WorldWideScience

Sample records for atomic spectra

  1. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  2. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  3. NIST Databases on Atomic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, J.; Wiese, W. L.; Martin, W. C.; Musgrove, A.; Fuhr, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    The NIST atomic and molecular spectroscopic databases now available on the World Wide Web through the NIST Physics Laboratory homepage include Atomic Spectra Database, Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms, Spectrum of Platinum Lamp for Ultraviolet Spectrograph Calibration, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Transition Probabilities, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Spectral Line Broadening, and Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database. The Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) [1] offers evaluated data on energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities for atoms and atomic ions. Data are given for some 950 spectra and 70,000 energy levels. About 91,000 spectral lines are included, with transition probabilities for about half of these. Additional data resulting from our ongoing critical compilations will be included in successive new versions of ASD. We plan to include, for example, our recently published data for some 16,000 transitions covering most ions of the iron-group elements, as well as Cu, Kr, and Mo [2]. Our compilations benefit greatly from experimental and theoretical atomic-data research being carried out in the NIST Atomic Physics Division. A new compilation covering spectra of the rare gases in all stages of ionization, for example, revealed a need for improved data in the infrared. We have thus measured these needed data with our high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer [3]. An upcoming new database will give wavelengths and intensities for the stronger lines of all neutral and singly-ionized atoms, along with energy levels and transition probabilities for the persistent lines [4]. A critical compilation of the transition probabilities of Ba I and Ba II [5] has been completed and several other compilations of atomic transition probabilities are nearing completion. These include data for all spectra of Na, Mg, Al, and Si [6]. Newly compiled data for selected ions of Ne, Mg, Si and S, will form the basis for a new

  4. Atomic spectra in a helium bubble

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Bertsch, George F.

    2002-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is applied to atomic spectra under perturbations of superfluid liquid helium. The atomic DFT of helium is used to obtain the distribution of helium atoms around the impurity atom, and the electronic DFT is applied to the excitations of the atom, averaging over the ensemble of helium configurations. The shift and broadening of the D1 and D2 absorption lines are quite well reproduced by theory, suggesting that the DFT may be useful for describing spectral perturb...

  5. Atomic and Molecular Aspects of Astronomical Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2012-01-01

    In the first section we present the atomic part where a C2+ atomic target was prepared and used to generate theoretical data to investigate recombination lines arising from electron-ion collisions in thin plasma. R-matrix method was used to describe the C2+ plus electron system. Theoretical data concerning bound and autoionizing states were generated in the intermediate-coupling approximation. The data were used to generate dielectronic recombination data for C+ which include transition lines, oscillator strengths, radiative transition probabilities, emissivities and dielectronic recombination coefficients. The data were cast in a line list containing 6187 optically-allowed transitions which include many C II lines observed in astronomical spectra. This line list was used to analyze the spectra from a number of astronomical objects, mainly planetary nebulae, and identify their electron temperature. The electron temperature investigation was also extended to include free electron energy analysis to investigate...

  6. Atomic and Molecular Aspects of Astronomical Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the first section of this thesis, we present the atomic part of our investigation. A C2+ atomic target was prepared and used to generate theoretical data required in the investigation of recombination lines that arise from collisions between electrons and ions in thin plasma found in planetary nebulae and other astrophysical objects. The R-matrix method of electron scattering theory was used to describe the C2+ plus electron system. Theoretical data concerning bound and autoionizing states...

  7. Emission Spectra of a Moving Atom in an Electromagnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Tao; FENG Xun-Li; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2000-01-01

    The emission spectra of a two-level atom moving in an electromafneric fiekd are studied We find that there that there is a shift in the peak position and that each peak splits into double peaks The shit is duble peaks The shift is duc to the detuning indced by the atomic mition and the splitting is casused by the atomic energy change due of photons

  8. PREFACE: Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths (ASOS9) Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths (ASOS9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Wiese, Wolfgang L.; Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2009-05-01

    For the first time since its inaugural meeting in Lund in 1983, the triennial international conference on Atomic Spectroscopy and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas (ASOS) returned to Lund, Sweden. Lund has been a home to atomic spectroscopy since the time of Janne Rydberg, and included the pioneering work in laboratory and solar spectroscopy by Bengt Edlén, who presented the initial ASOS talk in 1983. The ninth ASOS was hosted by the Lund Observatory and Physics Department of Lund University, 7-10 August 2007, and was attended by 99 registrants. An encouraging sign for the field was the number of young researchers in attendance. This volume of Physica Scripta contains contributions from the invited presentations of the conference. For the first time, papers from the ASOS9 poster presentations have been made feely available online in a complementary volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. With these two volumes the character of ASOS9 is more evident, and together they serve as a review of the state of atomic spectroscopy for spectrum analysis and the determination of oscillator strengths and their applications. The goal of ASOS is to be a forum for atomic spectroscopy, where both the providers and the users of atomic data, which includes wavelengths, energy levels, lifetimes, oscillator strengths and line shape parameters, can meet to discuss recent advances in experimental and theoretical techniques and their application to understanding the physical processes that are responsible for producing observed spectra. The applications mainly originate from the fields of astrophysics and plasma physics, which includes fusion energy and lighting research. The oral presentations, all but one of which are presented in this volume, provided an extensive synopsis of techniques currently in use and those that are being planned. New to ASOS9 was the extent to which techniques such as cold, trapped atoms and molecules and frequency combs are

  9. Random-matrix theory and complex atomic spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Around 1950, Wigner introduced the idea of modelling physical reality with an ensemble of random matrices while studying the energy levels of heavy atomic nuclei. Since then, the field of random-matrix theory has grown tremendously, with applications ranging from fluctuations on the economic markets to complex atomic spectra. The purpose of this short article is to review several attempts to apply the basic concepts of random-matrix theory to the structure and radiative transitions of atoms and ions, using the random matrices originally introduced by Wigner in the framework of the gaussian orthogonal ensemble. Some intrinsic properties of complex-atom physics, which could be enlightened by random-matrix theory, are presented.

  10. Electron spectra in the ionization of atoms by neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For neutrinos of O(10 keV) energies, their oscillation lengths are less than a few hundred meters, thereby suggesting the fascinating idea of oscillation experiments of small geometrical size. To help in evaluating this idea, a formalism is developed for calculating the neutrino ionization cross sections for H as well as the noble atoms. This formalism is based on the use of spin-independent atomic wave functions and should very accurately describe the ionization spectra for H, He, Ne, and Ar. The accuracy is considerably reduced for the Xe case though, where the spin dependence in the wave functions is non-negligible. Nevertheless, even for Xe the results remain qualitatively correct. In all cases, the atomic ionizations cross section per electron is found to be smaller than the neutrino cross section off free electrons, approaching it from below as the energy increases to the 100 keV region. At the 10-20 keV range though, the atomic binding effects in the cross sections and the spectra are very important and increasing with the atomic number. They are canceling out though, when total ionization cross section ratios, like νμ/νe or νμ/νe, are considered

  11. Spectra and decays of pi pi and pi K atoms

    OpenAIRE

    J. Schweizer

    2004-01-01

    We describe the spectra and decays of pi pi and pi K atoms within a non-relativistic effective field theory. The evaluations of the energy shifts and widths are performed at next-to-leading order in isospin symmetry breaking. We provide general formulae for all S-states, and discuss the states with angular momentum one in some detail. The prediction for the lifetime of the pi K atom in its ground-state yields tau = (3.7 \\pm 0.4) * 10^{-15} sec.

  12. Bremsstrahlung spectra from atoms and ions at low relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytic expressions for bremsstrahlung spectra from neutral atoms and ions, including the polarizational bremsstrahlung contribution in a stripped atom approximation, are developed for electron scattering at energies of 10-2000 keV. A modified Elwert factor and a simple higher Born correction are used for the Coulomb spectrum, with ordinary bremsstrahlung screening effects in ions and atoms adequately characterized in the non-relativistic Born approximation. In parallel with the development of this analytic description, new numerical results are obtained for ordinary bremsstrahlung from ions and from bare nuclei, appreciably extending the available data set which can be used to study dependences on element, ionicity, energy and the fraction of incident energy radiated. The accuracy of predictions with the analytic expressions is then determined by comparison with the full numerical relativistic partial-wave results for ordinary bremsstrahlung and with non-relativistic numerical results in the Born approximation or in partial waves for the polarizational amplitude. (author)

  13. Atomic transition probabilities of Ce I from Fourier transform spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic transition probabilities for 2874 lines of the first spectrum of cerium (Ce I) are reported. These data are from new branching fraction measurements on Fourier transform spectra normalized with previously reported radiative lifetimes from time-resolved laser-induced-fluorescence measurements (Den Hartog et al 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 085006). The wavelength range of the data set is from 360 to 1500 nm. Comparisons are made to previous investigations which are less extensive. Accurate Ce i transition probabilities are needed for lighting research and development on metal halide high-intensity discharge lamps.

  14. Atomic transition probabilities of Ce I from Fourier transform spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J E; Wood, M P; Den Hartog, E A [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Chisholm, J [Department of Physics, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Ave., Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Nitz, D E [Department of Physics, St. Olaf College, 1520 St. Olaf Ave., Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Sobeck, J, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.ed, E-mail: chishojd@bc.ed, E-mail: nitz@stolaf.ed, E-mail: mpwood@wisc.ed, E-mail: jsobeck@uchicago.ed, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2010-04-28

    Atomic transition probabilities for 2874 lines of the first spectrum of cerium (Ce I) are reported. These data are from new branching fraction measurements on Fourier transform spectra normalized with previously reported radiative lifetimes from time-resolved laser-induced-fluorescence measurements (Den Hartog et al 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 085006). The wavelength range of the data set is from 360 to 1500 nm. Comparisons are made to previous investigations which are less extensive. Accurate Ce i transition probabilities are needed for lighting research and development on metal halide high-intensity discharge lamps.

  15. Formation spectra of pionic atoms in the Green's function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Natsumi; Yamagata-Sekihara, Junko; Nagahiro, Hideko; Hirenzaki, Satoru

    2015-03-01

    We study the formation spectra of deeply bound pionic atoms in the (d, ^3He) reactions using the Green's function method, stimulated by recent developments in experimental techniques. The Green's function method is considered to be a better theoretical formalism than the effective number approach to evaluate the formation rate of unstable systems. We compare the calculated results by the Green's function method with those by the effective number approach in various cases. We find that the differences between the results obtained by both methods are reasonably small and we can reaffirm that the effective number approach is a good theoretical method for the analyses of the previous experimental data with typical binding-energy errors of Δ B.E. ≳ 20keV for the deeply bound pionic atoms. On the other hand, we think that theoretical results using the Green's function method will be necessary in the near future to deduce precise information on the pion properties in nuclei from analyses of the pionic atom data with better accuracy than before.

  16. Lyapunov spectra and conjugate-pairing rule for confined atomic fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernadi, Stefano; Todd, B.D.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt;

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation results for the Lyapunov spectra of atomic fluids confined in narrow channels of the order of a few atomic diameters. We show the effect that realistic walls have on the Lyapunov spectra. All the degrees of freedom of the confined...

  17. Hyperfine Magnetic Anomaly in the Atomic Spectra of the Rare-Earth Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Gangrsky, Yu P; Karaivanov, D V; Kolesnikov, N N; Marinova, K P; Markov, B N; Rostovsky, V S

    2001-01-01

    The constants of the hyperfine splitting in the atomic optical spectra of the rare-earth elements - Nd, Eu, Gd and Lu - were measured. The method of laser resonance fluorescence in the parallel atomic beam was used. The values of the hyperfine magnetic anomaly were determined from the comparison of magnetic dipole constant ratios of the neighbouring odd Z or N isotopes for the different atomic levels. The connection of these values and the parameters of atomic and nuclear structure is discussed.

  18. Observation of nonlinear laser spectra of cold atoms in diffuse light

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wen-zhuo; Liu, Liang; Wang, Yu-zhu

    2009-01-01

    The recoil-induced resonances (RIR) and electromagnetic-induced absorption (EIA) are observed in an experiment of diffuse cooling of $^{87}$Rb atomic vapor in an integrating sphere. We measured the nonlinear spectra varying with detuning of the diffuse laser light, and study their mechanism in the diffuse-light pumped and laser-beam probed configuration. Their differences from nonlinear spectra of cold atoms in one-dimensional optical molasses and magneto-optical trap (MOT) are also discussed.

  19. Exceptional points in atomic spectra and Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Cartarius, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Exceptional points are a special type of degeneracy which can appear for the resonances of parameter-dependent quantum spectra described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. They represent positions in the parameter space at which two or even more resonances pass through a branch point singularity. At the critical parameter values, the energies, the widths, and the wave functions describing the resonances are identical. The branching eigenstates show a geometric phase for a parameter space loop aro...

  20. Atomic carbon in comet atmospheres. Origin and emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study of neutral carbon emissions is made, to precise the excitation mechanism nature, to determine the production mechanisms and examine wether information on CO and CO2 molecule abundance could be deduced, or wether another source must be looked for. After an exhaustive study of excitation rates necessary for theoretical intensity calculation, a new effect has been discovered, and which acts on the atom excitation rates, via their distribution on the fundamental hyperfine levels. On the other hand, the strong dependency of the excitation rate ratio with heliocentric velocity and with the hypothesis which is made on the atom population initial distribution has been revealed. The carbon abundance in all the comets of the initial sample has been calculated, then compared to the water one revealing two groups of comets. Then an abundance criterium to remove the CO and CO2 molecules from the carbon potential-parents in the Bradfield comet has been used while CO is the best candicate for C(3P) and C(1D) atom production in the West, Kohoutek and Bennet comets (but to certain conditions). The important conclusion is that, while the relative abundance (C2/OH, CN/OH,...) of the minor carbon compounds were constant, the CO relative abundance varies from an object to the other, probably an effect due to repeated passage of some comets near the sun

  1. Photoabsorption spectra in the continuum of molecules and atomic clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Nakatsukasa, T; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2001-01-01

    We present linear response theories in the continuum capable of describing photoionization spectra and dynamic polarizabilities of finite systems with no spatial symmetry. Our formulations are based on the time-dependent local density approximation with uniform grid representation in the three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate. Effects of the continuum are taken into account either with a Green's function method or with a complex absorbing potential in a real-time method. The two methods are applied to a negatively charged cluster in the spherical jellium model and to some small molecules (silane, acetylene and ethylene).

  2. Absorption and Recurrence Spectra of Sodium Rydberg Atom in a Strong External Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDe-Hua; LINSheng-Lu

    2004-01-01

    Using core-scattered closed-orbit theory, we calculate the photoabsorption and the scaled recurrence spectra of sodium Rydberg atom in strong magnetic fied below ionization threshoM. The non-Coulombic nature of the ionic core have been modified by a model potential, which includes an attractive Coulomb potential and a short-ranged core potential. A family of core-scattered nonhydrogenic closed orbits have also been discovered. The Fourier transformed spectra of sodium atom have allowed direct comparison between peaks in such plot and the scaled action values of closed orbits. The new peaks in the recurrence spectra of sodium atom have been considered as effects caused by the core scattering of returning waves at the ionic core. The results are compared with those of hydrogen case, which show that the core-scattered effects play an important role in alkali-metal atoms.

  3. Absorption and Recurrence Spectra of Sodium Rydberg Atom in a Strong External Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-Hua; LIN Sheng-Lu

    2004-01-01

    Using core-scattered closed-orbit theory, we calculate the photoabsorption and the scaled recurrence spectra of sodium Rydberg atom in strong magnetic field below ionization threshold. The non-Coulombic nature of the ionic core have been modified by a model potential, which includes an attractive Coulomb potential and a short-ranged core potential. A family of core-scattered nonhydrogenic closed orbits have also been discovered. The Fourier transformed spectra of sodium atom have allowed direct comparison between peaks in such plot and the scaled action values of closed orbits. The new peaks in the recurrence spectra of sodium atom have been considered as effects caused by the core scattering of returning waves at the ionic core. The results are compared with those of hydrogen case, which show that the core-scattered effects play an important role in alkali-metal atoms.

  4. The generalized sturmian method for calculating spectra of atoms and ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Avery, John Scales

    2003-01-01

    The properties of generalized Sturmian basis sets are reviewed, and functions of this type are used to perform direct configuration interaction calculations on the spectra of atoms and ions. Singlet excited states calculated in this way show good agreement with experimentally measured spectra. When...... Slater–Condon rules must be used. This aspect of the problem is discussed in detail. Finally spectra are calculated in the presence of a strong external electric field. In addition to the expected Stark effect, the calculated spectra exhibit anomalous states. These are shown to be states where one of the...

  5. Energy Spectra of the Confined Atoms Obtained by Using B-Splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ting-Yun; BAO Cheng-Guang; LI Bai-Wen

    2001-01-01

    We have calculated the energy spectra of one- and two-electron atoms (ions) centered in an impenetrable spherical box by variational method with B-splines as basis functions. Accurate results are obtained for both large and small radii of confinement. The critical box radius of confined hydrogen atom is also calculated to show the usefulness of our method. A partial energy degeneracy in confined hydrogen atom is found when the radius of spherical box is equal to the distance at which a node of single-node wavefunctions of free hydrogen atom is located.

  6. Semiclassical Calculation of Recurrence Spectra of Li Rydberg Atom in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-Hua; DING Shi-Liang

    2003-01-01

    Closed-orbit theory is a semiclassical technique for explaining the spectra of Rydberg atoms in external fields. Using the closed-orbit theory and classical perturbation theory, we calculate the scaled recurrence spectra of Lithium atom in magnetic field plus a weak perpendicular electric field. The results show when the crossed electric field is added, the recurrence spectra are weakened greatly. As the scaled electric field f increases, the peaks of the recurrence spectra lose strength. Some recurrences are very sensitive and fall off rapidly as f increases; others persist till much higher f . As the electric field is stronger, some of the peaks revive. This phenomenon, caused by the interference among the electron waves that return to the nucleus, can be computed from the azimuthal dependence of the classical closed orbits.

  7. Semiclassical Calculation of Recurrence Spectra of Li Rydberg Atom in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDe-Hua; DINGShi-Liang

    2003-01-01

    Closed-orbit theory is a semiclassical technique for explaining the spectra of Rydberg atoms in external fields. Using the dosed-orblt theory and classical perturbation theory, we calculate the scaled recurrence spectra of Lithium atom in magnetic field plus a weak perpendicular electric field. The results show when the crossed electric field is added, the recurrence spectra are weakened greatly. As the scaled electric field f increases, the peaks of the recurrence spectra lose strength. Some recurrences are very sensitive and fall off rapidly as f increases, others persist till much higher f. As the electric field is stronger, some of the peaks revive. This phenomenon, caused by the interference among the electron waves that return to the nucleus, can be computed from the azimuthal dependence of the classical closed orbits.

  8. Dynamic interpretation of atomic and molecular spectra in the chaotic regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, H.S.; Zakrzewski, J.

    1988-10-01

    A quantum partitioning theory is given for extracting dynamic information from the high-resolution spectra of highly excited atoms and molecules that is relatively simple to apply. The presented approach is applicable whenever the classical counterpart of the system studied is chaotic. The theory allows a picture of the underlying non-statistically-describable part of the dynamics to be obtained from the spectra. The theory presented effectively uses and unifies many aspects of classical trajectory approaches, Feshbach resonant-scattering partitioning theory, semiclassical periodic-orbit theory, ''scars'' theory, bright- and dark-state concepts, and Fourier transforms of the spectra. The power of the theory is demonstrated quantitatively by interpreting the dynamics underlying the absorption spectra of the hydrogen atom in a strong uniform magnetic field.

  9. Dynamics of thermoluminescence spectra of impurity-helium condensates containing stabilized nitrogen and oxygen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigations of thermoluminescence dynamics during destruction of neon-helium and krypton-helium condensates containing stabilized nitrogen and oxygen atoms are presented. Spectra of the thermoluminescence of a krypton-helium condensate contained bands of N and O atoms and NO molecules. The intensities of the bands in these spectra were found to increase simultaneously during destruction processes in the temperature range 1.5-15 K. Observation of the NO molecules provides clear evidence for chemical reactions in the nanoclusters comprising the sample at low temperatures. Destruction of neon-helium samples occurred in two stages. During the first stage the α-group of N atoms surrounded by Ne and N2 molecules dominated the spectra. During the second stage, the spectra contained intense bands of N and O atoms stabilized in a molecular nitrogen matrix. The unusual characteristics of the thermoluminescence spectra were observed, and their changes were explained in terms of the shell structure of impurity nanoclusters which comprised the impurity-helium condensates.

  10. Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of atomic rubidium: g- and h-states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Ferus, Martin; Kubelík, Petr; Chernov, Vladislav E.; Zanozina, Ekaterina M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 17 (2012), s. 175002. ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00100903 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Fourier transform infrared emission spectra * atomic rubidium * physical chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.031, year: 2012

  11. Problems of theoretical interpretation of the spectra of highly ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of theoretical and semiempirical investigation of energy spectra and electronic transitions in atoms and ions (non-relativistic approximation, taking into consideration relativistic effects as corrections in the framework of the Breit approximation as well as starting with relativistic wavefunctions) are surveyed. The problem of the identification and classification of the experimentally obtained energy spectra with the help of the optimal coupling scheme is considered. General relativistic and non-relativistic expressions for the operators of electric and magnetic multipole transitions, having unspecified values of the gauge condition of the electromagnetic field potential, are presented. The dependence of the oscillator strengths on this gauge condition is studied. Pecularities of the spectra and the structure of highly ionized atoms are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Absorption Spectra of a Three-Level Atom Embedded in a PBG Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke; ZHANG Han-Zhuang

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the 'decay rate' terms into the density matrix equations of an atom embedded in a photonic band gap (PSG)reservoir successfully.By utilizing the master equations,the probe absorption spectra and the refractivity properties of a three-level atom in the PBG reservoir are obtained.The interaction between the atom and the PBG reservoir as well as the effects of the quantum interference on the absorption of the atom has also been taken into account.It is interesting that two different types of the anomalous dispersion relations of refractivity are exhibited in one dispersion line.The methodology used here can be applied to theoretical investigation of quantum interference effects of other atomic models embedded in a PBG reservoir.

  13. [Study of emission spectra of N atom generated in multi-needle-to-plate corona discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hui; Yu, Ran; Zhang, Lu; Mi, Dong; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2012-06-01

    The emission spectra of nitrogen (N) atom produced by multi-needle-to-plate negative corona discharge in air were detected successfully at one atmosphere, and the excited transition spectral line at 674.5 nm with maximum value of relative intensity was selected to investigate the influences of air and electrical parameters on N atom relative density. The results indicate that N atom relative density in ionization region increases with the increase in power; decreases with increasing discharge gap and relative humidity; and with the increase in N2 content, the relative density of N active atom firstly increases and then decreases. Under present experimental conditions, the maximum value of N atom relative density appears at the axial distance from needle point r = 1 mm. PMID:22870624

  14. Stark spectra of Rydberg states in atomic cesium in the vicinity of n=18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hui-Jie; Wang Ting; Li Chang-Yong; Zhao Jian-Ming; Zhang Lin-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Stark structures in a cesium atom around n =18 are numerically calculated.The results show that the components of 20D states with a small azimuthal quantum number |m| shift upward a lot,and those with a large |m| shift downward a little within 1100 V/cm.All components of P states shift downward.Experimental work has been performed in ultracold atomic cesium.Atoms initially in 6P3/2 state are excited to high-n Rydberg states by a polarization light perpendicular to the field,and Stark spectra with 丨m丨=1/2,3/2,5/2 are simultaneously observed with a large linewidth for the first time.The observed spectra are analyzed in detail.The relative transition probability is calculated.The experimental results are in good agreement with our numerical computation.

  15. Valter Ritz as a theoretical physicist and his research on atomic spectra theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents a historic-methodological analysis of the scientific heritage of an outstanding Swiss physicist Walter Ritz (1878-1909); the analysis is based on the study of a complete collection of his works published in 1911. In addition to a general description of Ritz's works which comprise publications in spectroscopy, variational method and electrodynamics, the article deals in detail with this fundamental research into atomic spectra theory. Elastic and magnetic model of the atom proposed by Ritz for explaining atomic spectra within the framework of the classical approach are discussed. It is shown that the generalized formulas of Balmer and Rydbery, as well as the combination principle which served later as a basis for formalting Bohr's condition of frequencies, were derived by Ritz as regions corollaries of this models and were out of semiempiric nature, as was assumed. 124 refs

  16. Identification of spectra of highly ionized Mo, Nb, Zr and Y atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the spectra of 3d9 - 3d84f transition in Y 13 through Mo 16 were studied. Thirty-three lines and 27 levels were identified in Mo 16 spectra. The identification was carried out with the aid of the theoretical calculation employing the Slater-Condon theory of atomic structure. The spectra of highly ionized molybdenum, niobium, zirconium and yttrium from low inductance vacuum sparks have been recorded by the use of a 10.7 m grazing incidence spectrograph. The theoretical spectrum for Mo 16 generated by plotting gf-values as a function of wavelength was compared with the observed spectra. Close agreement between them in general feature was seen. (Kato, T.)

  17. Heliospheric Neutral Atom Spectra Between 0.01 and 6 keV fom IBEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Allegrini, F.; Bzowski, M.; Funsten, H. O.; Ghielmetti, A. G.; Gloeckler, G.; Heirtzler, D.; Janzen, P.; Kubiak, M.; Kucharek, H.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Moore, T. E.; Petrinec, S. M.; Quinn, M.; Reisenfeld, D.; Saul, L. A.; Scheer, J. A.; Schwardron, N.; Trattner, K. J.; Vanderspek, R.; Wurz, P.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008 December, the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has been making detailed observations of neutrals from the boundaries of the heliosphere using two neutral atom cameras with overlapping energy ranges. The unexpected, yet defining feature discovered by IBEX is a Ribbon that extends over the energy range from about 0.2 to 6 keV. This Ribbon is superposed on a more uniform, globally distributed heliospheric neutral population. With some important exceptions, the focus of early IBEX studies has been on neutral atoms with energies greater than approx. 0.5 keV. With nearly three years of science observations, enough low-energy neutral atom measurements have been accumulated to extend IBEX observations to energies less than approx. 0.5 keV. Using the energy overlap of the sensors to identify and remove backgrounds, energy spectra over the entire IBEX energy range are produced. However, contributions by interstellar neutrals to the energy spectrum below 0.2 keV may not be completely removed. Compared with spectra at higher energies, neutral atom spectra at lower energies do not vary much from location to location in the sky, including in the direction of the IBEX Ribbon. Neutral fluxes are used to show that low energy ions contribute approximately the same thermal pressure as higher energy ions in the heliosheath. However, contributions to the dynamic pressure are very high unless there is, for example, turbulence in the heliosheath with fluctuations of the order of 50-100 km/s.

  18. Investigation of Linear Tetra-Atomic Negative Ion by Photodetached-Electron Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Rahman; Iftikhar Ahmad; A.Afaq; M.Haneef; H.J.Zhao

    2011-01-01

    @@ Photodetachment spectra from a linear tetra-atomic negative ion is investigated by treating the detached-electron wave function quantum mechanically.A plane polarized laser light, perpendicular to the axis of the ion, is used to detach the electron from the ion.Analytical expressions for the electron flux and total photodetachment cross section are derived.The electron flux on screen shows strong-energy-dependent oscillations with different frequencies.The total cross section of the tetra-atomic negative ion reduces the cross section of mono-atomic,diatomic and triatomic negative ions for high energy photons, while for low energy photons it becomes four times the cross section of mono-atomic negative ions.

  19. Fluorescence spectra of atomic ensembles in a magneto-optical trap as an optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Seokchan; Kang, Sungsam; Kim, Wook-Rae; Kim, Jung-Ryul; An, Kyungwon

    2015-01-01

    We present a study on characteristics of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) as an optical lattice. Fluorescence spectra of atoms trapped in a MOT with a passively phase-stabilized beam configuration have been measured by means of the photon-counting heterodyne spectroscopy. We observe a narrow Rayleigh peak and well-resolved Raman sidebands in the fluorescence spectra which clearly show that the MOT itself behaves as a three-dimensional optical lattice. Optical-lattice-like properties of the phase-stabilized MOT such as vibrational frequencies and lineshapes of Rayleigh peak and Raman sidebands are investigated systematically for various trap conditions.

  20. ENERGETIC ABOVE-THRESHOLD IONIZATION SPECTRA OF H-ATOM IN INTENSE LASER FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN BAO-ZHEN

    2000-01-01

    The above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of H-atom in intense laser fields (laser intensity I is up to 1018W/cm2)are calculated. It is found that the kinetic energy of the ejected electron at the location of the peak of the ATI spectra is about equal to the corresponding ponderomotive potential of the applied laser fields. This result is consistent with that obtained by Wilks et al. and fits the experimental results of the super thermal electron. A possible new mechanism of the super thermal electron generation is proposed.

  1. Strong field atomic ionization: Origin of high-energy structures in photoelectron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two distinct interpretations have been proposed to account for conspicuous enhancements of the ionization peaks in the high energy part of above-threshold ionization spectra. One of them ascribes the enhancement to a multiphoton resonance involving an excited state, while other analysis performed for zero-range model potential link it to 'channel closings', i.e., to the change in the number of photons needed to ionize the atom when the laser intensity increases. We report the results of model calculations that confirm the existence of a resonant process in atoms and shed light on why short-range potential models can mimic the experimental observations

  2. Atomic calculations and search for variation of the fine-structure constant in quasar absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    A brief review of the search for variation of the fine structure constant in quasar absorption spectra is presented. Special consideration is given to the role of atomic calculations in the analysis of the observed data. A range of methods which allow to perform calculations for atoms or ions with different electron structure and which cover practically all periodic table of elements is discussed. Critical compilation of the results of the calculations as well as a review of the most recent results of the analysis are presented.

  3. Atomic calculations and search for variation of the fine structure constant in quasar absorption spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A

    2008-01-01

    A brief review of the search for variation of the fine structure constant in quasar absorption spectra is presented. Special consideration is given to the role of atomic calculations in the analysis of the observed data. A range of methods which allow to perform calculations for atoms or ions with different electron structure and which cover practically all periodic table of elements is discussed. Critical compilation of the results of the calculations as well as a review of the most recent results of the analysis are presented.

  4. Photoionization spectra of even-parity states of Sm atom with multistep excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-color stepwise excitation and photoionization schemes are adopted to study the spectra of bound even-parity high-lying states of the Sm atom with three different excitation paths via the 4f66s6p 7DJ (J=1, 2 and 3) intermediate states. In order to obtain the information of these high-lying states, the Sm atom in these high-lying states is photoionized with an extra photon. Among 231 states detected in the energy region between 35,545 and 44,225 cm-1, 108 states are newly discovered, while the rest can be identified as the same with the literature. In most cases, comparisons of the spectra corresponding to the three different excitation paths may partially determine the total angular momentum of the observed peaks with the selection rules. In addition, the relative intensities of all related transition lines are given.

  5. Electron-momentum distributions and photoelectron spectra of atoms driven by an intense spatially inhomogeneous field

    OpenAIRE

    Ciappina, M.F.; Pérez-Hernández, J.A.; Shaaran, T.; Roso, L.; Lewenstein, M.

    2013-01-01

    We use three dimensional time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation (3D--TDSE) to calculate angular electron momentum distributions and photoelectron spectra of atoms driven by spatially inhomogeneous fields. An example for such inhomogeneous fields is the locally enhanced field induced by resonant plasmons, appearing at surfaces of metallic nanoparticles, nanotips and gold bow-tie shape nanostructures. Our studies show that the inhomogeneity of the laser electric field plays an important role in ...

  6. Excess-photon ionization spectra and atomic structure in intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floquet states represent intrinsic modes of ionization of an atom in a monochromatic field of constant intensity. To describe atomic wave packets evolving in realistic laser pulses, linear superpositions of Floquet states are required ('multistate Floquet theory'). This gives the possibility of following the evolution of wave packets in terms of the Floquet states that are populated during the pulse. We study here the way in which the Floquet states present in the representation of the wave packet manifest themselves in the excess-photon ionization spectra (EPI/ATI). For the purpose of illustration we choose a 1D atomic model with a soft-core Coulomb potential. We calculate the totality of the Floquet states, at all intensities needed, and generate the corresponding 'Floquet map'. We then calculate the EPI spectra for wave packets evolving from the ground state under different types of pulses. By analyzing the location of the lines in the spectrum, and their shapes, we show that they can be associated, in a clear cut and predictable way, to Floquet states responsible for the emission. The understanding of the underlying physics can lead to tailoring laser pulses, such as to obtain EPI signals in a controlled way. Whereas our analysis is applied to theoretical spectra, it would apply, just as well, to experimental ones

  7. Investigation of autoionization spectra of Sm atoms using an isolated-core excitation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Wen-Jie; Dai Chang-Jian; Xiao Ying; Zhao Hong-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Using the isolated-core-excitation scheme and three-step laser resonance ionization spectroscopy approach, this paper, for the first time, has systematically investigated the autoionization spectra of atomic Sm, belonging to the 4f66pn/ and 4f55d6snl (l=0, 2) configurations. In the experiment, the first two tunable dye lasers are employed to excite the Srn atom from its initial state to the differcnt 4f66snl bound Rydberg states, then the third dye laser is scanned to drive the atom to the doubly-excited autoionizing states. With the above excitation scheme, the measured transition profiles of the autoionizing states are nearly symmetric, from which the level energies and widths can be easily obtained.

  8. Investigation of autoionization spectra of Sm atoms using an isolated-core excitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-Jie; Dai, Chang-Jian; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Hong-Ying

    2009-05-01

    Using the isolated-core-excitation scheme and three-step laser resonance ionization spectroscopy approach, this paper, for the first time, has systematically investigated the autoionization spectra of atomic Sm, belonging to the 4f66pnl and 4f55d6snl (l = 0,2) configurations. In the experiment, the first two tunable dye lasers are employed to excite the Sm atom from its initial state to the different 4f66snl bound Rydberg states, then the third dye laser is scanned to drive the atom to the doubly-excited autoionizing states. With the above excitation scheme, the measured transition profiles of the autoionizing states are nearly symmetric, from which the level energies and widths can be easily obtained.

  9. Semiclassical Calculation of Recurrence Spectra of Rydberg Hydrogen Atom Near a Metal Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Using closed orbit theory, we give a clear physical picture description of the Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface and calculate the Fourier transformed recurrence spectra of this system at different scaled energies below ionization threshold.The results show that with the increase of the scaled energy, the number of the closed orbit increases greatly.Some of the orbits are created by the bifurcation of the perpendicular orbit.This case is quite similar to the Rydberg atom in an electric field.When the scaled energy increases furthermore, chaotic orbits appear.This study provides a different perspective on the dynamical behavior of the Rydberg atom near a metal surface.

  10. Resonance fluorescence spectra of three-level atoms in a squeezed vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fluorescence field from one of the two allowed transitions in a three-level atom can sense squeezed fluctuations of a vacuum field coupled to the other transition. We examine the fluorescence spectra of strongly driven three-level atoms in Λ, V, and cascade configurations in which one of the two one-photon transitions is coupled to a finite-bandwidth squeezed vacuum field, when the bandwidth is much smaller than the difference in the atomic transition frequencies, though much larger than atomic decay rates and Rabi frequencies of the driving fields. The driving fields are on one-photon resonance, and the squeezed vacuum field is generated by a degenerate parameter oscillator. Details are only given for the Λ configuration. The extension to the V and cascade configurations is straightforward. We find that in all configurations the fluorescence spectra of the transition not coupled to the squeezed vacuum field are composed of five lines, one central and two pairs of sidebands, with intensities and widths strongly influenced by the squeezed vacuum field. However, only the central component and the outer sidebands exhibit a dependence on the squeezing phase. We also examine the fluorescence spectrum for the cascade configuration with a squeezed vacuum field on resonance with the two-photon transition between the ground and the most excited states and now generated by a nondegenerate parametric oscillator. In this case, where the squeezed vacuum field can be made coupled to both transitions, all spectral lines depend on the squeezing phase. The spectral features are explained in terms of the dressed-atom model of the system. We show that the coherent mixing of the atomic states by the strong driving fields modifies transition rates between the dressed states, which results in the selective phase dependence of the spectral features. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Atomic and molecular spectra emitted by normal liquid 4He excited by corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquid 4He at fixed temperature 4.2 K and different pressures up to 8 MPa was excited by corona discharge of both negative and positive polarity. Emission of He I atomic lines and He2 molecular bands are observed. In negative corona the lines spectra show a distinct blue-shift and line-broadening, which becomes stronger with the pressure increasing. The rotational structure of molecular bands is resolved at pressures (0.1-0.2) MPa. The blue shift of the Q-branch maximum at different pressures was observed. Rotational temperature of 900 K has been estimated for the d3sumu+ - b3Πg molecular band. A positive corona was realized on a point anode for fewer radii of the electrode and larger voltage than in the negative corona. Electric currents in both negative and positive corona differ weakly. Spectral analysis of the radiation from the positive corona shows qualitative differences of spectral features of these discharges. The spectra observed in the positive corona have marked nonsymmetric shape. The asymmetric atomic and molecular spectra show an increased intensity of their long-length (red) wings.

  12. Theory of two-atom coherence in gases. II. Continuous-wave spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Reuven, Abraham

    1980-12-01

    General expressions are derived for the spectral line shapes of resonance absorption and scattering of coherent radiation in collision-broadened gases, taking into account effects of coherent excitation of two or more atoms (or molecules), as steady-state solutions of a hierarchy of master equations described in a previous publication (paper I). Coupling between the coherent motions of the atoms, provided by a Bethe-Salpeter-type effective interaction, in the binary-collision approximation, forms the essential mechanism for introducing cooperative coherent effects into the steady-state spectra. Explicit expressions are given for the effects of two-atom coherence in the binary-collision approximation, in which the Bloch-type dressed-atom self-energy superoperator is modified by the presence of collisions in which both atoms retain memory of their coherent propagation before the collision. The self-energies include the effects of resonance exchange symmetrization in self-broadening, and are renormalized by the coincidence of radiative transitions during the collisions. The impact (near-resonance) and the quasistatic (line-wing) limits of the applied-frequency detunings are discussed. In the quasistatic limit, coherent many-atom excitations become irrelevant; however, interactions of both collision partners with the radiation during the collision accounts for such phenomena as collision-induced absorption or radiative collisions. In the impact limit, the inclusion of the Bethe-Salpeter interactions allows for the appearance of two-atom resonances. Magnitude estimates of these effects are discussed. Effects of higher-rank (many-body) coherences are formally discussed with the help of a diagrammatic method, leading into implicit bootstrap equations that can be solved by iterative or other procedures.

  13. THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS WITH SOME OR ALL HYDROGEN ATOMS REMOVED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov, E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    The loss of one hydrogen from C{sub 96}H{sub 24} does not significantly affect the infrared spectra of the neutral, cation, or anion. Excluding a very weak C-C stretching band at 5.1 μm, the loss of two adjacent duo hydrogens does not significantly affect the spectra compared with the parent. Removing all of the hydrogen atoms significantly increases the intensity of the new C-C stretching band, and, for the cation, shifts it to a longer (5.2 μm) wavelength. Observations show a feature near 5.25 μm, which has been attributed to overtone and combination bands from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This current work suggests that dehydrogenated PAHs might also contribute to this band, but its weakness implies that fully dehydrogenated cationic or dicationic species are very rare.

