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Sample records for atomic sorting isotope

  1. Single Photon Atomic Sorting: Isotope Separation with Maxwell's Demon

    CERN Document Server

    Raizen, M G; Jerkins, M

    2010-01-01

    Isotope separation is one of the grand challenges of modern society and holds great potential for basic science, medicine, energy, and defense. We consider here a new and general approach to isotope separation. The method is based on an irreversible change of the mass-to-magnetic moment ratio of a particular isotope in an atomic beam, followed by deflection in a magnetic field gradient. The underlying mechanism is a reduction of the entropy of the beam by the information of a single-scattered photon for each atom that is separated. We numerically simulate isotope separation for a range of examples. The first class of atoms we consider are those that have zero magnetic moment in their ground electronic state. A laser induces an irreversible transition to a metastable state, followed by magnetic deflection. The second (larger) class of atoms we consider are those that have a magnetic moment in their ground state. The magnetic stretch-state is deflected in one zone of a magnetic field gradient, followed by a las...

  2. Single beam atom sorting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We create two overlapping one-dimensional optical lattices using a single laser beam, a spatial light modulator and a high numerical aperture lens. These lattices have the potential to trap single atoms, and using the dynamic capabilities of the spatial light modulator may shift and sort atoms to a minimum atom-atom separation of 1.52 μm. We show how a simple feedback circuit can compensate for the spatial light modulator's intensity modulation

  3. Microspherical photonics: Sorting resonant photonic atoms by using light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, Alexey V., E-mail: avmaslov@yandex.ru [University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Astratov, Vasily N., E-mail: astratov@uncc.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States)

    2014-09-22

    A method of sorting microspheres by resonant light forces in vacuum, air, or liquid is proposed. Based on a two-dimensional model, it is shown that the sorting can be realized by allowing spherical particles to traverse a focused beam. Under resonance with the whispering gallery modes, the particles acquire significant velocity along the beam direction. This opens a unique way of large-volume sorting of nearly identical photonic atoms with 1/Q accuracy, where Q is the resonance quality factor. This is an enabling technology for developing super-low-loss coupled-cavity structures and devices.

  4. Microspherical photonics: Sorting resonant photonic atoms by using light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of sorting microspheres by resonant light forces in vacuum, air, or liquid is proposed. Based on a two-dimensional model, it is shown that the sorting can be realized by allowing spherical particles to traverse a focused beam. Under resonance with the whispering gallery modes, the particles acquire significant velocity along the beam direction. This opens a unique way of large-volume sorting of nearly identical photonic atoms with 1/Q accuracy, where Q is the resonance quality factor. This is an enabling technology for developing super-low-loss coupled-cavity structures and devices.

  5. Plasma Diffuser Sorts Light Atoms to Solar Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, O.

    2005-01-01

    The Sun operates like a giant plasma diffuser that sorts lighter isotopes and elements to the solar surface. Measurements indicate that the interior of the Sun consists mostly of the same seven, even-numbered elements as ordinary meteorites: Iron, oxygen, nickel, silicon, sulfur, magnesium, and calcium. These ordinary elements compose clothing on the central neutron star that was produced at the core of the supernova that exploded here 5 billion years ago. Neutron emission generates most sola...

  6. Atomic vapour laser isotope separation of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of separating the 91Zr isotope from the rest of the isotopes of zirconium were investigated. The current interest in zirconium arise from the fact that zirconium is an important element in the construction of nuclear reactors. The technique proposed for the isotope separation process is different from those currently in use for the separation of isotopes of refractory elements such as uranium. The proposed isotope separation process is based on the multi-step selective excitation of the isotope to be extracted, which in this case is 91Zr. The isotope-selective laser excitation relies on the angular-momentum selection rules for the absorption of circularly polarized light. The theory governing the isotope separation process is discussed and the various parameters in the practical implementation of the theory are investigated. The suitability of a demountable hollow cathode lamp as zirconium atomic vapour source was investigated. The optimum working conditions for the demountable hollow cathode lamp was determined and fluorescence, absorption and emission measurements were made. In order to realize a selective two-step excitation process, relevant energy levels must exist which fulfill certain requirements as discussed in the thesis. Energy levels fulfilling the necessary conditions for isotope separation are not readily available and an intensive study of the zirconium energy levels were made. Non-selective two-step excitation of the zirconium atoms was realized. These fluorescence measurements gave information regarding the optical alignment of the laser beams as well as the construction of the demountable hollow cathode lamp as atomic vapour source for the two-step excitation process. Although selective two-step excitation of the 91Zr isotope could not be achieved, a number of valuable results were obtained during the project. Proposals on how the necessary selective excitation could be achieved, in order to realize the separation of the 91Zr

  7. Metabolite Profiling and Stable Isotope Tracing in Sorted Subpopulations of Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roci, Irena; Gallart-Ayala, Hector; Schmidt, Angelika; Watrous, Jeramie; Jain, Mohit; Wheelock, Craig E; Nilsson, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Biological samples such as tissues, blood, or tumors are often complex and harbor heterogeneous populations of cells. Separating out specific cell types or subpopulations from such complex mixtures to study their metabolic phenotypes is challenging because experimental procedures for separation may disturb the metabolic state of cells. To address this issue, we developed a method for analysis of cell subpopulations using stable isotope tracing and fluorescence-activated cell sorting followed by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. To ensure a faithful representation of cellular metabolism after cell sorting, we benchmarked sorted extraction against direct extraction. While peak areas differed markedly with lower signal for amino acids but higher signal for nucleotides, mass isotopomer distributions from sorted cells were generally in good agreement with those obtained from direct extractions, indicating that they reflect the true metabolic state of cells prior to sorting. In proof-of-principle studies, our method revealed metabolic phenotypes specific to T cell subtypes, and also metabolic features of cells in the committed phase of the cell division cycle. Our approach enables studies of a wide range of adherent and suspension cell subpopulations, which we anticipate will be of broad importance in cell biology and biomedicine. PMID:26855138

  8. First AID (Atom counting for Isotopic Determination).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, J. L. (Jeffrey L.); Israel, K. M. (Kimberly M.); Steiner, R. E. (Robert E.); Duffy, C. J. (Clarence J.); Roench, F. R. (Fred R.)

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established an in vitro bioassay monitoring program in compliance with the requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. One aspect of this program involves monitoring plutonium levels in at-risk workers. High-risk workers are monitored using the ultra-sensitive Therrnal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) technique to ensure compliance with DOE standards. TIMS is used to measure atom ratios of 239Pua nd 240Puw ith respect to a tracer isotope ('Pu). These ratios are then used to calculate the amount of 239Pu and 240Pup resent. This low-level atom counting technique allows the calculation of the concentration levels of 239Pu and 240Pu in urine for at risk workers. From these concentration levels, dose assessments can be made and worker exposure levels can be monitored. Detection limits for TIMS analysis are on the order of millions of atoms, which translates to activity levels of 150 aCi 239Pua nd 500 aCi for 240Pu. pCi for Our poster presentation will discuss the ultra-sensitive, low-level analytical technique used to measure plutonium isotopes and the data verification methods used for validating isotopic measurements.

  9. THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS COMMISSION AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO DETERMINATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-07

    Following Thomson's discovery of stable isotopes in non-radioactive chemical elements, the derivation of atomic weight values from mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic abundance ratios moved very slowly. Forty years later, only 3 1/2 % of the recommended values were based on mass spectrometric measurements and only 38% in the first half century. It might be noted that two chemical elements (tellurium and mercury) are still based on chemical measurements, where the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement either agrees with the value from the chemical measurement or the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement falls within the uncertainty of the chemical measurement of the atomic weight. Of the 19 chemical elements, whose atomic weight is based on non-corrected relative isotopic abundance measurements, five of these are two isotope systems (indium, iridium, lanthanum, lutetium and tantalum) and one is a three-isotope system (oxygen).

  10. [Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes work performed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program from January through July, 1992. Each of the tasks assigned during this period is described, and results are presented. Section I details work on sensitivity matrices for the UDS relay telescope. These matrices show which combination of mirror motions may be performed in order to effect certain changes in beam parameters. In Section II, an analysis is given of transmission through a clipping aperture on the launch telescope deformable mirror. Observed large transmission losses could not be simulated in the analysis. An EXCEL spreadsheet program designed for in situ analysis of UDS optical systems is described in Section III. This spreadsheet permits analysis of changes in beam first-order characteristics due to changes in any optical system parameter, simple optimization to predict mirror motions needed to effect a combination of changes in beam parameters, and plotting of a variety of first-order data. Optical systems may be assembled directly from OSSD data. A CODE V nonsequential model of the UDS optical system is described in Section IV. This uses OSSD data to build the UDS model; mirror coordinates may thus be verified. Section V summarizes observations of relay telescope performance. Possible procedures which allow more accurate assessment of relay telescope performance are given

  11. Single atom detection of calcium isotopes by atom trap trace analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, S; Morgenstern, R; Wilschut, H W; Hoekstra, R

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a combination of an isotopically purified atom beam and a magneto-optical trap which enables the single atom detection of all stable isotopes of calcium (40, 42, 43, 44, 46 and 48). These isotopes range in abundance from 96.9 % (40Ca) to 0.004 (46Ca). The trap is loaded from an atomic beam which is decelerated in a Zeeman slower and subsequently deflected over an angle of 30 degrees by optical molasses. The isotope selectivity of the Zeeman slower and the deflection stage is investigated experimentally and compared with Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Isotopically selective optical deflection of a krypton atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We deflected a well-collimated beam of krypton atoms in the metastable 1s5 state by radiation pressure from a single-frequency dye laser. To produce the radiation pressure, we resonantly excited the krypton atoms, using the 1s5--2p9 transition. The natural width of this transition is much smaller than its isotope shift, which allowed us to deflect one isotope at a time. This created a new isotopically enriched atomic beam of Kr(1s5). We achieved a maximum enrichment factor of 1.2 x 104 at a deflection angle of 19 mrad. This enrichment is limited mainly by scattering of the parent atomic beam by residual gas. This degree of enrichment may make it possible to perform sensitive measurements of the concentrations of rare krypton isotopes in environmental samples

  13. Atomic Beam Laser Spectrometer for In-field Isotopic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Actinide Analytical Chemistry Group

    2016-06-22

    This is a powerpoint presentation for the DTRA quarterly program review that goes into detail about the atomic beam laser spectrometer for in-field isotopic analysis. The project goals are the following: analysis of post-detonation debris, determination of U and Pu isotopic composition, and fieldable prototype: < 2ft3, < 1000W.

  14. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation using resonance ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1985, the Department of Energy announced the selection of atomic vapor laser isotope separation [AVLIS] as the technology to meet the United States' future need for enriched uranium. Resonance photoionization is the heart of the AVLIS process. The authors discuss those fundamental atomic parameters that are necessary for describing isotope-selective resonant multistep photoionization along with the measurement techniques employed. The methodology adopted is illustrated with examples of other elements that are under study in the program. (author)

  15. Activation cross-section measurement of a sort of nuclide produced with a target including two isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng-Qun; TIAN Ming-Li; SONG Yue-Li; LAN Chang-Lin; KONG Xiang-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Based on a formula used to calculate the activation cross-section sum of two reactions producing a sort of nuclide with a target including two isotopes,the related problems in some references have been analyzed and discussed.It is pointed out that the calculation methods of the cross-section sum of two reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for two isotopes in some references are improper and usually it is impossible to obtain the correct cross-section sum of two reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for two isotopes in the case of using natural samples.At the same time,the related concepts are clarified and the correct processing method and representation are given.The comparison with the experimental results show that the theoretical analysis results are right.

  16. Activation cross-section measurement of a sort of nuclide produced with a target including two isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a formula used to calculate the activation cross-section sum of two reactions producing a sort of nuclide with a target including two isotopes, the related problems in some references have been analyzed and discussed. It is pointed out that the calculation methods of the cross-section sum of two reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for two isotopes in some references are improper and usually it is impossible to obtain the correct cross-section sum of two reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for two isotopes in the case of using natural samples. At the same time, the related concepts are clarified and the correct processing method and representation are given. The comparison with the experimental results show that the theoretical analysis results are right. (authors)

  17. Some new trends in laser isotope separation in atomic vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New approaches to the methods of laser isotope separation are considered and realised which substantially extend the possibilities of the methods. To narrow down an absorption line and decrease parasitic absorption at transitions in isotope atoms that do not belong to an isotope being separated, two-photon excitation of atoms was used both in collinear and counterpropagating light beams. By using two-photon excitation in counterpropagating light beams, the weight amounts of Zn isotopes were separated under the conditions when the isotopic structure of a resonance transition was completely masked by the Doppler broadening. Two-photon excitation in collinear beams was used for efficient purification of lead from a rare 210Pb isotope to obtain a low-radioactive lead. A detailed computer simulation of separation of isotopes of Zn, B, Pb, and Si using two-photon excitation was performed. An efficient method of isotope separation involving chemical reactions with selectively excited long-lived atoms was proposed and realised. The method offers some advantages over the conventional photoionisation method. (invited paper)

  18. Nuclear polarizability of helium isotopes in atomic transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Pachucki, K.; Moro, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    We estimate the nuclear polarizability correction to atomic transition frequencies in various helium isotopes. This effect is non-negligible for high precision tests of quantum electrodynamics or accurate determination of the nuclear charge radius from spectroscopic measurements in helium atoms and ions. In particular, it amounts to $28(3)$ kHz for 1S-2S transition in 4He+.

  19. Data mining for isotope discrimination in atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ions with similar time-of-flights (TOF) can be discriminated by mapping their kinetic energy. While current generation position-sensitive detectors have been considered insufficient for capturing the isotope kinetic energy, we demonstrate in this paper that statistical learning methodologies can be used to capture the kinetic energy from all of the parameters currently measured by mathematically transforming the signal. This approach works because the kinetic energy is sufficiently described by the descriptors on the potential, the material, and the evaporation process within atom probe tomography (APT). We discriminate the isotopes for Mg and Al by capturing the kinetic energy, and then decompose the TOF spectrum into its isotope components and identify the isotope for each individual atom measured. This work demonstrates the value of advanced data mining methods to help enhance the information resolution of the atom probe. - Highlights: ► Atom probe tomography and statistical learning were combined for data enhancement. ► Multiple eigenvalue decompositions decomposed a spectrum with overlapping peaks. ► The isotope of each atom was determined by kinetic energy discrimination. ► Eigenspectra were identified and new chemical information was identified

  20. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  1. Electromagnetic isotope separation at the China Institute of Atomic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Gongpan; Lin Zhizhou; Xiang Xuyang; Deng Jingting (China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-08-01

    Electromagnetic isotope separation at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is described. Calutron, Nier-Bernas and Freeman ion sources were constructed for ion implantation systems. It was found that some enriched isotope samples were contaminated more by lighter than by heavier neighbors. This phenomenon may be explained if the sputtered particles consist of a considerable percentage of ions. A computer inspection system for recording and processing operation data has been designed. (orig.).

  2. Isotopically selective collinear laser photoionization of accelerated helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinear two-step laser photoionization of 3He and 4He isotopes, accelerated to energies of up to 3.9 keV, is described. It is shown that the ionization selectivity in the case of the rare isotope 3He is 106 for a residual-gas pressure of 10-7 Torr in the vacuum system. The sensitivity is limited by collisions that result in the excitation of fast metastable atoms to Rydberg states in the field-free region, and by impact ionization of fast atoms in the region of the ionizer. It is shown that the ionization of helium atoms excited to n3D states occurs along the adiabatic and diabatic channels

  3. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main effort in the field of Isotopic Separation Research and Development in France is devoted since 1985 to the 'SILVA' process. A structured organization has been set up, including the following elements: Specific Research and Development for all the functions and components of the process: this work is supported by numerous benches located in Saclay and Pierrelatte. Each bench is mainly devoted to one process function; regarding process and operating performances are optimized. Integrated Experiences in a Pilot facility. Qualified components are integrated in a pilot facility located in Saclay, the capacity of which is steadily increased. At each stage, complete separative experiments demonstrate the improvements attained. Focused Basic Research for each field, often linked with various and relatively original phenomenas. Models have been built up, supported by specific experiments and values attained for intrinsical parameters. An aggregated process performance computing code integrates all the models, possibly under simplified form. Technical, operating and economical data are gradually added. A general assessment will take place in the middle of the nineties with several technical demonstrations and a complete evaluation of the French AVLIS process

  4. Atomic vapour laser isotope separation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France has a specific position in the uranium enrichment market. It has a major nuclear park, supplying 75% of the nation's electricity. On one hand the modern multinational EURODIF gaseous diffusion plant (10.8 M.SWU/y) works smoothly, and its supply of nuclear generated electricity offers customers a good long term view on enrichment costs. A program to improve its performances and to extend its lifespan is well in progress. It will offer a fast modulation capability, with advantage of off-peak power for about 3/4 of its electrical requirements. On the other hand, today's situation of over capacity, accentuated by non-commercial practices, may lead to a brutal restructuring of the world-wide enrichment industry in the coming years. The French approach has a long term goal, with a priority for a high performance process, which will be available when world stocks of enriched uranium are exhausted, and aging enrichment plants have to be shut down. To reach this goal, French Atomic Energy Commission has focused since 1985 on the atomic laser route, SILVA, in agreement with the industrial operator, COGEMA. Fully integrated pre-industrial experience, too costly, will be delayed as long as possible, toward the end of the decade. It will benefit from the most advanced options, taking into account the difficulty of changing them once demonstration has been achieved. The SILVA program is periodically assessed from both the scientific and the industrial point of view and a general assessment is to be made between 1996 and 1997, prior to pre-industrial development

  5. Continuation of Atomic Spectroscopy on Alkali Isotopes at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Laser optical measurements on Rb, Cs and Fr have already been performed at ISOLDE in 1978-79. The hyperfine structure and isotope shift of |7|6|-|9|8Rb, |1|1|8|-|1|4|5Cs, |2|0|8|-|2|1|3Fr and 14 of their isomers have been studied. Among the wealth of information which has been obtained, the most important are the first observation of an optical transition of the element Fr, the evidence of the onset of nuclear deformation at N~=~60 for Rb isotopes and the shape isomerism isotopes. \\\\ \\\\ From both the atomic and nuclear physics point of view, new studies seem very promising: \\item - the search for new optical transitions in Fr; the shell effect in the rms charge radius at N~=~126 for Fr isotopes \\item - the study of a possible onset of deformation for Cs isotopes beyond |1|4|5Cs \\item - the study of a region of static deformation in neutron-deficient Rb isotopes. \\\\ \\\\ \\end{enumerate} A new apparatus has been built. The principle remains the same as used in our earlier experiments. The improvements concern ess...

  6. Isotopic and Symmetry Effects in the Collision of Atomic Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouledroua, Moncef; Bouchelaghem, Fouzia; Tahar Bouazza, M.; Reggami, Lamia

    2006-11-01

    The thermophysical properties of a helium dilute gas at low and high temperatures are revisited with new and recent potential data points. The second virial coefficients are computed in order to assess the accuracy of the constructed He-He potentials. The results, mainly at high temperatures, are in a good agreement with the published values. The isotopic effects due to the presence of ^4He and ^3He atoms are also examined and the calculations of various transport parameters, namely diffusion, viscosity, and thermal conductivity, are extended to include the nuclear spins and the symmetry effects, which arise from the identity and indistinguishability of the colliding atoms.

  7. Isotope Shifts and Isomer Shifts in Muonic Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results on isotope shifts (142-146,148,150 Nd, 92,95-97 Mo, 50,52-54Cr) and isomer shifts (182,184,186W) are summarized in this paper. First, the merits and disadvantages of the three different isotope shift methods (optical h.f.s. spectra, electronic X-rays and muonic X-rays) are briefly outlined. The sensitivities of model dependence of the observed isotope shifts by these three methods are also introduced and discussed. The main emphasis of the paper is to show and to explain how the muonic isotope shift results may be used to normalize the optical isotope shift results and obtain the specific mass corrections occurring in optical results. The energy shifts of nuclear gamma rays as the result of the dynamic E2 interactions in several deformed nuclei have been precisely measured. The calculated shifts of the centre of gravity of the unresolved magnetic doublet are first applied to the observed shifts. The remaining shifts may be interpreted as the isomer effects, i.e. the effect of charge distribution on the transition energy, A comparison of the isomer effects by the muonic atom method and by the Mössbauer technique is included. (author)

  8. Theoretical study on isotope separation of an ytterbium atomic beam by laser deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope separation by laser deflecting an atomic beam is analyzed theoretically. Interacting with a tilted one-dimensional optical molasses, an ytterbium atomic beam is split into multi-beams with different isotopes like 172Yb,173Yb, and 174Yb. By using the numerical calculation, the dependences of the splitting angle on the molasses laser intensity and detuning are studied, and the optimal parameters for the isotope separation are also investigated. Furthermore, the isotope separation efficiency and purity are estimated. Finally a new scheme for the efficient isotope separation is proposed. These findings will give a guideline for simply obtaining pure isotopes of various elements. (atomic and molecular physics)

  9. Development of windows based application for the calculation of atomic hyperfine spectrum of odd isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windows based application has been developed for the calculation of atomic hyperfine spectrum of odd isotopes keeping in view of the needs of the atomic spectroscopists. The application can also calculate the hyperfine spectrum of another odd isotope if hyperfine structure constants of one isotope are known. Various features of the developed application are discussed. (author)

  10. The Sun is a plasma diffuser that sorts atoms by mass

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, O.; Kamat, S. A.; Mozina, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Sun is a magnetic plasma diffuser that selectively moves light elements like H and He and the lighter isotopes of each element to its surface. The Sun formed on the collapsed core of a supernova. It consists mostly of iron, oxygen, nickel, silicon and sulfur made near the SN core, like the rocky planets and ordinary meteorites. H ions, generated by emission and decay of neutrons at the core, are accelerated upward by deep magnetic fields, thus acting as a carrier gas that maintains mass s...

  11. Sorting Out Sorts

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Berk

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the theoretical implications of sorting data into groups and then running asset pricing tests within each group. We show that the way this procedure is implemented introduces a severe bias in favor of rejecting the model under consideration. By simply picking enough groups to sort into even the true asset pricing model can be shown to have no explanatory power within each group.

  12. Isotopically selective counting of noble gas atoms, using resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) is being extended to develop a means for counting individual atoms of a selected isotope of a noble gas. In this method, lasers are used for RIS to obtain atomic species (Z) selectivity and a small quadrupole mass spectrometer provides isotopic (A) selectivity. A progress report on the objective of counting each atom of a particular isotope of a noble gas is given. (author)

  13. Isotopically selective counting of noble gas atoms, using resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) is being extended to develop a means for counting individual atoms of a selected isotope of a noble gas. In this method, lasers are used for RIS to obtain atomic species (Z) selectivity and a small quadrupole mass spectrometer provides isotopic (A) selectivity. A progress report on the objective of counting each atom of a particular isotope of a noble gas is given. 10 references, 4 figures

  14. Occultism and the atom: the curious story of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The routes to scientific discovery are sometimes strange. We are all familiar with the story of Newton and the falling apple, or with Friedrich Kekule's dream of a snake biting its own tail that led to the discovery of benzene's ring-like structure. But such stories - engaging though they might be - are often mythical. They serve a function in science, emphasizing individual psychology and the flash of inspiration from a heroic scientific genius, over the more routine and collective aspects of scientific work. Romanticism aside, however, the history of science - like Orwell's Big Brother state - usually writes and rewrites history to remove inconvenient facts, mistakes and idiosyncrasies, leaving only a rationalized path to our present knowledge, or what historians sometimes call 'whig' history. In so doing, it not only distorts the actual course of historical events but also gives a misleadingly simplistic picture of the richness of scientific activity and the interactions between science and broader culture. In the history of physics, for example, the discovery of isotopes by Frederick Soddy and Francis Aston is usually cast as part of a linear sequence of discoveries in atomic and nuclear physics. The story, we are told, began with the discovery of radioactivity in the 1890s, continued with the discovery of the nucleus (1911), isotopes (1913), wave mechanics (1920s) and the neutron (1932), before leading to nuclear fission (1938) and, ultimately, the atomic bomb (1945). In the September issue of Physics World Jeff Hughes describes how the history of isotopes was rewritten and why. (U.K.)

  15. Occultism and the atom: the curious story of isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Jeff

    2003-09-01

    The routes to scientific discovery are sometimes strange. We are all familiar with the story of Newton and the falling apple, or with Friedrich Kekule's dream of a snake biting its own tail that led to the discovery of benzene's ring-like structure. But such stories - engaging though they might be - are often mythical. They serve a function in science, emphasizing individual psychology and the flash of inspiration from a heroic scientific genius, over the more routine and collective aspects of scientific work. Romanticism aside, however, the history of science - like Orwell's Big Brother state - usually writes and rewrites history to remove inconvenient facts, mistakes and idiosyncrasies, leaving only a rationalized path to our present knowledge, or what historians sometimes call 'whig' history. In so doing, it not only distorts the actual course of historical events but also gives a misleadingly simplistic picture of the richness of scientific activity and the interactions between science and broader culture. In the history of physics, for example, the discovery of isotopes by Frederick Soddy and Francis Aston is usually cast as part of a linear sequence of discoveries in atomic and nuclear physics. The story, we are told, began with the discovery of radioactivity in the 1890s, continued with the discovery of the nucleus (1911), isotopes (1913), wave mechanics (1920s) and the neutron (1932), before leading to nuclear fission (1938) and, ultimately, the atomic bomb (1945). In the September issue of Physics World Jeff Hughes describes how the history of isotopes was rewritten and why. (U.K.)

  16. Detuning effect in multistep photo-ionization of atomic isotope of heavy element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detuning effect on the excitation wavelength in 3-step photoionization of atomic isotope of heavy element was experimentally obtained and the role of the isotope shift and hyperfine structure in each transition level was discussed. To achieve high selectivity, the combination of the HFS and isotope sift of upper and lower energy level including the autoionizing level was important. (author)

  17. Selective photochemical burning out of an isotope under interaction of resonant laser radiation with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for laser separation of the zinc and rubidium isotopes, based on the selective burning out of excited atoms in flux with the buffer gas and gas-reagent, is experimentally realized. The selective isotope excitation is carried out through the single-photon method with application of weak absorption lines and on the edge of the Doppler contour of absorbing the atoms with low isotope shift value

  18. Ionization yield and isotopic selectivity of three-step photoionization of atoms by pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimate of ionization yield and selectivity in multi-step photoionization is of interest in studies related to trace analysis and laser isotope separation. Analytical expressions of ionization yield for the desired and interfering isotopes have been derived by solving rate equations for three-step photoionization. The partial overlap of absorption lines of the isotopes and the charge exchange of the ions of the desired isotope with the atoms of the interfering isotope have been considered. The ionization yield and the isotopic selectivity of the photoionization process are calculated for ytterbium isotopes, considering various atomic and laser parameters. Numerical results have been discussed, showing the effect of both factors on the ionization yield and the isotopic selectivity of the process. (author)

  19. Ionization yield and isotopic selectivity of three-step photoionization of atoms by pulsed lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G. P.; Suri, B. M.

    2002-06-01

    Estimate of ionization yield and selectivity in multi-step photoionization is of interest in studies related to trace analysis and laser isotope separation. Analytical expressions of ionization yield for the desired and interfering isotopes have been derived by solving rate equations for three-step photoionization. The partial overlap of absorption lines of the isotopes and the charge exchange of the ions of the desired isotope with the atoms of the interfering isotope have been considered. The ionization yield and the isotopic selectivity of the photoionization process are calculated for ytterbium isotopes, considering various atomic and laser parameters. Numerical results have been discussed, showing the effect of both factors on the ionization yield and the isotopic selectivity of the process.

  20. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K D Rathod; P K Singh; Vasant Natarajan

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at 45° with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate the selective deflection of the bosonic isotope 174Yb and the fermionic isotope 171Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  1. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Rathod, KD; Singh, PK; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at 45(a similar to) with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate the selective deflection of the bosonic isotope Yb-174 and the fermionic isotope Yb-171. Using...

  2. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  3. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    CERN Document Server

    Rathod, K D; Natarajan, Vasant

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  4. Nanometer-scale isotope analysis of bulk diamond by atom probe tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirhagl, R.; Raatz, N.; Meijer, J.; Markham, M.; Gerstl, S. S. A.; Degen, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Atom-probe tomography (APT) combines field emission of atoms with mass spectrometry to reconstruct three-dimensional tomograms of materials with atomic resolution and isotope specificity. Despite significant recent progress in APT technology, application to wide-bandgap materials with strong covalen

  5. Analysis of laser beam propagation effects in atomic laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the atomic laser isotope separation process, the laser beams propagate through the atomic vapor over a long distance. It has been shown that the laser-atom interactions significantly modify the laser pulse shape and propagation velocity, resulting in degradation of the isotope separation efficiency. These propagation effects have been analyzed quantitatively, and a simple scaling formula has been derived to estimate the necessary laser energy for such optically thick atomic vapor. The optimum conditions of incident laser pulse have also been discussed. (author)

  6. Mathematical model of isotope-selective laser excitation of long-lived levels of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method of laser isotope separation base on monophoton selective excitation of long-lived states of atoms could be classified as a new one. Taking zinc and rubidium as an example it is shown that long-lived excited states of atoms could effectively chemically react with a number of molecules, whereas basic states of atoms react weakly. In contrast to AVLIS the method is based on the use of one wavelength. This method does not require collimation of flow of atoms and electric extraction. The method uses Doppler contour property. This property resides in that frequency tuning increasing simultaneously from all the isotopes excitation selectivity rises

  7. Variation in the terrestrial isotopic composition and atomic weight of argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, John Karl

    2014-01-01

    The isotopic composition and atomic weight of argon (Ar) are variable in terrestrial materials. Those variations are a source of uncertainty in the assignment of standard properties for Ar, but they provide useful information in many areas of science. Variations in the stable isotopic composition and atomic weight of Ar are caused by several different processes, including (1) isotope production from other elements by radioactive decay (radiogenic isotopes) or other nuclear transformations (e.g., nucleogenic isotopes), and (2) isotopic fractionation by physical-chemical processes such as diffusion or phase equilibria. Physical-chemical processes cause correlated mass-dependent variations in the Ar isotope-amount ratios (40Ar/36Ar, 38Ar/36Ar), whereas nuclear transformation processes cause non-mass-dependent variations. While atmospheric Ar can serve as an abundant and homogeneous isotopic reference, deviations from the atmospheric isotopic ratios in other Ar occurrences limit the precision with which a standard atomic weight can be given for Ar. Published data indicate variation of Ar atomic weights in normal terrestrial materials between about 39.7931 and 39.9624. The upper bound of this interval is given by the atomic mass of 40Ar, as some samples contain almost pure radiogenic 40Ar. The lower bound is derived from analyses of pitchblende (uranium mineral) containing large amounts of nucleogenic 36Ar and 38Ar. Within this interval, measurements of different isotope ratios (40Ar/36Ar or 38Ar/36Ar) at various levels of precision are widely used for studies in geochronology, water–rock interaction, atmospheric evolution, and other fields.

  8. Newtonian Kinetic Isotope Effects. Observation, Prediction, and Origin of Heavy-Atom Dynamic Isotope Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Kelmara K.; Hirschi, Jennifer S.; Singleton, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    Intramolecular 13C kinetic isotope effects were determined for the dimerization of cyclopentadiene. Substantial isotope effects were observed in three positions, despite the C2 symmetry of the cycloaddition transition state and the absence of dynamical bottlenecks after this transition state. The observed isotope effects were predicted well from trajectory studies by extrapolating the outcomes of trajectories incorporating superheavy isotopes of carbon, ranging from 20C to 140C. Trajectory st...

  9. The atomic weight and isotopic composition of boron and their variation in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron isotopic composition and atomic weight value and their variation in nature are reviewed. Questions are raised about the previously recommended value and the uncertainty for the atomic weight. The problem of what constitutes an acceptable range for normal material and what should then be considered geologically exceptional is discussed. Recent measurements make some previous decisions in need of re-evaluation

  10. Atomic and isotopic changes induced by ultrasounds in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron microscopy and neutron activation techniques are used to map the elemental and isotopical compositions of ferrite bars where the emission of neutron bursts and the formation of dark regions were reported after ultrasound irradiation. Anomalous values are found in these regions. The original concentrations of natural isotopes of copper and zinc are deduced; the occurrence of pressure-induced nuclear reactions is inferred while the cavities are suggested to act as nuclear micro-reactors. The general characteristics of these phenomena are considered a support to the existence of a new type of reactions, called deformed space-time reactions (DST-reactions). (author)

  11. Isotopic selectivity calculations for multi-step photoionization of calcium atoms using narrow-band lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic selectivity calculations are carried out for minor calcium isotopes against the major isotope 40Ca for the single-resonance two-step and double-resonance three-step photoionization schemes with narrow-band lasers by using spectral simulation (SS) and modified spectrum (MS) approaches. The results of these calculations are compared with the density matrix (DM) results reported in the literature. It is noted that the values of isotopic selectivity from the SS approach do not agree with those from the DM approach whereas the MS approach, considering hole burning in the Doppler-broadened atomic spectrum, predicts selectivity values which are in good agreement with the DM results. It is argued that one can adequately use the simple MS approach rather than the complex DM approach for the calculation of isotopic selectivity of multi-step photoionization with single-frequency lasers. (author)

  12. Selective isotope burning out in the case of interaction of resonance laser radiation with zinc atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility of zinc isotopes separation based on selective isotope burning out at the edge of Doppler absorption contour due to chemical reaction is demonstrated experimentally for the first time. Molecules of diethyl ether are used as gas-carrier. Value of chemical reaction rate of zinc atoms in (4p3P01) state with diethyl ether molecules is measured by change of time of spontaneous luminescence after impulse excitation. When the frequency of power laser is tuned up in the center of Doppler contour practically 100 % zinc atoms burning out is registered

  13. Investigation of isotopically-selective laser collinear photoionization of accelerated helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of investigations of collinear two-step laser photoionization of 3He and 4He isotopes accelerated to energies up to 3.9 keV. It is shown that selectivity of ionization of the rare isotope 3He is 106 for a residual vacuum in the system fo 10-7 mm Hg. It is limited by collision processes leading to the excitation of fast metastable atoms into Rydberg state in the field-free region and to impact ionization of the fast atoms in the region of the ionizer. The ionization of fast Rydberg atoms in a transverse electric field is investigated. It is shown that the ionization of helium atoms excited into the n3D states proceeds via adiabatic and diabatic channels

  14. Nuclear structure of light thallium isotopes as deduced from laser spectroscopy on a fast atom beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After optimizing the system by experiments on /sup 201,203,205/Tl, the neutron-deficient isotopes 189-193Tl have been studied using the collinear fast atom beam laser spectroscopy system at UNISOR on-line to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. A sensitive system for the measurements was developed since the light isotopes were available in mass-separated beams of only 7 x 104 to 4 x 105 atoms per second. By laser excitation of the 535 nm atomic transitions of atoms in the beam, the 6s27s 2S/sub 1/2/ and 6s26s 2P/sub 3/2/ hyperfine structures were measured, as were the isotope shifts of the 535 nm transitions. From these, the magnetic dipole moments, spectroscopic quadrupole moments and isotopic changes in mean-square charge radius were deduced. The magnetic dipole moments are consistent with previous data. The /sup 190,192/Tl isotopes show a considerable difference in quadrupole deformations as well as an anomalous isotope shift with respect to 194Tl. A large isomer shift in 193Tl is observed implying a larger deformation in the 9/2- isomer than in the 1/2+ ground state. The /sup 189,191,193/Tl isomers show increasing deformation away from stability. A deformed shell model calculation indicates that this increase in deformation can account for the dropping of the 9/2- band in these isotopes while an increase in neutron pairing correlations, having opposite and compensating effects on the rotational moment of inertia, maintains the 9/2- strong-coupled band structure. 105 refs., 27 figs

  15. Selective photoionization scheme for atomic gadolinium laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selective photoionization scheme for separating 157Gd from natural gadolinium and the laser irradiation conditions in order to enrich 157Gd to 60-80% are discussed in the case of two- and three-step photoionization. The dependence of excitation pathways on J-values is also discussed. From the view point of ionization rate it is preferable to select the four-colour three-step photoionization scheme by using both the ground and the lowest metastable levels. Optimum laser irradiation conditions for gadolinium isotope separation are presented. (author)

  16. Isotope Dependence and Quantum Effects on Atomic Hydrogen Diffusion in Liquid Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J A; Mezyk, S P; Roduner, E; Bartels, D M

    2016-03-01

    Relative diffusion coefficients were determined in water for the D, H, and Mu isotopes of atomic hydrogen by measuring their diffusion-limited spin-exchange rate constants with Ni(2+) as a function of temperature. H and D atoms were generated by pulse radiolysis of water and measured by time-resolved pulsed EPR. Mu atoms are detected by muonium spin resonance. To isolate the atomic mass effect from solvent isotope effect, we measured all three spin-exchange rates in 90% D2O. The diffusion depends on the atomic mass, demonstrating breakdown of Stokes-Einstein behavior. The diffusion can be understood using a combination of water "cavity diffusion" and "hopping" mechanisms, as has been proposed in the literature. The H/D isotope effect agrees with previous modeling using ring polymer molecular dynamics. The "quantum swelling" effect on muonium due to its larger de Broglie wavelength does not seem to slow its "hopping" diffusion as much as predicted in previous work. Quantum effects of both the atom mass and the water librations have been modeled using RPMD and a qTIP4P/f quantized flexible water model. These results suggest that the muonium diffusion is very sensitive to the Mu versus water potential used. PMID:26623663

  17. Laser beam propagation effects in atomic laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagation of two different-color laser pulses in the resonant three-level medium is studied. The three-level Bloch-Maxwell equations are solved numerically to analyze the change of the pulse shapes and the time-varying atomic populations. The pulse delay and the pulse shape break-up are observed especially for the first excitation laser pulse. Complete separation of the two laser pulses occur from a certain critical distance. It is shown that the rapid decrease of the ionization efficiency is caused by the separation of the two laser pulses. (author)

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation program: laser technology and demonstration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a large-scale process for photophysically enriching isotopes of several elements. The program now deploys plant prototypical hardware to demonstrate this enrichment process at full scale. The Laser Demonstration Facility, a fully integrated laser system has been constructed and when complete will produce more than 5000 W of tunable average power at a pulse repetition frequency >10 kHz. In AVLIS, an atomic vapor of mixed isotopes is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to photoionize only desired isotopes. The resulting electrically charged photoions are deflected in an electric field to collector (or extractor) plates where they condense as enriched products. The AVLIS laser system consists of a series of high-average-power dye lasers optically pumped by an array of copper lasers. The dye lasers are used to do the three-step photoionization process. These lasers are well suited for the AVLIS process for both technical and economic reasons. They provide the precise narrowband (<100-MHz), short-pulse (<100-nsec), high-average-power, high-repetition-frequency laser light required by the atomic spectroscopy and vapor flow properties. Equally important, the capital and operating costs of this laser system in its present state of development are consistent with a commercially viable process deployment

  19. TRIGA International - History of Training Research Isotope production General Atomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA conceived at GA in 1956 by a distinguished group of scientists including Edward Teller and Freeman Dyson. First TRIGA reactor Mk-1 was commissioned on 3 may 1958 at G.A. Characteristic feature of TRIGA reactors is inherent safety: Sitting can be confinement or conventional building. TRIGA reactors are the most prevalent in the world: 67 reactors in 24 countries. Steady state powers up to 14 MWt, pulsing up to 22,000 MWt. To enlarge the scope of its manufactured products, CERCA engaged in a Joint Venture with General Atomics, and in July 1995 a new Company was founded: TRIGA INTERNATIONAL SAS (50% GA, 50% CERCA; Head Office: Paris (France); Sales offices: GA San Diego (Ca, USA) and CERCA Lyon (France); Manufacturing plant: CERCA Romans. General Atomics ID: founded in 1955 at San Diego, California, by General Dynamics; status: Privately held corporation; owners: Neal and Linden Blue; business: High technology research, design, manufacturing, and production for industry and Government in the U.S. and overseas; locations: U.S., Germany, Japan, Australia, Thailand, Morocco; employees: 5,000. TRIGA's ID: CERCA is a subsidiary of AREVA, born in November 05, 1957. Activities: fuel manufacture for research reactor, equipment and components for high-energy physics, radioactive sources and reference sources; plants locations: Romans and Pierrelatte (France); total strength: 180. Since the last five years TRIGA has manufactured and delivered more than 800 fuel elements with a door to door service. TRIGA International has the experience to manufacture all types of TRIGA fuel: standard fuel elements, instrumented fuel elements, fuel followed control rods, geometry: 37.3 mm (1.47 in.), 35.8 mm (1.4 in), 13 mm (0.5 in), chemical Composition: U w% 8.5, 12, 20, 30 and 45 w/o, erbium and no erbium. TRIGA International is on INL's approved vendor list (ISO 9000/NQA) and is ready to meet any TRIGA fuel needs either in the US or worldwide

  20. Some energy levels, which can be used in atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the bibliographical data concerning energy levels, isotope shifts and hyperfine splitting constants of the following elements were collected: Fe, Ca, Nd, Eu, Dy, La, Pb, Sm, Ba, Ti, Ta, Mg, V, Zr, Pu, Na, K, Li, Tc, Ni, Ag, Sn, Bk, Am, Np, Th. This Database is very useful for AVLIS and can help by choosing the equipment for atomic vapor laser isotope separation. Wavelength, waveform and bandwidth of the used laser are determined by this data. The properties of the vaporizer, separation chamber, and collection system are influenced by this data. This database is also necessary for calculations of the excitation selectivity. (author)

  1. Study of isotopic selectivity in laser resonance ionization of lutetium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using numerical simulation method in terms of rate equation approximation, laser-induced isotopic selectivity of the scheme of resonance ionization: 5d6s22D3/2(573.655 nm)→5d6s6p 4F3/2 (642.518 nm)→6s6p24P1/2(643.548 nm)→Autoionization state was studied. The function of isotopic selectivity on laser wavelength was calculated for the parameters matching real experimental conditions by this method. The results calculated were well met with the experimental. The dependences of laser-induced isotopic selectivity on the laser parameters, such as wavelength, bandwidth and intensity, were discussed in view of the interaction of linearly polarized light with lutetium atom. The approaches that isotopic ratio were accurately determined by laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry in the case of certain laser parameters were presented. This theoretical method may be also used to study the isotopic selectivity of other elements and select the scheme of resonance ionization of laser isotope separation

  2. Progress in the Use of Isotopes: The Atomic Triad - Reactors, Radioisotopes and Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, W. F.

