanuel Wallerstein. Professor Wallerstein writes in three domains of world-systems analysis: the historical development of the modern world-system; the contemporary crisis of the capitalist world-economy; the structures of knowledge. The American anlyst rejects the notion of a "Third World", claiming there is only one world connected by a complex network of economic ex...

  15. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis". Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad.

  16. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis" Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad

  17. Effective potentials for atom-atom interaction at low temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Bo

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the concept and design of effective atom-atom potentials that accurately describe any physical processes involving only states around the threshold. The existence of such potentials gives hope to a quantitative, and systematic, understanding of quantum few-atom and quantum many-atom systems at relatively low temperatures.

  18. Empirical foundations of atomism in ancient Greek philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkopoulos, Sotirios A.; Vitoratos, Evagelos G.

    1996-07-01

    The way by which ancient Greek philosophers came to the concept of atom is presented. The concept of atom, a great creation of the human mind, gave a direct, modern-like explanation of the world, at times in which the huge amount of experimental and theoretical information of today was not available. This lack proved not an impossible obstacle for ancient Greek atomistic philosophers. The continuous regeneration, which makes Nature seem eternal, the physiology of nourishment, the orderly growth and decay of humans, animals and plants, the spreading of a sent, the evaporation and condensation of water, the wearing out of a pavement by the steps of passers-by etc., led philosophers to the concept of atoms. Similar experiences can be appealed to in teaching the concept today. Nevertheless, the concept of atom was not conceived in the same way in all ancient philosophical schools. The struggle to understand Nature, brought forth brilliant ideas and intuitions, which are directly connected to modern aspects of atomic theory, like the atomicity of time and the symmetries of the world of elementary particles. Teachers today can, with benefit to their students, retrace the ancient steps to atomic theory.

  19. Science and Different Images of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Marsonet

    2016-07-01

    They are both intersubjective and non arbitrary. What are, however, these two images, and are they really alternative? Let us note, from the onset, that the two images we just mentioned are both idealizations in the same sense of Max Weber’s “ideal types”. This means that, in order to discover their actual presence, we need having recourse to a good deal of philosophical abstraction. In other words, they are not disclosed by mere empirical recognition. For instance, we live in the commonsense view of the world, and only a complex process of reflection makes us understand that we, as human beings, share a common view of the world, which is in turn determined by the fact that our physical structure bounds us to conceive of reality in a certain way rather than in another. Think about the importance that light, for example, has not only in daily life, but even in our philosophical conceptualization of the world. The story is complicated by the fact that each image has a history, and while the manifest image dates back to pre-history, the scientific image is constantly changing shape.

  20. Teleportation of Atomic States for Atoms in a Lambda Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra, E S

    2004-01-01

    In this article we discuss a scheme of teleportation of atomic states making use of three-level lambda atoms. The experimental realization proposed makes use of cavity QED involving the interaction of Rydberg atoms with a micromaser cavity prepared in a coherent state. We start presenting a scheme to prepare atomic EPR states involving two-level atoms via the interaction of these atoms with a cavity. In our scheme the cavity and some atoms play the role of auxiliary systems used to achieve the teleportation.

  1. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  2. Brane world scenarios

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dileep P Jatkar

    2003-02-01

    We review proposals of brane world models which attempt to combine gauge theories with gravity at TeV scale by confining the gauge theory to a three-brane embedded in higher dimensional bulk. Gravity, however, propagates in the directions transverse to the brane as well.

  3. World Heart Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    For World Heart Day, learn more about what heart-healthy steps you can take in the workplace.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  4. Real-World Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

  5. Constructing public worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Priego-Hernandez, Jacqueline; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2013-01-01

    and their social world. Drawings by children from two age groups (seven- and 10-year-olds) and two socio-economic milieus (affluent and deprived), in four cultures (Germany, Mexico, Brazil and Romania), supported by observations and interviews, were used to investigate children’s representations of their public...

  6. One World: Service Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Bees are a vital part of the ecology. People of conscience are a vital part of society. In Nina Frenkel's "One World" poster, the bee is also a metaphor for the role of the individual in a diverse society. This article presents a lesson that uses Frenkel's poster to help early-grades students connect these ideas and explore both the importance of…

  7. Real-world outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    research findings to subjects” (Roberts and Sarangi 2003, 340) although, arguably, making results applicable to a real-world context ought to be an essential goal of researcher-practitioner studies. This issue forms the background of the article, in which it will be discussed how the dissemination...

  8. World energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, U.

    1983-11-25

    Ulrich Engelmann is director general for Energy Policy and Mineral Affairs in the Federal Ministry of Economics, Bonn, West Germany. In the article he discusses the current world energy situation and its affect on the Western industrial powers as well as the West German approach to its energy policies.

  9. Searching for world domination

    CERN Multimedia

    Quillen, E

    2004-01-01

    "Optimists might believe Microsoft suffered a setback last week that will impede its progress toward world domination, but I suspect the company has already found a way to prevail. At issue before the European Union was Microsoft's bundling of its Windows Media Player with its operating system" (1 page)

  10. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  11. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  12. Entertaining the whole world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheok, Adrian David; Nijholt, Anton; Romão, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Entertainment media are entertainment products and services that rely on digital technology. Mostly the digital entertainment industry is focused on the developed world such as USA, Europe, and Japan. However, due to the decreasing cost of computer and programming technologies, developing countries

  13. World beyond Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Marlowe, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    What happens when a hardened criminal on the run for his life gets mixed up with an all-girl symphony traveling between lesser-populated planets in a futile attempt to bring culture to their rowdy inhabitants? Well, to put it mildly, hijinks ensue. Read Stephen Marlowe's thoroughly entertaining World Beyond Pluto to find out the rest.

  14. Inside the world's playlist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Weerkamp; M. Tsagkias; M. de Rijke

    2013-01-01

    We describe Streamwatchr, a real-time system for analyzing the music listening behavior of people around the world. Streamwatchr collects music-related tweets, extracts artists and songs, and visualizes the results in three ways: (i) currently trending songs and artists, (ii) newly discovered songs,

  15. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...

  16. Dancing With the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ballet, the dance created for court performances in Renaissance Europe that reached into the world of high art in early 17th century France, has long been loved by Chinese. As early as the 1920s, andinto the 1950s and 1960s when the country was alienated from the

  17. World Development Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The main message of this year's World development report: gender equality and development is that these patterns of progress and persistence in gender equality matter, both for development outcomes and policy making. They matter because gender equality is a core development objective in its own right. But greater gender equality is also smart economics, enhancing productivity and improving...

  18. Caught between Two Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Debates over school funding sources are not typical high school lunchroom conversations, but they can be when your dad is the business manager and then superintendent in the community where you attend school. Growing up between the two worlds of school district management and adolescent survival, the author had a unique insight into what his…

  19. World Security and Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA very neat illustration of the skilful use of small, manageable, world models to consider pressing policy questions of great current relevance. Ron Smith, The Economic Journal" Jan Tinbergen, in this book as in his earlier work, has the courage to address central issues. Dietrich Fisher

  20. World championship in negotiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen the emergence of several new negotiation competitions around the world.We think the two major drivers of this development are a general trend toward the increasing internationalization of higher education and a recognition of the specific benefits of competitions...