  14. THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS WITH SOME OR ALL HYDROGEN ATOMS REMOVED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The loss of one hydrogen from C96H24 does not significantly affect the infrared spectra of the neutral, cation, or anion. Excluding a very weak C-C stretching band at 5.1 μm, the loss of two adjacent duo hydrogens does not significantly affect the spectra compared with the parent. Removing all of the hydrogen atoms significantly increases the intensity of the new C-C stretching band, and, for the cation, shifts it to a longer (5.2 μm) wavelength. Observations show a feature near 5.25 μm, which has been attributed to overtone and combination bands from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This current work suggests that dehydrogenated PAHs might also contribute to this band, but its weakness implies that fully dehydrogenated cationic or dicationic species are very rare

  15. Electron momentum distributions and photoelectron spectra of atoms driven by intense spatially inhomogeneous field

    CERN Document Server

    Ciappina, M F; Shaaran, T; Roso, L; Lewenstein, M

    2013-01-01

    We use three dimensional time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation (3D--TDSE) to calculate angular electron momentum distributions and photoelectron spectra of atoms driven by spatially inhomogeneous fields. An example for such inhomogeneous fields is the locally enhanced field induced by resonant plasmons, appearing at surfaces of metallic nanoparticles, nanotips and gold bow-tie shape nanostructures. Our studies show that the inhomogeneity of the laser electric field plays an important role in the above threshold ionization process in the tunneling regime, causing significant modifications to the electron momentum distributions and photoelectron spectra, while its effects in the multiphoton regime appear to be negligible. Indeed, through tunneling ATI process, one can obtain higher energy electrons as well as high degree of asymmetry in the momentum space map. In this study we consider near infrared laser fields with intensities in the mid-$10^{14}$ W/cm$^{2}$ range and we use linear approximation to describe t...

  16. Rotational spectra of N$_2^+$: An advanced undergraduate laboratory in atomic and molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bayram, S B; Arndt, P T

    2015-01-01

    We describe an inexpensive instructional experiment that demonstrates the rotational energy levels of diatomic nitrogen, using the emission band spectrum of molecular nitrogen ionized by various processes in a commercial AC capillary discharge tube. The simple setup and analytical procedure is introduced as part of a sequence of educational experiments employed by a course of advanced atomic and molecular spectroscopy, where the study of rotational spectra is combined with the analysis of vibrational characteristics for a multifaceted picture of the quantum states of diatomic molecules.

  17. Semiclassical Calculations of Recurrence Spectra for Lithium Atoms in Parallel Electric and Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林圣路; 张秋菊; 赵珂; 宋晓红; 张延惠

    2002-01-01

    By using the region-splitting consistent and iterative method, we calculate the recurrence spectra of lithium atoms in parallel strong external electric and magnetic fields, and obtain the novel resonance structure in the photoabsorption spectrum above the ionization threshold with a constant scaled electric field at F = 0.036, and a scaled energy at e = 0.58 and e = 0.006, respectively. The results are compared with those of hydrogen obtained by using standard closed orbit theory. It is demonstrated that the core-scattered effects exhibited in combination recurrence play a great role.

  18. Zel'dovich effect and evolution of atomic Rydberg spectra along the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1959, Zel'dovich predicted that the bound-state spectrum of the nonrelativistic Coulomb problem distorted at small distances by a short-range potential undergoes a peculiar reconstruction whenever this potential alone supports a low-energy scattering resonance. However, documented experimental evidence of this effect has been lacking. Previous theoretical studies of this phenomenon were confined to the regime where the range of the short-ranged potential is much smaller than Bohr's radius of the Coulomb field. We go beyond this limitation by restricting ourselves to highly excited s states. This allows us to demonstrate that along the periodic table of elements, the Zel'dovich effect manifests itself as systematic periodic variation of the Rydberg spectra with a period proportional to the cubic root of the atomic number. This dependence, which is supported by an analysis of experimental and numerical data, has its origin in the binding properties of the ionic core of the atom

  19. Identifying Student and Teacher Difficulties in Interpreting Atomic Spectra Using a Quantum Model of Emission and Absorption of Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two…

  20. Correlated ion analysis and the interpretation of atom probe mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several techniques are presented for extracting information from atom probe mass spectra by investigating correlations within multiple-ion detector events. Analyses of this kind can provide insights into the origins of noise, the shape of mass peaks, or unexpected anomalies within the spectrum. Data can often be recovered from within the spectrum noise by considering the time-of-flight differences between ions within a multiple event. Correlated ion detection, particularly when associated with shifts in ion energies, may be used to probe the phenomenon of molecular ion dissociation, including the questions of data loss due to ion pile-up or the generation of neutrals in the dissociation process. -- Research Highlights: → Multiple-ion detection events may contain information not seen in the mass spectrum. → Analysis of multiple events can yield information on molecular ion dissociation. → Neutral species may be generated by dissociation subsequent to field evaporation.

  1. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, M. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia); Marmitt, G. G. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia); Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Finkelstein, Y. [Nuclear Research Center — Negev, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Moreh, R. [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  2. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO3, Li2CO3, and SiO2) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO2, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − Egap)1.5. For CaCO3, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li2CO3 (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate

  3. Electron-momentum distributions and photoelectron spectra of atoms driven by an intense spatially inhomogeneous field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappina, M. F.; Pérez-Hernández, J. A.; Shaaran, T.; Roso, L.; Lewenstein, M.

    2013-06-01

    We use the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation (3 D-TDSE) to calculate angular electron momentum distributions and photoelectron spectra of atoms driven by spatially inhomogeneous fields. An example for such inhomogeneous fields is the locally enhanced field induced by resonant plasmons, appearing at surfaces of metallic nanoparticles, nanotips, and gold bow-tie shaped nanostructures. Our studies show that the inhomogeneity of the laser electric field plays an important role on the above-threshold ionization process in the tunneling regime, causing significant modifications on the electron momentum distributions and photoelectron spectra, while its effects in the multiphoton regime appear to be negligible. Indeed, through the tunneling above-threshold ionization (ATI) process, one can obtain higher energy electrons as well as a high degree of asymmetry in the momentum space map. In this study we consider near infrared laser fields with intensities in the mid- 1014 W/cm2 range and we use a linear approximation to describe their spatial dependence. We show that in this case it is possible to drive electrons with energies in the near-keV regime. Furthermore, we study how the carrier envelope phase influences the emission of ATI photoelectrons for few-cycle pulses. Our quantum mechanical calculations are fully supported by their classical counterparts.

  4. Isotope Effects on Delayed Annihilation Time Spectra of Antiprotonic Helium Atoms in Low-Temperature Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Ketzer, B; Daniel, H; Von Egidy, T; Niestroj, A; Schmid, S; Schmid, W; Yamazaki, T; Sugai, I; Nakayoshi, K; Hayano, R S; Maas, F E; Torii, H A; Ishikawa, T; Tamura, H; Morita, N; Horváth, D; Eades, John; Widmann, E

    1996-01-01

    The delayed annihilation time spectra (DATS) of antiprotonic helium atoms have been studied in isotopically pure low temperature ^3He and ^4He gas at various densities. The DATS taken at 5.8~K and 400~mbar are very similar in shape except for i) a small difference in the time scale and ii) the presence of a distinct fast decay component in the case of ^3He. The ratio of overall trapping times (mean lifetimes against annihilation), R = T_{\\mathrm{trap}}(\\mbox{^{4}He})/T_{\\mathrm{trap}}(\\mbox{^{3}He}), has been determined to be 1.144 \\pm 0.009, which is in good agreement with a theoretical estimate yielding R = [(M^*(\\mbox{\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{^{4}He})/ M^*(\\mbox{\\overline{ \\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{^{3}He})]^2=1.14, where M^* denotes the reduced mass of the \\mbox{\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{He^{++}}\\ system. The presence of a short-lived component with a lifetime of (0.154\\pm 0.007)\\ \\mbox{\\mus} in the case of \\mbox{^{3}He}\\ suggests that the \\mbox{\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{^{3}He^{+}}\\ atom has a state of in...

  5. A Modern Approach to L-S Coupling in the Theory of Atomic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Graham; Sutcliffe, Brian

    1998-01-01

    In a recent article on the theory of atomic spectroscopy (1), Haigh remarks that "Many introductory textbooks on spectroscopy give satisfactory accounts of Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling, but their treatment of jj coupling is generally very brief." Although we do not wish to dissent from his sentiments on j-j coupling, we wonder whether the treatment of L-S coupling usually offered in introductory texts for term enumeration is not too old-fashioned to still be considered entirely satisfactory. In this article we present an approach to the construction of L-S terms that makes contact with modern group theoretical and tensorial approaches to the theory of atomic spectra and is as easy to present and to comprehend as is the old microstates approach (2, 3). We believe that it is at least as easy to use as the approach of Guofan and Elizey (4) presented in this Journal some ten years ago: in fact, we have been teaching the enumeration of L-S terms for the past ten years using the methods presented in Section 2.

  6. Atomic data and theoretical X-ray spectra of Ge-like through V-like W ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic structure and spectra of ten tungsten ions have been calculated using the Flexible Atomic Code. The calculations yield energy levels, radiative lifetimes, spectral line positions, transition probability rates, and oscillator strengths for the tungsten ions isoelectronic to germanium, W42+, through vanadium, W51+. Collisional–radiative models for high-temperature, low-density plasmas have been implemented to produce line emissivities for X-ray transitions in the 1–4 keV (3–12 Å) spectral interval. The Ge-like through V-like W ions are important in nuclear fusion research where their spectra may provide diagnostic information on magnetically confined plasmas

  7. Atomic data and theoretical X-ray spectra of Ge-like through V-like W ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementson, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brage, T.; Gu, M. F.

    2014-03-01

    The atomic structure and spectra of ten tungsten ions have been calculated using the Flexible Atomic Code. The calculations yield energy levels, radiative lifetimes, spectral line positions, transition probability rates, and oscillator strengths for the tungsten ions isoelectronic to germanium, W42, through vanadium, W51. Collisional-radiative models for high-temperature, low-density plasmas have been implemented to produce line emissivities for X-ray transitions in the 1-4 keV (3-12 Å) spectral interval. The Ge-like through V-like W ions are important in nuclear fusion research where their spectra may provide diagnostic information on magnetically confined plasmas.

  8. Research Investigation Directed Toward Extending the Useful Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. [atomic spectra and electronic structure of alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, S. R.; Happer, W.

    1974-01-01

    The report discusses completed and proposed research in atomic and molecular physics conducted at the Columbia Radiation Laboratory from July 1972 to June 1973. Central topics described include the atomic spectra and electronic structure of alkali metals and helium, molecular microwave spectroscopy, the resonance physics of photon echoes in some solid state systems (including Raman echoes, superradiance, and two photon absorption), and liquid helium superfluidity.

  9. Autler-Townes doublet in the absorption spectra for the transition between excited states of cold cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Qiang-Bing; Yang Bao-Dong; Yang Jian-Feng; Zhang Tian-Cai; Wang Jun-Min

    2010-01-01

    Autler-Townes splitting in absorption spectra of the excited states 6 2P3/2 - 82S1/2 of cold cesium atoms confined in a magneto-optical trap has been observed.Experimental data of the Autler-Townes splitting fit well to the dressedatom theory,by which the fact of the cold atoms dressed by cooling/trapping laser beams is revealed.The results of the theoretical fitting with experiment not only told us the effective Rabi frequency cold atoms experienced,but also could be used for measuring the probability amplitudes of the dressed states.

  10. Identifying student and teacher difficulties in interpreting atomic spectra using a quantum model of emission and absorption of radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2016-06-01

    Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two questionnaires, one for teachers and the other for students. By analyzing the responses, we conclude that (i) teachers lack a quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation capable of explaining the spectra, (ii) teachers and students share the same difficulties, and (iii) these difficulties concern the model of the atom, the model of radiation, and the model of the interaction between them.

  11. Energy spectra of uranium atoms sputtered from uranium metal and uranium dioxide targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy spectra of 235U atoms sputtered from a 93% enriched 235U metal foil and a hot pressed 235UO pellet by an 80 kev 40Ar+ beam were measured in the range 1 eV to 1 keV. The measurements were made using a mechanical time-of-flight spectrometer in conjunction with the fission track technique for detecting 235U. The design and construction of this spectrometer are discussed in detail, and its operation is mathematically analyzed. The results of the experiment are discussed in the context of the random collision cascade model of sputtering. The spectrum obtained by the sputtering of the 235U metal target was found to be well described by the functional form E(E+E/sub b/)-277, where E/sub b/ = 5.4 eV. The 235UO2 target produced a spectrum that peaked at a lower energy (approx. 2 eV) and decreased somewhat more rapidly for E approx. > 100 eV

  12. Understanding Atomic Structure: Is There a More Direct and Compelling Connection between Atomic Line Spectra and the Quantization of an Atom's Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The "atoms first" philosophy, adopted by a growing number of General Chemistry textbook authors, places greater emphasis on atomic structure as a key to a deeper understanding of the field of chemistry. A pivotal concept needed to understand the behavior of atoms is the restriction of an atom's energy to specific allowed values. However,…

  13. All-atom Molecular Dynamic Simulations and NMR Spectra Study on Intermolecular Interactions of N,N-dimethylacetamide-Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Zhang; Zai-you Tan; San-lai Luo

    2008-01-01

    N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) has been investigated extensively in studying models of peptide bonds. An all-atom MD simulation and the NMR spectra were performed to investigate the interactions in the DMA- water system. The radial distribution functions (RDFs) and the hydrogen-bonding network were used in MD simulations. There are strong hydrogen bonds and weak C-H…O contacts in the mixtures, as shown by the analysis of the RDFs. The insight structures in the DMA-water mixtures can be classified into different regions by the analysis of the hydrogen-bonding network. Chemical shifts of the hydrogen atom of water molecule with concentration and temperatures are adopted to study the interactions in the mixtures. The results of NMR spectra show good agreement with the statistical results of hydrogen bonds in MD simulations.

  14. Atomic data and theoretical X-ray spectra of Ge-like through V-like W ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clementson, J., E-mail: joel.clementson@ipp.mpg.de [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Brage, T. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Gu, M.F. [University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The atomic structure and spectra of ten tungsten ions have been calculated using the Flexible Atomic Code. The calculations yield energy levels, radiative lifetimes, spectral line positions, transition probability rates, and oscillator strengths for the tungsten ions isoelectronic to germanium, W{sup 42+}, through vanadium, W{sup 51+}. Collisional–radiative models for high-temperature, low-density plasmas have been implemented to produce line emissivities for X-ray transitions in the 1–4 keV (3–12 Å) spectral interval. The Ge-like through V-like W ions are important in nuclear fusion research where their spectra may provide diagnostic information on magnetically confined plasmas.

  15. Short-ranged potential effects on the recurrence spectra of lithium M = 1 atoms in parallel electric and magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wen-Peng; Li Hong-Yun; Wang Shu-Bao; Lin Sheng-Lu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents recurrence spectra of highly excited lithium atoms with M = 1 state in parallel electric and magnetic fields at a fixed scaled energy ε = -0.03. Short-ranged potentials including ionic core potential and centrifugal barrier are taken into account. Their effects on the states and photo-absorption spectrum are analysed in detail. This demonstrates that the geometric features of classical orbits are of special importance for modulations of the spectral pattern. Thus the weak polarization as well as the reduction of correlation of electrons induced by short-ranged potentials give rise to the recurrence spectra of lithium M = 1 atoms more compact than that of the M = 0 one, which is in good agreement with the experimental prediction.

  16. The Journey from Classical to Quantum Thinking: An Analysis of Student Understanding Through the Lens of Atomic Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Sandhya Kolla

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to explore how students think about atomic absorption and emission of light in the area of introductory quantum chemistry. In particular, the impact of classical ideas of electron position and energy on student understanding of spectra is studied. The analysis was undertaken to discover how student learning can be characterized along different dimensions of competence, and to determine the strength of the correlations between these dimensions. The research in this dis...

  17. Non-LTE Balmer line formation in late-type spectra: Effects of atomic processes involving hydrogen atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Barklem, P S

    2007-01-01

    (*** abridged ***) Context: The wings of Balmer lines are often used as effective temperature diagnostics for late-type stars under the assumption they form in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Aims: Our goal is to investigate the non-LTE formation of Balmer lines in late-type stellar atmospheres, to establish if the assumption of LTE is justified. Furthermore, we aim to determine which collision processes are important for the problem; in particular, the role of collision processes with hydrogen atoms is investigated. Method: A model hydrogen atom for non-LTE calculations has been constructed accounting for various collision processes using the best available data from the literature. The processes included are inelastic collisions with electrons and hydrogen atoms, mutual neutralisation and Penning ionisation. Non-LTE calculations are performed, and the relative importance of the collision processes is investigated. Results: Our calculations show electron collisions alone are not sufficient to establish LTE ...

  18. Effect of positron-atom interactions on the annihilation gamma spectra of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Green, D G; Wang, F; Gribakin, G F; Surko, C M

    2012-01-01

    Calculations of gamma spectra for positron annihilation on a selection of molecules, including methane and its fluoro-substitutes, ethane, propane, butane and benzene are presented. The annihilation gamma spectra characterise the momentum distribution of the electron-positron pair at the instant of annihilation. The contribution to the gamma spectra from individual molecular orbitals is obtained from electron momentum densities calculated using modern computational quantum chemistry density functional theory tools. The calculation, in its simplest form, effectively treats the low-energy (thermalised, room-temperature) positron as a plane wave and gives annihilation gamma spectra that are about 40% broader than experiment, although the main chemical trends are reproduced. We show that this effective "narrowing" of the experimental spectra is due to the action of the molecular potential on the positron, chiefly, due to the positron repulsion from the nuclei. It leads to a suppression of the contribution of smal...

  19. Correlation between Soft X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectra of the Nitrogen Atoms within Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Yuka; Tokushima, Takashi; Takahashi, Osamu; Hoke, Hiroshi; Takamuku, Toshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been performed on the N K-edge of two imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([C2mim][TFSA]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C2mim][Br]), to clarify the electronic structures of the ILs. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has also been applied to the ILs by excitation at various X-ray energies according to the XAS spectra. It was possible to fully associate the XAS peaks with the XES peaks. Additionally, both XAS and XES spectra of the ILs were well reproduced by the theoretical spectra for a single-molecule model on [C2mim](+) and [TFSA](-) using density functional theory. The assignments for the XAS and XES peaks of the ILs were accomplished from both experimental and theoretical approaches. The theoretical XAS and XES spectra of [C2mim](+) and [TFSA](-) did not significantly depend on the conformations of the ions. The reproducibility of the theoretical spectra for the single-molecule model suggested that the interactions between the cations and anions are very weak in the ILs, thus scarcely influencing the electronic structures of the nitrogen atoms. PMID:27388151

  20. Production and analysis of some atomic emission spectra in the vacuum ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of technical facilities for spectra analysis are described including the design, construction and adjustment of a grazing incidence spectrograph for the extreme ultraviolet and the improvements in light sources. The investigations of the fifth and fourth spectra of tantalum, the analysis of the sixth spectrum of tungsten, the extension of the analysis of the fourth spectrum of hafnium and a start of the analysis of the seventh spectrum of rhenium are presented. (C.F.)

  1. Measurement of thermal neutron spectra using LINAC in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact grasp of thermal neutron spectra in a core region is very important for obtaining accurate thermal neutron group constants in the calculation for the nuclear design of a reactor core. For the accurate grasp of thermal neutron spectra, the capability of thermal neutron spectra to describe the moderator cross-sections for thermal neutron scattering is a key factor. Accordingly, 0 deg angular thermal neutron spectra were measured by the time of flight (TOF) method using the JAERI LINAC as a pulsed neutron source, for light water system added with Cd and In, high temperature graphite system added with boron, and light water-natural uranium heterogeneous multiplication system among the reactor moderators of light water or graphite systems. First, the equations to give the time of flight and neutron flux by TOF method were analyzed, and several corrections were investigated, such as those for detector efficiency, background, the transmission coefficient of air and the Al window of a flight tube, mean emission time of neutrons, and the distortion effect of re-entrant hole on thermal neutron spectra. Then, the experimental system, results and calculation were reported for the experiments on the above three moderator systems. Finally, the measurement of fast neutron spectra in natural uranium system and that of the efficiency of a 6Li glass scintillator detector are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. The International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, J.; Leckrone, D.

    1993-01-01

    This was the fourth in a series of colloquia begun at the University of Lund, Sweden in 1983 and subsequently held in Toledo, Ohio and Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The purpose of these meetings is to provide an international forum for communication between major users of atomic spectroscopic data and the providers of these data. These data include atomic wavelengths, line shapes, energy levels, lifetimes, and oscillator strengths. Speakers were selected from a wide variety of disciplines including astrophysics, laboratory plasma research, spectrochemistry, and theoretical and experimental atomic physics.

  3. Absolute Transition Probabilities of Lines in the Spectra of Astrophysical Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Smith, P. L.; Yoshino, K.

    1984-01-01

    Progress in the investigation of absolute transition probabilities (A-values or F values) for ultraviolet lines is reported. A radio frequency ion trap was used for measurement of transition probabilities for intersystem lines seen in astronomical spectra. The intersystem line at 2670 A in Al II, which is seen in pre-main sequence stars and symbiotic stars, was studied.

  4. Astronomical spectroscopy an introduction to the atomic and molecular physics of astronomical spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Tennyson, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Nearly all the information we know about the Universe comes from thestudy of light as it reaches us. The understanding of this informationcontained in light requires both telescopes capable of resolving lightinto its different component colors, as well as detailed knowledge ofthe quantum mechanical behavior of atoms and molecules. This uniquebook, which is based on a third-year undergraduate course given by theauthor at University College London, presents the basic atomic andmolecular physics necessary to understand and interpret astronomicalspectra. It explains what information can be extract

  5. Fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled complexes of carbazole and mono-atomic alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled complexes of carbazole and one molecule of methyl, deuterated methyl, ethyl and propyl (propanol-1 and propanol-2) alcohols are analyzed. Shifts of the fluorescence excitation spectra of complexes relative to the frequency of a pure electron transition of unbound carbazole are determined. They are formed owing to the hydrogen bonds of the N-H groups of carbazole with the OH-group of alcohols. The frequencies of stretching vibrations of hydrogen groups with various alcohols vary within the range 150-157 cm-1, whereas for the deformation ones the frequencies fall in the interval 21-22.9 cm-1. The belonging of complexes to rotational conformers is determined through the shape of the rotational contours of bands of their pure electronic and electron-vibration transitions. Equilibrium configurations of complexes in the ground state are calculated (authors)

  6. Treatment of the emission and absorption spectra of a general formalism Λ-type three-level atom driven by a two-mode field with nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical expression of the emission and absorption spectra, for a Λ-type three-level cavity-bound atom interacting with a two-mode cavity field, is given using the dressed states of the system. We take explicitly into account the existence of forms of nonlinearities of both the field and the intensity-dependent atom-field coupling. The characteristics of the emission and absorption spectra for binomial and squeezed coherent states of the modes are exhibited. The effects of the mean number of photons, detuning and the nonlinearity forms on the spectra are analysed

  7. EXPLORING THE TIME DISPERSION OF THE IBEX-HI ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM SPECTRA AT THE ECLIPTIC POLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has observed energetic neutral atom (ENA) hydrogen emissions from the edge of the solar system for more than three years. The observations span energies from 0.01 to 6 keV FWHM. At energies greater than 0.5-6 keV, and for a travel distance of ∼100 AU, the travel time difference between the slowest and the fastest ENA is more than a year. Therefore, we construct spectra including the effect that slower ENAs left the source at an earlier time than faster ones. If the source produces a steady rate of ENAs and the extinction does not vary, then we expect that the spectral shape would be time independent. However, while the extinction of ENAs has been fairly constant during the first two and a half years, the source appears to have changed, and thus the spectra at a single time may not represent the conditions at the source. IBEX's viewing allows continuous sampling of the ecliptic poles where fluxes can be continuously monitored. For a given source distance we construct spectra assuming that the measured ENAs left the source at roughly the same time. To accomplish this construction, we apply time lag corrections to the signal at different ENA energies that take into account the travel time difference. We show that the spectral shape at the poles exhibits a statistically significant change with time.

  8. Fine-structure constant variability surprises for laboratory atomic spectroscopy and cosmological evolution of quasar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bekenstein, J D

    2003-01-01

    Calculation of the Dirac hydrogen atom spectrum in the framework of dynamical fine structure constant (alpha) variability discloses a small departure in the laboratory from Sommerfeld's formula for the fine structure shifts, possibly measurable today. And for a distant object in the universe, the wavelength shift of a spectral line specifically ascribable to cosmological alpha variation is found to depend differently on the quantum numbers than in the conventional view. This last result clashes with the conventional wisdom that an atom's spectrum can change with cosmological time only through evolution of the alpha parameter in the energy eigenvalue formula, and thus impacts on the Webb group's analysis of fine structure intervals in quasar absorption lines (which has been claimed to disclose cosmological alpha evolution). In particular, analyzing together a mix of quasar absorption lines from different fine structure multiplets can bias estimates of cosmological alpha variability.

  9. Application of some Hartree-Fock model calculations to the analysis of atomic and free-ion optical spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for applying ab-initio calculations to the analysis of atomic spectra are investigated, along with the relationship between the semi-empirical and ab-initio forms of Slater-Condon theory. Slater-Condon theory is reviewed with a focus on the essential features that lead to the effective Hamiltonians associated with the semi-empirical form of the theory. Ab-initio spectroscopic parameters are calculated from wavefunctions obtained via self-consistent field methods, while multi-configuration Hamiltonian matrices are constructed and diagonalized with computer codes written by Robert Cowan of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Group theoretical analysis demonstrates that wavefunctions more general than Slater determinants (i.e., wavefunctions with radial correlations between electrons) lead to essentially the same parameterization of effective Hamiltonians. In the spirit of this analysis, a strategy is developed for adjusting ab-initio values of the spectroscopic parameters, reproducing parameters obtained by fitting the corresponding effective Hamiltonian. Secondary parameters are used to screen the calculated (primary) spectroscopic parameters, their values determined by least squares. Extrapolations of the secondary parameters determined from analyzed spectra are attempted to correct calculations of atoms and ions without experimental levels. The adjustment strategy and extrapolations are tested on the K I sequence from K0+ through Fe7+, fitting to experimental levels for V4+, and Cr5+; unobserved levels and spectra are predicted for several members of the sequence. A related problem is also discussed: energy levels of the uranium hexahalide complexes, (UX6)2- for X = F, Cl, Br, and I, are fit to an effective Hamiltonian (the f2 configuration in O/sub h/ symmetry) with corrections proposed by Brian Judd

  10. Research as a guide for curriculum development: An example from introductory spectroscopy. I. Identifying student difficulties with atomic emission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanjek, L.; Shaffer, P. S.; McDermott, L. C.; Planinic, M.; Veza, D.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first of two closely related articles (Paper I and Paper II) that together illustrate how research in physics education has helped guide the design of instruction that has proved effective in improving student understanding of atomic spectroscopy. Most of the more than 1000 students who participated in this four-year investigation were science majors enrolled in the introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, WA, USA. The others included graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants at UW and physics majors in introductory and advanced physics courses at the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. About half of the latter group were preservice high school physics teachers. This article (Paper I) describes how several serious conceptual and reasoning difficulties were identified among students as they tried to relate a discrete line spectrum to the energy levels of atoms in a light source. Paper II illustrates how findings from this research informed the development of a tutorial that led to significant improvement in student understanding of atomic emission spectra.

  11. Research as a guide for curriculum development: An example from introductory spectroscopy. II. Addressing student difficulties with atomic emission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanjek, L.; Shaffer, P. S.; McDermott, L. C.; Planinic, M.; Veza, D.

    2015-02-01

    This is the second of two closely related articles (Paper I and Paper II) that together illustrate how research in physics education has helped guide the design of instruction that has proved effective in improving student understanding of atomic spectroscopy. Most of the more than 1000 students who participated in this four-year investigation were science majors enrolled in the introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, WA, USA. The others included graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants at UW and physics majors in introductory and advanced physics courses at the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. About half of the latter group were preservice high school physics teachers. Paper I describes how several conceptual and reasoning difficulties were identified among university students as they tried to relate a discrete line spectrum to the energy levels of atoms in a light source. This second article (Paper II) illustrates how findings from this research informed the development of a tutorial that led to improvement in student understanding of atomic emission spectra.

  12. Fingerprints of exceptional points in the survival probability of resonances in atomic spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique time signature of the survival probability exactly at the exceptional point parameters is studied here for the hydrogen atom in strong static magnetic and electric fields. We show that indeed the survival probability S(t)=||2 decays exactly as |1-at|2e-ΓEPt/(ℎ/2π), where ΓEP is associated with the decay rate at the exceptional point and a is a complex constant depending solely on the initial wave packet that populates exclusively the two almost degenerate states of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. This may open the possibility for a first experimental detection of exceptional points in a quantum system.

  13. Fingerprints of exceptional points in the survival probability of resonances in atomic spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Cartarius, Holger

    2011-01-01

    The unique time signature of the survival probability exactly at the exceptional point parameters is studied here for the hydrogen atom in strong static magnetic and electric fields. We show that indeed the survival probability S(t)=||^2 decays exactly as |1-a*t|^2 e^(-Gamma_EP*t/hbar) where Gamma_EP is associated with the decay rate at the exceptional point and a is a complex constant depending solely on the initial wave packet that populates exclusively the two almost degenerate states of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. This may open the possibility for a first experimental detection of exceptional points in a quantum system.

  14. Universal Two-Body Spectra of Ultracold Harmonically Trapped Atoms in Two and Three Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We consider the spectrum of two ultracold harmonically trapped atoms interacting via short-range interactions. The Green's function approach is used to unify the two and three dimensional cases. We derive criteria for the universality of the spectrum, i.e. its independence of the details of the...... short-range interaction. The results in three dimensions are examplified for narrow s-wave Feshbach resonances and we show how effective range corrections can modify the rearrangement of the level structure. However, this requires extremely narrow resonances or very tight traps that are not currently...... experimentally available. In the two-dimensional case we discuss the p-wave channel in detail and demonstrate how the non-universality of the spectrum arises within the Green's function approach. We then show that the spectrum is not particularly sensitive to the short-distance details in the case when the two...

  15. FOREWORD: The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchang-Brillet, Wad Lydia; Wyart, Jean-François; Zeippen, Claude

    1996-01-01

    The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas was held in Meudon, France, from August 28 to 31 1995. It was the fifth in a series started by the Atomic Spectroscopic Group at the University of Lund, Sweden, in 1983. Then followed the meetings in Toledo, USA, Amsterdam, The Nether- lands and Gaithersburg, USA, with a three year period. The original title of the series ended with "... for Astrophysics and Fusion Research" and became more general with the 4th colloquium in Gaithersburg. The purpose of the present meeting was, in line with tradition, to bring together "producers" and "users" of atomic data so as to ensure optimal coordination. Atomic physicists who study the structure of atoms and their radiative and collisional properties were invited to explain the development of their work, emphasizing the possibilities of producing precise transition wavelengths and relative line intensities. Astrophysicists and laboratory plasma physicists were invited to review their present research interests and the context in which atomic data are needed. The number of participants was about 70 for the first three meetings, then exploded to 170 at Gaithersburg. About 140 participants, coming from 13 countries, attended the colloquium in Meudon. This large gathering was partly due to a number of participants from Eastern Europe larger than in the past, and it certainly showed a steady interest for interdisciplinary exchanges between different communities of scientists. This volume includes all the invited papers given at the conference and, in the appendix, practical information on access to some databases. All invited speakers presented their talks aiming at good communication between scientists from different backgrounds. A separate bound volume containing extended abstracts of the poster papers has been published by the Publications de l'Observatoire de Paris, (Meudon 1996), under the responsibility of

  16. NLTE analysis of Sr lines in spectra of late-type stars with new R-matrix atomic data

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, M; Bautista, M; Ruchti, G

    2012-01-01

    We investigate statistical equilibrium of neutral and singly-ionized strontium in late-type stellar atmospheres. Particular attention is given to the completeness of the model atom, which includes new energy levels, transition probabilities, photoionization and electron-impact excitation cross-sections computed with the R-matrix method. The NLTE model is applied to the analysis of Sr I and Sr II lines in the spectra of the Sun, Procyon, Arcturus, and HD 122563, showing a significant improvement in the ionization balance compared to LTE line formation calculations, which predict abundance discrepancies of up to 0.5 dex. The solar Sr abundance is log A = 2.93 \\pm 0.04 dex, in agreement with the meteorites. A grid of NLTE abundance corrections for Sr I and Sr II lines covering a large range of stellar parameters is presented.

  17. An atomic orbital based real-time time-dependent density functional theory for computing electronic circular dichroism band spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goings, Joshua J.; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-06-01

    One of the challenges of interpreting electronic circular dichroism (ECD) band spectra is that different states may have different rotatory strength signs, determined by their absolute configuration. If the states are closely spaced and opposite in sign, observed transitions may be washed out by nearby states, unlike absorption spectra where transitions are always positive additive. To accurately compute ECD bands, it is necessary to compute a large number of excited states, which may be prohibitively costly if one uses the linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. Here we implement a real-time, atomic-orbital based TDDFT method for computing the entire ECD spectrum simultaneously. The method is advantageous for large systems with a high density of states. In contrast to previous implementations based on real-space grids, the method is variational, independent of nuclear orientation, and does not rely on pseudopotential approximations, making it suitable for computation of chiroptical properties well into the X-ray regime.

  18. Isotope effects on delayed annihilation time spectra of antiprotonic helium atoms in a low-temperature gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delayed annihilation time spectra (DATS) of antiprotonic helium atoms have been studied in isotopically pure low-temperature 3He and 4He gas at various densities. The DATS taken at 5.8 K and 400 mbar are very similar in shape except for (i) a small difference in the time scale and (ii) the presence of a distinct fast decay component in the case of 3He. The ratio of overall trapping times (mean lifetimes against annihilation), R=Ttrap(4He)/Ttrap(3He), has been determined to be 1.144 ± 0.009, which is in good agreement with a theoretical estimate yielding R=[M*(bar p4He)/ M*(bar p3He)]2=1.14, where M* denotes the reduced mass of the bar pHe2+system. The presence of a short-lived component with a lifetime of 0.154±0.007μs in the case of 3He suggests that the bar p3He+atom has a state of intermediate lifetime on the border between a metastable zone and an Auger-dominated short-lived zone. The fraction of antiprotons trapped in metastable states at 5.8 K and 400 mbar is lower by 22.2(4)% for 3Hethan for 4He. All the data can be fitted fairly well with simple three-level and four-level cascade models. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Isotope effects on delayed annihilation time spectra of antiprotonic helium atoms in a low-temperature gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketzer, B.; Hartmann, F. J.; Daniel, H.; von Egidy, T.; Niestroj, A.; Schmid, S.; Schmid, W.; Yamazaki, T.; Sugai, I.; Nakayoshi, K.; Hayano, R. S.; Maas, F. E.; Torii, H. A.; Ishikawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Morita, N.; Horváth, D.; Eades, J.; Widmann, E.

    1996-04-01

    The delayed annihilation time spectra (DATS) of antiprotonic helium atoms have been studied in isotopically pure low-temperature 3He and 4He gas at various densities. The DATS taken at 5.8 K and 400 mbar are very similar in shape except for (i) a small difference in the time scale and (ii) the presence of a distinct fast decay component in the case of 3He. The ratio of overall trapping times (mean lifetimes against annihilation), R=Ttrap(4He)/Ttrap(3He), has been determined to be 1.144 +/- 0.009, which is in good agreement with a theoretical estimate yielding R=[M*(p¯ 4He)/ M*(p¯ 3He)]2=1.14, where M* denotes the reduced mass of the p¯He2+system. The presence of a short-lived component with a lifetime of 0.154+/-0.007 μs in the case of 3He suggests that the p¯ 3He+atom has a state of intermediate lifetime on the border between a metastable zone and an Auger-dominated short-lived zone. The fraction of antiprotons trapped in metastable states at 5.8 K and 400 mbar is lower by 22.2(4)% for 3than for 4He. All the data can be fitted fairly well with simple three-level and four-level cascade models.

  20. MID-INFRARED ATOMIC FINE-STRUCTURE EMISSION-LINE SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: SPITZER/IRS SPECTRA OF THE GOALS SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the data and our analysis of mid-infrared atomic fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph high-resolution spectra of 202 local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). We readily detect emission lines of [S IV], [Ne II], [Ne V], [Ne III], [S III]18.7μm, [O IV], [Fe II], [S III]33.5μm, and [Si II]. More than 75% of these galaxies are classified as starburst-dominated sources in the mid-infrared, based on the [Ne V]/[Ne II] line flux ratios and equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. We compare ratios of the emission-line fluxes to those predicted from stellar photo-ionization and shock-ionization models to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the gas in the starburst LIRG nuclei. Comparing the [S IV]/[Ne II] and [Ne III]/[Ne II] line ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the emission-line ratios suggest that the nuclear starbursts in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5 Myr, metallicities of 1-2 Z☉, and ionization parameters of 2-8 × 107 cm s–1. Based on the [S III]33.5μm/[S III]18.7μm ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei is typically one to a few hundred cm–3, with a median electron density of ∼300 cm–3, for those sources above the low density limit for these lines. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 starburst-dominated sources of our sample. A significant fraction of the GOALS sources (80) have resolved neon emission-line profiles (FWHM ≥600 km s–1) and five show clear differences in the velocities of the [Ne III] or [Ne V] emission lines, relative to [Ne II], of more than 200 km s–1. Furthermore, six starburst and five active galactic nucleus dominated LIRGs show a clear trend of increasing line width with ionization potential, suggesting the possibility of a compact energy source and stratified interstellar medium in their

  1. Optical to ultraviolet spectra of sandwiches of benzene and transition metal atoms: Time dependent density functional theory and many-body calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Lopez, M. J.; Alonso, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The optical spectra of sandwich clusters formed by transition metal atoms (titanium, vanadium, and chromium) intercalated between parallel benzene molecules have been studied by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and many-body perturbation theory. Sandwiches with different number of...... layers, including infinite chains, are considered. The lowest excitation energy peaks in the spectra are characteristic of the robust bonding in these complexes. The excitation energies vary in a systematic way with the metal atoms and with the cluster size, and so these materials could be used to tune...

  2. Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuz, S. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Colgan, J.; Dance, R. J.; Abdallah, J.; Wagenaars, E.; Booth, N.; Culfa, O.; Evans, R. G.; Gray, R. J.; Kaempfer, T.; Lancaster, K. L.; McKenna, P.; Rossall, A. L.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Schulze, K. S.; Uschmann, I.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2013-09-01

    K-shell spectra of solid Al excited by petawatt picosecond laser pulses have been investigated at the Vulcan PW facility. Laser pulses of ultrahigh contrast with an energy of 160 J on the target allow studies of interactions between the laser field and solid state matter at 1020 W/cm2. Intense X-ray emission of KK hollow atoms (atoms without n = 1 electrons) from thin aluminum foils is observed from optical laser plasma for the first time. Specifically for 1.5 μm thin foil targets the hollow atom yield dominates the resonance line emission. It is suggested that the hollow atoms are predominantly excited by the impact of X-ray photons generated by radiation friction to fast electron currents in solid-density plasma due to Thomson scattering and bremsstrahlung in the transverse plasma fields. Numerical simulations of Al hollow atom spectra using the ATOMIC code confirm that the impact of keV photons dominates the atom ionization. Our estimates demonstrate that solid-density plasma generated by relativistic optical laser pulses provide the source of a polychromatic keV range X-ray field of 1018 W/cm2 intensity, and allows the study of excited matter in the radiation-dominated regime. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of hollow atom radiation is found to be a powerful tool to study the properties of high-energy density plasma created by intense X-ray radiation.

  3. Analysis of the near-resonant fluorescence spectra of a single rubidium atom localized in a three-dimensional optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Wookrae; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Lee, Yea-Lee; Ihm, Jisoon; An, Kyungwon

    2010-01-01

    Supplementary information is presented on the recent work by W. Kim et al. on the matter-wave-tunneling-induced broadening in the near-resonant spectra of a single rubidium atom localized in a three-dimensional optical lattice in a strong Lamb-Dicke regime.