    1958-08-04

    Recent years have seen a substantial growth in the use of isotopes in medicine, agriculture, and industry: up to the minute information on the production and use of isotopes in the U.S. is presented. The application of radioisotopes to industrial processes and manufacturing operations has expanded more rapidly than any one except its most ardent advocates expected. New uses and new users are numerous. The adoption by industry of low level counting techniques which make possible the use of carbon-14 and tritium in the control of industrial processes and in certain exploratory and research problems is perhaps most promising of current developments. The latest information on savings to industry will be presented. The medical application of isotopes has continued to develop at a rapid pace. The current trend appears to be in the direction of improvements in technique and the substitution of more effective isotopes for those presently in use. Potential and actual benefits accruing from the use of isotopes in agriculture are reviewed. The various methods of production of radioisotopes are discussed. Not only the present methods but also interesting new possibilities are covered. Although isotopes are but one of the many peaceful uses of the atom, it is the first to pay its way. (auth)

  3. Results of calculations of isotope-selective laser excitation of long-lived levels of zinc atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of mathematical model of laser isotope-selective excitation of long-lived atoms numerical calculations were conducted for zinc atoms. These atoms are characterized by small shifts between lines of different isotopes (600700 MHz), while the method are particularly effective in the case of big shifts. In spite of that due to relative simplicity of the method in comparison with AVLIS it is used for zinc isotope separation. The method is effective in the case of excitation of atom long-lived level. In this case in the interval between radiation impulses at the account of chemical reaction with some molecules atoms in this state could be removed. Calculation results show efficiency of burning out of those isotopes, which lines are nearest to radiation line

  4. Research and development prospects for the atomic uranium laser isotope separation process. Research report 442

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities are being conducted on many aspects of the atomic uranium laser isotope separation process. Extensive laser spectroscopy studies have been made in order to identify attractive multi-step selective ionization schemes. Using low density (1010 atoms/cm3) apparatus, the excited state spectra of atomic uranium have been investigated via multiple step laser excitation and photoionization studies using two, three and four pulsed lasers. Observation of the spectra was accomplished by observing the yield of 235U and 238U ions as a function of the wavelength, intensities and delays of the various lasers. These data yielded information on the photoexcitation and photoionizatin cross sections, and on the location, J values, lifetimes, isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the various atomic levels of uranium. Experiments on selective ionization of uranium vapor by multiple step laser excitation followed by ion extraction at 1013 atoms/cm3 density have produced 6% enriched 235U. These indicate that this process is well adapted to produce light water reactor fuel but less suitable for highly enriched material. Application has been made for license for a 1979 experimental facility to provide data for a mid-1980 commercial plant

  5. Stable-isotope ratio analysis based on atomic hyperfine structure and optogalvanic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic hyperfine structures were measured for the Cu I transition at 5782 A by optogalvanic spectroscopy at high resolution, with a cw dye laser. Samples were electro-deposited on the demountable cathode of a home-made hollow-cathode lamp. By spectral deconvolution, the relative isotopic abundances of 63Cu and 65Cu could be determined with good accuracy and precision. The technique is applicable to copper concentrations as low as 1.6 ppm. (author)

  6. Uranium Isotopic Ratio Measurements of U3O8 Reference Materials by Atom Probe Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahey, Albert J.; Perea, Daniel E.; Bartrand, Jonah AG; Arey, Bruce W.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2016-01-01

    We report results of measurements of isotopic ratios obtained with atom probe tomography on U3O8 reference materials certified for their isotopic abundances of uranium. The results show good agreement with the certified values. High backgrounds due to tails from adjacent peaks complicate the measurement of the integrated peak areas as well as the fact that only oxides of uranium appear in the spectrum, the most intense of which is doubly charged. In addition, lack of knowledge of other instrumental parameters, such as the dead time, may bias the results. Isotopic ratio measurements can be performed at the nanometer-scale with the expectation of sensible results. The abundance sensitivity and mass resolving power of the mass spectrometer are not sufficient to compete with magnetic-sector instruments but are not far from measurements made by ToF-SIMS of other isotopic systems. The agreement of the major isotope ratios is more than sufficient to distinguish most anthropogenic compositions from natural.

  7. Parity violating radiative emission of neutrino pair in heavy alkaline earth atoms of even isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, M; Uetake, S

    2014-01-01

    Metastable excited states ${}^3P_2, {}^3P_0$ of heavy alkaline earth atoms of even isotopes are studied for parity violating (PV) effects in radiative emission of neutrino pair (RENP). PV terms arise from interference between two diagrams containing neutrino pair emission of valence spin current and nuclear electroweak charge density proportional to the number of neutrons in nucleus. This mechanism gives large PV effects, since it does not suffer from the suppression of 1/(electron mass) usually present for non-relativistic atomic electrons. A controllable magnetic field is crucial to identify RENP process by measuring PV observables. Results of PV asymmetries under the magnetic field reversal and the photon circular polarization reversal are presented for an example of Yb atom.

  8. Determination of the absolute isotopic composition and Atomic Weight of a reference sample of natural iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. D. P.; Maeck, R.; de Bièvre, P.

    1992-11-01

    Absolute values have been obtained by means of thermal ionisation mass spectrometry for the iron isotope abundance ratios of a sample of metallic iron of natural isotopic composition. This was achieved by calibrating the mass spectrometric measurement procedure using five different synthetic isotope mixtures, prepared from carefully characterised enriched isotope carrier compounds, viz. 54Fe2O3 and 56Fe2O3. These mixtures were made up at three different n(54Fe)/n(56Fe) ratios, covering a ratio range of more than two orders of magnitude, in order to determine the extent of the isotope fractionation in the ion source. Two mixtures bracket the natural ratio, two mixtures have ratio values approximating to unity, and one mixture has a ratio of about 10. The total relative uncertainty on the ratio values of the mixtures varies between 2 and 7 × 10-4 (2s). Three different mass spectrometric measurement procedures were developed, all using a silica-gel/boric acid ionisation enhancer. Measurements were carried out on two different instruments. The n(54Fe)/n(56Fe) ratio of the synthetic mixtures and of the natural iron isotopic reference material (IRM) were measured using a mass spectrometer with Faraday detector. Both the n(57Fe)/n(56Fe) and n(58Fe)/n(56Fe) ratios of the natural iron IRM were determined using the same instrument but operated at a higher ionisation temperature (1430°C instead of 1350°C) and using an internal normalisation procedure. For the determination of the abundances of the minor isotopes in the enriched isotope carrier compounds, an instrument equipped with a calibrated ion counting device was used and the ionisation temperature was 1150°C. Using the latter instrument and method, the n(54Fe)/n(56Fe) ratio of the IRM was found to a gree within 4 × 10-5 with the calibrated value of the Faraday measurements, indicating that experimental conditions were well controlled in both cases. Compared to the current IUPAC data (Atomic Weights of the Elements

  9. Fluorescent atom coincidence spectroscopy of extremely neutron-deficient barium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescent atom coincidence spectroscopy (FACS) has been used to measure the nuclear mean square radii and moments of the extremely neutron-deficient isotopes 120-124Ba. At N=65 an abrupt change in nuclear mean square charge radii is observed which can be understood in terms of the occupation of the spin-orbit partner g7/2 5/2[413] neutron and g9/2 9/2[404] proton orbitals and the consequent enhancement of the n-p interaction. (orig.)

  10. Non-constant relative atomic masses due to varying isotopic abundance of polynuclidic elements and their effect on the accuracy of analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations of actual relative atomic masses occur in natural samples by natural isotope ratio shifts of polynuclidic elements. Therefore, using nuclear properties for gaining a measuring signal, isotopic shifts of certain elements may lead to significant measuring errors

  11. Derivation of sorting programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Joseph; Loganantharaj, Rasiah

    1990-01-01

    Program synthesis for critical applications has become a viable alternative to program verification. Nested resolution and its extension are used to synthesize a set of sorting programs from their first order logic specifications. A set of sorting programs, such as, naive sort, merge sort, and insertion sort, were successfully synthesized starting from the same set of specifications.

  12. k -Bitonic sort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高庆狮; 胡玥; 刘志勇

    1999-01-01

    A k-bitonic sort which generalizes the bitonic sort is proposed. The theorem of the bitonic sort, which merges two monotonic sequences into one order sequence, is extended into the theorem of k-bitonic sort. The k-bitonic sort merges K (=2k or 2k-1) monotonic sequences into one order sequence in steps, where k=[K/2] is an integer and k≥1. The k-bitonic sort is the Batcher’s bitonic sort when k=1.

  13. Avi Sorting Network

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Bansal; Kamal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Sorting network is an abstract mathematical modelwhich can be used as a multiple-input, multiple-output switchingnetwork to sort the data in ascending or descending order [1].Sorting has been one of the most critical applications on parallelcomputing machines. Many classic textbooks on algorithms likeThomas H. Cormen, therefore consider this problem in greatdetail and list many sorting network for this purpose [2]. Thereare many sorting algorithms as the Bubble / Insertion sorter,Odd-Even sor...

  14. Nuclear moments and isotopic variation of the mean square charge radii of strontium nuclei by atomic beam laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperfine structure and optical isotope shift measurements have been performed on a series of stable and radioactive strontium isotopes (A = 80 to 90), including two isomers 85m and 87m. The spectroscopy applied continuous wave dye laser induced fluorescence of free atoms at λ=293.2 nm in a well collimated atomic beam. The 293.2 nm ultraviolet light was generated by frequency doubling the output of a dye laser in either a temperature tuned Ammonium Dihydrogen Arsenate (ADA) crystal or an angle tuned Lithium Iodate crystal. A special radio frequency (rf) technique was used to tune the dye laser frequency with long term stability. Radioactive Sr isotopes were produced either by neutron capture of stable strontium or by (α,xn) reactions from krypton gas. The samples were purified by an electromagnetic mass separator and their sizes were of order 100 pg, which corresponds to 1011 atoms. The observed results of the hyperfine structure components are evaluated in terms of nuclear magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments. Changes in mean square charge radii of strontium nuclei which were extracted from the isotope shift measurements, exhibit a distinct shell effect at the neutron magic number N=50. The experimental data are analysed and compared with some theoretical nuclear model predictions. The strong increase of the nuclear charge radii with decreasing neutron number of isotopes below N=50 is in agreement with the variation of the mean square deformation extracted from measured B(E2) values. (orig.)

  15. Isotope Effects on Delayed Annihilation Time Spectra of Antiprotonic Helium Atoms in Low-Temperature Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Ketzer, B; Daniel, H; Von Egidy, T; Niestroj, A; Schmid, S; Schmid, W; Yamazaki, T; Sugai, I; Nakayoshi, K; Hayano, R S; Maas, F E; Torii, H A; Ishikawa, T; Tamura, H; Morita, N; Horváth, D; Eades, John; Widmann, E

    1996-01-01

    The delayed annihilation time spectra (DATS) of antiprotonic helium atoms have been studied in isotopically pure low temperature ^3He and ^4He gas at various densities. The DATS taken at 5.8~K and 400~mbar are very similar in shape except for i) a small difference in the time scale and ii) the presence of a distinct fast decay component in the case of ^3He. The ratio of overall trapping times (mean lifetimes against annihilation), R = T_{\\mathrm{trap}}(\\mbox{^{4}He})/T_{\\mathrm{trap}}(\\mbox{^{3}He}), has been determined to be 1.144 \\pm 0.009, which is in good agreement with a theoretical estimate yielding R = [(M^*(\\mbox{\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{^{4}He})/ M^*(\\mbox{\\overline{ \\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{^{3}He})]^2=1.14, where M^* denotes the reduced mass of the \\mbox{\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{He^{++}}\\ system. The presence of a short-lived component with a lifetime of (0.154\\pm 0.007)\\ \\mbox{\\mus} in the case of \\mbox{^{3}He}\\ suggests that the \\mbox{\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{^{3}He^{+}}\\ atom has a state of in...

  16. Avi Sorting Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Bansal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorting network is an abstract mathematical modelwhich can be used as a multiple-input, multiple-output switchingnetwork to sort the data in ascending or descending order [1].Sorting has been one of the most critical applications on parallelcomputing machines. Many classic textbooks on algorithms likeThomas H. Cormen, therefore consider this problem in greatdetail and list many sorting network for this purpose [2]. Thereare many sorting algorithms as the Bubble / Insertion sorter,Odd-Even sorter, Sort the data in O(log2 n2 time complexity andsome other sorter have O(n2 as time complexity, where n is thenumber of elements. In this paper we propose a sorting networkcalled “Avi S orter” having time complexity O(n log2 n which isbased on just similar to bubble sort algorithm. This sortingnetwork provides the easy way to understand and manipulate theconcept of sorting network.

  17. Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell’s inequality using two different atomic isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballance, C. J.; Schäfer, V. M.; Home, J. P.; Szwer, D. J.; Webster, S. C.; Allcock, D. T. C.; Linke, N. M.; Harty, T. P.; Aude Craik, D. P. L.; Stacey, D. N.; Steane, A. M.; Lucas, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing (QIP). Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected or heralded entangled states involving pairs of photons, single photons and single atoms, or different nuclei in the solid state, have also been produced. Here we use a deterministic quantum logic gate to generate a ‘hybrid’ entangled state of two trapped-ion qubits held in different isotopes of calcium, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make a test of Bell’s inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits’ energy splittings, to produce a maximally entangled state of one 40Ca+ qubit and one 43Ca+ qubit, held 3.5 micrometres apart in the same ion trap, with 99.8 ± 0.6 per cent fidelity. We test the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) version of Bell’s inequality for this novel entangled state and find that it is violated by 15 standard deviations; in this test, we close the detection loophole but not the locality loophole. Mixed-species quantum logic is a powerful technique for the construction of a quantum computer based on trapped ions, as it allows protection of memory qubits while other qubits undergo logic operations or are used as photonic interfaces to other processing units. The entangling gate mechanism used here can also be applied to qubits stored in different atomic elements; this would allow both memory and logic gate errors caused by photon scattering to be reduced below the levels required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, which is an essential prerequisite for general-purpose quantum computing.

  18. Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell's inequality using two different atomic isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballance, C J; Schäfer, V M; Home, J P; Szwer, D J; Webster, S C; Allcock, D T C; Linke, N M; Harty, T P; Aude Craik, D P L; Stacey, D N; Steane, A M; Lucas, D M

    2015-12-17

    Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing (QIP). Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected or heralded entangled states involving pairs of photons, single photons and single atoms, or different nuclei in the solid state, have also been produced. Here we use a deterministic quantum logic gate to generate a 'hybrid' entangled state of two trapped-ion qubits held in different isotopes of calcium, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make a test of Bell's inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits' energy splittings, to produce a maximally entangled state of one (40)Ca(+) qubit and one (43)Ca(+) qubit, held 3.5 micrometres apart in the same ion trap, with 99.8 ± 0.6 per cent fidelity. We test the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) version of Bell's inequality for this novel entangled state and find that it is violated by 15 standard deviations; in this test, we close the detection loophole but not the locality loophole. Mixed-species quantum logic is a powerful technique for the construction of a quantum computer based on trapped ions, as it allows protection of memory qubits while other qubits undergo logic operations or are used as photonic interfaces to other processing units. The entangling gate mechanism used here can also be applied to qubits stored in different atomic elements; this would allow both memory and logic gate errors caused by photon scattering to be reduced below the levels required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, which is an essential prerequisite for general-purpose quantum computing. PMID:26672554

  19. What is a Sorting Function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    What is a sorting function—not a sorting function for a given ordering relation, but a sorting function with nothing given? Formulating four basic properties of sorting algorithms as defining requirements, we arrive at intrinsic notions of sorting and stable sorting: A function is a sorting funct...

  20. Roterende sorte huller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerslev, Kristian

    Sorte huller har normalt været anset som statiske, mens alle andre legemer i Universet roterer. Dette stemmer imidlertid ikke overens med den nylige opdagelse af et roterende sort hul i midten af galaksen NGC 1365. Hvilken effekt har rotationen af et sort hul på legemer i dets nærhed, og hvordan...... kan astronomer i det hele taget måle, at sorte huller roterer?...

  1. Sorting Algorithms with Restrictions

    CERN Document Server

    Aslanyan, Hakob

    2011-01-01

    Sorting is one of the most used and well investigated algorithmic problem [1]. Traditional postulation supposes the sorting data archived, and the elementary operation as comparisons of two numbers. In a view of appearance of new processors and applied problems with data streams, sorting changed its face. This changes and generalizations are the subject of investigation in the research below.

  2. Authentication of organically grown plants - advantages and limitations of atomic spectroscopy for multi-element and stable isotope analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Kelly, S.D.;

    2014-01-01

    Organic food products are believed to be healthier, safer and more environment-friendly than their conventional counterparts and are sold at premium prices. Consequently, adulteration of organic plants and fraudulent activities for economic profit are increasing. This has spurred the development of...... sophisticated analytical procedures for testing authenticity. We review the use of multi-element and stable-isotope analysis based on atomic spectroscopy for discriminating between organic and conventional plants. We conclude that inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, stable-isotope analysis of bulk...

  3. Production and certification of an equal atom plutonium isotopic standard - the New Brunswick Laboratory certified reference material (CRM) No. 128

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) has produced an equal atom 239Pu/242Pu isotopic standard, NBL CRM No. 128. Provisional certification of this standard relative to uranium was completed in 1984 and the material made available for distribution to the nuclear community. Certification of the 239Pu/242Pu ratio on an absolute basis has now been accomplished using highly accurate and precise chemical and mass spectrometric measurement techniques. The absolute certification of NBL CRM No. 128 has established it as the primary reference for calibrating the measurement of plutonium isotopic ratios

  4. Study of the Neutron Deficient Pb and Bi Isotopes by Simultaneous Atomic- and Nuclear-Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Kessler, T

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study systematically nuclear properties of the neutron deficient lead $^{183-189}$Pb, $^{191g}$Pb, $^{193g}$Pb and bismuth isotopes $^{188-200}$Bi by atomic spectroscopy with the ISOLDE resonance ionisation laser ion source (RILIS) combined with simultaneous nuclear spectroscopy at the detection set-up. The main focus is the determination of the mean square charge radii of $^{183-190}$Pb and $^{188-193}$Bi from which the influence of low-lying intruder states should become obvious. Also the nuclear spin and magnetic moments of ground-states and long-lived isomers will be determined unambiguously through evaluation of the hyperfine structure, and new isomers could be discovered. The decay properties of these nuclei can be measured by $\\alpha$-$\\gamma$ and $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ spectroscopy. With this data at hand, possible shape transitions around mid-shell at N$\\sim$104 will be studied. This data is crucial for the direct test of nuclear theory in the context of intruder state influence (e.g. energy ...

  5. Diode laser operating on an atomic transition limited by an isotope ⁸⁷Rb Faraday filter at 780 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhiming; Hong, Yelong; Luo, Bin; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate an extended cavity Faraday laser system using an antireflection-coated laser diode as the gain medium and the isotope (87)Rb Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) as the frequency selective device. Using this method, the laser wavelength works stably at the highest transmission peak of the isotope (87)Rb FADOF over the laser diode current from 55 to 140 mA and the temperature from 15°C to 35°C. Neither the current nor the temperature of the laser diode has significant influence on the output frequency. Compared with previous extended cavity laser systems operating at frequencies irrelevant to spectacular atomic transition lines, the laser system realized here provides a stable laser source with the frequency operating on atomic transitions for many practical applications. PMID:26371933

  6. Trace isotope analysis using resonance ionization mass spectrometry based on isotope selection with doppler shift of laser ablated atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed a novel isotope selective Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (RIMS) concept, which can avoid the Doppler broadening on solid sample direct measurement based on laser ablation technique. We have succeeded in experimentally demonstrating the principle of our RIMS concept. Through comparison between the simulated and experimental results, we have validated the simulation model. It would be concluded from these results that we could achieve the isotope selectivity defined as the ratio of 41Ca to 40Ca sensitivity to be 4.5x1010 by adopting the multi-step excitation scheme in the present method. As future works, we will try to experimentally perform the multi-step excitation scheme and improve the detection efficiency by modifying the ion extraction configuration. (author)

  7. Isotopic Selectivity of Pulsed Excitation of Zinc Atoms upon the 4s21S0 → 4p 3P01 Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral dependences of the isotopic selectivity of the optical excitation of zinc atoms in the course of an efficient photochemical reaction with molecules of a reagent gas are calculated within the framework of a simple model taking into account the gas mixture flow. At a certain frequency detuning of monochromatic laser radiation, a high selectivity of isotope separation is realized at the end of the interaction region under the condition that the isotopic shifts are smaller than the Doppler broadening

  8. Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

  9. Sorting a distribution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Hosam M

    2011-01-01

    A cutting-edge look at the emerging distributional theory of sorting Research on distributions associated with sorting algorithms has grown dramatically over the last few decades, spawning many exact and limiting distributions of complexity measures for many sorting algorithms. Yet much of this information has been scattered in disparate and highly specialized sources throughout the literature. In Sorting: A Distribution Theory, leading authority Hosam Mahmoud compiles, consolidates, and clarifies the large volume of available research, providing a much-needed, comprehensive treatment of the

  10. Long-range interactions between a He($2 ^3S$) atom and a He($2 ^3P$) atom for like isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J Y; Sadeghpour, H R; Vrinceanu, D; Yan, Z C; 10.1103/.73.022710

    2006-01-01

    For the interactions between a He($2 ^3S$) atom and a He($2 ^3P$) atom for like isotopes, we report calculations of the coefficients determining the potential energies at large internuclear separations. Using accurate variational wave functions in Hylleraas coordinates we evaluate the coefficient $C_{3}$ of the resonant dipole-dipole energy, and the van der Waals coefficients $C_{6}$, $C_{8}$, and $C_{10}$ of the energies arising from the mutual perturbations of instantaneous electric dipole, quadrupole, and octupole interactions. We establish definitive values including treatment of the finite nuclear mass for the ${}^3$He($2 ^3S$)--${}^3$He($2 ^3P$) and ${}^4$He($2 ^3S$)--${}^4$He($2 ^3P$) interactions.

  11. Fuel sorting evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of functions and requirements associated with sorting fuel from the Hanford K Basins is presented to support design issue resolution decisions for achieving interim fuel storage. Potential requirements are recommended for implementation in design activities. The recommendations are provided as input to a management decision process where decisions are finalized and the sorting issue is closed

  12. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding o...

  13. Sorting to Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; McPherson, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The world of higher education is a world of sorting, selecting, and ranking--on both sides of the market. Colleges select students to recruit and then to admit; students choose where to apply and which offer to accept. The sorting process that gets the most attention is in the higher reaches of the market, where it is not too much to say that…

  14. Layers in sorting practices: Sorting out patients with potential cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Naja Holten; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    sorting mechanism, but is handled by informal sorting mechanisms. We identify two informal sorting mechanisms with large impact on the sorting practices, namely subtle categorizing and collective remembering. These informal sorting mechanisms have implications for the design of electronic booking systems...

  15. Study of polonium isotopes ground state properties by simultaneous atomic- and nuclear-spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Koester, U H; Kalaninova, Z; Imai, N

    2007-01-01

    We propose to systematically study the ground state properties of neutron deficient $^{192-200}$Po isotopes by means of in-source laser spectroscopy using the ISOLDE laser ion source coupled with nuclear spectroscopy at the detection setup as successfully done before by this collaboration with neutron deficient lead isotopes. The study of the change in mean square charge radii along the polonium isotope chain will give an insight into shape coexistence above the mid-shell N = 104 and above the closed shell Z = 82. The hyperfine structure of the odd isotopes will also allow determination of the nuclear spin and the magnetic moment of the ground state and of any identifiable isomer state. For this study, a standard UC$_{x}$ target with the ISOLDE RILIS is required for 38 shifts.

  16. Circuit-quantum electrodynamics with direct magnetic coupling to single-atom spin qubits in isotopically enriched 28Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Tosi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in silicon nanofabrication have allowed the manipulation of spin qubits that are extremely isolated from noise sources, being therefore the semiconductor equivalent of single atoms in vacuum. We investigate the possibility of directly coupling an electron spin qubit to a superconducting resonator magnetic vacuum field. By using resonators modified to increase the vacuum magnetic field at the qubit location, and isotopically purified 28Si substrates, it is possible to achieve coupling rates faster than the single spin dephasing. This opens up new avenues for circuit-quantum electrodynamics with spins, and provides a pathway for dispersive read-out of spin qubits via superconducting resonators.

  17. Wage Sorting Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Vejlin, Rune Majlund; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001. The...... nonstationary wage sorting pattern is not due to compositional changes in the labor market, primarily occurs among high wage workers, and comprises 41 percent of the increase in the standard deviation of log real wages between 1980 and 2006. We show that the wage sorting trend is associated with worker...

  18. Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2007-01-01

    Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what

  19. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  20. 同位素丰度绝对测量及相对原子质量测定中的不确定度评估%Uncertainty Analysis of Absolute Measurement of Isotopic Abundances and Relative Atomic Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛; 王同兴

    2005-01-01

    The sources of uncertainty of relative atomic mass include measurement errors and isotopic fractionation of terrestrial samples. Measurement errors are composed of measurements of atomic masses and isotopic abundances, the later includes uncertainty of correction factor K and isotopic ratios of natural samples. Through differential of seven factors to gain their propagation factors, the uncertainty of correction factors K can be calculated. With the same differential calculation, the uncertainty of relative atomic mass can be obtained.

  1. Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)

  2. The application of atomic vapor laser isotope separation to the enrichment of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the results of recent work carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop a process for enriching mercury. The discussion centers around the results of spectroscopic measurements of excited-state lifetimes, photoionization cross sections, and isotope shifts. (author)

  3. In-source laser spectroscopy of polonium isotopes: From atomic physics to nuclear structure

    CERN Multimedia

    Rothe, S

    2014-01-01

    The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source RILIS [1] at the CERN-ISOLDE on-line radioactive ion beam facility is essential for ion beam production for the majority of experiments, but it is also powerful tool for laser spectroscopy of rare isotopes. A series of experiments on in-source laser spectroscopy of polonium isotopes [2, 3] revealed the nuclear ground state properties of 191;211;216;218Po. However, limitations caused by the isobaric background of surface-ionized francium isotopes hindered the study of several neutron rich polonium isotopes. The development of the Laser Ion Source and Trap (LIST) [4] and finally its integration at ISOLDE has led to a dramatic suppression of surface ions. Meanwhile, the RILIS laser spectroscopy capabilities have advanced tremendously. Widely tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) lasers were installed to complement the established dye laser system. Along with a new data acquisition system [5], this more versatile laser setup enabled rst ever laser spectroscopy of the radioact...

  4. Improving the accuracy of atomic emission determination of europium isotope ratio without reference samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed of determining the isotopic composition of europium without standard reference samples. The estimation of the analysis accuracy has shown a statistically negligible systematic error. The confidence level of single determination (P0.95) is ± 0.3 at.% at 151Eu levels from 47.47 to 98.2 at.%

  5. Ready, steady, SORT!

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    The selective or ecological sorting of waste is already second nature to many of us and concerns us all. As the GS Department's new awareness-raising campaign reminds us, everything we do to sort waste contributes to preserving the environment.    Placemats printed on recycled paper using vegetable-based ink will soon be distributed in Restaurant No.1.   Environmental protection is never far from the headlines, and CERN has a responsibility to ensure that the 3000 tonnes and more of waste it produces every year are correctly and selectively sorted. Materials can be given a second life through recycling and re-use, thereby avoiding pollution from landfill sites and incineration plants and saving on processing costs. The GS Department is launching a new poster campaign designed to raise awareness of the importance of waste sorting and recycling. "After conducting a survey to find out whether members of the personnel were prepared to make an effort to sort a...

  6. Microfluidic sorting of microtissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschke, D G; Resto, P; Schumacher, N; Cox, B; Tallavajhula, A; Vivekanandan, A; Eliceiri, K W; Williams, J C; Ogle, B M

    2012-03-01

    Increasingly, invitro culture of adherent cell types utilizes three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds or aggregate culture strategies to mimic tissue-like, microenvironmental conditions. In parallel, new flow cytometry-based technologies are emerging to accurately analyze the composition and function of these microtissues (i.e., large particles) in a non-invasive and high-throughput way. Lacking, however, is an accessible platform that can be used to effectively sort or purify large particles based on analysis parameters. Here we describe a microfluidic-based, electromechanical approach to sort large particles. Specifically, sheath-less asymmetric curving channels were employed to separate and hydrodynamically focus particles to be analyzed and subsequently sorted. This design was developed and characterized based on wall shear stress, tortuosity of the flow path, vorticity of the fluid in the channel, sorting efficiency and enrichment ratio. The large particle sorting device was capable of purifying fluorescently labelled embryoid bodies (EBs) from unlabelled EBs with an efficiency of 87.3% ± 13.5%, and enrichment ratio of 12.2 ± 8.4 (n = 8), while preserving cell viability, differentiation potential, and long-term function. PMID:22505992

  7. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Radionuclide methods of sorting materials on conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide methods suitable for sorting multi-component lump materials transported on conveyors are discussed. The methods considered use the different interaction of gamma- and X-radiations with materials of different atomic numbers. A comparison is made between a simple absorption method, a method using simultaneous absorption of photons of two different energies and a combination of the absorption and back-scattering methods. The fields of application of these methods serving to obtain output signals for the control of mechanical or pneumatic sorting devices are outlined. (author)

  9. Atomic transition frequencies, isotope shifts, and sensitivity to variation of the fine structure constant for studies of quasar absorption spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Berengut, J C; Flambaum, V V; King, J A; Kozlov, M G; Murphy, M T; Webb, J K

    2010-01-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest spatial and temporal variation of fundamental "constants" in the Universe. A change in the fine structure constant, alpha, could be detected via shifts in the frequencies of atomic transitions in quasar absorption systems. Recent studies using 140 absorption systems from the Keck telescope and 153 from the Very Large Telescope, suggest that alpha varies spatially. That is, in one direction on the sky alpha seems to have been smaller at the time of absorption, while in the opposite direction it seems to have been larger. To continue this study we need accurate laboratory measurements of atomic transition frequencies. The aim of this paper is to provide a compilation of transitions of importance to the search for alpha variation. They are E1 transitions to the ground state in several different atoms and ions, with wavelengths ranging from around 900 - 6000 A, and require an accuracy of better than 10^{-4} A. We discuss isotope shift measurements that are...

  10. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...

  11. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of laser induced chemistry began in earnest early in the 1970's with the initiation of major efforts in laser isotope separation (LIS) of uranium. Though many specialized, small-scale photochemical and diagnostic applications have been identified and evaluated experimentally, and continue to show promise, currently the only high payoff, large-scale applications remain LIS of special elements. Aspects of the physical scaling, technology status and economic basis of uranium LIS are examined with special emphasis on the effort at LLNL

  12. Use of Atomic and Nuclear Techniques in Elemental and Isotopic Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is divided into four chapters which were presented by six authors of the best Arab specialists who have used the atomic and nuclear techniques for a long time and recognized their importance and capabilities in scientific researches. Atomic and Nuclear techniques are very successful in the field of analysis because they are the only way to proceed the analysis process with the requested accuracy and they are the cheapest at the same time. A number of these techniques were collected in this book on the basis of their accuracy and the abundance of using them in the analysis of material components, specially when these elements exist with insignificant percentage as in the case of poisons science, archaeology, nutrition, medicine and other applications.

  13. Isotope effects on delayed annihilation time spectra of antiprotonic helium atoms in a low-temperature gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delayed annihilation time spectra (DATS) of antiprotonic helium atoms have been studied in isotopically pure low-temperature 3He and 4He gas at various densities. The DATS taken at 5.8 K and 400 mbar are very similar in shape except for (i) a small difference in the time scale and (ii) the presence of a distinct fast decay component in the case of 3He. The ratio of overall trapping times (mean lifetimes against annihilation), R=Ttrap(4He)/Ttrap(3He), has been determined to be 1.144 ± 0.009, which is in good agreement with a theoretical estimate yielding R=[M*(bar p4He)/ M*(bar p3He)]2=1.14, where M* denotes the reduced mass of the bar pHe2+system. The presence of a short-lived component with a lifetime of 0.154±0.007μs in the case of 3He suggests that the bar p3He+atom has a state of intermediate lifetime on the border between a metastable zone and an Auger-dominated short-lived zone. The fraction of antiprotons trapped in metastable states at 5.8 K and 400 mbar is lower by 22.2(4)% for 3Hethan for 4He. All the data can be fitted fairly well with simple three-level and four-level cascade models. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Isotope effects on delayed annihilation time spectra of antiprotonic helium atoms in a low-temperature gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketzer, B.; Hartmann, F. J.; Daniel, H.; von Egidy, T.; Niestroj, A.; Schmid, S.; Schmid, W.; Yamazaki, T.; Sugai, I.; Nakayoshi, K.; Hayano, R. S.; Maas, F. E.; Torii, H. A.; Ishikawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Morita, N.; Horváth, D.; Eades, J.; Widmann, E.