  4. Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2007-01-01

    Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what

  5. Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)

  6. Analysis of x-ray spectra emitted from highly ionized atoms in the vacuum spark and laser-produced high power plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in atomic spectroscopy has greatly been reinforced in the last ten years. This gain of interest is directly related to the developments in different fields of research where hot plasmas are created. These fields include in particular controlled thermonuclear fusion research by means of inertial or magnetic confinement approaches and also the most recent efforts to achieve lasers in the XUV region. The present work is based on the specific contribution of the atomic spectroscopy group at the Hebrew University. The recent development of both theoretical and experimental tools allowed us to progress in the understanding of the highly ionized states of heavy elements. In this work the low-inductance vacuum-spark developed at the Hebrew University was used as the hot plasma source. The spectra were recorded in the 7-300 A range by means of a high-resolution extreme-grazing-incidence spectrometer developed at the Racah Institute by Profs. J.L. Schwob and B.S. Fraenkel. To the extend the spectroscopic studies to higher-Z atoms, the laser-produced plasma facility at Soreq Nuclear Center was used. In this work the spectra of the sixth row elements were recorded in the x-rays by means of a crystal spectrometer. All these experimental systems are briefly described in chapter one. Chapter two deals with the theoretical methods used in the present work for the atomic calculations. Chapter three deals with the spectra of elements of the fifth row emitted from the vacuum-spark in the 30-150 A range. These spectra as experimental data were used in order to test ab-initio computations along the NiI sequence 3d-nl transitions. The results of this work are presented in chapter four. Chapter five is devoted to the measurement and analysis of spectra emitted from the vacuum-spark by rare-earth elements. (author)

  7. Monte Carlo calculation of ion, electron, and photon spectra of xenon atoms in x-ray free-electron laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Son, Sang-Kil; 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.063415

    2013-01-01

    When atoms and molecules are irradiated by an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), they are highly ionized via a sequence of one-photon ionization and relaxation processes. To describe the ionization dynamics during XFEL pulses, a rate equation model has been employed. Even though this model is straightforward for the case of light atoms, it generates a huge number of coupled rate equations for heavy atoms like xenon, which are not trivial to solve directly. Here, we employ the Monte Carlo method to address this problem and we investigate ionization dynamics of xenon atoms induced by XFEL pulses at a photon energy of 4500 eV. Charge state distributions, photo-/Auger electron spectra, and fluorescence spectra are presented for x-ray fluences of up to $10^{13}$ photons/$\\mu$m$^2$. With the photon energy of 4500 eV, xenon atoms can be ionized up to +44 through multiphoton absorption characterized by sequential one-photon single-electron interactions.

  8. Relative yields, mass distributions and energy spectra of cluster ions sputtered from niobium under keV atomic and polyatomic gold ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belykh, S.F. E-mail: serbel@ariel.tashkent.su; Habets, B.; Rasulev, U.Kh.; Samartsev, A.V.; Stroev, L.V.; Veryovkin, I.V

    2000-04-01

    In the present work, the comparative studies of relative yields, mass distributions and kinetic energy spectra of secondary Nb{sub n}{sup +} ions (n=1-16) sputtered from niobium target by atomic and polyatomic Au{sub m}{sup -} projectiles (m=1-3) with the energy E{sub 0}=6-18 keV/atom have been carried out. The strong effect of anomalously high non-additivity of metal sputtering as positive large cluster ions under polyatomic ion bombardment was found. The comparison and discussion of the results obtained for Nb and for Ta are presented.

  9. Determination of time spectra of neutrons and energy spectra of muonic atoms in μCF by Monte-Carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Kalantari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper the cycle of muon catalyzed fusion processes has been simulated using Monte-Carlo methods. This simulation starts when muon enters the D/T mixture and follows the actual trajectories of the muonic atoms among the proceeding collisions, by using their cross sections. For this purpose a computer code has been written by Fortran language. The time dependence of the processes is take into account and the time spectrum of the events in the μCF cycle has been obtained. The time spectrum of neutrons created in fusion and energy spectrum of muonic atoms have been calculated. One can obtain more detailed information such as fusion yield per muon (χ, cycling rate (λc and total sticking coefficient W, for various hydrogen isotopic concentrations, by expending the Monte-Carlo simulation. Results has been compared with some experimental data and the other calculation methods.

  10. Study of X-Ray and $\\gamma$-Ray Spectra from Antiprotonic Atoms at the Slowly Extracted Antiproton Beam of LEAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will study the X-ray spectra of antiprotonic atoms and the $\\gamma$ spectra of residual nuclei after the antiproton absorption. We intend to begin with measurements on selected isotopically pure targets. Strong interaction effects, the antiproton absorption and the atomic cascade are analysed through the measurement of energies, lineshapes, relative and absolute intensities of all observable lines. The experiments are continued to determine st in resolved fine structure levels and in different isotopes of the same element. Coincidence techniques may be applied. All components of the experimental set-up are already existing from previous experiments and we could begin the measurements with any slowly extracted beam of low energy at LEAR.

  11. Molecular structure, natural bond analysis, vibrational and electronic spectra, surface enhanced Raman scattering and Mulliken atomic charges of the normal modes of [Mn(DDTC)2] complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez S, Claudio A; Costa, Anilton C; Mondragón, M A; Ferreira, Glaucio B; Versiane, O; Rangel, J L; Lima, G Müller; Martin, A A

    2016-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental bands have been assigned for the Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman spectra of the bis(diethyldithiocarbamate)Mn(II) complex, [Mn(DDTC)2]. The calculations have been based on the DFT/B3LYP method, second derivative spectra and band deconvolution analysis. The UV-vis experimental spectra were measured in acetonitrile solution, and the calculated electronic spectrum was obtained using the TD/B3LYP method with 6-311G(d, p) basis set for all atoms. Charge transfer bands and those d-d spin forbidden were assigned in the UV-vis spectrum. The natural bond orbital analysis was carried out using the DFT/B3LYP method and the Mn(II) hybridization leading to the planar geometry of the framework was discussed. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was also performed. Mulliken charges of the normal modes were obtained and related to the SERS enhanced bands. PMID:27344520

  12. Mid-Infrared Atomic Fine-Structure Emission Line Spectra of Luminous Infrared Galaxies: Spitzer/IRS Spectra of the GOALS Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Inami, H; Charmandaris, V; Groves, B; Kewley, L; Petric, A; Stierwalt, S; Díaz-Santos, T; Surace, J; Rich, J; Haan, S; Howell, J; Evans, A; Mazzarella, J; Marshall, J; Appleton, P; Lord, S; Spoon, H; Frayer, D; Matsuhara, H; Veilleux, S

    2013-01-01

    We present the data and our analysis of MIR fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/IRS high-res spectra of 202 local LIRGs observed as part of the GOALS project. We detect emission lines of [SIV], [NeII], [NeV], [NeIII], [SIII]18.7, [OIV], [FeII], [SIII]33.5, and [SiII]. Over 75% of our galaxies are classified as starburst (SB) sources in the MIR. We compare ratios of the emission line fluxes to stellar photo- and shock-ionization models to constrain the gas properties in the SB nuclei. Comparing the [SIV]/[NeII] and [NeIII]/[NeII] ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the line ratios suggest that the SB in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5Myr, metallicities of 1-2Z_sun, and ionization parameters of 2-8e7cm/s. Based on the [SIII]/[SIII] ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei has a median electron density of ~300cm-3 for sources above the low density limit. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 SB sources. A significant fraction of the ...

  13. Dependence of spectral shape of bremsstrahlung spectra on atomic number of target materials in the photon energy range of 5-30 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dependence of spectral shape of total bremsstrahlung spectra i.e. the sum of ordinary bremsstrahlung (OB) and polarization bremsstrahlung (PB), on the atomic number (Z) of target materials (Al, Ti, Sn and Pb), produced by continuous beta particles of 90Sr and 204Tl, has been investigated in the photon energy region of 5-30 keV. It has been found that the spectral shape of total bremsstrahlung spectra, in terms of S (k, Z) i.e. the number of photons of energy k per moc2 per beta disintegration, is not linearly dependent on the atomic number (Z) of the target material and rather it is proportional to Zn. At lower photon energies, the index values ‘n’ of Z-dependence are much higher than unity, which is due to the larger contribution of PB into OB. The decrease in ‘n’ values with increase of photon energy is due to the decrease in contribution of PB into OB. It is clear that the index ‘n’ values obtained from the modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe-Heitler theory, which include the contribution PB into OB, are in agreement with the experimentally measured results using X-PIPS Si(Li) detector. Hence the contribution of PB into the formation of a spectral shape of total bremsstrahlung spectra plays a vital role.

  14. Asymptotics-based CI models for atoms:Properties, exact solution of a minimal model for Li to Ne, and application to atomic spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Friesecke, G.; Goddard, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    Configuration-interaction (CI) models are approximations to the electronic Schrödinger equation which are widely used for numerical electronic structure calculations in quantum chemistry. Based on our recent closed-form asymptotic results for the full atomic Schrödinger equation in the limit of fixed electron number and large nuclear charge [SIAM J. Math. Anal., 41 (2009), pp. 631-664], we introduce a class of CI models for atoms which reproduce, at fixed finite model dimension, the correct S...

  15. Phase-modulated electronic wave-packet interferometry reveals high resolution vibronic spectra of free Rb atoms and Rb*He molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Bruder, Lukas; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Phase-modulated wave-packet interferometry is combined with mass-resolved photoion detection to investigate rubidium atoms attached to helium nanodroplets in a molecular beam experiment. The spectra of atomic Rb electronic states show a vastly enhanced sensitivity and spectral resolution when compared to conventional pump-probe wave-packet interferometry. Furthermore, the formation of Rb*He exciplex molecules is probed and for the first time a fully resolved vibrational spectrum for transitions between the lowest excited $5\\Pi_{3/2}$ and the high-lying electronic states $2^2\\Pi$, $4^2\\Delta$, $6^2\\Sigma$ is obtained and compared to theory. The feasibility of applying coherent multidimensional spectroscopy to dilute cold gas phase samples is demonstrated in these experiments.

  16. Interacting He and Ar atoms: Revised theoretical interaction potential, dipole moment, and collision-induced absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupled cluster quantum chemical calculations of the potential energy surface and the induced dipole surface are reported for the He–Ar van der Waals collisional complex. Spectroscopic parameters are derived from global analytical fits while an accurate value for the long-range dipole coefficient D7 is obtained by perturbation methods. Collision-induced absorption spectra are computed quantum mechanically and compared with existing measurements

  17. The phonon spectra and elastic constants of Pd(x)Fe(1-x): an understanding from inter-atomic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Biswanath; Ghosh, Subhradip

    2009-03-01

    Understanding the role of the inter-atomic force constants in lattice dynamics of random binary alloys is a challenging problem. Addressing these inter-atomic interactions accurately is a necessity to obtain an accurate phonon spectrum and to calculate properties from them. Using a combination of ab initio density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) and the itinerant coherent potential approximation (ICPA), an analytic, self-consistent method for performing configuration averaging in random alloys, we model the inter-atomic force constants for Pd(0.96)Fe(0.04) and Pd(0.9)Fe(0.1) alloys based upon the ab initio results and intuitive arguments. The calculated phonon dispersion curves and elastic constants agree very well with the experimental results. Comparison of our results with those obtained in a model potential scheme is also done. The modeling of inter-atomic interactions in random alloys and their roles regarding the phonon-related properties are also discussed in light of these results. PMID:21817397

  18. Independent-electron analysis of the x-ray spectra from single-electron capture in Ne10 + collisions with He, Ne, and Ar atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Anthony C. K.; Kirchner, Tom

    2015-09-01

    We present a theoretical study on the x-ray spectra from single-electron capture in 4.54 keV/amu Ne10 +-He, -Ne, and -Ar collisions. Single-particle capture probabilities were calculated using the two-center basis generator method within the independent electron model. In this framework we investigated the effects of a time-dependent screening potential that models target response on capture cross sections and x-ray spectra. Excellent agreement is shown with the previously measured relative cross sections and x-ray spectra and calculations based on the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method using the no-response single-particle electron capture probabilities in a multinomial single-electron capture analysis. Our results demonstrate the importance of using this consistent statistical analysis of single-electron capture within the independent electron model; a requirement that a previous calculation for the same collision problem using the two-center atomic-orbital close-coupling method may not have considered.

  19. Atomic transition frequencies, isotope shifts, and sensitivity to variation of the fine structure constant for studies of quasar absorption spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Berengut, J C; Flambaum, V V; King, J A; Kozlov, M G; Murphy, M T; Webb, J K

    2010-01-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest spatial and temporal variation of fundamental "constants" in the Universe. A change in the fine structure constant, alpha, could be detected via shifts in the frequencies of atomic transitions in quasar absorption systems. Recent studies using 140 absorption systems from the Keck telescope and 153 from the Very Large Telescope, suggest that alpha varies spatially. That is, in one direction on the sky alpha seems to have been smaller at the time of absorption, while in the opposite direction it seems to have been larger. To continue this study we need accurate laboratory measurements of atomic transition frequencies. The aim of this paper is to provide a compilation of transitions of importance to the search for alpha variation. They are E1 transitions to the ground state in several different atoms and ions, with wavelengths ranging from around 900 - 6000 A, and require an accuracy of better than 10^{-4} A. We discuss isotope shift measurements that are...

  20. Molecular geometry, vibrational spectra, atomic charges, frontier molecular orbital and Fukui function analysis of antiviral drug zidovudine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumaar, G. R.; Srinivasan, S.; Bhoopathy, T. J.; Gunasekaran, S.

    2012-12-01

    The solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of zidovudine (AZT) were recorded in the regions 4000-400 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The optimized geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of zidovudine were obtained by the Restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) density functional theory (DFT) with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The harmonic vibrational frequencies for zidovudine were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with experimental values of FTIR and FT-Raman spectra. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The harmonic vibrational wave numbers and intensities of vibrational bands of zidovudine with its cation and anion were calculated and compared with the neutral AZT. The DFT calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptors such as Fukui functions were calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in AZT.

  1. Auger Spectra and Different Ionic Charges Following 3s, 3p and 3d Sub-Shells Photoionization of Kr Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia A. Lotfy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The decay of inner-shell vacancy in an atom through radiative and non-radiative transitions leads to final charged ions. The de-excitation decay of 3s, 3p and 3d vacancies in Kr atoms are calculated using Monte-Carlo simulation method. The vacancy cascade pathway resulted from the de-excitation decay of deep core hole in 3s subshell in Kr atoms is discussed. The generation of spectator vacancies during the vacancy cascade development gives rise to Auger satellite spectra. The last transitions of the de-excitation decay of 3s, 3p and 3d holes lead to specific charged ions. Dirac-Fock-Slater wave functions are adapted to calculate radiative and non-radiative transition probabilities. The intensity of Kr^{4+} ions are high for 3s hole state, whereas Kr^{3+} and Kr^{2+} ions have highest intensities for 3p and 3d hole states, respectively. The present results of ion charge state distributions agree well with the experimental data.

  2. Atomic Transition Frequencies, Isotope Shifts, and Sensitivity to Variation of the Fine Structure Constant for Studies of Quasar Absorption Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; King, J. A.; Kozlov, M. G.; Murphy, M. T.; Webb, J. K.

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest spatial and temporal variation of fundamental "constants" in the Universe. A change in the fine structure constant, α = {e}2/hslash c , could be detected via shifts in the frequencies of atomic transitions in quasar absorption systems. Recent studies using 140 absorption systems from the Keck telescope and 153 from the Very Large Telescope, suggest that α varies spatially (61). That is, in one direction on the sky α seems to have been smaller at the time of absorption, while in the opposite direction it seems to have been larger.

  3. Search for the effect of massive bodies on atomic spectra and constraints on Yukawa-type interactions of scalar particles

    CERN Document Server

    Leefer, N; Budker, D; Flambaum, V V; Stadnik, Y V

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method to search for hypothetical scalar particles that have feeble interactions with Standard-Model particles. In the presence of massive bodies, these interactions produce a non-zero Yukawa-type scalar-field magnitude. Using radio-frequency spectroscopy data of atomic dysprosium, as well as atomic clock spectroscopy data, we constrain the Yukawa-type interactions of a scalar field with the photon, electron, and nucleons for a range of scalar-particle masses corresponding to length scales $ > 10$ cm. In the limit as the scalar-particle mass $m_\\phi \\to 0$, our derived limits on the Yukawa-type interaction parameters are: $\\Lambda_\\gamma \\gtrsim 8 \\times 10^{19}$ GeV, $\\Lambda_e \\gtrsim 1.3 \\times 10^{19}$ GeV, and $\\Lambda_N \\gtrsim 6 \\times 10^{20}$ GeV. Our measurements also constrain combinations of interaction parameters, which cannot otherwise be probed with traditional anomalous-force measurements. We suggest further measurements to improve on the current level of sensitivity.

  4. Wavelengths, f-Values, and Cross Sections in the UV Spectra of Astrophysical, Atoms, Ions, and Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Data analysis for Fe III was completed in 2004. The new spectra give wavelengths and some energy levels for Fe III that are at least an order of magnitude more accurate than values in the literature. However, the data set is missing - because they are outside the wavelength range that we can study at Imperial College or with ancillary FT spectroscopy measurements at NIST - important transitions that would allow all energy levels to be determined with improved accuracy. We are assessing collaborations at other labs. We have made test runs with a number of cathodes (pure metals and alloys) in the Penning discharge source and selected four iron group (3d) elements, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni, for further measurements. Cathodes of pure Cr and Co and an alloy of Ni were found to be best. Mn has not nm stably yet, and other cathode geometries or alloys may need to be assessed. Optimum Penning discharge (PD) lamp conditions (buffer gas, gas pressure, and current/voltage) were established for Co, and investigations are underway for Cr and Ni. Definitive measurements for Co await purchase of new mirrors and photomultiplier tubes that will improve signal to noise ratio. Our plan for the next year is to continue evaluating cathodes and operating conditions through March 05, and then to begin definitive measurements. The UV wavelength measurements made at Imperial College with the unique UV FT spectrometer will be complemented by visible and near IR range measurements at NIST in June and/or July. Approximately one year from now, we intend to visit Lund University to collaborate on lifetime measurements that will allow our branching ration data to be used to determine f-values.

  5. Mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff) and measurement of x-ray energy spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In dentistry, alveolar bone regeneration procedures using based calcium phosphate biomaterials have been shown effective. However,there are not reports in the literature of studies the interaction of low energy radiation in these biomaterials used as attenuator and not being then allowed a comparison between the theoretical values and experimental.The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of radiation parameters of four dental biomaterials - BioOss, Cerasorb M Dental, Straumann Boneceramic and Osteogen for diagnostic radiology qualities. As a material and methods, the composition of the biomaterials was determined by the analytical techniques. The samples with 0.181 cm to 0,297 cm thickness were experimentally used as attenuators for the measurement of the transmitted X-rays spectra in X-ray equipment with 50 to 90 kV range by spectrometric system comprising the Cd Te detector. After this procedure, the mass attenuation coefficient, the effective atomic number were determined and compared between all the specimens analyzed, using the program WinXCOM in the range of 10 to 200 keV. In all strains examined observed that the energy spectrum of x-rays transmitted through the BioOss has the mean energy slightly smaller than the others biomaterials for close thickness. The μ/ρ and Zeff of the biomaterials showed its dependence on photon energy and atomic number of the elements of the material analyzed. It is concluded according to the methodology employed in this study that the measurements of x-ray spectrum, μ/ρ and Zeff using biomaterials as attenuators confirmed that the thickness, density, composition of the samples, the incident photon energy are factors that determine the characteristics of radiation in a tissue or equivalent material. (Author)

  6. Atomic-scale microstructures, Raman spectra and dielectric properties of cubic pyrochlore-typed Bi1.5MgNb1.5O7 dielectric ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yangyang

    2014-07-01

    Single-phase cubic pyrochlore-typed Bi1.5MgNb 1.5O7 (BMN) dielectric ceramics were synthesized at temperatures of 1050-1200 °C by solid-state reaction method. Their atomic-scale microstructures and dielectric properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the BMN ceramics had an average cubic pyrochlore structure, whereas the Raman spectra indicated that they had an essentially cubic symmetry with small local deviations at the A and O\\' sites of the cubic pyrochlore structure. This was confirmed by selected electron area diffraction (SAED) patterns, where the reflections of {442} (not allowed in the cubic pyrochlore with Fd3̄m symmetry) were clearly observed. SEM and TEM images revealed that the average grain size was increased with the sintering temperature, and an un-homogeneous grain growth was observed at high temperatures. HRTEM images and SAED patterns revealed the single-crystalline nature of the BMN ceramic grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental mapping studies indicated that the compositional distributions of Bi, Mg, Nb and O elements in the ceramic grains were homogenous, and no elemental precipitation was observed at the grain boundary. Quantitative EDS data on ceramic grains revealed the expected cationic stoichiometry based on the initial composition of Bi1.5MgNb1.5O7. Dielectric constants of all the BMN samples exhibited almost frequency independent characteristic in the frequency range of 102-106 Hz, and the highest value was 195 for the BMN ceramics sintered at sintered at 1150 °C with the highest bulk density. The dielectric losses were stable and less than 0.002 in the frequency range of 102-105 Hz. The high dielectric constants of the present BMN samples can be ascribed to the local atomic deviations at the A and O\\' sites from the ideal atomic positions of the pyrochlore structure, which affect the different polarization mechanisms in the BMN ceramics, and which in turn enhance the dielectric

  7. Spectra of atoms and molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Bernath, Peter F

    2005-01-01

    1. Introduction. 1.1. Waves, Particles, and Units. 1.2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum. 1.3. Interaction of Radiation with Matter. 1.3a. Blackbody Radiation. 1.3b. Einstein A and B Coefficients. 1.3c. Absorption and Emission of Radiation. 1.3d. Beer''s Law. 1.3e. Lineshape Functions. 1.3f. Natural Lifetime Broadening. 1.3g. Pressure Broadening. 1.3h. Doppler Broadening. 1.3i. Transit-Time Broadening. 1.3j. Power Broadening. 2. Molecular Symmetry. 2.1. Symmetry Operations. 2.1a. Operator Algebra. 2.1b. Symmetry Operator Algebra. 2.2. Groups. 2.2a. Point Groups. 2.2b. Classes. 2.2c. Subgroups. 2.3. Notation for Point Groups. 3. Matrix Representation of Groups. 3.1. Vectors and Matrices. 3.1a. Matrix Eigenvalue Problem. 3.1b. Similarity Transformations. 3.2. Symmetry Operations and Position Vectors. 3.2a. Reflection. 3.2b. Rotation. 3.2c. Rotation-Reflection. 3.2d. Inversion. 3.2e. Identity. 3.3. Symmetry Operators and Basic Vectors. 3.4. Symmetry Operators and Basic Functions. 3.4a. Function Spaces. 3.4b. Gram-Sc...

  8. The Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Excess Peripheral H Atoms (H(sub n)-PAHs) and their Relation to the 3.4 and 6.9 Micrometer PAH Emission Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Materese, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    A population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related materials are thought to be responsible for the family of infrared emission features that are seen towards a wide variety of astrophysical environments. A potentially important subclass of these materials are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons whose edges contain excess H atoms (H(sub n)-PAHs). While it has been suggested that this type of compound may be present in the interstellar population, it has been difficult to properly assess this possibility because of a lack of suitable infrared laboratory spectra to assist with analysis of the astronomical data. We present the 4000-500 cm(exp -1) (2.5-20 micrometers) infrared spectra of 23 H(sub n)-PAHs and related molecules isolated in argon matrices, under conditions suitable for use in the interpretation of astronomical data. The spectra of molecules with mixed aromatic and aliphatic domains show unique characteristics that distinguish them from their fully aromatic PAH equivalents. We discuss the changes to the spectra of these types of molecules as they transition from fully aromatic to fully aliphatic forms. The implications for the interpretation of astronomical spectra are discussed with specific emphasis on the 3.4 and 6.9 micrometer features. Laboratory data is compared with emission spectra from IRAS 21282+5050, an object with normal PAH emission features, in addition to IRAS 22272+5435 and IRAS 0496+3429, two protoplanetary nebulae with abnormally large 3.4 micrometer features. We show that 'normal' PAH emission objects contain relatively few H(sub n)-PAHs in their emitter populations, but less evolved protoplanetary nebulae may contain significant abundances of these molecules.

  9. Limits on the temporal variation of the fine structure constant, quark masses and strong interaction from quasar absorption spectra and atomic clock experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Flambaum, V V; Thomas, A W; Young, R D

    2004-01-01

    We perform calculations of the dependence of nuclear magnetic moments on quark masses and obtain limits on the variation of $(m_q/\\Lambda_{QCD})$ from recent measurements of hydrogen hyperfine (21 cm) and molecular rotational transitions in quasar absorption systems, atomic clock experiments with hyperfine transitions in H, Rb, Cs, Yb$^+$, Hg$^+$ and optical transition in Hg$^+$. Experiments with Cd$^+$, deuterium/hydrogen, molecular SF$_6$ and Zeeman transitions in $^3$He/Xe are also discussed.

  10. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  11. Lattice vibration modes in type-II superlattice InAs/GaSb with no-common-atom interface and overlapping vibration spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Henan; Yue, Naili; Zhang, Yong; Qiao, Pengfei; Zuo, Daniel; Kesler, Ben; Chuang, Shun Lien; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Justice, James D.; Dupuis, Russell

    2015-06-01

    Heterostructures like InAs /GaSb superlattices (SLs) are distinctly different from well-studied ones like GaAs /AlAs SLs in terms of band alignment, common interface atom, and phonon spectrum overlapping of the constituents, which manifests as stark differences in their electronic and vibrational properties. This paper reports a comprehensive examination of all four types of phonon modes (confined, quasiconfined, extended, and interface) that have long been predicted for the InAs /GaSb SL, with the observation and interpretation of a set of phonon modes by performing cleaved edge μ -Raman study with polarization analysis. Furthermore, we show a signature of symmetry reduction from D2 d for GaAs /AlAs SL to C2 v for InAs/GaSb SL revealed as a phonon-polariton effect.

  12. Influence of inelastic collisions with hydrogen atoms on the formation of AlI and SiI lines in stellar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashonkina, L. I.; Belyaev, A. K.; Shi, J.-R.

    2016-06-01

    We have performed calculations by abandoning the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (within the so-called non-LTE approach) for Al I and Si I with model atmospheres corresponding to stars of spectral types F-G-Kwith differentmetal abundances. To take into account inelastic collisions with hydrogen atoms, for the first time we have applied the cross sections calculated by Belyaev et al. using model approaches within the formalism of the Born-Oppenheimer quantum theory. We show that for Al I non-LTE leads to higher ionization (overionization) than in LTE in the spectral line formation region and to a weakening of spectral lines, which is consistent with earlier non-LTE studies. However, our results, especially for the subordinate lines, differ quantitatively from the results of predecessors. Owing to their large cross sections, the ion-pair production and mutual neutralization processes Al I( nl) + HI(1 s) ↔ Al II(3 s 2) + H- provide a close coupling of highly excited Al I levels with the Al II ground state, which causes the deviations from the equilibrium level population to decrease compared to the calculations where the collisions only with electrons are taken into account. For three moderately metal-deficient dwarf stars, the aluminum abundance has been determined from seven Al I lines in different models of their formation. Under the assumption of LTE and in non-LTE calculations including the collisions only with electrons, the Al I 3961 ˚A resonance line gives a systematically lower abundance than the mean abundance from the subordinate lines, by 0.25-0.45 dex. The difference for each star is removed by taking into account the collisions with hydrogen atoms, and the rms error of the abundance derived from all seven Al I lines decreases by a factor of 1.5-3 compared to the LTE analysis. We have calculated the non- LTE corrections to the abundance for six subordinate Al I lines as a function of the effective temperature (4500 K ≤ T eff ≤ 6500 K

  13. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  14. Atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2C=CH2: OH radicals, Cl atoms and O3 rate coefficients, oxidation end-products and IR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Spitieri, Christina S; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Lendar, Maria; Daële, Véronique; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2015-10-14

    The rate coefficients for the gas phase reactions of OH radicals, k1, Cl atoms, k2, and O3, k3, with 3,3,3-trifluoro-2(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene ((CF3)2C=CH2, hexafluoroisobutylene, HFIB) were determined at room temperature and atmospheric pressure employing the relative rate method and using two atmospheric simulation chambers and a static photochemical reactor. OH and Cl rate coefficients obtained by both techniques were indistinguishable, within experimental precision, and the average values were k1 = (7.82 ± 0.55) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k2 = (3.45 ± 0.24) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. The quoted uncertainties are at 95% level of confidence and include the estimated systematic uncertainties. An upper limit for the O3 rate coefficient was determined to be k3 global warming potential (GWP) calculations, radiative efficiency (RE) was determined from the measured IR absorption cross-sections and treating HFIB both as long (LLC) and short (SLC) lived compounds, including estimated lifetime dependent factors in the SLC case. The HFIB lifetime was estimated from kinetic measurements considering merely the OH reaction, τOH = 14.8 days and including both OH and Cl chemistry, τeff = 10.3 days. Therefore, GWP(HFIB,OH) and GWP(HFIB,eff) were estimated to be 4.1 (LLC) and 0.6 (SLC), as well as 2.8 (LLC) and 0.3 (SLC) for a hundred year time horizon. Moreover, the estimated photochemical ozone creation potential (ε(POCP)) of HFIB was calculated to be 4.60. Finally, HCHO and (CF3)2C(O) were identified as final oxidation products in both OH- and Cl-initiated oxidation, while HC(O)Cl was additionally observed in the Cl-initiated oxidation. PMID:26372403

  15. FTIR spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machovič, Vladimír; Novák, František; Madronová, L.; Novák, J.

    New York : Nova Science Publisher, 2011 - (Madronová, L.), s. 21-33 ISBN 978-1-61668-965-0. - ( Chemistry Research and Applications) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : FTIR spectra * humic acids * soil Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) and measurement of x-ray energy spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Z, M. A.; Da Silva, T. A.; Nogueira, M. S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Goncalves Z, E., E-mail: madelon@cdtn.br [Pontifice Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Av. Dom Jose Gaspar 500, Belo Horizonte 30535-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    In dentistry, alveolar bone regeneration procedures using based calcium phosphate biomaterials have been shown effective. However,there are not reports in the literature of studies the interaction of low energy radiation in these biomaterials used as attenuator and not being then allowed a comparison between the theoretical values and experimental.The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of radiation parameters of four dental biomaterials - BioOss, Cerasorb M Dental, Straumann Boneceramic and Osteogen for diagnostic radiology qualities. As a material and methods, the composition of the biomaterials was determined by the analytical techniques. The samples with 0.181 cm to 0,297 cm thickness were experimentally used as attenuators for the measurement of the transmitted X-rays spectra in X-ray equipment with 50 to 90 kV range by spectrometric system comprising the Cd Te detector. After this procedure, the mass attenuation coefficient, the effective atomic number were determined and compared between all the specimens analyzed, using the program WinXCOM in the range of 10 to 200 keV. In all strains examined observed that the energy spectrum of x-rays transmitted through the BioOss has the mean energy slightly smaller than the others biomaterials for close thickness. The μ/ρ and Z{sub eff} of the biomaterials showed its dependence on photon energy and atomic number of the elements of the material analyzed. It is concluded according to the methodology employed in this study that the measurements of x-ray spectrum, μ/ρ and Z{sub eff} using biomaterials as attenuators confirmed that the thickness, density, composition of the samples, the incident photon energy are factors that determine the characteristics of radiation in a tissue or equivalent material. (Author)

  17. Collisional and radiative processes in atomic spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure broadening measurements of the 6s6p3P1-6s21S0 intercombination line of the rare earth element ytterbium perturbed by the noble gases helium, neon, argon and krypton were made within the impact region using a single frequency scanning dye laser. The fluorescence was measured directly from the transition and the broadening measurements have given cross sections of 87.31 ± 0.44, 95.63 ± 0.89, 190.5 ± 2.3 and 269 ± 1.8 x 10-20m2 and C6 coefficients of 4.389 ± 0.059, 2.638 ± 0.065, 10.93 ± 0.35 and 20.34 ± 0.36 x 10-78Jm6 for each perturber respectively. These measurements are discussed in the context of published values for other 3P1-1S0 rare gas broadened transitions. The van der Waals interaction law was found to be only applicable for the argon and krypton perturbers. (author)

  18. Studies of collisional effects in atomic spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broadening and shift due to collisions with helium and argon of the neutral calcium line lambda4227A and the Ca+ resonance lines lambda3968 and 3933A (the solar H-and K-lines) has been measured together with the broadening due to collisions with helium and argon of the associated lines lambda8542 and 8662A. The very nearly equal broadenings of the H-and K-Lines and the corresponding infrared lines indicate that the broadening in both multiplets is essentially determined by the common upper configuration. (author)

  19. Multiphoton ionization of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of high intensity effects which result from multiphoton ionization of atoms in a high laser intensity, ranging from 1010 to 1015 W cm-2. Resonant multiphoton ionization of atoms, the production of multiply charged ions, and electron energy spectra, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Nuclear effects in atomic transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Pálffy, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This work reviews theoretical and experimental aspects of the nuclear effects that can be identified in atomic structure data. An introduction to the theory of isotope shifts and hyperfine splitting of atomic spectra is given, together with an overview of the typical experimental techniques used in high-precision atomic spectroscopy. More exotic effects at the borderline between atomic and nuclear physics, such as parity violation in atomic transitions due to the weak interaction, or nuclear polarization and nuclear excitation by electron capture, are also addressed.

  1. Phonon spectra in quantum wires

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić Dušan; Raković Dejan; Šetrajčić Jovan

    2007-01-01

    Green's function method, adjusted to bound crystalline structures, was applied to obtain the phonon dispersion law in quantum wires. The condition of the existence of small mechanical atom movements defining phonon spectra can be found by solving the secular equation. This problem was presented graphically for different boundary parameters. The presence of boundaries, as well as the change of boundary parameters, leads to the appearance of new properties of the layered structure. The most imp...

  2. Atomic Data: Division B / Commission 14 / Working Group Atomic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Nave, Gillian; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes laboratory measurements of atomic wavelengths, energy levels, hyperfine and isotope structure, energy level lifetimes, and oscillator strengths. Theoretical calculations of lifetimes and oscillator strengths are also included. The bibliography is limited to species of astrophysical interest. Compilations of atomic data and internet databases are also included. Papers are listed in the bibliography in alphabetical order, with a reference number in the text. Comprehensive lists of references for atomic spectra can be found in the NIST Atomic Spectra Bibliographic Databases http://physics.nist.gov/asbib.

  3. Atomic Bremsstrahlung in ion-atom collisions (stripping)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Bremsstrahlung produced in high energy (non relativistic) ion-atom collisions including retardation effects is studied. Mechanical states of the system are described by the symmetrical eikonal approximation and Hartree-Fock electronic wave functions for the calculation of the shape factor of each atom. Photon energy spectra are presented for collisions of protons against noble gases, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe. The contribution of each atomic shell to these spectra is studied, where lowest shell (1s) corresponds to the hard X-ray region and the higher shells correspond to lower photon energies. (Author)

  4. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  5. Tip induced doping effects in local tunnel spectra of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Shyam K.; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2010-01-01

    We report on tip induced doping in local tunnel spectra of single layer graphene (SLG) with tunable back-gate using room temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S). The SLG samples, prepared on silicon dioxide surface by exfoliation method and verified by Raman spectra, show atomically resolved honeycomb lattice. Local tunnel spectra show two minima with a clear evolution in the position of both with doping by the back gate. A similar variation in spectra is also obser...

  6. Antiprotonic-hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies of antiprotonic-hydrogen atoms have recently made great progress following the commissioning of the low energy antiproton facility (LEAR) at CERN in 1983. At the same time our understanding of the atomic cascade has increased considerably through measurements of the X-ray spectra. The life history of the p-bar-p atom is considered in some detail, from the initial capture of the antiproton when stopping in hydrogen, through the atomic cascade with the emission of X-rays, to the final antiproton annihilation and production of mesons. The experiments carried out at LEAR are described and the results compared with atomic cascade calculations and predictions of strong interaction effects. (author)

  7. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  8. Phonon spectra in quantum wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Green's function method, adjusted to bound crystalline structures, was applied to obtain the phonon dispersion law in quantum wires. The condition of the existence of small mechanical atom movements defining phonon spectra can be found by solving the secular equation. This problem was presented graphically for different boundary parameters. The presence of boundaries, as well as the change of boundary parameters, leads to the appearance of new properties of the layered structure. The most important feature is that, beside the allowed energy zones (which are continuous as in the bulk structure, zones of forbidden states appear. Different values of the boundary parameters lead to the appearance of lower and upper energy gaps, or dispersion branches spreading out of the bulk energy zone. The spectra of phonons in corresponding unbound structures were correlated to those in bound structures.

  9. Observation and analysis of X-ray spectra of highly-ionized atoms produced by laser irradiation in the wavelength range 0.60 nm to 0.95 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra of highly-charged ions produced by laser irradiation on flat targets at about 5 x 1014 Wcm-2 are recorded in the range from 0.60 nm to 0.95 nm (6 A to 9.5 A) by means of two spectrographs (a flat ADP crystal and a Johann SiO2 crystal spectrograph). The identification of the lines is supported by calculations of energies and transition probabilities in the relativistic parametric potential model. New identifications in several spectra of iron (Fe XXIII to Fe XXI), sodium-like strontium, Sr XXVIII, magnesium-like indium. In XXXVIII, and cobalt-like samarium, Sm XXXVI, are given. In the case of Fe XXIII, relativistic and non-relativistic (Cowan) ab initio calculations are compared. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear effects in atomic transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Pálffy, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This work reviews theoretical and experimental aspects of the nuclear effects ...

  11. Satellite spectra of heliumlike nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra of heliumlike nickel, NiXXVII, have been observed from Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasmas with a high resolution crystal spectrometer. The experimental arrangement permits simultaneous observation of the heliumlike resonance line, the intercombination and forbidden lines, and all the associated satellites due to transitions 1s2nl - 1s2l'nl'' with N ≥ 2. Relative wavelengths and line intensities can thus be determined very accurately. The observed spectral data are in good agreement with results from the present Hartree-Fock-Slater atomic model calculations and predictions from the Z-expansion method

  12. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  13. Asymmetric nitrogen. Communication 50. Nature of the effect of substituents attached to the C atom on the reactivities of diaziridines; synthesis and photoelectronic spectra of functionally substituted 1,n-diazabicyclo[m.1.0]alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy of the highest occupied MO and, consequently, the nucleophilic reactivities of diaziridines are determined primarily by the inductive effect of the substituent attached to the C atom. The possibility of the synthesis of 5-substituted 1,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanes by epimination of the corresponding Δ1-pyrrolines is limited by the type of substituent in the 2 position in the latter: bulky and π-donor substituents hinder the formation of a diaziridine ring, whereas the strongly electronegative CN group promotes facile rearrangement of the intermediately formed diaziridine to the corresponding hydrazone

  14. A New Theoretical Study of Quantum Atomic Energy Spectra for Lowest Excited States of Central (PIHOIQ Potential in Noncommutative Spaces and Phases Symmetries at Plan’s and Nanoscales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmadjid Maireche

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, we consider full phase-space noncommutativity in the Schrödinger equation (SE, we apply Boopp’s shift method and standard perturbation theory to the modified (SE in order to obtain exactly new modified energy eigenvalues in noncommutative two dimensional real space-phase NC-2D: RSP for prolonged isotropic Harmonic oscillator plus inverse quadratic potential (PCIHOIQ potential (central singular even-power potential (CSEP potential with novel two parts and , it is observed that the new energy dependent with new atomic quantum numbers, we have also constructed the corresponding modified anisotropic Hamiltonian operator.

  15. Atom Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Folman, R; Cassettari, D; Hessmo, B; Maier, T; Schmiedmayer, J; Folman, Ron; Krüger, Peter; Cassettari, Donatella; Hessmo, Björn; Maier, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

  16. On the interpretation of tungsten emission spectra in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic spectra emitted by fusion plasmas are generally contaminated by ions originating from plasma erosion of material walls. These ions may be present in several charge states and the radiation they emit falls in the x-ray to vacuum ultraviolet regions, making them atomic fingerprints used as a diagnostic tool. This work reports on recent achievements on the interpretation of specific tungsten spectra from the Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment (ASDEX) Upgrade tokamak and the Large Helical Device (LHD) stellarator. (paper)

  17. Charge-state-specific EUV spectra of Xe ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge state specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the xenon ions and rare gas target atoms. Atomic structure calculations were performed for Xe 16+ − Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock with Configuration Interaction code of Cowan and showed that the spectra arise from 4p-4d and 4d-4f transitions. In addition it was necessary to allow for selective capture processes that occur in these slow collisions. The energies of the capture states involved in the single electron process are estimated using the classical over barrier model.