    1996-04-01

    The delayed annihilation time spectra (DATS) of antiprotonic helium atoms have been studied in isotopically pure low-temperature 3He and 4He gas at various densities. The DATS taken at 5.8 K and 400 mbar are very similar in shape except for (i) a small difference in the time scale and (ii) the presence of a distinct fast decay component in the case of 3He. The ratio of overall trapping times (mean lifetimes against annihilation), R=Ttrap(4He)/Ttrap(3He), has been determined to be 1.144 +/- 0.009, which is in good agreement with a theoretical estimate yielding R=[M*(p¯ 4He)/ M*(p¯ 3He)]2=1.14, where M* denotes the reduced mass of the p¯He2+system. The presence of a short-lived component with a lifetime of 0.154+/-0.007 μs in the case of 3He suggests that the p¯ 3He+atom has a state of intermediate lifetime on the border between a metastable zone and an Auger-dominated short-lived zone. The fraction of antiprotons trapped in metastable states at 5.8 K and 400 mbar is lower by 22.2(4)% for 3than for 4He. All the data can be fitted fairly well with simple three-level and four-level cascade models.

  15. Determination of natural isotopic variation in antimony using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for an uncertainty estimation of the standard atomic weight of antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic variation of industrially produced antimony was estimated using multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A reproducible 123Sb/121Sb ratio of ±0.004% (2 standard deviations) was routinely obtained using a Sn doping mass discrimination correction technique. Only a small isotopic variation of about 0.05% was observed among industrially important Sb materials (five commercially available reagents and two ore minerals). The degree of Sb isotopic variation to determine the uncertainty in Sb atomic weight can be reduced by this new analytical technique to 0.00025 compared to the currently accepted IUPAC isotopic variation determined by conventional mass spectrometry of ±0.001. Heavy isotope enrichment of Sb in a drainage water sample from a stibnite mining area was found. This heavy isotope enrichment tendency in an aqueous environment may be useful in detecting anthropogenic Sb input from industrial emission by the smelting process via air because Sb of anthropogenic origin will have lighter isotope enrichment features. (author)

  16. Sorting quantum systems efficiently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705

  17. Gold ore sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for sorting lumps of gold-bearing ore according to their gold content is described. It includes means for irradiating the lumps of ore with neutrons, e.g. a neutron tube adapted to produce at least 1010 neutrons per second with an energy of less than 4.5 MeV. The resulting intensity of 297 keV gamma rays arising from the nuclear reaction 197Au(n,n'#betta#) 197Au is measured. The measured gamma ray intensity from a given lump of ore is used to sort that lump of ore from other lumps. The apparatus includes various cylinders and a vibrator for presenting the lumps of ore to the neutrons in a geometrical configuration such as to enable the lumps to be irradiated uniformly. (author)

  18. Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and β-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

  19. Sorting quantum systems efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) - which direct photons according to their polarization - and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705

  20. Heideggers sorte arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Gosvig

    2015-01-01

    Martin Heidegger var antisemit, men er hans tænkning og intellektuelle arv det også? Søren Gosvig Olesen opsøger den store tyske tænkers arvinger og bindene fra 1938-48 i Heideggers efterladte ’Sorte hæfter’, hvor den lille mands meninger blander sig med en stor tænkers tanker......Martin Heidegger var antisemit, men er hans tænkning og intellektuelle arv det også? Søren Gosvig Olesen opsøger den store tyske tænkers arvinger og bindene fra 1938-48 i Heideggers efterladte ’Sorte hæfter’, hvor den lille mands meninger blander sig med en stor tænkers tanker...

  1. Event shape sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopečná, Renata; Tomášik, Boris

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable ( e.g., v_2 , v_3 , q_2 . It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution.

  2. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  3. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  4. Teaching Sorting in ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Szlávi, Péter; Törley, Gábor

    2009-01-01

    This article is aimed at considering how an algorithmic problem - more precisely a sorting problem - can be used in an informatics class in primary and secondary education to make students mobilize the largest possible amount of their intellectual skills in the problem solving process. We will be outlining a method which essentially forces students to utilize their mathematical knowledge besides algorithmization in order to provide an efficient solution. What is more, they are expected to ...

  5. Isotopic analysis using optical spectroscopy (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic displacement in the atomic lines of certain elements (H, He, Li, Ne, Sr, Hg, Pb, U, Pu) is used for dosing these elements isotopically. The use of the Fabry-Perot photo-electric interference spectrometer is shown to be particularly adapted for this sort of problem: in each case we give on the one hand the essential results obtained with this apparatus, and on the other hand the results previously obtained with a conventional apparatus (grating, photographic plate). These results together give an idea of the possibilities of optical spectroscopy: in the best case, the precision which may be expected is of the order of 1 to 2 per cent for isotopes whose concentration is about 1 per cent. (author)

  6. Sorting out Ideas about Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Amy F.; Malik, LuAnn

    2013-01-01

    Card sorting has the potential to provide opportunities for exploration of a variety of topics and levels. In a card-sorting task, each participant is presented with a set of cards--each of which depicts a relationship--and is asked to sort the cards into categories that make sense to him or her. The concept of function is critical to…

  7. Monitoring of uranium isotopes in the environment of ABB ATOM, Vaesteraas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radionuclides from a Swedish nuclear fuel fabrication facility have been carried out. Spatial distributions of uranium isotopes and their origin (fuel fabrication operations versus natural background radiation) have been studied. Air concentrations and combined dry/wet depositions of radionuclides were investigated during a one year period along a 6 km transect using high-volume air filter samplers and funnel collectors. Biological samples such as moss, grass, wheat and spruce needles were also occasionally investigated to study their potentiality as indicators of airborne radionuclides. The data demonstrate clearly enhanced activity ratios (AR) of 234U/238U (3-4) and 235U/238U (0.15-0.20) for both air (1 m above the ground) and ground level deposition close to the discharge point (100-300 m) and thereafter a monotonic decrease to natural activity ratios. Analysis of biological samples shows that wheat and spruce needles reproduce the activity ratio distributions and are excellent indicators of the airborne uranium release. Source-related concentrations of 234U and 235U exceed natural concentrations up to 3 km from the discharge point, but the dose contributions to members of the public compared to doses from the natural background radiation are small (less than 1%). (au)

  8. Pair Wise Sorting: A New Way of Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jahangir Alam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for sorting numerical data in an efficient way. The numbers of comparisons i.e. the running time of this technique is dependent on distribution or diversity of the value of data items as like as other efficient algorithms. When the total number of data is even, this method groups that data into a collection of pairs and therefore establishes the sorting constraints on each of the pairs. The control is traversed through the list of elements by changing the position of each pair which is the major principle of this technique. On the other hand, when the total number of elements is odd, this method sorts all elements except the last one in the same was as mentioned earlier and the last element is sorted using the general Insertion Sort. This algorithm is therefore a hybrid sorting method that sorts elementary numeric data in a faster and efficient manner.

  9. Crossed-second-order specific-mass isotope shift in the Nickel atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A. L. A.; Bauche, J.

    1983-10-01

    The crossed-second-order corrections to the specific mass shifts of the lowest terms of the two lowest configurations of the Nickel atom are evaluated ab initio in the Multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock scheme. The excitations towards the nf( l=3) empty subshells play the major role. If the contributions obtained are added to the Hartree-Fock values, the discrepancy between experiment and theory for the 3 d 8 4 s 2-3 d 9 4 s (virtual) transition is only reduced by one third. As concerns the differences between the specific shifts of the five Russell-Saunders terms of 3 d 8 4 s 2, the crossed-second-order contributions are predicted to be practically as large as the Hartree-Fock values, which makes the total definitely measurable.

  10. Crossed-second-order specific-mass isotope shift in the nickel atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crossed-second-order corrections to the specific mass shifts of the lowest terms of the two lowest configurations of the Nickel atom are evaluated ab initio in the Multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock scheme. The excitations towards the nf(l=3) empty subshells play the major role. If the contributions obtained are added to the Hartree-Fock values, the discrepancy between experiment and theory for the 3d8 4s2-3d9 4s (virtual) transition is only reduced by one third. As concerns the differences beteen the specific shifts of the five Russell-Saunders terms of 3d8 4d2, the crossed-second-order contributions are predicted to be practically as large as the Hartree-Fock values, which makes the total definitely measurable. (orig.)

  11. Fluorescence activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, W. A.; Hulett, H. R.; Sweet, R. G.; Herzenberg, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    An instrument has been developed for sorting biological cells. The cells are rendered differentially fluorescent and incorporated into a small liquid stream illuminated by a laser beam. The cells pass sequentially through the beam, and fluorescent light from the cells gives rise to electrical signals. The stream is broken into a series of uniform size drops downstream of the laser. The cell signals are used to give appropriate electrostatic charges to drops containing the cells. The drops then pass between two charged plates and are deflected to appropriate containers. The system has proved capable of providing fractions containing large numbers of viable cells highly enriched in a particular functional type.

  12. A fast atom bombardment study of the lead isotope ratios in early nineteenth century Niagara Peninsula pottery glazes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry to the determination of lead isotope ratios in nineteenth century pottery glazes from the Niagara Peninsula has been investigated with the aim of determining the source of the lead used in the glazes. Methods of sampling have been compared, including direct analysis of glass chips, analysis of powdered glaze scrapings, analysis of acid extracts of the former, and simple acid leaching of the surface of a piece of pottery. The latter method gave the best results. The FAB data, as obtained on an older mass spectrometer, can distinguish lead from igneous vs. sedimentary deposits, but is not adequate to determine specific mining locations. Although newer FAB instrumentation can narrow this range, the overlap of data from the Niagara Peninsula and England precludes a simple answer to the archeological question as to English vs. Canadian origin of the lead used in the Jordan pottery glazes. However, the data do suggest that the potter used a local source for the lead

  13. Selective sorting of waste

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Not much effort needed, just willpower In order to keep the cost of disposing of waste materials as low as possible, CERN provides two types of recipient at the entrance to each building: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metal one for general refuse. For some time now we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing negligence as far as selective sorting is concerned, with, for example, the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc. …We have been able to ascertain, after careful checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of the personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Non-sorted waste entails heavy costs for CERN. For information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned...

  14. Chromosome analysis and sorting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Kovářová, Pavlína; Bartoš, Jan; Šimková, Hana

    Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2007 - (Doležel, J.; Greilhuber, J.; Suda, J.), s. 373-403 ISBN 978-3-527-31487-4 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/04/0607; GA ČR GP521/05/P257; GA ČR GD521/05/H013; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Grant ostatní: Mendelova zemědělská a lesnická univerzita v Brně / Agronomická fakulta(CZ) ME 844 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Plant flow cytometry * chromosome sorting * flow cytogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://books. google .com/books?id=3cwakORieqUC&pg=PA373&lpg=PA373&dq=Chromosome+analysis+and+sorting&source=web&ots=8IyvJlBQyq&sig=_NlXyQQgBCwpj1pTC9YITvvVZqU

  15. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    and causing the most productive female workers to seek better jobs in more female-friendly firms in which they can pursue small career advancements. Nonetheless, gender differences in promotion persist and are found to be similar in all firms when we focus on large career advancements. These results......In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...... provide evidence of the sticky floor hypothesis, which, together with the costs associated with changing employer, generates persistent gender gaps....

  16. Teleoperated robotic sorting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Charles E.; Sommer, Edward J.; Parrish, Robert H.; Russell, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for classifying materials utilizing a computerized touch sensitive screen or other computerized pointing device for operator identification and electronic marking of spatial coordinates of materials to be extracted. An operator positioned at a computerized touch sensitive screen views electronic images of the mixture of materials to be sorted as they are conveyed past a sensor array which transmits sequences of images of the mixture either directly or through a computer to the touch sensitive display screen. The operator manually "touches" objects displayed on the screen to be extracted from the mixture thereby registering the spatial coordinates of the objects within the computer. The computer then tracks the registered objects as they are conveyed and directs automated devices including mechanical means such as air jets, robotic arms, or other mechanical diverters to extract the registered objects.

  17. The discovery of isotopes a complete compilation

    CERN Document Server

    Thoennessen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the exciting discovery of every isotope observed on earth to date, which currently numbers some 3000. For each isotope a short essay highlights the authors of the first publication for the isotope, the laboratory and year where and when the isotope was discovered, as well as details about the production and detection methods used. In controversial cases previously claims are also discussed. At the end a comprehensive table lists all isotopes sorted by elements and a complete list of references. Preliminary versions of these paragraphs have been published over the last few years as separate articles in the journal "Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables". The work re-evaluates all assignments judging them with a uniform set of criteria. In addition, the author includes over 100 new isotopes which have been discovered since the articles published. This book is a source of information for researchers as well as enthusiastic laymen alike. From the prepublication review: “The explanations focus ...

  18. Resolving sorting mechanisms into exosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Willem

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of mechanisms driving protein sorting into exosomes is only beginning to emerge. In a paper recently published in Cell Research, Roucourt et al. report that trimming of heparan sulfate side chains of syndecans by endosomal heparanase facilitates sorting into exosomes by the formation

  19. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  20. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs

  1. Hyperfine splitting and isotope shift of 22Na, 23Na by high resolution laser spectroscopy at the atomic D2-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hyperfine structure of D2 optical line in 22Na and 23Na has been investigated using high resolution laser spectroscopy of a well-collimated atomic beam. The hyperfine splitting constants A and B for the excited 3p2P3/2 level for both investigated sodium isotopes have been obtained. They are as follows: A(22)=7.31(4) MHz, B(22)=4.71(28) MHz, A(23)=18.572(24) MHz, B(23)=2.723(55) MHz. With these data, using the high precision MCHFF calculations for the electric field gradient at the nucleus, the electric quadrupole moment of 22Na has been deduced: Qs(22)=+0.185(11) b. The sign of Qs(22), determined for the first time, indicates a prolate nuclear deformation. Precise value of the isotope shift 22,23Na in D2-line has also been obtained

  2. Statistical clumped isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röckmann, T; Popa, M E; Krol, M C; Hofmann, M E G

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a molecule, which is the conventional reference. When multiple indistinguishable atoms of the same element are present in a molecule, this reference is calculated from the bulk (≈average) isotopic composition of the involved atoms. We show here that this referencing convention leads to apparent negative clumped isotope anomalies (anti-clumping) when the indistinguishable atoms originate from isotopically different populations. Such statistical clumped isotope anomalies must occur in any system where two or more indistinguishable atoms of the same element, but with different isotopic composition, combine in a molecule. The size of the anti-clumping signal is closely related to the difference of the initial isotope ratios of the indistinguishable atoms that have combined. Therefore, a measured statistical clumped isotope anomaly, relative to an expected (e.g. thermodynamical) clumped isotope composition, may allow assessment of the heterogeneity of the isotopic pools of atoms that are the substrate for formation of molecules. PMID:27535168

  3. On Approximability of Block Sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanaswamy, N S

    2011-01-01

    Block Sorting is a well studied problem, motivated by its applications in Optical Character Recognition (OCR), and Computational Biology. Block Sorting has been shown to be NP-Hard, and two separate polynomial time 2-approximation algorithms have been designed for the problem. But questions like whether a better approximation algorithm can be designed, and whether the problem is APX-Hard have been open for quite a while now. In this work we answer the latter question by proving Block Sorting to be Max-SNP-Hard (APX-Hard). The APX-Hardness result is based on a linear reduction of Max-3SAT to Block Sorting. We also provide a new lower bound for the problem via a new parametrized problem k-Block Merging.

  4. Atomic and Molecular Data for State-Resolved Modelling of Hydrogen and Helium and Their Isotopes in Fusion Plasma. Summary Report of the First Research Coordination Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Research Coordination Meeting of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Atomic and Molecular Data for State-Resolved Modelling of Hydrogen and Helium and Their Isotopes in Fusion Plasma' was held 10-12 August 2011 at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Participants reviewed the status of the database on molecular processes of H and He, identified data needs and made plans for development of new data in connection with the CRP. The proceedings of the meeting are summarized here. Participants' summaries and work plans are also provided. (author)

  5. Proposal for a coordination research programme (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on stable isotope tracer techniques for studies on protein-energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report provides a rationale and justification for the initiation of a Coordinated Research programme to support studies using stable isotopic tracer techniques to address priority areas of human protein-energy interactions with special emphasis on the problems of human nutrition in developing countries. The Report suggests a modus for establishing such a practically oriented Coordinated Research Programme under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency with concrete suggestions for its organization and the identification of probable participants in such a programme. The likely sources of additional funding to sustain such an activity viable for a period of 4 to 5 years are also indicated. 8 refs

  6. ALGORITHM FOR SORTING GROUPED DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    It is often desirable to sort data sets in ascending or descending order. This becomes more difficult for grouped data, i.e., multiple sets of data, where each set of data involves several measurements or related elements. The sort becomes increasingly cumbersome when more than a few elements exist for each data set. In order to achieve an efficient sorting process, an algorithm has been devised in which the maximum most significant element is found, and then compared to each element in succession. The program was written to handle the daily temperature readings of the Voyager spacecraft, particularly those related to the special tracking requirements of Voyager 2. By reducing each data set to a single representative number, the sorting process becomes very easy. The first step in the process is to reduce the data set of width 'n' to a data set of width '1'. This is done by representing each data set by a polynomial of length 'n' based on the differences of the maximum and minimum elements. These single numbers are then sorted and converted back to obtain the original data sets. Required input data are the name of the data file to read and sort, and the starting and ending record numbers. The package includes a sample data file, containing 500 sets of data with 5 elements in each set. This program will perform a sort of the 500 data sets in 3 - 5 seconds on an IBM PC-AT with a hard disk; on a similarly equipped IBM PC-XT the time is under 10 seconds. This program is written in BASIC (specifically the Microsoft QuickBasic compiler) for interactive execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series operating under PC-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 40K of 8 bit bytes. A hard disk is desirable for speed considerations, but is not required. This program was developed in 1986.

  7. Sorting and selection in posets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Karp, Richard M.; Mossel, Elchanan;

    2011-01-01

    Classical problems of sorting and searching assume an underlying linear ordering of the objects being compared. In this paper, we study these problems in the context of partially ordered sets, in which some pairs of objects are incomparable. This generalization is interesting from a combinatorial...... from two decades ago by Faigle and Turán. In particular, we present the first algorithm that sorts a width-$w$ poset of size $n$ with query complexity $O(n(w+\\log n))$ and prove that this query complexity is asymptotically optimal. We also describe a variant of Mergesort with query complexity $O......(wn\\log\\frac{n}{w})$ and total complexity $O(w^{2}n\\log\\frac{n}{w})$; an algorithm with the same query complexity was given by Faigle and Turán, but no efficient implementation of that algorithm is known. Both our sorting algorithms can be applied with negligible overhead to the more general problem of reconstructing...

  8. Hybrid optical and acoustic force based sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahoney, Paul; Brodie, Graham W.; Wang, Han; Demore, Christine E. M.; Cochran, Sandy; Spalding, Gabriel C.; MacDonald, Michael P.

    2014-09-01

    We report the combined use of optical sorting and acoustic levitation to give particle sorting. Differing sizes of microparticles are sorted optically both with and without the aid of acoustic levitation, and the results compared to show that the use of acoustic trapping can increase sorting efficiency. The use of a transparent ultrasonic transducer is also shown to streamline the integration of optics and acoustics. We also demonstrate the balance of optical radiation pressure and acoustic levitation to achieve vertical sorting.

  9. A Heapify Based Parallel Sorting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A.A.A. Hija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick sort is a sorting algorithm whose worst case running time is θ(n2 on an input array of n numbers. It is the best practical for sorting because it has the advantage of sorting in place. Problem statement: Behavior of quick sort is complex, we proposed in-place 2m threads parallel heap sort algorithm which had advantage in sorting in place and had better performance than classical sequential quick sort in running time. Approach: The algorithm consisted of several stages, in first stage; it splits input data into two partitions, next stages it did the same partitioning for prior stage which had been spitted until 2 m partitions was reached equal to the number of available processors, finally it used heap sort to sort respectively ordered of non internally sorted partitions in parallel. Results: Results showed the speed of algorithm about double speed of classical Quick sort for a large input size. The number of comparisons needed was reduced significantly. Conclusion: In this study we had been proposed a sorting algorithm that uses less number of comparisons with respect to original quick sort that in turn requires less running time to sort the same input data.

  10. Experiments to produce isotopes of superheavy elements with atomic numbers 114-116 in 48Ca ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been conducted to synthesize isotopes of elements 114-116 in fusion reactions between 48Ca ions and sup(246,248)Cm, sup(243)Am and sup(242)Pu isotopes. Irradiations by 48Ca ions at 267 MeV have been carried out using an internal beam of the cyclotron U-300 with the average current of 48Ca ions 1012 fr/s. As in conformity with the theoretical predictions, the superheavy elements with Z=112-116 must possess higher volatility and the elements with Z=108-111 must be analogs of heavy metals with Z=76-79, upon irradiation from the target by chemical methods fractions of volatile elements, heavy noble gases, sulphides of heavy metals as well as Cf-Fm fraction have been isolated. The obtained samples (80%) have been put in contact with phosphate glasses for detecting spontaneous fission of superheavy elements with the period Tsub(sf) from 2 h. to a year. At the same time a part of the samples (20%) has been placed in an alpha-spectrometer. No unknown spontaneously fissioning and alpha-active radiations have been observed. Upper limits of the production cross sections for superheavy elements in the studied reactions: for spontaneously-fissioning activity sigma35 cm2, for alpha-active isotopes with the period 2h(-34 cm2

  11. Deformability-based capsule sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Anne; Munier, Nadege; Maire, Pauline; Edwards-Levy, Florence; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2015-11-01

    Many microfluidic devices have been developed for cancer diagnosis applications, most of which relying on costly antibodies. Since some cancer cells display abnormal mechanical properties, new sorting tools based on mechanical sensing are of particular interest. We present a simple, passive pinched flow microfluidic system for capsule sorting. The device consists of a straight microchannel containing a cylindrical obstacle. Thanks to a flow-focusing module placed at the channel entrance, capsules arrive well-centered in the vicinity of the obstacle. Pure size-sorting can be achieved at low shear rate. When increasing the shear rate, capsules are deformed in the narrow space between the pillar and the wall. The softer the capsule, the more tightly it wraps around the obstacle. After the obstacle, streamlines diverge, allowing for the separation between soft capsules, that follow central streamlines, and stiff capsules, that drift away from the obstacle with a wider angle. This proves that we have developed a flexible multipurpose sorting microsystem based on a simple design.

  12. Radionuclides induced by environmental neutrons. Discovery of natural radioactive Eu and Co isotopes and their contribution to the evaluation of Atomic-bombing neutrons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, Kazuhisa [Kanazawa Univ., Low Level Radioactivity Lab., Tatsunokuchi, Ishikawa (Japan); Yousef, Ahmed M. [South Valley Univ. (Egypt)

    2001-06-01

    Radioactive europium and cobalt isotopes induced by environmental neutrons have been discovered by low-background Ge detector installed in Ogoya underground laboratory. Specific activities of {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu and {sup 155}Eu and {sup 60}Co were measured for recent and old europium and cobalt reagents. Observed activities are 0.06-0.52 dpm g{sup -1} for {sup 152}Eu, 0.09-0.16 dpm g{sup -1} for {sup 154}Eu and 0.005-0.16 dpm g{sup -1} for {sup 155}Eu and 0.007-0.083 dpm g{sup -1} for {sup 60}Co. Contribution of natural {sup 152}Eu and {sup 60}Co in Atomic-bomb exposed samples are found to be negligible low and less than 10%, respectively. (author)

  13. Temperature evolution of the local atomic structure in oxygen isotope substituted Pr0.525La0.175Ca0.3MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local atomic structure of two oxygen isotope substituted samples of Pr0.525La0.175Ca0.3MnO3 with 16O and 18O has been studied as a function of temperature using the pair-distribution function (PDF) obtained from pulsed neutron diffraction. The sample containing 16O undergoes an insulator-metal (IM) transition below 100 K while the sample substituted with 18O remains insulating at all temperatures. We find from the PDF that the shape of the MnO6 octahedra changes from being elongated, due to a Jahn-Teller distortion, to a more regular shape below the IM transition in the 16O sample, whereas the 18O sample remains distorted at all temperatures. (orig.)

  14. Radionuclides induced by environmental neutrons. Discovery of natural radioactive Eu and Co isotopes and their contribution to the evaluation of Atomic-bombing neutrons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive europium and cobalt isotopes induced by environmental neutrons have been discovered by low-background Ge detector installed in Ogoya underground laboratory. Specific activities of 152Eu, 154Eu and 155Eu and 60Co were measured for recent and old europium and cobalt reagents. Observed activities are 0.06-0.52 dpm g-1 for 152Eu, 0.09-0.16 dpm g-1 for 154Eu and 0.005-0.16 dpm g-1 for 155Eu and 0.007-0.083 dpm g-1 for 60Co. Contribution of natural 152Eu and 60Co in Atomic-bomb exposed samples are found to be negligible low and less than 10%, respectively. (author)

  15. Sub-Doppler two-photon spectroscopy of 33 Rydberg levels in atomic xenon excited at 205–213 nm: diverse isotopic and hyperfine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope energy shifts and hyperfine structure have been measured for 33 high-energy Rydberg levels of atomic xenon by sub-Doppler two-photon excitation spectroscopy, using narrowband pulses of coherent ultraviolet light at 205–213 nm generated by nonlinear-optical conversion processes. Rydberg levels are accessed at two-photon excitation energies in the 97 300–94 100 cm−1 range where isotope energy shifts and hyperfine structure have rarely been resolved; these Rydberg levels are 5p5 np [1/2]0 (n = 9–13), 5p5 np [3/2]2 (n = 9–13), 5p5 np [5/2]2 (n = 9–17), 5p5 nf [3/2]2 (n = 6–14) and 5p5 nf [5/2]2 (n = 6–10). The sub-Doppler spectra display diverse hyperfine-coupling effects, for which least-squares-fit spectroscopic parameters reflect the influence of angular momentum. (paper)

  16. Spectroscopy and isotope shifts of the 4s3d 1D2-4s5p 1P1 repumping transition in magneto-optically trapped calcium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a repumping scheme for magneto-optically trapped calcium atoms. It is based on excitation of the 4s3d1D2-4s5p1P1 transition at 672 nm with an extended cavity diode laser. The effect of the repumping is approximately a factor of three increase in trap lifetime and a doubling of the trapping efficiency from a Zeeman slowed thermal beam. Added to this, the 672-nm laser repumps atoms from an otherwise dark state to yield an overall increase in detected fluorescence signal from the magneto-optic trap (MOT) of more than an order of magnitude. Furthermore, we report isotope shift measurements of the 672-nm transition, for the first time, for four naturally occurring even isotopes. Using available charge radii data, the observed shifts, extending up to 4.3 GHz, display the expected linear dependence in a King plot analysis. The measured shifts are used to determine the isotope shifts of the remaining 41,43,46Ca isotopes. These might be of interest where less abundant isotopes are used enabling isotope selective repumping, resulting in enhanced trapping and detection efficiencies.

  17. Sorted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, S

    1997-04-01

    Each year in Accident and Emergency an increasing number of young people present with acute problems related to social drugs. These problems range from mild symptoms to life-threatening conditions, many of which can be extremely difficult and time consuming for staff to manage. It has become apparent that as with sex the experimental age for taking drugs is getting younger as youths are now far more 'streetwise' than their predecessors. This is one of the main reasons for this paper being written; it is imperative that staff are equipped with the appropriate knowledge to deal with the challenge and are educated about the problems associated with current drug trends. This potentially improves the quality of care and, in turn, good communication improves relationships. Ecstasy is once again becoming increasingly popular within mainstream clubs, as recently highlighted in the media, and with it reappear its problems. This article discusses the historical aspects of Ecstasy and aims to educate staff about its use and effects and provides health promotion advice for those who are involved in the care of people who take Ecstasy. PMID:9171546

  18. Swarm-Based Spatial Sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To present an algorithm for spatially sorting objects into an annular structure. Design/Methodology/Approach: A swarm-based model that requires only stochastic agent behaviour coupled with a pheromone-inspired "attraction-repulsion" mechanism. Findings: The algorithm consistently generates high-quality annular structures, and is particularly powerful in situations where the initial configuration of objects is similar to those observed in nature. Research limitations/implications: Experimental evidence supports previous theoretical arguments about the nature and mechanism of spatial sorting by insects. Practical implications: The algorithm may find applications in distributed robotics. Originality/value: The model offers a powerful minimal algorithmic framework, and also sheds further light on the nature of attraction-repulsion algorithms and underlying natural processes.

  19. Lipid sorting revealed by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at the contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The fitting of the observed SANS profile revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet, which supports that the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model. (author)

  20. Swarm-Based Spatial Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, Martyn; Don, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To present an algorithm for spatially sorting objects into an annular structure. Design/Methodology/Approach: A swarm-based model that requires only stochastic agent behaviour coupled with a pheromone-inspired "attraction-repulsion" mechanism. Findings: The algorithm consistently generates high-quality annular structures, and is particularly powerful in situations where the initial configuration of objects is similar to those observed in nature. Research limitations/implications: Exp...

  1. Plutonium isotopes 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios in the southern Baltic Sea ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara I. Strumińska-Parulska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the results of plutonium findings in atmospheric fallout samples and marine samples from the southern Baltic Sea during our research in 1986-2007. The activities of 238Pu and 239+240Pu isotopes were measured with an alpha spectrometer. The activities of 241Pu were calculated indirectly by 241Am activity measurements 16-18 years after the Chernobyl accident. The 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. The 241Pu activities indicate that the main impact of the Chernobyl accident was on the plutonium concentration in the components of the Baltic Sea ecosystem examined in this work. The highest 241Pu/239+240Pu activity ratio was found in sea water (140 ± 33. The AMS measurements of atmospheric fallout samples collected during 1986 showed a significant increase in the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio from 0.29 ± 0.04 in March 1986 to 0.47 ± 0.02 in April 1986.

  2. Optical isotope shifts for unstable samarium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a tunable dye laser beam intersecting a thermal atomic beam, optical isotope shifts and hyperfine splittings have been measured for the four unstable samarium isotopes between 144Sm and 154Sm, covering the well known transition region from spherical to deformed shapes. (orig.)

  3. Nominal tense logic and other sorted intensional frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan

    1990-01-01

    This thesis introduces of a system of tense logic called nominal tense logic (NTL), and several extensions. Its primary aim is to establish that these systems are logically interesting, and can provide useful models of natural language tense, temporal reference, and their interaction. Languages of nominal tense logic are a simple augmentation of Priorean tense logic. They add to the familiar Priorean languages a new sort of atomic symbol, nominals. Like propositional variabl...

  4. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  5. Sorting device suitable for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device is described for handling and sorting various items and especially linen from laundry bags of a nuclear plant for separation of contaminated and non contaminated objects before washing. It includes reception means, a glove box type enclosure for sorting and exit means of sorted items. Preferentially a ventilation maintains a depression inside

  6. On the Construction of Sorted Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We develop a theory of sorted bigraphical reactive systems. Every application of bigraphs in the literature has required an extension, a sorting, of pure bigraphs. In turn, every such application has required a redevelopment of the theory of pure bigraphical reactive systems for the sorting at hand...

  7. Design of Garbage Sorting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Adzimah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Domestic waste collection, sorting and disposal are major problems in many developing countries such as Ghana. It is an undeniable fact that the environment has been engulfed in filth. This filth comprises of the garbage and waste generated in homes, workplace and industrial setups. Most of this waste has found its way into the streets, gutters, in and around the homes, dung hills and worst of all, water bodies, many of which are sources of the drinking water treated at high costs or not treated at all. Approach: Garbage needs to be sorted into various components and each of such components like textile materials, polythene, foodstuffs, metals and glassware would then have to be handled separately at the disposal or recycling site. Such a process required a certain degree of literacy, discipline and certain basic equipment, for example separate collector bins or sorting bags. In the developed world this is not much a problem because every home has different polythene bags into which the various constituents of domestic waste are put right at the generation point. Separate collection bins were also provided at vantage points for the various types of domestic garbage collection. In the developing countries these arrangements have not been feasible because of the level of literacy, lack of appreciation of the problem, non-availability of the different types of polythene bags and poverty. Currently, most garbage collection in the developing countries is done by depositing every thing into a single container from where they are hauled to be dumped in landfills or burned in incinerators. Refuse disposal by land filling requires a sizeable land for the sole purpose of refuse disposal. This may lead to (1: Encumbering large tracks of prime land, which could not be put to other uses (2: Pollution of ground water by the leachate from the landfills (3: Breeding of leaches, rodents, mosquitoes and (4: Generation of strong stench coming

  8. Principles of stable isotope distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Criss, Robert E

    1999-01-01

    1. Abundance and Measurement of Stable Isotopes 1.1. Discovery of Isotopes 1.2. Nuclide Types, Abundances, and Atomic Weights 1.3. Properties and Fractionation of Isotopic Molecules 1.4. Material Balance Relationships 1.5. Mass Spectrometers 1.6. Notation and Standards 1.7. Summary 1.8. Problems References 2. Isotopic Exchange and Equilibrium Fractionation 2.1. Isotopic Exchange Reactions 2.2. Basic Equations 2.3. Molecular Models 2.4. Theory of Isotopic Fractionation 2.5. Temperature Dependence of Isotopic Fractionation Factors 2.6. Rule of the Mean 2.7. Isotopic Thermometers

  9. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs

  11. How does the Shift-insertion sort behave when the sorting elements follow a Normal distribution?

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Mita; Mahanti, N C

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examines the behavior of Shift-insertion sort (insertion sort with shifting) for normal distribution inputs and is in continuation of our earlier work on this new algorithm for discrete distribution inputs, namely, negative binomial. Shift insertion sort is found more sensitive for main effects but not for all interaction effects compared to conventional insertion sort.

  12. Atomic Transition Frequencies, Isotope Shifts, and Sensitivity to Variation of the Fine Structure Constant for Studies of Quasar Absorption Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; King, J. A.; Kozlov, M. G.; Murphy, M. T.; Webb, J. K.

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest spatial and temporal variation of fundamental "constants" in the Universe. A change in the fine structure constant, α = {e}2/hslash c , could be detected via shifts in the frequencies of atomic transitions in quasar absorption systems. Recent studies using 140 absorption systems from the Keck telescope and 153 from the Very Large Telescope, suggest that α varies spatially (61). That is, in one direction on the sky α seems to have been smaller at the time of absorption, while in the opposite direction it seems to have been larger.

  13. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  14. Polarized sorting and trafficking in epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinwang Cao; Michal A Surma; Kai Simons

    2012-01-01

    The polarized distribution of proteins and lipids at the surface membrane of epithelial cells results in the formation of an apical and a basolateral domain,which are separated by tight junctions.The generation and maintenance of epithelial polarity require elaborate mechanisms that guarantee correct sorting and vectorial delivery of cargo molecules.This dynamic process involves the interaction of sorting signals with sorting machineries and the formation of transport carriers.Here we review the recent advances in the field of polarized sorting in epithelial cells.We especially highlight the role of lipid rafts in apical sorting.

  15. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3

  16. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  17. Marital Sorting and Parental Wealth

    OpenAIRE

    Kerwin Kofi Charles; Erik Hurst; Alexandra Killewald

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), this paper studies the degree to which spouses sort in the marriage market on the basis of parental wealth. We estimate a variety of models, including transition matrices, OLS and TSLS models to deal with measurement error in wealth reports. Our various results show that men and women in the U.S. marry spouses whose parents have wealth similar to that of their own parents; and are very unlikely to marry persons from very different par...

  18. Microfluidic systems for optical sorting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Jan; Pilát, Zdeněk; Šerý, Mojmír; Kaňka, Jan; Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Zemánek, Pavel

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2012, 86970W: 1-9. ISBN 978-0-8194-9481-8. [CPS 2012. Czech-Polish-Slovak Optical Conference on Wave and Quantum Aspects of Contemporary Optics /18./. Ostravice (CZ), 03.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : microfluidic * cell sorting * optical tweezers * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  19. Sorting and Selection in Posets

    CERN Document Server

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Mossel, Elchanan; Riesenfeld, Samantha; Verbin, Elad

    2007-01-01

    Classical problems of sorting and searching assume an underlying linear ordering of the objects being compared. In this paper, we study a more general setting, in which some pairs of objects are incomparable. This generalization is relevant in applications related to rankings in sports, college admissions, or conference submissions. It also has potential applications in biology, such as comparing the evolutionary fitness of different strains of bacteria, or understanding input-output relations among a set of metabolic reactions or the causal influences among a set of interacting genes or proteins. Our results improve and extend results from two decades ago of Faigle and Tur\\'{a}n. A measure of complexity of a partially ordered set (poset) is its width. Our algorithms obtain information about a poset by queries that compare two elements. We present an algorithm that sorts, i.e. completely identifies, a width w poset of size n and has query complexity O(wn + nlog(n)), which is within a constant factor of the in...

  20. Fast Parallel Sorting Algorithms on GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Jan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the three widely used parallel sorting algorithms: Odd-Even sort, Rank sort and Bitonic sort in terms of sorting rate, sorting time and speed-up on CPU anddifferent GPU architectures. Alongside we have implemented novel parallel algorithm: min-max butterflynetwork, for finding minimum and maximum in large data sets. All algorithms have been implementedexploiting data parallelism model, for achieving high performance, as available on multi-core GPUsusing the OpenCL specification. Our results depicts minimum speed-up19x of bitonic sort against oddevensorting technique for small queue sizes on CPU and maximum of 2300x speed-up for very largequeue sizes on Nvidia Quadro 6000 GPU architecture. Our implementation of full-butterfly networksorting results in relatively better performance than all of the three sorting techniques: bitonic, odd-evenand rank sort. For min-max butterfly network, our findings report high speed-up of Nvidia quadro 6000GPU for high data set size reaching 224 with much lower sorting time.

  1. Recyclable Waste Paper Sorting Using Template Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiur Rahman, Mohammad; Hussain, Aini; Scavino, Edgar; Hannan, M. A.; Basri, Hassan

    This paper explores the application of image processing techniques in recyclable waste paper sorting. In recycling, waste papers are segregated into various grades as they are subjected to different recycling processes. Highly sorted paper streams will facilitate high quality end products, and save processing chemicals and energy. Since 1932 to 2009, different mechanical and optical paper sorting methods have been developed to fill the demand of paper sorting. Still, in many countries including Malaysia, waste papers are sorted into different grades using manual sorting system. Due to inadequate throughput and some major drawbacks of mechanical paper sorting systems, the popularity of optical paper sorting systems is increased. Automated paper sorting systems offer significant advantages over human inspection in terms of fatigue, throughput, speed, and accuracy. This research attempts to develop a smart vision sensing system that able to separate the different grades of paper using Template Matching. For constructing template database, the RGB components of the pixel values are used to construct RGBString for template images. Finally, paper object grade is identified based on the maximum occurrence of a specific template image in the search image. The outcomes from the experiment in classification for White Paper, Old Newsprint Paper and Old Corrugated Cardboard are 96%, 92% and 96%, respectively. The remarkable achievement obtained with the method is the accurate identification and dynamic sorting of all grades of papers using simple image processing techniques.

  2. Energy efficient data sorting using standard sorting algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Bunse, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Protecting the environment by saving energy and thus reducing carbon dioxide emissions is one of todays hottest and most challenging topics. Although the perspective for reducing energy consumption, from ecological and business perspectives is clear, from a technological point of view, the realization especially for mobile systems still falls behind expectations. Novel strategies that allow (software) systems to dynamically adapt themselves at runtime can be effectively used to reduce energy consumption. This paper presents a case study that examines the impact of using an energy management component that dynamically selects and applies the "optimal" sorting algorithm, from an energy perspective, during multi-party mobile communication. Interestingly, the results indicate that algorithmic performance is not key and that dynamically switching algorithms at runtime does have a significant impact on energy consumption. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  3. Fixing the Sorting Algorithm for Android, Java and Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, C.P.T. de; Boer, F.S. de

    2015-01-01

    Tim Peters developed the Timsort hybrid sorting algorithm in 2002. TimSort was first developed for Python, a popular programming language, but later ported to Java (where it appears as java.util.Collections.sort and java.util.Arrays.sort). TimSort is today used as the default sorting algorithm in Ja

  4. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different. PMID:26775431

  5. A nonparametric Bayesian alternative to spike sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Frank; Black, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of extra-cellular neural recordings typically begins with careful spike sorting and all analysis of the data then rests on the correctness of the resulting spike trains. In many situations this is unproblematic as experimental and spike sorting procedures often focus on well isolated units. There is evidence in the literature, however, that errors in spike sorting can occur even with carefully collected and selected data. Additionally, chronically implanted electrodes and arrays ...

  6. Fast algorithms for sorting and searching strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, J.L. [Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Sedgewick, R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1997-06-01

    We present theoretical algorithms for sorting and searching multikey data, and derive from them practical C implementations for applications in which keys are character strings. The sorting algorithm blends Quicksort and radix sort; it is competitive with the best known C sort codes. The searching algorithm blends tries and binary search trees; it is faster than hashing and other commonly used search methods. The basic ideas behind the algorithms date back at least to the 1960s, but their practical utility has been overlooked. We also present extensions to more complex string problems, such as partial-match searching.

  7. Full dimensional quantum rate coefficients and kinetic isotope effects from ring polymer molecular dynamics for a seven-atom reaction OH + CH[subscript 4] → CH[subscript 3] + H[subscript 2]O

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joshua W.; Green, William H; Li, Yongle; Guo, Hua; Suleimanov, Yury V.

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of the seven-atom reactions OH + CH[subscript 4] → CH[subscript 3] + H[subscript 2]O and OH + CD[subscript 4] → CD[subscript 3] + HDO over the temperature range 200–1000 K is investigated using ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) on a full-dimensional potential energy surface. A comparison of RPMD with previous theoretical results obtained using transition state theory shows that RPMD is a more reliable theoretical approach for systems with more than 6 atom...

  8. Design and realization of sort manipulator of crystal-angle sort machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-shun; Chen, Shu-ping; Guan, Shou-ping; Zhang, Yao-wei

    2005-12-01

    It is a current tendency of development in automation technology to replace manpower with manipulators in working places where dangerous, harmful, heavy or repetitive work is involved. The sort manipulator is installed in a crystal-angle sort machine to take the place of manpower, and engaged in unloading and sorting work. It is the outcome of combing together mechanism, electric transmission, and pneumatic element and micro-controller control. The step motor makes the sort manipulator operate precisely. The pneumatic elements make the sort manipulator be cleverer. Micro-controller's software bestows some simple artificial intelligence on the sort manipulator, so that it can precisely repeat its unloading and sorting work. The combination of manipulator's zero position and step motor counting control puts an end to accumulating error in long time operation. A sort manipulator's design in the practice engineering has been proved to be correct and reliable.

  9. Engineering a Cache-Oblivious Sorting Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Vinther, Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an algorithmic engineering study of cache-oblivious sorting. We investigate by empirical methods a number of implementation issues and parameter choices for the cache-oblivious sorting algorithm Lazy Funnelsort, and compare the final algorithm with Quicksort, the established standard...

  10. Data Sorting Using Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Mišić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphics processing units (GPUs have been increasingly used for general-purpose computation in recent years. The GPU accelerated applications are found in both scientific and commercial domains. Sorting is considered as one of the very important operations in many applications, so its efficient implementation is essential for the overall application performance. This paper represents an effort to analyze and evaluate the implementations of the representative sorting algorithms on the graphics processing units. Three sorting algorithms (Quicksort, Merge sort, and Radix sort were evaluated on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA platform that is used to execute applications on NVIDIA graphics processing units. Algorithms were tested and evaluated using an automated test environment with input datasets of different characteristics. Finally, the results of this analysis are briefly discussed.

  11. Isotope separation with improved selective ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method and apparatus for isotope separation by selective ionization of a desired isotope in an environment of plural isotopes without corresponding ionization of the other isotopes in the environment. The selective ionization is achieved through a three step excitation of atoms of the desired isotope in response to laser radiations applied to the environment. The transition for each step is selected to be less than one half the ionization potential for the isotopes to avoid two step nonselective ionization

  12. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  13. Enhancement of Selection, Bubble and Insertion Sorting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq Umar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life there is a large amount of data to arrange because sorting removes any ambiguities and make the data analysis and data processing very easy, efficient and provides with cost less effort. In this study a set of improved sorting algorithms are proposed which gives better performance and design idea. In this study five new sorting algorithms (Bi-directional Selection Sort, Bi-directional bubble sort, MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort, MIDBidirectional bubble sort and linear insertion sort are presented. Bi-directional Selection Sort and MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort are the enhancement on basic selection sort while Bidirectional bubble sort and MIDBidirectional bubble sort are the enhancement on basic bubble sort by changing the selection and swapping mechanism of data for sorting. Enhanced sorting algorithms reduced the iteration by half and quarter times respectively. Asymptotically complexities of these algorithms are reduced to O (n2/2 and O (n2/4 from O (n2. Linear insertion sort is the enhancement of insertion sort by changing the design of algorithm (convert two loops to one loop. So asymptotically this algorithm is converted to linear time complexity from quadratic complexity. These sorting algorithms are described using C. The proposed algorithms are analyzed using asymptotic analysis and also using machine-running time and compared with their basic sorting algorithms. In this study we also discuss how the performance and complexity can be improved by optimizing the code and design.

  14. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  15. An Unsupervised Online Spike-Sorting Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knieling, Simeon; Sridharan, Kousik S; Belardinelli, Paolo; Naros, Georgios; Weiss, Daniel; Mormann, Florian; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular neuronal microelectrode recordings can include action potentials from multiple neurons. To separate spikes from different neurons, they can be sorted according to their shape, a procedure referred to as spike-sorting. Several algorithms have been reported to solve this task. However, when clustering outcomes are unsatisfactory, most of them are difficult to adjust to achieve the desired results. We present an online spike-sorting framework that uses feature normalization and weighting to maximize the distinctiveness between different spike shapes. Furthermore, multiple criteria are applied to either facilitate or prevent cluster fusion, thereby enabling experimenters to fine-tune the sorting process. We compare our method to established unsupervised offline (Wave_Clus (WC)) and online (OSort (OS)) algorithms by examining their performance in sorting various test datasets using two different scoring systems (AMI and the Adamos metric). Furthermore, we evaluate sorting capabilities on intra-operative recordings using established quality metrics. Compared to WC and OS, our algorithm achieved comparable or higher scores on average and produced more convincing sorting results for intra-operative datasets. Thus, the presented framework is suitable for both online and offline analysis and could substantially improve the quality of microelectrode-based data evaluation for research and clinical application. PMID:26711713

  16. Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Richard E., E-mail: rerusso@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Applied Spectra, Inc., 46661 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Bol' shakov, Alexander A. [Applied Spectra, Inc., 46661 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Mao Xianglei [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McKay, Christopher P. [NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Perry, Dale L.; Sorkhabi, Osman [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    A new method of performing optical isotopic analysis of condensed samples in ambient air and at ambient pressure has been developed: Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS). The technique uses radiative transitions from molecular species either directly vaporized from a sample or formed by associative mechanisms of atoms or ions in a laser ablation plume. This method is an advanced modification of a known atomic emission technique called laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The new method - LAMIS - can determine not only chemical composition but also isotopic ratios of elements in the sample. Isotopic measurements are enabled by significantly larger isotopic shifts found in molecular spectra relative to atomic spectra. Analysis can be performed from a distance and in real time. No sample preparation or pre-treatment is required. Detection of the isotopes of hydrogen, boron, carbon, and oxygen are discussed to illustrate the technique.

  17. Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Richard E.; Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Mao, Xianglei; McKay, Christopher P.; Perry, Dale L.; Sorkhabi, Osman

    2011-02-01

    A new method of performing optical isotopic analysis of condensed samples in ambient air and at ambient pressure has been developed: Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS). The technique uses radiative transitions from molecular species either directly vaporized from a sample or formed by associative mechanisms of atoms or ions in a laser ablation plume. This method is an advanced modification of a known atomic emission technique called laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The new method — LAMIS — can determine not only chemical composition but also isotopic ratios of elements in the sample. Isotopic measurements are enabled by significantly larger isotopic shifts found in molecular spectra relative to atomic spectra. Analysis can be performed from a distance and in real time. No sample preparation or pre-treatment is required. Detection of the isotopes of hydrogen, boron, carbon, and oxygen are discussed to illustrate the technique.

  18. Selection sorting Algorithm Visualization Using Flash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sutopo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to develop an algorithm visualization, particularly selection sorting for an Algorithm and Programming course. Algorithm visualization technology graphically illustrates howalgorithms work. This visualization can be used to explain how all data move to the proper position in order to be sorted in a display computer for education. This research consists of 6 steps which areconcept, design, obtaining content material, assembly, testing, and distribution. During the testing step, the application is run and checked to confirm that it performs exactly what the author has intended and the students can learn selection sorting algorithm by studying the visualization. Subjects of the research were students at Department of Informatics Universitas Persada Indonesia YAI for implementation of the learning. The data were analysed using the analytic descriptive method and interpreted in a narrativeway based on the research findings. The algorithm visualization indicates that students increase their motivation and ability to program variety of sorting in programming language they learn.

  19. Card Sorts, State Tests, and Meaningful Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvot, Jennifer B.; Benson, Sharon L. D.

    2008-01-01

    This article shares card-sorting activities that involve state-mandated test items to use with prospective and practicing mathematics teachers to teach about accountability measures while exploring reform-minded mathematics instruction recommendations. (Contains 2 figures.)

  20. Quantum Database Search can do without Sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, A

    2001-01-01

    Sorting is a fundamental computational process, which facilitates subsequent searching of a database. It can be thought of as factorisation of the search process. The location of a desired item in a sorted database can be found by classical queries that inspect one letter of the label at a time. For an unsorted database, no such classical quick search algorithm is available. If the database permits quantum queries, however, then mere digitisation is sufficient for efficient search. Sorting becomes redundant with the quantum superposition of states. A quantum algorithm is written down which locates the desired item in an unsorted database a factor of two faster than the best classical algorithm can in a sorted database. This algorithm has close resemblance to the assembly process in DNA replication.

  1. Cell sorting by deterministic cell rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sungyoung; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Karnik, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    This communication presents the concept of “deterministic cell rolling”, which leverages transient cell-surface molecular interactions that mediate cell rolling to sort cells with high purity and efficiency in a single step.

  2. Sorting pathways of mitochondrial inner membrane proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Mahlke, Kerstin; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Martin, Jörg; Horwich, Arthur; Hartl, Franz-Ulrich; Neupert, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Two distinct pathways of sorting and assembly of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial inner membrane proteins are described. In the first pathway, precursor proteins that carry amino-terminal targeting signals are initially translocated via contact sites between both mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. They become proteolytically processed, interact with the 60-kDa heat-shock protein hsp60 in the matrix and are retranslocated to the inner membrane. The sorting of subunit 9 of Neur...

  3. Another Definition of Order—Sorted Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何自强

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the definition of order-sorted algebra is generalized by introducing transformation functions between subtypes and supertypes.According to our definition,a type needn't be a subset of its supertype and a record model may form an order-sorted algebra.A new definition of equation is given.It has also been proved that equational theories and describing single inheritance have the initial model.

  4. Isotope analysis of diamond-surface passivation effect of high-temperature H{sub 2}O-grown atomic layer deposition-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi, E-mail: hiraiwa@aoni.waseda.jp, E-mail: qs4a-hriw@asahi-net.or.jp [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Saito, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi, E-mail: kawarada@waseda.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2015-06-07

    The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film formed using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method with trimethylaluminum as Al precursor and H{sub 2}O as oxidant at a high temperature (450 °C) effectively passivates the p-type surface conduction (SC) layer specific to a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, leading to a successful operation of diamond SC field-effect transistors at 400 °C. In order to investigate this excellent passivation effect, we carried out an isotope analysis using D{sub 2}O instead of H{sub 2}O in the ALD and found that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film formed at a conventional temperature (100 °C) incorporates 50 times more CH{sub 3} groups than the high-temperature film. This CH{sub 3} is supposed to dissociate from the film when heated afterwards at a higher temperature (550 °C) and causes peeling patterns on the H-terminated surface. The high-temperature film is free from this problem and has the largest mass density and dielectric constant among those investigated in this study. The isotope analysis also unveiled a relatively active H-exchange reaction between the diamond H-termination and H{sub 2}O oxidant during the high-temperature ALD, the SC still being kept intact. This dynamic and yet steady H termination is realized by the suppressed oxidation due to the endothermic reaction with H{sub 2}O. Additionally, we not only observed the kinetic isotope effect in the form of reduced growth rate of D{sub 2}O-oxidant ALD but found that the mass density and dielectric constant of D{sub 2}O-grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are smaller than those of H{sub 2}O-grown films. This is a new type of isotope effect, which is not caused by the presence of isotopes in the films unlike the traditional isotope effects that originate from the presence of isotopes itself. Hence, the high-temperature ALD is very effective in forming Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films as a passivation and/or gate-insulation layer of high-temperature-operation diamond SC devices, and the knowledge of

  5. A nonparametric Bayesian alternative to spike sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank; Black, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of extra-cellular neural recordings typically begins with careful spike sorting and all analysis of the data then rests on the correctness of the resulting spike trains. In many situations this is unproblematic as experimental and spike sorting procedures often focus on well isolated units. There is evidence in the literature, however, that errors in spike sorting can occur even with carefully collected and selected data. Additionally, chronically implanted electrodes and arrays with fixed electrodes cannot be easily adjusted to provide well isolated units. In these situations, multiple units may be recorded and the assignment of waveforms to units may be ambiguous. At the same time, analysis of such data may be both scientifically important and clinically relevant. In this paper we address this issue using a novel probabilistic model that accounts for several important sources of uncertainty and error in spike sorting. In lieu of sorting neural data to produce a single best spike train, we estimate a probabilistic model of spike trains given the observed data. We show how such a distribution over spike sortings can support standard neuroscientific questions while providing a representation of uncertainty in the analysis. As a representative illustration of the approach, we analyzed primary motor cortical tuning with respect to hand movement in data recorded with a chronic multi-electrode array in non-human primates. We found that the probabilistic analysis generally agrees with human sorters but suggests the presence of tuned units not detected by humans. PMID:18602697

  6. Hash sort: A linear time complexity multiple-dimensional sort algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Gilreath, William F.

    2004-01-01

    Sorting and hashing are two completely different concepts in computer science, and appear mutually exclusive to one another. Hashing is a search method using the data as a key to map to the location within memory, and is used for rapid storage and retrieval. Sorting is a process of organizing data from a random permutation into an ordered arrangement, and is a common activity performed frequently in a variety of applications. Almost all conventional sorting algorithms work by comparison, and ...

  7. Separating isotopes by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope separation by laser radiation is proving a very promising method for obtaining large scale isotope production at low cost and is particularly relevant to the enrichment of 235U for the nuclear power industry. Various methods for laser separation, differing mainly in the way the selectively excited atoms or molecules are extracted, are discussed. The efficiency of the various methods, which is the controlling factor in determining their practical viability and some of the problems encountered are examined. (UK)

  8. Oxide inspecting/sorting concepts. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the preferred methods for inspecting and sorting plutonium and uranium oxides in preparation for future processing. A limited number of commercially available systems were investigated in preparation for selecting the preferred candidate(s). A complete listing and description of all the oxides to be processed can be located in ''Materials Disposition Acceptance Specifications for the Plutonium Immobilization Project'', document number PIP-98-047. For the purposes of this document, they will be referred to simply as oxides, unless there is a specific characteristic requiring further explanation. The physical transfer of the oxides from a convenience can into a standard oxide can will occur in the High Contamination section of the Unpackaging/Sorting glovebox. The degree of oxide inspecting and sorting performed will depend on the processing that will occur after Unpackaging/Sorting, on the known condition of the oxide when it is first received and the degree of confidence in its condition. The order in which the steps are performed and what occurs in the individual steps may vary depending on the method selected. For the purpose of organization and to help clarify what may occur in the individual steps, the following guidelines are proposed for the Unpackaging/Sorting glovebox. Sorting will involve the capture and removal of foreign particles and/or to detain hard lumps for additional processing in Crush and Grind. Part of the sorting stage will involve reducing workable lumps (de-lumping) into a smaller particle size in preparation for the sizing stage. Sizing will involve classifying/grading the oxide powder into a particle size that is acceptable for the next processing stage. It could involve some mild form of processing (screening, eTc.), but is not expected to include any sophisticated type of processing. Inspection refers to the inspection of the final product to ensure it meets the particle size requirements for

  9. Sorting by Restricted-Length-Weighted Reversals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thach Cam Nguyen; Hieu Trung Ngo; Nguyen Bao Nguyen

    2005-01-01

    Classical sorting by reversals uses the unit-cost model, that is, each reversal consumes an equal cost. This model limits the biological meaning of sorting by reversal.Bender and his colleagues extended it by assigning a cost function f(l) = lα for all α≥ 0, where l is the length of the reversed subsequence. In this paper, we extend their results by considering a model in which long reversals are prohibited. Using the same cost function above for permitted reversals, we present tight or nearly tight bounds for the worst-case cost of sorting by reversals. Then we develop algorithms to approximate the optimal cost to sort a given 0/1 sequence as well as a given permutation. Our proposed problems are more biologically meaningful and more algorithmically general and challenging than the problem considered by Bender et al. Furthermore, our bounds are tight and nearly tight, whereas our algorithms provide good approximation ratios compared to the optimal cost to sort 0/1 sequences or permutations by reversals.

  10. Oxygen isotopes and lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Melanie; Dean, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Isotopes are variations of a particular chemical element. It is all to do with the number of neutrons. Oxygen has two main isotopes: 18O which has 10 neutrons and 8 protons; and 16O which has 8 neutrons and 8 protons. Although these variants have a different number of neutrons (and therefore a different atomic mass), the number of protons remains the same, and they are still classed as the same element. Isotopes are analysed in terms of ratios such as 18O/16O which is shortened to δ18O (δ...

  11. Enhancing and Optimization Sorting Algorithms: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    KARIMIZADEH, Mohammad Mehdi; RAFEAZADEH, Ehsan; AMIRI, Pouran; KHOLGHNIK, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Sorting algorithms are used to sort a list of data. Also sorting is used in other computer operations such as searching, merging, and normalization. Since the sorting is considered as a one of the key operation in computer science, recognition of an optimization approaches can develop this science considerably. Optimization in the sorting algorithms, even in small scale, can cause saving a lot of time.  The main discussion of the paper is on those algorithms which present optimized ...

  12. Development of a Prototype Automated Sorting System for Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Wahab; Hussain, A.; Scavino, E.; Mustafa, M.M.; Basri, H.

    2006-01-01

    Automated sorting for plastic recyclables has been seen as the way forward in the plastic recycling industry. Automated sorting provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in the sorting process. In the case of macro sorting, which is the most common type of automated sorting, efficiency is determined by the mechanical details of the material handling system as well as the detection system. This paper provides a review on the state of-the-art technologies that hav...

  13. Software information sorting code 'PLUTO-R'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software information sorting code PLUTO-R is developed as one of the supporting codes of the TRITON system for the fusion plasma analysis. The objective of the PLUTO-R code is to sort reference materials of the codes in the TRITON code system. The easiness in the registration of information is especially pursued. As experience and skill in the data registration are not required, this code is usable for construction of general small-scale information system. This report gives an overall description and the user's manual of the PLUTO-R code. (author)

  14. Sorting with Asymmetric Read and Write Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Blelloch, Guy E.; Fineman, Jeremy T.; Gibbons, Phillip B.; Gu, Yan; Shun, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Emerging memory technologies have a significant gap between the cost, both in time and in energy, of writing to memory versus reading from memory. In this paper we present models and algorithms that account for this difference, with a focus on write-efficient sorting algorithms. First, we consider the PRAM model with asymmetric write cost, and show that sorting can be performed in $O\\left(n\\right)$ writes, $O\\left(n \\log n\\right)$ reads, and logarithmic depth (parallel time). Next, we conside...

  15. An optimal procedure for magnet sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new magnet sorting method for accelerators is developed. It is based on the linearized analysis of the effects of errors on accelerators. It is implementable in two steps. The first step is completely analytical in character while the second step involves the comparison of computed values with the measured error values. The whole process is repeated at most ''n'' times, where ''n'' is the number of magnets to be chosen from at a time. Simulations of the method, using Mathematica reg-sign, have been implemented for sorting the APS injector synchrotron dipoles and quadrupoles with excellent results

  16. Lead isotopic composition of trinitite melt glass: evidence for the presence of Canadian industrial lead in the first atomic weapon test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Jeremy J; Simonetti, Antonio; Wallace, Christine; Koeman, Elizabeth C; Burns, Peter C

    2013-08-01

    The Pb isotopic compositions for 51 spots of melt glass in 11 samples of trinitite have been determined by laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS). Trinitite glass yields a large range of Pb isotopic compositions (i.e., (206)Pb/(204)Pb = 17.08-19.04), which reflect mixing between industrial Pb from materials used in the Trinity test and natural geologic components. Areas within trinitite melt glass containing high concentrations of both Cu and Pb, which are derived from the bomb and blast site-related components, were used for delineating the Pb isotopic composition corresponding to the anthropogenic Pb component. Comparison between the isotopic composition estimated here for the industrial Pb used in the Trinity test and those from known Pb deposits worldwide indicates close agreement with ore from the Buchans mine (Newfoundland, Canada). The Buchans mine was active during the time of the Trinity test and was operated by the American Smelting and Refining Company, which could have provided the Pb used in the test. The industrial Pb used in the Trinity test materials is not documented in the literature (or declassified) but could have been present in bricks, solder, pigs, or some other anthropogenic component related to the experiment. PMID:23829180

  17. Exotic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments use a solid hydrogen layer to form muonic hydrogen isotopes that escape into vacuum. The method relies on transfer of the muon from protium to either a deuteron or a triton. The resulting muonic deuterium or muonic tritium will not immediately thermalize because of the very low elastic cross sections, and may be emitted from the surface of the layer. Measurements which detect decay electrons, muonic x-rays, and fusion products have been used to study the processes. A target has been constructed which exploits muonic atom emission in order to learn more about the energy dependence of transfer and muon molecular formation

  18. ANALISIS ALGORITMA INSERTION SORT, MERGE SORT DAN IMPLEMENTASINYA DALAM BAHASA PEMROGRAMAN C++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Hendra Saptadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini mengetengahkan kajian implementasi dan performa proses pengurutan menggunakan dua algoritma yang berbeda, yaitu Insertion Sort dan Merge Sort. Pada tahap pertama, kedua algoritma tersebut diimplementasikan dalam bahasa C++ untuk mengurutkan sejumlah angka yang diketikkan oleh pengguna. Pada tahap kedua, kode sumber untuk kedua algoritma tersebut diubah untuk dapat mengurutkan angka yang dihasilkan secara acak dengan jumlah angka sebanyak permintaan dari pengguna. Untuk mengetahui seberapa baik performa dalam mengurutkan data, maka dalam tahap terakhir, kedua algoritma tersebut mengurutkan sejumlah angka acak dengan rentang jumlah yang sudah ditentukan dan hasilnya kemudian dibandingkan. Dari eksperimen yang sudah dilakukan, algoritma merge sort telah memperlihatkan performa yang lebih baik, khususnya untuk jumlah data yang banyak (> 10000. Adapun algoritma insertion sort memiliki keuntungan dalam hal kompleksitas algoritma yang lebih rendah terutama dalam kondisi best case dan karena tidak menggunakan rutin rekursi dalam proses pengurutan, maka tidak membutuhkan ruang penyimpanan atau memori sebanyak algoritma Merge Sort. Kata kunci : Algoritma, Insertion Sort, Merge Sort, Performa, Bahasa C++

  19. Laser isotope separation of gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic studies on laser isotope separation of gadolinium were performed. Spectroscopic data were obtained such as isotope shifts and hyperfine structures using an atomic beam. Enrichment of 157Gd up to 80% was observed by three-step photoionization experiment using linearly polarized dye lasers. Design of an separation system was discussed by the help of computer calculation of excitation dynamics. (author)

  20. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed in a...

  1. CSP description of some parallel sorting algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linck, M.H.

    1982-11-01

    Hoare's CSP notation is used to describe 3 parallel sorting algorithms. The first algorithm uses n/2 processes working in parallel, the second uses an array of n parallel processes and the third algorithm is a parallel version of quicksort. 12 references.

  2. SELECTION SORTING ALGORITHM VISUALIZATION USING FLASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sutopo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to develop an algorithm visualization, particularly selection sorting for an Algorithm and Programming course. Algorithm visualization technology graphically illustrates how algorithms work. This visualization can be used to explain how all data move to the proper position in order to be sorted in a display computer for education. This research consists of 6 steps which are concept, design, obtaining content material, assembly, testing, and distribution. During the testing step, the application is run and checked to confirm that it performs exactly what the author has intended and the students can learn selection sorting algorithm by studying the visualization. Subjects of the research were students at Department of Informatics Universitas Persada Indonesia YAI for implementation of the learning. The data were analysed using the analytic descriptive method and interpreted in a narrative way based on the research findings. The algorithm visualization indicates that students increase their motivation and ability to program variety of sorting in programming language they learn.

  3. Integration through a Card-Sort Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kris; Ricca, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to compute integrals via the various techniques of integration (e.g., integration by parts, partial fractions, etc.) is difficult for many students. Here, we look at how students in a college level Calculus II course develop the ability to categorize integrals and the difficulties they encounter using a card sort-resort activity. Analysis…

  4. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  5. Gymnasielærerprofessionens sorte boks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Aase

    eleverne destabiliserer idealiserede indre billeder af den gode lærer, og at flertydige erfaringer med lærer-elevrelationen i forlængelse deraf helst gemmes og glemmes i professionens sorte boks. Dermed indskrænkes mulighederne for professionel refleksion og diskussion af denne vigtige relations betydning...

  6. Systematic Sorting: Teacher Characteristics and Class Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna; Beteille, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Although prior research has documented differences in the distribution of teacher characteristics across schools serving different student populations, few studies have examined the extent to which teacher sorting occurs within schools. This study uses data from one large urban school district and compares the class assignments of teachers who…

  7. A multispectral sorting device for wheat kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A low-cost multispectral sorting device was constructed using three visible and three near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LED) with peak emission wavelengths of 470 nm (blue), 527 nm (green), 624 nm (red), 850 nm, 940 nm, and 1070 nm. The multispectral data were collected by rapidly (~12 kHz) blin...

  8. Mass independent isotope separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass independent separations between isotopes of an element were first observed by Clayton on 17 O and 18 O from the Allende meteorite and attributed then to nucleosynthesis. Anomalous ratios of isotope abundance known at that time were due to nuclear processes. Later, atmospheric ozone and stratospheric CO2 were shown to exhibit mass independent isotope composition of oxygen. Several formation mechanisms of these 'anomalous' molecules have been proposed, none being completely satisfactory. In the laboratory, these mass independent chemical separation effects were eventually reproduced. Anomalous separations were also obtained between isotopes of uranium, and even of light elements such as magnesium. These were first connected with irregularities in atomic nucleus volumes. Such effects are not recorded on natural terrestrial samples. Two main reasons prevent such observations from having been made. Firstly, laboratories investigating isotope compositions of elements, publish almost exclusively deltas of one isotope only. But, to look for possible anomalies, one needs to compare each isotope abundance in a sample similar to that in the standard used as origin of deltas. An example of such calculation will be given. Secondly, deltas of isotopes published by different laboratories are usually not comparable to better than a few per mil. The reason is that, to calculate deltas, most laboratories use working standards whose absolute values may not be exactly established as they are not crucial to their work. Several per mil differences will be shown to be implied between the 'absolute' isotope abundance of 13 C of standards, reputedly the same, used by different laboratories. Laboratories making surveys of natural samples should be encouraged, e.g. by IUPAC, to cover every isotope of multiple isotope elements, and to make, at not infrequent intervals, a close comparison of their working standards with internationally distributed ones. (author)

  9. Preconcentration of uranium ores by radio-metric sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium ore chemical treatment plant at Bessines-sur-Gartempe is supplied entirely by the La Crouzille Mining Division of the French Atomic Energy Commission mainly from mining districts of Fanay, Margnac and Le BRUGEAUD in the Limousin province and also, for the remainder, by a certain amount of private production in the 'Massif Central'. The supply mixture, which is very heterogeneous, is enriched before being treated chemically. The pre-concentration operation is carried out in the divisions ore treatment work-shop. It consists in a stone removal operation using radiometric sorting along a continuous belt; this makes it possible to eliminate 50 pour cent of the only fraction which is thus treated - that from 50 to 120 mm; it represents 15 to 20 per cent of the total tonnage supplied to the plant. (authors)

  10. Development of a Prototype Automated Sorting System for Plastic Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated sorting for plastic recyclables has been seen as the way forward in the plastic recycling industry. Automated sorting provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in the sorting process. In the case of macro sorting, which is the most common type of automated sorting, efficiency is determined by the mechanical details of the material handling system as well as the detection system. This paper provides a review on the state of-the-art technologies that have been deployed by some of the recycling facilities abroad. The design and development of a cost effective prototype automated system for sorting plastic recyclables is proposed and discussed.

  11. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Timothy G.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable. PMID:27190724

  12. Smart Sort: Design and Analysis of a Fast, Efficient and Robust Comparison Based Internal Sort Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Niraj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Smart Sort algorithm is a "smart" fusion of heap construction procedures (of Heap sort algorithm) into the conventional "Partition" function (of Quick sort algorithm) resulting in a robust version of Quick sort algorithm. We have also performed empirical analysis of average case behavior of our proposed algorithm along with the necessary theoretical analysis for best and worst cases. Its performance was checked against some standard probability distributions, both uniform and non-uniform, like Binomial, Poisson, Discrete & Continuous Uniform, Exponential, and Standard Normal. The analysis exhibited the desired robustness coupled with excellent performance of our algorithm. Although this paper assumes the static partition ratios, its dynamic version is expected to yield still better results.

  13. Isotopic Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is provided of the biogeochemical research. The funding, productivity, personnel and facilities are reviewed. Some of the technical areas covered are: carbon isotopic records; isotopic studies of banded iron formations; isotope effects in microbial systems; studies of organic compounds in ancient sediments; and development in isotopic geochemistry and analysis.

  14. Atom-in-jellium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes in this paper the atom-in-jellium calculations he has been doing over the last ten years. He tries to emphasize reasons for doing this sort of calculations and why he devised a model which is different in some respects from others

  15. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R. [Thermo Nuclear Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  16. Dynamics of the Q2Π1u(1 ) state studied from the isotope effect on the cross sections for the formation of the 2 p atom pair in the photoexcitation of H2 and D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Kouichi; Shiino, Kennichi; Nakanishi, Yuko; Odagiri, Takeshi; Kitajima, Masashi; Kouchi, Noriyuki

    2016-06-01

    The absolute values of the cross section for formation of a 2 p atom pair in the photoexcitation of H2 and D2 are measured against the incident photon energy in the range of doubly excited states by means of the coincidence detection of two Lyman-α photons. The cross-section curves are explained only by the contribution of the doubly excited Q2Π1u(1 ) state. The isotope effect on the oscillator strengths of 2 p +2 p pair formation for H2 and D2 from the Q2Π1u(1 ) state is almost the same as that on the oscillator strengths of 2 s +2 p pair formation from the Q2Π1u(1 ) state obtained by our group [T. Odagiri et al., Phys. Rev. A 84, 053401 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.053401]. This channel independence indicates that both isotope effects are dominated by the early dynamics of the Q2Π1u(1 ) state, before reaching the branching point into 2 p +2 p pair formation and 2 s +2 p pair formation.

  17. Gender Sorting at the Application Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Roberto; Friedrich, Colette

    2011-01-01

    We document gender sorting of candidates into gender-typed jobs at the point of initial application to a company. At this step of the hiring process, the firm has implemented a policy whereby organizational screeners’ discretion has been eliminated such that there is no opportunity for contact between hiring agents and applicants. Thus, the job choices studied here offer unique insight as they are uncontaminated by screeners’ steering of candidates toward gender-typed jobs. Eve...

  18. Micro-fluidic chip for cell sorting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerý, Mojmír; Pilát, Zdeněk; Ježek, Jan; Kaňka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel

    Munich : EOS, 2015. ISBN 978-952-93-5069-8. [EOS Conferences at the World of Photonics Congress 2015. Munich (DE), 22.06.2015-25.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14069; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA TA ČR TA03010642; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Micro-fluidic chip * cell sorting Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  19. Loudness effect on pairwise comparisons and sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Susini, Patrick; Houix, Olivier; SAINT PIERRE, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Effect of loudness on the perceptual structure underlying a corpus of sounds is investigated bytwo experimental methods: pairwise comparisons and sorting. Both methods are applied to a corpus of recordingssounds presented with their ecological, non normalized loudness, and to the same corpus equalized in loudness. Twotypes of perceptual structures (multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis) are derived. Domination ofone auditory attribute ? loudness ? on less salient ones is ...

  20. Parallel Algorithms for Neuronal Spike Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Bergheim, Thomas Stian; Skogvold, Arve Aleksander Nymo

    2011-01-01

    Neurons communicate through electrophysiological signals, which may be recorded using electrodes inserted into living tissue.When a neuron emits a signal, it is referred to as a spike, and an electrode can detect these from multiple neurons.Neuronal spike sorting is the process of classifying the spike activity based on which neuron each spike signal is emitted from.Advances in technology have introduced better recording equipment, which allows the recording of many neurons at the same time.H...

  1. Fluorescence-Activated Nucleolus Sorting in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Boyer-Clavel, Myriam; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolar isolation allows exhaustive characterization of the nucleolar content. Centrifugation-based protocols are not adapted to isolation of nucleoli directly from a plant tissue because of copurification of cellular debris. We describe here a method that allows the purification of nucleoli using fluorescent-activated cell sorting from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. This approach requires the expression of a specific nucleolar protein such as fibrillarin fused to green fluorescent protein in planta. PMID:27576720

  2. Sorting Network for Reversible Logic Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Mahmud, Abdullah Al; karim, Muhammad Rezaul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have introduced an algorithm to implement a sorting network for reversible logic synthesis based on swapping bit strings. The algorithm first constructs a network in terms of n*n Toffoli gates read from left to right. The number of gates in the circuit produced by our algorithm is then reduced by template matching and removing useless gates from the network. We have also compared the efficiency of the proposed method with the existing ones.

  3. Optical sorting due to optical binding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Vítězslav; Zemánek, Pavel

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2013, 881027:1-8. ISSN 0277-786X. [Optical Trapping and Optical Micromanipulation /10./. San Diego (US), 25.08.2013-29.08.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP205/12/P868 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : optical binding * optical sorting * particles * optical trapping * bessel beam s * code division multiplexing * numerical simuklations Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s

  4. A sorting network in bounded arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 4 (2011), s. 341-355. ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * sorting network * proof complexity * monotone sequent calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007210001272

  5. Active sorting switch for biological objects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerý, Mojmír; Pilát, Zdeněk; Jonáš, Alexandr; Ježek, Jan; Jákl, Petr; Zemánek, Pavel; Samek, Ota; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, M.

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2010, 776210: 1-7. ISBN 978-0-8194-8258-7. [Optical Trapping and Optical Micromanipulation /7./. San Diego (US), 01.08.2010] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk OC08034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : laser tweezers * laser diode * optical sorting * microfluidics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  6. Charge radii of radium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, L. W.; Schlesser, S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Dieperink, A. E. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Timmermans, R. G. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a combined analysis of the available isotope-shift data from the optical spectra of Ra atoms and Ra+ ions. Atomic structure calculations of the field-shift and specific mass-shift constants of the low-lying levels in Ra+ are used. The nuclear radial differences delta for the radium

  7. How Schwann Cells Sort Axons: New Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltri, M Laura; Poitelon, Yannick; Previtali, Stefano Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerves contain large myelinated and small unmyelinated (Remak) fibers that perform different functions. The choice to myelinate or not is dictated to Schwann cells by the axon itself, based on the amount of neuregulin I-type III exposed on its membrane. Peripheral axons are more important in determining the final myelination fate than central axons, and the implications for this difference in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes are discussed. Interestingly, this choice is reversible during pathology, accounting for the remarkable plasticity of Schwann cells, and contributing to the regenerative potential of the peripheral nervous system. Radial sorting is the process by which Schwann cells choose larger axons to myelinate during development. This crucial morphogenetic step is a prerequisite for myelination and for differentiation of Remak fibers, and is arrested in human diseases due to mutations in genes coding for extracellular matrix and linkage molecules. In this review we will summarize progresses made in the last years by a flurry of reverse genetic experiments in mice and fish. This work revealed novel molecules that control radial sorting, and contributed unexpected ideas to our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control radial sorting of axons. PMID:25686621

  8. Sorting of Lipids and Proteins in Membrane Curvature Gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, A.; Baumgart, T.