  18. Atomic energy

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Interviews following the 1991 co-operation Agreement between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning the participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project (LHC) . With Chidambaram, R, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and Professor Llewellyn-Smith, Christopher H, Director-General, CERN.

  19. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  20. Action spectra again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  1. Atomic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  2. Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  3. Atomic polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed

  4. Atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We will first present a development of the fundamental principles of atom interferometers. Next we will discuss a few of the various methods now available to split and recombine atomic De Broglie waves, with special emphasis on atom interferometers based on optical pulses. We will also be particularly concerned with high precision interferometers with long measurement times such those made with atomic fountains. The application of atom interferometry to the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity will be detailed. We will also develop the atom interferometry based on adiabatic transfer and we will apply it to the measurement of the photon recoil in the case of the Doppler shift of an atomic resonance caused by the momentum recoil from an absorbed photon. Finally the outlook of future developments will be given. (A.C.)

  5. Spectra for commutative algebraists

    OpenAIRE

    Greenlees, J. P. C.

    2006-01-01

    The article is designed to explain to commutative algebraists what spectra (in the sense of algebraic topology) are, why they were originally defined, and how they can be useful for commutative algebra.

  6. Unconventional scanning tunneling conductance spectra for graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, K.; Paul, I.; Sengupta, K.

    2009-01-01

    We compute the tunneling conductance of graphene as measured by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with a normal/superconducting tip. We demonstrate that for undoped graphene with zero Fermi energy, the first derivative of the tunneling conductance with respect to the applied voltage is proportional to the density of states of the STM tip. We also show that the shape of the STM spectra for graphene doped with impurities depends qualitatively on the position of the impurity atom in the grap...

  7. Cassini UVIS observations of Titan nightglow spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Ajello, Joseph M.; West, Robert A.; Gustin, Jacques; Larsen, Kristopher; Stewart, A. Ian F.; Esposito, Larry W.; Mcclintock, William E.; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; Bradley, E. Todd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the first nightside EUV and FUV airglow limb spectra of Titan showing molecular emissions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed photon emissions of Titan's day and night limb-airglow and disk-airglow on multiple occasions, including during an eclipse observation. The 71 airglow observations analyzed in this paper show EUV (600-1150 Å) and FUV (1150-1900 Å) atomic multiplet lines and band emissions arising from either photoelectron induced fluor...

  8. Monte Carlo modeling of liquid scinttilation spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Ondřej; Šídlová, V.; Světlík, Ivo; Tomášková, Lenka

    Praha : ČVUT v Praze, 2007, s. 90-93. ISBN 978-80-01-03901-4. [Dny radiační ochrany /29./. Kouty nad Desnou, Hrubý Jeseník (CZ), 05.11.2007-09.11.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Monte Carlo modelling * liquid scintillation spectra * energy deposition Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  9. Optical Multidimensional Spectroscopy of Atomic Vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siemens Mark E.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical single- and double-quantum three-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra are obtained for atomic vapors. We show that three-dimensional spectra can be used to identify the Hamiltonian of complex systems and to reveal the nature of many-body interactions.

  10. Chaotic spectra: How to extract dynamic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear dynamics is applied to chaotic unassignable atomic and molecular spectra with the aim of extracting detailed information about regular dynamic motions that exist over short intervals of time. It is shown how this motion can be extracted from high resolution spectra by doing low resolution studies or by Fourier transforming limited regions of the spectrum. These motions mimic those of periodic orbits (PO) and are inserts into the dominant chaotic motion. Considering these inserts and the PO as a dynamically decoupled region of space, resonant scattering theory and stabilization methods enable us to compute ladders of resonant states which interact with the chaotic quasi-continuum computed in principle from basis sets placed off the PO. The interaction of the resonances with the quasicontinuum explains the low resolution spectra seen in such experiments. It also allows one to associate low resolution features with a particular PO. The motion on the PO thereby supplies the molecular movements whose quantization causes the low resolution spectra. Characteristic properties of the periodic orbit based resonances are discussed. The method is illustrated on the photoabsorption spectrum of the hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field and on the photodissociation spectrum of H3+. Other molecular systems which are currently under investigation using this formalism are also mentioned. 53 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Chaotic spectra: How to extract dynamic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, H.S.; Gomez Llorente, J.M.; Zakrzewski, J.; Kulander, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    Nonlinear dynamics is applied to chaotic unassignable atomic and molecular spectra with the aim of extracting detailed information about regular dynamic motions that exist over short intervals of time. It is shown how this motion can be extracted from high resolution spectra by doing low resolution studies or by Fourier transforming limited regions of the spectrum. These motions mimic those of periodic orbits (PO) and are inserts into the dominant chaotic motion. Considering these inserts and the PO as a dynamically decoupled region of space, resonant scattering theory and stabilization methods enable us to compute ladders of resonant states which interact with the chaotic quasi-continuum computed in principle from basis sets placed off the PO. The interaction of the resonances with the quasicontinuum explains the low resolution spectra seen in such experiments. It also allows one to associate low resolution features with a particular PO. The motion on the PO thereby supplies the molecular movements whose quantization causes the low resolution spectra. Characteristic properties of the periodic orbit based resonances are discussed. The method is illustrated on the photoabsorption spectrum of the hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field and on the photodissociation spectrum of H/sub 3//sup +/. Other molecular systems which are currently under investigation using this formalism are also mentioned. 53 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Schroedinger atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of an electrodynamical interpretation suggested by Schroedinger for the wave function are discribed. According to this conception electron charges are continuously distributed all over the volume of an atomic system. The proof is given that classical electrodynamics keeps its action inside atom. Schroedinger's atom has been shown to be the only model in which electrones do not lose their energy for emission when they move around nucleus. A significance of the distributed electron charge self-field is estimated. Practical applications of this conception have been noted including the new trend in quantum electrodynamics. Experimental and theoretical corroborations of the atom model with a continuous electron charge are adduced

  13. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in atomic physics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: experiments on stored ions; test for parity violation in neutral weak currents; energy conservation and astrophysics; atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic and molecular detectors; theoretical studies of quantum electrodynamics and high-z ions; atomic beam magnetic resonance; radiative decay from the 23Po,2 levels of helium-like argon; quenching of the metastable 2S/sub 1/2/ state of hydrogen-like argon in an external electric field; and lifetime of the 23Po level of helium-like krypton

  14. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    1989-01-01

    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  15. Cleaning HI Spectra Contaminated by GPS RFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Kamin; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NUDET systems aboard GPS satellites utilize radio waves to communicate information regarding surface nuclear events. The system tests appear in spectra as RFI (radio frequency interference) at 1381MHz, which contaminates observations of extragalactic HI (atomic hydrogen) signals at 50-150 Mpc. Test durations last roughly 20-120 seconds and can occur upwards of 30 times during a single night of observing. The disruption essentially renders the corresponding HI spectra useless.We present a method that automatically removes RFI in HI spectra caused by these tests. By capitalizing on the GPS system's short test durations and predictable frequency appearance we are able to devise a method of identifying times containing compromised data records. By reevaluating the remaining data, we are able to recover clean spectra while sacrificing little in terms of sensitivity to extragalactic signals. This method has been tested on 500+ spectra taken by the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT), in which it successfully identified and removed all sources of GPS RFI. It will also be used to eliminate RFI in the upcoming Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS).This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  16. Function spectra and continuous G-spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Let G be a profinite group, {X_alpha}_alpha a cofiltered diagram of discrete G-spectra, and Z a spectrum with trivial G-action. We show how to define the homotopy fixed point spectrum F(Z, holim_alpha X_alpha)^{hG} and that when G has finite virtual cohomological dimension (vcd), it is equivalent to F(Z, holim_alpha (X_alpha)^{hG}). With these tools, we show that the K(n)-local Spanier-Whitehead dual is always a homotopy fixed point spectrum, a well-known Adams-type spectral sequence is actually a descent spectral sequence, and, for a sufficiently nice k-local profinite G-Galois extension E, with K a closed normal subgroup of G, the equivalence (E^{h_kK})^{h_kG/K} \\simeq E^{h_kG} (due to Behrens and the author), where (-)^{h_k(-)} denotes k-local homotopy fixed points, can be upgraded to an equivalence that just uses ordinary (non-local) homotopy fixed points, when G/K has finite vcd.

  17. Configuration interaction in charge exchange spectra of tin and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge-state-specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from both tin ions and xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The electron cyclotron resonance source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the ions and rare gas target atoms. To identify unknown spectral lines of tin and xenon, atomic structure calculations were performed for Sn14+-Sn17+ and Xe16+-Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction code of Cowan (1981 The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)). The energies of the capture states involved in the single-electron process that occurs in these slow collisions were estimated using the classical over-barrier model.

  18. Heisenberg lecture: Supersymmetry in the spectra of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talk given at the Symposium: 'Werner Heisenberg und die Wissenschaft, das Denken und die Kunst', Alexander von Humboldt Club, Bucharest, October 16 - 17, 2001, Goethe-Institut, Bucharest, Romania. This Symposium of the Humboldt Club in Bucharest was dedicated to the work of Werner Heisenberg. With the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of his birthday the aim was to recall the impact of Heisenberg's work not only on physics and related fields but also on philosophy and on our present understanding of science. Werner Heisenberg discovered and formulated the laws of quantum physics, the concepts and the tools one uses at present. These discoveries resulted from his ambitious goal to reveal the fundamental laws of physics and to understand these laws within the logical and structural aspects they imply for the understanding of nature and of thinking. In this way he was aware of the potential of this fundamental new approach and applied the concept of quantum phenomena to physics, chemistry, biology, and to logical-philosophical questions. Being invited here as first speaker of this Symposium the author considered as appropriate, first to recall a few dates out of his vita and essentials of his work, and then to address to a timely subject, which is, hopefully, related to the work of Werner Heisenberg. (author)

  19. Detailed computation of hot-plasma atomic spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Jean-Christophe; Blenski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We present recent evolutions of the detailed opacity code SCO-RCG which combines statistical modelings of levels and lines with fine-structure calculations. The code now includes the Partially-Resolved-Transition-Array model, which allows one to replace a complex transition array by a small-scale detailed calculation preserving energy and variance of the genuine transition array and yielding improved high-order moments. An approximate method for studying the impact of strong magnetic field on opacity and emissivity was also recently implemented. The Zeeman line profile is modeled by fourth-order Gram-Charlier expansion series, which is a Gaussian multiplied by a linear combination of Hermite polynomials. Electron collisional line broadening is often modeled by a Lorentzian function and one has to calculate the convolution of a Lorentzian with Gram-Charlier distribution for a huge number of spectral lines. Since the numerical cost of the direct convolution would be prohibitive, we propose, in order to obtain t...

  20. Detailed computation of hot-plasma atomic spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Pain, Jean-Christophe; Gilleron, Franck; Blenski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We present recent evolutions of the detailed opacity code SCO-RCG which combines statistical modelings of levels and lines with fine-structure calculations. The code now includes the Partially-Resolved-Transition-Array model, which allows one to replace a complex transition array by a small-scale detailed calculation preserving energy and variance of the genuine transition array and yielding improved high-order moments. An approximate method for studying the impact of strong magnetic field on...

  1. Statistics of electric-quadrupole lines in atomic spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Jean-Christophe; Bauche, Jacques; Bauche-Arnoult, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In hot plasmas, a temperature of a few tens of eV is sufficient for producing highly stripped ions where multipole transitions become important. At low density, the transitions from tightly bound inner shells lead to electric-quadrupole (E2) lines which are comparable in strength with electric-dipole ones. In this work, we propose analytical formulas for the estimation of the number of E2 lines in a transition array. Such expressions rely on statistical descriptions of electron states and J-levels. A generalized 'J-file' sum rule for E2 lines and the strength-weighted shift and variance of the line energies of a transition array nl^N+1 \\rightarrow nl^Nn'l' of inter-configuration E2 lines are also presented.

  2. Statistics of electric-quadrupole lines in atomic spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Pain, Jean-Christophe; Gilleron, Franck; Bauche, Jacques; Bauche-Arnoult, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In hot plasmas, a temperature of a few tens of eV is sufficient for producing highly stripped ions where multipole transitions become important. At low density, the transitions from tightly bound inner shells lead to electric-quadrupole (E2) lines which are comparable in strength with electric-dipole ones. In this work, we propose analytical formulas for the estimation of the number of E2 lines in a transition array. Such expressions rely on statistical descriptions of electron states and J-l...

  3. Collisional line broadening in atomic and ionic spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collision broadening and shift of the resonance lines of Mg+ (the solar h and k lines), Ca+ (the solar H and K lines) and Sr+, induced by helium and argon, have been measured, together with the singlet resonance lines of the neutral species. The profiles were observed in emission from a flow lamp using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer and recorded digitally using a microprocessor-controlled data logging system. Broadening and shift parameters were both obtained by numerical analysis of this data. The new results are augmented by previous measurements in calcium alone and revealing trends through the three consecutive group II elements are established. The observed broadening in argon is in surprisingly good agreement with the predictions of van-der-Waals theory but the shift results do not confirm the presence of any real R-6 long range interaction. (author)

  4. Exact yrast spectra of cold atoms on a ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a methodology to construct excited states with a fixed angular momentum, namely, ''yrast excited states'' of finite-size one-dimensional bosonic systems with periodic boundary conditions. The excitation energies such as the first yrast excited energy are calculated through the system-size asymptotic expansion and expressed analytically by dressed energy. Interestingly, they are grouped into sets of almost degenerate energy levels. The low-lying excitation spectrum near the yrast state is consistent with the U(1) conformal field theories if the total angular momentum is given by an integral multiple of particle number; i.e., if the system is supercurrent.

  5. Shell structure of pancakes and the absorption spectra of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of the absorption lines of atomic hydrogen in the spectra of distant quasars is considered. A model is constructed of the formation of shells of a pancake formed in the adiabatic picture of the generation of the large-scale structure of the universe. It is shown that the absorption lines can form doublets and the equivalent widths of the corresponding lines are calculated. The physical conditions corresponding to the observed heavy-element absorption spectra are discussed

  6. QCD's Partner needed for Mass Spectra and Parton Structure Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y. S.

    2009-01-01

    As in the case of the hydrogen atom, bound-state wave functions are needed to generate hadronic spectra. For this purpose, in 1971, Feynman and his students wrote down a Lorentz-invariant harmonic oscillator equation. This differential equation has one set of solutions satisfying the Lorentz-covariant boundary condition. This covariant set generates Lorentz-invariant mass spectra with their degeneracies. Furthermore, the Lorentz-covariant wave functions allow us to calculate the valence parto...

  7. NEW INTERPRETATION OF THE ATOMIC SPECTRA OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM: A MIXED MECHANISM OF CLASSICAL LC CIRCUITS AND QUANTUM WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY NUEVA INTERPRETACIÓN DEL ESPECTRO ATÓMICO DEL ÁTOMO DE HIDRÓGENO: UN MECANISMO MIXTO DE CIRCUITOS LC Y LA DUALIDAD ONDA CUÁNTICA-PARTÍCULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Torres-Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the energy conversion laws of the macroscopic harmonic LC oscillator, the electromagnetic wave (photon and the hydrogen atom. As our analysis indicates, the energies of these apparently different systems obey exactly the same energy conversion law. Based on our results and the wave-particle duality of electrons, we find that the hydrogen atom is, in fact, a natural chiral microscopic LC oscillator. In the framework of classical electromagnetic field theory we analytically obtain, for the hydrogen atom, the quantized electron orbit radius , and quantized energy , (n = 1, 2, 3, · · ·, where is the Bohr radius and is the Rydberg constant. Without the adaptation of any other fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, we present a reasonable explanation of the polarization of photon, selection rules and Pauli exclusion principle. Our results also reveal an essential connection between electron spin and the intrinsic helical movement of electrons and indicate that the spin itself is the effect of quantum confinement.En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de las leyes macroscópicas de conversión de energía del oscilador armónico LC, la onda electromagnética (fotones y el átomo de hidrógeno. Como nuestro análisis indica, las energías de estos aparentemente diferentes sistemas obedecen exactamente la misma ley de conversión de la energía. Sobre la base de nuestros resultados y de la dualidad onda-partícula del electrón, nos encontramos con que el átomo de Hidrógeno, de hecho, es un oscilador LC microscópico naturalmente quiral. En el marco de la teoría clásica de campos electromagnéticos se obtiene analíticamente, para el átomo de hidrógeno, el radio cuantizado de la órbita electrónica , y la energía cuantizada , (n=1, 2, 3.., donde es el radio de Bohr, y es la constante de Rydberg. Sin la adaptación de otros principios fundamentales de la mecánica cuántica, se presenta una explicación razonable de

  8. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  9. Atomic secrecy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An article, The H-Bomb Secret: How We Got It, Why We're Telling It, by Howard Morland was to be published in The Progressive magazine in February, 1979. The government, after learning of the author's and the editors' intention to publish the article and failing to persuade them to voluntarily delete about 20% of the text and all of the diagrams showing how an H-bomb works, requested a court injunction against publication. Acting under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, US District Court Judge Robert W. Warren granted the government's request on March 26. Events dealing with the case are discussed in this publication. Section 1, Progressive Hydrogen Bomb Case, is discussed under the following: Court Order Blocking Magazine Report; Origins of the Howard Morland Article; Author's Motives, Defense of Publication; and Government Arguments Against Disclosure. Section 2, Access to Atomic Data Since 1939, contains information on need for secrecy during World War II; 1946 Atomic Energy Act and its effects; Soviet A-Bomb and the US H-Bomb; and consequences of 1954 Atomic Energy Act. Section 3, Disputed Need for Atomic Secrecy, contains papers entitled: Lack of Studies on H-Bomb Proliferation; Administration's Position on H-Bombs; and National Security Needs vs Free Press

  10. Constants of NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy is a method for studying matter. It has been developed in a lot of fields of physics, physical chemistry, chemistry and biology. It concerns both the solid state and the liquid state. The study in solution of synthesis organic molecules or of organic molecules of natural origin and of biological molecules is particularly stressed on but it is also possible to study inorganic molecules. The originality of this method is to give both data on each atoms of the studied structure, on the atoms sequence in this structure, on the conformation and on the related configurations. It allows to reveal the interactions between separate molecules too. It is also a precious tool for the analysis of molecular movements. The development of this method for the study of condensed phases is particularly studied nowadays and the data obtained are for a lot of fields as acute as those obtained at the liquid state. (O.M.)

  11. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  12. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  13. Radiative lifetimes and atomic transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative lifetimes and atomic transition probabilities have been measured for over 35 neutral and singly ionized species in the Wisconsin Atomic Transition Probabilities (WATP) Program since it began in 1980. Radiative lifetimes are measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence of a slow atomic/ionic beam. These lifetimes are combined with branching fractions to yield absolute atomic transition probabilities for neutral and singly ionized species. The branching fractions are determined from emission spectra recorded using the 1.0 m Fourier-transform spectrometer at the National Solar Observatory. The current focus of the WATP Program is on the rare-earth elements, in particular Tm, Dy, and Ho

  14. Atoms as Qed bound atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevance of Quantum Electrodynamics (Qed) in contemporary atomic structure theory is reviewed. Recent experimental advances allow both the production of heavy ions of high charge as well as the measurement of atomic properties with a precision never achieved before. The description of heavy atoms with few electrons via the successive incorporation of one, two, etcetera photons in a rigorous manner and within the bound state Furry representation of Qed is technically feasible. For many-electron atoms the many-body (correlation) effects are very important and it is practically impossible to evaluate all the relevant Feynman diagrams to the required accuracy. Thus, it is necessary to develop a theoretical scheme in which the radiative and nonradiative effects are taken into account in an effective way making emphasis in electronic correlation. Preserving gauge invariance, and avoiding both continuum dissolution and variational collapse are basic problems that must be solved when using effective potential methods and finite-basis representations of them. In this context, we shall discuss advances and problems in the description of atoms as Qed bound states. (Author)

  15. A comparative study of MP2, B3LYP, RHF and SCC-DFTB force fields in predicting the vibrational spectra of N-acetyl-L-alanine-N'-methyl amide: VA and VCD spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Jalkanen, Karl J.; Elstner, M.; Frimand, Kenneth; Suhai, S.

    dichroism (VCD) spectra of NALANMA. We have utilised MP2/6-31G*, B3LYP/6-31G*, RHF/6-31G* and SCC-DFTB level theory to determine the geometries and Hessians, atomic polar tensors (APT) and atomic axial tensors (AAT) which are required for simulating the VA and VCD spectra. We have also calculated the AAT at...

  16. Blind extraction of exoplanetary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing spectroscopy enabled characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Transmission and emission spectra of tens of transiting exoplanets have been measured with multiple instruments aboard Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes as well as ground-based facilities, revealing the presence of atomic, ionic and molecular species in their atmospheres, and constraining their temperature and pressure profiles.Early analyses were somehow heuristic both in measuring the spectra and in their interpretation, leading to some controversies in the literature.A photometric precision of 0.01% is necessary to detect the atmospheric spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve this precision. Data reduction is necessary to minimize the effect of instrument systematics in order to achieve the target precision. In the past, parametric models have extensively been used by most teams to remove correlated noise with the aid of auxiliary information of the instrument, the so-called optical state vectors (OSVs). Such OSVs can include inter- and intra-pixel position of the star or its spectrum, instrument temperatures and inclinations, and/or other parameters. In some cases, different parameterizations led to discrepant results.We recommend the use of blind non-parametric data detrending techniques to overcome those issues. In particular, we adopt Independent Component Analysis (ICA), i.e. a blind source separation (BSS) technique to disentangle the multiple instrument systematics and astrophysical signals in transit/eclipse light curves. ICA does not require a model for the systematics, and for this reason, it can be applied to any instrument with little changes, if any. ICA-based algorithms have been applied to Spitzer/IRAC and synthetic observations in photometry (Morello et al. 2014, 2015, 2016; Morello 2015) and to Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRS in spectroscopy (Waldmann 2012, 2014, Waldmann et al. 2013

  17. Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy oflaser-ablated copper atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Andrejeva, Anna; Harris, Joe P.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of laser-ablated copper atoms entrainedin a supersonic free jet expansion are reported. Depending on the ionization scheme employed, andthe conditions under which the copper atoms are produced, very different spectra are produced, whichare discussed. In some circumstances, high proportions of metastable atoms survive the ablation andexpansion process and are clearly seen in the spectra. The spectroscopic transitions for the observedlin...

  18. Plasma diagnostics and atomic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic plasma diagnostics with the use of atomic processes are discussed relating to three subjects in the followings. i) Time resolved X-ray spectra of titanium helium-like ions from tokamaks. X-ray spectra observed from tokamak plasmas are analysed with a non-ionization equilibrium model which could explain the time behavior of both spectra and ion abundances. ii) Line intensity ratios of OV ions for temperature and density diagnostics. Intensity ratios of emission lines from OV ions are calculated for use in temperature and density diagnostics. The line emissions from a tokamak are analysed for the diagnostics of plasma periphery. iii) Collisional processes in hot dense plasmas. The collisional ladder-like excitation and ionization in a hot dense plasma are discussed for the dielectronic states. This process enhances the excitation rate coefficients and decreases the resonance contributions to the excitation cross section. (author)

  19. Program DEIMOS32 for gamma-ray spectra evalution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frána, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 257, č. 3 (2003), s. 583-587. ISSN 0236-5731. [International Conference Ko-users Workshop /3./. Bruges, 23.09.2001-28.09.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : gamma-ray spectra * software Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2003

  20. Sequencing BPS Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gukov, Sergei; Saberi, Ingmar; Stosic, Marko; Sulkowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar\\'e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular $S$-matrix. This leads to the identifi...

  1. Atomic level analysis of biomolecules by the scanning atom probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing the unique features of the scanning atom probe (SAP) the binding states of the biomolecules, leucine and methionine, are investigated at atomic level. The molecules are mass analyzed by detecting a single atom and/or clustering atoms field evaporated from a specimen surface. Since the field evaporation is a static process, the evaporated clustering atoms are closely related with the binding between atoms forming the molecules. For example, many thiophene radicals are detected when polythiophene is mass analyzed by the SAP. In the present study the specimens are prepared by immersing a micro cotton ball of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in the leucine or methionine solution. The mass spectra obtained by analyzing the cotton balls exhibit singly and doubly ionized carbon ions of SWCNT and the characteristic fragments of the molecules, CH3, CHCH3, C4H7, CHNH2 and COOH for leucine and CH3, SCH3, C2H4, C4H7, CHNH2 and COOH for methionine.

  2. International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulletin presents a selected bibliography (462 literature pieces) on atomic and molecular data relevant to fusion research and technology. It also gives a list of indexed papers, separately on structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface effects

  3. International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin presents a selected bibliography (363 literature pieces) on atomic and molecular data for fusion. It also gives a list of indexed papers on structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions

  4. Hollow ion spectra in warm dense laser-produced plasma. Observation and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-Ray emission plasma spectra are investigated for 2 cases: 1) plasma obtained under irradiation of Ar clusters by ultrashort laser pulses and 2) Mg-plasma heated by a short-wavelength long (nanosecond) laser pulse. It is demonstrated that under some experimental conditions very complicated spectra structures appear. Calculations in support of these measurements have been performed using a detailed atomic kinetics model the ion distributions found from solution of the time-dependent rate equations. The calculations are in good agreement with the measurements and the role of hollow atoms in the resulting complicated spectra is analyzed. The signatures of hollow atom spectra can be identified in the calculations, which are qualitatively supported by the experimental measurements. It was found that the Hollow atoms structures are more clearly pronounced in the case of lower electron temperature and practically solid density plasmas. (author)

  5. Atomic and molecular data for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Advisory Group Meeting devoted solely to review the atomic and molecular data needed for radiotherapy was held in Vienna from 13 to 16 June 1988. The following items as related to the atoms and molecules of human tissues were reviewed: Cross sections differential in energy loss for electrons and other charged particles. Secondary electron spectra, or differential ionization cross sections. Total cross sections for ionization and excitation. Subexcitation electrons. Cross sections for charged-particle collisions in condensed matter. Stopping power for low-energy electrons and ions. Initial yields of atomic and molecular ions and their excited states and electron degradation spectra. Rapid conversion of these initial ions and their excited states through thermal collisions with other atoms and molecules. Track-structure quantities. Other relevant data. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Spectra of hot stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, D. John

    2015-08-01

    Non-LTE modeling is essential for interpreting the spectra of O stars and their decendents, and much progress has been made. The major uncertainty associated with analyzing photospheric spectra of O stars arises from issues related to microturbulence and macroturbulence. Many supergiants, for example, have microturbulent velocities that approach the sound speed, while macroturbulent velocities are often several times the sound speed. The cause of this turbulence is unknown, but may be related to pulsation, an underlying convection zone associated with the Fe opacity bump, or feedback from the stellar wind. Determining accurate abundances in O stars is hampered by the lack of lines belonging to low-z elements. Many species only have a few observable lines, and some of these are subject to complex non-LTE effects. A characteristic of massive stars is the existence of a stellar wind which is driven by radiation pressure. Radiation driving is inherently unstable, and this leads to winds with an inhomogeneous structure. Major issues that are still unresolved include: How are winds driven through the sonic point? What is the nature of the inhomogeneities, and how do the properties of these inhomogeneities change with density and velocity? How important is spatial porosity, and porosity in velocity space? What is the structure of the shocks, and in what stars do the shocks fail to cool? With Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars the major uncertainty arises because the classic spectroscopic radius (i.e., the location where τ = 2/3) often refers to a location in the wind — not necessarily the stellar radius associated with stellar evolution models. Derived radii are typically several times those predicted by stellar evolution calculations, although for strong-lined W-R stars it is possible to construct models that are consistent with evolution calculations. The driving of the winds in these stars is strongly coupled to the closeness of the stars to the Eddington limit and to their

  7. Spectrum and decays of hadronic atoms

    OpenAIRE

    J. Schweizer

    2004-01-01

    We describe the spectra and decays of pi pi and pi K atoms within a non-relativistic effective field theory. The evaluations of the energy shifts and widths are performed at next-to-leading order in isospin symmetry breaking. The prediction for the lifetime of the pi K atom in its ground-state yields tau = (3.7 \\pm 0.4) * 10^{-15} sec.

  8. Exotic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments use a solid hydrogen layer to form muonic hydrogen isotopes that escape into vacuum. The method relies on transfer of the muon from protium to either a deuteron or a triton. The resulting muonic deuterium or muonic tritium will not immediately thermalize because of the very low elastic cross sections, and may be emitted from the surface of the layer. Measurements which detect decay electrons, muonic x-rays, and fusion products have been used to study the processes. A target has been constructed which exploits muonic atom emission in order to learn more about the energy dependence of transfer and muon molecular formation

  9. Atomic Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynands, Robert

    Time is a strange thing. On the one hand it is arguably the most inaccessible physical phenomenon of all: both in that it is impossible to manipulate or modify—for all we know—and in that even after thousands of years mankind's philosophers still have not found a fully satisfying way to understand it. On the other hand, no other quantity can be measured with greater precision. Today's atomic clocks allow us to reproduce the length of the second as the SI unit of time with an uncertainty of a few parts in 1016—orders of magnitude better than any other quantity. In a sense, one can say [1

  10. Single atom measurement and atomic manipulation using atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains studies to measure atomic force as the force linking an atom and atom, using an atomic force microscope (AFM). First, it describes the principle and device configuration of AFM, and as an example of the atomic force measurement of Si atoms on the surface of Si(111)-(7x7), it describes the technique to measure atomic force using AFM, as well as the uncertainty of probe tip against atomic force. In addition, it describes the following items on the measurement results of chemical bonding force: (1) chemical bonding force vs physical force and chemical bonding force vs current on the surface of Si(111)-(7x7), (2) chemical bonding force and element dependence on the surface of Si/Sn(111)-(√3x√3), (3) atomic manipulation based on AMF, and (4) relationship between atomic manipulation and the size of chemical bonding force with a probe. (A.O.)

  11. Invisible structures in the X-ray absorption spectra of actinides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; De Groot, Frank M F

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray absorption spectra of actinides are discussed with an emphasis on the fundamental effects that influence their spectral shape, including atomic multiplet theory, charge transfer theory and crystal field theory. Many actinide spectra consist of a single peak and it is shown that the use of

  12. Interstellar Atomic Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, E B

    2003-01-01

    A broad array of interstellar absorption features that appear in the ultraviolet spectra of bright sources allows us to measure the abundances and ionization states of many important heavy elements that exist as free atoms in the interstellar medium. By comparing these abundances with reference values in the Sun, we find that some elements have abundances relative to hydrogen that are approximately consistent with their respective solar values, while others are depleted by factors that range from a few up to around 1000. These depletions are caused by the atoms condensing into solid form onto dust grains. Their strengths are governed by the volatility of compounds that are produced, together with the densities and velocities of the gas clouds. We may characterize the depletion trends in terms of a limited set of parameters; ones derived here are based on measurements of 15 elements toward 144 stars with known values of N(H I) and N(H2). In turn, these parameters may be applied to studies of the production, de...

  13. SPECTRW: A software package for nuclear and atomic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfas, C. A.; Axiotis, M.; Tsabaris, C.

    2016-09-01

    A software package to be used in nuclear and atomic spectroscopy is presented. Apart from analyzing γ and X-ray spectra, it offers many additional features such as de-convolution of multiple photopeaks, sample analysis and activity determination, detection system evaluation and an embedded code for spectra simulation.

  14. Plasmas applied atomic collision physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, C F

    1984-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 2: Plasmas covers topics on magnetically confined plasmas. The book starts by providing the history of fusion research and describing the various approaches in both magnetically and inertially confined plasmas. The text then gives a general discussion of the basic concepts and properties in confinement and heating of a plasma. The theory of atomic collisions that result in excited quantum states, particularly highly ionized impurity atoms; and diverse diagnostic topics such as emission spectra, laser scattering, electron cyclotron emission, particle bea

  15. Population analysis for atomic cascade decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down-stream cascade decay processes in atomic systems are analyzed by solving a coupled rate equation for which an analytical solution for a population in each excited state is obtained. Some typical numerical examples for populations to interpret the decay passes connecting to features of optical or electron spectra observed in various collision experiments are also given. (author)

  16. Properties of few-electron artificial atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, K.; Navratil, P.; Usukura, J.; Suzuki, Y

    2000-01-01

    The spectra of quantum dots of different geometry (``quantum ring'', ``quantum cylinder'', ``spherical square-well'' and ``parabolic confinement'') are studied. The stochastic variational method on correlated Gaussian basis functions and a large scale shell-model approach have been used to investigate these ``artificial'' atoms and their properties in magnetic field. Accurate numerical results are presented for $N$=2-8 electron systems.

  17. Ultracold Long-Range Rydberg Molecules with Complex Multichannel Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiles, Matthew; Greene, Chris

    2016-05-01

    A generalized class of exotic long-range Rydberg molecules consisting of a multichannel Rydberg atom bound to a distant ground state atom by the Rydberg electron is predicted. These molecules are characterized by the rich physics provided by the strongly perturbed multichannel Rydberg spectra of divalent atoms, in contrast to the regular Rydberg series of the alkali atoms used to form Rydberg molecules to date. These multichannel Rydberg molecules exhibit favorable properties for laser excitation, because states exist where the quantum defect varies strongly with the principal quantum number n. In particular, the nd Rydberg state of calcium becomes nearly degenerate with states of high orbital angular momentum over the range 17 channel interactions between Rydberg series leading to the spin-orbit split ionization thresholds. These interactions manifest themselves in potential curves exhibiting two distinct length scales, providing novel opportunities for quantum manipulation. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1306905.

  18. Vibrational spectra and molecular dynamics of alkoxycyanobiphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkov, L. M.; Gabrusyonok, E.; Krasnoholovets, V. V.; Puchkovskaya, G. A.; Khakimov, I. N.

    1999-05-01

    The IR and Raman spectra of 4-alkoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyls ( nOCB, where n=3-8 is the number of carbon atom in the alkyl chain) were measured in the 30-3200 cm -1 spectral region at 77-400 K. With the DSC and DTA methods, the temperatures and enthalpies of the state transitions were determined for the substances under study in the 100-400 K temperature range. The changes of the spectral parameters of several vibrational bands at phase transitions were interpreted as being caused by conformational changes of the nOCB molecules. The mechanism of intradimer energy transfer which explains the Q(CN) band broadening in the liquid crystal and isotropic liquid phases is discussed.

  19. Interference and diffraction in photoelectron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decleva, P., E-mail: decleva@univ.trieste.it; Ponzi, A.; Santizo, I.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • High energy oscillations in the photoionization cross sections. • Interference and diffraction in molecular photoionization. • Non-stoichiometric cross sections. • Core and valence photoionization cross sections in haloacetylenes. - Abstract: Theoretical calculations are employed to disentangle the effect due to coherent emission from equivalent centres and diffraction from neighbouring inequivalent atoms in core and valence photoelectron spectra. The molecules investigated are mono and disubstituted fluoro and iodo acetylenes, compared to the simple acetylene system. The two effects appear well separated and additive in the core region, with diffraction giving oscillations of smaller amplitude, shorter period, and more strongly damped. Their interplay is more complex in the valence region giving rise to irregular patterns which, although rich in information, are more difficult to analyze. It is shown that the use of an external standard molecule can be profitably used to reveal diffraction patterns in the case where no internal ratio is available.

  20. Effects of lowly ionized ions on silicon K-shell absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. G.; Shi, J. R.; Liang, G. Y.; Wang, F. L.; Zhong, J. Y.; Zhao, G.

    2016-05-01

    Context. In both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, K-shell absorption spectra have become powerful diagnostic tools to investigate electron density and temperature. These spectra are also widely used to verify the opacity codes in laboratory settings. Aims: We report the effects of the low ionization silicon ions, namely from Si I to Si V, which have rarely been considered in previous models, on the K-shell silicon absorption spectra. Methods: The Si K-shell atomic data were calculated with the flexible atomic code, which is a fully relativistic atomic program with configuration interaction taken into consideration. Detailed level accounting models were employed to calculate the absorption spectra. Results: We calculate the Si absorption spectra in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions with temperature and density ranges of 20-70 eV and ~1020 cm-3 to ~1022 cm-3, respectively, and show the contributions of the lowly ionized ions to the K-shell absorption spectra of silicon. We also investigate the effects of the different atomic data on the absorption spectra. We find good agreement between our results and these from OPLIB. Conclusions: We find that the contributions from these lowly ionized ions cannot be neglected at relative low temperatures. Accurate experimental measurements are needed to benchmark the theoretical calculations.

  1. Analytic formulas for above threshold ionization or detachment plateau spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, M. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2009-11-01

    Closed form analytic formulas are derived in the tunneling limit for both above threshold detachment (ATD) of negative ions and above threshold ionization (ATI) of neutral atoms. These formulas provide a fully quantum justification of the well-known classical three-step scenario for strong field ionization and detachment spectra in the high energy region of the ATI or ATD plateau and also provide analytical insight into how the ATI/ATD rates may be controlled by varying the laser field parameters or by varying the atomic species.

  2. Anisotropic spectra of acoustic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We found universal anizopropic spectra of acoustic turbulence with the linear dispersion law ω(k)=ck within the framework of generalized kinetic equation which takes into account the finite time of three-wave interactions. This anisotropic spectra can assume both scale-invariant and non-scale-invariant form. The implications for the evolution of the acoustic turbulence with nonisotropic pumping are discussed. The main result of the article is that the spectra of acoustic turbulence tend to become more isotropic. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  3. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion is prepared by the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is distributed free of charge by the IAEA to assist in the development of fusion research and technology. In part 1, the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) is presented. In Part 2, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions and surface interactions. Part 3 contains all the bibliographic data for both the indexed and non-indexed references. Finally, the Author Index (part 4) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part 3

  4. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  5. Pileup correction of microdosimetric spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Langen, K M; Lennox, A J; Kroc, T K; De Luca, P M

    2002-01-01

    Microdosimetric spectra were measured at the Fermilab neutron therapy facility using low pressure proportional counters operated in pulse mode. The neutron beam has a very low duty cycle (<0.1%) and consequently a high instantaneous dose rate which causes distortions of the microdosimetric spectra due to pulse pileup. The determination of undistorted spectra at this facility necessitated (i) the modified operation of the proton accelerator to reduce the instantaneous dose rate and (ii) the establishment of a computational procedure to correct the measured spectra for remaining pileup distortions. In support of the latter effort, two different pileup simulation algorithms using analytical and Monte-Carlo-based approaches were developed. While the analytical algorithm allows a detailed analysis of pileup processes it only treats two-pulse and three-pulse pileup and its validity is hence restricted. A Monte-Carlo-based pileup algorithm was developed that inherently treats all degrees of pileup. This algorithm...

  6. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    possible to define correlation functions and associated spectra for aperiodic, periodic and random signals although the interpretation is different. Moreover, we will discuss correlation functions when mixing these basic signal types. In addition, the note include several examples for the purpose of......The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions and...... spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed definitions and properties of correlation functions and spectra for analog as well as discrete-time signals. It is...

  7. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Olsina, Jan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption maximum of monomeric astaxanthin (470-495 nm depending on solvent) are caused by excitonic interaction between aggregated molecules. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structure of astaxanthin dimer in water, and the resulting structure was used as a basis for calculations of absorption spectra. Absorption spectra of astaxanthin aggregates in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide were calculated using molecular exciton model with the resonance interaction energy between astaxanthin monomers constrained by semi-e...

  8. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions and spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed defin...