    2009-01-01

    The sorting of lipids and proteins in cellular trafficking pathways is a process of central importance in maintaining compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells. However, the mechanisms behind these sorting phenomena are currently far from being understood. Among several mechanistic suggestions, membrane curvature has been invoked as a means to segregate lipids and proteins in cellular sorting centers. To assess this hypothesis, we investigate the sorting of lipid analog dye trace components be...

  9. Isotope mixtures of hydrogen in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of isotope-mixtures of Protium and Deuterium stored in Vanadium have been studied. Protium and Deuterium are existing as interstitial-atoms on tetrahedral sites as well as on octahedral sites in this system. This feature leads to large isotopic-effects between the two isotopes. The dependence of the thermodynamic functions like heat of solution, nonconfigurational entropy, specific heat and ordering temperatures from the composition of the isotope-mixture has been determined. (orig.)

  10. Categorizing Variations of Student-Implemented Sorting Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Korhonen, Ari; Malmi, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined freshmen students' sorting algorithm implementations in data structures and algorithms' course in two phases: at the beginning of the course before the students received any instruction on sorting algorithms, and after taking a lecture on sorting algorithms. The analysis revealed that many students have insufficient…

  11. Applying Single Kernel Sorting Technology to Developing Scab Resistant Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are using automated single-kernel near-infrared (SKNIR) spectroscopy instrumentation to sort fusarium head blight (FHB) infected kernels from healthy kernels, and to sort segregating populations by hardness to enhance the development of scab resistant hard and soft wheat varieties. We sorted 3 r...

  12. Gender Sorting across K-12 Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Conger, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    This article documents evidence of nonrandom gender sorting across K-12 schools in the United States. The sorting exists among coed schools and at all grade levels, and it is highest in the secondary school grades. We observe some gender sorting across school sectors and types: for instance, males are slightly underrepresented in private schools…

  13. My eSorts and Digital Extensions of Word Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Invernizzi, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    "My eSorts" is a strategy for helping children learn to read and spell in a socially motivated context. It is based on developmental spelling research and the word study approach to teaching phonics and spelling. "eSorting" employs digital desktop publishing tools that allow children to author their own electronic word sorts and then share these…

  14. Laser isotope separation using Ti:sapphire laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of Ti:sapphire laser to atomic vapor laser isotope separation is studied. The laser system needs broad tunability, narrow linewidth, high power, high repetition rate, etc. The laser was applied for the laser isotope separation of rubidium. Ion spectra of each isotope indicate that each isotope, 85Rb and 87Rb, was selectively photoionized. (author)

  15. Systematic study of muonic atoms in the A = 100 to A = 140 nuclear mass regions (isotope and isotone shifts) and model-independent precision measurements of ground-state quadrupole moments of odd-A nuclei. Progress report No. 8, October 16, 1982-October 15, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered include: precision measurements of nuclear ground-state quadrupole moments in the mass region A = 150 to A = 193; monopole and quadrupole charge parameters of deformed nuclei; quadrupole and hexadecapole moments of U and Pu nuclei; systematics of nuclear charge radii (isotope and isotone shifts) in the A = 100 to A = 140 mass region; and pionic-atom measurements

  16. Kinetics of the Reaction of the Heaviest Hydrogen Atom with H2, the 4Heμ + H2 -> 4HeμΗ + H Reaction: Experiments, Accurate Quantal Calculations, and Variational Transition State Theory, including Kinetic Isotope Effects for a Factor of 36.1 in Isotopic Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Donald G.; Arseneau, Donald J.; Sukhorukov, Oleksandr; Brewer, Jess H.; Mielke, Steven L.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schatz, George C.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2011-11-14

    The neutral muonic helium atom {sup 4}He{mu}, in which one of the electrons of He is replaced by a negative muon, may be effectively regarded as the heaviest isotope of the hydrogen atom, with a mass of 4.115 amu. We report details of the first muon spin rotation ({mu}SR) measurements of the chemical reaction rate constant of {sup 4}He{mu} with molecular hydrogen, {sup 4}He{mu} + H{sub 2} {yields} {sup 4}He{mu}H + H, at temperatures of 295.5, 405, and 500 K, as well as a {mu}SR measurement of the hyperfine coupling constant of muonic He at high pressures. The experimental rate constants, k{sub He{mu}}, are compared with the predictions of accurate quantum mechanical (QM) dynamics calculations carried out on a well converged Born-Huang (BH) potential energy surface, based on complete configuration interaction calculations and including a Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction. At the two highest measured temperatures the agreement between the quantum theory and experiment is good to excellent, well within experimental uncertainties that include an estimate of possible systematic error, but at 295.5 K the quantum calculations for k{sub He{mu}} are below the experimental value by 2.1 times the experimental uncertainty estimates. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Variational transition state theory calculations with multidimensional tunneling have also been carried out for k{sub He{mu}} on the BH surface, and they agree with the accurate QM rate constants to within 30% over a wider temperature range of 200-1000 K. Comparisons between theory and experiment are also presented for the rate constants for both the D + H{sub 2} and Mu + H{sub 2} reactions in a novel study of kinetic isotope effects for the H + H{sub 2} reactions over a factor of 36.1 in isotopic mass of the atomic reactant.

  17. Diffusion of hydrogen isotopes as a probe to study the atomic microstructure of metals. [Ni; CuAu; NiPt; FeZr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirscher, M.; Kronmueller, H. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Metallforschung, Inst. fuer Physik, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1991-08-30

    Magnetic after-effect measurements are very sensitive to short-range reorientation relaxations and represent an ideal tool for the study of hydrogen diffusion even at low concentrations. In this paper we deal with the interaction of hydrogen with defects or different microstructures and with the local reorientation in the vicinity of these structures. Results of hydrogen diffusion in a pure metal with radiation-induced intrinsic atomic defects, in chemically ordered and disordered binary f.c.c. alloys, and in chemically as well as structurally disordered amorphous alloys are presented. The three examples illustrate the use of hydrogen as an internal probe to detect microstructural defects on an atomic scale. (orig.).

  18. A Comparison of Card-sorting Analysis Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how the choice of analysis method for card sorting studies affects the suggested information structure for websites. In the card sorting technique, a variety of methods are used to analyse the resulting data. The analysis of card sorting data helps user experience (UX...... the recurrent patterns found and thus has consequences for the resulting website design. This paper draws an attention to the choice of card sorting analysis and techniques and shows how it impacts the results. The research focuses on how the same data for card sorting can lead to different website structures...

  19. Identification and sorting of materials with portable LIBS before decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique of elemental analysis. A laser beam is focused on the surface of the sample to be analyzed. A small quantity of matter is ablated and a plasma formed by the atomized compounds is created. The spectral lines of the light emitted by the plasma are detected by an optical spectrometer. LIBS is a fully optical, multi-elementary and fast analytical technique, requiring no or little sample preparation. These features make the LIBS technique particularly suited for in situ measurements, and portable instruments are currently developed. LIBS analysis can be applied to the identification of materials using chemometric statistical methods (multivariate analysis) connecting the spectrum to the nature of the sample. Such methods have been successfully applied in our laboratory to the determination of the geographical origin of yellow cakes and to the identification of alloys. We present here the work performed with a portable LIBS instrument to meet the needs of waste sorting in industrial domain and in nuclear domain (inventory before decommissioning). A data base of LIBS spectra was built with a commercial instrument (IVEA SAS Easylibs) with samples of four categories of interest for industrial waste sorting: alloys, plastics, concrete and glasses. Different correct identification rates are requested by categories. The alloy spectra contain characteristic spectral lines and sub-categories can be easily discriminated (for example, different steel classes can be identified). The components of the plastics (mainly C, H, O and N) give rise to less characteristic lines and the plastics identification requires a separate study. Supervised statistical models are built with the data base spectra and predictions are instantly calculated for the spectra of unknown materials to identify in order to direct them to the correct waste stream. (authors)

  20. Isotopes in condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plekhanov, Vladimir G. [Computer Science College, Tallinn (Estonia). Mathematics and Physics Dept.

    2013-07-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to the newly created sub-discipline of solid state physics isotopetronics. The role of isotopes in materials and their properties are describe in this book. The problem of the enigma of the atomic mass in microphysics is briefly discussed. The range of the applications of isotopes is wide: from biochemical process in living organisms to modern technical applications in quantum information. Isotopetronics promises to improve nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. With numerous illustrations this book is useful to researchers, engineers and graduate students.

  1. Isotopes in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    G Plekhanov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to the newly created sub-discipline of solid state physics isotopetronics. The role of isotopes in materials and their properties are describe  in this book. The problem of the enigma of the atomic mass in microphysics is briefly discussed.  The range of the applications of isotopes is wide: from biochemical process in living organisms to modern technical applications in quantum information. Isotopetronics promises to improve nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. With numerous illustrations this book is useful to researchers, engineers and graduate students.

  2. Sorting N-Elements Using Natural Order: A New Adaptive Sorting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Akhter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Researchers focused their attention on optimally adaptive sorting algorithm and illustrated a need to develop tools for constructing adaptive algorithms for large classes of measures. In adaptive sorting algorithm the run time for n input data smoothly varies from O(n to O(nlogn, with respect to several measures of disorder. Questions were raised whether any approach or technique would reduce the run time of adaptive sorting algorithm and provide an easier way of implementation for practical applications. Approach: The objective of this study is to present a new method on natural sorting algorithm with a run time for n input data O(n to O(nlogm, where m defines a positive value and surrounded by 50% of n. In our method, a single pass over the inputted data creates some blocks of data or buffers according to their natural sequential order and the order can be in ascending or descending. Afterward, a bottom up approach is applied to merge the naturally sorted subsequences or buffers. Additionally, a parallel merging technique is successfully aggregated in our proposed algorithm. Results: Experiments are provided to establish the best, worst and average case runtime behavior of the proposed method. The simulation statistics provide same harmony with the theoretical calculation and proof the method efficiency. Conclusion: The results indicated that our method uses less time as well as acceptable memory to sort a data sequence considering the natural order behavior and applicable to the realistic researches. The parallel implementation can make the algorithm for efficient in time domain and will be the future research issue.

  3. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. PMID:21194917

  4. Stochastic Models of Vesicular Sorting in Cellular Organelles

    CERN Document Server

    Vagne, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    The proper sorting of membrane components by regulated exchange between cellular organelles is crucial to intra-cellular organization. This process relies on the budding and fusion of transport vesicles, and should be strongly influenced by stochastic fluctuations considering the relatively small size of many organelles. We identify the perfect sorting of two membrane components initially mixed in a single compartment as a first passage process, and we show that the mean sorting time exhibits two distinct regimes as a function of the ratio of vesicle fusion to budding rates. Low ratio values leads to fast sorting, but results in a broad size distribution of sorted compartments dominated by small entities. High ratio values result in two well defined sorted compartments but is exponentially slow. Our results suggests an optimal balance between vesicle budding and fusion for the rapid and efficient sorting of membrane components, and highlight the importance of stochastic effects for the steady-state organizati...

  5. Isotopic geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born from the application to geology of nuclear physics techniques, the isotopic geology has revolutionized the Earth's sciences. Beyond the dating of rocks, the tracer techniques have permitted to reconstruct the Earth's dynamics, to measure the temperatures of the past (giving birth to paleoclimatology) and to understand the history of chemical elements thanks to the analysis of meteorites. Today, all domains of Earth sciences appeal more or less to the methods of isotopic geology. In this book, the author explains the principles, methods and recent advances of this science: 1 - isotopes and radioactivity; 2 - principles of isotope dating; 3 - radio-chronological methods; 4 - cosmogenic isotope chronologies; 5 - uncertainties and radio-chronological results; 6 - geochemistry of radiogenic isotopes; 7 - geochemistry of stable isotopes; 8 - isotopic geology and dynamical analysis of reservoirs. (J.S.)

  6. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF6) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  7. Multidimensional Skills, Sorting, and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Postel-Vinay; Jeremy Lise

    2015-01-01

    We construct a structural model of on-the-job search in which workers differ in skills along several dimensions (cognitive, manual, interpersonal) and sort themselves into jobs with heterogeneous skill requirements along those same dimensions. We further allow for skills to be accumulated when used, and eroded away when not used. We estimate the model using occupation-level measures of skill requirements based on O*NET data, combined with a worker-level panel from the NLSY79. We use the estim...

  8. Lateral chirality-sorting optical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Amaury; Mueller, J. P. Balthasar; Capasso, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The transverse component of the spin angular momentum of evanescent waves gives rise to lateral optical forces on chiral particles, which have the unusual property of acting in a direction in which there is neither a field gradient nor wave propagation. Because their direction and strength depends on the chiral polarizability of the particle, they act as chirality-sorting and may offer a mechanism for passive chirality spectroscopy. The absolute strength of the forces also substantially exceeds that of other recently predicted sideways optical forces. PMID:26453555

  9. Tracking heavy water (D2O) incorporation for identifying and sorting active microbial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, David; Mader, Esther; Lee, Tae Kwon;

    2015-01-01

    active microbes on the single-cell level in complex samples using stable isotope probing with heavy water (D2O) combined with Raman microspectroscopy. Incorporation of D2O-derived D into the biomass of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria and archaea could be unambiguously detected via C-D signature...... potential of the nondestructive D2O-Raman approach for targeted sorting of microbial cells with defined functional properties for singlecell genomics....

  10. Sorting waste - A question of good will

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department - FM Group

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimise waste-sorting costs, CERN provides two types of container at the entrance of buildings: a green plastic container for paper/cardboard and a metal container for household-type waste. We regret that recently there has been a significant decrease in the extent to which these types of waste are sorted, for example green containers have been found to hold assorted waste such as cardboard boxes filled with polystyrene, bubble-wrap or even plastic bottles, yoghurt pots, etc. Checks have shown that this 'non-compliant' waste does not come from the rubbish bins emptied by the cleaners but is deposited there directly by inconsiderate users. During the months of October and November alone, for example, only 15% of the waste from the paper/cardboard containers was recycled and the remaining 85% had to be incinerated, which entails a high cost for CERN. You should note that once an item of non-compliant waste is found in a green container its contents are immediately sent as waste to be incinerated ...

  11. High Rydberg atoms: newcomers to the atomic physics scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of high Rydberg atoms which have a greatly increased size due to their having been perturbed in certain ways. The production, detection, and research on these atoms are considered. The motivation for such studies, apart from their intrinsic interest, includes laser development, laser isotope separation, energy deposition in gases, plasma diagnostics, and radio astronomy

  12. Isotope separation of gadolinium using optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gadolinium atoms in the 533 cm-1 metastable level were photoionized by pulsed laser beams after the population of 160Gd in the 533 cm-1 metastable level had been reduced by optical pumping using a continuous wave ring dye laser. Mass spectra of the ionized gadolinium atoms showed that an abundance ratio of 160Gd decreased from natural isotope abundance of 21.8 % to 1 %. This result demonstrates the isotope separation by photoionization of the atoms after decreasing of the photoionized level population of selected isotope using optical pumping. (author)

  13. Sorting during Migration of Aeolian Megaripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Aeolian sediments commonly are well sorted. However, aeolian megaripples (aka coarse-grained ripples or granule ripples) have bimodal grain size-frequencies. Distinguishing aeolian megaripple deposits from mixed grain size fluvial deposits is important, particularly for martian sedimentary rocks where implications for flowing water in the martian past (if revealed by legitimate fluvial deposits) are important mission drivers for rovers and landers. Aeolian megaripples are relatively minor components of terrestrial aeolian settings (e.g., as interdune features), but on Mars, megaripples have been encountered in many locations by landers and rovers, are durable due to indurated, armoring surface layers of very coarse sand, and therefore are likely candidates for preservation in the martian sedimentary rock record. Unfortunately, megaripple deposits preserved in martian sedimentary rocks must be recognized with much less data or context than obtained typically during terrestrial fieldwork. We have undertaken wind tunnel experiments and fieldwork to assist interpretations distinguishing aeolian megaripple deposits from mixed grain fluvial materials. Lags of coarse or very coarse sand from ancient aeolian environments within the White Rim Sandstone, Canyonlands NP, UT, and at some localities along the J2 Unconformity at Buckhorn Wash, UT, are well sorted, with a sharply defined maximum grain size in each case. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to explore whether the well-sorted, sharp cutoff in maximum grain size of the coarse fraction in these deposits could be diagnostic of aeolian megaripple formation and migration. Wind tunnel experiments involved 250 μm sand saltating against 600-2800 μm grains. For a given wind tunnel speed, only a narrow grain size range appeared on megaripple surfaces as these bedforms developed spontaneously from the bed; somewhat finer grains migrated rapidly downwind, while slightly coarser grains remained immobile. The physics of

  14. Faster Radix Sort via Virtual Memory and Write-Combining

    CERN Document Server

    Wassenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Sorting algorithms are the deciding factor for the performance of common operations such as removal of duplicates or database sort-merge joins. This work focuses on 32-bit integer keys, optionally paired with a 32-bit value. We present a fast radix sorting algorithm that builds upon a microarchitecture-aware variant of counting sort. Taking advantage of virtual memory and making use of write-combining yields a per-pass throughput corresponding to at least 88 % of the system's peak memory bandwidth. Our implementation outperforms Intel's recently published radix sort by a factor of 1.5. It also compares favorably to the reported performance of an algorithm for Fermi GPUs when data-transfer overhead is included. These results indicate that scalar, bandwidth-sensitive sorting algorithms remain competitive on current architectures. Various other memory-intensive applications can benefit from the techniques described herein.

  15. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  16. Preferences and Choice Constraints in Marital Sorting: Evidence From Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Soohyung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Marital sorting along education, income and other salient dimensions is well-documented for many countries. The degree of marital sorting may influence income inequality, intergenerational mobility, and household labor supply, and other economic outcomes. Marital sorting is thought to arise from some combination of people’s preferences and constraints on their choice sets. However, separating these two causes is difficult because typical data sets provide information on either a person’s spou...

  17. Sort sourceof pea in Ukraine and in the world

    OpenAIRE

    ШЕВЧЕНКО А.М.

    2006-01-01

    The sorts different by economic-biologic character of unshed seed, breeded in Ukraine and abroad obtained wide spreading in production. Expediency using lugansky or samarsky type of determinant stability to healthy growth. Breeding sorts with tendril type of leaf give the positive results in increase stability of the plants to damping-off. The sorts combining named recessive character with another aconomic-value traits of grain pea made and suggested to production.

  18. Statistical Characteristics of Single Sort of Grape Bulgarian Wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadzhiev, D.

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the differences in the values of the 8 basic physicochemical indices of single sort of grape Bulgarian wines (white and red ones), obligatory for the standardization of ready production in the winery. Statistically significant differences in the values of various sorts and vintages are established and possibilities for identifying the sort and the vintage on the base of these indices by applying discriminant analysis are discussed.

  19. Direct send compositing for parallel sort-last rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Eilemann, S; Pajarola, R.

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to sort-first, sort-last parallel rendering has the distinct advantage that the task division for parallel geometry processing and rasterization is simple, and can easily be incorporated into most visualization systems. However, the efficient final depth-compositing for polygonal data, or alpha-blending for volume data of partial rendering results is the key to achieve scalability in sort-last parallel rendering. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficiency as well as ...

  20. Radiometric sorting of Rio Algom uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ore sample of about 0.2 percent uranium from Quirke Mine was subjected to radiometric sorting by Ore Sorters Limited. Approximately 60 percent of the sample weight fell within the sortable size range: -150 + 25 mm. Rejects of low uranium content (2 (2 counts/in2) but only 7.6 percent of the ore, by weight, was discarded. At 0.8-0.9 counts/cm2 (5-6 counts/in2) a significant amount of rejects was removed (> 25 percent) but the uranium loss was unacceptably high (7.7 percent). Continuation of the testwork to improve the results is proposed by trying to extend the sortable size range and to reduce the amount of fines during crushing

  1. Utjecaj sorte jabuke na kvalitetu suhog proizvoda

    OpenAIRE

    Dobričević, Nadica; Voća, Sandra; Pliestić, Stjepan; Magdić, D.

    2008-01-01

    Sorte jabuka Gloster, Jonagold, Idared, Melrose i Mutsu s pro-izvodnog područja sjeverozapadne Hrvatske ubrane su u tehnološkoj zriobi i skladištene u rashladnom prostoru na prosječnoj temperaturi od 2,0 oC i relativnoj vlazi zraka od 98% do užitne dospjelosti. Plodovi jabuka namijenjeni za sušenje očišćeni su i rezani na kockice veličine 1x1x1 cm. Količina mesa u analiziranim sortama je 63,37-75,46 %, količina kožica je 9,11-12,85 %, količina sjemene lože je 10,82-20,34 % i količina neupo...

  2. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  3. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-05

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  4. Machine-vision based optofluidic cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew

    available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the laser catapulted and sorted cells....... machine vision1. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS-systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass objects commonly used in the optical manipulation literature2, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient...... approaches in utilizing lasers and light modulation devices. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method3-9 that can be used for efficiently illuminating spatial light modulators10 or creating well-defined contiguous optical traps11 is supplemented by diffractive techniques capable of integrating the...

  5. Solution structure of human sorting nexin 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jikui; Zhao, Kate Qin; Newman, Carrie L Loushin; Vinarov, Dmitriy A; Markley, John L

    2007-05-01

    The sorting nexins (SNXs) constitute a large group of PX domain-containing proteins that play critical roles in protein trafficking. We report here the solution structure of human sorting nexin 22 (SNX22). Although SNX22 has <30% sequence identity with any PX domain protein of known structure, it was found to contain the alpha/beta fold and compact structural core characteristic of PX domains. Analysis of the backbone dynamics of SNX22 by NMR relaxation measurements revealed that the two walls of the ligand binding cleft undergo internal motions: on the picosecond timescale for the beta1/beta2 loop and on the micro- to millisecond timescale for the loop between the polyproline motif and helix alpha2. Regions of the SNX22 structure that differ from those of other PX domains include the loop connecting strands beta1 and beta2 and the loop connecting helices alpha1 and alpha2, which appear to be more mobile than corresponding loops in other known structures. The interaction of dibutanoyl-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (dibutanoyl-PtdIns(3)P) with SNX22 was investigated by an NMR titration experiment, which identified the binding site in a basic cleft and indicated that ligand binding leads only to a local structural rearrangement as has been found with other PX domains. Because motions in the loops are damped out when dibutanoyl-PtdIns(3)P binds, entropic effects could contribute to the lower affinity of SNX22 for this ligand compared to other PX domains. PMID:17400918

  6. Learning sorting algorithms through visualization construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ibrahim; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Recent increased interest in computational thinking poses an important question to researchers: What are the best ways to teach fundamental computing concepts to students? Visualization is suggested as one way of supporting student learning. This mixed-method study aimed to (i) examine the effect of instruction in which students constructed visualizations on students' programming achievement and students' attitudes toward computer programming, and (ii) explore how this kind of instruction supports students' learning according to their self-reported experiences in the course. The study was conducted with 58 pre-service teachers who were enrolled in their second programming class. They expect to teach information technology and computing-related courses at the primary and secondary levels. An embedded experimental model was utilized as a research design. Students in the experimental group were given instruction that required students to construct visualizations related to sorting, whereas students in the control group viewed pre-made visualizations. After the instructional intervention, eight students from each group were selected for semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the intervention based on visualization construction resulted in significantly better acquisition of sorting concepts. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to students' attitudes toward computer programming. Qualitative data analysis indicated that students in the experimental group constructed necessary abstractions through their engagement in visualization construction activities. The authors of this study argue that the students' active engagement in the visualization construction activities explains only one side of students' success. The other side can be explained through the instructional approach, constructionism in this case, used to design instruction. The conclusions and implications of this study can be used by researchers and

  7. The design of the hazardous substance sorting system. Applicability check of X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of LEDF (Large Equipment Dismantling Facility) is being planned by Waste Management Section. This purpose of LEDF is the melting treatment of the radioactive waste in OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) and the waste package in JAERI (O-arai Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute). It is also considered about the disposal plan of the future. Therefore LEDF has the sorting process of waste because of the removal of problematic substances. But that process is conducted using its human eyes. This process needs automatic operation because of high classification accuracy, high reliability, burden reduction of a worker. Then we select EXFS (Energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer), and conducted the measurement of waste (a sample) with this device. That purpose is to confirm an application as the sorting device. A confirmation result is shown in the following. (1) Sorting performance. Measurement is possible without pretreatment, if it is metal. However, sorting is difficult when paint, plating, impurities, etc. are shown in the surface. (2) Measurement position. It is necessary to set a gap of the measurement thing from a measurement position to 4mm or less. (3) Radiation influence. Because the background had risen by the influence of a radiant ray, the distinction of Fluorescence X-ray became difficult. Therefore the distinction of materials became impossible. Aluminum is influenced specially by it. As a conclusion, the application nature of EXFS thing Sorting System is high. But there is a bad influence by radiation. Therefore, difficult is installation into the cell. In order to apply EXFS to LEDF, it is necessary to place it outside the cell and to use as the help of the visual inspection. (author)

  8. The influence of caches on the performance of sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMarca, A.; Ladner, R.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    We investigate the effect that caches have on the performance of sorting algorithms both experimentally and analytically. To address the performance problems that high cache miss penalties introduce we restructure heapsort, mergesort and quicksort in order to improve their cache locality. For all three algorithms the improvement in cache performance leads to a reduction in total execution time. We also investigate the performance of radix sort. Despite the extremely low instruction count incurred by this linear sorting algorithm, its relatively poor cache performance results in worse overall performance than the efficient comparison based sorting algorithms.

  9. A many-sorted calculus based on resolution and paramodulation

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Christoph

    1987-01-01

    A Many-Sorted Calculus Based on Resolution and Paramodulation emphasizes the utilization of advantages and concepts of many-sorted logic for resolution and paramodulation based automated theorem proving.This book considers some first-order calculus that defines how theorems from given hypotheses by pure syntactic reasoning are obtained, shifting all the semantic and implicit argumentation to the syntactic and explicit level of formal first-order reasoning. This text discusses the efficiency of many-sorted reasoning, formal preliminaries for the RP- and ?RP-calculus, and many-sorted term rewrit

  10. Parallel particle identification and separation for active optical sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Palima, Darwin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    An instrument for rapidly and non-invasively sorting different cell specimens is a valuable tool in biological and medical research. Parallel identification of target specimens through image analysis can sort based on highly tuneable selection criteria and can enable high-speed optical sorting when...... matched with a rapidly reconfigurable optical sorting field. We demonstrate the potential of such a system using colloidal polystyrene microspheres. By combining machine vision with a parallel add-on optical manipulation scheme, we were able to move identified particles over a distance of several hundred...

  11. A Sort-Last Rendering System over an Optical Backplane

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuhiro Kirihata; Jason Leigh; Chaoyue Xiong; Tadao Murata

    2005-01-01

    Sort-Last is a computer graphics technique for rendering extremely large data sets on clusters of computers. Sort-Last works by dividing the data set into even-sized chunks for parallel rendering and then composing the images to form the final result. Since sort-last rendering requires the movement of large amounts of image data among cluster nodes, the network interconnecting the nodes becomes a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe a sort-last rendering system implemented on a cluste...

  12. Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two. (paper)

  13. SORT:Ed - An Interactive Educational Game for HealthCare Students

    OpenAIRE

    Currell, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This short paper outlines an academic’s entrepreneurial journey from idea conception to the market place. Sort Ed is an interactive board game designed for paediatric student nurses and it set in a child’s ward. There is a huge market demand for this type of educational games in the UK especially by institutions that run healthcare management courses. This learning tool is a major contribution to the limited number of interactive educational games currently available to healthcare tutors and ...

  14. An analytical comparison of the information in sorted and non-sorted cosine-tuned spike activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, D. S.; Tiesinga, P. H. E.; Henriquez, C. S.; Wolf, P. D.

    2007-09-01

    Spike sorting is a technologically expensive component of the signal processing chain required to interpret population spike activity acquired in a neuromotor prosthesis. No systematic analysis of the value of spike sorting has been carried out, and little is known about the effects of spike sorting error on the ability of a brain-machine interface (BMI) to decode intended motor commands. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the effects of spike processing on the information available to a BMI decoder. We computed the mutual information in neural activity in a simplified model of directional cosine tuning to compare the effects of pooling activity from up to four neurons to the effects of sorting with varying amounts of spike error. The results showed that information in a small population of cosine-tuned neurons is maximized when the responses are sorted and there is diverse tuning of units, but information was affected little when pooling units with similar preferred directions. Spike error had adverse effects on information, such that non-sorted population activity had 79-92% of the information in its sorted counterpart for reasonable amounts of detection and sorting error and for units with moderate differences in preferred direction. This quantification of information loss associated with pooling units and with spike detection and sorting error will help to guide the engineering decisions in designing a BMI spike processing system.

  15. The isotopic distribution conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenborg, Dirk; Mertens, Inge; Lemière, Filip; Witters, Erwin; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Although access to high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), especially in the field of biomolecular MS, is becoming readily available due to recent advances in MS technology, the accompanied information on isotopic distribution in high-resolution spectra is not used at its full potential, mainly because of lack of knowledge and/or awareness. In this review, we give an insight into the practical problems related to calculating the isotopic distribution for large biomolecules, and present an overview of methods for the calculation of the isotopic distribution. We discuss the key events that triggered the development of various algorithms and explain the rationale of how and why the various isotopic-distribution calculations were performed. The review is focused around the developmental stages as briefly outlined below, starting with the first observation of an isotopic distribution. The observations of Beynon in the field of organic MS that chlorine appeared in a mass spectrum as two variants with odds 3:1 lie at the basis of the first wave of algorithms for the calculation of the isotopic distribution, based on the atomic composition of a molecule. From here on, we explain why more complex biomolecules such as peptides exhibit a highly complex isotope pattern when assayed by MS, and we discuss how combinatorial difficulties complicate the calculation of the isotopic distribution on computers. For this purpose, we highlight three methods, which were introduced in the 1980s. These are the stepwise procedure introduced by Kubinyi, the polynomial expansion from Brownawell and Fillippo, and the multinomial expansion from Yergey. The next development was instigated by Rockwood, who suggested to decompose the isotopic distribution in terms of their nucleon count instead of the exact mass. In this respect, we could claim that the term "aggregated" isotopic distribution is more appropriate. Due to the simplification of the isotopic distribution to its aggregated counterpart

  16. Safeguards implications of laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to describe and emphasise the safeguards and relevant features of atomic vapour laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS), and to consider the issues that must be addressed before a safeguards approach at a commercial AVLIS or MLIS facility can be implemented. (Author)

  17. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    ) comparisons performs Omega(nlogd n) branch mispredictions. We show that Multiway MergeSort achieves this tradeoff by adopting a multiway merger with a low number of branch mispredictions. For adaptive sorting algorithms we similarly obtain that an algorithm performing O(dn(1+log (1+Inv/n))) comparisons must...

  18. Magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of secondary polyolefins from waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Di Maio, F.; Hu, B.; Houzeaux, G...; Baltes, L.; Tierean, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the researches made on the FP7 project „Magnetic Sorting and Ultrasound Sensor Technologies for Production of High Purity Secondary Polyolefins from Waste” in order to develop a magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) from polymers mixed wa

  19. NEW TOBACCO SORTS POTENTIAL FOR TOBACCO INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homutova S. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The review of the latest tobacco selection researches is given in the article. The basic aim of these researches is creation of new sort material, which is ecologically stable, and corresponding to energy conservation demands. New tobacco sorts are presented

  20. Supramolecular fibres: Self-sorting shows its true colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Emily R.; Adams, Dave J.

    2016-08-01

    Self-sorting events in supramolecular assembly lead to complex systems that are attractive for the design of functional materials, but have remained difficult to understand and control. Now, the growth of self-sorted supramolecular nanofibres has been elucidated by direct imaging through real-time in situ confocal microscopy.

  1. The Use of Binary Search Trees in External Distribution Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David; Lynch, Michael F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests new method of external distribution called tree partitioning that involves use of binary tree to split incoming file into successively smaller partitions for internal sorting. Number of disc accesses during a tree-partitioning sort were calculated in simulation using files extracted from British National Bibliography catalog files. (19…

  2. The PreferenSort: A Holistic Instrument for Career Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Adi; Sagiv, Lilach

    2013-01-01

    We present the PreferenSort, a career counseling instrument that derives counselees' vocational interests from their preferences among occupational titles. The PreferenSort allows for a holistic decision process, while taking into account the full complexity of occupations and encouraging deliberation about one's preferences and…

  3. Cache-Aware and Cache-Oblivious Adaptive Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Two new adaptive sorting algorithms are introduced which perform an optimal number of comparisons with respect to the number of inversions in the input. The first algorithm is based on a new linear time reduction to (non-adaptive) sorting. The second algorithm is based on a new division protocol ...

  4. A FORTRAN Computer Program for Q Sort Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, William R.

    1978-01-01

    The Q Sort method is a rank order procedure. A FORTRAN program is described which calculates a total value for any group of cases for the items in the Q Sort, and rank orders the items according to this composite value. (Author/JKS)

  5. Processes of Overall Similarity Sorting in Free Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Fraser; Longmore, Christopher A.; Wills, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    The processes of overall similarity sorting were investigated in 5 free classification experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that increasing time pressure can reduce the likelihood of overall similarity categorization. Experiment 3 showed that a concurrent load also reduced overall similarity sorting. These findings suggest that overall…

  6. Multiple pathways for vacuolar sorting of yeast proteinase A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphal, V; Marcusson, E G; Winther, Jakob R.; Emr, S D; van den Hazel, H B

    1996-01-01

    The sorting of the yeast proteases proteinase A and carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole is a saturable, receptor-mediated process. Information sufficient for vacuolar sorting of the normally secreted protein invertase has in fusion constructs previously been found to reside in the propeptide of...

  7. The isotope effect: Prediction, discussion, and discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2011-01-01

    The precise position of a spectral line emitted by an atomic system depends on the mass of the atomic nucleus and is therefore different for isotopes belonging to the same element. The possible presence of an isotope effect followed from Bohr's atomic theory of 1913, but it took several years before it was confirmed experimentally. Its early history involves the childhood not only of the quantum atom, but also of the concept of isotopy. Bohr's prediction of the isotope effect was apparently at odds with early attempts to distinguish between isotopes by means of their optical spectra. However, in 1920 the effect was discovered in HCl molecules, which gave rise to a fruitful development in molecular spectroscopy. The first detection of an atomic isotope effect was no less important, as it was by this means that the heavy hydrogen isotope deuterium was discovered in 1932. The early development of isotope spectroscopy illustrates the complex relationship between theory and experiment, and is also instructive with...

  8. Quantum Black Holes as Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.

    1997-01-01

    In some respects the black hole plays the same role in gravitation that the atom played in the nascent quantum mechanics. This analogy suggests that black hole mass $M$ might have a discrete spectrum. I review the physical arguments for the expectation that black hole horizon area eigenvalues are uniformly spaced, or equivalently, that the spacing between stationary black hole mass levels behaves like 1/M. This sort of spectrum has also emerged in a variety of formal approaches to black hole ...

  9. Nuclear effects in atomic transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Pálffy, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This work reviews theoretical and experimental aspects of the nuclear effects that can be identified in atomic structure data. An introduction to the theory of isotope shifts and hyperfine splitting of atomic spectra is given, together with an overview of the typical experimental techniques used in high-precision atomic spectroscopy. More exotic effects at the borderline between atomic and nuclear physics, such as parity violation in atomic transitions due to the weak interaction, or nuclear polarization and nuclear excitation by electron capture, are also addressed.

  10. Multiphase ferrofluid flows for micro-particle sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Utilizing negative magnetophoresis, ferrofluids have demonstrated great potential for sorting nonmagnetic micro-particles by size. Most of the existing techniques use single phase ferrofluids by pushing micro-particles to channel walls; the sorting speed is thus hindered. We demonstrate a novel sorting strategy by co-flowing a ferrofluid and a non-magnetic fluid in microchannels. Due to the magnetic force, the particles migrate across the ferrofluid stream at size-dependent velocities as they travel downstream. The laminar interface between the two fluids functions as a virtual boundary to accumulate particles, resulting in effective separation of particles. A stable and sharp interface is important to the success of this sorting technique. We investigate several factors that affect sorting efficiency, including magnetic field, susceptibility difference of the fluids, flow velocity, and channel geometry.

  11. Efficient External Sorting on Flash Memory Embedded Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Cossentine

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many embedded system applications involve storing and querying large datasets. Existing research in thisarea has focused on adapting and applying conventional database algorithms to embedded devices.Algorithms designed for processing queries on embedded devices must be able to execute given the smallamount of available memory and energy constraints. Most embedded devices use flash memory to storelarge amounts of data. Flash memory has unique performance characteristics that can be exploited toimprove algorithm performance. In this paper, we describe the Flash MinSort external sorting algorithmthat uses an index, generated at runtime, to take advantage of fast random reads in flash memory. Thisalgorithm adapts to the amount of memory available and performs best in applications where sort keys areclustered. Experimental results show that Flash MinSort is two to ten times faster than previousapproaches for small memory sizes where external merge sort is not executable.

  12. Help the planet by sorting your waste!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Paper and cardboard waste comes in various forms, from newspapers to the toughest cardboard. Every year CERN dispatches about 200 tonnes of paper and cardboard to a recycling plant, but this is still too little when you take into consideration the tonnes of paper and cardboard that are still thrown out as part of ordinary rubbish or are incorrectly sorted into other rubbish skips.   Each office is equipped with a wastepaper bin, and a paper and cardboard container is available near every building. Cardboard boxes should be folded before they are placed in the containers in order to save space. Please note: Here are some sobering statistics: - 2 to 3 tonnes of wood pulp are required to manufacture 1 tonne of paper. - Each tonne of recycled paper means that we can save approximately 15 trees and substantial amounts of the water that is needed to extract cellulose (60 litres of water per kilo of paper). - A production of 100% recycled paper represents a 90% saving in water. - 5000 kWh of e...

  13. Microfluidic-chip platform for cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sarul; Balyan, Prerna; Akhtar, J.; Agarwal, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Cell sorting and separation are considered to be very crucial preparatory steps for numerous clinical diagnostics and therapeutics applications in cell biology research arena. Label free cell separation techniques acceptance rate has been increased to multifold by various research groups. Size based cell separation method focuses on the intrinsic properties of the cell which not only avoids clogging issues associated with mechanical and centrifugation filtration methods but also reduces the overall cost for the process. Consequentially flow based cell separation method for continuous flow has attracted the attention of millions. Due to the realization of structures close to particle size in micro dimensions, the microfluidic devices offer precise and rapid particle manipulation which ultimately leads to an extraordinary cell separation results. The proposed microfluidic device is fabricated to separate polystyrene beads of size 1 µm, 5 µm, 10 µm and 20 µm. The actual dimensions of blood corpuscles were kept in mind while deciding the particle size of polystyrene beads which are used as a model particles for study.

  14. Nanoplasmonic lenses for bacteria sorting (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangchao; Yanik, Ahmet A.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate that patches of two dimensional arrays of circular plasmonic nanoholes patterned on gold-titanium thin film enables subwavelength focusing of visible light in far field region. Efficient coupling of the light with the excited surface plasmon at metal dielectric interface results in strong light transmission. As a result, surface plasmon plays an important role in the far field focusing behavior of the nanohole-aperture patches device. Furthermore, the focal length of the focused beam was found to be predominantly dependent on the overall size of the patch, which is in good agreement with that calculated by Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral formula. The focused light beam can be utilized to separate bio-particles in the dynamic range from 0.1 μm to 1 μm through mainly overcoming the drag force induced by fluid flow. In our proposed model, focused light generated by our plasmonic lenses will push the larger bio-particles in size back to the source of fluid flow and allow the smaller particles to move towards the central aperture of the patch. Such a new kind of plasmonic lenses open up possibility of sorting bacterium-like particles with plasmonic nanolenses, and also represent a promising tool in the field of virology.

  15. Developing a Clinically Useful Calcium Isotope Biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniello, Stephen J.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Monge, Jorge; Fonseca, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Naturally-occurring Ca is mixture of six isotopes Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48). Biological reaction rates and equilibrium constants depend slightly, but measurably, on atomic mass, causing the relative abundances of Ca isotopes to vary between different tissues. During bone formation, light isotopes of Ca are preferentially incorporated into bone, leaving soft tissue depleted in light isotopes. In contrast, bone resorption exhibits no isotopic preference, and thus transfers the light isotope signature of bone back to soft tissue. This balance makes the Ca isotope composition of soft tissue (e.g. serum, urine) a highly sensitive, quantitative tracer for whole-body bone mineral balance (BMB).

  16. Isotope analysis in the transmission electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Susi, Toma; Argentero, Giacomo; Leuthner, Gregor T; Pennycook, Timothy J; Mangler, Clemens; Meyer, Jannik C; Kotakoski, Jani

    2016-01-01

    The {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-sized probe of the scanning transmission electron microscope can visualize and collect spectra from single atoms. This can unambiguously resolve the chemical structure of materials, but not their isotopic composition. Here we differentiate between two isotopes of the same element by quantifying how likely the energetic imaging electrons are to eject atoms. First, we measure the displacement probability in graphene grown from either $^{12}$C or $^{13}$C and describe the process using a quantum mechanical model of lattice vibrations coupled with density functional theory simulations. We then test our spatial resolution in a mixed sample by ejecting individual atoms from nanoscale areas spanning an interface region that is far from atomically sharp, mapping the isotope concentration with a precision better than 20%. Although we use a scanning instrument, our method should be applicable to any atomic resolution transmission electron microscope and to other low-dimensional materials.

  17. Isotope Selection Characteristics of MOT for the Detection of the Sr Rare Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace isotope analysis has become an essential tool in basic research, environmental science, archaeological dating and geology. Especially, the detection of the trace radio isotope 90Sr, which is a fission product, has been of an interest because of the nuclear industry and environmental assessment. Recently, the neutral atom trap method has been developed for analyzing ultra trace isotopes, such as 81Kr, 85Kr and 41Ca. This method is not only free of contamination from different isotopes or isobar, but it is also a higher isotope selective method than any other laser based methods. To develop the higher isotope selective analytical system to detect rare 90Sr, MOT(magneto optical trap) has been applied as an isotope selective excitation method. In this paper, MOT has been demonstrated and the fluorescence characteristics have been investigated to have knowledge of the isotope selective process of MOT

  18. Guest Editorial: Card sort methodology: An objective measure in rehabilitation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham Jahrami, PhD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Card sort clinical tests such as the Wisconsin Card Sort Test and Activity Card Sort are well known in several clinical practices, including psychiatry, neurology, neuropsychology, and learning disabilities. However, card sort methodology is less famous as a research methodology. This editorial attempts to shed light on the novelty of the card sort methodology and its relevance to rehabilitation research.

  19. Guest Editorial: Card sort methodology: An objective measure in rehabilitation research

    OpenAIRE

    Haitham Jahrami, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Card sort clinical tests such as the Wisconsin Card Sort Test and Activity Card Sort are well known in several clinical practices, including psychiatry, neurology, neuropsychology, and learning disabilities. However, card sort methodology is less famous as a research methodology. This editorial attempts to shed light on the novelty of the card sort methodology and its relevance to rehabilitation research.

  20. Microfluidic EmbryoSort technology: towards in flow analysis, sorting and dispensing of individual vertebrate embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Nurul M.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The demand to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals has facilitated the emergence of surrogate models such as tests performed on zebrafish (Danio rerio) or African clawed frog's (Xenopus levis) eggs, embryos and larvae. Those two model organisms are becoming increasingly popular replacements to current adult animal testing in toxicology, ecotoxicology and also in drug discovery. Zebrafish eggs and embryos are particularly attractive for toxicological analysis due their size (diameter 1.6 mm), optical transparency, large numbers generated per fish and very straightforward husbandry. The current bottleneck in using zebrafish embryos for screening purposes is, however, a tedious manual evaluation to confirm the fertilization status and subsequent dispensing of single developing embryos to multitier plates to perform toxicity analysis. Manual procedures associated with sorting hundreds of embryos are very monotonous and as such prone to significant analytical errors due to operator's fatigue. In this work, we present a proofof- concept design of a continuous flow embryo sorter capable of analyzing, sorting and dispensing objects ranging in size from 1.5 - 2.5 mm. The prototypes were fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. The application of additive manufacturing processes to prototype Lab-on-a-Chip sorters using both fused deposition manufacturing (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA) were also explored. The operation of the device was based on a revolving receptacle capable of receiving, holding and positioning single fish embryos for both interrogation and subsequent sorting. The actuation of the revolving receptacle was performed using a DC motor and/or microservo motor. The system was designed to separate between fertilized (LIVE) and non-fertilized (DEAD) eggs, based on optical transparency using infrared (IR) emitters and receivers.

  1. Atomic Data: Division B / Commission 14 / Working Group Atomic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Nave, Gillian; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes laboratory measurements of atomic wavelengths, energy levels, hyperfine and isotope structure, energy level lifetimes, and oscillator strengths. Theoretical calculations of lifetimes and oscillator strengths are also included. The bibliography is limited to species of astrophysical interest. Compilations of atomic data and internet databases are also included. Papers are listed in the bibliography in alphabetical order, with a reference number in the text. Comprehensive lists of references for atomic spectra can be found in the NIST Atomic Spectra Bibliographic Databases http://physics.nist.gov/asbib.

  2. Leatherback Isotopes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently working on a project identifying global marine isotopes using leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) as the indicator species. We currently...

  3. Isotope enrichment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent provides a process for concentrating the heavy isotope of at least one element of the class consisting of hydrogen and oxygen by the dual temperature exchange of the heavy and light isotopes of the element between two separable fluids containing said element. One of the fluids is in the gaseous phase and the other in the liquid phase. The liquid phase is provided as a solution consisting essentially in minor molar proportion, of water and in major molar proportion, of material selected from the class consisting of the water miscible organic hydroxy and/or carboxy compounds which have a ratio of carbon atoms to their alcoholic and acidic hydroxyl groups not greater than 2

  4. Isotopic chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  5. Isotope effects on desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into stainless steel by glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a fusion device the control of fuel particles implies to know the desorption rate of hydrogen isotopes by the plasma-facing materials. In this paper desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into type 316L stainless steel by glow discharge have been studied by experiment and numerical calculation. The temperature of a maximum desorption rate depends on glow discharge time and heating rate. Desorption spectra observed under various experimental conditions have been successfully reproduced by numerical simulations that are based on a diffusion-limited process. It is suggested, therefore, that desorption rate of a hydrogen isotope implanted into the stainless steel is limited by a diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms in bulk. Furthermore, small isotope effects were observed for the diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms. (authors)

  6. Isotope effects on desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into stainless steel by glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, M.; Kondo, M.; Noda, N. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi, Gifu (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    In a fusion device the control of fuel particles implies to know the desorption rate of hydrogen isotopes by the plasma-facing materials. In this paper desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into type 316L stainless steel by glow discharge have been studied by experiment and numerical calculation. The temperature of a maximum desorption rate depends on glow discharge time and heating rate. Desorption spectra observed under various experimental conditions have been successfully reproduced by numerical simulations that are based on a diffusion-limited process. It is suggested, therefore, that desorption rate of a hydrogen isotope implanted into the stainless steel is limited by a diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms in bulk. Furthermore, small isotope effects were observed for the diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms. (authors)

  7. Cenozoic Mammals and Climate Change: The Contrast between Coarse-Scale versus High-Resolution Studies Explained by Species Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Prothero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many paleontologists have noticed the broadly similar patterns between the changes in Cenozoic mammalian diversity and taxonomic dominance and climate changes. Yet detailed studies of fossil population samples with fine-scale temporal resolution during episodes of climate change like the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the White River Group, and the late Pleistocene at Rancho La Brea tar pits, demonstrates that most fossil mammal species are static and show no significant microevolutionary response to major climate changes. This mismatch between patterns seems best explained by species sorting. As the punctuated equilibrium model demonstrated, over long time spans most fossil species are stable and do not respond to climate change. Instead, change occurs at the next hierarchical level, with species sorting adding and subtracting to the total diversity pattern revealed by coarse-scale taxon counting, apparently responding to longer-term changes in climate as revealed by proxies like the oxygen isotope record.

  8. Isotope effects in the diffusion of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope effects in diffusion of hydrogen atoms are investigated theoretically. It is shown that isotope effect is reduced by a nonadiabatic effect of the heat bath so that the classical-quantum crossover temperature and quantum tunneling rate lose their mass dependence. On the other hand, isotope effect is reversed in classical hopping rate under strong spatial confinement at the barrier top. These results indicate that isotope effects can be the means of observing influences of many degrees of freedom characterizing environment in diffusion process

  9. The isotope correlation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESARDA working group on Isotopic Correlation Techniques, ICT and Reprocessing Input Analysis performed an Isotope Correlation Experiment, ICE with the aim to check the feasibility of the new technique. Ten input batches of the reprocessing of the KWO fuel at the WAK plant were analysed by 4 laboratories. All information to compare ICT with the gravimetric and volumetric methods was available. ICT combined with simplified reactor physics calculation was included. The main objectives of the statistical data evaluation were detection of outliers, the estimation of random errors and of systematic errors of the measurements performed by the 4 laboratories. Different methods for outlier detection, analysis of variances, Grubbs' analysis for the constant-bias model and Jaech's non-constant-bias model were applied. Some of the results of the statistical analysis may seem inconsistent which is due to the following reasons. For the statistical evaluations isotope abundance data (weight percent) as well as nuclear concentration data (atoms/initial metal atoms) were subjected to different outlier criteria before being used for further statistical evaluations. None of the four data evaluation groups performed a complete statistical data analysis which would render possible a comparison of the different methods applied since no commonly agreed statistical evaluation procedure existed. The results prove that ICT is as accurate as conventional techniques which have to rely on costly mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis. The potential of outlier detection by ICT on the basis of the results from a single laboratory is as good as outlier detection by costly interlaboratory comparison. The application of fission product or Cm-244 correlations would be more timely than remeasurements at safeguards laboratories

  10. Nuclides and isotopes. Twelfth edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This explanatory booklet was designed to be used with the Chart of the Nuclides. It contains a brief history of the atomic theory of matter: ancient speculations, periodic properties of elements (Mendeleev table), radioactivity, early models of atomic structure, the Bohr atom, quantum numbers, nature of isotopes, artificial radioactivity, and neutron fission. Information on the pre-Fermi (natural) nuclear reactor at Oklo and the search for superheavy elements is given. The booklet also discusses information presented on the Chart and its coding: stable nuclides, metastable states, data display and color, isotopic abundances, neutron cross sections, spins and parities, fission yields, half-life variability, radioisotope power and production data, radioactive decay chains, and elements without names. The Periodic Table of the Elements is appended. 3 figures, 3 tables

  11. Single-atom detection of isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Fred W.

    2002-01-01

    A method for performing accelerator mass spectrometry, includes producing a beam of positive ions having different multiple charges from a multicharged ion source; selecting positive ions having a charge state of from +2 to +4 to define a portion of the beam of positive ions; and scattering at least a portion of the portion of the beam of positive ions off a surface of a target to directly convert a portion of the positive ions in the portion of the beam of positive ions to negative ions.

  12. An Empirical Model of Wage Dispersion with Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Lentz, Rasmus

    This paper studies wage dispersion in an equilibrium on-the-job-search model with endogenous search intensity. Workers differ in their permanent skill level and firms differ with respect to productivity. Positive (negative) sorting results if the match production function is supermodular (submodu......This paper studies wage dispersion in an equilibrium on-the-job-search model with endogenous search intensity. Workers differ in their permanent skill level and firms differ with respect to productivity. Positive (negative) sorting results if the match production function is supermodular...... dispersion. We decompose wage variation into four sources: Worker heterogeneity, firm heterogeneity, frictions, and sorting. Worker heterogeneity contributes 51% of the variation, firm heterogeneity contributes 11%, frictions 23%, and finally sorting contributes 15%. We measure the output loss due to...

  13. Natural Selection Is a Sorting Process: What Does that Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    To learn why natural selection acts only on existing variation, students categorize processes as either creative or sorting. This activity helps students confront the misconception that adaptations evolve because species need them.

  14. Brazil Nuts on Eros: Size-Sorting of Asteroid Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, E.; King, P. J.; Swift, M. R.; Merrifield, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the hypothesis that frequent cratering produces size- or compositionally-sorted asteroid regolith, affecting the structure, texture, and in extreme cases the shape of asteroids. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Combination of the Sorting Line Priority Polling Control Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxue Ran

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed the priority polling control mechanism of the unit material combinations sorting lines, and sorters operating process is understood to be the arrival process of orders, service process of each sorter sorts orders and the conversion process between sorting machines. Control process, sorters of the combined sorting lines are divided into the priority sorters and ordinary sorters, priority sorters use full service control, ordinary sorters use limited service (k = 1, applies the polling service system theory, through the embedded Markov chain and probability generating function to establish the mathematical model of the system, the exact solution of the control mechanism of the polling system model and the first and second characteristic parameters, combined with the actual production priority parameters of orders picking for simulation analysis

  16. Running worms: C. elegans self-sorting by electrotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Manière

    Full Text Available The nematode C. elegans displays complex dynamical behaviors that are commonly used to identify relevant phenotypes. Although its maintenance is straightforward, sorting large populations of worms when looking for a behavioral phenotype is difficult, time consuming and hardly quantitative when done manually. Interestingly, when submitted to a moderate electric field, worms move steadily along straight trajectories. Here, we report an inexpensive method to measure worms crawling velocities and sort them within a few minutes by taking advantage of their electrotactic skills. This method allows to quantitatively measure the effect of mutations and aging on worm's crawling velocity. We also show that worms with different locomotory phenotypes can be spatially sorted, fast worms traveling away from slow ones. Group of nematodes with comparable locomotory fitness could then be isolated for further analysis. C. elegans is a growing model for neurodegenerative diseases and using electrotaxis for self-sorting can improve the high-throughput search of therapeutic bio-molecules.

  17. Sorting on STAR. [CDC computer algorithm timing comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Timing comparisons are given for three sorting algorithms written for the CDC STAR computer. One algorithm is Hoare's (1962) Quicksort, which is the fastest or nearly the fastest sorting algorithm for most computers. A second algorithm is a vector version of Quicksort that takes advantage of the STAR's vector operations. The third algorithm is an adaptation of Batcher's (1968) sorting algorithm, which makes especially good use of vector operations but has a complexity of N(log N)-squared as compared with a complexity of N log N for the Quicksort algorithms. In spite of its worse complexity, Batcher's sorting algorithm is competitive with the serial version of Quicksort for vectors up to the largest that can be treated by STAR. Vector Quicksort outperforms the other two algorithms and is generally preferred. These results indicate that unusual instruction sets can introduce biases in program execution time that counter results predicted by worst-case asymptotic complexity analysis.

  18. Using Sorting Networks for Skill Building and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Robert; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2007-01-01

    Sorting networks, used in graph theory, have instructional value as a skill- building tool as well as an interesting exploration in discrete mathematics. Students can practice mathematics facts and develop reasoning and logic skills with this topic. (Contains 4 figures.)

  19. Atomic Data: Division XII / Commission 14 / Working Group Atomic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nave, Gillian; Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Fuhr, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes laboratory measurements of atomic wavelengths, energy levels, hyperfine and isotope structure, energy level lifetimes, and oscillator strengths. Theoretical calculations of lifetimes and oscillator strengths are also included. The bibliography is limited to species of astrophysical interest. Compilations of atomic data and internet databases are also included. Papers are listed in the bibliography in alphabetical order, with a reference number in the text.

  20. Atomic Data: Division B / Commission 14 / Working Group Atomic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nave, Gillian; Nahar, Sultana; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes laboratory measurements of atomic wavelengths, energy levels, hyperfine and isotope structure, energy level lifetimes, and oscillator strengths. Theoretical calculations of lifetimes and oscillator strengths are also included. The bibliography is limited to species of astrophysical interest. Compilations of atomic data and internet databases are also included. Papers are listed in the bibliography in alphabetical order, with a reference number in the text. Comprehensive...

  1. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Radtke, Catherine L.; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P.; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow asp...

  2. Sorting and hardware assisted rendering for volume visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, C.; Becker, B.; Max, N.

    1994-03-01

    We present some techniques for volume rendering unstructured data. Interpolation between vertex colors and opacities is performed using hardware assisted texture mapping, and color is integrated for use with a volume rendering system. We also present an O(n{sup 2}) method for sorting n arbitrarily shaped convex polyhedra prior to visualization. It generalizes the Newell, Newell and Sancha sort for polygons to 3-D volume elements.

  3. Pipelined Sort-last Rendering: Scalability, Performance and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Cavin, Xavier; Mion, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    We present in this paper a theoretical and practical performance analysis of pipelined sort-last rendering for both polygonal and volume rendering. Theoretical peak performance and scalability are studied, exhibiting maximum attainable framerates of 19 fps (volume rendering with back-to-front alpha blending) and 11 fps (polygonal rendering with Z-buffer compositing) for a 1280×1024 display on a Gigabit Ethernet cluster. We show that our implementation of pipelined sort-last rendering on a 17-...

  4. Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry: Parameter influence on boron isotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS) was recently reported for optical isotopic analysis of condensed samples in ambient air and at ambient pressure. LAMIS utilizes molecular emissions which exhibit larger isotopic spectral shits than in atomic transitions. For boron monoxide 10BO and 11BO, the isotopic shifts extend from 114 cm-1 (0.74 nm) to 145-238 cm-1 (5-8 nm) at the B2Σ+ (v = 0) → X2Σ+ (v = 2) and A2Πi (v = 0) → X2Σ+ (v = 3) transitions, respectively. These molecular isotopic shifts are over two orders of magnitude larger than the maximum isotopic shift of approximately 0.6 cm-1 in atomic boron. This paper describes how boron isotope abundance can be quantitatively determined using LAMIS and how atomic, ionic, and molecular optical emission develops in a plasma emanating from laser ablation of solid samples with various boron isotopic composition. We demonstrate that requirements for spectral resolution of the measurement system can be significantly relaxed when the isotopic abundance ratio is determined using chemometric analysis of spectra. Sensitivity can be improved by using a second slightly delayed laser pulse arriving into an expanding plume created by the first ablation pulse.

  5. An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabiyisi S.O.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and factor analysis by principal components of the obtained experimental data was carried out in order to estimate the contribution of each factor to the success of the sorting algorithms. Further statistical analysis was carried out to generate eigenvalue of the extracted factor and hence, a system of linear equations which was used to estimate the assessment of each factor of the sorting techniques was proposed. The study revealed that the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort. It contributed 97.842%, 97.693%, 89.351%, 98.336% and 90.480% for Bubble sort, Heap sort, Merge sort, Quick sort and Shell sort respectively. The number of swap came second contributing 1.587% for Bubble sort, 2.305% for Heap sort, 10.63% for Merge sort, 1.643% for Quick sort and 9.514% for Shell sort. The memory used was the least of the factors contributing negligible percentage for the five sorting techniques. It contributed 0.571% for Bubble sort, 0.002% for Heap sort, 0.011% for Merge sort, 0.021% for Quick sort and 0.006% for Shell sort.

  6. Atomic Structure Theory Lectures on Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Walter R

    2007-01-01

    Atomic Structure Theory is a textbook for students with a background in quantum mechanics. The text is designed to give hands-on experience with atomic structure calculations. Material covered includes angular momentum methods, the central field Schrödinger and Dirac equations, Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Hartree-Fock equations, multiplet structure, hyperfine structure, the isotope shift, dipole and multipole transitions, basic many-body perturbation theory, configuration interaction, and correlation corrections to matrix elements. Numerical methods for solving the Schrödinger and Dirac eigenvalue problems and the (Dirac)-Hartree-Fock equations are given as well. B-spline basis sets are used to carry out sums arising in higher-order many-body calculations. Illustrative problems are provided, together with solutions. FORTRAN programs implementing the numerical methods in the text are included.

  7. Graphs for Isotopes of 107-Bh (Bohrium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 107-Bh (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107).

  8. Soft-landing deposition of radioactive probe atoms on surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurens, C.R; Rosu, M.F; Pleiter, F; Niesen, L

    1999-01-01

    We present a method to deposit a wide range of radioactive probe atoms on surfaces, without introducing lattice damage or contaminating the surface with other elements or isotopes. In this method, the probe atoms are mass-separated using an isotope separa-tor, decelerated to 5 eV, and directly depos

  9. Can a secondary isotope effect be larger than a primary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Charles L; Burke, Kathryn D

    2015-05-21

    Primary and secondary (18)O equilibrium isotope effects on the acidities of a variety of Brønsted and Lewis acids centered on carbon, boron, nitrogen, and phosphorus were computed by density-functional theory. For many of these acids, the secondary isotope effect was found to be larger than the primary isotope effect. This is a counterintuitive result, because the H atom that is lost is closer to the (18)O atom that is responsible for the primary isotope effect. The relative magnitudes of the isotope effects can be associated with the vibrational frequency and zero-point energy of the X═O vibrations, which are greater than those of the X-O vibrations. However, the difference between these contributions is small, and the major responsibility for the larger secondary isotope effect comes from the moment-of-inertia factor, which depends on the position of the (18)O atom relative to the principal axes of rotation. PMID:25879248

  10. Atom Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Folman, R; Cassettari, D; Hessmo, B; Maier, T; Schmiedmayer, J; Folman, Ron; Krüger, Peter; Cassettari, Donatella; Hessmo, Björn; Maier, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

  11. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Swindale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 minutes. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis. Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scaleable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs.

  12. Neuronal spike sorting based on radial basis function neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi Kani M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studying the behavior of a society of neurons, extracting the communication mechanisms of brain with other tissues, finding treatment for some nervous system diseases and designing neuroprosthetic devices, require an algorithm to sort neuralspikes automatically. However, sorting neural spikes is a challenging task because of the low signal to noise ratio (SNR of the spikes. The main purpose of this study was to design an automatic algorithm for classifying neuronal spikes that are emitted from a specific region of the nervous system."n "nMethods: The spike sorting process usually consists of three stages: detection, feature extraction and sorting. We initially used signal statistics to detect neural spikes. Then, we chose a limited number of typical spikes as features and finally used them to train a radial basis function (RBF neural network to sort the spikes. In most spike sorting devices, these signals are not linearly discriminative. In order to solve this problem, the aforesaid RBF neural network was used."n "nResults: After the learning process, our proposed algorithm classified any arbitrary spike. The obtained results showed that even though the proposed Radial Basis Spike Sorter (RBSS reached to the same error as the previous methods, however, the computational costs were much lower compared to other algorithms. Moreover, the competitive points of the proposed algorithm were its good speed and low computational complexity."n "nConclusion: Regarding the results of this study, the proposed algorithm seems to serve the purpose of procedures that require real-time processing and spike sorting.

  13. Isotope Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, E; Bonifacio, P; Ludwig, H -G; Monaco, L; Curto, G Lo; Kamp, I

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of isotopic ratios provides a privileged insight both into nucleosynthesis and into the mechanisms operating in stellar envelopes, such as gravitational settling. In this article, we give a few examples of how isotopic ratios can be determined from high-resolution, high-quality stellar spectra. We consider examples of the lightest elements, H and He, for which the isotopic shifts are very large and easily measurable, and examples of heavier elements for which the determination of isotopic ratios is more difficult. The presence of 6Li in the stellar atmospheres causes a subtle extra depression in the red wing of the 7Li 670.7 nm doublet which can only be detected in spectra of the highest quality. But even with the best spectra, the derived $^6$Li abundance can only be as good as the synthetic spectra used for their interpretation. It is now known that 3D non-LTE modelling of the lithium spectral line profiles is necessary to account properly for the intrinsic line asymmetry, which is produced ...

  14. Sorting centimetre-long single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Woo Jong; Chae, Sang Hoon; Vu, Quoc An; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-08-01

    While several approaches have been developed for sorting metallic (m) or semiconducting (s) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), the length of SWCNTs is limited within a micrometer, which restricts excellent electrical performances of SWCNTs for macro-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate a simple sorting method of centimetre-long aligned m- and s-SWCNTs. Ni particles were selectively and uniformly coated along the 1-cm-long m-SWCNTs by applying positive gate bias during electrochemical deposition with continuous electrolyte injection. To sort s-SWCNTs, the Ni coating was oxidized to form insulator outer for blocking of current flow through inner m-SWCNTs. Sorting of m-SWCNTs were demonstrated by selective etching of s-SWCNTs via oxygen plasma, while the protected m-SWCNTs by Ni coating remained intact. The series of source-drain pairs were patterned along the 1-cm-long sorted SWCNTs, which confirmed high on/off ratio of 104–108 for s-SWCNTs and nearly 1 for m-SWCNTs.

  15. Mechanically robust microfluidics and bulk wave acoustics to sort microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauson, Erin R.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Greve, David W.; Healy, Gregory P.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    Sorting microparticles (or cells, or bacteria) is significant for scientific, medical and industrial purposes. Research groups have used lithium niobate SAW devices to produce standing waves, and then to align microparticles at the node lines in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, silicone) microfluidic channels. The "tilted angle" (skewed) configuration is a recent breakthrough producing particle trajectories that cross multiple node lines, making it practical to sort particles. However, lithium niobate wafers and PDMS microfluidic channels are not mechanically robust. We demonstrate "tilted angle" microparticle sorting in novel devices that are robust, rapidly prototyped, and manufacturable. We form our microfluidic system in a rigid polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, acrylic) prism, sandwiched by lead-zirconium-titanate (PZT) wafers, operating in through-thickness mode with inertial backing, that produce standing bulk waves. The overall configuration is compact and mechanically robust, and actuating PZT wafers in through-thickness mode is highly efficient. Moving to this novel configuration introduced new acoustics questions involving internal reflections, but we show experimental images confirming the intended nodal geometry. Microparticles in "tilted angle" devices display undulating trajectories, where deviation from the straight path increases with particle diameter and with excitation voltage to create the mechanism by which particles are sorted. We show a simplified analytical model by which a "phase space" is constructed to characterize effective particle sorting, and we compare our experimental data to the predictions from that simplified model; precise correlation is not expected and is not observed, but the important physical trends from the model are paralleled in the measured particle trajectories.

  16. Assessment of Preschool Classroom Practices: Application of Q-Sort Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of Q-sort methodology to the development of the Preschool Classroom Practices (PCP) Q-sort. The PCP Q-sort was tested in a sample of 66 preschool teachers and assistants. Results demonstrated the existence of a 2-cluster structure within the Q-sort, comprised of Cognitive Development Activities and…

  17. An Exploratory Study of Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Sorting Techniques (Shell, Heap and Treap)

    CERN Document Server

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Salako, Oluwatimilehin

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of sorting techniques has a significant impact on the overall efficiency of a program. The efficiency of Shell, Heap and Treap sorting techniques in terms of both running time and memory usage was studied, experiments conducted and results subjected to factor analysis by SPSS. The study revealed the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort.

  18. Isotopically labelled vitamin D derivatives and processes for preparing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D3 compounds, including radiolabelled vitamin D3 compounds of high specific activity, methods for their preparation, and intermediates obtained in their synthesis. The method involves reacting an ester of a 26,27-dinor-vitamin D-25-carboxylic acid with an isotopically labelled methyl Grignard reagent or methyl lithium reagent to obtain a 26,27-isotopically labelled compound in which at least some of the H atoms and/or C atoms are heavy isotopes. (author)

  19. Isotopic effects on the phonon modes in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, H; Kuhlmann, U; Rotter, H W; Shalamberidze, S O

    2010-10-01

    The effect of isotopes ((10)B-(11)B; (12)C-(13)C) on the infrared- and Raman-active phonons of boron carbide has been investigated. For B isotopes, the contributions of the virtual crystal approximation, polarization vector and isotopical disorder are separated. Boron and carbon isotope effects are largely opposite to one another and indicate the share of the particular atoms in the atomic assemblies vibrating in specific phonon modes. Some infrared-active phonons behave as expected for monatomic boron crystals. PMID:21403227

  20. Process and apparatus for the separtaion of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is claimed for the separation of isotopes particularly uranium isotopes, characterized by the fact that this process is based on the charge exchange reaction (A+ + B → A+B+), with the atomic ions A+ of one of the isotopes of an element being selectively excited and the atomic ions of the other isotope of the same element being allowed to remain in the ground state, and with the excited ions being neutralized by means of atoms or molecules (B) after the charge exchange reaction has been completed. For the selection of an atom or molecule B the first ionization potential thereof should be greater than the ionization potential of uranium. Laser radiation is used to excite the atoms

  1. Isolating and moving single atoms using silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2010-09-07

    A method is disclosed for isolating single atoms of an atomic species of interest by locating the atoms within silicon nanocrystals. This can be done by implanting, on the average, a single atom of the atomic species of interest into each nanocrystal, and then measuring an electrical charge distribution on the nanocrystals with scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) or electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) to identify and select those nanocrystals having exactly one atom of the atomic species of interest therein. The nanocrystals with the single atom of the atomic species of interest therein can be sorted and moved using an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The method is useful for forming nanoscale electronic and optical devices including quantum computers and single-photon light sources.

  2. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  3. On-Line Sorting Maturity of Cherry Tomato Bymachine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinglong; Yin, Xiaoping; Xu, Tongyu; Zhao, Jiewen

    The cherry tomatoes online sorting according to their maturity is an important procedure after harvest. This research proposed an automated cherry tomato grading system base on machine vision. Three images of different angles are obtained from each cherry tomato, allowing the inspection of approximately 90% of the fruit surface. 9 features were extracted from the one cherry tomato images. In order to distinguish into three grades (immature, half ripe and ripe), Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the features. The PCA results show that ripe cherry tomatoes are distinguished from immature and half ripe ones. 414 cherry tomatoes were tested by the online sorting system. The overall accuracy was up to 94.9%. Furthermore, the grading speed of the sorting line reaches 7 cherry tomatoes per second which meet the actual demand of many farms.

  4. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    usefulness of our approach by designing and analyzing efficient MapReduce algorithms for fundamental sorting, searching, and simulation problems. This study is motivated by a goal of ultimately putting the MapReduce framework on an equal theoretical footing with the well-known PRAM and BSP parallel...... models, which would benefit both the theory and practice of MapReduce algorithms. We describe efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, multi-searching, and simulations of parallel algorithms specified in the BSP and CRCW PRAM models. We also provide some applications of these results to problems in...... parallel computational geometry for the MapReduce framework, which result in efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, 2- and 3-dimensional convex hulls, and fixed-dimensional linear programming. For the case when mappers and reducers have a memory/message-I/O size of M = (N), for a small constant > 0...

  5. Undulator field correction by in-situ sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel field-correction method for insertion devices called in-situ sorting has been developed. It is based on a rearrangement of magnet blocks with an analysis of the magnetic data measured for the total device after assembly instead of that for each magnet block before assembly. The field integral at each magnet pole obtained from the magnetic distribution determines how to exchange or flip magnet blocks to reduce both the phase error and multipole components of the field integral. The practical results of the in-situ sorting used for a field correction of an in-vacuum undulator are shown to reveal the validity of the in-situ sorting

  6. Amplitude sorting of oscillatory burst signals by sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for amplitude sorting of oscillatory burst signals is described in which the burst signal is detected to produce a burst envelope signal and an intermediate or midportion of such envelope signal is sampled to provide a sample pulse output. The height of the sample pulse is proportional to the amplitude of the envelope signal and to the maximum burst signal amplitude. The sample pulses are fed to a pulse height analyzer for sorting. The present invention is used in an acoustic emission testing system to convert the amplitude of the acoustic emission burst signals into sample pulse heights which are measured by a pulse height analyzer for sorting the pulses in groups according to their height in order to identify the material anomalies in the test material which emit the acoustic signals.

  7. Mechanisms for photon sorting based on slit-groove arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villate-Guío, F.; Martín-Moreno, L.; de León-Pérez, F.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms for one-dimensional photon sorting are theoretically studied in the framework of a coupled-mode method. The considered system is a nanopatterned structure composed of two different pixels drilled on the surface of a thin gold layer. Each pixel consists of a slit-groove array designed to squeeze a large fraction of the incident light into the central slit. The Double-Pixel is optimized to resolve two different frequencies in the near infrared. This system shows high transmission efficiencies and a small crosstalk. It is found that the response of the system strongly depends on the effective area shared by overlapping pixels. According to such degree of overlap, photon sorting can be achieved within three different regimes, which are discussed in detail. Optimal photon-sorting efficiencies are obtained for a moderate number of grooves that overlap with grooves of the neighbor pixel. These results could be applied to both optical and infrared detectors.

  8. Mechanisms for photon sorting based on slit-groove arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Villate-Guío, F; de León-Pérez, F

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms for one-dimensional photon sorting are theoretically studied in the framework of a couple mode method. The considered system is a nanopatterned structure composed of two different pixels drilled on the surface of a thin gold layer. Each pixel consists of a slit-groove array designed to squeeze a large fraction of the incident light into the central slit. The Double-Pixel is optimized to resolve two different frequencies in the near infrared. This system shows a high transmission efficiency and a small crosstalk. Its response is found to strongly depend on the effective area shared by overlapping pixels. Three different regimes for the process of photon sorting are identified and the main physical trends underneath in such regimes are unveiled. Optimal efficiencies for the photon sorting are obtained for a moderate number of grooves that overlap with grooves of the neighbor pixel. Results could be applied to optical and infrared detectors.

  9. Cholesterol-induced protein sorting: an analysis of energetic feasibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbaek, J A; Andersen, O S; Werge, T;

    2003-01-01

    transmembrane domain (TMD). M. S. Bretscher and S. Munro (SCIENCE: 261:1280-1281, 1993) therefore proposed a physical sorting mechanism based on the hydrophobic match between the proteins' TMD and the bilayer thickness, in which cholesterol would regulate protein sorting by increasing the lipid bilayer...... thickness. In this model, Golgi proteins with short TMDs would be excluded from cholesterol-enriched domains (lipid rafts) that are incorporated into transport vesicles destined for the plasma membrane. Although attractive, this model remains unproven. We therefore evaluated the energetic feasibility...... thickness per se, however, have only a modest effect on sorting; the major effect arises because cholesterol changes also the bilayer material properties, which augments the energetic penalty for incorporating short TMDs into cholesterol-enriched domains. We conclude that cholesterol-induced changes...