  9. Infrared spectra of some fructans

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, M.; Bekers, M.; Upite, D.; Kaminska, E.

    2002-01-01

    The FT–IR spectra of fructan – inulin (RAFTILINE), widely applied in the food industry and crystalline fructose as the main component of fructans, were studied. Special interest was to study the spectra of the levan precipitate and fructan syrup – produced by Zymomonas mobilis during the fermentation on sucrose–based medium.It was shown that levan precipitate and fructose syrup does not contain lipids and nucleic acids. Levan precipitate consists of ∼93% of fructose and admixture of glucose, ...

  10. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Olsina, Jan; Durchan, Milan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption...

  11. Recombination Lines of CII in the Spectra of Planetary Nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2010-01-01

    The current report presents the work to investigate the recombination lines of CII in the spectra of planetary nebulae. Two CIII targets were prepared and used to generate theoretical data required in the investigation of recombination lines that arise from collisions between electrons and ions in thin plasma found in planetary nebulae and other astrophysical objects. One of these targets contains 9 atomic terms while the other contains 26 terms. For each one of these targets, theoretical dat...

  12. Luminescence Spectra of a Quantum-Dot Cascade Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Apalkov, Vadim; Chakraborty, Tapash

    2000-01-01

    A quantum cascade laser where the quantum wells in the active regions are replaced by quantum dots with their atom-like discrete energy levels is an interesting system to study novel features in optical spectroscopy. We study structures suitable for diagonal lasing transitions in coupled dots, and vertical lasing transitions in a single dot, in the active regions of the laser device. The luminescence spectra as a function of electron number and dot size show that for diagonal transitions, a s...

  13. Evaluation of low-count spectra without binning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryšavý, Miloš; Kašpar, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 594, č. 1 (2008), s. 97-101. ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0002; GA MŠk LA318; GA MŠk LC07050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : spectra evaluation * no binning Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.019, year: 2008

  14. Transient x-ray absorption spectroscopy of hydrated halogen atom

    CERN Document Server

    Elles, Christopher G; Crowell, Robert A; Arms, Dohn A; Landahl, Eric C

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy monitors the transient species generated by one-photon detachment of an electron from aqueous bromide. Hydrated bromine atoms with a lifetime of ca. 17 ns were observed, nearly half of which react with excess Br- to form Br2-. The K-edge spectra of the Br atom and Br2- anion exhibit distinctive resonant transitions that are absent for the Br- precursor. The absorption spectra indicate that the solvent shell around a Br0 atom is defined primarily by hydrophobic interactions, in agreement with a Monte Carlo simulation of the solvent structure.

  15. Response spectra in alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For aseismic design of structures, the ground motion data is assumed either in the form of ground acceleration as a function of time or indirectly in the form of response spectra. Though the response spectra approach has limitations like not being applicable for nonlinear problems, it is usually used for structures like nuclear power plants. Fifty accelerograms recorded at alluvial sites have been processed. Since different empirical formulas relating acceleration with magnitude and distance give a wide scatter of values, peak ground acceleration alone cannot be the parameter as is assumed by a number of authors. The spectra corresponding to 5% damping have been normalised with respect to three parameters, namely, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and a nondimensional quantity ad/v2. Envelopee of maxima and minima as well as average response spectra has been obtained. A comparison with the USAEC spectra has been made. A relation between ground acceleration, ground velocity and ad/v2 has been obtained which would nearly give the same magnification of the response. A design response spectra for alluvial soils has been recommended. (author)

  16. Universality of Vibrational Spectra of Globular Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Na, Hyuntae; ben-Avraham, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the density of modes of the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal, i.e., regardless of the protein in question it closely follows one universal curve. The present study, including 135 proteins analyzed with a full atomic empirical potential (CHARMM22) and using the full complement of all atoms Cartesian degrees of freedom, goes far beyond confirming previous claims of universality, finding that universality holds even in the high-frequency range (300- 4000 1/cm), where peaks and turns in the density of states are faithfully reproduced from one protein to the next. We also characterize fluctuations of the spectral density from the average, paving the way to a meaningful discussion of rare, unusual spectra and the structural reasons for the deviations in such "outlier" proteins. Since the method used for the derivation of the vibrational modes (potential energy formulation, set of degrees of freedom employed, etc.) has a dramatic effect on the spectral density, another signific...

  17. Mössbauer spectra and superparamagnetism of europium sulfide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mössbauer spectra of 151Eu in 20 nm nanoparticles of EuS were measured at several temperatures. The samples were found to contain up to 30% of Eu3+, which suggests that surface oxidation of the nanostructures penetrated farther than the ∼12% of atomic sites on the outermost surface of the nanoparticles. Below the Curie temperature, Tc = 16.6 K, the spectra showed line broadening due to superparamagnetic fluctuations with an average Mössbauer blocking temperature TBM of about 16 K. Below 10 K, the spectrum became a fully split magnetic hyperfine pattern with an effective field of 29.9 T at 5 K. The spectra were compared with those of bulk ferromagnetic EuS. This approach provides considerable information about the composition of oxygen-sensitive nanoscale materials. (paper)

  18. Systematic view of optical absorption spectra in the actinide series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years sufficient new spectra of actinides in their numerous valence states have been measured to encourage a broader scale analysis effort than was attempted in the past. Theoretical modelling in terms of effective operators has also undergone development. Well established electronic structure parameters for the trivalent actinides are being used as a basis for estimating parameters in other valence states and relationships to atomic spectra are being extended. Recent contributions to our understanding of the spectra of 4+ actinides have been particularly revealing and supportive of a developing general effort to progress beyond a preoccupation with modelling structure to consideration of the much broader area of structure-bonding relationships. We summarize here both the developments in modelling electronic structure and the interpretation of apparent trends in bonding. 60 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  19. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  20. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin comprises updated atomic and molecular data for fusion. It includes the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) of the IAEA. It contains two parts: a bibliographic database for atomic and molecular data for fusion research, and numerical databases of recommended and evaluated atomic, molecular and plasma-surface interaction data. The indexed papers are also listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions

  1. Spectra in the chaotic region: Methods for extracting dynamic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Llorente, J.M.; Zakrzewski, J.; Taylor, H.S.; Kulander, K.C.

    1989-02-01

    Nonlinear dynamics is applied to chaotic unassignable atomic and molecular spectra with the aim of extracting detailed information about regular dynamic motions that exist over short intervals of time. It is shown how this motion can be extracted from high resolution spectra by doing low resolution studies or by Fourier transforming limited regions of the spectrum. These motions mimic those of periodic orbits (PO) and are inserts into the dominant chaotic motion. Considering these inserts and the PO as a dynamically decoupled region of space, resonant scattering theory and stabilization methods enable us to compute ladders of resonant states which interact with the chaotic quasicontinuum computed in principle from basis sets placed off the PO. The interaction of the resonances with the quasicontinuum explains the low resolution spectra seen in such experiments. It also allows one to associate low resolution features with a particular PO. The motion on the PO thereby supplies the molecular movements whose quantization causes the low resolution spectra. Characteristic properties of the periodic orbit based resonances are discussed. The method is illustrated on the photoabsorption spectrum of the hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field and on the photodissociation spectrum of H/sup +//sub 3/ . Other molecular systems which are currently under investigation using this formalism are also mentioned.

  2. Perfect Precision Detecting Probability Of An Atom Via Sgc Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, H. R.

    2015-06-01

    This letter investigates a scheme of high efficient two-dimensional (2D) atom localization via scanning probe absorption in a Y-type four-level atomic scheme with two orthogonal standing waves. It is shown that because of the position dependent atom-field interaction, the spatial probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined via monitoring the probe absorption and gain spectra. The impact of different controlling parameters of the system on 2D localization is studied. We find that owning the effect of spontaneously generated coherence (SGC), the atom can be localized at a particular position and the maximal probability of detecting the atom within the sub-wavelength domain of the two orthogonal standing waves reaches to hundred percent. Phase controlling of position dependent probe absorption is then discussed. The presented scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or atom nanolithography via high precision and high resolution atom localization.

  3. Atomic Energy Basics, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    This booklet is part of the "Understanding the Atom Series," though it is a later edition and not included in the original set of 51 booklets. A basic survey of the principles of nuclear energy and most important applications are provided. These major topics are examined: matter has molecules and atoms, the atom has electrons, the nucleus,…

  4. A method for generating floor response spectra through power spectra/response spectra relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a method is proposed for deriving floor response spectra using probabilistic techniques. By modelling an earthquake as a stationary random process, a relationship may be derived between its power spectral density function (PSDF) and the response spectrum. Thus, given a set of base response spectra, a set of consistent PSDF's can be generated for the base of the structure. Then, making use of standard random vibration theory, PSDF's for points of interest in the structure can be obtained by appropriate multiplication of complex frequency response (transfer) functions with the derived base PSDF's. Finally, response spectra for the points of interest are obtained using the inverse form of the relationship between a PSDF and a response spectrum. To date, the approach outlined above has been used to generate response spectra of points in some actual three-dimensional structures, and comparisons with response spectra for the same points generated by the time history method have been quite favorable. The limited number of cases performed have demonstrated that the method provides close correspondence of results throughout the frequency domain. While more work is needed to completely qualify this approach, initial results have been very promising. If the approach can be completely verified and found acceptable to the appropriate regulatory bodies, considerable savings in the computation of floor response spectra would result. (orig./RW)

  5. Spatial aspects of electron energy degradation in atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, R. P.; Green, A. E. S.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial (radial and longitudinal) yield spectra for electron energy degradation in atomic oxygen have been obtained using a Monte Carlo method for 25 eV to 10 keV incident electrons. Four-dimensional yield spectra have been analytically represented in terms of a model containing three simple microplumes. We find that the scaled spatial yield spectra for O is approximately the same as for N2. This feature provides a basis for inferring yield spectra for any atmosphere gas or mixture of gases.

  6. Teach us atom structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is written to teach atom structure in very easy way. It is divided into nine chapters, which indicates what is the components of matter? when we divide matter continuously, it becomes atom, what did atom look like? particles comprised of matter is not only atom, discover of particles comprised of atom, symbol of element, various radiation, form alchemy to nuclear transmutation, shape of atom is evolving. It also has various pictures in each chapters to explain easily.

  7. Teach us atom structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Suh Yeon

    2006-08-15

    This book is written to teach atom structure in very easy way. It is divided into nine chapters, which indicates what is the components of matter? when we divide matter continuously, it becomes atom, what did atom look like? particles comprised of matter is not only atom, discover of particles comprised of atom, symbol of element, various radiation, form alchemy to nuclear transmutation, shape of atom is evolving. It also has various pictures in each chapters to explain easily.

  8. Computer analysis of ESR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author. Isotropic ESR spectra often display complicated patterns which are difficult to analyze for their hyperfine splitting constants (HSC). To simplify the analysis, we have written a program suitable for PC's for sufficiently iterating simulations of isotropic ESR spectra and determining the simulation which fits the experimental spectra. Chapter one gives a brief introduction to the theory of electron spin resonance (ESR). In chapter two the main concepts of the program are presented. Auto simulate is the main algorithm. It calculates the entire field of valid simulations to ensure that the solution set contains all parameter combinations which produce satisfactory spectra. Auto simulate requires prior knowledge of the HSCs and other parameters needed for the simulation such as the line width, the spectrum width, and the number of magnetic nuclei. Proton Coupling Constant Extraction (PCCE) and autocorrelation are two methods complementing each other to determine the HSCs. Another iterative method based on a systematic application of Monte Carlo method can be applied to generate more accurate values of the line width. In chapter three, the spectra of Naphthalene, Tetracene, Indigo, Ox-indigo semi quinone, thio-indigo and 2,2'-dipyridyl-Na complex free radicals are analyzed. The results are compared to the literature value, good agreement is obtained for different resolution and noise to signal ratios. In the last chapter a print out of the program is presented. The programming language used is Microsoft QuickBASIC version 7.1

  9. Qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Terlevich, E; Fernandes, R Cid; Morales-Luis, A B

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis, and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is of general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7 (SDSS-DR7), thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to HII galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. A number of byprodu...

  10. The Completeness Criterion in Atomic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedahl, Duane A.

    2000-10-01

    I discuss two variations on the completeness theme in atomic modeling; missing lines as they affect the performance of spectral synthesis codes, and missing configurations as they affect the theoretical emissivities of bright lines, with emphasis on the latter. It is shown that the detrimental effects of working with incomplete atomic models can overshadow those brought about by working with less-than-perfect atomic rates. Atomic models can be brought up to an acceptable level of completeness in a fairly straightforward manner, and on a reasonably short timescale, whereas the long-term goal of comprehensive accuracy is unlikely to be reached on the timescale of the current generation of X-ray observatories. A near-term, albeit imperfect, solution is to hybridize atomic models used to synthesize spectra. A hybrid atomic model is one for which a large-scale atomic model, in which completeness is achieved at the expense of accuracy, is augmented with more accurate atomic quantities as they become available.

  11. Testing Photoionization Calculations Using Chandra X-ray Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Tim

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of work has been devoted to the accumulation of accurate quantities describing atomic processes for use in analysis of astrophysical spectra. But in many situations of interest the interpretation of a quantity which is observed, such as a line flux, depends on the results of a modeling- or spectrum synthesis code. The results of such a code depends in turn on many atomic rates or cross sections, and the sensitivity of the observable quantity on the various rates and cross sections may be non-linear and if so cannot easily be derived analytically. In such cases the most practical approach to understanding the sensitivity of observables to atomic cross sections is to perform numerical experiments, by calculating models with various rates perturbed by random (but known) factors. In addition, it is useful to compare the results of such experiments with some sample observations, in order to focus attention on the rates which are of the greatest relevance to real observations. In this paper I will present some attempts to carry out this program, focussing on two sample datasets taken with the Chandra HETG. I will discuss the sensitivity of synthetic spectra to atomic data affecting ionization balance, temperature, and line opacity or emissivity, and discuss the implications for the ultimate goal of inferring astrophysical parameters.

  12. Atomic phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shichun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Cheng model, atomic phase diagram or electron density versus atomic radius diagram describing the interaction properties of atoms of different kinds in equilibrium state is developed. Atomic phase diagram is established based on the two-atoms model. Besides atomic radius, electron density and continuity condition for electron density on interfaces between atoms, the lever law of atomic phase diagram involving other physical parameters is taken into account, such as the binding energy, for the sake of simplicity.

  13. Atomizer design for viscous-melt atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czisch, C. [Chemical Engineering Department, University Bremen, Badgasteiner Str. 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Fritsching, U. [Chemical Engineering Department, University Bremen, Badgasteiner Str. 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: ufri@iwt.uni-bremen.de

    2008-03-25

    The development of a gas atomization unit is introduced, which utilizes characteristic flow effects for efficient fragmentation of viscous liquids and melts. The proposed device combines a classical rotary atomizer with an external mixing gas atomizer. Here, the liquid stream is first transformed into a thin liquid sheet before disintegration. Thereby the specific surface energy is increased without breakup. The movement of the free flowing liquid film is controlled by the local gas flow field in order to transport the film into the most effective atomization region. The fragmentation process itself is caused by a perpendicular impinging gas stream. Numerical flow simulations are used for the development of the hybrid atomizer construction. Experiments using viscous model liquids show that for constant air-to-liquid mass-flow ratio the particle size is reduced using the hybrid atomizer compared with a conventional gas atomizer. Results of model experiments as well as of experiments with a viscous mineral melt are discussed.

  14. Atomizer design for viscous-melt atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a gas atomization unit is introduced, which utilizes characteristic flow effects for efficient fragmentation of viscous liquids and melts. The proposed device combines a classical rotary atomizer with an external mixing gas atomizer. Here, the liquid stream is first transformed into a thin liquid sheet before disintegration. Thereby the specific surface energy is increased without breakup. The movement of the free flowing liquid film is controlled by the local gas flow field in order to transport the film into the most effective atomization region. The fragmentation process itself is caused by a perpendicular impinging gas stream. Numerical flow simulations are used for the development of the hybrid atomizer construction. Experiments using viscous model liquids show that for constant air-to-liquid mass-flow ratio the particle size is reduced using the hybrid atomizer compared with a conventional gas atomizer. Results of model experiments as well as of experiments with a viscous mineral melt are discussed

  15. Cold Matter Assembled Atom-by-Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, Manuel; Keesling, Alexander; Levine, Harry; Anschuetz, Eric R; Krajenbrink, Alexandre; Senko, Crystal; Vuletic, Vladan; Greiner, Markus; Lukin, Mikhail D

    2016-01-01

    The realization of large-scale fully controllable quantum systems is an exciting frontier in modern physical science. We use atom-by-atom assembly to implement a novel platform for the deterministic preparation of regular arrays of individually controlled cold atoms. In our approach, a measurement and feedback procedure eliminates the entropy associated with probabilistic trap occupation and results in defect-free arrays of over 50 atoms in less than 400 ms. The technique is based on fast, real-time control of 100 optical tweezers, which we use to arrange atoms in desired geometric patterns and to maintain these configurations by replacing lost atoms with surplus atoms from a reservoir. This bottom-up approach enables controlled engineering of scalable many-body systems for quantum information processing, quantum simulations, and precision measurements.

  16. Accelerated Fitting of Stellar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-01-01

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fit by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars' labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of parameters separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach -- CHAT (Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation) -- which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock datasets demonstrate that CHAT can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by...

  17. Highly Dense Isolated Metal Atom Catalytic Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaxin; Kasama, Takeshi; Huang, Zhiwei; Hu, Pingping; Chen, Jianmin; Liu, Xi; Tang, Xingfu

    2015-01-01

    Atomically dispersed noble-metal catalysts with highly dense active sites are promising materials with which to maximise metal efficiency and to enhance catalytic performance; however, their fabrication remains challenging because metal atoms are prone to sintering, especially at a high metal...... loading. A dynamic process of formation of isolated metal atom catalytic sites on the surface of the support, which was achieved starting from silver nanoparticles by using a thermal surface-mediated diffusion method, was observed directly by using in situ electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron X......-ray diffraction. A combination of electron microscopy images with X-ray absorption spectra demonstrated that the silver atoms were anchored on five-fold oxygen-terminated cavities on the surface of the support to form highly dense isolated metal active sites, leading to excellent reactivity in catalytic oxidation...

  18. Continuous magnetic trapping of laser cooled atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present here initial results of the deceleration of a thermal atomic beam from -- 1000 to -- 100 m/s. The experiment was conducted in the 1.4-m long vertical superconducting solenoid which produced the slowing field. The fluorescence of the slowed atomic beam has been studied as a function of laser frequency. Figure 2 is a 12-GHz scan showing the fluorescence at a position 150 cm from the beginning of the solenoid. The wide peak corresponds to unslowed atoms with generally the initial velocity distribution. The second, narrower, peak corresponds to slowed atoms with a velocity of -- 150 m/s. Similar spectra have been obtained for various positions along the magnetic slower and trap. These data should allow better understanding of the cooling process and will be compared to computer models

  19. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  20. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  1. Atomic transition probabilities of Gd i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J E; Den Hartog, E A [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bilty, K A, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu, E-mail: biltyka@uwec.edu, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI 54702 (United States)

    2011-05-14

    Fourier transform spectra are used to determine emission branching fractions for 1290 lines of the first spectrum of gadolinium (Gd i). These branching fractions are converted to absolute atomic transition probabilities using previously reported radiative lifetimes from time-resolved laser-induced-fluorescence measurements (Den Hartog et al 2011 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44 055001). The wavelength range of the data set is from 300 to 1850 nm. A least squares technique for separating blends of the first and second spectra lines is also described and demonstrated in this work.

  2. Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features observed in infrared spectra suggest that certain very low excitation (VLE) nebulae have low C/O abundance ratios (Cohen and Barlow 1980; Aitken and Roche 1982). Fluxes in the multiplets [O II] lambda 2470 and C II] lambda 2326 have been measured for the VLE nebula He He 2-131 = HD 138403 using IUE high-dispersion spectra. An analysis similar to that of Harrington et al. (1980) for IC 418 gives C/O = 0.3 for He 2-131, compared with C/O = 1.3 for IC 418 and 0.6 for the Sun. (author)

  3. Automatic identification of mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several approaches to preprocessing and comparison of low resolution mass spectra have been evaluated by various test methods related to library search. It is shown that there is a clear correlation between the nature of any contamination of a spectrum, the basic principle of the transformation or distance measure, and the performance of the identification system. The identification of functionality from low resolution spectra has also been evaluated using several classification methods. It is shown that there is an upper limit to the success of this approach, but also that this can be improved significantly by using a very limited amount of additional information. 10 refs

  4. Energy scale in inclusive spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing on a model, valid in a limited domain of the phase space, it is shown that there is a universal dependence of the inclusive spectra that is not related to the types of initial and detected particles. The only dependence on the reaction quantum numbers is that present in the scale coefficient of the total energy. The presented experimental data provide with an evidence to that the scale coefficient is universal in the whole region of the variables and its value is related to the behaviour of spectra in the central region

  5. Energy scale in inclusive spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhoded, A.K.; Tolstenkov, A.N.

    1976-07-01

    It is shown, on the basis of a model that is valid in a certain limited phase-space region, that a universal relation exists for the inclusive spectra which is not connected with the type of the initial and detected particles. The entire dependence on the quantum numbers of the reaction is contained in a redefined scale coefficient for the total energy. The experimental data presented favor the assumption that the scale coefficient is universal in the entire range of the variables and that its value is connected with the behavior of the spectra in the central region. (AIP)

  6. Excitation spectra in Kondo insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the exotic strong local characters in the Kondo insulator are difficult to understand based on the band model and the localized Kondo electron model based on the local picture can explain the essential characteristics, in particular characteristic excitation spectra with two peak structure, which is caused through the transition of the localized Kondo electron. Excitation spectra in SmB6, YbB12 and Ce3Bi4Pt3 are shown to be explained by the above model. On the other hand, that of the pseudo gap Kondo insulator CeNiSn is shown to be substantially different. (orig.)

  7. Investigation of gamma spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the investigation of radiation fingerprint comparison, it is found out that the popular gamma spectra analysis softwares are faultful, which decrease the precision of radiation fingerprint comparison. So a new analysis software is development for solving the problems. In order to display the advantage of new program, some typical simulative gamma spectra of radiation source are analyzed respectively by our software and GAMMAVISION and GENNIE2000. The software can be applied not only in nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification, but also in any radiation measurement field. (authors)

  8. AVIRIS spectra of California wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael F.; Ustin, Susan L.; Klemas, Vytautas

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data gathered by the AVIRIS from wetlands in the Suisun Bay area of California on 13 October 1987 were analyzed. Spectra representing stands of numerous vegetation types (including Sesuvium verrucosum, Scirpus acutus and Scirpus californicus, Xanthium strumarium, Cynadon dactylon, and Distichlis spicata) and soil were isolated. Despite some defects in the data, it was possible to detect vegetation features such as differences in the location of the chlorophyll red absorption maximum. Also, differences in cover type spectra were evident in other spectral regions. It was not possible to determine if the observed features represent noise, variability in canopy architecture, or chemical constituents of leaves.

  9. Displacement cross sections and PKA spectra: tables and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage energy cross sections to 20 MeV are given for aluminum, vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, lead, and 18Cr10Ni stainless steel. They are based on ENDF/B-IV nuclear data and the Lindhard energy partition model. Primary knockon atom (PKA) spectra are given for aluminum, iron, niobium, tantalum, and lead for neutron energies up to 15 MeV at approximately one-quarter lethargy intervals. The contributions of various reactions to both the displacement cross sections (taken to be proportional to the damage energy cross sections) and the PKA spectra are presented graphically. Spectral-averaged values of the displacement cross sections are given for several spectra, including approximate maps for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and several positions in the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Flux values are included to permit estimation of displacement rates. Graphs show integral PKA spectra for the five metals listed above for neutron spectra corresponding to locations in the EBR-II, the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and a conceptual fusion reactor (UWMAK-I). Detailed calculations are given only for cases not previously documented. Uncertainty estimates are included

  10. Sputtering from spherical Au clusters by energetic atom bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study the effect of 100 keV Au atom bombardment of spherical Au clusters (radius R=40 A), containing 15,784 atoms. Results range from projectile transmission with only few atoms sputtered to more or less complete cluster disintegration. During disintegration, besides major fragments of the original cluster, monatomics and a large number of clusters with sizes up to 100 atoms, and even beyond, are created. Angular and energy spectra of sputtered atoms show features of both collisional sputtering and evaporation: particle emission is isotropic with an additional contribution of preferential emission along [1 1 0] directions. Energy spectra show the high-energy E-2 fall-off typical of linear-cascade sputtering plus an additional low-energy thermal component

  11. Atomic and Molecular Data Activities at NIFS in 2009 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We open and maintain the NIFS atomic and molecular numerical databases. Numbers of data records increase to 476,048 in total (as of Aug. 23, 2011) and mainly new data are added for AMDIS (electron impact ionization, excitation, and recombination cross sections and rate coefficients) and CHART (charge transfer of atom - ion collisions cross sections) during last two years. A collaboration group has started for research on atomic and molecular processes in plasma using the Large Helical Device and we measure visible and extreme ultraviolet spectra of W and rare earth elements. We also organize a collaboration group with atomic physicists from Japanese universities for research on W to study atomic data, spectra and collisional-radiative models for W ions. (author)

  12. Optimal x-ray spectra for screen-film mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental techniques have been used to study optimal x-ray for screen-film mammography. A simple model of mammographic imaging predicts optimum x-ray energies which are significantly higher than the K-characteristic energies of Mo. A subjective comparison of x-ray spectra from Mo-anode and W-anode tubes indicates that spectra produced by a W-anode tube filtered with materials of atomic number just above that of Mo are more suitable for screen-film mammography than spectra produced by the Mo-anode/Mo-filter system. The imaging performance of K-edge filtered, W-anode tube spectra was compared to the performance of Mo-anode spectra using phantom measurements and mastectomy specimen radiography. It was shown that optimal W-anode spectra can produce equal contrast with an exposure reduction of a factor of two to three, a dose reduction of a factor of two, and equal or reducing tube loading, compared to Mo-anode spectra. A computer simulation was carried out to extend the initial, monoenergetic theory to the case of real, polychromatic sources. The effects of varying filter material and thickness, tube operating potential, and breast thickness were all studied. Since W-anode x-ray tubes are considered to be better for Xerox mammography than Mo-anode tubes, this study has shown that both Xerox and screen-film techniques can be performed optimally with a single, properly designed, W-anode x-ray tube

  13. Squeezed States and Helmholtz Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Francisco Delgado, C; Reyes, M A; Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A

    1997-01-01

    The 'classical interpretation' of the wave function psi(x) reveals an interesting operational aspect of the Helmholtz spectra. It is shown that the traditional Sturm-Liouville problem contains the simplest key to predict the squeezing effect for charged particle states.

  14. Field description of nuclear spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the two-nucleon spectra of light and medium nuclei in terms of the meson exchange picture. In particular we compare the OBEP results with a more complete description including higher order processes. Also preliminary results on neutron single particle energies and total binding energies are presented

  15. Inclusive Particle Spectra at RHIC

    OpenAIRE

    Kahana, D. E.; Kahana, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    A simulation is performed of the recently reported data from PHOBOS at energies of 56 and 130 A GeV using the relativistic heavy ion cascade LUCIFER which had previously given a good description of the NA49 inclusive spectra at E=17.2 A GeV. The results compare well with these early measurements at RHIC.

  16. Electron spectra of adatomic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of statistical theory of line-shape in electron elastic scattering and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy electronic spectra are studied concerning the problem of the detection of scattering from adatomic complexes and determination of parameters of simple models for the surface structure. 20 refs

  17. Raman Fingerprints of Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzhbitskiy, Ivan A.; Corato, Marzio De; Ruini, Alice; Molinari, Elisa; Narita, Akimitsu; Hu, Yunbin; Schwab, Matthias G.; Bruna, Matteo; Yoon, Duhee; Milana, Silvia; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Prezzi, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Bottom-up approaches allow the production of ultra-narrow and atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), with electronic and optical properties controlled by the specific atomic structure. Combining Raman spectroscopy and ab-initio simulations, we show that GNR width, edge geometry and functional groups all influence their Raman spectra. The low-energy spectral region below 1000 cm-1 is particularly sensitive to edge morphology and functionalization, while the D peak dispersion can be used to uniquely fingerprint the presence of GNRs, and differentiates them from other sp2 carbon nanostructures.

  18. Raman Fingerprints of Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Bottom-up approaches allow the production of ultranarrow and atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with electronic and optical properties controlled by the specific atomic structure. Combining Raman spectroscopy and ab initio simulations, we show that GNR width, edge geometry, and functional groups all influence their Raman spectra. The low-energy spectral region below 1000 cm–1 is particularly sensitive to edge morphology and functionalization, while the D peak dispersion can be used to uniquely fingerprint the presence of GNRs and differentiates them from other sp2 carbon nanostructures. PMID:26907096

  19. Invisible structures in the X-ray absorption spectra of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The X-ray absorption spectra of actinides are discussed with an emphasis atomic multiplet theory, charge transfer theory and crystal field theory. • Resonant inelastic X-ray emission spectra (RIXS) reveal many new features in the X-ray absorption spectra of actinides. • The new range of RIXS beamlines will become an important tool in the determination of the electronic structure of actinides. - Abstract: The X-ray absorption spectra of actinides are discussed with an emphasis on the fundamental effects that influence their spectral shape, including atomic multiplet theory, charge transfer theory and crystal field theory. Many actinide spectra consist of a single peak and it is shown that the use of resonant inelastic X-ray emission spectra (RIXS) has the potential to reveal many new features in the X-ray absorption spectra of actinides. The new range of RIXS beamlines will allow the determination of new structures in the X-ray absorption spectra that have been hitherto invisible. This has the potential to become an important tool in the determination of the electronic structure of actinides

  20. Skyshine spectra of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the spectra of gamma photons back-scattered in vertical direction by infinite air above ground (skyshine) is presented. The source for these measurements is a 650 Ci Cobalt-60 point-source and the skyshine spectra are reported for distances from 150 m to 325 m from the source, measured with a 5 cm x 5 cm NaI(Tl) detector collimated with collimators of 12 mm and 20 mm diameter and 5 cm length. These continuous spectra are unfolded with Gold's iterative technique. The photon-spectra so obtained have a distinct line at 72 keV due to multiply-scattered photons. This is an energy where photoelectric and Compton cross-sections for multiply-scattered photons balance each other. The intensity of the line(I) decreases exponentially with distance (d) from the source obeying a relation of the type I = Isub(o)esup(-μd) where μ is called as ''Multiply-Scatter Coefficient'', a constant of the medium which is air in these measurements. This relationship is explained in terms of a halo around the source comprising of multiply-scattered gamma photons, Isub(0) being the intensity of these scattered photons at the location of cobalt-source. A fraction called as ''Back-scattered Fraction'', the ratio of Isub(0) to the number of original photons from the cobalt-source entering the infinite air, is also calculated. It is shown that with a properly calibrated detector system, this fraction can be used to determine the strength of a large gamma source, viz. a nuclear explosion in air, and for mineral prospecting. These conclusions are general and can be applied to any other infinite medium. Some forward-scatter (transmission) spectra of cobalt-60 source through 10 cm of Pb and 2.5 cm of Al are also reported. (auth.)

  1. Microwave Spectra and Structures of H_2O\\cdotsAgF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. L.; Walker, N. R.; Tew, D. P.; Legon, A. C.

    2011-06-01

    A Balle-Flygare FT-MW spectrometer coupled to a laser ablation source has been used to measure the pure rotational spectra of H2O\\cdotsAgF. Generation is via laser ablation (532 nm) of a silver rod in the presence of SF6, argon, a low partial pressure of H2O and the molecules are stabilized by supersonic expansion. The spectra of eight isotopologues have been measured. Rotational constants, B0 and C0, and the centrifugal distortion constant, Δ _J have been determined. Isotopic substitutions are available at the silver, oxygen and hydrogen atoms. The spectra are consistent with a linear arrangement of oxygen, silver and fluorine atoms and the structure is either C2v planar at equilibrium or CS pyramidal but with a low potential-energy barrier to planarity such that the v = 0 and 1 states associated with the motion that inverts the configuration at the O atom are well separated.

  2. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Neutral atom traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  4. MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION OF ATOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Mainfray, G.

    1985-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization of one-electron atoms, such as atomic hydrogen and alkaline atoms, is well understood and correctly described by rigorous theoretical models. The present paper will be devoted to collisionless multiphoton ionization of many-electron atoms as rare gases. It induces removal of several electrons and the production of multiply charged ions. Up to Xe5+ ions are produced in Xe atoms. Doubly charged ions can be produced, either by simultaneous excitation of two electrons, or b...

  5. Measurement of radiative lifetimes and atomic transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since it began in 1980, the Wisconsin Atomic Transition Probabilities (WATP) Program had measured radiative lifetimes and atomic transition probabilities for over 35 neutral and singly ionized species. Radiative lifetimes are measured using time- resolved laser-induced fluorescence of a slow atomic/ionic beam. These lifetimes are combined with branching fractions to yield absolute atomic transition probabilities for neutral and singly ionized species. The branching fractions are determined from emission spectra recorded using the 1.0 m Fourier-transform spectrometer at the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak, AZ. Currently the focus of the WATP Program is on the rare-earth elements, in particular Tm, Dy, and Ho.

  6. Nonclassical single-atom radiation generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Herbert

    1990-07-01

    In this contribution quantum-effects in the radiation-atom interaction will be reviewed. It is well known that most of the phenomena involving laser light can be described by semi-classical methods however phenomena such as laser noise the spectra and photon statistics of resonance fluorescence and the interaction of atoms in the single-atom maser require a quantization of the radiation field. In this paper we will describe results on the latter two effects. We will start with the discussion of resonance fluorescence. 1. RESONANCE FLUORESCENCE The resonant interaction of laser light with atomic systems has received considerable theoretical and experimental attention over the past decade. Until the advent of the laser light sources for spectroscopy consisted of ordinary spectral lamps excited by DC or RF discharges and produced light having a very broad spectral width and hence very short correlation time and a relatively low intensity. For such fields both the experimental and theoretical results are in general well understood. However the development of the laser made available light sources which are sufficiently intense that an atomic (or molecular) transition can be very easily saturated. In addition the lasers are highly monochromatic having a coherence time much greater than typical natural lifetimes of excited atomic states and finally tunable making it possible to selectively excite particular atomic transitions. The theoretical analysis of this physical situation requires the use of techniques more general than

  7. Optimum Metallic-Bond Scheme: A Quantitative Analysis of Mass Spectra of Sodium Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏长荣; 李家明

    2001-01-01

    Based on the results of the optimum metallic-bond scheme for sodium clusters, we present a quantitative analysis of the detailed features of the mass spectra of sodium clusters. We find that, in the generation of sodium clusters with various abundances, the quasi-steady processes through adding or losing a sodium atom dominate. The quasi-steady processes through adding or losing a sodium dimer are also important to understand the detailed features of mass spectra for small clusters.

  8. Correlation between grade of pearlite spheroidization and laser induced spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) which is used traditionally as a spectrochemical analytical technique was employed to analyze the grade of pearlite spheroidization. Three 12Cr1MoV steel specimens with different grades of pearlite spheroidization were ablated to produce plasma by pulse laser at 266 nm. In order to determine the optimal temporal condition and plasma parameters for correlating the grade of pearlite spheroidization and laser induced spectra, a set of spectra at different delays were analyzed by the principal component analysis method. Then, the relationship between plasma temperature, intensity ratios of ionic to atomic lines and grade of pearlite spheroidization was studied. The analysis results show that the laser induced spectra of different grades of pearlite spheroidization can be readily identifiable by principal component analysis in the range of 271.941–289.672 nm with 1000 ns delay time. It is also found that a good agreement exists between the Fe ionic to atomic line ratios and the tensile strength, whereas there is no obvious difference in the plasma temperature. Therefore, LIBS may be applied not only as a spectrochemical analytical technique but also as a new way to estimate the grade of pearlite spheroidization. (paper)

  9. Observations and modelling of diatomic molecular spectra from JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra in the visible range may be obtained along multiple lines of sight directed at the axisymmetric poloidal divertor of the JET tokamak. In X-point magnetic field configurations, the scrape-off-layer plasma contacts the divertor target plates. We have conducted observations and analysis of diatomic spectra in the divertor plasma along lines of sight in the strike zone vicinity. We have identified unambiguously CD, C2 and BeD. Synthetic spectra have been calculated. In addition to identification of the molecular features and separation of overlapping atomic lines, the comparison of simulations and observations allow quite sensitive determination of rotational and vibrational temperatures for the above diatomics in a divertor fusion plasma. Systematic studies show that Tr and Tv are comparable for BeD but Tv is significantly less than Tr for CD and C2. The BeD spectrum time history during a pulse (modulated by sweeping) appears as localized emission from the strike points similar to that of the atomic BeI visible spectrum lines. On the other hand, the CD bands during a swept pulse indicate a more distributed source. Thus both the BeD spectrum and time history suggest physical sputtering of BeD at the strike points. In contrast, the CD spectrum and time history indicate chemical release of higher deuterides followed by catabolism to CD. This work constitutes the first detailed study of diatomic species in the JET tokamak. (author)

  10. PIXE spectrum analysis taking into account bremsstrahlung spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous background appearing over the wide region of X-ray energy in the PIXE spectrum is very troublesome presence in the peak fitting. In the usual manner, the spectrum of continuous background is predicted as a function of polynomial and is subtracted from the X-ray spectrum. However, the parameters of the polynomial are determined with difficulty in the case that the continuous background exists under many peaks of characteristic X-rays. We calculated the production cross sections of continuous X-rays for several elements on the basis of the theories of quasi-free electron bremsstrahlung (QFEB), secondary electron bremsstrahlung (SEB) and atomic bremsstrahlung (AB), and obtained the continuous X-ray spectrum as a function of atomic number and X-ray energy. X-ray spectra of a standard sample and of a bovine liver sample were analyzed by a pattern analysis method assuming the reference spectra consisting of characteristic X-rays and continuous X-rays for each element. The results of analysis are quite satisfactory. By the present method, the PIXE spectra can be analyzed under little influence of the background subtraction, and it enables us a full auto-analysis of PIXE spectrum

  11. Laser-cooled atomic ions as probes of molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapped laser-cooled atomic ions are a new tool for understanding cold molecular ions. The atomic ions not only sympathetically cool the molecular ions to millikelvin temperatures, but the bright atomic ion fluorescence can also serve as a detector of both molecular reactions and molecular spectra. We are working towards the detection of single molecular ion spectra by sympathetic heating spectroscopy. Sympathetic heating spectroscopy uses the coupled motion of two trapped ions to measure the spectra of one ion by observing changes in the fluorescence of the other ion. Sympathetic heating spectroscopy is a generalization of quantum logic spectroscopy, but does not require ions in the motional ground state or coherent control of the ion internal states. We have recently demonstrated this technique using two isotopes of Ca+ [Phys. Rev. A, 81, 043428 (2010)]. Limits of the method and potential applications for molecular spectroscopy are discussed

  12. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  13. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  14. BPS Spectra, Barcodes and Walls

    CERN Document Server

    Cirafici, Michele

    2015-01-01

    BPS spectra give important insights into the non-perturbative regimes of supersymmetric theories. Often from the study of BPS states one can infer properties of the geometrical or algebraic structures underlying such theories. In this paper we approach this problem from the perspective of persistent homology. Persistent homology is at the base of topological data analysis, which aims at extracting topological features out of a set of points. We use these techniques to investigate the topological properties which characterize the spectra of several supersymmetric models in field and string theory. We discuss how such features change upon crossing walls of marginal stability in a few examples. Then we look at the topological properties of the distributions of BPS invariants in string compactifications on compact threefolds, used to engineer black hole microstates. Finally we discuss the interplay between persistent homology and modularity by considering certain number theoretical functions used to count dyons i...

  15. Inclusive Particle Spectra at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kahana, D E

    2000-01-01

    A simulation is performed of the recently reported data from PHOBOS at energies of $\\sqrt{s}=56,130 A$ GeV using the relativistic heavy ion cascade LUCIFER which had previously given a good description of the NA49 inclusive spectra at $\\sqrt{s}=17.2 A$ GeV. The results compare well with these early measurements at RHIC.

  16. Optimal classification of HCI spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Gaigalas, G.; Karpuskiene, R.; Rudzikas, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Energy levels of highly charged ions as a rule cannot be classified using LS coupling due to rapid increase of relativistic effects. It is suggested, for optimal classification of energy spectra, to calculate them in LS coupling and to transform the weights of the wave functions, obtained after diagonalization of the energy matrix, to the other coupling schemes. F-like ions are considered as an example.

  17. Explanation of the surface peak in charge integrated LEIS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxler, M.; Beikler, R.; Taglauer, E.; Schmid, K.; Gruber, R.; Ermolov, S.N.; Bauer, P. E-mail: bauer@exphys.uni-linz.ac.at

    2003-04-01

    Low energy ion scattering is very surface sensitive if scattered ions are analyzed. By time-of-flight (TOF) techniques, also neutral and charge integrated spectra (ions plus neutrals) can be obtained, which yield information about deeper layers. In the literature, the observation of a more or less pronounced surface peak was reported for charge integrated spectra, the intensity of the surface peak being higher at low energies and for heavy projectiles. Aiming at a more profound physical understanding of this surface peak, we performed TOF-experiments and computer simulations for He projectiles and a copper target. Experiments were done in the range 1-9 keV for a scattering angle of 129 deg. . The simulation was performed using the MARLOWE code for the given experimental parameters and a polycrystalline target. At low energies, a pronounced surface peak was observed, which fades away at higher energies. This peak is quantitatively reproduced by the simulation, and corresponds to scattering from {approx}2 atomic layers. Analyzing the contributions of the individual outermost atomic layers, one finds that the surface peak is due to binary collisions of projectiles with atoms in the first and second layer, while the contribution from deeper layers is dominated by multiple scattering.

  18. Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectra for Large Molecules through Molecules-in-Molecules Fragment-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, K V Jovan; Beckett, Daniel; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2015-09-01

    We present the first implementation of the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectrum of large molecules through the Molecules-in-Molecules (MIM) fragment-based method. An efficient projection of the relevant higher energy derivatives from smaller fragments to the parent molecule enables the extension of the MIM method for the evaluation of VCD spectra (MIM-VCD). The overlapping primary subsystems in this work are constructed from interacting fragments using a number-based scheme and the dangling bonds are saturated with link hydrogen atoms. Independent fragment calculations are performed to evaluate the energies, Hessian matrix, atomic polar tensor (APT), and the atomic axial tensor (AAT). Subsequently, the link atom tensor components are projected back onto the corresponding host and supporting atoms through the Jacobian projection method, as in the ONIOM approach. In the two-layer model, the long-range interactions between fragments are accounted for using a less computationally intensive lower level of theory. The performance of the MIM model is calibrated on the d- and l-enantiomers of 10 carbohydrate benchmark molecules, with strong intramolecular interactions. The vibrational frequencies and VCD intensities are accurately reproduced relative to the full, unfragmented, results for these systems. In addition, the MIM-VCD method is employed to predict the VCD spectra of perhydrotriphenylene and cryptophane-A, yielding spectra in agreement with experiment. The accuracy and performance of the benchmark systems validate the MIM-VCD model for exploring vibrational circular dichroism spectra of large molecules. PMID:26575919

  19. Optical Spectra of Triggered Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, T. D.; Biagi, C. J.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    In August 2009, the first optical spectra of triggered lightning flashes were acquired. Data from two triggered lightning flashes were obtained at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in north-central Florida. The spectrometer that was used has an average dispersion of 260 Å/mm resulting in an average resolution of 5 Å when mated to a Photron (SA1.1) high-speed camera. The spectra captured with this system had a free spectral range of 3800-8000 Å. The spectra were captured at 300,000 frames per second. The spectrometer's vertical field of view was 3 m at an altitude 50 m above the launch tower, intended to view the middle of the triggering wire. Preliminary results show that the copper spectrum dominated the earliest part of the flash and copper lines persisted during the total lifetime of the detectable spectrum. Animations over the lifetime of the stroke from the initial wire illumination to multiple return strokes show the evolution of the spectrum. In addition, coordinated high speed channel base current, electric field and imagery measurements of the exploding wire, downward leaders, and return strokes were recorded. Quantitative analysis of the spectral evolution will be discussed in the context of the overall flash development.

  20. Flicker noise pulsar radio spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Krzeszowski, K; Słowikowska, A; Jessner, A

    2014-01-01

    We present new results of fitting 108 spectra of radio pulsars with the flicker noise model proposed by Loehmer et al. (2008) and compare them with the spectral indices of power-law fits published by Maron et al. (2000). The fits to the model were carried out using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method appropriate for the non-linear fits. Our main conclusion is that pulsar radio spectra can be statistically very well described by the flicker noise model over wide frequency range from a few tens of MHz up to tens of GHz. Moreover, our dataset allows us to conduct statistical analysis of the model parameters. As our results show, there is a strong negative correlation between the flicker noise spectrum model parameters log $S_0$ and $n$ and a strong positive relationship between n and the power-law spectral index $\\alpha$. The latter implies that their physical meaning is similar, however the flicker noise model has an advantage over broken power-law model. Not only it describes the spectra in higher frequ...

  1. Evidence of alloying effects in TiCxN1-x compounds from calculated and experimental electron energy loss spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloying effects in TiCxN1-x compounds are investigated by first-principles calculation and experimental electron energy loss spectroscopy. The low energy loss spectra as well as the nitrogen and carbon K edges are considered and similar changes can be observed in the calculated and experimental spectra when the alloy composition is modified. These composition-dependent changes in the spectra are related to modifications in the scattering properties of the atomic shells near the absorbing atoms when the carbon and nitrogen relative concentrations are modified

  2. THE ORNL ATOM PROBE

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M

    1986-01-01

    The ORNL Atom Probe is a microanalytical tool for studies in materials science. The instrument is a combination of a customized version of the vacuum system of the VG FIM-100 atom probe, an ORNL-designed microcomputer-controlled digital timing system, and a double curved CEMA Imaging Atom Probe detector. The atom probe combines four instruments into one - namely a field ion microscope, an energy compensated time-of-flight mass spectrometer, an imaging atom probe, and a pulsed laser atom probe.

  3. Reconstruction of neutron spectra through neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neural network has been used to reconstruct the neutron spectra starting from the counting rates of the detectors of the Bonner sphere spectrophotometric system. A group of 56 neutron spectra was selected to calculate the counting rates that would produce in a Bonner sphere system, with these data and the spectra it was trained the neural network. To prove the performance of the net, 12 spectra were used, 6 were taken of the group used for the training, 3 were obtained of mathematical functions and those other 3 correspond to real spectra. When comparing the original spectra of those reconstructed by the net we find that our net has a poor performance when reconstructing monoenergetic spectra, this attributes it to those characteristic of the spectra used for the training of the neural network, however for the other groups of spectra the results of the net are appropriate with the prospective ones. (Author)

  4. SOFT X-RAY EMISSION SPECTRA AND THE BONDING OF ALUMINUM

    OpenAIRE

    Callcott, T.; Tsang, K.-L.; Zhang, C.; Ederer, D.; Arakawa, E.

    1987-01-01

    The L2,3 soft x-ray emission (SXE) spectra of Al in metallic Al, Al-Mn alloys, dilute Al-Mg alloys, the intermetallic compounds LiAl and Ni3Al, the semiconducting alloy (Al-Ga)As and insulating Al2O3 are presented. The spectra provide a measure of the s-like partial density of states (PDOS) localized at the Al atoms and show prominant qualitative features that may be identified with each of the major types of bonding in solids, ie. metallic, covalent and ionic. The spectra of metallic Al and ...

  5. Optical spectra and electronic structure of actinide ions in compounds and in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of theoretical and experimental studies of actinide spectra in condensed phases. Much of the work was accomplished at Argonne National Laboratory, but references to related investigations by others are included. Spectroscopic studies of the trivlent actinides are emphasized, as is the use of energy level parameters, evaluated from experimental data, to investigate systematic trends in electronic structure and other properties. Some reference is made to correlations with atomic spectra, as well as with spectra of the (II), (IV), and higher valence states. 207 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs

  6. CO2 laser photoacoustic spectra and vibrational modes of heroin, morphine and narcotine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R L Prasad; S N Thakur; G C Bhar

    2002-09-01

    Heroin, morphine and narcotine are very large molecules having 50, 40 and 53 atoms respectively. Moderately high resolution photoacoustic (PA) spectra have been recorded in 9.6 m and 10.6 m regions of CO2 laser. It is very difficult to assign the modes of vibrations for PA bands by comparison with conventional low resolution IR spectra. The ab initio quantum chemical calculations were used for determining the molecular geometries and normal mode frequencies of vibrations of these molecules for assignments of PA spectra.

  7. RDANN a new methodology to solve the neutron spectra unfolding problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimization processes known as Taguchi method and DOE methodology are applied to the design, training and testing of Artificial Neural Networks in the neutron spectrometry field, which offer potential benefits in the evaluation of the behavior of the net as well as the ability to examine the interaction of the weights and neurons inside the same one. In this work, the Robust Design of Artificial Neural Networks methodology is used to solve the neutron spectra unfolding problem, designing, training and testing an ANN using a set of 187 neutron spectra compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency, to obtain the better neutron spectra unfolded from the Bonner spheres spectrometer's count rates. (Author)

  8. CO2 laser photoacoustic spectra and vibrational modes of heroin, morphine and narcotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R. L.; Thakur, S. N.; Bhar, G. C.

    2002-09-01

    Heroin, morphine and narcotine are very large molecules having 50, 40 and 53 atoms respectively. Moderately high resolution photoacoustic (PA) spectra have been recorded in 9.6 mum and 10.6 mum regions of CO_2 laser. It is very difficult to assign the modes of vibrations for PA bands by comparison with conventional low resolution IR spectra. The ab initio quantum chemical calculations were used for determining the molecular geometries and normal mode frequencies of vibrations of these molecules for assignments of PA spectra.

  9. Parametrized spectra, multiplicative Thom spectra, and the twisted Umkehr map

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Matthew; Gepner, David

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and study a general theory of objects parametrized by spaces, in the setting of infinity categories. This framework specializes to give an infinity categorical model of parametrized spectra, and we apply these foundations to study the multiplicative properties of the generalized Thom spectrum functor. As part of this work we study the Picard space of a presentable monoidal infinity category. We sharpen classical results due to Lewis about the multiplicative properties of the Thom isomorphism. Our main application is the construction of twisted Umkehr maps on twistings of generalized cohomology theories.

  10. Calculation of {beta}-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    In order to study {beta}-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider {beta}-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured {beta}-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on {beta}-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of {beta}-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the {beta}-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the {beta} spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  11. Electronic spectra from TDDFT and machine learning in chemical space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its favorable computational efficiency, time-dependent (TD) density functional theory (DFT) enables the prediction of electronic spectra in a high-throughput manner across chemical space. Its predictions, however, can be quite inaccurate. We resolve this issue with machine learning models trained on deviations of reference second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) singles and doubles spectra from TDDFT counterparts, or even from DFT gap. We applied this approach to low-lying singlet-singlet vertical electronic spectra of over 20 000 synthetically feasible small organic molecules with up to eight CONF atoms. The prediction errors decay monotonously as a function of training set size. For a training set of 10 000 molecules, CC2 excitation energies can be reproduced to within ±0.1 eV for the remaining molecules. Analysis of our spectral database via chromophore counting suggests that even higher accuracies can be achieved. Based on the evidence collected, we discuss open challenges associated with data-driven modeling of high-lying spectra and transition intensities

  12. Synergistic approach to modeling X-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liedahl, D.A., LLNL

    1998-07-01

    Plasma emission models used in X-ray astronomy need to simulate X-ray spectra from at least thirteen elements. Development of comprehensive models requires large-scale calculations; for example, Fe M-shell spectra, K{alpha} fluorescence from near-neutral ions, and dielectronic recombination satellite spectra from L-shell ions. Current and recent missions (EUVE, ASCA, DXS, etc.) have already demonstrated the need for major, rapid improvements in spectral models. The high-resolution spectra to be acquired with the next generation of X- ray observatories (AXAF, XMM, Astro-E) promise to push spectral models to their limits. Essential to ensuring the quality of calculations used in spectral codes is corroboration in the laboratory, where controlled and precisely measured plasma conditions can be attained. To this end, we are capitalizing on a three-way synergistic relationship that links astrophysical observations, atomic modeling, and experiments using the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). After providing a brief orientation concerning the role of plasma emission models in X-ray astronomy, we discuss one example of this interplay.

  13. Electronic spectra from TDDFT and machine learning in chemical space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Hartmann, Mia; Tapavicza, Enrico; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole

    2015-08-01

    Due to its favorable computational efficiency, time-dependent (TD) density functional theory (DFT) enables the prediction of electronic spectra in a high-throughput manner across chemical space. Its predictions, however, can be quite inaccurate. We resolve this issue with machine learning models trained on deviations of reference second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) singles and doubles spectra from TDDFT counterparts, or even from DFT gap. We applied this approach to low-lying singlet-singlet vertical electronic spectra of over 20 000 synthetically feasible small organic molecules with up to eight CONF atoms. The prediction errors decay monotonously as a function of training set size. For a training set of 10 000 molecules, CC2 excitation energies can be reproduced to within ±0.1 eV for the remaining molecules. Analysis of our spectral database via chromophore counting suggests that even higher accuracies can be achieved. Based on the evidence collected, we discuss open challenges associated with data-driven modeling of high-lying spectra and transition intensities.

  14. Experimental studies on kaonic atoms at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the K-series x-rays of kaonic hydrogen atoms to determine the strong-interaction energy-level shift and width of the 1s atomic state with significant improvements over the previous experiments. The measurement offers a unique possibility to precisely determine the complex K-p S-wave scattering length. We have also measured kaonic x-ray spectra with several gaseous targets : deuterium, helium-3 and helium-4. In this paper, we present an overview of this experiment and preliminary spectra of those kaonic x-rays.

  15. Experimental studies on kaonic atoms at DAΦNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, S.; Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Berucci, C.; Bombelli, L.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Corradi, G.; Curceanu, C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Fiorini, C.; Frizzi, T.; Ghio, F.; Girolami, B.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R. S.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Kienle, P.; Sandri, P. Levi; Longoni, A.; Lucherini, V.; Marton, J.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Lener, M. Poli; Ponta, T.; Rizzo, A.; Vidal, A. Romero; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tatsuno, H.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Doce, O. Vazquez; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2011-10-01

    We have measured the K-series x-rays of kaonic hydrogen atoms to determine the strong-interaction energy-level shift and width of the 1s atomic state with significant improvements over the previous experiments. The measurement offers a unique possibility to precisely determine the complex K-p S-wave scattering length. We have also measured kaonic x-ray spectra with several gaseous targets : deuterium, helium-3 and helium-4. In this paper, we present an overview of this experiment and preliminary spectra of those kaonic x-rays.

  16. QCD's Partner Needed for Mass Spectra and Parton Structure Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    as in the case of the hydrogen atom, bound-state wave functions are needed to generate hadronic spectra. For this purpose, in 1971, Feynman and his students wrote down a Lorentz-invariant harmonic oscillator equation. This differential equation has one set of solutions satisfying the Lorentz-covariant boundary condition. This covariant set generates Lorentz-invariant mass spectra with their degeneracies. Furthermore, the Lorentz-covariant wave functions allow us to calculate the valence parton distribution by Lorentz-boosting the quark-model wave function from the hadronic rest frame. However, this boosted wave function does not give an accurate parton distribution. The wave function needs QCD corrections to make a contact with the real world. Likewise, QCD needs the wave function as a starting point for calculating the parton structure function. (author)

  17. Automatized interpretation of 10B double nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effectiveness of the double NQR method was shown when studying transitions of 10B, 11B, 39K and 23Na nuclei in borax and K2B4O7x4H2O. An automatized program for ES-1022 computer was suggested for interpreting DNQR spectra of nuclei with the spin number of 3. To improve agreement with experiment, effects of NQR level distortion with magnetic field in the process of crossing of NMR and NQR levels, incomplete saturation of a quadrupole system with radiofrequency field, partial thermal mixing were taken into account. Correlation coefficients between theoretical and experimental DNQR spectra equal to ∼ 0.9 were obtained. Constants of eQ10qzz quadrupole interaction and η asymmetry parameters were determined for two nonequivalent positions of boron atoms in Na2B4O7x10H2O and for four positions in K2B4O7x4H2O

  18. Atomic and molecular spectroscopy of transition metals in condensed helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We investigated laser induced fluorescence spectra of copper and gold atoms and dimers thereof isolated in solid and liquid 4He. Among the atomic spectral lines the most interesting ones are forbidden transitions that involve electrons from inner d-shells which are screened from the surrounding He atoms by the outer s-shell and are therefore much less affected by the interaction with the He matrix. Indeed, the observed spectral lineshapes are much narrower than those of transitions involving outer shell electrons. Another important result is the observation of well resolved vibrational structures in five molecular bands of the Au2 and Cu2 dimers. We expect that the analysis of those spectra will significantly advance our understanding of impurity atoms and molecules in condensed He. (author)

  19. Atomic physics of strongly correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the progress made in our continuing study of strongly correlated atomic systems within the last year. We have examined the shape of three-body systems in hyperspherical coordinates by studying the evolution of the density functions with the mass ratio of the particles in the system. We have calculated the ejected electron spectra from the autoionizing states formed in double capture processes in collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms. We have investigated the systematics and the propensity rules of radiative and Auger decay rates of high-lying doubly excited states. We have also studied ion-atom collisions for processes which pose great challenges to detailed theories, by looking into processes where the cross sections are small such as the excitation process in He++ + H collisions, or by looking into fine details such as the orientation parameters in excitation and charge transfer processes

  20. Coherent Forward Broadening in Cold Atom Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, R T

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that homogeneous line-broadening in a diffuse cold atom cloud is proportional to the resonant optical depth of the cloud. Further, it is demonstrated how the strong directionality of the coherent interactions causes the cloud's spectra to depend strongly on its shape, even when the cloud is held at constant densities. These two numerical observations can be predicted analytically by extending the single photon wave-function model. Lastly, elongating a cloud along the line of laser propagation causes the excitation probability distribution to deviate from the exponential decay predicted by the Beer-Lambert law to the extent where the atoms in the back of the cloud are more excited than the atoms in the front. These calculations are conducted at low densities relevant to recent experiments.

  1. Coherent forward broadening in cold atom clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, R. T.; Robicheaux, F.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that homogeneous line-broadening in a diffuse cold atom cloud is proportional to the resonant optical depth of the cloud. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how the strong directionality of the coherent interactions causes the cloud's spectra to depend strongly on its shape, even when the cloud is held at constant densities. These two numerical observations can be predicted analytically by extending the single-photon wave-function model. Lastly, elongating a cloud along the line of laser propagation causes the excitation probability distribution to deviate from the exponential decay predicted by the Beer-Lambert law to the extent where the atoms at the back of the cloud are more excited than the atoms at the front. These calculations are conducted at the low densities relevant to recent experiments.

  2. Atomic and molecular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a textbook for an introductory course of atomic physics for students of chemistry. After an introduction to the mathematical and physical foundations the quantum mechanical theory of atoms is described starting from simple examples of quantum mechanics. Then the atomic structure and the chemical bending are extensively discussed. This book is also suited for physicists who are especially interested in the atomic structure and the theory of chemical reactions. (HSI)

  3. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Emboras, A.; Niegemann, J.; Ma, P; Haffner, C; Pedersen, A.; Luisier, M.; Hafner, C; Schimmel, T.; Leuthold, J.

    2016-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore’s law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocat...

  4. Atomizing nozzle and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Figliola, Richard S.; Molnar, Holly M.

    1992-06-30

    High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

  5. Antiprotonic Helium Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kartavtsev, O. I.

    1995-01-01

    Metastable antiprotonic helium atoms $^{3,4}\\! H\\! e\\bar pe$ have been discovered recently in experiments of the delayed annihilation of antiprotons in helium media. These exotic atoms survive for an enormous time (about tens of microseconds) and carry the extremely large total angular momentum $L\\sim 30-40$. The theoretical treatment of the intrinsic properties of antiprotonic helium atoms, their formation and collisions with atoms and molecules is discussed.

  6. Atoms Talking to SQUIDs

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to couple trapped $^{87}$Rb atoms to a superconducting flux qubit through a magnetic dipole transition. We plan to trap atoms on the evanescent wave outside an ultrathin fiber to bring the atoms to less than 10 $\\mu$m above the surface of the superconductor. This hybrid setup lends itself to probing sources of decoherence in superconducting qubits. Our current plan has the intermediate goal of coupling the atoms to a superconducting LC resonator.

  7. Discrete Bose-Einstein spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bose-Einstein energy spectrum of a quantum gas, confined in a rigid cubic box, is shown to become discrete and strongly dependent on the box geometry (size L), temperature, T and atomic mass number, Aat, in the region of small γ=AatTV1/3. This behavior is the consequence of the random state degeneracy in the box. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the total energy does not obey the conventional law any longer, but a new law, which depends on γ and on the quantum gas fugacity. This energy law imposes a faster decrease to zero than it is classically expected, for γ→0. The lighter the gas atoms, the higher the temperatures or the box size, for the same effects in the discrete Bose-Einstein regime. (author)

  8. Atomic Energy Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This act provides for the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The board is responsible for the control and supervision of the development, application and use of atomic energy. The board is also considered necessary to enable Canada to participate effectively in measures of international control of atomic energy

  9. XRD spectra of new YBaCuO superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sujinnapram; P Udomsamuthirun; T Kruaehong; T Nilkamjon; S Ratreng

    2011-08-01

    XRD spectra of new YBaCuO superconductors were studied. There were 2 phases found in our samples, the superconducting phase and the non-superconducting phase. The more non-superconducting phase, the more anisotropy parameters were found. The amount of impurities have no effect on the value of -axis which has a linear relation to the number of Cu-atoms. So the new formula of YBaCuO are the new types of superconductor in this family that have higher -axis than the Y123.

  10. ESR spectra of VOBr2 in alcohols and aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESR spectra of VOBr2 solutions in absolutized alcohols ROH (R - Me, Et, i-Pr) and aqueous solutions in the presence of LiBr and HBr are investigated and parameters of spin-hamiltonian of vanadium oxocomplexes are determined. Stabilization of [VOBr(ROH)4]+ complex, in which bromide-ion occupies position in xy plane, is detected. Isotropic additional HFS from 79,81Br atoms at the temperature close to the solution boiling point is found, and at 77 K -anisotropic additional HFS in the range of transitions corresponding to perpendicular orientation of particles as to magnetic field

  11. LYAPUNOV SPECTRA FOR KAPITZA OSCILLATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyer Iqbal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Here we purpose a simple but realistic model of one dimensional nonlinear Kapitza oscillator driven by sin- or cos- rapidly external oscillating periodical force. The model has a parameter 2gl=a22 of dimension one, depending on the amplitude a and frequency of modulation . Changing its value we construct phase portraits of the system in the neighbourhood of fixed points and demonstrate the changing in Lyapunov spectrum. Our purpose is to observe the behavior of system at fixed points due to the different structures of the Lyapunov spectra

  12. Rotational spectra and molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wollrab, James E

    1967-01-01

    Physical Chemistry, A Series of Monographs: Rotational Spectra and Molecular Structure covers the energy levels and rotational transitions. This book is divided into nine chapters that evaluate the rigid asymmetric top molecules and the nuclear spin statistics for asymmetric tops. Some of the topics covered in the book are the asymmetric rotor functions; rotational transition intensities; classes of molecules; nuclear spin statistics for linear molecules and symmetric tops; and classical appearance of centrifugal and coriolis forces. Other chapters deal with the energy levels and effects of ce

  13. Identified hadron spectra from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Gábor I.; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyslouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons and protons, as well as antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity from d+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = 200\\,{\\rm GeV} have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The transverse momentum range of particle identification was extended to beyond 3 GeV/c using the TOF detector and a new trigger system. The pseudorapidity dependence of the nuclear modification factor for charged hadrons in d+Au collisions is presented.

  14. Reaction of tungsten anion clusters with molecular and atomic nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Dok; Stolcic, Davor; Fischer, Matthias; Ganteför, Gerd

    2003-01-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectra for WnN-2 (n=1 8) clusters produced by addition of atomic and molecular nitrogen on W anion clusters are presented. Evidence is provided that molecular chemisorption of N2 is more stable than the dissociative one on tungsten anion clusters consisting of eight atoms or less, which is completely different from the results on tungsten bulk surfaces. A general tendency toward molecular chemisorption for small clusters can be explained by reduced charge transfer f...

  15. Atomic spectroscopy sympsoium, Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 23--26, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts of one hundred papers given at the conference are presented along with the conference program and an author index. Session topics include: highly ionized atoms; laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure; complex spectra; laser spectroscopy, radiation theory; theory of highly ionized atoms and analysis of plasmas; plasma spectroscopy, line strengths; spectral analysis, instrumentation, reference wavelengths; beam foil spectroscopy, line strengths, energy levels; absorption spectroscopy, autoionization, and related theory; and spectral analysis, instrumentation, and VUV physics

  16. Synthesis and spectra of N-15 labelled phenyl azides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method permitting a stepwise introduction of nitrogen atoms without isolation of intermediate compounds was chosen for the preparation of 15-N labelled phenyl azides: C6H5NH2 ->(a, b) -> C6H5-N=N=N where a Na15NO2, HCl, b = Ts15NH2/NaOH. GC-MS investigation demonstrated the high purity and confirmed the identity of all isotopomers Ph-N3, Ph-15N=N=N, Ph-N=15N=N, Ph-N=N=15N and allowed us to propose the MS fragmentation patterns. 15N NMR spectra gave evidence that no rearrangement of the nitrogen atom in the azido group took place during the synthesis

  17. ESR spectra of VOCl2 solutions in alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESR spectra of VOCl2 solutions in ROH(R - Me, Et, i-Pr) absolute alcohols are studied. It is stated that [VOCl2(ROH)3](1) molecular form is the basic complex form, there with two Cl atoms are arranged in a plane perpendicular to V=0 bond. In MeOH 10-15% of the second [VOCl(MeOH)4]+ (2) form is also present. Under HCl effect on these solutions a step-by-step replacement of ROH with Cl atoms takes place. In complex 2 chloride-ion occupies equatorial position. Formation of 2 under transition to the solution of solid (1) is due to efficient solvolytic activity of MeOH as compared to other alcohols. Vice versa, dissolution of crystalline [VOCl(i-PrOH)4]+Cl- in i-PrOH is followed by transition to molecular forms

  18. CLOUDY 90: Numerical Simulation of Plasmas and Their Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, G. J.; Korista, K. T.; Verner, D. A.; Ferguson, J. W.; Kingdon, J. B.; Verner, E. M.

    1998-07-01

    CLOUDY is a large-scale spectral synthesis code designed to simulate fully physical conditions within an astronomical plasma and then predict the emitted spectrum. Here we describe version 90 (C90) of the code, paying particular attention to changes in the atomic database and numerical methods that have affected predictions since the last publicly available version, C84. The computational methods and uncertainties are outlined together with the direction future development will take. The code is freely available and is widely used in the analysis and interpretation of emission-line spectra. Web access to the Fortran source for CLOUDY, its documentation Hazy, and an independent electronic form of the atomic database is also described.

  19. Duality properties between spectra and tilings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Spectra and tilings play an important role in analysis and geometry respectively.The relations between spectra and tilings have bafied the mathematicians for a long time.Many conjectures,such as the Fuglede conjecture,are placed on the establishment of relations between spectra and tilings,although there are no desired results.In the present paper we derive some characteristic properties of spectra and tilings which highlight certain duality properties between them.

  20. Operator functions and localization of spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gil’, Michael I

    2003-01-01

    "Operator Functions and Localization of Spectra" is the first book that presents a systematic exposition of bounds for the spectra of various linear nonself-adjoint operators in a Hilbert space, having discrete and continuous spectra. In particular bounds for the spectra of integral, differential and integro-differential operators, as well as finite and infinite matrices are established. The volume also presents a systematic exposition of estimates for norms of operator-valued functions and their applications.

  1. Single atom electrochemical and atomic analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rama

    In the past decade, advances in electron and scanning-probe based microscopies have led to a wealth of imaging and spectroscopic data with atomic resolution, yielding substantial insight into local physics and chemistry in a diverse range of systems such as oxide catalysts, multiferroics, manganites, and 2D materials. However, typical analysis of atomically resolved images is limited, despite the fact that image intensities and distortions of the atoms from their idealized positions contain unique information on the physical and chemical properties inherent to the system. Here, we present approaches to data mine atomically resolved images in oxides, specifically in the hole-doped manganite La5/8Ca3/8MnO3, on epitaxial films studied by in-situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Through application of bias to the STM tip, atomic-scale electrochemistry is demonstrated on the manganite surface. STM images are then further analyzed through a suite of algorithms including 2D autocorrelations, sliding window Fourier transforms, and others, and can be combined with basic thermodynamic modelling to reveal relevant physical and chemical descriptors including segregation energies, existence and strength of atomic-scale diffusion barriers, surface energies and sub-surface chemical species identification. These approaches promise to provide tremendous insights from atomically resolved functional imaging, can provide relevant thermodynamic parameters, and auger well for use with first-principles calculations to yield quantitative atomic-level chemical identification and structure-property relations. This research was sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, BES, DOE. Research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which also provided support and is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  2. Atomic swelling upon compression

    CERN Document Server

    Dolmatov, V K

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogen atom under the pressure of a spherical penetrable confinement potential of a decreasing radius $r_{0}$ is explored, as a case study. A novel counter-intuitive effect of atomic swelling rather than shrinking with decreasing $r_{0}$ is unraveled, when $r_{0}$ reaches, and remains smaller than, a certain critical value. Upon swelling, the size of the atom is shown to increase by an order of magnitude, or more, compared to the size of the free atom. Examples of changes of photoabsorption properties of confined hydrogen atom upon its swelling are uncovered and demonstrated.

  3. Database-Driven Analyses of Astronomical Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cami, Jan

    2012-03-01

    Spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools to study the physical properties and chemical composition of very diverse astrophysical environments. In principle, each nuclide has a unique set of spectral features; thus, establishing the presence of a specific material at astronomical distances requires no more than finding a laboratory spectrum of the right material that perfectly matches the astronomical observations. Once the presence of a substance is established, a careful analysis of the observational characteristics (wavelengths or frequencies, intensities, and line profiles) allows one to determine many physical parameters of the environment in which the substance resides, such as temperature, density, velocity, and so on. Because of this great diagnostic potential, ground-based and space-borne astronomical observatories often include instruments to carry out spectroscopic analyses of various celestial objects and events. Of particular interest is molecular spectroscopy at infrared wavelengths. From the spectroscopic point of view, molecules differ from atoms in their ability to vibrate and rotate, and quantum physics inevitably causes those motions to be quantized. The energies required to excite vibrations or rotations are such that vibrational transitions generally occur at infrared wavelengths, whereas pure rotational transitions typically occur at sub-mm wavelengths. Molecular vibration and rotation are coupled though, and thus at infrared wavelengths, one commonly observes a multitude of ro-vibrational transitions (see Figure 13.1). At lower spectral resolution, all transitions blend into one broad ro-vibrational molecular band. The isotope. Molecular spectroscopy thus allows us to see a difference of one neutron in an atomic nucleus that is located at astronomical distances! Since the detection of the first interstellar molecules (the CH [21] and CN [14] radicals), more than 150 species have been detected in space, ranging in size from diatomic

  4. Fast computation of morphological area pattern spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, Arnold; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2001-01-01

    An area based counterpart of the binary structural opening spectra is developed It is shown that these area opening and closing spectra can be computed using an adaptation of Tarjan's union-find algorithm These spectra provide rotation, translation, and scale invariant pattern vectors for texture an

  5. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...

  6. Excited atoms. Vozbuzhdennye atomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    An examination is made of the properties of excited atoms and molecules, the processes of their formation in a gas and plasma, and the diffusion of excited atoms in a gas. A presentation is made of the processes in which excited and metastable atoms and molecules in a gas are destroyed upon collision with electrons, atoms, and molecules. A study is made of the relaxation of excited states during collisions - excitation transfer, depolarization, transitions between fine structure states, etc. Information is given on ionization that includes the participation of excited atoms - the Penning process, associative ionization. An examination is made of highly excited states of atoms and the processes that take place during their participation. The book is intended for personnel in the area of physics and chemistry of plasma, atomic and molecular physics, chemical physics as well as in allied areas of physics. 1280 references, 52 figures, 76 tables.

  7. Interferometry with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optics and interferometry with matter waves is the art of coherently manipulating the translational motion of particles like neutrons, atoms and molecules. Coherent atom optics is an extension of techniques that were developed for manipulating internal quantum states. Applying these ideas to translational motion required the development of techniques to localize atoms and transfer population coherently between distant localities. In this view position and momentum are (continuous) quantum mechanical degrees of freedom analogous to discrete internal quantum states. In our contribution we start with an introduction into matter wave optics in sect. 1, discuss coherent atom optics and atom interferometry techniques for molecular beams in sect. 2 and for trapped atoms in sect. 3. In sect. 4 we then describe tools and experiments that allow to probe the evolution of quantum states of many-body systems by atom interference.

  8. Absorption spectra of broadened sodium resonance lines in presence of rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressure broadening of alkali-metal lines is a fundamental problem with numerous applications. For example, the sodium resonance lines broadened by xenon are important in the production of broad spectra emitted in the HPS (High-Pressure Sodium) lamp and they potentially can be used for gas condition diagnostics. Broadened absorption lines of alkali-metal atoms are prominent in the optical spectra of brown dwarfs and understanding the broadening mechanism will help elucidate the chemical composition and atmospheric properties of those stars. The far-line wing spectra of sodium resonance lines broadened by rare gases are found to exhibit molecular characteristics such as satellites and hence the total absorption coefficients for vapors of Na atoms and perturbing rare gas atoms can be modeled as Na-RG (rare gas) molecular absorption spectra. In this work, using carefully chosen interatomic potentials for Na-RG molecules we carry out quantum-mechanical calculations for reduced absorption coefficients for vapors composed of Na-He, Na-Ar, and Na-Xe. Calculated spectra are compared to available experimental results and the agreement is good in the measured satellite positions and shapes

  9. Study of ion-induced optical emission spectra in sputtering of scandium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion-induced optical emission spectra excited by bombardment of scandium target with 40 keV Xe+ ions are studied in spectral region of 380-600nm. Excitation efficiencies of atomic energy levels in sputtering processes and in plasma discharge are compared. Possible new mechanisms of electron excitation in ion sputtering of metals are discussed. (author)

  10. Fractal spectra in generalized Fibonacci one-dimensional magnonic quasicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C.H.O. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S., E-mail: manoelvasconcelos@yahoo.com.br [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Barbosa, P.H.R.; Barbosa Filho, F.F. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Piaui, 64049-550 Teresina-Pi (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we carry out a theoretical analysis of the spectra of magnons in quasiperiodic magnonic crystals arranged in accordance with generalized Fibonacci sequences in the exchange regime, by using a model based on a transfer-matrix method together random-phase approximation (RPA). The generalized Fibonacci sequences are characterized by an irrational parameter {sigma}(p,q), which rules the physical properties of the system. We discussed the magnonic fractal spectra for first three generalizations, i.e., silver, bronze and nickel mean. By varying the generation number, we have found that the fragmentation process of allowed bands makes possible the emergence of new allowed magnonic bulk bands in spectra regions that were magnonic band gaps before, such as which occurs in doped semiconductor devices. This interesting property arises in one-dimensional magnonic quasicrystals fabricated in accordance to quasiperiodic sequences, without the need to introduce some deferent atomic layer or defect in the system. We also make a qualitative and quantitative investigations on these magnonic spectra by analyzing the distribution and magnitude of allowed bulk bands in function of the generalized Fibonacci number F{sub n} and as well as how they scale as a function of the number of generations of the sequences, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quasiperiodic magnonic crystals are arranged in accordance with the generalized Fibonacci sequence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heisenberg model in exchange regime is applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use a theoretical model based on a transfer-matrix method together random-phase approximation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fractal spectra are characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the distribution of allowed bulk bands in function of the generalized Fibonacci number.

  11. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented. (GHT)

  12. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented

  13. Relations between compositional modulation and atomic ordering degree in thin films of ternary Ⅲ-Ⅴ semiconductor alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li-Ping; Zheng Zhen; Liang Jia-Chang; Le Xiao-Yun; Zou Chao; Liu Huan-Li; Liu Ye

    2008-01-01

    This paper derives the expressions for the ordering degree and the modulation factor of A and B atoms in AxB1-xC epilayers of ternary Ⅲ-Ⅴ semiconductor alloys. Using these expressions, it identifies quantitatively the alternating atom-enhanced planes, compositional modulations, atomic ordering degree on the group-Ⅲ sublattices and the fine structure of NMR spectra.

  14. Analysis of multi-layer ERBS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmitt, G.G. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rosa, L.F.S. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nandi, S.K. [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Vos, M., E-mail: maarten.vos@anu.edu.au [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Electron Rutherford backscattering (ERBS) spectra are presented. • The spectra are fitted based on physical meaningful quantities. • Very consistent results are obtained for spectra taken under different conditions. • This establishes that ERBS can be used to measure film thicknesses. - Abstract: A systematic way of analysis of multi-layer electron Rutherford backscattering spectra is described. The approach uses fitting in terms of physical meaningful parameters. Simultaneous analysis then becomes possible for spectra taken at different incoming energies and measurement geometries. Examples are given to demonstrate the level of detail that can be resolved by this technique.

  15. Accurate abundance analysis of late-type stars: advances in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Barklem, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of stellar properties such as chemical compositions, masses and ages, through stellar spectra, is a fundamental problem in astrophysics. Progress in the understanding, calculation and measurement of atomic properties and processes relevant to the high-accuracy analysis of F-, G-, and K-type stellar spectra is reviewed, with particular emphasis on abundance analysis. This includes fundamental atomic data such as energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities, as well as processes of photoionisation, collisional broadening and inelastic collisions. A recurring theme throughout the review is the interplay between theoretical atomic physics, laboratory measurements, and astrophysical modelling, all of which contribute to our understanding of atoms and atomic processes, as well as to modelling stellar spectra.

  16. Neutron and gamma dose and spectra measurements on the Little Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-measurement team of the Weapons Engineering Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) measured neutron and gamma dose and spectra on the Little Boy replica at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in April 1983. This assembly is a replica of the gun-type atomic bomb exploded over Hiroshima in 1945. These measurements support the National Academy of Sciences Program to reassess the radiation doses due to atomic bomb explosions in Japan. Specifically, the following types of information were important: neutron spectra as a function of geometry, gamma to neutron dose ratios out to 1.5 km, and neutron attenuation in the atmosphere. We measured neutron and gamma dose/fission from close-in to a kilometer out, and neutron and gamma spectra at 90 and 300 close-in. This paper describes these measurements and the results. 12 references, 13 figures, 5 tables

  17. The gamma-ray spectra of halocarbons in positron–electron annihilation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-ray spectra of the positron annihilation process in methane CH4 and its fully substituent halocarbons CF4, CCl4, and CBr4 have been studied. The theoretical predictions of the inner valence electrons agree well with the experimental measurements for all these molecules. That the outermost s electrons in carbon or halogen atoms dominate the gamma-ray spectra has been confirmed for the first time. The positrophilic site has also been found in these molecules and understanding of annihilation processes in molecules has been enhanced. - Highlights: • The inner valence electrons in molecules dominate the Doppler shift. • The outermost atomic s electrons in molecules show dominance in the gamma-ray spectra. • The positron can penetrate deeper inside molecules in positrophilic sites to annihilate with inner valence electrons

  18. Infrared absorption spectra of transition metals-doped soda lime silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared (IR) absorption spectra of some prepared undoped and transition metals-doped soda-lime-silicate glasses have been studied in the region of 400-4000 cm-1. IR spectra were analyzed to determine and differentiate the various vibrational modes by applying a deconvolution method to the IR spectra. Although the first sight reveals close similarity between the different transition metal- (TM) doped samples; careful inspection indicates some minor differences depending on the type of TM ions. These observed data are correlated with similar energy of the 3d orbitals of TM atoms in the neutral state and when the atoms are ionized, the 3d orbitals becomes more stable than the 4 s orbitals.