  10. Analysis of fundamental processes in laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Isotope Separation based on atomic beam is achieved by selective excitation of neutral atoms with laser beam whose line width is as narrow as might discriminate isotope shift of specified atoms, and by recovering those excited atoms with appropriate method. This separation scheme thus involves fundamental processes of atomic beam generation, selective excitation, photoionization and recover. Enriching model, in which atoms excited with exciter is recovered by applying static electric field after ionized with ionizer, is presented to evaluate each fundamental processes and separation mechanism. That is, energy model having two kinds of 3-level system for specified atoms and nonspecified atoms respectively, which includes energy and charge transfer between two system, is calculated for parameter studies. Hearth temperature, exciter power, ionizer power, electrode length in the direction of both laser and atomic beam, and electrode gap are selected as the parameters. (author)

  11. Intra- and interboar variability in flow cytometric sperm sex sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Parlapan, Laura; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    To improve the efficiency of porcine sperm sex sorting using flow cytometry, the aims of the present study were to determine the relevance of inter- and intraboar variability in sperm sortability and to evaluate the significance of ejaculate semen characteristics in such variability. In addition, the variability among boars in the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to survive liquid storage at 15 °C to 17 °C was also evaluated. In total, 132 ejaculates collected from 67 boars of different breeds that were housed at an artificial insemination center were used in three experiments. X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm were simultaneously separated according to the Beltsville sperm-sorting technology using a high-speed flow cytometer. In the first experiment, interboar variability in the ability of the ejaculated spermatozoa to undergo the flow-based sex-sorting procedure was observed; the ejaculates of nearly 15% of the boars (n = 67) did not exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa peaks in the histogram, and the ejaculate sperm concentration demonstrated good predictive value for explaining this variation, as indicated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (0.88, P boars that showed poor sperm sortability (measured according to the presence or not a well-defined split together with sperm sortability parameters) in the first ejaculate (n = 3). In contrast, boars classified as having good sperm sortability in the first ejaculate (n = 5) maintained this condition in five ejaculates collected over the subsequent 5 months. In the third experiment, sex-sorted spermatozoa from boars with good sperm sortability (n = 5) remained viable and motile (above 70% in all boars) after 48 hours of storage at 15 °C to 17 °C, which may facilitate the commercial application of sex-sorted spermatozoa in swine artificial insemination programs. PMID:24930604

  12. Sl: many-sorted logic based programming language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, G.; Sarkozy, A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors wished to describe, specify, and prove correctness and to synthesize sequential or parallel programs, especially microprograms. In order to describe a computer system which executes the program to be proved, one needs tools to reflect the inhomogeneous data structures of computer systems and the same of programs, as well as for the transformations (i.e. instructions, functions) defined on them. Because the typical data structures are both homogenous (vectors, arrays) and inhomogeneous ones they had to choose a many-sorted logic as a base for further extension as a programming language. Many-sorted logic was modified for logic programming purposes. 9 references.

  13. Excitation-energy sorting in superfluid fission dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt K.-H.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that at moderate excitation energies the nucleus temperature does not vary with increasing excitation energy. We show that, as a consequence, two nuclei with different temperatures brought into contact show a rather surprising energy-sorting mechanism where the hotter nucleus transfers all its excitation energy to the colder one. The scission configuration of the fission process offers a unique possibility to observe this phenomenon. The energy-sorting mechanism is clearly reflected by the mean number of prompt neutrons as a function of the fragment mass and by the dependence of the local even-odd effect with mass asymmetry.

  14. Finding all sorting tandem duplication random loss operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernt, Matthias; Chen, Kuan Yu; Chen, Ming Chiang;

    2011-01-01

    A tandem duplication random loss (TDRL) operation duplicates a contiguous segment of genes, followed by the random loss of one copy of each of the duplicated genes. Although the importance of this operation is founded by several recent biological studies, it has been investigated only rarely from...... a theoretical point of view. Of particular interest are sorting TDRLs which are TDRLs that, when applied to a permutation representing a genome, reduce the distance towards another given permutation. The identification of sorting genome rearrangement operations in general is a key ingredient of many algorithms...

  15. Excitation-energy sorting in superfluid fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now well established that at moderate excitation energies the nucleus temperature does not vary with increasing excitation energy. We show that, as a consequence, two nuclei with different temperatures brought into contact show a rather surprising energy-sorting mechanism where the hotter nucleus transfers all its excitation energy to the colder one. The scission configuration of the fission process offers a unique possibility to observe this phenomenon. The energy-sorting mechanism is clearly reflected by the mean number of prompt neutrons as a function of the fragment mass and by the dependence of the local even-odd effect with mass asymmetry. (authors)

  16. Management status of precisions of FACSAria and of its sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FACSAria (Becton, Dickinson and Co.), a fluorescence-activated cell sorter, was introduced in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in 2005 as a cooperatively usable equipment, and was scarcely utilized because of complexity of its setup despite weekly/monthly/yearly maintenance. However, on occasion that the personnel in charge had a training of its fundamentals in 2007, its use has been increased along the services provided. This report describes about the FACSAria concerning its maintenance, sorting mechanic, precisions, and possible troubles for its use. Maintenance involves the individual user's cleaning after usage by washing flow-cell with FACS-Clean; weekly maintenance to rinse the inner part and electrode of the equipment; monthly, precision management with Ultra Rainbow Beads to check the laser delay as well as weekly one; and 2 times yearly for conservation and confirmation of usable environment with viable cells. FACSAria has functions of 2- and 4-way sorting and optional automated cell deposition unit (ACDU) for sorting the desired number of cells into 6-384 wells. Before sorting, drop delay, the time between laser hit point of a cell and break-off point, is setup, for which confirmation, AccuDrop Beads is used for laser excitement for analysis of given image. For sort precision, there are such parameters of sorting as purity, yield, single cell, initial and fine tune. Characteristic FACSAria functions are sorting of cells of the desired number, of different fluorescent cells, and of a desired cell pickup at high speed. In this report, the first was examined for precision with the Beads and found necessary for more data accumulation because of 70-80% recovery of setup values. In addition, the first was also confirmed using CHO-K1 cells irradiated by 0.1-1.0 and 1.2-7 Gy X-ray, which were sorted so as to seed the desired number of cells to form 100 colonies. Resultant survival curve at low dose of <1 Gy of hyper-radiosensitive cells was

  17. Sorting of bed load sediment by flow in meander bends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G.; Andrews, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Equilibrium sorting of coarse mobile bed load sediment in meander bends is considered. A theory of two-dimensional bed load transport of graded material, including the effects of gravity on lateral slopes and secondary currents, is developed. This theory is coupled with a simple tratement of flow in bends, an analytically determined bend shape, and the condition of continuity of each grain size range in transport to describe sorting. The theory indicates that the locus of coarse sediment shifts from the inside bank to the outside bank near the bend apex, as is observed.-Authors

  18. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan

    2015-11-19

    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.

  19. Cell wall sorting of lipoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Navarre, W W; Daefler, S; Schneewind, O

    1996-01-01

    Many surface proteins are thought to be anchored to the cell wall of gram-positive organisms via their C termini, while the N-terminal domains of these molecules are displayed on the bacterial surface. Cell wall anchoring of surface proteins in Staphylococcus aureus requires both an N-terminal leader peptide and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. By fusing the cell wall sorting of protein A to the C terminus of staphylococcal beta-lactamase, we demonstrate here that lipoproteins can also ...

  20. Optimal sorting method and application to SSRF booster dipoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As the dipoles of SSRF booster are powered in series, the magnet field error varies from magnet to magnet and results in bad beam quality. Sorting and installing magnets according to the measured field errors so that the errors on different magnets are partially compensated with each other, has been the easiest way in many cases to reduce the detrimental effects of the errors without introducing complications. Based on the magnet field measurement results, we investigated and implemented the sorting of dipoles using a method mixed by local cancellation and simulated annealing, and it's found to be quite effective.

  1. IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, N.E.; Coplen, T.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Wieser, M.E.; Singleton, G.; Walczyk, T.; Yoneda, S.; Mahaffy, P.G.; Tarbox, L.V.

    2011-01-01

    For almost 150 years, the Periodic Table of the Elements has served as a guide to the world of elements by highlighting similarities and differences in atomic structure and chemical properties. To introduce students, teachers, and society to the existence and importance of isotopes of the chemical elements, an IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes (IPTI) has been prepared and can be found as a supplement to this issue.

  2. Atomic energy

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Interviews following the 1991 co-operation Agreement between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning the participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project (LHC) . With Chidambaram, R, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and Professor Llewellyn-Smith, Christopher H, Director-General, CERN.

  3. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  4. Theory of atomic motion in resonant radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic motion in resonant and near resonant electromagnetic radiation is investigated theoretically. The exposition begins with a study of atomic motion in a resonant standing light wave, with a view toward isotope separation by selective photodeflection, and proceeds to the investigation of more general problems of atomic motion in resonant radiation. The body of the work consists of six chapters, each of which was prepared as a manuscript for publication in the open literature

  5. Retromer Binds the FANSHY Sorting Motif in SorLA to Regulate Amyloid Precursor Protein Sorting and Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjorback, Anja W; Seaman, Matthew; Gustafsen, Camilla;

    2012-01-01

    levels of retromer proteins are altered in AD. Here we report that sorLA and retromer functionally interact in neurons to control trafficking and amyloidogenic processing of APP. We have identified a sequence (FANSHY) in the cytoplasmic domain of sorLA that is recognized by the VPS26 subunit of the......sorLA is a sorting receptor for amyloid precursor protein (APP) genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Retromer, an adaptor complex in the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval pathway, has been implicated in APP transport because retromer deficiency leads to aberrant APP sorting and processing and...

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fe-52 (Iron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fe-52 (Iron, atomic number Z = 26, mass number A = 52).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Sr-71 (Strontium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Sr-71 (Strontium, atomic number Z = 38, mass number A = 71).

  8. Exotic atoms. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments use a variety of hydrogen isotopic mixtures to form solid targets for muons to produce muonic hydrogen isotope atoms that escape into vacuum. The method relies on transfer of the muon from a proton to either a deuteron or a triton. The resulting muonic deuterium or muonic tritium will not immediately thermalize because of the very low elastic cross sections (RT effect), and are emitted from the surface of the layer. A second solid hydrogen isotopic target is produced downstream on which the muonic hydrogen atom can react. Measurements which detect decay electrons, muonic x-rays, and fusion products have been used to study the processes of energy dependence of transfer, production rates, and muon molecular formation. The processes include muon catalyzed fusion of muonic tritium with deuterium which is the most possible candidate for energy production fusion. Our interest is the nuclear physics reaction rates and to use the muonic hydrogen isotopes in vacuum for energy level measurements. The method uses time of flight and is reminiscent of double scattering experiments. Two other experiments are in the development stages. First to measure the energy dependence of the Ramsauer-Townsend cross section in tritium where it has not been measured. The measurements would be compared to deuterium and calculations. Second, kaonic atoms, hypernuclei, and kaon-nucleon scattering at DAPHNE

  9. Atomic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  10. Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  11. Atomic polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed

  12. System of radwaste sorting out physical features and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classification of radioactive waste sources in Ukraine is provided. General technological sorting scheme of the RAW of chiefly. Chernobyl origin is offered. Some measures to treat short-lived and long-lived High-Level Waste, Intermediate-Active Waste and Low-Level Active Waste in the Center for waste treatment and disposal are offered. 4 refs., 2 tab., 8 figs

  13. AMDLIBGZ, IBM 360 Subroutine Library for Data Processing, Graphics, Sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of problem or function: AMDLIBGZ is a subset of the IBM 360 Subroutine Library at the Applied Mathematics Division at Argonne National Laboratory. This subset includes library categories G-Z: Identification/Description: G552S F RANF: Random number generator; J952S F YOLYPLOT: CalComp plots; J955S P GRAF: Prints a graph of points on line printer; K250S A1: Core to core conversion; K251S A HEXINP: Hexadecimal input for PL/I programs; K252S A HEXOUT: Hexadecimal output conv. PL/I programs; M101S F SORT: Algebraic sort; M150S F CSORT: Algebraic sort; M151S P2 ANLKWIC: KWIC sort; M250S A SMALLIST: Squeezes assembler listing to 8 x 11; N251S A ABEND: Calls ABEND dump; Q052S A CLOCK: Time; Q053S A COPYAGO: Copy load module from tape to disk; Q054S A DATE: Current date in form MM/DD/YY; Q055S A TIME: Time (24 hour clock) in EBCDIC HH.MM.SS; Z013S F: Variable metric minimization; Z057S A LOCF: Locate machine addresses of variables; Z071S A ALLOC: Allocate LCS for FORTRAN programs; Z074S A ANLMNP: Exponent and mantissa manipulative functs.

  14. Combining card sorts and in-depth interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, MNK

    2012-01-01

    Trust research invariably asks questions about sensitive issues, highlighting the need to build rapport and trust between the researcher and participant. It may also be necessary to ensure participants are not sensitized to the focus on trust. This chapter outlines the use of a card sort, concurrent with an in-depth interview to help overcome these issues.

  15. Mineral-PET Kimberlite sorting by nuclear-medical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, S; Cafferty, L; Caveney, R; Connell, SH; Cook, M; Dalton, M; Gopal, H; Ives, N; Lee, C A; Mampe, W; Phoku, M; Roodt, A; Sibande, W; Sellschop, J P F; Topkin, J; Unwucholaa, D A

    2010-01-01

    A revolutionary new technology for diamond bearing rock sorting which has its roots in medical-nuclear physics has been taken through a substantial part of the R&D phase. This has led to the construction of the technology demonstrator. Experiments using the technology demonstrator and experiments at a hospital have established the scientific and technological viability of the project.

  16. Local Residential Sorting and Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouhle, Keith; Corrigan, Jay; Croson, Rachel; Farnham, Martin; Garip, Selhan; Habodaszova, Luba; Johnson, Laurie Tipton; Johnson, Martin; Reiley, David

    2005-01-01

    This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of…

  17. Udpegning af potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Splid Svendsen, Martin; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Lahrmann, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med dette paper er at undersøge, om det er muligt at udpege potentielle sorte pletter via floating car data. Der er i projektet udført teoretiske litteraturstudier for at skabe et grundlag for det senere analysearbejde, som danner baggrund for analysearbejdet. Dataene stammer fra Aalborg...

  18. Prediction of N-terminal protein sorting signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claros, Manuel G.; Brunak, Søren; von Heijne, Gunnar

    1997-01-01

    Recently, neural networks have been applied to a widening range of problems in molecular biology. An area particularly suited to neural-network methods is the identification of protein sorting signals and the prediction of their cleavage sites, as these functional units are encoded by local, line...

  19. Incentives versus sorting in tournaments: evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Leuven; H. Oosterbeek; J. Sonnemans; B. van der Klaauw

    2011-01-01

    Existing field evidence on rank-order tournaments typically does not allow disentangling incentive and sorting effects. We conduct a field experiment illustrating the confounding effect. Students in an introductory microeconomics course selected themselves into tournaments with low, medium, or high

  20. Getting a "Decent Sort": Key Considerations when Planning for AMH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, Adrienne Brown

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 and 2009, the Edmonton Public Library (EPL), where the author works as an information professional, completed a $6 million CDN (about $5.7 million) RFID conversion project with the installation of automated check-in and sorting equipment at six of its 17 service points. The sorters currently handle about 55% of EPL's system's total…

  1. Sphingolipid trafficking and protein sorting in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D

    2002-01-01

    Sphingolipids represent a minor, but highly dynamic subclass of lipids in all eukaryotic cells. They are involved in functions that range from structural protection to signal transduction and protein sorting, and participate in lipid raft assembly. In polarized epithelial cells, which display an asy

  2. On-chip cell sorting via patterned magnetic traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvank, Tom; Prikockis, Michael; Chen, Aaron; Miller, Brandon; Chalmers, Jeffrey; Sooryakumar, Ratnasingham

    2015-03-01

    Due to their importance in research for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, numerous schemes have been developed to sort rare cell populations, e.g., circulating tumor cells (CTCs), from a larger ensemble of cells. Here, we improve upon a previously developed microfluidic device (Lab Chip 13, 1172, (2013)) to increase throughput and sorting purity of magnetically labeled cells. The separation mechanism involves controlling magnetic forces by manipulating the magnetic domain structures of embedded permalloy microdisks with weak external fields. These forces move labeled cells from the input flow stream into an adjacent buffer flow stream. Such magnetically activated transfer separates the magnetic entities from their non-magnetic counterparts as the two flow streams split apart and move toward their respective outputs. Purity of the magnetic output is modulated by the withdrawal rate of the non-magnetic output relative to the inputs. A proof of concept shows that CTCs from metastatic breast cancer patients can be sorted, recovered from the device, and confirmed as CTCs using separate immunofluorescence staining and analysis. With further optimizations, the channel could become a useful device for high purity final sorting of enriched patient cell samples.

  3. Improved Sorting-Based Procedure for Integer Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantchev, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Recently, Cornuéjols and Dawande have considered a special class of 0-1 programs that turns out to be hard for existing IP solvers. One of them is a sorting-based algorithm, based on an idea of Wolsey. In this paper, we show how to improve both the running time and the space requirements...

  4. Automated sorting of glabrous versus pubescent annual canarygrass seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    An automated imaging system was developed to identify and sort annual canarygrass seeds with the glabrous trait in order to screen bulk amounts of seed to segregate populations for this desirable trait. Glabrous seed is preferred since it does not have the irritating silica hairs that pubescent see...

  5. Empirical Approach to Interpreting Card-Sorting Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven F.; Dougherty, Daniel P.; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since it was first published 30 years ago, the seminal paper of Chi "et al." on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Cogn. Sci. 5 121 (1981)]. These studies frequently encompass "card-sorting" exercises whereby the participants group problems.…

  6. From Sorting to Learning: Developing Deep Learning in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Linda; Halbert, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Observations in many intermediate and secondary classrooms and interviews with learners indicate that many young people are under-engaged or disengaged with the learning opportunities in their schools. This disengagement of adolescent learners underlines the need for a shift from systems focused on sorting to systems passionate about deep…

  7. Standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) based multichannel cell sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Xiaoyun; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Lapsley, Michael Ian; Li, Sixing; Guo, Xiang; Chan, Chung Yu Keith; Chiang, I-Kao; Wang, Lin; McCoy, J. Philip; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel microfluidic device for cell sorting in continuous flow using tunable standing surface acoustic waves. This method allows individual cells to be precisely directed into five different outlet channels in a single step. It is versatile, simple, label-free, non-invasive, and highly controllable.

  8. Atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We will first present a development of the fundamental principles of atom interferometers. Next we will discuss a few of the various methods now available to split and recombine atomic De Broglie waves, with special emphasis on atom interferometers based on optical pulses. We will also be particularly concerned with high precision interferometers with long measurement times such those made with atomic fountains. The application of atom interferometry to the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity will be detailed. We will also develop the atom interferometry based on adiabatic transfer and we will apply it to the measurement of the photon recoil in the case of the Doppler shift of an atomic resonance caused by the momentum recoil from an absorbed photon. Finally the outlook of future developments will be given. (A.C.)

  9. Studies on sulphur isotope variations in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variations of sulphur isotopes in natural compounds (and of oxygen isotopes in sulphates) provide a powerful method of investigation in various fields of earth sciences such as hydrology, geochemistry, geothermal exploration, volcanology, oceanography, sedimentology, ore formation, environmental sciences and others, although probably the method is not equally mature in all these fields, because of the inherent complexity and, sometimes, insufficient basic data. To review the current situation, and to identify trends of research and application of sulphur isotopes, the International Atomic Energy Agency held an Advisory Group Meeting on the Hydrology and Geochemistry of Sulphur Isotopes, which took place in Vienna at the IAEA Headquarters from 17 to 20 June 1985. Most of the papers presented at the meeting are included in this publication under the following titles: Isotopic composition of dissolved oceanic sulphate; Sulphur isotopes in the water of Lake Neusiedl, Austria; Relationships between the sulphur and oxygen isotope composition of dissolved sulphate; Sulphur and sulphate-oxygen isotopes in New Zealand geothermal systems and volcanic discharges; Isotopic composition and origin of sulphur compounds in groundwaters and brines in the Po Valley (northern Italy); Two case studies on the origin of aqueous sulphate in deep crystalline rocks; Sulphur and oxygen isotopic compositions of groundwater - and sabkha - sulphate in the Middle East; Radiolytic oxidation of sulphides and geochemical behaviour of sulphur isotopes in uranium deposits; On bias in 34S/32S data obtained using SO2 gas in mass spectrometry; Sulphur isotope analyses of trace sulphide and sulphate in various materials using Kiba reagent. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  11. Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Claudia I; Yandell, Brian S; Havey, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better-performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. Recombination among repetitive motifs in the cucumber mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. We previously reported nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to map paternal sorting of mitochondria as a step towards its eventual cloning. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F(2) family. A total of 425 F(2) plants were genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. Discrete segregations for percent wild-type progenies were not observed and paternal sorting of mitochondria was therefore analyzed as a quantitative trait. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL; LOD >23) was mapped between two simple sequence repeats encompassing a 459-kb region on chromosome 3. Nuclear genes previously shown to affect the prevalence of mitochondrial DNAs (MSH1, OSB1, and RECA homologs) were not located near this major QTL on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting. PMID:22350175

  12. Combinatorial effects on clumped isotopes and their significance in biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Laurence Y.

    2016-01-01

    The arrangement of isotopes within a collection of molecules records their physical and chemical histories. Clumped-isotope analysis interrogates these arrangements, i.e., how often rare isotopes are bound together, which in many cases can be explained by equilibrium and/or kinetic isotope fractionation. However, purely combinatorial effects, rooted in the statistics of pairing atoms in a closed system, are also relevant, and not well understood. Here, I show that combinatorial isotope effects are most important when two identical atoms are neighbors on the same molecule (e.g., O2, N2, and D-D clumping in CH4). When the two halves of an atom pair are either assembled with different isotopic preferences or drawn from different reservoirs, combinatorial effects cause depletions in clumped-isotope abundance that are most likely between zero and -1‰, although they could potentially be -10‰ or larger for D-D pairs. These depletions are of similar magnitude, but of opposite sign, to low-temperature equilibrium clumped-isotope effects for many small molecules. Enzymatic isotope-pairing reactions, which can have site-specific isotopic fractionation factors and atom reservoirs, should express this class of combinatorial isotope effect, although it is not limited to biological reactions. Chemical-kinetic isotope effects, which are related to a bond-forming transition state, arise independently and express second-order combinatorial effects related to the abundance of the rare isotope. Heteronuclear moeties (e.g., Csbnd O and Csbnd H), are insensitive to direct combinatorial influences, but secondary combinatorial influences are evident. In general, both combinatorial and chemical-kinetic factors are important for calculating and interpreting clumped-isotope signatures of kinetically controlled reactions. I apply this analytical framework to isotope-pairing reactions relevant to geochemical oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen cycling that may be influenced by combinatorial

  13. Atomic probes of new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Frugiuele, Claudia; Perez, Gilad; Schlaffer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Precise isotope shift spectroscopy in various atomic systems can provide a sensitive tool to constrain new physics, in particular new physics that couples to electrons and neutrons [1]. We present an analysis for estimating the reach of such measurements in the framework of effective field theory and various benchmark models for SM extensions: color neutral vector resonances, leptoquarks and the $750\\,\\textrm{GeV}$ scalar diphoton resonance. We also provide a comparison with the reach of the LHC, $e^+e^-$ colliders and $g-2$ of the electron. Isotope shift spectroscopy can compete and possibly even improve the sensitivity to probe a broad variety of Standard Model extensions.

  14. 4. All-Russian (international) scientific conference. Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules. Collection of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reports of the 4. All-Russian (international) scientific conference: Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules, are presented. The conference took place in Zvenigorod, 4-8 October, 1999. Contents of the reports are the following: laser isotope separation of molecules and atoms; isotopic selection of molecules and atoms in the field of centrifugal forces; selection of molecules by means of rectification and isotopic exchange methods; separation of isotopes by ion cyclotron-resonance method, in electric discharge and electromagnetic field; change in physical properties of substances which variation of their natural isotopic composition; use of isotopes in pharmacy preparation; status of experimental and diagnostic technique; certain promising methods of selection of atoms and molecules. The problems of laser separation of uranium isotopes, separation of carbon isotopes by multi-photon selective dissociation are discussed. The procedures permitting production of isotopes with high concentration and efficiency are developed

  15. Waste Sorting Habits by the Community of Kaunas University of Technology, Reasons and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Adomavičiūtė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the waste management system at Kaunas University of Technology, surveys the waste sorting habits of its community, both students and employees, and analyses the reasons and factors influencing waste sorting and non-sorting. The introduction of a separate paper waste collection system has made it possible to reduce the amount of mixed waste by 25% during the first three months of its functioning. 58% of employees and 45% of students sort some of their waste partly, 23% of employees and 11% of students sort all their waste. 8% of employees and 19% of students sort their waste sometimes. 8% of employees and 24% of students do not sort waste at all. 77% of employees and 66% of students think that the main problem caused by waste generation is pollution of the environment. Therefore willingness to reduce an impact on it is the main reason for sorting, while a lack of conditions to keep separated recyclable refuse and a lack of nearby containers are main factors that are distracting people from source-sorting. Growth of environmental awareness and formation of sorting habits that are transmitted to family members are identified as the strengths. Lack of conditions for sorting (e.g. no place to keep sorted waste at home, insufficiently developed waste collection infrastructure, mistrust in a sorted waste collection system (e.g. belief that sorted waste goes to a landfill, and lack of information are the weaknesses. The opportunities comprise development of a convenient waste collection infrastructure, introduction of economic incentives and rise of further awareness. Identified threats for sorting at the source that discourage source sorting are the following: a developed infrastructure will not satisfy real needs; sorting will not become financially rewarding; improper decisions about a waste management system and waste treatment practices made at the state level, no real use of sorting.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.62.4.2954

  16. Advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems

  17. Ultralow Thermal Conductivity of Isotope-Doped Silicon Nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Nuo; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2007-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is found that the thermal conductivity of SiNWs can be reduced exponentially by isotopic defects at room temperature. The thermal conductivity reaches the minimum, which is about 27% of that of pure 28Si NW, when doped with fifty percent isotope atoms. The thermal conductivity of isotopic-superlattice structured SiNWs depends clearly on the period of superlattice. At a critical peri...

  18. Process for separation of isotopes from a gaseous mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a process for separation of isotopes from a gaseous mixture that permits the indicated isotopic separation by the combined action of photon irradiation by laser light, followed by Penning ionization of atoms, ions or molecules excited by the laser light in selective fashion

  19. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer

  20. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs). Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs), which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+)) and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-), which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+) is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell biomarker, our

  1. Atomic Weapons Establishment Bill [Money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate concerns the authorisation of payment of the money required to reorganise the atomic weapons establishment in the United Kingdom provided for in the Atomic Weapons Establishment Bill in progress through Parliament. In the Bill the contractorisation of the establishment is recommended and some sort of Government owned company operated scheme set up. The debate lasted about half an hour and is reported verbatim. The issues raised concerned the actual sums likely to be incurred in the formation of a Company to carry out the designated activities of the Bill. These are connected with the research, development, production or maintenance of nuclear devices and the premises needed. The government spokesman suggested the sums required to support the Bill would not be large and the resolution was agreed to without a vote. (UK)

  2. Schroedinger atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of an electrodynamical interpretation suggested by Schroedinger for the wave function are discribed. According to this conception electron charges are continuously distributed all over the volume of an atomic system. The proof is given that classical electrodynamics keeps its action inside atom. Schroedinger's atom has been shown to be the only model in which electrones do not lose their energy for emission when they move around nucleus. A significance of the distributed electron charge self-field is estimated. Practical applications of this conception have been noted including the new trend in quantum electrodynamics. Experimental and theoretical corroborations of the atom model with a continuous electron charge are adduced

  3. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in atomic physics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: experiments on stored ions; test for parity violation in neutral weak currents; energy conservation and astrophysics; atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic and molecular detectors; theoretical studies of quantum electrodynamics and high-z ions; atomic beam magnetic resonance; radiative decay from the 23Po,2 levels of helium-like argon; quenching of the metastable 2S/sub 1/2/ state of hydrogen-like argon in an external electric field; and lifetime of the 23Po level of helium-like krypton

  4. An empirical approach to interpreting card-sorting data

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Steven F; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since it was first published 30 years ago, Chi et al.'s seminal paper on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Chi et al. Cognitive Science 5, 121 - 152 (1981)]. These studies frequently encompass "card-sorting" exercises whereby the participants group problems. While this technique certainly allows insights into problem solving approaches, simple descriptive statistics more often than not fail to find significant differences between experts and novices. In moving beyond descriptive statistics, we describe a novel microscopic approach that takes into account the individual identity of the cards and uses graph theory and models to visualize, analyze, and interpreting problem categorization experiments. We apply these methods to an introductory physics (mechanics) problem categorization experiment, and find that most of the variation in sorting outcome is not due to the sorter being an expert versus a novice, b...

  5. An Automated Sorting System Based on Virtual Instrumentation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Holonec

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The application presented in this paper represents an experimental model and it refers to the implementing of an automated sorting system for pieces of same shape but different sizes and/or colors. The classification is made according to two features: the color and weight of these pieces. The system is a complex combination of NI Vision hardware and software tools, strain gauges transducers, signal conditioning connected to data acquisition boards, motion and control elements. The system is very useful for students to learn and experiment different virtual instrumentation techniques in order to be able to develop a large field of applications from inspection and process control to sorting and assembly

  6. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W; Ejsing, Christer S.; Simons, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has showed that ergosterol and sphingolipids become sorted to secretory vesicles immunoisolated using a chimeric, artificial raft membrane protein as bait. In this study, we have extended this analysis to three populations of secretory vesicles isolated using natural yeast plasma...... membrane (PM) proteins: Pma1p, Mid2p and Gap1*p as baits. We compared the lipidomes of the immunoisolated vesicles with each other and with the lipidomes of the donor compartment, the trans-Golgi network, and the acceptor compartment, the PM, using a quantitative mass spectrometry approach that provided a...... complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...

  7. Large area magnetic micropallet arrays for cell colony sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Muranami, Wesley A; Nelson, Edward L; Li, G P; Bachman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A new micropallet array platform for adherent cell colony sorting has been developed. The platform consisted of thousands of square plastic pallets, 270 μm by 270 μm on each side, large enough to hold a single colony of cells. Each pallet included a magnetic core, allowing them to be collected with a magnet after being released using a microscope mounted laser system. The micropallets were patterned from 1002F epoxy resist and were fabricated on translucent, gold coated microscope slides. The gold layer was used as seed for electroplating the ferromagnetic cores within every individual pallet. The gold layer also facilitated the release of each micropallet during laser release. This array allows for individual observation, sorting and collection of isolated cell colonies for biological cell colony research. In addition to consistent release and recovery of individual colonies, we demonstrated stable biocompatibility and minimal loss in imaging quality compared to previously developed micropallet arrays. PMID:26606460

  8. Spike sorting in the frequency domain with overlap detection

    CERN Document Server

    Rinberg, D; Davidowitz, H; Tishby, N; Rinberg, Dima; Bialek, William; Davidowitz, Hanan; Tishby, Naftali

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of extracting the activity of individual neurons from multi-electrode recordings. Important aspects of this work are: 1) the sorting is done in two stages - a statistical model of the spikes from different cells is built and only then are occurrences of these spikes in the data detected by scanning through the original data, 2) the spike sorting is done in the frequency domain, 3) strict statistical tests are applied to determine if and how a spike should be classiffed, 4) the statistical model for detecting overlaping spike events is proposed, 5) slow dynamics of spike shapes are tracked during long experiments. Results from the application of these techniques to data collected from the escape response system of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, are presented.

  9. Cholesterol-induced protein sorting: an analysis of energetic feasibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbaek, J A; Andersen, O S; Werge, T;

    2003-01-01

    thickness. In this model, Golgi proteins with short TMDs would be excluded from cholesterol-enriched domains (lipid rafts) that are incorporated into transport vesicles destined for the plasma membrane. Although attractive, this model remains unproven. We therefore evaluated the energetic feasibility of a...... cholesterol-dependent sorting process using the theory of elastic liquid crystal deformations. We show that the distribution of proteins between cholesterol-enriched and cholesterol-poor bilayer domains can be regulated by cholesterol-induced changes in the bilayer physical properties. Changes in bilayer...... thickness per se, however, have only a modest effect on sorting; the major effect arises because cholesterol changes also the bilayer material properties, which augments the energetic penalty for incorporating short TMDs into cholesterol-enriched domains. We conclude that cholesterol-induced changes in the...

  10. Automatic sorting of point pattern sets using Minkowski Functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Joshua; van de Raa, Matthias; van der Meer, Devaraj; Samelson, Lawrence E; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Point pattern sets arise in many different areas of physical, biological, and applied research, representing many random realizations of underlying pattern formation mechanisms. These pattern sets can be heterogeneous with respect to underlying spatial processes, which may not be visually distinguishable. This heterogeneity can be elucidated by looking at statistical measures of the patterns sets and using these measures to divide the pattern set into distinct groups representing like spatial processes. We introduce here a numerical procedure for sorting point pattern sets into spatially homogeneous groups using Functional Principal Component Analysis (FPCA) applied to the approximated Minkowski functionals of each pattern. We demonstrate that this procedure correctly sorts pattern sets into similar groups both when the patterns are drawn from similar processes and when the 2nd-order characteristics of the pattern are identical. We highlight this routine for distinguishing the molecular patterning of fluoresc...

  11. Sorting and Manipulation of Magnetic Droplets in Continuous Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hetlani, Entesar; Hatt, Oliver J.; Vojtíšek, Martin; Tarn, Mark D.; Iles, Alexander; Pamme, Nicole

    2010-12-01

    We report the rapid on-chip generation and subsequent manipulation of magnetic droplets in continuous flow. Magnetic droplets were formed using aqueous-based ferrofluid as the dispersed phase and fluorocarbon oil as the continuous phase. Droplet manipulation was demonstrated with simple permanent magnets using two microfluidic platforms: (i) flow focusing droplet generation followed by their splitting into daughter droplets containing different amounts of magnetic nanoparticles, and (ii) droplet generation at a T-junction and their downstream deflection across a chamber for sorting based on the applied magnetic field and magnetite loading of the droplet. Both systems show great potential for performing a wide range of high throughput continuous flow processes including sample dilution, cell sorting and screening, and microparticle fabrication.

  12. Sorting facility for group 1,2 solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility for sorting group 1 and 2 solid radioactive waste (SRW) (its gamma radiation dose rate being not in excess of 5x10-4 and 0.5x10-2 Sv/h, respectively, at a distance of 0.1 m from the surface), which has been developed and manufactured by OJSC SverdNIIkhimmash is described. The facility integrates a bunker, a large guillotine, a box fitted out with manipulators, a discharge chamber, a small guillotine, a sorting chamber, a feeder and control system. The purpose and structure of each element of the facility are considered along with operation of the facility as a whole, its technical characteristics being provided

  13. Spatial sorting promotes the spread of maladaptive hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Winsor H.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive hybridization is causing loss of biodiversity worldwide. The spread of such introgression can occur even when hybrids have reduced Darwinian fitness, which decreases the frequency of hybrids due to low survival or reproduction through time. This paradox can be partially explained by spatial sorting, where genotypes associated with dispersal increase in frequency at the edge of expansion, fueling further expansion and allowing invasive hybrids to increase in frequency through space rather than time. Furthermore, because all progeny of a hybrid will be hybrids (i.e., will possess genes from both parental taxa), nonnative admixture in invaded populations can increase even when most hybrid progeny do not survive. Broader understanding of spatial sorting is needed to protect native biodiversity.

  14. Multi-color photon sorting in plasmonic microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-color photon sorting is realized on the basis of plasmonic microcavities etched in a gold film coated with a polyvinyl alcohol layer. Both wide-band unidirectional surface plasmon polariton launchers and plasmonic microcavities are integrated on-chip. The physical mechanism of the multi-color photon sorting function is attributed as the plasmonic stop bands prohibiting the surface plasmon polariton propagation in a broad wavelength range, while the plasmonic microcavities selectively permit several surface plasmon polaritons to pass, on the basis of the photon tunneling effect. Incident continuous wave lasers with wavelengths of 800, 840, and 880 nm are separated, and decoupled from different output ports. The operating wavelength can be tuned by adjusting the refractive index of the covering polymer layer. (paper)

  15. Droplet sorting in a loop of flat microfluidic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by recent experiments, we numerically study the droplet traffic in microfluidic channels forming an asymmetric loop with a long and a short arm. The loop is connected to an inlet and an outlet channel by two right angled T-junctions. Assuming flat channels, we employ the boundary element method (BEM) to numerically solve the two-dimensional Darcy equation that governs two phase flow in the Hele-Shaw limit. The occurrence of different sorting regimes is summarized in sorting diagrams in terms of droplet size, distance between consecutive droplets in the inlet channel, and loop asymmetry for mobility ratios of the liquid phases larger and smaller than one. For large droplet distances, the traffic is regulated by the ratio of the total hydraulic resistances of the long and short arms. At high droplet densities and below a critical droplet size, droplet–droplet collisions are observed for both mobility ratios. (paper)

  16. Sorting facility for group 1 solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility for sorting group 1 solid radioactive waste (SRW) (its gamma radiation dose rate not in excess of 0.5x10-4 Sv/h at a distance of 0.1 m from the surface), which has been developed and manufactured by OJSC SverdNIIkhimmash, is described. The facility integrates boxes for sorting, packaging, loading and acceptance of SRW, an accumulating container, a guillotine and control system. The purpose and operation principle of each element of the facility, as well as operation of the facility as a unit, are considered, its technical characteristics being provided. The facility has been placed into operation at the Kursk NPP and demonstrated high reliability and efficiency during operation in service conditions

  17. Passive Sorting of Asteroid Material Using Solar Radiation Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Yárnoz, Daniel García; McInnes, Colin R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding dust dynamics in the vicinity of asteroids is key for future science missions and, in the long-term, for asteroid exploitation. This paper analyzes the feasibility of manipulating asteroid material by means of solar radiation pressure. A novel method is proposed for passively sorting material as a function of its grain size or density, where solar radiation pressure is used as a passive in-situ "mass spectrometer". A simplified analysis shows that in principle this method allows an effective sorting of regolith material. This could have immediate applications for a sample return mission, and for industrial scale in-situ resource utilization to separate and concentrate regolith according to particle size or composition.

  18. Semiautomatic device for monitoring and sorting photoelectrical transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanenko, V.S.; Antonov, A.I.; Dolguv, V.M.; Krayev, Ye.V.; Nadorov, V.P.; Yeroshin, S.M.

    1982-11-07

    The purpose of the invention is to improve productivity of an automatic device for monitoring and sorting SC. For this purpose a semiautomatic device for monitoring and sorting SC which contains a base with light attached to it, cable with electrical-contact clamp installed under the lamp, optical filter arranged between the lamp and the table, has a mechanism for tipping the table and a guide. The mechanism for tipping the table has a pneumatic cylinder whose rod is hinged to the table. In addition the guide has a bin, inclined double chutes and electromagnetic distributor. The inclined chutes are arranged above the bin, and at the site of bifurcation there are electromagnetic distributors.