  19. The gamma-ray spectra of halocarbons in positron–electron annihilation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.G., E-mail: hsiaoguangma@188.com; Zhu, Y.H.; Liu, Y.

    2015-10-09

    The gamma-ray spectra of the positron annihilation process in methane CH{sub 4} and its fully substituent halocarbons CF{sub 4}, CCl{sub 4}, and CBr{sub 4} have been studied. The theoretical predictions of the inner valence electrons agree well with the experimental measurements for all these molecules. That the outermost s electrons in carbon or halogen atoms dominate the gamma-ray spectra has been confirmed for the first time. The positrophilic site has also been found in these molecules and understanding of annihilation processes in molecules has been enhanced. - Highlights: • The inner valence electrons in molecules dominate the Doppler shift. • The outermost atomic s electrons in molecules show dominance in the gamma-ray spectra. • The positron can penetrate deeper inside molecules in positrophilic sites to annihilate with inner valence electrons.

  20. Different spectra with the same neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using as source term the spectrum of a 239Pu-Be source several neutron spectra have been calculated using Monte Carlo methods. The source term was located in the centre of spherical moderators made of light water, heavy water and polyethylene of different diameters. Also a 239Pu-Be source was used to measure its neutron spectrum, bare and moderated by water. The neutron spectra were measured at 100 cm with a Bonner spheres spectrometer. Monte Carlo calculations were used to calculate the neutron spectra of bare and water-moderated spectra that were compared with those measured with the spectrometer. Resulting spectra are similar to those found in power plants with PWR, BWR and Candu nuclear reactors. Beside the spectra the dosimetric features were determined. Using moderators and a single neutron source can be produced neutron spectra alike those found in workplaces, this neutron fields can be utilized to calibrate neutron dosimeters and area monitors. (Author)

  1. Optimal Extraction of Echelle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Nikolai

    The extraction of the echelle spectra registered with a CCD detector represents a big challenge because of three reasons: (1) the pixel sampling is often close or worse then optimal, (2) spectral orders are curved and tilted with respect to the CCD rows (or columns) and (3) every pixel contains additional noise coming from various sources as illustrated in Figure 1. The main goal of an optimal extraction is to recover as much of the science signal while minimizing the contribution of the noise. Here we present the Slit Function Decomposition algorithm which replaces the summation in a sliding window with a reconstruction of the slit illumination profile. The reconstruction is formulated as an inverse problem solved by iterations and it is robust against most of the systematic problems including cosmic rays and cosmetic defects.

  2. Quantum entanglement without eigenvalue spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H

    2001-01-01

    We introduce algebraic sets in complex projective spaces for the mixed states in bipartite quantum systems, which are independent of their eigenvalues and only measure the "position" of their eigenvectors, as their nonlocal invariants (ie., remaining invariant after local unitary transformations). The algebraic sets have to be the union of the linear subspaces if the mixed state is separable, and thus we give a "eigenvalue-free" criterion of separability. Based on our criterion, examples are given to illustrate that entangled mixed states which are invariant under partial transposition or fufill entropy and disorder criterion of separability can be constructed systematically. A by-product is a interesting lower bound of the Schmidt numbers of the "random" rank m mixed states in mxm sysytems. We reveal that a large part of quantum entanglement is independent of eigenvalue spectra and develop a method to measure this part of quantum enatnglement.

  3. Atomic collisions research with excited atomic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements and calculations of fundamental atomic collision and spectroscopic properties such as collision cross sections, reaction rates, transition probabilities etc. underpin the understanding and operation of many plasma and gas-discharge-based devices and phenomena, for example plasma processing and deposition. In almost all cases the complex series of reactions which sustains the discharge or plasma, or produces the reactive species of interest, has a precursor electron impact excitation, attachment, dissociation or ionisation event. These processes have been extensively studied in a wide range of atomic and molecular species and an impressive data base of collision cross sections and reaction rates now exists. However, most of these measurements are for collisions with stable atomic or molecular species which are initially in their ground electronic state. Relatively little information is available for scattering from excited states or for scattering from unstable molecular radicals. Examples of such species would be metastable excited rare gases, which are often used as buffer gases, or CF2 radicals formed by electron impact dissociation in a CF4 plasma processing discharge. We are interested in developing experimental techniques which will enable the quantitative study of such exotic atomic and molecular species. In this talk I would like to outline one such facility which is being used for studies of collisions with metastable He(23S) atoms

  4. Cassini UVIS observations of Titan nightglow spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; West, Robert A.; Gustin, Jacques; Larsen, Kristopher; Stewart, A. Ian F.; Esposito, Larry W.; McClintock, William E.; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; Bradley, E. Todd

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we present the first nightside EUV and FUV airglow limb spectra of Titan showing molecular emissions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed photon emissions of Titan's day and night limb-airglow and disk-airglow on multiple occasions, including during an eclipse observation. The 71 airglow observations analyzed in this paper show EUV (600-1150 Å) and FUV (1150-1900 Å) atomic multiplet lines and band emissions arising from either photoelectron induced fluorescence and solar photo-fragmentation of molecular nitrogen (N2) or excitation by magnetosphere plasma. The altitude of the peak UV emissions on the limb during daylight occurred inside the thermosphere at the altitude of the topside ionosphere (near 1000 km altitude). However, at night on the limb, a subset of emission features, much weaker in intensity, arise in the atmosphere with two different geometries. First, there is a twilight photoelectron-excited glow that persists with solar depression angle up to 25-30 degrees past the terminator, until the solar XUV shadow height passes the altitude of the topside ionosphere (1000-1200 km). The UV twilight glow spectrum is similar to the dayglow but weaker in intensity. Second, beyond 120° solar zenith angle, when the upper atmosphere of Titan is in total XUV darkness, there is indication of weak and sporadic nightside UV airglow emissions excited by magnetosphere plasma collisions with ambient thermosphere gas, with similar N2 excited features as above in the daylight or twilight glow over an extended altitude range.

  5. Long range intermolecular forces in triatomic systems: connecting the atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations

    OpenAIRE

    Cvitas, Marko T.; Soldan, Pavel; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2005-01-01

    The long-range forces that act between three atoms are analysed in both atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations. Expressions for atom-diatom dispersion coefficients are obtained in terms of 3-body nonadditive coefficients. The anisotropy of atom-diatom C_6 dispersion coefficients arises primarily from nonadditive triple-dipole and quadruple-dipole forces, while pairwise-additive forces and nonadditive triple-dipole and dipole-dipole-quadrupole forces contribute significantly to atom-di...

  6. Sequential oxygen atom chemisorption on surfaces of small iron Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report photoelectron spectra of iron oxide clusters, FexOy- (x=1 endash 4, y=1 endash 6). For a given x, we find that the electron affinity increases with the number of O atoms, consistent with an increasing degree of oxidation. The results are interpreted based on charge transfer interactions between the Fex clusters and the O atoms, and provide key information about the oxide cluster structures, in which each O atom is suggested to locate on the surface of the clusters for the x=3 and 4 series. These clusters provide novel model systems to understand the electronic structure of bulk iron oxides. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Early atomic models - from mechanical to quantum (1904-1913)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, C.

    2013-01-01

    A complete history of early atomic models would fill volumes, but a reasonably coherent tale of the path from mechanical atoms to the quantum can be told by focusing on the relevant work of three great contributors to atomic physics, in the critically important years between 1904 and 1913: J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr. We first examine the origins of Thomson's mechanical atomic models, from his ethereal vortex atoms in the early 1880's, to the myriad "corpuscular" atoms he proposed following the discovery of the electron in 1897. Beyond qualitative predictions for the periodicity of the elements, the application of Thomson's atoms to problems in scattering and absorption led to quantitative predictions that were confirmed by experiments with high-velocity electrons traversing thin sheets of metal. Still, the much more massive and energetic α-particles being studied by Rutherford were better suited for exploring the interior of the atom, and careful measurements on the angular dependence of their scattering eventually allowed him to infer the existence of an atomic nucleus. Niels Bohr was particularly troubled by the radiative instability inherent to any mechanical atom, and succeeded in 1913 where others had failed in the prediction of emission spectra, by making two bold hypotheses that were in contradiction to the laws of classical physics, but necessary in order to account for experimental facts.

  8. Laser Spectroscopy of Antiprotonic Helium Atoms

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %PS205 %title\\\\ \\\\Following the discovery of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms ($\\overline{p}He^{+} $) at KEK in 1991, systematic studies of their properties were made at LEAR from 1991 to 1996. In the first two years the lifetime of $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ in liquid and gaseous helium at various temperatures and pressures was measured and the effect of foreign gases on the lifetime of these atoms was investigated. Effects were also discovered which gave the antiproton a 14\\% longer lifetime in $^4$He than in $^3$He, and resulted in important differences in the shape of the annihilation time spectra in the two isotopes.\\\\ \\\\Since 1993 laser spectroscopy of the metastable $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ atoms became the main focus of PS205. Transitions were stimulated between metastable and non-metastable states of the $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ atom by firing a pulsed dye laser beam into the helium target every time an identified metastable atom was present (Figure 1). If the laser frequency matched the transition energy, the...

  9. Energy levels in helium and neon atoms by an electron-impact method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N.; Bartle, K. D.; Mills, D.; Beard, D. S.

    1981-03-01

    Electronic energy levels in noble gas atoms may be determined with a simple teaching apparatus incorporating a resonance potentials tube in which the electron beam intensity is held constant. The resulting spectra are little inferior to those obtained by more elaborate electron-impact methods and complement optical emission spectra. Singlet-triplet energy differences may be resolved, and the spectra of helium and neon may be used to illustrate the applicability of Russell-Saunders and other, ''intermediate,'' coupling schemes.

  10. Graphite filter atomizer in atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katskov, Dmitri A.

    2007-09-01

    Graphite filter atomizers (GFA) for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) show substantial advantages over commonly employed electrothermal vaporizers and atomizers, tube and platform furnaces, for direct determination of high and medium volatility elements in matrices associated with strong spectral and chemical interferences. Two factors provide lower limits of detection and shorter determination cycles with the GFA: the vaporization area in the GFA is separated from the absorption volume by a porous graphite partition; the sample is distributed over a large surface of a collector in the vaporization area. These factors convert the GFA into an efficient chemical reactor. The research concerning the GFA concept, technique and analytical methodology, carried out mainly in the author's laboratory in Russia and South Africa, is reviewed. Examples of analytical applications of the GFA in AAS for analysis of organic liquids and slurries, bio-samples and food products are given. Future prospects for the GFA are discussed in connection with analyses by fast multi-element AAS.

  11. The atomic Fe/Ag exchange on Ag(100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaar, MH; Boerma, DO; Moss, SC; Ila, D; Cammarata, RC; Chason, EH; Einstein, TL; Williams, ED

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) study of the site exchange of Fe adatoms with Ag atoms from the Ag(100) surface. The time-of-flight (TOF) spectra obtained at low temperatures have been interpreted with a newly developed LEIS simulation program MATCH. After low temperature

  12. Ab initio calculations and modelling of atomic cluster structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Lyalin, Andrey G.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.;

    2004-01-01

    framework for modelling the fusion process of noble gas clusters is presented. We report the striking correspondence of the peaks in the experimentally measured abundance mass spectra with the peaks in the size-dependence of the second derivative of the binding energy per atom calculated for the chain...

  13. Electronic structure, charge distribution and X-ray emission spectra of V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster calculations of the electronic structure and charge distribution in V3Si have been performed using two different molecular orbital methods: a semiempirical LCAO and the MS Xα model. The results are compared with X-ray emission spectra and band structure calculations. An analysis of the calculated electronic distribution reveals a charge transfer from Si-atoms to V-atoms, the additional charge on a V-atom being 0.6e (LCAO) and 0.4e (MS Xα method). The results are in good agreement with experiment, which indicates that the cluster approach is adequate for the description of charge distributions and spectra characteristics of the A-15 compounds. (author)

  14. Atomic Power Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John F

    1964-01-01

    This booklet is condensed from a larger publication, -Background Information on Atomic Power Safety-, published in January 1964, by the .Atomic Industrial Forum. That publication and this abridgment were produced in recognition of the emergence of commercial atomic power as an important factor in our national economy, and of the resulting need for readily available information in nontechnical form on the characteristics of nuclear power plants and on the various measures taken during their design, construction, and operation for public safety.

  15. Atomic Oxygen Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, which is the most predominant species in low Earth orbit, is highly reactive and can break chemical bonds on the surface of a wide variety of materials leading to volatilization or surface oxidation which can result in failure of spacecraft materials and components. This presentation will give an overview of how atomic oxygen reacts with spacecraft materials, results of space exposure testing of a variety of materials, and examples of failures caused by atomic oxygen.

  16. Metal atom oxidation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides

  17. Metal atom oxidation laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

  18. Hirshfeld atom refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Capelli, Silvia C; Hans-Beat Bürgi; Birger Dittrich; Simon Grabowsky; Dylan Jayatilaka

    2014-01-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements,...

  19. Advances in atomic physics

    OpenAIRE

    Tharwat M. El-Sherbini

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University – Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s – when the author first engaged in research - an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics.

  20. Atomic and Molecular Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude

    2015-01-01

    When physicists began to explore the world of atoms more precisely, as they endeavoured to understand its structure and the laws governing its behaviour, they soon encountered serious difficulties. Our intuitive concepts, based on our daily experience of the macroscopic world around us, proved to be completely erroneous on the atomic scale; the atom was incomprehensible within the framework of classical physics. In order to uncover these new mysteries, after a great deal of trial and error, e...

  1. Solar Spectroscopy: Atomic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, H.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A Greek philosopher called DEMOCRITUS (c. 460-370 BC) first introduced the concept of atoms (which means indivisible). His atoms do not precisely correspond to our atoms of today, which are not indivisible, but made up of a nucleus (protons with positive charge and neutrons which have no charge) and orbiting electrons (with negative charge). Indeed, in the solar atmosphere, the temperature is suc...

  2. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  3. Phantom of the atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.

    1988-01-28

    The paper traces the radiation work of Ernest Rutherford, the founder of nuclear physics who died fifty years ago in 1937. The work on the 'plum pudding' model of the atom, the discovery of ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. particles, disintegration theory, transmutation, model of the atom (with a small nucleus), and disintegration of the nitrogen atom using ..cap alpha.. particles, are all briefly described. (U.K.).

  4. Atomic transition probabilities in refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate transition probabilities for a large number of spectral lines in the first and second spectra of 3d, 4d and 5d metals are being measured. Radiative lifetimes of hundreds of levels in TaI, WI, MoI, NbI, HfI, ReI, RhI, RuI, NbII, CoII++, and other atoms and ions are measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on an atom or ion beam. The atom or ion beam is produced by a versatile hollow cathode discharge source. Branching ratios of levels in WI, NbI, HfI, and ReI are measured from calibrated spectra recorded on the Kitt Peak one-meter Fourier Transform Spectrometer. The transition probability measurements are used in solar and stellar elemental abundance determination. Some of the elements mentioned above are commonly used as electrodes in discharge devices. Accurate transition probabilities are also useful in studying concentrations and the effects of sputtered electrode material on laboratory discharges

  5. Law on Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Law defines the legislative foundation and concepts for peaceful uses of atomic energy in Vietnam. The Law, including 11 chapters, 93 articles and coming into force on the 1 Jan 2009, regulates utilization of atomic energy and assurance of safety and security. The Law contains issues: general provisions; measures to promote development and application of atomic energy for peaceful purposes; radiation safety, nuclear safety and security of radioactive sources, nuclear material and facilities; exploration, exploitation and processing radioactive ores; transportation, import and export of radioactive materials and nuclear equipment; atomic energy application services; declaration and licensing; response to radiation or nuclear incidents and compensation for damage caused by these incidents. (VAEC)

  6. Atomic swelling upon compression

    OpenAIRE

    Dolmatov, V. K.; King, J L

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogen atom under the pressure of a spherical penetrable confinement potential of a decreasing radius $r_{0}$ is explored, as a case study. A novel counter-intuitive effect of atomic swelling rather than shrinking with decreasing $r_{0}$ is unraveled, when $r_{0}$ reaches, and remains smaller than, a certain critical value. Upon swelling, the size of the atom is shown to increase by an order of magnitude, or more, compared to the size of the free atom. Examples of changes of photoabsorp...

  7. Deeply bound pionic atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard method of pionic atom formation does not produce deeply bound pionic atoms. A study is made on the properties of deeply bound pionic atom states by using the standard pion-nucleus optical potential. Another study is made to estimate the cross sections of the formation of ls pionic atom states by various methods. The pion-nucleus optical potential is determined by weakly bound pionic atom states and pion nucleus scattering. Although this potential may not be valid for deeply bound pionic atoms, it should provide some hint on binding energies and level widths of deeply bound states. The width of the ls state comes out to be 0.3 MeV and is well separated from the rest. The charge dependence of the ls state is investigated. The binding energies and the widths increase linearly with Z azbove a Z of 30. The report then discusses various methods to populate deeply bound pionic atoms. In particular, 'pion exchange' reactions are proposed. (n, pπ) reaction is discussed first. The cross section is calculated by assuming the in- and out-going nucleons on-shell and the produced pion in (n1) pionic atom states. Then, (n, dπ-) cross sections are estimated. (p, 2Heπ-) reaction would have cross sections similar to the cross section of (n, dπ-) reaction. In conclusion, it seems best to do (n, p) experiment on heavy nuclei for deeply bound pionic atom. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Estimation of neutron doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the radiation doses in the Hiroshima and the Nagasaki atomic bombings, the estimated values of T65D (in the United States) have been used. In recent years, however, these values are being restudied. On the basis of the neutron spectra from atomic bombings published from LANL in 1976, the neutron doses in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings were estimated. It was pointed out that the neutron doses of T65D were overestimated. The results of calculation in this estimation were that at the distance from 1 km to 2 km, the neutron doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were from 1/5 to 1/9 and about 1/3, respectively, as compared with those in T65D. The estimation of the neutron doses in the atomic bombings by calculation, the difference from T65D and the comparison with the measured radioactivities immediately after atomic bombings are described. (Mori, K.)

  9. Current Status of Atomic Spectroscopy Databases at NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramida, Alexander; Ralchenko, Yuri; Reader, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    NIST's Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center maintains several online databases on atomic spectroscopy. These databases can be accessed via the http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData web page. Our main database, Atomic Spectra Database (ASD), recently upgraded to v. 5.3, now contains critically evaluated data for about 250,000 spectral lines and 109,000 energy levels of almost all elements in the periodic table. This new version has added several thousand spectral lines and energy levels of Sn II, Mo V, W VIII, and Th I-III. Most of these additions contain critically evaluated transition probabilities important for astrophysics, technology, and fusion research. A new feature of ASD is providing line-ratio data for diagnostics of electron temperature and density in plasmas. Saha-Boltzmann plots have been modified by adding an experimental feature allowing the user to specify a multi-element mixture. We continue regularly updating our bibliography databases, ensuring comprehensive coverage of current literature on atomic spectra for energy levels, spectral lines, transition rates, hyperfine structure, isotope shifts, Zeeman and Stark effects. Our other popular databases, such as the Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopy Data, searchable atlases of spectra of Pt-Ne and Th-Ne lamps, and non-LTE plasma-kinetics code comparisons, continue to be maintained.

  10. Evanescent Wave Atomic Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezali, S.; Taleb, A.

    2008-09-01

    A research project at the "Laboratoire d'électronique quantique" consists in a theoretical study of the reflection and diffraction phenomena via an atomic mirror. This poster presents the principle of an atomic mirror. Many groups in the world have constructed this type of atom optics experiments such as in Paris-Orsay-Villetaneuse (France), Stanford-Gaithersburg (USA), Munich-Heidelberg (Germany), etc. A laser beam goes into a prism with an incidence bigger than the critical incidence. It undergoes a total reflection on the plane face of the prism and then exits. The transmitted resulting wave out of the prism is evanescent and repulsive as the frequency detuning of the laser beam compared to the atomic transition δ = ωL-ω0 is positive. The cold atomic sample interacts with this evanescent wave and undergoes one or more elastic bounces by passing into backward points in its trajectory because the atoms' kinetic energy (of the order of the μeV) is less than the maximum of the dipolar potential barrier ℏΩ2/Δ where Ω is the Rabi frequency [1]. In fact, the atoms are cooled and captured in a magneto-optical trap placed at a distance of the order of the cm above the prism surface. The dipolar potential with which interact the slow atoms is obtained for a two level atom in a case of a dipolar electric transition (D2 Rubidium transition at a wavelength of 780nm delivered by a Titane-Saphir laser between a fundamental state Jf = l/2 and an excited state Je = 3/2). This potential is corrected by an attractive Van der Waals term which varies as 1/z3 in the Lennard-Jones approximation (typical atomic distance of the order of λ0/2π where λ0 is the laser wavelength) and in 1/z4 if the distance between the atom and its image in the dielectric is big in front of λ0/2π. This last case is obtained in a quantum electrodynamic calculation by taking into account an orthornormal base [2]. We'll examine the role of spontaneous emission for which the rate is inversely

  11. Double photo-electron momentum spectra of Helium at infrared wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Zielinski, Alejandro; Scrinzi, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Double photo-electron momentum spectra of the Helium atom are calculated \\textit{ab initio} at extreme ultra-violet and near infrared wavelengths. At short wavelengths two-photon double ionization yields, two-electron energy spectra, and triply differential cross sections agree with results from recent literature. At the near infrared wavelength of $780\\,nm$ the experimental single-to-double ionization ratio is reproduced up to intensities of $4\\times 10^{14}W/cm^2$, and two-electron energy spectra and joint angular distributions are presented. The time-dependent surface flux (tSurff) approach is extended to full 3+3 spatial dimensions and systematic error control is demonstrated. We analyze our differential spectra in terms of an experimentally accessible quantitative measure of correlation.

  12. Study of the shape of β spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this PhD work is to build an experimental device dedicated to measuring beta spectra with a precision relevant to modern metrology requirements. The device, which is based on a silicon semi-conductor detector, must take into account certain physical phenomena and detector characteristics which could lead to deformation of the measured spectra. These must be understood and minimized. Monte-Carlo simulations have allowed the geometry and construction materials to be optimized. The quality of the radioactive sources is paramount in obtaining spectra of high-quality. Nonetheless, the measured spectra must be corrected for any remaining distortion. A response function must therefore be determined for each measurement geometry. This can be achieved via Monte-Carlo simulations. The first results show that deconvolution of the measured spectra with the response function makes possible the accurate determination of the true form of the beta spectra. (author)

  13. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bulletin provides information on atomic and molecular data relevant for fusion research. In Part I the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions and surface interactions. Part II contains all the bibliographic data for both the indexed and non-indexed references (654 references). An author index is included

  14. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulletin provides information on atomic and molecular data for fusion research. In Part I the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface effects. Part II contains all the bibliographic data for both indexed and non-indexed references (536 references). An author index is included

  15. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bulletin provides information on atomic and molecular data relevant for fusion research. In part I the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions. Part II contains all the bibliographic data for both the indexed and non-indexed references (514 references). An author index is included

  16. International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulletin provides information on atomic and molecular data relevant for fusion research. In Part I the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions and surface interactions. Part II contains all the bibliographic data for both the indexed and non-indexed references (555 references). An author index is included

  17. Photoionization of atomic scandium in the region of the 2p resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2p resonances of atomic scandium at 391-410 eV were studied by photoion spectroscopy using monochromatized synchrotron radiation and the atomic beam technique. The partial ion yield spectra for singly to quadruple charged photoions were observed. The comparison of the total ion yield spectrum with the calculated absorption spectrum shows surprisingly good results. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  18. Functional Regression for Quasar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ciollaro, Mattia; Freeman, Peter; Genovese, Christopher; Lei, Jing; O'Connell, Ross; Wasserman, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The Lyman-alpha forest is a portion of the observed light spectrum of distant galactic nuclei which allows us to probe remote regions of the Universe that are otherwise inaccessible. The observed Lyman-alpha forest of a quasar light spectrum can be modeled as a noisy realization of a smooth curve that is affected by a `damping effect' which occurs whenever the light emitted by the quasar travels through regions of the Universe with higher matter concentration. To decode the information conveyed by the Lyman-alpha forest about the matter distribution, we must be able to separate the smooth `continuum' from the noise and the contribution of the damping effect in the quasar light spectra. To predict the continuum in the Lyman-alpha forest, we use a nonparametric functional regression model in which both the response and the predictor variable (the smooth part of the damping-free portion of the spectrum) are function-valued random variables. We demonstrate that the proposed method accurately predicts the unobserv...

  19. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)

  20. On non-forking spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem; Shelah, Saharon

    2012-01-01

    Non-forking is one of the most important notions in modern model theory capturing the idea of a generic extension of a type (which is a far-reaching generalization of the concept of a generic point of a variety). To a countable first-order theory we associate its non-forking spectrum - a function of two cardinals kappa and lambda giving the supremum of the possible number of types over a model of size lambda that do not fork over a sub-model of size kappa. This is a natural generalization of the stability function of a theory. We make progress towards classifying the non-forking spectra. On the one hand, we show that the possible values a non-forking spectrum may take are quite limited. On the other hand, we develop a general technique for constructing theories with a prescribed non-forking spectrum, thus giving a number of examples. In particular, we answer negatively a question of Adler whether NIP is equivalent to bounded non-forking. In addition, we answer a question of Keisler regarding the number of cut...

  1. Methodology for analyzing weak spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable interest in quantifying radionuclide transfer between environmental compartments. However, in many cases, it can be a challenge to detect concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides due to their low levels in environmental samples. As a result, it is valuable to develop analytical protocols to ensure consistent analysis of the areas under weak peaks. The current study has focused on testing how reproducibly peak areas and baselines can be determined using two analytical approaches. The first approach, which can be carried out using Maestro software, involves extracting net counts under a curve without fitting a functional form to the peak, whereas the second approach, which is used by most other peak fitting programs, determines net counts from spectra by fitting a Gaussian form to the data. It was found that the second approach produces more consistent peak area and baseline measurements, with the ability to de-convolute multiple, overlapping peaks. In addition, programs, such as Peak Fit, which can be used to fit a form to spectral data, often provide goodness of fit analyses, since the Gaussian form can be described using a characteristic equation against which peak data can be tested for their statistical significance. (author)

  2. A study of ice response spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chunguang; JIA Lingling

    2009-01-01

    Some problems concerning the ice forces and ice response spectra are studied from both theoretical and practical points of view. On the basis of structural analysis,the analysis method of ice response spectra is proposed, since it plays an important role in the prediction of maximum structural response in cold regions. And it is illustrated that it is easy to study the structural response to ice using the ice response spectra.

  3. Circumstellar Molecular Spectra towards Evolved Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of, and possible scientific gains which can be acquired from studying circumstellar molecular spectra toward evolved stars. Where can we expect circumstellar molecular spectra, why would we want to study these spectra, which molecules might be present, and what can we learn from these studies? We present an overview of reported detections, and discuss some of the results.

  4. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  5. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  6. When Atoms Want

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry students and teachers often explain the chemical reactivity of atoms, molecules, and chemical substances in terms of purposes or needs (e.g., atoms want or need to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to become more stable). These teleological explanations seem to have pedagogical value as they help students understand and use…

  7. Spectroscopic atom symbolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum numbers are introduced of the individual electrons of a multi-electron atom as are the concepts of electron configuration and configuration state diagram. An atom is described in Russell-Saunders approximation using the vector model concept. Overall quantum numbers are introduced for the electron shell and their relationships are discussed to the quantum numbers of the individual shell electrons. (author)

  8. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Explores the atoms that govern chemical processes. This book shows how the interactions between simple substances such as salt and water are crucial to life on Earth and how those interactions are predestined by the atoms that make up the molecules.

  9. Greek Atomic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Duane H. D.

    1981-01-01

    Focusing on history of physics, which began about 600 B.C. with the Ionian Greeks and reaching full development within three centuries, suggests that the creation of the concept of the atom is understandable within the context of Greek physical theory; so is the rejection of the atomic theory by the Greek physicists. (Author/SK)

  10. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level. PMID:26670551

  11. Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has been prepared to provide an overview of the responsibilities and activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is designed to address questions that are often asked concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board, its enabling legislation, licensing and compliance activities, federal-provincial relationships, international obligations, and communications with the public

  12. Atomic Data for Stellar Astrophysics: from the UV to the IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    The study of stars and stellar evolution relies heavily on the analysis of stellar spectra. The need for atomic line data from the ultraviolet (UV) to the infrared (lR) regions is greater now than ever. In the past twenty years, the time since the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, great progress has been made in acquiring atomic data for UV transitions. The optical wavelength region, now expanded by progress in detector technology, continues to provide motivation for new atomic data. In addition, investments in new instrumentation for ground-based and space observatories has lead to the availability of high-quality spectra at IR wavelengths, where the need for atomic data is most critical. In this review, examples are provided of the progress made in generating atomic data for stellar studies, with a look to the future for addressing the accuracy and completeness of atomic data for anticipated needs.

  13. Optical absorption spectra of Ag-11 isomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, E. M.

    The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground-stale confi......The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground...

  14. Infrared spectra of thyroid tumor tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study thyroid tumor tissues removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, the spectra of proteins in the region of C=O vibrations are different from the spectra of these substances in benign tumors and in tissues outside the pathological focus at a distance >1 cm from the margin of the tumor. The differences in the spectra are due to changes in the supermolecular structure of the proteins, resulting from rearrangement of the system of hydrogen bonds. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathologies.

  15. Dynamic Radio Spectra from two Fireballs

    OpenAIRE

    Obenberger, K. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Lin, C. S.; J. Dowell; Schinzel, F. K.; Stovall, K.

    2015-01-01

    We present dynamic spectra from the LWA1 telescope of two large meteors (fireballs) observed to emit between 37 and 54 MHz. These spectra show the first ever recorded broadband measurements of this newly discovered VHF emission. The spectra show that the emission is smooth and steep, getting very bright at lower frequencies. We suggest that this signal is possibly emission of Langmuir waves and that these waves could be excited by a weak electron beam within the trail. The spectra of one fire...

  16. Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10–6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. - Highlights: ► With MCNPX code realistic models of two LINACs were built. ► Photon and neutron spectra below the flattening filter and at the isocenter were calculated. ► Neutron spectrum at the flattening filter was compared against the Tosi et al. source-term model. ► Tosi et al. model underestimates the neutron contribution below 1 MeV. ► Photon spectra look alike to those published in literature.

  17. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  18. Moving Single Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Dustin

    2016-05-01

    Single neutral atoms are promising candidates for qubits, the fundamental unit of quantum information. We have built a set of optical tweezers for trapping and moving single Rubidium atoms. The tweezers are based on a far off-resonant dipole trapping laser focussed to a 1 μm spot with a single aspheric lens. We use a digital micromirror device (DMD) to generate dynamic holograms of the desired arrangement of traps. The DMD has a frame rate of 20 kHz which, when combined with fast algorithms, allows for rapid reconfiguration of the traps. We demonstrate trapping of up to 20 atoms in arbitrary arrangements, and the transport of a single-atom over a distance of 14 μm with continuous laser cooling, and 5 μm without. In the meantime, we are developing high-finesse fibre-tip cavities, which we plan to use to couple pairs of single atoms to form a quantum network.

  19. Fluorescence and absorption spectra for a multi-photon Jaynes-Cummings in the presence of nonlinearities and stark shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptable forms of nonlinearities of both the field and the intensity-dependent atom-field coupling in a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model are considered. The time-dependence of the atom-field system is obtained, by means of which we produce the analytical forms of the fluorescence and absorption spectra produced by an atom in an ideal cavity using the dressed states of the system. We investigate the influences of the mean number of photons, detuning, the nonlinearities and Stark shifts on the spectra, for initial coherent and thermal states. It is shown that features of the fluorescence and absorption spectra are influenced significantly by the kinds of the nonlinearities and the detuning

  20. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin, published by the IAEA, provides atomic and molecular data references relevant to fusion research and technology. In part I the indexation of the papers is provided separately for (i) structure and spectra, (ii) atomic and molecular collisions, and (iii) surface interactions. Part II contains the bibliographic data for the above-listed topics and for high-energy laser and beam-matter interaction of atomic particles with fields. Also included are sections on atomic and molecular data needs for fusion research and on news about ALADDIN (A Labelled Atomic Data INterface) and evaluated data bases

  1. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion is prepared by the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is distributed free of charge by the IAEA to assist in the development of fusion research and technology. In part 1, the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) is presented. In Part 2, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions and surface interactions. Part 3 contains all the bibliographic data for both the indexed and non-indexed references. Finally, the Author Index (part 4) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part 3

  2. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion is prepared by the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is distributed free of charge by the IAEA to assist in the development of fusion research and technology. In part 1, the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) is presented. In Part 2, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions and surface interactions. Part 3 contains all the bibliographic data for both the indexed and non-indexed references. Finally, the Author Index (part 4) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part 3

  3. Analysis of extreme ultraviolet spectra from laser produced rhenium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Dunne, Padraig; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; Liu, Luning; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-08-01

    Extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly-charged rhenium ions were observed in the 1-7 nm region using two Nd:YAG lasers with pulse lengths of 150 ps and 10 ns, respectively, operating at a number of laser power densities. The maximum focused peak power density was 2.6 × 1014 W cm-2 for the former and 5.5 × 1012 W cm-2 for the latter. The Cowan suite of atomic structure codes and unresolved transition array (UTA) approach were used to calculate and interpret the emission properties of the different spectra obtained. The results show that n = 4-n = 4 and n = 4-n = 5 UTAs lead to two intense quasi-continuous emission bands in the 4.3-6.3 nm and 1.5-4.3 nm spectral regions. As a result of the different ion stage distributions in the plasmas induced by ps and ns laser irradiation the 1.5-4.3 nm UTA peak moves to shorter wavelength in the ps laser produced plasma spectra. For the ns spectrum, the most populated ion stage during the lifetime of this plasma that could be identified from the n = 4-n = 5 transitions was Re23+ while for the ps plasma the presence of significantly higher stages was demonstrated. For the n = 4-n = 4 4p64dN-4p54dN+1 + 4p64dN-14f transitions, the 4d-4f transitions contribute mainly in the most intense 4.7-5.5 nm region while the 4p-4d subgroup gives rise to a weaker feature in the 4.3-4.7 nm region. A number of previously unidentified spectral features produced by n = 4-n = 5 transitions in the spectra of Re XVI to Re XXXIX are identified.

  4. Atomic transition probabilities of Er i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic transition probabilities for 562 lines of the first spectrum of erbium (Er i) are reported. These data are from new branching fraction measurements on Fourier transform spectra normalized with previously reported radiative lifetimes from time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements (Den Hartog et al 2010 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43 155004). The wavelength range of the data set is from 298 to 1981 nm. In this work we explore the utility of parametric fits based on the Cowan code in assessing branching fraction errors due to lines connecting to unobserved lower levels.

  5. Atomic transition probabilities of Er i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J E; Den Hartog, E A [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wyart, J-F, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.ed, E-mail: jean-francois.wyart@lac.u-psud.f, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.ed [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS (UPR3321), Bat. 505, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France)

    2010-12-14

    Atomic transition probabilities for 562 lines of the first spectrum of erbium (Er i) are reported. These data are from new branching fraction measurements on Fourier transform spectra normalized with previously reported radiative lifetimes from time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements (Den Hartog et al 2010 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43 155004). The wavelength range of the data set is from 298 to 1981 nm. In this work we explore the utility of parametric fits based on the Cowan code in assessing branching fraction errors due to lines connecting to unobserved lower levels.

  6. Fluctuation analysis of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compound state rotational degree of freedom is ''damped'' in the sense that the electric quadrupole decay of a single quantum state with angular momentum I exhibits a spectrum of final states all having spin I-2. In actual experiments, the cascade of γ-rays associated with each of the members of the ensemble of compound nuclei uses each of the ''discrete'' transitions many more times than the ''continuum'' transitions. Relatively large and small fluctuations in the recorded coincidence spectrum ensue, respectively. The analysis of the fluctuations will be shown to be instrumental to gain insight into the phenomenon of rotational damping. For this purpose, two- and higher-fold coincidence spectra emitted from rotating nuclei are analyzed with respect to the count fluctuations. The coincidences from consecutive γ-rays emitted from discrete rotational bands generate ridges in the Eγ1.Eγ2 spectrum, and the fluctuation analysis of the ridges is based upon the ansatz of a random selection of transition energies from band to band. This ansatz is supported by a cranked mean-field calculation for the nucleus 168Yb, as well as by analyzing resolved bands in 168Yb and its neighbors. The fluctuation analysis of the central valley (Eγ1=Eγ2) is based upon the ansatz of fluctuations in the intensity of the transitions of Porter-Thomas type superposed on a smooth spectrum of transition energies. This ansatz is again supported by a mixed-band calculation. The mathematical treatment of count fluctuations is formulated in general (orig.)

  7. Scanning Josephson spectroscopy on the atomic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeria, Mallika T.; Feldman, Benjamin E.; Drozdov, Ilya K.; Yazdani, Ali

    2016-04-01

    The Josephson effect provides a direct method to probe the strength of the pairing interaction in superconductors. By measuring the phase fluctuating Josephson current between a superconducting tip of a scanning tunneling microscope and a BCS superconductor with isolated magnetic adatoms on its surface, we demonstrate that the spatial variation of the pairing order parameter can be characterized on the atomic scale. This system provides an example where the local pairing potential suppression is not directly reflected in the spectra measured via quasiparticle tunneling. Spectroscopy with such superconducting tips also shows signatures of previously unexplored Andreev processes through individual impurity-bound Shiba states. The atomic resolution achieved here establishes scanning Josephson spectroscopy as a promising technique for the study of novel superconducting phases.

  8. Ionization of atoms by chirped attosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the ionization dynamics of atoms by chirped attosecond pulses using the strong field approximation method. The pulse parameters are carefully chosen in the regime where the strong field approximation method is valid. We analyse the effects of the chirp of attosecond pulses on the energy distributions and the corresponding left-right asymmetry of the ionized electrons. For a single chirped attosecond pulse, the ionized electrons can be redistributed and the left-right asymmetry shows oscillations because of the introduction of the chirp. For time-delayed double attosecond pulses at different intensities with the weaker one chirped, exchanging the order of the two pulses shows a relative shift of the energy spectra, which can be explained by the different effective time delays of different frequency components because of the chirp. (atomic and molecular physics)

  9. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 64. October 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin comprises updated atomic and molecular data for fusion. It contains four parts. In part one the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) of the IAEA is presented. In part two, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions. Part three contains the bibliographic data for both indexed and and non-indexed references. The author index (part four) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part three

  10. Electron structure of atoms in laser plasma: The Debye shielding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structure and the energy spectra of multielectron atoms in laser plasmas are examined by the Debye shielding model. The effect of the plasma environment on the electrons bound in an atom is taken into account by introducing the screened Coulomb-type potentials into the electronic Hamiltonian of an atom in place of the standard nuclear attraction and electron repulsion potentials. The capabilities of this new Hamiltonian are demonstrated for He and Li in laser plasmas. (author)

  11. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion is presented in four parts: 1) The Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) of the IAEA; 2) the indexed papers listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions; 3) all bibliographic data for both the indexed and non-indexed references; 4) the Author Index refers to the bibliographic references contained in Part 3

  12. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bulletin provides information on atomic and molecular data relevant to fusion research. In Part I, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collitions and surface interactions. Part II contains all the bibliographic data for both the indexed and non-indexed references. Part III contains the list of evaluated numerical atomic databases which are stored in the IAEA data bank. An author index is included at the end

  13. Y(sl(2)) Algebra Application in Extended Hydrogen Atom and Monopole Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Li-Jun; ZHANG Hong-Biao; JIN Shuo; XUE Kang

    2004-01-01

    We present the extended hydrogen atom and monopole-hydrogen atom theory through generalizing the usual hydrogen atom model and with a monopole model respectively, in which Y (sl(2) ) algebras are realized. We derive the Hamiltonians of the two models based on the Y(sl(2) ) and the generalized Pauli equation. The energy spectra of the systems are also given in terms of Yangian algebra and quantum mechanics.