  19. Self-organized sorting limits behavioral variability in swarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Quint, David A; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Swarming is a phenomenon where collective motion arises from simple local interactions between typically identical individuals. Here, we investigate the effects of variability in behavior among the agents in finite swarms with both alignment and cohesive interactions. We show that swarming is abolished above a critical fraction of non-aligners who do not participate in alignment. In certain regimes, however, swarms above the critical threshold can dynamically reorganize and sort out excess non-aligners to maintain the average fraction close to the critical value. This persists even in swarms with a distribution of alignment interactions, suggesting a simple, robust and efficient mechanism that allows heterogeneously mixed populations to naturally regulate their composition and remain in a collective swarming state or even differentiate among behavioral phenotypes. We show that, for evolving swarms, this self-organized sorting behavior can couple to the evolutionary dynamics leading to new evolutionarily stable equilibrium populations set by the physical swarm parameters. PMID:27550316

  20. Neural Network Based Color Recognition for Bobbin Sorting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Winding is a key process in the manufacturing process of textile industry. The normal and effective operation of winding process plays a very important role on the textiles’ quality and economic effects. At present, a large proportion of bobbins which collected from winder still have yarn left over. The bobbin recycling is severely limited and quick running of winder is seriously restricted, the invention of the the automatic bobbin sorting machine has solved this problem. The ability to distinguish bobbin which has yarn left over from the rest and the classification accuracy of color are the two important performance indicators for bobbin sorting machine. According to the development and application of the color recognition technology and the artificial intelligence method, this study proposes a novel color recognition method that based on BP neural networks. The result shows that the accuracy of color recognition reaches 98%.  

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Deterministic Sorting Algorithms based on Runtime and Count of Various Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyha Verma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorting algorithms find its application in many practical fields of Computer Science. Efficient solving of sorting problem has attracted a great deal of research as it optimizes other algorithms also. The main factor which is taken into consideration while determining the efficiency of a sorting algorithm is the time complexity. Mostly the execution time of algorithms is investigated and compared for analyzing time complexity. This paper presents a comparative analysis of deterministic sorting algorithms. Time complexity of six different algorithms namely, Selection sort, Bubble sort, Insertion sort, Quicksort, Heapsort and Mergesort is determined in terms of number of comparisons, swaps and assignment operations in addition to average execution time. Also, the performance of these algorithms on fully and almost sorted lists was also analyzed. The study indicates that determining the operation’s count is essential for analyzing time complexity especially when algorithms are theoretically analyzed.

  2. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodar; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    We study the MapReduce framework from an algorithmic standpoint, providing a generalization of the previous algorithmic models for MapReduce. We present optimal solutions for the fundamental problems of all-prefix-sums, sorting and multi-searching. Additionally, we design optimal simulations of the...... the well-established PRAM and BSP models in MapReduce, immediately resulting in optimal solutions to the problems of computing fixed-dimensional linear programming and 2-D and 3-D convex hulls....

  3. Insight into economies of scale for waste packaging sorting plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik; Maul, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    This contribution presents the results of a techno-economic analysis performed for German Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) which sort commingled lightweight packaging waste (consisting of plastics, metals, beverage cartons and other composite packaging). The study addressed the importance......-70 € for large plants employing advanced process flows. Typical operational practice, often riddled with inadequate process parameters was compared with planned or designed operation. The former was found to significantly influence plant efficiency and therefore possible revenue streams from the sale of output...

  4. Sorting on skills and preferences: Tinbergen meets Sattinger

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an assignment model where sorting occurs on attributes that are simultaneously a skill (Sattinger, 1979) and a preference (Tinbergen, 1956). The key feature of this model is that the wage function admits both jobs'' and workers'' attributes as arguments. Since this function is generically nonlinear (Ekeland et al., 2004), even under positive assortative matching, the correlation between the contribution of workers'' attributes to wages and that of jobs'' attributes can var...

  5. Parallel Sorted Neighborhood Blocking with MapReduce

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, Lars; Rahm, Erhard

    2010-01-01

    Cloud infrastructures enable the efficient parallel execution of data-intensive tasks such as entity resolution on large datasets. We investigate challenges and possible solutions of using the MapReduce programming model for parallel entity resolution. In particular, we propose and evaluate two MapReduce-based implementations for Sorted Neighborhood blocking that either use multiple MapReduce jobs or apply a tailored data replication.

  6. Incomplete Lineage Sorting: Consistent Phylogeny Estimation From Multiple Loci

    CERN Document Server

    Mossel, Elchanan

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple algorithm for reconstructing phylogenies from multiple gene trees in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, that is, when the topology of the gene trees may differ from that of the species tree. We show that our technique is statistically consistent under standard stochastic assumptions, that is, it returns the correct tree given sufficiently many unlinked loci. We also show that it can tolerate moderate estimation errors.

  7. Local Residential Sorting and Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Brouhle; Jay Corrigan; Rachel Croson; Martin Farnham; Selhan Garip; Luba Habodaszova; Laurie Tipton Johnson; Martin Johnson; David Reiley

    2005-01-01

    This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of public good provision in the community. Next the classroom is divided in two, and students may choose to move between the two smaller communities, sorti...

  8. Understanding microwave induced sorting of porphyry copper ores

    OpenAIRE

    John, R.S.; Batchelor, A.R.; Ivanov, D.; Udoudo, O.B.; Jones, D.A.; Dodds, Chris; Kingman, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    Global demand for minerals and metals is increasing. It has been established that the impact of mining and mineral processing operations must be reduced to sustainably meet the demands of a low grade future. Successful incorporation of ore sorting in flow sheets has the potential to improve energy efficiency by rejecting non-economic material before grinding. Microwave heating combined with infra-red temperature measurement has been shown to distinguish low and high grade ore fragments from e...

  9. Thermal Conductivity of Chirality-Sorted Carbon Nanotube Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Feifei; Llinas, Juan P.; Li, Zuanyi; Estrada, David; Pop, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The thermal properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are of significant interest, yet their dependence on SWNT chirality has been, until now, not explored experimentally. Here we used electrical heating and infrared thermal imaging to simultaneously study thermal and electrical transport in chirality-sorted SWNT networks. We examined solution processed 90% semiconducting, 90% metallic, purified unsorted (66% semiconducting), and as-grown HiPco SWNT films. The thermal conductivitie...

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Aspergillus oryzae Vacuolar Protein Sorting Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Ohneda, Mamoru; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    The vacuolar protein sorting (vps) system in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, which has unique cell polarity and the ability to secrete large amounts of proteins, was evaluated by using mutants that missort vacuolar proteins into the medium. Vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used as a vacuolar marker. Twenty dfc (dim EGFP fluorescence in conidia) mutants with reduced intracellular EGFP fluorescence in conidia were isolated by ...

  11. An RGS-Containing Sorting Nexin Controls Drosophila Lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Jae Myoung; Stenesen, Drew; Peters, John M; Inoue, Akiko; Cade, Angela; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    The pursuit of eternal youth has existed for centuries and recent data indicate that fat-storing tissues control lifespan. In a D. melanogaster fat body insertional mutagenic enhancer trap screen designed to isolate genes that control longevity, we identified a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain containing sorting nexin, termed snazarus ( s orting n exin l azarus , snz). Flies with insertions into the 5′ UTR of snz live up to twice as long as controls. Transgenic expression of UAS-...

  12. MANNER OF STOCKS SORTING USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Halčinová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to show the possibility of using the methods of cluster analysis in classification of stocks of finished products. Cluster analysis creates groups (clusters of finished products according to similarity in demand i.e. customer requirements for each product. Manner stocks sorting of finished products by clusters is described a practical example. The resultants clusters are incorporated into the draft layout of the distribution warehouse.

  13. Constrained Multicriteria Sorting Method Applied to Portfolio Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Jun; Cailloux, Olivier; Mousseau, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on portfolio selection problems which aim at selecting a subset of alternatives considering not only the performance of the alternatives evaluated on multiple criteria, but also the performance of portfolio as a whole, on which balance over alternatives on specific attributes is required by the Decision Makers (DMs). We propose a two-level method to handle such decision situation. First, at the individual level, the alternatives are evaluated by the sorting model Electre Tri...

  14. Flow cytometric chromosome sorting in plants: The next generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrána, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2012), s. 331-337. ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1740 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Chromosome sorting * Flow cytometry * Fluorescence in situ hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.641, year: 2012

  15. Learning Cellular Sorting Pathways Using Protein Interactions and Sequence Motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tien-ho; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Murphy, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Proper subcellular localization is critical for proteins to perform their roles in cellular functions. Proteins are transported by different cellular sorting pathways, some of which take a protein through several intermediate locations until reaching its final destination. The pathway a protein is transported through is determined by carrier proteins that bind to specific sequence motifs. In this article, we present a new method that integrates protein interaction and sequence motif data to m...

  16. Hyperexpansion of wheat chromosomes sorted by flow cytometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Endo, Takashi R.; Kubaláková, Marie; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), s. 181-185. ISSN 1341-7568 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : flow cytometry * flow sorting * chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25747042

  17. An Automated Sorting System Based on Virtual Instrumentation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Holonec

    2008-01-01

    The application presented in this paper represents an experimental model and it refers to the implementing of an automated sorting system for pieces of same shape but different sizes and/or colors. The classification is made according to two features: the color and weight of these pieces. The system is a complex combination of NI Vision hardware and software tools, strain gauges transducers, signal conditioning connected to data acquisition boards, motion and control elements. The system is v...

  18. Rising Family Income Inequality: The Importance of Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of family income reflects the distribution of personal income and the composition of families. We develop a non-parametric measure of the impact that changes in family income relationships have on the distribution of family income. Using data from Annual Social and Economic Supplement (the March files) of the Current Population Survey (CPS) (1968-2003), we find that changes in "income sorting" account for more than half of the increase in family income inequality in the Unite...

  19. Sorting and Factor Intensity: Production and Unemployment across Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Kircher; Jan Eeckhout

    2011-01-01

    When firms choose the allocation of workers, they can adjust not only the type of worker, the extensive margin, but also the intensive margin, how many of those worker to employ. We propose a tractable matching model with such factor intensity. Positive sorting arises under cross-margin-complementarity: within-complementarities in extensive and intensive margin exceed the between-complementarities across intensive and extensive margin. We characterize the equilibrium allocation, wages and fac...

  20. Multidirectional sorting modes in deterministic lateral displacement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, B.R.; Heller, Martin; Beech, J.P.;

    2008-01-01

    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) devices separate micrometer-scale particles in solution based on their size using a laminar microfluidic flow in an array of obstacles. We investigate array geometries with rational row-shift fractions in DLD devices by use of a simple model including both...... advection and diffusion. Our model predicts multidirectional sorting modes that could be experimentally tested in high-throughput DLD devices containing obstacles that are much smaller than the separation between obstacles....

  1. Regulation of coat assembly- sorting things out at the ER

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Elizabeth A.; Barlowe, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The small GTPase Sar1 resides at the core of a regulatory cycle that controls protein export from the ER in COPII vesicles. Recent advances in minimally reconstituted systems indicate continual flux of Sar1 through GTPase cycles facilitates cargo concentration into forming vesicles that ultimately bud from membranes. During export from ER membranes, this GTPase cycle is harnessed through the combinatorial power of multiple coat subunits and cargo adaptors to sort an expanding array of protein...

  2. Geographic Concentration of Business Services Firms: A Poisson Sorting Model

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, Hans,; van Ommeren, Jos N.; Rietveld, Piet

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates a heterogeneous sorting model for firms, employing a semiparametric Poisson approach. We show that there is an equivalence relation between a locally weighted Logit and Poisson model. We apply our model to estimate firm-specific preferences of business services firms for location attributes such as diversity of economic activities and specialisation of business services. We correct for endogeneity of our specialisation measure by means of a control function approach, usin...

  3. Neural Network Based Color Recognition for Bobbin Sorting Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Mu Zhang; Xueqian Ding; Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Winding is a key process in the manufacturing process of textile industry. The normal and effective operation of winding process plays a very important role on the textiles’ quality and economic effects. At present, a large proportion of bobbins which collected from winder still have yarn left over. The bobbin recycling is severely limited and quick running of winder is seriously restricted, the invention of the the automatic bobbin sorting machine has solved this problem. The ability to dist...

  4. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    1989-01-01

    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  5. Digestibility Improvement of Sorted Waste with Alkaline Hydrothermai Pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; WANG Hongtao; LU Wenjing; ZHAO Yan

    2009-01-01

    The digestibility of sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) is often limited by the high content of structured green waste. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of sorted waste and to analyze the biogas production of different parts of the waste. The waste was hydrothermally pretreated in a dilute alkali solution. The hydrolysis product was then incubated in a 500 mL saline bottle to determine the biochemical methane potential (BMP) under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. The optimum hydrothermal condition was 170℃ at 4 g NaOH/100 g solid for one hour. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 13 936 mg/L and the methane yield was 164 mL/g volatile solid (VS) for 6 days incubation at the optimum conditions. The biogas production was increased more than 50% over the control, with the methane conversion ratio on a carbon basis enhanced to 30.6%. The organic part of the sorted waste was mainly kitchen garbage and leaves. Model kitchen garbage completely liquified at 130℃ for one hour had a methane yield of 276 mL/g VS. The alkali addition slightly enhanced the hydrolyzation rate and methane yield. The biogas potential of leaves was improved by pre-treatment at above 150℃ under alkaline conditions.

  6. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

    2015-11-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan. PMID:26644937

  7. Selective sorting of waste - not much effort needed, just willpower

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to keep as low as possible the cost of disposing of waste materials, CERN provides in the entrance to each building two types of recipient: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metallic one for general refuse. For some time now, we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing neglect as far as the selective sorting is concerned, for example the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or of protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc …We have been able to ascertain, after carefully checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Waste non sorted entails heavy costs for CERN. For your information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned by selective sorting of waste mater...

  8. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ying Lai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA and fuzzy C-means (FCM algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA. It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation.

  9. Exosome and Exosomal MicroRNA:Trafficking, Sorting, and Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhang; Sha Li; Lu Li; Meng Li; Chongye Guo; Jun Yao; Shuangli Mi

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are 40–100 nm nano-sized vesicles that are released from many cell types into the extracellular space. Such vesicles are widely distributed in various body fluids. Recently, mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in exosomes, which can be taken up by neighboring or distant cells and subsequently modulate recipient cells. This suggests an active sort-ing mechanism of exosomal miRNAs, since the miRNA profiles of exosomes may differ from those of the parent cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in disease progression, and can stimu-late angiogenesis and facilitate metastasis in cancers. In this review, we will introduce the origin and the trafficking of exosomes between cells, display current research on the sorting mechanism of exo-somal miRNAs, and briefly describe how exosomes and their miRNAs function in recipient cells. Finally, we will discuss the potential applications of these miRNA-containing vesicles in clinical settings.

  10. GRAIN SORTING IN COMETARY DUST FROM THE OUTER SOLAR NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most young stars are surrounded by a disk of gas and dust. Close to the hot stars, amorphous dust grains from the parent molecular cloud are reprocessed into crystals that are then distributed throughout the accretion disk. In some disks, there is a reduction in crystalline grain size with heliocentric distance from the star. We investigated crystalline grain size distributions in chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) believed to be from small, icy bodies that accreted in outer regions of the solar nebula. The grains are Mg-rich silicates and Fe-rich sulfides, the two most abundant minerals in CP IDPs. We find that they are predominantly <0.25 μm in radius with a mean grain size that varies from one CP IDP to another. We report a size-density relationship between the silicates and sulfides. A similar size-density relationship between much larger silicate and sulfide grains in meteorites from the asteroid belt is ascribed to aerodynamic sorting. Since the silicate and sulfide grains in CP IDPs are theoretically too small for aerodynamic sorting, their size-density relationship may be due to another process capable of sorting small grains.

  11. Continuous-feed optical sorting of aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, J J; Levine, Zachary H

    2016-06-27

    We consider the problem of sorting, by size, spherical particles of order 100 nm radius. The scheme we analyze consists of a heterogeneous stream of spherical particles flowing at an oblique angle across an optical Gaussian mode standing wave. Sorting is achieved by the combined spatial and size dependencies of the optical force. Particles of all sizes enter the flow at a point, but exit at different locations depending on size. Exiting particles may be detected optically or separated for further processing. The scheme has the advantages of accommodating a high throughput, producing a continuous stream of continuously dispersed particles, and exhibiting excellent size resolution. We performed detailed Monte Carlo simulations of particle trajectories through the optical field under the influence of convective air flow. We also developed a method for deriving effective velocities and diffusion constants from the Fokker-Planck equation that can generate equivalent results much more quickly. With an optical wavelength of 1064 nm, polystyrene particles with radii in the neighborhood of 275 nm, for which the optical force vanishes, may be sorted with a resolution below 1 nm. PMID:27410570

  12. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Michael T; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the MapReduce framework from an algorithmic standpoint and demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by designing and analyzing efficient MapReduce algorithms for fundamental sorting, searching, and simulation problems. This study is motivated by a goal of ultimately putting the MapReduce framework on an equal theoretical footing with the well-known PRAM and BSP parallel models, which would benefit both the theory and practice of MapReduce algorithms. We describe efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, multi-searching, and simulations of parallel algorithms specified in the BSP and CRCW PRAM models. We also provide some applications of these results to problems in parallel computational geometry for the MapReduce framework, which result in efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, 2- and 3-dimensional convex hulls, and fixed-dimensional linear programming. For the case when mappers and reducers have a memory/message-I/O size of $M=\\Theta(N^\\epsilon)$, for a small constant $\\epsi...

  13. Thermochemical Pretreatment for Anaerobic Digestion of Sorted Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W.; Hongtao, W.

    2008-02-01

    The effect of alkaline hydrothermal pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion of mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) and source-sorted waste was studied. Waste was hydrothermally pre-treated in dilute alkali solution. Hydrolysis product was incubated in 500 ml saline bottle to determine methane potential (MP) under mesospheric anaerobic conditions. Optimum reaction condition obtained in the study is 170 °C at the dose of 4 g NaOH/100 g solid for one hour. Soluble COD was 13936 mg/L and methane yield was 164 ml/g VS for 6 days incubation at optimum conditions. More than 50% biogas increase was achieved over the control, and methane conversion ratio on carbon basis was enhanced to 30.6%. The digestion period was less than 6 days when pre-treatment temperature was above 130 °C. The organic part of sorted waste is mainly constituted of kitchen garbage and leaf. Model kitchen garbage was completely liquidized at 130 °C for one hour and the methane yield was 276 ml/g VS. Addition of alkali enhance hydroxylation rate and methane yield slightly. The biogas potential of leaf could be observed by pre-treatment above 150 °C under alkaline condition.

  14. Waste Sorting Habits by the Community of Kaunas University of Technology, Reasons and Influencing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Toma Adomavičiūtė; Jolita Kruopienė; Visvaldas Varžinskas; Inga Gurauskienė

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the waste management system at Kaunas University of Technology, surveys the waste sorting habits of its community, both students and employees, and analyses the reasons and factors influencing waste sorting and non-sorting. The introduction of a separate paper waste collection system has made it possible to reduce the amount of mixed waste by 25% during the first three months of its functioning. 58% of employees and 45% of students sort some of their waste partly, 23% of ...

  15. Sorting in early endosomes reveals connections to docking- and fusion-associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Barysch, Sina V.; Aggarwal, Shweta; Jahn, Reinhard; Rizzoli, Silvio O.

    2009-01-01

    The early endosomes constitute a major sorting platform in eukaryotic cells. They receive material through fusion with endocytotic vesicles or with trafficking vesicles from the Golgi complex and later sort it into budding vesicles. While endosomal fusion is well understood, sorting is less characterized; the 2 processes are generally thought to be effected by different, unrelated machineries. We developed here a cell-free assay for sorting/budding from early endosomes, by taking advantage of...

  16. Environmental Development Plan for advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This EDP identifies the planning and management requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health, and safety aspects of the Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) program. Current AIS processes include the molecular and atomic vapor laser processes and the plasma process. This document covers the technology program, environmental concerns and requirements, and environmental strategy

  17. RADIOACTIVE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN THE ATOMIC TABLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1949 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, a series of new elements were added to the Atomic Weights Table. Since these elements had been produced in the laboratory and were not discovered in nature, the atomic weight value of these artificial products would depend upon the production method. Since atomic weight is a property of an element as it occurs in nature, it would be incorrect to assign an atomic weight value to that element. As a result of that discussion, the Commission decided to provide only the mass number of the most stable (longest-lived) known isotope as the number to be associated with these entries in the Atomic Weights Table. As a function of time, the mass number associated with various elements has changed as longer-lived isotopes of a particular elements has been found in nature, or as improved half-life values of an element's isotopes might cause a shift in the longest-lived isotope from one mass number to another. In the 1957 Report of the Atomic Weights Commission, it was decided to discontinue the listing of the mass number in the Atomic Weights Table on the grounds that the kind of information supplied by the mass number is inconsistent with the primary purpose of the Table, i.e., to provide accurate values of ''these constants'' for use in chemical calculations. In addition to the Table of Atomic Weights, the Commission included an auxiliary Table of Radioactive Elements for the first time, where the entry would be the isotope of that element which was most stable, i.e., it had the longest known half-life. In their 1973 report, the Commission noted that the users of the Atomic Weights Table were dissatisfied with the omission of values in the Table for some elements and it was decided to reintroduce the mass number for elements. In their 1983 report, the Commission decided that radioactive elements were considered to lack a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, from which an atomic weight value could be calculated to

  18. Atomic spectrometry update : environmental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, O.T.; Cook, Jennifer; Harrington, C.F.; Hill, S. J.; Rieuwerts, J.; Miles, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This is the twenty-second annual review published in JAAS of the application of atomic spectrometry to the chemical analysis of environmental samples. In the analysis of air, there is ongoing use of XRF techniques for the measurement of particles collected on filters. There is continuing interest in the determination of trace levels of mercury species in the atmosphere. Isotope ratio measurement protocols are attracting wider interest as a potential tool for source apport...

  19. Community Readiness Survey: Norm Development Using a Q-Sort Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Botzet, Andria M.; Sechrist, Rebecca A. J.; Arthur, Nikki; Winters, Ken C.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on norms developed for the Minnesota Institute of Public Health's (1999) Community Readiness Survey. Prevention experts from ten states and the Red Lake Nation sorted data from 50 communities into high and low readiness groups using a Q-sort process. High inter-rater agreement was achieved on communities sorted. Tests of…

  20. Perspective Taking and Cognitive Flexibility in the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS) Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef; Aichhorn, Markus; Schmidhuber, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    In a study with 79 3-year-olds, we confirm earlier findings that separating the sorting dimensions improve children's performance on the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS) task. We also demonstrate that the central reason for this facilitation is that the two sorting dimensions are not integral features of a single object. Spatial separation…

  1. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  2. Isotope hydrology of catchment basins: lithogenic and cosmogenic isotopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G. J., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water. Many solutes in natural waters are derived from the interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system - these are termed `lithogenic` solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both within and outside of the catchment - i.e., in addition to being derived from catchment rock and soil, they are solutes that are also transported into the catchment. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing `cosmogenic` nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing `thermonuclear` nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, principally {sup 238}U (producing `in-situ` lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading `cosmogenic nuclides`, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage here, although always indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute concentrations in catchment waters, and how the isotopic compositions of the solutes can be used in integrative ways to identify these processes, thereby revealing the physical history of the water within a catchment system. The concept of a `system` is important in catchment hydrology. A catchment is the smallest landscape unit that can both participate in all of the aspects of the hydrologic cycle and

  3. My academic life with isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article outlines investigations and experience made by the author in carrying out a variety of studies on isotopes since 1939. First, he was interested in transuranic elements and his studies on artificial radioactive isotopes covered the detection of plutonium at Nagasaki, chemical separation of plutomium from atmosphere at Tokyo, spectral analysis of alpha rays from plutomium, application of 113mIn to emission spectral analysis as a tracer, chemical enrichment of 76As hot atom, and non-destructive analysis of the chemical state of 119Sn produced through EC disintegration in solid material. His studies on natural radioactivity include measurement of the radium content in rock and mineral samples collected in the Korean Peninsula, investigation on the formation process of minerals found around hot springs and determination of the age of rock and mineral samples. He started investigations on isotope enrichment around 1965. Studies in this field cover the application of cataphoretic processes to separation of 23Na and 22Na, enrichment of 7Li and other alkali metals, enrichment of 6Li by isotope exchange, derivation of an empirical equation (Saito-Kanno Equation) for mass effect in couter-current cataphoresis of molten halides, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Experimental investigation of gravity effects on sediment sorting on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Sorting of sedimentary rocks is a proxy for the environmental conditions at the time of deposition, in particular the runoff that moved and deposited the material forming the rocks. Settling of sediment in water is strongly influenced by the gravity of a planetary body. As a consequence, sorting of a sedimentary rock varies with gravity for a given depth and velocity of surface runoff. Theoretical considerations for spheres indicate that sorting is more uniform on Mars than on Earth for runoff of identical depth. In reality, such considerations have to be applied with great caution because the shape of a particle strongly influences drag. Drag itself can only be calculated directly for an irregularly shaped particle with great computational effort, if at all. Therefore, even for terrestrial applications, sediment settling velocities are often determined directly, e.g. by measurements using settling tubes. Experiments: In this study the results of settling tube tests conducted under reduced gravity during three Mars Sedimentation Experiment (MarsSedEx I, II and III) flights, conducted between 2012 and 2015, are presented. Ten types of sediment, ranging in size, shape and density were tested in custom-designed settling tubes during parabolas of Martian gravity lasting 20 to 25 seconds. Results: The experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx reduced gravity experiments showed that the violation of fluid dynamics caused by using empirical models and parameter values developed for sediment transport on Earth lead to significant miscalculations for Mars, specifically an underetsimation of settling velcoity because of an overestimation of turbulant drag. The error is caused by the flawed representation of particle drag on Mars. Drag coefficients are not a property of a sediment particle, but a property of the flow around the particle, and thus strongly affected by gravity. Conlcusions: The observed errors in settling velocity when using terrestrial models

  5. Stable isotope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs.

  6. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  7. Method for separating isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-10-21

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether.

  8. Developing isotopic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic functions, or ratios of two isotopic variables, are used to verify Pu and U measurements of spent fuels in reprocessing plants. Systematic methods have been developed for forming and evaluating isotopic functions. This paper describes the method used at Battelle to form and evaluate isotopic functions. The data base at Battelle contains measurements and calculations for the fuel from 35 reactors

  9. The isotopic contamination in electromagnetic isotope separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early years of isotope separation, and in particular electromagnetic isotope separation, needs for rapid results have conducted to empiric research. This paper describes fundamental research on the electromagnetic isotope separation to a better understanding of isotope separators as well as improving the performances. Focus has been made on the study of the principle of isotope contamination and the remedial action on the separator to improve the isotope separation ratio. In a first part, the author come back to the functioning of an electromagnetic separator and generalities on isotope contamination. Secondly, it describes the two stages separation method with two dispersive apparatus, an electromagnetic separation stage followed by an electrostatic separation stage, both separated by a diaphragm. The specifications of the electrostatic stage are given and its different settings and their consequences on isotope separation are investigated. In a third part, mechanisms and contamination factors in the isotope separation are discussed: natural isotope contamination, contamination by rebounding on the collector, contamination because of a low resolution, contamination by chromatism and diffusion effect, breakdown of condenser voltage. Analysis of experimental results shows the diffusion as the most important contamination factor in electromagnetic isotope separation. As contamination factors are dependent on geometric parameters, sector angle, radius of curvature in the magnetic field and clearance height are discussed in a fourth part. The better understanding of the mechanism of the different contamination factors and the study of influential parameters as pressure and geometric parameters lead to define a global scheme of isotope contamination and determinate optima separator design and experimental parameters. Finally, the global scheme of isotope contamination and hypothesis on optima specifications and experimental parameters has been checked during a

  10. AC Zeeman potentials for atom chip-based ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Charles; Pyle, Andrew; Ziltz, Austin; Aubin, Seth

    2015-05-01

    We present experimental and theoretical progress on using the AC Zeeman force produced by microwave magnetic near-fields from an atom chip to manipulate and eventually trap ultracold atoms. These AC Zeeman potentials are inherently spin-dependent and can be used to apply qualitatively different potentials to different spin states simultaneously. Furthermore, AC Zeeman traps are compatible with the large DC magnetic fields necessary for accessing Feshbach resonances. Applications include spin-dependent trapped atom interferometry and experiments in 1D many-body physics. Initial experiments and results are geared towards observing the bipolar detuning-dependent nature of the AC Zeeman force at 6.8 GHz with ultracold 87Rb atoms trapped in the vicinity of an atom chip. Experimental work is also underway towards working with potassium isotopes at frequencies of 1 GHz and below. Theoretical work is focused on atom chip designs for AC Zeeman traps produced by magnetic near-fields, while also incorporating the effect of the related electric near-fields. Electromagnetic simulations of atom chip circuits are used for mapping microwave propagation in on-chip transmission line structures, accounting for the skin effect, and guiding impedance matching.

  11. Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12C: 13C and 24Mg: 25Mg: 26Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author)

  12. Development of proliferation resistant isotope separation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Doyoung; Ko, Kwanghoon; Kim, Taeksoo; Park, Hyunmin; Lim, Gwon; Cha, Yongho; Han, Jaemin; Baik, Sunghoon; Cha, Hyungki

    2012-02-15

    This project was accomplished with an aim of establishing the industrial facilities for isotope separation in Korea. The experiment for the measurement of neutrino mass that has been an issue in physics, needs very much of enriched calcium-48 isotope. However, calcium-48 isotope can be produced only by the electro-magnetic method and, thus, its price is very expensive. Therefore, we expect that ALSIS can replace the electro-magnetic method for calcium-48 isotope production. In this research stage, the research was advanced systematically with core technologies, such as atomic vapor production, the measurement of vapor characteristics and stable and powerful laser development. These researches will be the basis of the next research stages. In addition, the international research trends and cooperation results are reported in this report.

  13. Laser separation methods of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of numerous investigations main principles and technology of laser method of separation of uranium isotopes are outlined. Lasers characteristic is presented from the viewpoint of possibility of using them for separation of isotopes. The atomic vapour method (working matter-uranium vapour) and the molecular method of laser separation of uranium isotopes are considered. General ideas on econonomics of methods (estimation of capital investments, operating (costs) are presented. It is stressed that main advantage which differ laser methods from other technologies is a high enrichment coefficient attained in one stage of the process. It is assumed that using as feeding of spent materials of traditional plants and not of natural uranium does not essentially spoil the characteristics of the laser isotope separation process

  14. IUPAC Periodic Table of Isotopes for the Educational Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden N. E.; Holden,N.E.; Coplen,T.B.

    2012-07-15

    John Dalton first proposed the concept of atomic weights of the elements in the first decade of the nineteenth century. These atomic weights of the chemical elements were thought of as constants of nature, similar to the speed of light. Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the atomic weights of the elements in ascending order of value and used the systematic variation of their chemical properties to produce his Periodic Table of the Elements in 1869. Measurement of atomic weight values became an important chemical activity for a century and a half. Theodore Richards received a Noble Prize for his work in this area. In 1913, Fredrick Soddy found a species of radium, which had an atomic weight value of 228, compared to the familiar radium gas value of 226. Soddy coined the term 'isotope' (Greek for 'in the same place') to account for this second atomic weight value in the radium position of the Periodic Table. Both of these isotopes of radium are radioactive. Radioactive isotopes are energetically unstable and will decay (disintegrate) over time. The time it takes for one half of a sample of a given radioactive isotope to decay is the half-life of that isotope. In addition to having different atomic weight values, radium-226 and radium-228 also have different half-life values. Around the same time as Soddy's work, J.J. Thomson (discoverer of the electron) identified two stable (non-radioactive) isotopes of the same element, neon. Over the next 40 years, the majority of the known chemical elements were found to have two or more stable (or long-lived radioactive isotopes that contribute significantly to the determination of the atomic weights of the elements).

  15. IUPAC Periodic Table of Isotopes for the Educational Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Dalton first proposed the concept of atomic weights of the elements in the first decade of the nineteenth century. These atomic weights of the chemical elements were thought of as constants of nature, similar to the speed of light. Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the atomic weights of the elements in ascending order of value and used the systematic variation of their chemical properties to produce his Periodic Table of the Elements in 1869. Measurement of atomic weight values became an important chemical activity for a century and a half. Theodore Richards received a Noble Prize for his work in this area. In 1913, Fredrick Soddy found a species of radium, which had an atomic weight value of 228, compared to the familiar radium gas value of 226. Soddy coined the term 'isotope' (Greek for 'in the same place') to account for this second atomic weight value in the radium position of the Periodic Table. Both of these isotopes of radium are radioactive. Radioactive isotopes are energetically unstable and will decay (disintegrate) over time. The time it takes for one half of a sample of a given radioactive isotope to decay is the half-life of that isotope. In addition to having different atomic weight values, radium-226 and radium-228 also have different half-life values. Around the same time as Soddy's work, J.J. Thomson (discoverer of the electron) identified two stable (non-radioactive) isotopes of the same element, neon. Over the next 40 years, the majority of the known chemical elements were found to have two or more stable (or long-lived radioactive isotopes that contribute significantly to the determination of the atomic weights of the elements).

  16. Stable isotope composition of food from different regions of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Stable isotope (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen) composition is important tool for food authenticity and control of origin. The isotopic fractionation of those elements in the environment follows complex patterns allowing to established the correlation between the food (fruits, vegetables etc.) and raw materials (water and CO2). The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between isotope composition of different sorts of food and its geographical origin. The purpose of the study is to compare the data from different regions of Poland. The samples are received directly from a producer. Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon composition is measured in many sorts of food. The collected data gives a possibility to find the relationship between time and place of origin and isotope ratio: 18O/16O, 13C/12C, 15N/14N and D/H. The composition of water presented in the food is tested. Hydrogen is measured by H/Device and oxygen isotope ratio by Gasbench II (both instruments connected with mass spectrometer). For the comparison the water samples from the region of plant growing are tested. In this study for measurements of carbon and nitrogen composition in food, we use our new instrument Elemental Analyser coupled with mass spectrometer. The correlation between stable isotope composition 18O/16O, 13C/12C, 15N/14N, D/H and geographical origin of food will be presented in the paper. In the future, the study will be continued and addition of parameters, as a sulfur isotope composition in food and in surrounding environment (as a pollutant), will be compared. (author)

  17. Stable isotope composition of food from different regions of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Stable isotope (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen) composition is an important tool for food authenticity and control of origin. The isotopic fractionation of those elements in the environment follows complex patterns, allowing to establish the correlation between food (fruits, vegetables etc.) and raw materials (water and CO2). The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between isotope composition of different sorts of food and its geographical origin. The purpose of the study is to compare the data from different regions of Poland. The samples are received directly from a producer. Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon composition is measured in many sorts of food. The collected data give a possibility to find the relationship between time and place of origin and isotope ratio: 18O/16O, 13C/12C, 15N/14N and D/H. The composition of water presented in food is tested. Hydrogen is measured by H/Device and oxygen isotope ratio, by Gasbench II (both instruments connected with mass spectrometer). For the comparison the water samples from the region of plant growing are tested. In this study, for measurements of carbon and nitrogen composition in food, we use our new instrument Elemental Analyser coupled with mass spectrometer. The correlation between stable isotope composition 18O/16O, 13C/12C, 15N/14N, D/H and geographical origin of food will be presented in the paper. In the future, the study will be continued and addition of parameters, as a sulfur isotope composition in food and in surrounding environment (as a pollutant), will be compared. (author)

  18. Isotope shifts in electronic energy levels of 238U and 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for measurement of isotope shifts of atomic uranium is described. Three dye lasers are tuned to the transition wavelengths by monitoring the fluorescence from the uranium atoms. Interference rings are formed by passing a dye laser beam through a Fabry-Perot interferometer and are displayed on a CCTV monitor. The radii of the rings are used to compute the isotope shifts. The values of 17 isotope shifts ewrw measured; 12 of the values are presented for the first time

  19. Isotopic Measurement of Uranium by Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing application of atomic energy creates a wider need for precise and accurate knowledge of the isotopic composition of uranium. This information is particularly of great importance in the accountability and transfer of enriched uranium for reactor and research applications involving millions of dollars worth of fissionable materials. Reliable isotopic measurements are also necessary to ensure compliance of fuel element compositions with the reactor design specifications and to permit calculation of process and fuel burn-up losses. Mass spectrometry methods, which far surpass the capabilities of other methods, Were developed for very precise isotopic determinations. These methods, ''Single Standard'' and ''Double Standard'', involve the comparison of measurements of an unknown sample to similar measurements on known standards. Use of the ''Double Standard'' method eliminates the effects of instrument bias, thus permitting isotopic determinations with precisions (95% limit of error) of the order of ± 0.02% of the values. Accuracies are limited only by the knowledge of the standard values used, which are referenced to the series of uranium isotopic standards available from the US National Bureau of Standards. The mass spectrometers are also useful for the absolute determination of isotopic composition of uranium, especially in forms other than UF6. Thermal ionization techniques using high-resolution (approximately 12-in. radius) spectrometers permit the absolute isotopic characterization of the minor isotopes (i.e. those less than 10 wt.%) with an accuracy and precision of about 0.5% of the values per analysis. These analyses are particularly useful in calibrating highly enriched and highly depleted uranium for subsequent use as blending materials in an isotopic standards programme. Both relative and absolute isotopic measurement methods are described as well as their application in the accountability and operational analytical programmes. These applications

  20. Laser radiation effect on the mobility of iron atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aid of radioactive isotopes the effect is studied of the radiation of a ruby laser on the mobility of iron atoms. In the region of interaction of the laser radiation with the specimen penetration is detected of isotope atoms to a depth greatly exceeding the heating zone. The mass transfer rate is determined, and a possible mechanism of the observed effect is considered. It is suggested that the substantial increase in atom mobility is due to the migration of interstitial atoms in the crystal lattice