  14. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin comprises updated atomic and molecular data for fusion. It contains four parts. In part one the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) of the IAEA is presented. In part two, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions. Part three contains the bibliographic data for both indexed and and non-indexed references. The author index (part four) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part three

  15. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 65. July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin comprises updated atomic and molecular data for fusion. It contains four parts. In part one the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) of the IAEA is presented. In part two, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions. Part three contains the bibliographic data for both indexed and and non-indexed references. The author index (part four) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part three

  16. Atom-light interactions in quasi-1D nanostructures: a Green's function perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Asenjo-Garcia, A; Chang, D E; Kimble, H J

    2016-01-01

    Based on a formalism that describes atom-light interactions in terms of the classical electromagnetic Green's function, we study the optical response of atoms and other quantum emitters coupled to one-dimensional photonic structures, such as cavities, waveguides, and photonic crystals. We demonstrate a clear mapping between the transmission spectra and the local Green's function that allows to identify signatures of dispersive and dissipative interactions between atoms, gaining insight into recent experiments.

  17. International bulletin on atomic and molecular data for fusion. No. 62. August 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin comprises updated atomic and molecular data for fusion. It contains four parts. In part one the Atomic and Molecular Data Information System (AMDIS) of the IAEA is presented. In part two, the indexed papers are listed separately for structure and spectra, atomic and molecular collisions, and surface interactions. Part three contains the bibliographic data for both indexed and and non-indexed references. The author index (part four) refers to the bibliographic references contained in part three

  18. On mirror symmetry, CSB and antihydrogen symmetry in natural atom H

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hooydonk, G

    2002-01-01

    Molecular band spectra reveal a left-right symmetry for atoms (Van Hooydonk, Spectrochim. Acta A, 2000, 56, 2273). Intra-atomic left-right symmetry points to anti-atom states and, to make sense, this must also show in line spectra. H Lyman ns1/2 singlets show a mirror plane at quantum number n0=pi/2. Symmetry breaking oscillator (1-0.5pi/n)exp2 means that some of these n-states are anti-hydrogenic. This view runs ahead of CERN's AD-project on antihydrogen.

  19. Mexican hat curve for hydrogen and antihydrogen-states in natural atom H

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hooydonk, G

    2004-01-01

    Molecular band spectra as well as atomic line spectra reveal a left-right symmetry for atoms (Van Hooydonk, Spectrochim. Acta A, 2000, 56, 2273 and CERN-Ext-2002-041). We now extract a Mexican hat shaped or double well curve from the line spectrum (Lyman ns1/2 singlets) of natural atom H. An H CSB theory and its oscillator contribution (1-0.5pi/n)esp2/nexp2 lead to unprecedented results for antihydrogen physics, ahead of the CERN AD-project on artificial antihydrogen.

  20. Atomic Structure Theory Lectures on Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Walter R

    2007-01-01

    Atomic Structure Theory is a textbook for students with a background in quantum mechanics. The text is designed to give hands-on experience with atomic structure calculations. Material covered includes angular momentum methods, the central field Schrödinger and Dirac equations, Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Hartree-Fock equations, multiplet structure, hyperfine structure, the isotope shift, dipole and multipole transitions, basic many-body perturbation theory, configuration interaction, and correlation corrections to matrix elements. Numerical methods for solving the Schrödinger and Dirac eigenvalue problems and the (Dirac)-Hartree-Fock equations are given as well. B-spline basis sets are used to carry out sums arising in higher-order many-body calculations. Illustrative problems are provided, together with solutions. FORTRAN programs implementing the numerical methods in the text are included.

  1. Effects of local field and inherent strain in reflectance anisotropy spectra of AIIIBV semiconductors with naturally oxidized surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflectance anisotropy (RA) spectra of naturally oxidized (001) surfaces of GaAs and InAs crystals are measured for photon energies from 1.5 up to 5.5 eV. The differential high-accuracy RA spectra reveal features substantially different from those caused by either a reconstruction of clean surface or a built-in near-surface electric field. Models of atomic structure with anisotropic transition layers of excess arsenic atoms specific for GaAs(001)/oxide and InAs(001)/oxide interfaces are proposed. In conformity with these models, a general theory of reflectance anisotropy is developed for semiconductor/oxide interfaces within the Green's function technique. The theory takes into account the combined effect of local field due to interface dipoles and of intrinsic near-surface strain of the crystal. Measured RA spectra are analyzed in the model of valence-bond dipoles occupying a rectangular lattice in a multilayer medium. Comparing the measured and calculated spectra, we conclude that RA spectra of oxidized GaAs(001) and InAs(001) surfaces are simultaneously influenced by interface and near-surface anisotropies. The former is responsible for the broad-band spectral features which are associated with polarizability of the valence bonds attached to As atoms at the crystal/oxide interface. The near-surface anisotropy is due to inherent uniaxial straining the near-surface region of crystal. The effect of strain on RA spectra is experimentally and theoretically substantiated for GaAs crystal wafers undergone a uniaxial applied stress. Basically, this work results in the following. It establishes the physical nature of different levels of RA spectra observed in a majority of papers, but never analyzed. It demonstrates how the studied features of RA spectra could be applied for optical characterization of strained interfaces and atomic layers

  2. Linear atomic quantum coupler

    CERN Document Server

    El-Orany, Faisal A A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop the notion of the linear atomic quantum coupler. This device consists of two modes propagating into two waveguides, each of them includes a localized and/or a trapped atom. These waveguides are placed close enough to allow exchanging energy between them via evanescent waves. Each mode interacts with the atom in the same waveguide in the standard way, i.e. as the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM), and with the atom-mode in the second waveguide via evanescent wave. We present the Hamiltonian for the system and deduce the exact form for the wavefunction. We investigate the atomic inversions and the second-order correlation function. In contrast to the conventional linear coupler, the atomic quantum coupler is able to generate nonclassical effects. The atomic inversions can exhibit long revival-collapse phenomenon as well as subsidiary revivals based on the competition among the switching mechanisms in the system. Finally, under certain conditions, the system can yield the results of the two-m...

  3. Raman Optical Activity Spectra for Large Molecules through Molecules-in-Molecules Fragment-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovan Jose, K V; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2016-02-01

    We present an efficient method for the calculation of the Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra for large molecules through the molecules-in-molecules (MIM) fragment-based method. The relevant higher energy derivatives from smaller fragments are used to build the property tensors of the parent molecule to enable the extension of the MIM method for evaluating ROA spectra (MIM-ROA). Two factors were found to be particularly important in yielding accurate results. First, the link-atom tensor components are projected back onto the corresponding host and supporting atoms through the Jacobian projection method, yielding a mathematically rigorous method. Second, the long-range interactions between fragments are taken into account by using a less computationally expensive lower level of theory. The performance of the MIM-ROA model is calibrated on the enantiomeric pairs of 10 carbohydrate benchmark molecules, with strong intramolecular interactions. The vibrational frequencies and ROA intensities are accurately reproduced relative to the full, unfragmented, results for these systems. In addition, the MIM-ROA method is employed to predict the ROA spectra of d-maltose, α-D-cyclodextrin, and cryptophane-A, yielding spectra in excellent agreement with experiment. The accuracy and performance of the benchmark systems validate the MIM-ROA model for exploring ROA spectra of large molecules. PMID:26760444

  4. Experimental spectra unfolding of fast ion backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems on processing of experimental spectra of fast light ion backscattering are considered to obtain information about element composition in thin films and surface layers of solids. Application of mathematical processing of the spectra is shown to allow considerably to improve analytical characteristics of the ion backscattering method and to expand the field for its application

  5. Spectra of Velocity components over Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panofsky, H. A.; Larko, D.; Lipschut, R.; Stone, G.; Bradley, E. F.; Bowen, Anthony John; Højstrup, Jørgen

    1982-01-01

    horizontal, and decrease when the flow is uphill, for the longitudinal velocity component only. Since vertical-velocity spectra contain relatively less low wavenumber energy than horizontal-velocity spectra, energetic vertical-velocity fluctuations tend to be in equilibrium with local terrain....

  6. Aircraft Measurements of Atmospheric Kinetic Energy Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Lilly, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    Wind velocity data obtained from a jet airliner are used to construct kinetic energy spectra over the range of wavelengths from 2.5 to 2500 km. The spectra exhibit an approximate -5/3 slope for wavelengths of less than about 150 km, steepening to about -2.2 at larger scales. These results support...

  7. (abstract) Spectra of Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, M. S.; Hayward, T. L.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    The spectra of Hale-Bopp were acquired in mid-1996 at R > 3.5 AU. Strong silicate emission is present in all the spectra. The shape of the feature is very similar to that seen in comet P/Halley. This is the first time that a strong silicate feature has been detected in a comet beyond 2 AU.

  8. Atomic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, David E.; Krnjaic, Gordan Z.; Rehermann, Keith R.; Wells, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    We propose that dark matter is dominantly comprised of atomic bound states. We build a simple model and map the parameter space that results in the early universe formation of hydrogen-like dark atoms. We find that atomic dark matter has interesting implications for cosmology as well as direct detection: Protohalo formation can be suppressed below $M_{proto} \\sim 10^3 - 10^6 M_{\\odot}$ for weak scale dark matter due to Ion-Radiation interactions in the dark sector. Moreover, weak-scale dark a...

  9. EINSTEIN, SCHROEDINGER, AND ATOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider gravitation theory in multidimensional space. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. It is shown that gravitational waves are described by the Liouville equation and the Schrodinger equation as well. The solutions of the Einstein equations describing the stationary states of arbitrary quantum and classical systems with central symmetry have been obtained. Einstein’s atom model has been developed, and proved that atoms and atomic nuclei can be represented as standing gravitational waves

  10. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  11. Single-atom nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Prati, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Single-Atom Nanoelectronics covers the fabrication of single-atom devices and related technology, as well as the relevant electronic equipment and the intriguing new phenomena related to single-atom and single-electron effects in quantum devices. It also covers the alternative approaches related to both silicon- and carbon-based technologies, also from the point of view of large-scale industrial production. The publication provides a comprehensive picture of the state of the art at the cutting edge and constitutes a milestone in the emerging field of beyond-CMOS technology. Although there are

  12. Division of atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Atomic Physics, Lund Institute of Technology (LTH), is responsible for the basic physics teaching in all subjects at LTH and for specialized teaching in Optics, Atomic Physics, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy and Laser Physics. The Division has research activities in basic and applied optical spectroscopy, to a large extent based on lasers. It is also part of the Physics Department, Lund University, where it forms one of eight divisions. Since the beginning of 1980 the research activities of our division have been centred around the use of lasers. The activities during the period 1991-1992 is described in this progress reports

  13. The CHIANTI atomic database

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Peter R; Landi, Enrico; Del Zanna, Giulio; Mason, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The CHIANTI atomic database was first released in 1996 and has had a huge impact on the analysis and modeling of emissions from astrophysical plasmas. The database has continued to be updated, with version 8 released in 2015. Atomic data for modeling the emissivities of 246 ions and neutrals are contained in CHIANTI, together with data for deriving the ionization fractions of all elements up to zinc. The different types of atomic data are summarized here and their formats discussed. Statistics on the impact of CHIANTI to the astrophysical community are given and examples of the diverse range of applications are presented.

  14. Inside the Hydrogen Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Nowakowski, M; Fierro, D Bedoya; Manjarres, A D Bermudez

    2016-01-01

    We apply the non-linear Euler-Heisenberg theory to calculate the electric field inside the hydrogen atom. We will demonstrate that the electric field calculated in the Euler-Heisenberg theory can be much smaller than the corresponding field emerging from the Maxwellian theory. In the hydrogen atom this happens only at very small distances. This effect reduces the large electric field inside the hydrogen atom calculated from the electromagnetic form-factors via the Maxwell equations. The energy content of the field is below the pair production threshold.

  15. Atoms, molecules, solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is an introduction to modern physics for undergraduate students of physics or students of related fields. After an introduction to the wave-particle dualism the structure of atoms is considered with regards to atomic models. Then the foundations of quantum mechanics are introduced with regards to their application to atomic structure calculations. Thereafter the chemical bond and the molecular structure are discussed. Then classical and quantum statistical mechanics are introduced. Thereafter the crystal binding, the crystal structure, and the specific heat of solids are considered. Finally the band theory of solids is briefly introduced. Every chapter contains exercise problems. (HSI)

  16. Rydberg atoms in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, Yu N; Ignjatovic, Lj M; Sakan, N M; Sreckovic, V A; Zakharov, M Yu; Bezuglov, N N; Klycharev, A N; 10.1016/j.newar.2009.07.003

    2012-01-01

    Elementary processes in astrophysical phenomena traditionally attract researchers attention. At first this can be attributed to a group of hemi-ionization processes in Rydberg atom collisions with ground state parent atoms. This processes might be studied as a prototype of the elementary process of the radiation energy transformation into electrical one. The studies of nonlinear mechanics have shown that so called regime of dynamic chaos should be considered as typical, rather than exceptional situation in Rydberg atoms collision. From comparison of theory with experimental results it follows that a such kind of stochastic dynamic processes, occurred during the single collision, may be observed.

  17. Comprehensive Analyses of the Spectra of Iron-group Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gillian; Sansonetti, Craig J; Pickering, Juliet C; Liggins, Florence

    2014-06-01

    For many decades, the Atomic Spectroscopy Group at NIST has measured atomic data of vital use to astronomy and other fields using high resolution spectrometers that are found in few other places in the world. These now include the 2-m Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer covering the region 285 nm to 5500 nm, the FT700 vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) FT spectrometer covering the region 143 nm to 900 nm, and a 10.7-m normal incidence spectrograph (NIVS) covering 30 nm to 500 nm. Recent work focused on the measurement and analysis of wavelengths and energy levels of iron-group elements to provide extensive data for the analysis of astrophysical spectra. Our comprehensive linelist for Fe II from 90 nm to 5500 nm contains over 13 600 lines with order of magnitude improvements in the wavelengths compared to previous work [Nave & Johansson, ApJSS 204, 1(2013)]. The spectra were observed in high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode (HCL) discharges using FT spectrometers and our NIVS spectrograph. A similar analysis of Cr II contains over 5300 lines and extends the knowledge of this spectrum to the previously unobserved region between 731 nm at 5500 nm [Sansonetti, Nave, Reader & Kerber, ApJSS 202, 15 (2012); Sansonetti & Nave, ApJSS (in prep.)]. Our analysis of the Co III spectrum contains 750 lines observed in Penning discharge lamps and an additional 900 lines compiled from previous work, including Ritz wavelengths, optimized energy levels, and calculated log(gf) values [Smillie, Pickering, Nave & Smith, ApJSS (in prep.)]. NIST and ICL are currently collaborating to complete the measurement and analysis of wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters for all singly-ionized iron-group elements of astrophysical interest, covering the wavelength range 80 nm to 5500 nm. This project uses archival data from FT spectrometers at NIST, ICL and Kitt Peak National Observatory, with additional spectra of HCL and Penning discharge sources taken using our FT and

  18. General Notes on Processes and Their Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Cepciansky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency spectrum performs one of the main characteristics of a process. The aim of the paper is to show the coherence between the process and its own spectrum and how the behaviour and properties of a process itself can be deduced from its spectrum. Processes are categorized and general principles of their spectra calculation and recognition are given. The main stress is put on power spectra of electric and optic signals, as they also perform a kind of processes. These spectra can be directly measured, observed and examined by means of spectral analyzers and they are very important characteristics which can not be omitted at transmission techniques in telecommunication technologies. Further, the paper also deals with non electric processes, mainly with processes and spectra at mass servicing and how these spectra can be utilised in praxis.

  19. 78 FR 58571 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic Electric Company... Power Company (Maine Yankee), Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (Connecticut Yankee), and the Yankee Atomic Electric Company (Yankee Atomic) (together, ``licensees'' or ``the Yankee Companies'')...

  20. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE. MODQKE was written to modify or provide new histories with special attention paid to short seismic records. A technique from the open literature was borrowed to generate an initial history that approximates a given response spectrum. Further refinement is done with smoothing cycles in which several correction signals are added to the history in a way that produces a least squares fit between actual and prescribed spectra. Provision is made for history shaping, a baseline correction, and final scaling. MODQKE performance has been demonstrated with seven examples having zero to ten percent damping ratios, and 2.5 seconds to 20 seconds durations and a variety of target spectra. The examples show the program is inexpensive to use. MDOF is a simple modal superposition program. It has no eigensolver, and the user supplies mode shapes, frequencies, and participation factors as input. Floor spectra can be generated from design spectra by using a history from MODQKE that conforms to the design spectrum as input to MDOF. Floor motions from MDOF can be fed back to MODQKE without modification to obtain the floor spectra. A simple example is given to show how equipment mass effects can be incorporated into the MDOF solution. Any transient solution capability can be used to replace MDOF. For example, a direct transient approach may be desirable if both the equipment and floor structures are to be included in the model with different damping fractions. (orig./HP)

  1. ESR spectra and electronic structure of the MoO3+ complex with the dithiocarbamate ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESR spectra of liquid and frozen benzene solutions of isotope-enriched 95,97,98Mo5+ O(DEDTC)3 complexes ([xMo] > 95%, DEDTC is N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate ligand) and their solid solutions in the tetraethylthiuram disulfide matrix were studied in the X-range. Comparison of the experimental and calculated parameters of the ESR spectra shows that axial symmetry of the magnetic tensors does not contract low symmetry of the complex, in which the ylic oxygen and five of six S atoms of three dithiocarbamate ligands form the coordination sphere of the metal

  2. X-ray Signature of Charge Exchange in the Spectra of L-shell Iron Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Schweikhard, L; Liebisch, P; Brown, G V

    2007-01-05

    The X-ray signature of charge exchange between highly charged L-shell iron ions and neutral gas atoms was studied in the laboratory in order to assess its diagnostic utility. Significant differences with spectra formed by electron-impact excitation were observed. In particular, a strong enhancement was found of the emission corresponding to n {le} 4 {yields} n = 2 transitions relative to the n = 3 {yields} n = 2 emission. This enhancement was detectable even with relatively low-resolution X-ray instrumentation (E/{Delta}E {approx} 10) and may enable future identification of charge exchange as a line-formation mechanism in astrophysical spectra.

  3. Atomic excitations in heavy ion collisions with nuclear contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamical semiclassical theory of atomic excitations, especially of positron creation, in heavy ion scattering is presented and extended to collisions with nuclear contact. The characteristic dependence of inner shell vacancy formation on nuclear reaction times as well as the emergence of interference patterns in the energy spectra of emitted delta-electrons and positrons in delayed collisions is discussed in terms of a simplified, schematic model for the nuclear reaction dynamics. In addition, the spontaneous decay mechanism is giant nuclear systems with Z>=173 leads, for sufficiently long reaction times, to a characteristic line in the positron spectra at the position of th 1ssigma-resonance. The position and width of the positron line is calculated in dependence on the nuclear configuration taking into account the influence of the electron-electron interaction. Furthermore, a quantum mechanical extension of our semiclassical treatment of the atomic scattering process and its effect on atomic positron spectra are discussed. In addition, the influence of EO-transitions in the giant nuclear system on positron emission is treated qualitatively in a semiclassical approximation, indicating that nuclear collective modes can be revealed by the measurement of Stokes and anti-Stokes lines in the positron spectra. (orig./HSI)

  4. Atomic excitations in heavy ion collisions with nuclear contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamical semiclassical theory of atomic excitations, especially of positron creation, in heavy ion scattering is presented and extended to collisions with nuclear contact. The characteristic dependence of inner shell vacancy formation on nuclear reaction times as well as the emergence of interference patterns in the energy spectra of emitted delta-electrons and positrons in delayed collisions is discussed in terms of a simplified, schematic model for the nuclear reaction dynamics. In addition, the spontaneous decay mechanism in giant nuclear systems with Z> or approx.173 leads, for sufficiently long reaction times, to a characteristic line in the positron spectra at the position of the 1ssigma-resonance. The position and width of the positron line is calculated in dependence on the nuclear configuration taking into account the influence of the electron-electron interaction. Furthermore, a quantum mechanical extension of our semiclassical treatment of the atomic scattering process and its effect on atomic positron spectra are discussed. In addition, the influence of E0-transitions in the giant nuclear system on positron emission is treated qualitatively in a semiclassical approximation, indicating that nuclear collective modes can be revealed by the measurement of Stokes and anti-Stokes lines in the positron spectra. (orig./HSI)

  5. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1998-01-01

    This volume continues the series'' cutting-edge reviews on developments in this field. Since its invention in the 1920s, electrostatic precipitation has been extensively used in industrial hygiene to remove dust and particulate matter from gases before entering the atmosphere. This combination of electrostatic precipitation is reported upon in the first chapter. Following this, chapter two reviews recent advances in the area of chemical modification in electrothermal atomization. Chapter three consists of a review which deal with advances and uses of electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Flow injection atomic spectroscopy has developed rapidly in recent years and after a general introduction, various aspects of this technique are looked at in chapter four. Finally, in chapter five the use of various spectrometric techniques for the determination of mercury are described.

  6. Atomic and Molecular Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Atomic and Molecular Interactions was held at Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field

  7. Atomic bomb cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eye disturbance caused by atomic bomb radiation can be divided into three groups: direct injury immediately after exposure, eye lesions associated with radiation syndrome, and delayed disturbance. The crystalline lens of the eye is the most radiosensitive. Atomic bomb cataract has been investigated in a number of studies. The first section of this chapter discusses radiation cataract in terms of the incidence and characteristics. The second section deals with atomic bomb cataract, which can be diagnosed based on the four criteria: (1) opacity of the crystalline lens, (2) a history of proximal exposure, (3) lack of eye disease complicating cataract, and (4) non-exposure to radiation other than atomic bombing. The prevalence of cataract and severity of opacity are found to correlate with exposure doses and age at the time of exposure. Furthermore, it is found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter, the condition of shielding, epilation, and the presence or absence or degree of radiation syndrome. (N.K.)

  8. Atomic Interferometry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is a new technology which can be used for developing high performance laser components for atom-based sensors...

  9. The Atomic Dating Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummo, Evelyn; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity designed to provide students with opportunities to practice drawing atomic models and discover the logical pairings of whole families on the periodic table. Follows the format of a television game show. (DDR)

  10. The CHIANTI atomic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. R.; Dere, K. P.; Landi, E.; Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E.

    2016-04-01

    The freely available CHIANTI atomic database was first released in 1996 and has had a huge impact on the analysis and modeling of emissions from astrophysical plasmas. It contains data and software for modeling optically thin atom and positive ion emission from low density (≲1013 cm-3) plasmas from x-ray to infrared wavelengths. A key feature is that the data are assessed and regularly updated, with version 8 released in 2015. Atomic data for modeling the emissivities of 246 ions and neutrals are contained in CHIANTI, together with data for deriving the ionization fractions of all elements up to zinc. The different types of atomic data are summarized here and their formats discussed. Statistics on the impact of CHIANTI to the astrophysical community are given and examples of the diverse range of applications are presented.

  11. Atom chip gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Gebbe, Martina; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Müntinga, Hauke; Matthias, Jonas; Sahelgozin, Maral; Herr, Waldemar; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    Atom interferometry has developed into a tool for measuring rotations [1], accelerations [2], and testing fundamental physics [3]. Gravimeters based on laser cooled atoms demonstrated residual uncertainties of few microgal [2,4] and were simplified for field applications [5]. Atomic gravimeters rely on the interference of matter waves which are coherently manipulated by laser light fields. The latter can be interpreted as rulers to which the position of the atoms is compared. At three points in time separated by a free evolution, the light fields are pulsed onto the atoms. First, a coherent superposition of two momentum states is produced, then the momentum is inverted, and finally the two trajectories are recombined. Depending on the acceleration the atoms experienced, the number of atoms detected in the output ports will change. Consequently, the acceleration can be determined from the output signal. The laser cooled atoms with microkelvin temperatures used in state-of-the-art gravimeters impose limits on the accuracy [4]. Therefore, ultra-cold atoms generated by Bose-Einstein condensation and delta-kick collimation [6,7] are expected to be the key for further improvements. These sources suffered from a low flux implying an incompatible noise floor, but a competitive performance was demonstrated recently with atom chips [8]. In the compact and robust setup constructed for operation in the drop tower [6] we demonstrated all steps necessary for an atom chip gravimeter with Bose-Einstein condensates in a ground based operation. We will discuss the principle of operation, the current performance, and the perspectives to supersede the state of the art. The authors thank the QUANTUS cooperation for contributions to the drop tower project in the earlier stages. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50WM

  12. Conceptual atomism rethought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Susan

    2010-06-01

    Focusing on Machery's claim that concepts play entirely different roles in philosophy and psychology, I explain how one well-known philosophical theory of concepts, Conceptual Atomism (CA), when properly understood, takes into account both kinds of roles. PMID:20584416

  13. Topics in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  14. Improved Atomizer Resists Clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dea, J. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Improved constant-output atomizer has conical orifice that permits air to sweep out all liquid thoroughly and prevent any buildup of liquid or dissolved solids. Capillary groove guides liquid to gas jet. Simple new design eliminates clogging.

  15. Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and development of a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer for trace element analysis are described. An instruction manual is included which details the operation, adjustment, and maintenance. Specifications and circuit diagrams are given

  16. Two photon dissociation of benzene, phenylacetylene, and benzaldehyde at 243 nm: translational energy releases in the H atom channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen atom production channels from photodissociation of benzene, phenylacetylene, and benzaldehyde at 243 nm have been investigated by detecting H atoms using two photon absorption at 243.2 nm and induced fluorescence at 121.6 nm. Translational energies of the H atoms were measured by Doppler broadened H atom spectra. By absorption of two photons at 243 nm, the H atoms are statistically produced from benzene and phenylacetylene whereas the H atoms from the aldehyde group in benzaldehyde are produced from different pathways. The possible dissociation mechanisms are discussed from the measured translational energy releases

  17. Atomic Energy Act 1946

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act provides for the development of atomic energy in the United Kingdom and for its control. It details the duties and powers of the competent Minister, in particular his powers to obtain information on and to inspect materials, plant and processes, to control production and use of atomic energy and publication of information thereon. Also specified is the power to search for and work minerals and to acquire property. (NEA)

  18. Dangerous Energy : Atomic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the disaster in Chernobyl, Russia. Through the accident It reveals the dangerous nuclear energy with a lot of problems on the nuclear power plants which includes four reasons about propelling development of atomic and criticism about that, eight reasons against development of atomic, the problem in 11 -12 nuclear power plant, the movement of antagonism towards nuclear waste in Anmyon island, cases of antinuclear in foreign country and building of new energy system.

  19. Atom laser divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Le Coq, Yann; Thywissen, Joseph H.; Rangwala, Sadiq A.; Gerbier, Fabrice; Richard, Simon; Delannoy, Guillaume; Bouyer, Philippe; Aspect, Alain

    2001-01-01

    We measure the angular divergence of a quasi-continuous, rf-outcoupled, free-falling atom laser as a function of the outcoupling frequency. The data is compared to a Gaussian-beam model of laser propagation that generalizes the standard formalism of photonic lasers. Our treatment includes diffraction, magnetic lensing, and interaction between the atom laser and the condensate. We find that the dominant source of divergence is the condensate-laser interaction.

  20. Guided Quasicontinuous Atom Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Guerin, William; Riou, Jean-Félix; Gaebler, John,; Josse, Vincent; Bouyer, Philippe; Aspect, Alain

    2006-01-01

    version published in Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 200402 (2006) International audience We report the first realization of a guided quasicontinuous atom laser by rf outcoupling a Bose-Einstein condensate from a hybrid optomagnetic trap into a horizontal atomic waveguide. This configuration allows us to cancel the acceleration due to gravity and keep the de Broglie wavelength constant at 0.5 µm during 0.1 s of propagation. We also show that our configuration, equivalent to pigtailing an optical f...

  1. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  2. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  3. Atomic Bomb Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Luckey, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation,...

  4. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  5. Theoretical atomic collision physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, N.F. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA) Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Quantum Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical atomic physics at Rice University focuses on obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms that control inelastic collisions between excited atoms and atoms, molecules and ions. Particular attention is given to systems and processes that are of potential importance to advanced energy technologies. In the current year, significant progress has been made in quantitative studies of: quenching of low-Rydberg Na atoms in thermal energy collisions with He, Ne and Ar atoms; selective excitation resulting from charge transfer in collisions of highly stripped ions of He, Li, C, and with Li, Na and He atoms and H{sub 2} molecules at keV energies; differential elastic and single, and double electron transfer in He{sup ++} collisions with He at keV energies; inelastic electron-transfer in ultra-low-energy-energy (T=8 to 80K) collisions between {sup 3}He{sup +} and {sup 4}He and {sup 4}He{sup +} and {sup 3}He; a formalism for ionization by electron impact of ions in dense, high temperature plasmas.

  6. Atomic phenomena in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following chapters are included: (1) the plasma environment, (2) perturbations of atomic structure, (3) perturbations of atomic collisions, (4) formation of spectral lines, and (5) dielectronic recombination

  7. Multiple-scattering calculations of x-ray-absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-order multiple-scattering (MS) approach to the calculation of polarized x-ray-absorption spectra, which includes both x-ray-absorption fine structure and x-ray-absorption near-edge structure, is presented. Efficient calculations in arbitrary systems are carried out by using a curved-wave MS path formalism that ignores negligible paths, and has an energy-dependent self-energy and MS Debye-Waller factors. Embedded-atom background absorption calculations on an absolute energy scale are included. The theory is illustrated for metallic Cu, Cd, and Pt. For these cases the MS expansion is found to converge to within typical experimental accuracy, both to experiment and to full MS theories (e.g., band structure), by using only a few dozen important paths, which are primarily single-scattering, focusing, linear, and triangular

  8. Geometry, chemical reactivity and Raman spectra of gold clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngangbam Bedamani Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Structures, stability, and chemical reactivity of Aun (n = 2-10 clusters are investigated using density functional theory (DFT. We have studied the reactivity parameters of the clusters in terms of relevant electronic structure principles. It is observed that stability and properties are strongly dependent on the cluster size. Clusters with an even number of atoms are found to be energetically and chemically more stable than odd-numbered clusters. Electronic structure of clusters has been investigated using partial density of states (PDOS. PDOS analysis clearly shows that energy states of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital are predominantly contributed by s orbital. From time-dependent DFT calculations, it is shown that absorption spectra of even-numbered clusters are more intense and are observed at lower wavelength region than the odd-sized gold clusters.

  9. Titanium core-level spectra in titanium tetrahalide molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular-orbital calculations of TiF4, TiCl4, TiBr4, and TiI4 molecules have been made with use of self-consistent local-density theory with the discrete variational (DV-Xα) method. Core-level excitation energies corresponding to x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements are calculated. Spectral peaks associated with metastable final states of the core ionized atom that include relaxation and charge transfer processes are calculated. XPS spectra of Ti core levels in these compounds show that binding energies of both main lines and satellites clearly depend on the ligated anion. The observed systematic behavior of ionization potentials and satellite separation energies for the halide series is calculated with reasonable accuracy. With use of the single-determinant formalism, contributions to the intensity of the main line and satellites are examined

  10. Recombination Lines of CII in the Spectra of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2010-01-01

    The current report presents the work carried out by the author to investigate the recombination lines of CII in the spectra of planetary nebulae. Two CIII targets were prepared and used to generate theoretical data required in the investigation of recombination lines that arise from collisions between electrons and ions in thin plasma found in planetary nebulae and other astrophysical objects. One of these targets contains 9 atomic terms while the other contains 26 terms. For each one of these targets, theoretical data concerning bound and autoionizing states were generated in the intermediate coupling approximation by R-matrix and Autostructure codes and compared to experimental data. The comparison revealed very good agreement. These theoretical data were then used to generate emissivity data and compare it to the carbon recombination lines found in the observational line list of Zhang et al [2005] on the planetary nebula NGC 7027. The main tool used in this analysis is the `Emissivity' code which is a prog...

  11. Simulation of UIB spectra with IR emission from CHONS molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Papoular, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    The present work purports to identify candidate carriers of the UIBs. This requires a procedure for the computation of the emission spectrum of any given candidate. The procedure used here consists in exciting the carrier into a state of internal vibration, waiting until the system has reached dynamic equilibrium and, then, monitoring the time variations of the overall electric dipole moment associated with this vibration. The emission spectrum is shown to be simply related to the FT of these variations. This procedure was applied to more than 100 different chemical structures, inspired by the exhaustive experimental and theoretical analyses of Kerogens, the terrestrial sedimentary matter, which is known to be mainly composed of C, H, O, N and S atoms. From this data base, 21 structures were extracted, which fall in 4 classes, each of which contributes preferentially to one of the main UIBs. Summing their adequately weighted spectra delivers an emission spectrum which indeed exhibits the main UIB features (al...

  12. Fractals and spectra related to fourier analysis and function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Triebel, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Fractals and Spectra Hans Triebel This book deals with the symbiotic relationship between the theory of function spaces, fractal geometry, and spectral theory of (fractal) pseudodifferential operators as it has emerged quite recently. Atomic and quarkonial (subatomic) decompositions in scalar and vector valued function spaces on the euclidean n-space pave the way to study properties (compact embeddings, entropy numbers) of function spaces on and of fractals. On this basis, distributions of eigenvalues of fractal (pseudo)differential operators are investigated. Diverse versions of fractal drums are played. The book is directed to mathematicians interested in functional analysis, the theory of function spaces, fractal geometry, partial and pseudodifferential operators, and, in particular, in how these domains are interrelated. ------ It is worth mentioning that there is virtually no literature on this topic and hence the most of the presented material is published here the first time. - Zentralblatt MATH (…) ...

  13. A complex fitting program of Moessbauer transmission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex fitting program (MIMI) used to analyse Moessbauer spectrometry data is presented. It was written in FORTRAN 4 (F) and run on IBM 370/135 at the Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest. The program requires a 72 K memory. MIMI is able to analyse spectra with a maximum number of 512 spectral data points and 64 parameters in any combination of lines (magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions, or singular (lines) without restrictions in overlapping. The mathematical model and some typical convergence problems were presented in details. Then a flow-chart, the input data specifications and short descriptions of the main program and all of the subroutines are presented. Finally, a test run on a 57Fe Moessbauer spectrum is given for an Y6Fe3 intermetallic compound. (author)

  14. Microwave Spectra and Structures of H_2S-CuCl and H_2O-CuCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, N. R.; Wheatley, D. E.; Stephens, S. L.; Roberts, F. J.; Mikhailov, V. A.; Legon, A. C.

    2010-06-01

    A Balle-Flygare FT-MW spectrometer coupled to a laser ablation source has been used to measure the pure rotational spectra of H2S-CuCl and H2O-CuCl. Both molecules are generated via laser ablation (532 nm) of a metal rod in the presence of CCl4, argon, a low partial pressure of H2S or H2O and are stabilized by supersonic expansion. Rotational constants and centrifugal distortion constants have been measured for eight isotopologues of H2S-CuCl with substitutions available at the copper, chlorine and hydrogen atoms. Transitions in the spectra of nine isotopologues of H2O-CuCl have been measured with isotopic substitutions achieved for every atom. The spectra of both H2S-CuCl and H2O-CuCl are consistent with a linear arrangement of sulphur or oxygen, metal and chlorine atoms. The structure of H2S-CuCl is pyramidal with CS symmetry. The structure of H2O-CuCl is either C2v planar at equilibrium or CS pyramidal but with a low potential-energy barrier to planarity such that the v=0 and 1 states associated with the motion that inverts the configuration at the O atom are well separated. Nuclear quadrupole coupling constants have been measured for the chlorine and copper atoms in each molecule. Nuclear spin-rotation constants have been determined for the copper atom.

  15. Mass Spectra of Tetraselenafulvalenes, Diselenadithiafulvalenes and Tetrathiafulvalenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn;

    1978-01-01

    The mass spectra of 13 heterofulvalenes are reported. The spectra show great similarities within the selenium and within the sulphur series. The main difference between the selenium and the sulphur compounds results from the more facile loss of selenium compared with sulphur, and from the first...... fragmentation of the molecular ion, as the selenium fulvalenes lose an alkyne molecule, whereas the sulphur fulvalenes first lose an (SĊR) radical. An important feature of the spectra of the simple heterofulvalenes is the formation of a rearrangement ion by migration of a heteroatom. The mechanism was...

  16. Rotational structure in molecular infrared spectra

    CERN Document Server

    di Lauro, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in infrared molecular spectroscopy have resulted in sophisticated theoretical and laboratory methods that are difficult to grasp without a solid understanding of the basic principles and underlying theory of vibration-rotation absorption spectroscopy. Rotational Structure in Molecular Infrared Spectra fills the gap between these recent, complex topics and the most elementary methods in the field of rotational structure in the infrared spectra of gaseous molecules. There is an increasing need for people with the skills and knowledge to interpret vibration-rotation spectra in ma

  17. Simulation of x-ray fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for simulating x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra in hybrid densitometry is presented. This technique allows simulation of XRF spectra for solutions with arbitrary concentrations of special nuclear material and minor actinides excited by an x-ray generator. Spectra for mixed uranium and plutonium solutions with U/Pu ratios ranging from 100 to 1 have been generated. This range of ratios applies to most solutions found in plutonium reprocessing plants. XRF simulation can provide important data for estimating instrument precision, evaluating analysis techniques, and training system operators. Applications of XRF simulation in the development of the Los Alamos Hybrid K-Edge/XRF Densitometer system are described

  18. Improvements in differentiation unfolding of radiation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiation unfolding is widely used for measurements of neutron spectra in reactors using proton-recoil proportional counters and for measurements of neutron and gamma-ray spectra using scintillators. Current differentiation unfolding codes use various least-squares fits of polynomials to estimate the derivative of numerical data. Simple examples are used to illustrate the errors in unfolded energy spectra that result from the use of least-squares differentiation. An alternative method of numerical differentiation is presented; this method is shown to be free of the errors that result from least-squares differentiation

  19. Precise atomic radiative lifetime via photoassociative spectroscopy of ultracold lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained spectra of the high-lying vibrational levels of the 13Σ+g state of 6Li2 via photoassociation of ultracold 6Li atoms confined in a magneto-optical trap. The 13Σ+g state of the diatomic molecule correlates to a 2S1/2 state atom plus a 2P1/2 state atom. The long-range part of the molecular interaction potential for this state depends on the 2P atomic radiative lifetime. By calculating the energy eigenvalues of a model potential for the 13Σ+g state and fitting them to the experimentally measured vibrational levels, we have extracted a value for the 2P lifetime of 26.99±0.16 ns. The precision is currently limited by the accuracy of a region of the model potential provided by ab initio calculations

  20. Studies on the interaction of hydrogen atoms with diamond surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vibration modes of hydrogen-atom adsorption on the diamond surface were studied with high resolution-electron energy loss spectroscopy. Two main losses were observed at 360 MeV and 160 MeV. They are assigned to the C-H stretch vibrations and the angle-changing deformation vibrations respectively. Replacing H-atom with D-atom, isotopic shifts were observed in the loss spectra. Heating the diamond surface to 900 deg C, all of the loss features disappear, but an inelastic continuous loss-structure was observed. Due to H-atom desorption, the dangling-bonds became horizontal bonds on the diamond surface, resulting in the graphitization of diamond surface. The appearance of the inelastic continuous loss-structure was the characteristic of graphite π-band. The graphitization of the diamond surface was affirmed further by UPS and AES studies